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Sample records for agalactiae strains harboring

  1. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

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    Delannoy Christian MJ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Methods Isolates from fish (n = 26, seals (n = 6, a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Results Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. Conclusions The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host

  2. Complete genome sequence of an attenuated Sparfloxacin resistant Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138spar

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    Through selection of resistance to sparfloxacin, an attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138spar was obtained from its virulent parent strain S. agalactiae 138P. The full genome of S. agalactiae 138spar is 1,838,126 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identi...

  3. Genetic analysis of Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated from neonates and their mothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchers, W.J.G.; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Toonen, M.; Kuppeveld, F.J.M. van; Trijbels-Smeulders, M.J.A.M.; Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J.A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in neonates. One of the major questions is whether the GBS strains able to cause neonatal invasive disease have peculiar genetic features. A collection of S. agalactiae strains, isolate

  4. Comparative proteome analysis of two Streptococcus agalactiae strains from cultured tilapia with different virulence.

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    Li, Wei; Su, You-Lu; Mai, Yong-Zhan; Li, Yan-Wei; Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, An-Xing

    2014-05-14

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major piscine pathogen, which causes significant morbidity and mortality among numerous fish species, and results in huge economic losses to aquaculture. Many S. agalactiae strains showing different virulence characteristics have been isolated from infected tilapia in different geographical regions throughout South China in the recent years, including natural attenuated S. agalactiae strain TFJ0901 and virulent S. agalactiae strain THN0901. In the present study, survival of tilapia challenged with S. agalactiae strain TFJ0901 and THN0901 (10(7)CFU/fish) were 93.3% and 13.3%, respectively. Moreover, there are severe lesions of the examined tissues in tilapia infected with strain THN0901, but no significant histopathological changes were observed in tilapia infected with the strain TFJ0901. In order to elucidate the factors responsible for the invasive potential of S. agalactiae between two strains TFJ0901 and THN0901, a comparative proteome analysis was applied to identify the different protein expression profiles between the two strains. 506 and 508 cellular protein spots of S. agalactiae TFJ0901 and THN0901 were separated by two dimensional electrophoresis, respectively. And 34 strain-specific spots, corresponding to 27 proteins, were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Among them, 23 proteins presented exclusively in S. agalactiae TFJ0901 or THN0901, and the other 4 proteins presented in different isomeric forms between TFJ0901 and THN0901. Most of the strain-specific proteins were just involved in metabolic pathways, while 7 of them were presumed to be responsible for the virulence differences of S. agalactiae strain TFJ0901 and THN0901, including molecular chaperone DnaJ, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, thioredoxin, manganese-dependent inorganic pyrophosphatase, elongation factor Tu, bleomycin resistance protein and cell division protein DivIVA. These virulence-associated proteins may contribute to identify new

  5. Complete genome sequence of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P isolated from diseased Nile tilapia

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    Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P was isolated from the kidney of diseased Nile tilapia in Idaho during a 2007 streptococcal disease outbreak. The full genome of S. agalactiae 138P is 1,838,716 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identify genes for antigen disco...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae CNCTC 10/84, a Hypervirulent Sequence Type 26 Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Hooven, Thomas A.; Randis, Tara M.; Daugherty, Sean C.; Narechania, Apurva; Planet, Paul J.; Tettelin, Hervé; Ratner, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is a human pathogen with a propensity to cause neonatal infections. We report the complete genome sequence of GBS strain CNCTC 10/84, a hypervirulent clinical isolate frequently used to study GBS pathogenesis. Comparative analysis of this sequence may shed light on novel pathogenic mechanisms.

  7. Complete genome sequence of an attenuated Sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138spar

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome of a sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine strain 138spar is 1,838,126 bp in size. The genome has 1892 coding sequences and 82 RNAs. The annotation of the genome is added by the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline. The publishing of this genome will allo...

  8. Complete genome sequence of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P isolated from disease Nile tilapia

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    The complete genome of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P is 1838701 bp in size, containing 1831 genes. The genome has 1593 coding sequences, 152 pseudo genes, 16 rRNAs, 69 tRNAs, and 1 non-coding RNA. The annotation of the genome is added by the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipel...

  9. Molecular epidemiology and strain-specific characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae at the herd and cow level.

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    Mahmmod, Y S; Klaas, I C; Katholm, J; Lutton, M; Zadoks, R N

    2015-10-01

    Host-adaptation of Streptococcus agalactiae subpopulations has been described whereby strains that are commonly associated with asymptomatic carriage or disease in people differ phenotypically and genotypically from those causing mastitis in dairy cattle. Based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the most common strains in dairy herds in Denmark belong to sequence types (ST) that are also frequently found in people. The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological and diagnostic characteristics of such strains in relation to bovine mastitis. Among 1,199 cattle from 6 herds, cow-level prevalence of S. agalactiae was estimated to be 27.4% based on PCR and 7.8% based on bacteriological culture. Quarter-level prevalence was estimated at 2.8% based on bacteriological culture. Per herd, between 2 and 26 isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and MLST. Within each herd, a single PFGE type and ST predominated, consistent with a contagious mode of transmission or point source infection within herds. Evidence of within-herd evolution of S. agalactiae was detected with both typing methods, although ST belonged to a single clonal complex (CC) per herd. Detection of CC23 (3 herds) was associated with significantly lower approximate count (colony-forming units) at the quarter level and significantly lower cycle threshold value at the cow level than detection of CC1 (2 herds) or CC19 (1 herd), indicating a lower bacterial load in CC23 infections. Median values for the number of infected quarters and somatic cell count (SCC) were numerically but not significantly lower for cows infected with CC23 than for cows with CC1 or CC19. For all CC, an SCC threshold of 200,000 cells/mL was an unreliable indicator of infection status, and prescreening of animals based on SCC as part of S. agalactiae detection and eradication campaigns should be discouraged.

  10. Serotype markers in a Streptococcus agalactiae strain collection from Zimbabwe

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    Mavenyengwa R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Group B streptococci (GBS from Southern African areas have been less well characterized. Our objective was to study serotype and serovariant distribution of carrier GBS strains as part of a study of the epidemiology of GBS carriage in pregnant women from Zimbabwe. Materials and Methods: We studied GBS isolated from 121 healthy pregnant women living in Harare and surrounding areas, Zimbabwe. Capsular polysaccharide (CPS testing for serotype determination and surface-anchored protein testing for serosubtype determination were done by gene-based serotyping (PCR, except for the proteins R3 and a novel protein called Z, which were detected by antibody-based methods. Results: Strains of the CPS types Ia (15.7%, Ib (11.6%, II (8.3%, III (38.8%, V (24.0% and NT (1.7% were detected along with the strain-variable proteins Cί (15.7% of isolates, Cα (19.8%, Alp1 (epsilon-22.3%, Alp3 (5.0%, R4/Rib (46.3%, R3 (27.3%, Z (27.3%, and SAR5 (28.9%, which encodes the R5 protein. Up to four of the protein genes could be possessed or the gene product expressed by one and the same isolate. A total of 32 serovariants were detected. The findings assessed by us as most important were the very low prevalence of the gene Alp3 (Alp3 - 4.9%, high prevalence of R4 (Rib - 46.2%, the proteins R3 (27.3%, Z (27.3%, and of SAR5 (R5 - 28.9%. The low prevalence of Alp3, notably in GBS type V strains, differed from findings with CPS type V GBS from non-African areas. Bacteria of the various CPS types showed distinct CPS/protein-marker associations. Conclusion: The results are of importance in relation to regional variations of GBS phenotypes and genotypes and thus, of importance in planning and research in the context of future vaccine formulations.

  11. Emergence of respiratory Streptococcus agalactiae isolates in cystic fibrosis patients.

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    Vera Eickel

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-known pathogen for neonates and immunocompromized adults. Beyond the neonatal period, S. agalactiae is rarely found in the respiratory tract. During 2002-2008 we noticed S. agalactiae in respiratory secretions of 30/185 (16% of cystic fibrosis (CF patients. The median age of these patients was 3-6 years older than the median age CF patients not harboring S. agalactiae. To analyze, if the S. agalactiae isolates from CF patients were clonal, further characterization of the strains was achieved by capsular serotyping, surface protein determination and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. We found a variety of sequence types (ST among the isolates, which did not substantially differ from the MLST patterns of colonizing strains from Germany. However serotype III, which is often seen in colonizing strains and invasive infections was rare among CF patients. The emergence of S. agalactiae in the respiratory tract of CF patients may represent the adaptation to a novel host environment, supported by the altered surfactant composition in older CF patients.

  12. Emergence of respiratory Streptococcus agalactiae isolates in cystic fibrosis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Eickel; Barbara Kahl; Beatrice Reinisch; Angelika Dübbers; Peter Küster; Claudia Brandt; Barbara Spellerberg

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-known pathogen for neonates and immunocompromized adults. Beyond the neonatal period, S. agalactiae is rarely found in the respiratory tract. During 2002-2008 we noticed S. agalactiae in respiratory secretions of 30/185 (16%) of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The median age of these patients was 3-6 years older than the median age CF patients not harboring S. agalactiae. To analyze, if the S. agalactiae isolates from CF patients were clonal, further characte...

  13. Short communication: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma agalactiae strains isolated from dairy goats.

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    Paterna, A; Sánchez, A; Gómez-Martín, A; Corrales, J C; De la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Amores, J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the susceptibility to several antimicrobials of 28 isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae obtained from goats in a region (southeastern Spain) where contagious agalactia is endemic. For each isolate, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against 12 antimicrobials of the quinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, and tetracycline families was determined. The antimicrobials with the lowest MIC were enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tylosin, and doxycycline, all with MIC90 (concentration at which growth of 90% of the isolates is inhibited) <1 µg/mL. Norfloxacin (a quinolone) showed a wide MIC range (0.1-12.8 µg/mL), suggesting a resistance mechanism toward this antimicrobial that was not elicited by enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacin (the other quinolones tested). Erythromycin showed the highest MIC90 such that its use against Mycoplasma agalactiae is not recommended. Finally, Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates obtained from goat herds with clinical symptoms of contagious agalactia featured higher MIC90 and MIC50 (concentration at which growth of 50% of the isolates is inhibited) values for many of the antimicrobials compared with isolates from asymptomatic animals. The relationship between the extensive use of antimicrobials in herds with clinical contagious agalactia and variations in MIC requires further study.

  14. Short communication: Lipolytic activity on milk fat by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae strains commonly isolated in Swedish dairy herds.

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    Vidanarachchi, Janak K; Li, Shengjie; Lundh, Åse Sternesjö; Johansson, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the lipolytic activity on milk fat of 2 bovine mastitis pathogens, that is, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The lipolytic activity was determined by 2 different techniques, that is, thin-layer chromatography and an extraction-titration method, in an experimental model using the most commonly occurring field strains of the 2 mastitic bacteria isolated from Swedish dairy farms. The microorganisms were inoculated into bacteria-free control milk and incubated at 37°C to reflect physiological temperatures in the mammary gland. Levels of free fatty acids (FFA) were analyzed at time of inoculation (t=0) and after 2 and 6h of incubation, showing significant increase in FFA levels. After 2h the FFA content had increased by approximately 40% in milk samples inoculated with Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae, and at 6h the pathogens had increased FFA levels by 47% compared with the bacteria-free control milk. Changes in lipid composition compared with the bacteria-free control were investigated at 2 and 6h of incubation. Diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, and phospholipids increased significantly after 6h incubation with the mastitis bacteria, whereas cholesterol and sterol esters decreased. Our results suggest that during mammary infections with Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae, the action of lipases originating from the mastitis pathogens will contribute significantly to milk fat lipolysis and thus to raw milk deterioration.

  15. Isolation of clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa harboring different plasmids.

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    Ranjbar, R; Owlia, P; Saderi, H; Bameri, Z; Izadi, M; Jonaidi, N; Morovvati, S

    2007-09-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of plasmids among the strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from clinically diagnosed cases in Tehran in 2006. A total of 38 strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated. With the exception of one isolate, all P. aeruginosa strains harbored at least one plasmid band. The electrophoretic analysis of plasmid DNAs showed different number of plasmid bands among the strains tested. The DNA band of 1.4 kbp was evident in 84.2% of the strains. Approximately 71 and 21% of the isolates harbored concomitantly two and three plasmids, respectively. Isolation of strains with diverse types of plasmids suggests the different cluster of P. aeruginosa might be disseminated during the current study period.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Strain S25 Isolated from Peritoneal Liquid of Nile Tilapia.

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    Mainardi, Rafaella Menegheti; Lima Júnior, Edson Antônio; Ribeiro Júnior, Jose Carlos; Beloti, Vanerli; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Padua, Santiago Benites; Pereira, Ulisses Pádua

    2016-08-04

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is one of the major pathogens in fish production, especially in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The genomic characteristics of GBS isolated from fish must be more explored. Thus, we present here the genome of GBS S25, isolated from Nile tilapia from Brazil.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Strain S25 Isolated from Peritoneal Liquid of Nile Tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Rafaella Menegheti; Lima Júnior, Edson Antônio; Ribeiro Júnior, Jose Carlos; Beloti, Vanerli; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Padua, Santiago Benites

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is one of the major pathogens in fish production, especially in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The genomic characteristics of GBS isolated from fish must be more explored. Thus, we present here the genome of GBS S25, isolated from Nile tilapia from Brazil. PMID:27491974

  18. Genomic comparison between pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from Nile tilapia in Thailand and fish-derived ST7 strains.

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    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B streptococcus (GBS), is a highly virulent pathogen in aquatic animals, causing huge mortalities worldwide. In Thailand, the serotype Ia, β-hemolytic GBS, belonging to sequence type (ST) 7 of clonal complex (CC) 7, was found to be the major cause of streptococcosis outbreaks in fish farms. In this study, we performed an in silico genomic comparison, aiming to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between the pathogenic fish strains of Thai ST7 and other ST7 from different hosts and geographical origins. In general, the genomes of Thai ST7 strains are closely related to other fish ST7s, as the core genome is shared by 92-95% of any individual fish ST7 genome. Among the fish ST7 genomes, we observed only small dissimilarities, based on the analysis of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), surface protein markers, insertions sequence (IS) elements and putative virulence genes. The phylogenetic tree based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the core genome sequences clearly categorized the ST7 strains according to their geographical and host origins, with the human ST7 being genetically distant from other fish ST7 strains. A pan-genome analysis of ST7 strains detected a 48-kb gene island specifically in the Thai ST7 isolates. The orientations and predicted amino acid sequences of the genes in the island closely matched those of Tn5252, a streptococcal conjugative transposon, in GBS 2603V/R serotype V, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus suis. Thus, it was presumed that Thai ST7 acquired this Tn5252 homologue from related streptococci. The close phylogenetic relationship between the fish ST7 strains suggests that these strains were derived from a common ancestor and have diverged in different geographical regions and in different hosts.

  19. Acidic pH strongly enhances in vitro biofilm formation by a subset of hypervirulent ST-17 Streptococcus agalactiae strains.

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    D'Urzo, Nunzia; Martinelli, Manuele; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; De Cesare, Virginia; Pinto, Vittoria; Margarit, Immaculada; Telford, John Laird; Maione, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a primary colonizer of the anogenital mucosa of up to 40% of healthy women and an important cause of invasive neonatal infections worldwide. Among the 10 known capsular serotypes, GBS type III accounts for 30 to 76% of the cases of neonatal meningitis. In recent years, the ability of GBS to form biofilm attracted attention for its possible role in fitness and virulence. Here, a new in vitro biofilm formation protocol was developed to guarantee more stringent conditions, to better discriminate between strong-, low-, and non-biofilm-forming strains, and to facilitate interpretation of data. This protocol was used to screen the biofilm-forming abilities of 366 GBS clinical isolates from pregnant women and from neonatal infections of different serotypes in relation to medium composition and pH. The results identified a subset of isolates of serotypes III and V that formed strong biofilms under acidic conditions. Importantly, the best biofilm formers belonged to serotype III hypervirulent clone ST-17. Moreover, the abilities of proteinase K to strongly inhibit biofilm formation and to disaggregate mature biofilms suggested that proteins play an essential role in promoting GBS biofilm initiation and contribute to biofilm structural stability.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of a Novel Marinobacter sp. Strain from Honolulu Harbor, Hawai‘i

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    Burns, Siobhan L.; Saito, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Marinobacter sp. strain X15-166BT was cultivated from sediment in Honolulu Harbor, Hawai‘i. The X15-166BT draft genome of 3,490,661 bp encodes 3,115 protein-coding open reading frames. We anticipate that the genome will provide insights into the strain’s lifestyle and the evolution of Marinobacter. PMID:27932650

  1. VNTR analysis reveals unexpected genetic diversity within Mycoplasma agalactiae, the main causative agent of contagious agalactia

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    Ayling Roger D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma agalactiae is the main cause of contagious agalactia, a serious disease of sheep and goats, which has major clinical and economic impacts. Previous studies of M. agalactiae have shown it to be unusually homogeneous and there are currently no available epidemiological techniques which enable a high degree of strain differentiation. Results We have developed variable number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis using the sequenced genome of the M. agalactiae type strain PG2. The PG2 genome was found to be replete with tandem repeat sequences and 4 were chosen for further analysis. VNTR 5 was located within the hypothetical protein MAG6170 a predicted lipoprotein. VNTR 14 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG3350 and the hypothetical protein MAG3340. VNTR 17 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG4060 and the hypothetical protein MAG4070 and VNTR 19 spanned the 5' end of the pseudogene for a lipoprotein MAG4310 and the 3' end of the hypothetical lipoprotein MAG4320. We have investigated the genetic diversity of 88 M. agalactiae isolates of wide geographic origin using VNTR analysis and compared it with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Simpson's index of diversity was calculated to be 0.324 for PFGE and 0.574 for VNTR analysis. VNTR analysis revealed unexpected diversity within M. agalactiae with 9 different VNTR types discovered. Some correlation was found between geographical origin and the VNTR type of the isolates. Conclusion VNTR analysis represents a useful, rapid first-line test for use in molecular epidemiological analysis of M. agalactiae for outbreak tracing and control.

  2. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance  in Streptococcus agalactiae strains recovered from female carriers in the Bucharest area

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    Codru?a-Romani?a Usein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, we used multilocus sequence typing (MLST to understand how Romanian group B streptococcus (GBS strains fit into the global GBS population structure. Colonising isolates recovered from adult human females were tested for antibiotic resistance, were molecularly serotyped based on the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps gene cluster and further characterised using a set of molecular markers (surface protein genes, pilus-encoded islands and mobile genetic elements inserted in the scpB-lmb intergenic region. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to complement the MLST clonal distribution pattern of selected strains. Among the 55 strains assigned to six cps types (Ia, Ib, II-V, 18 sequence types (STs were identified by MLST. Five STs represented new entries to the MLST database. The prevalent STs were ST-1, ST-17, ST-19 and ST-28. Twenty molecular marker profiles were identified. The most common profiles (rib+GBSi1+PI-1, rib+GBSi1+PI-1, PI-2b and alp2/3+PI-1, PI-2a were associated with the cps III/ST-17 and cps V/ST-1 strains. A cluster of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains was detected among the cps V/ST-19 members; these strains shared alp1 and IS1548 and carried PI-1, PI-2a or both. Our results support the usefulness of implementing an integrated genotyping system at the reference laboratory level to obtain the reliable data required to make comparisons between countries.

  3. Survey of strain distribution and antibiotic resistance pattern of group B streptococci (Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from clinical specimens

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    Mousavi, Seyed Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of the present study were to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profils with particular emphasis on susceptible or resistant strains to macrolides and lincosamids antibiotics and to determine possible antibiotic resistance mechanisms occurring in group B streptococci (GBS strains using PCR assay and disk diffusion method.Methods: A total of 62 clinical GBS strains were investigated. Antibacterial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method and inducible resistance test for clindamycin by standard double disk diffusion or D-zone test for all isolates to differentiate macrolide resistance phenotype (M, constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype (cMLS and induced macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype (iMLS. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of penicillin were determined for all isolates. Finally, possible existence of antibiotic resistance genes for erythromycin , and and for clindamycin were examined among isolates using PCR assay.Results: All 62 isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, linezolid, cefazoline and vancomycin. However, 93.5% (n=58 of isolates showed an increased MIC to penicillin. The overall rate of erythromycin resistance was 35.5% (n=22. All erythromycin-resistant isolates displayed the M phenotype (100%, n=22. All three erythromycin resistance genes (i.e. , and were found in erythromycin-resistant isolates.Conclusion: It was concluded that prescribing antibiotic without antibacterial susceptibility tests should be prevented because of the high prevalence of erythromycin-resistant GBS strains and the fact that erythromycin-resistant GBS strains has shown an increased MIC to penicillin, as the drug of choice for treating GBS infections.

  4. Specific detection by PCR of Streptococcus agalactiae in milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, G.; Harel, J; Gottschalk, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and specific method for direct detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from cow's milk. The method was based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species-specific and universal primers derived from the 16S rRNA gene. The amplification product was verified by restriction endonuclease digest and sequencing. Specific identification was proven on a collection of 147 S. agalactiae isolates of bovine and human origin. In addition, 17 strains belonging...

  5. CC8 MRSA Strains Harboring SCCmec Type IVc are Predominant in Colombian Hospitals

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    Jiménez, J. Natalia; Ocampo, Ana M.; Vanegas, Johanna M.; Rodriguez, Erika A.; Mediavilla, José R.; Chen, Liang; Muskus, Carlos E.; A. Vélez, Lázaro; Rojas, Carlos; Restrepo, Andrea V.; Ospina, Sigifredo; Garcés, Carlos; Franco, Liliana; Bifani, Pablo; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent reports highlight the incursion of community-associated MRSA within healthcare settings. However, knowledge of this phenomenon remains limited in Latin America. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in three tertiary-care hospitals in Medellín, Colombia. Methods An observational cross-sectional study was conducted from 2008–2010. MRSA infections were classified as either community-associated (CA-MRSA) or healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA), with HA-MRSA further classified as hospital-onset (HAHO-MRSA) or community-onset (HACO-MRSA) according to standard epidemiological definitions established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Genotypic analysis included SCCmec typing, spa typing, PFGE and MLST. Results Out of 538 total MRSA isolates, 68 (12.6%) were defined as CA-MRSA, 243 (45.2%) as HACO-MRSA and 227 (42.2%) as HAHO-MRSA. The majority harbored SCCmec type IVc (306, 58.7%), followed by SCCmec type I (174, 33.4%). The prevalence of type IVc among CA-, HACO- and HAHO-MRSA isolates was 92.4%, 65.1% and 43.6%, respectively. From 2008 to 2010, the prevalence of type IVc-bearing strains increased significantly, from 50.0% to 68.2% (p = 0.004). Strains harboring SCCmec IVc were mainly associated with spa types t1610, t008 and t024 (MLST clonal complex 8), while PFGE confirmed that the t008 and t1610 strains were closely related to the USA300-0114 CA-MRSA clone. Notably, strains belonging to these three spa types exhibited high levels of tetracycline resistance (45.9%). Conclusion CC8 MRSA strains harboring SCCmec type IVc are becoming predominant in Medellín hospitals, displacing previously reported CC5 HA-MRSA clones. Based on shared characteristics including SCCmec IVc, absence of the ACME element and tetracycline resistance, the USA300-related isolates in this study are most likely related to USA300-LV, the recently-described ‘Latin American variant’ of USA300. PMID:22745670

  6. Evidence for the Sialylation of PilA, the PI-2a Pilus-Associated Adhesin of Streptococcus agalactiae Strain NEM316.

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    Morello, Eric; Mallet, Adeline; Konto-Ghiorghi, Yoan; Chaze, Thibault; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Oliva, Giulia; Oliveira, Liliana; Di Guilmi, Anne-Marie; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (or Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a commensal bacterium present in the intestinal and urinary tracts of approximately 30% of humans. We and others previously showed that the PI-2a pilus polymers, made of the backbone pilin PilB, the tip adhesin PilA and the cell wall anchor protein PilC, promote adhesion to host epithelia and biofilm formation. Affinity-purified PI-2a pili from GBS strain NEM316 were recognized by N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc, also known as sialic acid) specific lectins such as Elderberry Bark Lectin (EBL) suggesting that pili are sialylated. Glycan profiling with twenty different lectins combined with monosaccharide composition by HPLC suggested that affinity-purified PI-2a pili are modified by N-glycosylation and decorated with sialic acid attached to terminal galactose. Analysis of various relevant mutants in the PI-2a pilus operon by flow-cytometry and electron microscopy analyses pointed to PilA as the pilus subunit modified by glycosylation. Double labeling using PilB antibody and EBL lectin, which specifically recognizes N-acetylneuraminic acid attached to galactose in α-2, 6, revealed a characteristic binding of EBL at the tip of the pilus structures, highly reminiscent of PilA localization. Expression of a secreted form of PilA using an inducible promoter showed that this recombinant PilA binds specifically to EBL lectin when produced in the native GBS context. In silico search for potentially glycosylated asparagine residues in PilA sequence pointed to N427 and N597, which appear conserved and exposed in the close homolog RrgA from S. pneumoniae, as likely candidates. Conversion of these two asparagyl residues to glutamyl resulted in a higher instability of PilA. Our results provide the first evidence that the tip PilA adhesin can be glycosylated, and suggest that this modification is critical for PilA stability and may potentially influence interactions with the host.

  7. Survival of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri in heat treated goat colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, Ana; Sánchez, Antonio; Amores, Joaquín; Gómez-Martín, Angel; Corrales, Juan C; Contreras, Antonio; de la Fe, Christian

    2013-05-01

    The viability of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) was assessed in goat colostrum treated at different temperatures. Samples of colostrum were inoculated with reference strains of M. agalactiae (PG2) and Mmc (PG3) and heated at 56°C or 60°C for 0, 30, 60, 90 or 120 min. Viable colonies of M. agalactiae were recovered after all treatments and there was a significant reduction in the concentration of viable M. agalactiae after 30 min at 56°C and 60°C. No viable colonies of Mmc were observed after 60 min at 60°C.

  8. Investigation of the translation-initiation factor IF2 gene, infB, as a tool to study the population structure of Streptococcus agalactiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, J; Hauge, M; Fage-Larsen, J;

    2000-01-01

    The sequence of infB, encoding the prokaryotic translation-initiation factor 2 (IF2), was determined in eight strains of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus) and an alignment revealed limited intraspecies diversity within S. agalactiae. The amino acid sequence of IF2 from S. agalactiae...

  9. Streptococcus agalactiae endogenous endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Saffra, Norman; Rakhamimov, Aleksandr; Husney, Robert; Ghitan, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (SA) is a Group B Streptococcus, which is a common pathogen implicated in neonatal and geriatric sepsis. Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE) is a condition that results from haematogenous seeding of the globe, during transient or persistent bacteremia. We document a case of a non-septic geriatric patient, who developed EBE after a transient bacteraemia with SA.

  10. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins in microbial broth and milk by Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring seh gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Justyna; Podkowik, Magdalena; Bystroń, Jarosław; Bania, Jacek

    2016-10-17

    Twenty Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring seh gene, including one carrying also sec gene and 11 sea gene, were grown in BHI+YE broth and milk and were tested for SEA, SEC and SEH production. All strains decreased pH of BHI+YE broth at 24h and increased them at 48h. Seventeen S. aureus strains grown in milk changed pH for no >0.3 unit until 48h. Three other S. aureus strains significantly decreased pH during growth in milk. All S. aureus produced SEH in BHI+YE broth in amounts ranging from 95 to 1292ng/ml, and from 170 to 4158ng/ml at 24 and 48h, respectively. SEH production in milk by 17 strains did not exceed 23ng/ml at 24h and 36ng/ml at 48h. Three S. aureus strains able to decrease milk pH produced 107-3029ng/ml and 320-4246ng/ml of SEH in milk at 24 and 48h, respectively. These strains were grown in milk and BHI+YE broth with pH stabilized at values near neutral leading to a significant decrease of SEH production. Representative weak SEH producers were grown in milk at reduced pH resulting in moderate increase in SEH production. SEA was produced in milk by 10S. aureus strains at 24-151ng/ml at 24h, and 31-303ng/ml at 48h. SEA production in milk was higher or comparable as in BHI+YE broth in 3 strains and lower for remaining strains. Production of SEC by sec-positive S. aureus strains was lower in milk than in BHI+YE broth, ranging from 131 to 2319ng/ml at 24 and 48h in milk and 296-30,087ng/ml in BHI+YE at 24 and 48h. Both lacE and lacG transcripts involved in lactose metabolism were significantly up-regulated in milk in strong SEH producers. In these strains hld, rot and sarA transcripts were up-regulated in milk as compared to weak SEH producers. Stabilization of milk pH at a value of raw milk significantly down-regulated hld, rot and sarA RNA in strong SEH producers. Milk was generally found unfavorable for enterotoxin production. However, certain S. aureus strains were not restricted in SEH and SEA expression in milk, unlike SEC which remained down

  11. Heterogeneity of Hemolysin Expression during Neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae Sepsis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sigge, Anja; Schmid, Manuel; Mauerer, Stefanie; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The β-hemolysin of Streptococcus agalactiae is a major virulence factor; consequently, nonhemolytic strains rarely cause infections. We report on a case of neonatal sepsis caused by a strain displaying heterogeneous hemolysin expression. It was detected by the simultaneous isolation of hemolytic and nonhemolytic colonies from cultures of the infant's blood.

  12. Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA, a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA, have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease.

  13. Genetic diversity among Clostridium botulinum strains harboring bont/A2 and bont/A3 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúquez, Carolina; Raphael, Brian H; Joseph, Lavin A; Meno, Sarah R; Fernández, Rafael A; Maslanka, Susan E

    2012-12-01

    Clostridium botulinum type A strains are known to be genetically diverse and widespread throughout the world. Genetic diversity studies have focused mainly on strains harboring one type A botulinum toxin gene, bont/A1, although all reported bont/A gene variants have been associated with botulism cases. Our study provides insight into the genetic diversity of C. botulinum type A strains, which contain bont/A2 (n = 42) and bont/A3 (n = 4) genes, isolated from diverse samples and geographic origins. Genetic diversity was assessed by using bont nucleotide sequencing, content analysis of the bont gene clusters, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sequences of bont genes obtained in this study showed 99.9 to 100% identity with other bont/A2 or bont/A3 gene sequences available in public databases. The neurotoxin gene clusters of the subtype A2 and A3 strains analyzed in this study were similar in gene content. C. botulinum strains harboring bont/A2 and bont/A3 genes were divided into six and two MLST profiles, respectively. Four groups of strains shared a similarity of at least 95% by PFGE; the largest group included 21 out of 46 strains. The strains analyzed in this study showed relatively limited genetic diversity using either MLST or PFGE.

  14. Dominance of clonal complex 10 among the levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bacteremic patients in a Korean hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyejin; Park, Yeon-Joon; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Chang, Jiyoung; Yu, Jin Kyung

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae has emerged as an important cause of invasive infection in adults. Forty-nine S. agalactiae isolates (41 from adults and 8 from neonates) were collected during a 4-year period (2010-2013) and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antibiotic susceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin and levofloxacin was determined and the determinants of resistance (ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA, lnuB) were detected by PCR and mutation in gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE gene was investigated by sequence analysis. They were resolved into 14 sequence types (STs) and belonged to five clonal complexes (CCs). The distribution of CC was significantly different according to the age group; CC1 (18/41) and CC10 (13/41) was the most common among the adult isolates but CC19 (5/8) was predominant among the neonatal isolates. The resistance rate to erythromycin, clindamycin was 18.4% and 24.5%, respectively. Among the 13 strains resistant to erythromycin and/or clindamycin, two isolates harbored ermA and 10 isolates harbored ermB. The levofloxacin resistance rate was very high (32.7%) and was significantly higher in CC10 (71.4%). All the levofloxacin-resistant isolates had identical gyrA substitution (Ser81Leu) but parC substitution was different according to the CCs. The additional mutation in parE (His221Tyr) was found only in CC19. Continuous monitoring of the fluoroquinolone resistance and genotypic distribution among S. agalactiae is needed.

  15. Development of live attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae as potential vaccines by selecting for resistance to sparfloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H

    2013-05-31

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates were tested in 10-12g Nile tilapia by intraperitoneal injection at dose of 2×10(7)CFU/fish, 31 were found to be avirulent to fish. Of the 31 avirulent sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates, 30 provided 75-100% protection to 10-12g Nile tilapia against challenges with a virulent S. agalactiae isolate Sag 50. When the virulence of the 30 sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates was tested in 3-5g Nile tilapia by intraperitoneal injection at dose of 2×10(7)CFU/fish, six were found to be avirulent to 3-5g Nile tilapia. Of the six avirulent sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates, four provided 3-5g Nile tilapia 100% protection against challenges with homologous isolates, including Sag 97-spar isolate that was non-hemolytic. However, Sag 97-spar failed to provide broad cross-protection against challenges with heterologous isolates. When Nile tilapia was vaccinated with a polyvalent vaccine consisting of 30 sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates at dose of 2×10(6)CFU/fish, the polyvalent vaccine provided significant (P<0.001) protection to both 3-5g and 15-20g Nile tilapia against challenges with 30 parent isolates of S. agalactiae. Taken together, our results suggest that a polyvalent vaccine consisting of various strains of S. agalactiae might be essential to provide broader protection to Nile tilapia against infections caused by S. agalactiae.

  16. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in cancer patients: a five-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, B A S; Martins, C A S; Mendonça, J C; Miranda, P S D; Sanches, G F; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L; Nagao, P E

    2016-06-01

    Although the highest burden of Streptococcus agalactiae infections has been reported in industrialized countries, studies on the characterization and epidemiology are still limited in developing countries and implementation of control strategies remains undefined. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological aspects of S. agalactiae infections in cancer patients treated at a Reference Brazilian National Cancer Institute - INCA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We reviewed the clinical and laboratory records of all cancer patients identified as having invasive S. agalactiae disease during 2010-2014. The isolates were identified by biochemical analysis and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 263 strains of S. agalactiae were isolated from cancer patients who had been clinically and microbiologically classified as infected. S. agalactiae infections were mostly detected among adults with solid tumors (94 %) and/or patients who have used indwelling medical devices (77.2 %) or submitted to surgical procedures (71.5 %). Mortality rates (in-hospital mortality during 30 days after the identification of S. agalactiae) related to invasive S. agalactiae infections (n = 28; 31.1 %) for the specific category of neoplasic diseases were: gastrointestinal (46 %), head and neck (25 %), lung (11 %), hematologic (11 %), gynecologic (4 %), and genitourinary (3 %). We also found an increase in S. agalactiae resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin and the emergence of penicillin-less susceptible isolates. A remarkable number of cases of invasive infections due to S. agalactiae strains was identified, mostly in adult patients. Our findings reinforce the need for S. agalactiae control measures in Brazil, including cancer patients.

  17. Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens of cultured and wild fish with a worldwide distribution. Both bacteria are potential zoonotic pathogens and have been associated most often with infections in immunocompromised people. Streptococcus in...

  18. ISOLASI BAKTERIOFAGA ANTI Streptococcus agalactiae DARI IKAN NILA (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2016-11-01

    -hemolytic. Streptococcus iniae, a b-hemolytic bacterium is the main causative agent of septicemia, meningoencephalitis, and fish mortality. Moreover, the other causative agent is S. agalactiae. Bacteriophages which are viruses that live on bacteria can be selected and used as therapy for Streptococcosis. The aim of this research is to isolate bacteriophage of S. agalactiae as therapeutic agent candidate giving protecting effect for Streptococcosis. Phages was isolated from Brain Heart Infusion Agar (BHIA were obtained from cultures of S. iniae and S. agalactiae. Strains S. iniae and S. agalactiae were isolated from Streptococcosis fish. The predominant types of colonies were subcultured and subjected to biochemical and physiological tests such as Gram staining, catalase test, hemolytic activity in blood agar and API 20 Strep System. Phages were isolated by using a double agar layer method. A zona lysis with plaques was removed from the plate, centrifuged and the supernatant was filtered through a 0.45 µm membrane filter and stored at 4oC. From 15 isolates of S. iniae and S. agalactiae, only one isolate PSaT-18 showed lysis zone. The lysis zone developed because the phages give protection to S. agalactiae. The lysis zone is not clear because the phage concentration is too low and the dilution in filtration process is too high. Later, these phages were used for invitro and invivo test.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Acinetobacter bereziniae HPC229, a Carbapenem-Resistant Clinical Strain from Argentina Harboring blaNDM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovedan, Marco; Marchiaro, Patricia M.; Morán-Barrio, Jorgelina; Revale, Santiago; Cameranesi, Marcela; Brambilla, Luciano; Viale, Alejandro M.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of an NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter bereziniae clinical strain, HPC229. This strain harbors both plasmid and chromosomal resistance determinants toward different β-lactams and aminoglycosides as well as several types of multidrug efflux pumps, most likely representing an adaptation strategy for survival under different environments. PMID:26966220

  20. Antibiotic Susceptibilities and Serotyping of Clinical Streptococcus Agalactiae Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay Atalay

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci, GBS are frequently responsible for sepsis and meningitis seen in the early weeks of life. GBS may cause perinatal infection and premature birth in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to serotype GBS strains isolated from clinical samples and evaluate their serotype distribution according to their susceptibilities to antibiotics and isolation sites. Material and Methods: One hundred thirty one S. agalactiae strains isolated from the clinical samples were included in the study. Of the strains, 99 were isolated from urine, 20 from soft tissue, 10 from blood and 2 from vaginal swab. Penicillin G and ceftriaxone susceptibilities of GBS were determined by the agar dilution method. Susceptibilities to erythromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin and tetracycline were determined by the Kirby-Bauer method according to CLSI criteria. Serotyping was performed using the latex aglutination method using specific antisera (Ia, Ib, II-VIII. Results: While in 131 GBS strains, serotypes VII and VIII were not detected, the most frequently isolated serotypes were types Ia (36%, III (30.5% and II (13% respectively. Serotype Ia was the most frequently seen serotype in all samples. All GBS isolates were susceptible to penicilin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin. Among the strains, tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin resistance rates were determined as 90%, 14.5%, and 13% respectively. Conclusion: Penicillin is still the first choice of treatment for the infections with all serotypes of S. agalactiae in Turkey.

  1. Characterization of Afb, a novel bifunctional protein in Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Dehbashi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in newborns and results in pneumonia and bacteremia in adults. A number of S. agalactiae components are involved in colonization of target cells. Destruction of peptidoglycan and division of covalently linked daughter cells is mediated by autolysins. In this study, autolytic activity and plasma binding ability of AFb novel recombinant protein of S. agalactiae was investigated.Materials and Methods: The gbs1805 gene was cloned and expressed. E. coli strains DH5α and BL21 were used as cloning and expression hosts, respectively. After purification, antigenicity and binding ability to plasma proteins of the recombinant protein was evaluated.Results: AFb, the 18KDa protein was purified successfully. The insoluble mature protein revealed the ability to bind to fibrinogen and fibronectin. This insoluble mature protein revealed that it has the ability to bind to fibrinogen and fibronectin plasma proteins. Furthermore, in silico analysis demonstrated the AFb has an autolytic activity.Conclusions: AFb is a novel protein capable of binding to fibrinogen and fibronectin. This findings lay a ground work for further investigation of the role of the bacteria in adhesion and colonization to the host. Keywords: Streptococcus agalactiae, Fibrinogen, Fibronectin, Autolysin

  2. The β-hemolysin and intracellular survival of Streptococcus agalactiae in human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubha Sagar

    Full Text Available S. agalactiae (group B streptococci, GBS is a major microbial pathogen in human neonates and causes invasive infections in pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. The S. agalactiae β-hemolysin is regarded as an important virulence factor for the development of invasive disease. To examine the role of β-hemolysin in the interaction with professional phagocytes, the THP-1 monocytic cell line and human granulocytes were infected with a serotype Ia S. agalactiae wild type strain and its isogenic nonhemolytic mutant. We could show that the nonhemolytic mutants were able to survive in significantly higher numbers than the hemolytic wild type strain, in THP-1 macrophage-like cells and in assays with human granulocytes. Intracellular bacterial multiplication, however, could not be observed. The hemolytic wild type strain stimulated a significantly higher release of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α than the nonhemolytic mutant in THP-1 cells, while similar levels of the chemokine Interleukin-8 were induced. In order to investigate bacterial mediators of IL-8 release in this setting, purified cell wall preparations from both strains were tested and found to exert a potent proinflammatory stimulus on THP-1 cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that the β-hemolysin has a strong influence on the intracellular survival of S. agalactiae and that a tightly controlled regulation of β-hemolysin expression is required for the successful establishment of S. agalactiae in different host niches.

  3. Identification of immunoreactive proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from cultured tilapia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangjin; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2013-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause lethal infections in humans and animals, including aquatic species. Immunoreactive proteins of the S. agalactiae strain, GD201008-001, isolated from cultured tilapia in China, were screened by immunoproteomics using hyperimmune sera, convalescent guinea pig sera and GD201008-001-infected tilapia antisera as primary detection antibodies. A total of 16 different proteins were identified including 13 novel immunoreactive proteins of S. agalactiae. Four proteins, serine-rich repeat glycoprotein 1, branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BKD) subunit E2, 5'-nucleotidase family protein and ornithine carbamoyltransferase, were shown to react with the three types of sera and thus were considered to represent novel S. agalactiae vaccine candidate antigens. Our findings represent the basis for vaccine development for piscine S. agalactiae and are necessary for understanding virulence factors and immunogenicity of S. agalactiae with different hosts.

  4. Discovery and Characterization of Human-Urine Utilization by Asymptomatic-Bacteriuria-Causing Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Deepak S; Ben Zakour, Nouri L; Sullivan, Matthew J; Beatson, Scott A; Ulett, Kimberly B; Benjamin, William H; Davies, Mark R; Dando, Samantha J; King, Nathan P; Cripps, Allan W; Schembri, Mark A; Dougan, Gordon; Ulett, Glen C

    2015-11-09

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes both symptomatic cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU); however, growth characteristics of S. agalactiae in human urine have not previously been reported. Here, we describe a phenotype of robust growth in human urine observed in ABU-causing S. agalactiae (ABSA) that was not seen among uropathogenic S. agalactiae (UPSA) strains isolated from patients with acute cystitis. In direct competition assays using pooled human urine inoculated with equal numbers of a prototype ABSA strain, designated ABSA 1014, and any one of several UPSA strains, measurement of the percentage of each strain recovered over time showed a markedly superior fitness of ABSA 1014 for urine growth. Comparative phenotype profiling of ABSA 1014 and UPSA strain 807, isolated from a patient with acute cystitis, using metabolic arrays of >2,500 substrates and conditions revealed unique and specific l-malic acid catabolism in ABSA 1014 that was absent in UPSA 807. Whole-genome sequencing also revealed divergence in malic enzyme-encoding genes between the strains predicted to impact the activity of the malate metabolic pathway. Comparative growth assays in urine comparing wild-type ABSA and gene-deficient mutants that were functionally inactivated for the malic enzyme metabolic pathway by targeted disruption of the maeE or maeK gene in ABSA demonstrated attenuated growth of the mutants in normal human urine as well as synthetic human urine containing malic acid. We conclude that some S. agalactiae strains can grow in human urine, and this relates in part to malic acid metabolism, which may affect the persistence or progression of S. agalactiae ABU.

  5. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter pittii strain harboring blaOXA-72 from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Thiago Pavoni Gomes; Tavares E Oliveira, Thamirys Rachel; D'Alincourt Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula; Albano, Rodolpho M; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2017-02-06

    In this study, we report the isolation of OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter pittii in Brazil. A carbapenem-resistant A. pittii strain was recovered from a hospitalized female patient from Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. PCR screening and DNA sequencing allowed us to identify the presence of blaOXA-72. We observed blaOXA-72 in a ~11kb plasmid and flanked by XerC/XerD-binding sites.

  6. Identification of five novel modifier loci of Apc(Min) harbored in the BXH14 recombinant inbred strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnadi, Stephanie C; Watson, Rayneisha; Innocent, Julie; Gonye, Gregory E; Buchberg, Arthur M; Siracusa, Linda D

    2012-08-01

    Every year thousands of people in the USA are diagnosed with small intestine and colorectal cancers (CRC). Although environmental factors affect disease etiology, uncovering underlying genetic factors is imperative for risk assessment and developing preventative therapies. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a heritable genetic disorder in which individuals carry germ-line mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that predisposes them to CRC. The Apc ( Min ) mouse model carries a point mutation in the Apc gene and develops polyps along the intestinal tract. Inbred strain background influences polyp phenotypes in Apc ( Min ) mice. Several Modifier of Min (Mom) loci that alter tumor phenotypes associated with the Apc ( Min ) mutation have been identified to date. We screened BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains by crossing BXH RI females with C57BL/6J (B6) Apc ( Min ) males and quantitating tumor phenotypes in backcross progeny. We found that the BXH14 RI strain harbors five modifier loci that decrease polyp multiplicity. Furthermore, we show that resistance is determined by varying combinations of these modifier loci. Gene interaction network analysis shows that there are multiple networks with proven gene-gene interactions, which contain genes from all five modifier loci. We discuss the implications of this result for studies that define susceptibility loci, namely that multiple networks may be acting concurrently to alter tumor phenotypes. Thus, the significance of this work resides not only with the modifier loci we identified but also with the combinations of loci needed to get maximal protection against polyposis and the impact of this finding on human disease studies.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a new Bacillus thuringiensis strain Lip harboring a new cry1Aa gene highly toxic to Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Micheline; Azzouz, Hichem; Chavanieu, Alain; Abdelmalak, Nouha; Chopineau, Joël; Awad, Mireille Kallassy

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize new Bacillus thuringiensis strains that have a potent insecticidal activity against Ephestia kuehniella larvae. Strains harboring cry1A genes were tested for their toxicity, and the Lip strain showed a higher insecticidal activity compared to that of the reference strain HD1 (LC50 of Lip and HD1 were 33.27 and 128.61 μg toxin/g semolina, respectively). B. thuringiensis Lip harbors and expresses cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1Ad and cry2A. DNA sequencing revealed several polymorphisms in Lip Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac compared to the corresponding proteins of HD1. The activation process using Ephestia kuehniella midgut juice showed that Lip Cry1A proteins were more stable in the presence of larval proteases. Moreover, LipCry1A proteins exhibited higher insecticidal activity against these larvae. These results indicate that Lip is an interesting strain that could be used as an alternative to the worldwide used strain HD1.

  8. Karakteristik dan Patogenisitas Streptococcus Agalactiae Tipe ?-hemolitik dan Non-hemolitik pada Ikan Nila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Handayani Hardi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Cirata gulfand Klaten. The isolates were Gram positive cocci, oxidative fermentative positive, motility, and catalasenegative, grown on media containing NaCl 6.5%, ?-haemolytic and non-haemolytic. Two types of S. agalactiae(?-haemolytic and non-haemolytic are different from their variety of sugars fermentation. Strains ?-haemolytic can ferment more sugars, including arabinose, sorbitol, lactose, and trehalose. Experimentalinfectivity trials on Nile tilapia (size 15 g, non-haemolytic type showed more virulent. This type causedfaster mortality, more severe behavior changes, and pathology changes than â-haemolytic type. NonhemoliticS. agalactiae caused 48% mortality 6-24 hours after injection, whereas â-haemolitic type caused17% mortality which it occured in 48 hours after injection (mortality of fish control 2,22%. Behaviordisease signs caused by non-haemolitic S. agalactiae started to happen 6 hours after injection whereas 12hours in ?-haemolytic type infection. Histopatological changes were observed on fish eye, spleen, andbrain. Hyperaemia, hyperthrophi, degeneration, and necrosis were also found on infected fish. Thisresearch was concluded that non-haemolytic of S. agalactiae was more virulent than ?-haemolytic.

  9. The Comparison of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Fish and Bovine using Multilocus Sequence Typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing (MLST has greater utility for determining the recent ancestral lineage and the relatedness of individual strains. Group B streptococci (GBS is one of the major causes of subclinical mastitis of dairy cattle in several countries. GBS also sporadically causes epizootic infections in fish. The aim of this study was to compare the evolutionary lineage of fish and bovine isolates in relation to the S. agalactiae global population as a whole by comparing the MLST profiles. Twenty S. agalactiae isolates were obtained from dairy cattle and fish. PCR products were amplified with seven different oligonucleotide primer pairs designed from the NEM316 GBS genome sequence. Clone complexes demonstrated that bovine and fish isolates were separate populations. These findings lead us to conclude that fish S. agalactiae is not a zoonotic agent for bovine. MLST could help clarify the emergence of pathogenic clones and to decide whether the host acts as a reservoir for another pathogenic lineage.

  10. Rare serotype occurrence and PFGE genotypic diversity of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from tilapia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Wang, Rui; Liang, Wanwen; Gan, Xi; Huang, Ting; Huang, Yan; Li, Jian; Shi, Yunliang; Chen, Ming; Luo, Honglin

    2013-12-27

    Previously, we reported 10 PEGE types of 85 tilapia Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), which shifted from Streptococcus iniae in China, by using PEGE method. Presently, larger and more representative tilapia GBS were isolated, for the first time in China, to characterize their serotypes and genetic diversities more precisely than had done before. 168 GBS strains were distributed in five provinces of China, in which Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan were the major ones, holding 36.9% (62/168), 37.5% (63/168) and 19.6% (33/168), respectively. Serotypes, Ia, Ib and III, were observed in these strains and the most predominant one was Ia (95.2%), which mainly distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan. Ia initially occurred in 2009, it shoot up to 32.1% in 2010, but decreased to 16.1% in 2011 before went up to 45.2% in 2012. Ib sporadically occurred during 2007-2011, III only occurred in 2012. 14 different PFGE types, including 4 new types (N, O, P and Q), were observed, in which B, D, F and G were the predominant types, holding 83.9% (141/168) of the total GBS strains. Ia corresponded to 11 PFGE types (A-H, N-P), in which type D predominated (51%). Ib represented 3 genotypes (I, J and Q) and III harbored only 2 genotypes (N and F). Type N and F synchronously presented in Ia and III. In summary, the genetic diversity of tilapia GBS varied by serotypes and changed with geographical locations and years. Although Ia still predominated, new rare serotype III already occurred in China.

  11. Molecular typing of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic variability among Streptococcus agalactiae isolates recovered from fish was characterized using single-stranded conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) analysis of the intergenic spacer region (ISR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. A total of 49 S. agalactiae ...

  12. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds--rewriting the textbooks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T

    2016-02-29

    Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen.

  13. Update on control of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae for management of mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Greg

    2012-07-01

    biosecurity protocols is critical to reduce risk of reintroduction of S agalactiae or the addition of new, potentially more virulent strains of S aureus to endemic herds.

  14. The genetic diversity and phenotypic characterisation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ana Beatriz de Almeida Corrêa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae isolates are more common among pregnant women, neonates and nonpregnant adults with underlying diseases compared to other demographic groups. In this study, we evaluate the genetic and phenotypic diversity in S. agalactiae strains from Rio de Janeiro (RJ that were isolated from asymptomatic carriers. We analysed these S. agalactiae strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, as well as by determining the macrolide resistance phenotype, and detecting the presence of the ermA/B, mefA/E and lnuB genes. The serotypes Ia, II, III and V were the most prevalent serotypes observed. The 60 strains analysed were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin and levofloxacin. Resistance to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin and tetracycline was observed. Among the erythromycin and/or clindamycin resistant strains, the ermA, ermB and mefA/E genes were detected and the constitutive macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B-type resistance was the most prevalent phenotype observed. The lnuB gene was not detected in any of the strains studied. We found 56 PFGE electrophoretic profiles and only 22 of them were allocated in polymorphism patterns. This work presents data on the genetic diversity and prevalent capsular serotypes among RJ isolates. Approximately 85% of these strains came from pregnant women; therefore, these data may be helpful in developing future prophylaxis and treatment strategies for neonatal syndromes in RJ.

  15. Development of a quantitative PCR assay for monitoring Streptococcus agalactiae colonization and tissue tropism in experimentally infected tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y-L; Feng, J; Li, Y-W; Bai, J-S; Li, A-X

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae has become one of the most important emerging pathogens in the aquaculture industry and has resulted in large economic losses for tilapia farms in China. In this study, three pairs of specific primers were designed and tested for their specificities and sensitivities in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs) after optimization of the annealing temperature. The primer pair IGS-s/IGS-a, which targets the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, was finally chosen, having a detection limit of 8.6 copies of S. agalactiae DNA in a 20 μL reaction mixture. Bacterial tissue tropism was demonstrated by qPCR in Oreochromis niloticus 5 days post-injection with a virulent S. agalactiae strain. Bacterial loads were detected at the highest level in brain, followed by moderately high levels in kidney, heart, spleen, intestines, and eye. Significantly lower bacterial loads were observed in muscle, gill and liver. In addition, significantly lower bacterial loads were observed in the brain of convalescent O. niloticus 14 days post-injection with several different S. agalactiae strains. The qPCR for the detection of S. agalactiae developed in this study provides a quantitative tool for investigating bacterial tissue tropism in infected fish, as well as for monitoring bacterial colonization in convalescent fish.

  16. Molecular characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli hemolysin gene (EHEC-hlyA)-harboring isolates from cattle reveals a diverse origin and hybrid diarrheagenic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari Badouei, Mahdi; Morabito, Stefano; Najafifar, Arash; Mazandarani, Emad

    2016-04-01

    In the present study we investigated the occurrence of Escherichia coli strains harboring the gene encoding enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin (EHEC-HlyA) in cattle and the association of this gene with various diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) pathotypes. First, the bovine E. coli isolates were screened for EHEC-hlyA gene by PCR, and then they were characterized for the phylogenetic groups and the presence of the major virulence genes of different DEC pathotypes. In total, 25 virulence gene profiles were observed in 54 EHEC-hlyA+ isolates that reflect a considerable heterogeneity. The EHEC-hlyA+ strains were mostly associated with EHEC (72%), while only 7.4% were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). We also showed the presence of estA gene of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in 6 isolates (11.1%). Interestingly, two of the estA+ strains showed hybrid pathotypes with one carrying eae/estA (EPEC/ETEC), and the other one stx2/astA/estA (EHEC/ETEC). None of the isolates were related to enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC). The EHEC-plasmid encoded genes occurred in seven different combinations with EHEC-hlyA/saa/subA/espP being the most prevalent (46.3%). All stx-/eae+ strains carried O island 57 (OI-57) molecular marker(s) that may indicate these to be the progenitors of EHEC or strains losing stx. The most prevalent phylogroup was B1 (61.1%), but the most heterogeneous strains including the hybrid strains belonged to A phylogroup. Overall, our results indicate that cattle EHEC-hlyA encoding E. coli isolates consist of diverse diarrheagenic strains with the possible existence of hybrid pathotypes. Future studies are required to clarify the evolutionary aspects and clinical significance of these strains in humans and domestic animals.

  17. A multi locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA scheme for Streptococcus agalactiae genotyping

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    Mereghetti Laurent

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilocus sequence typing (MLST is currently the reference method for genotyping Streptococcus agalactiae strains, the leading cause of infectious disease in newborns and a major cause of disease in immunocompromised children and adults. We describe here a genotyping method based on multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR analysis (MLVA applied to a population of S. agalactiae strains of various origins characterized by MLST and serotyping. Results We studied a collection of 186 strains isolated from humans and cattle and three reference strains (A909, NEM316 and 2603 V/R. Among 34 VNTRs, 6 polymorphic VNTRs loci were selected for use in genotyping of the bacterial population. The MLVA profile consists of a series of allele numbers, corresponding to the number of repeats at each VNTR locus. 98 MLVA genotypes were obtained compared to 51 sequences types generated by MLST. The MLVA scheme generated clusters which corresponded well to the main clonal complexes obtained by MLST. However it provided a higher discriminatory power. The diversity index obtained with MLVA was 0.960 compared to 0.881 with MLST for this population of strains. Conclusions The MLVA scheme proposed here is a rapid, cheap and easy genotyping method generating results suitable for exchange and comparison between different laboratories and for the epidemiologic surveillance of S. agalactiae and analyses of outbreaks.

  18. Comparison of virulence factors and capsular types of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from human and bovine infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaneini, Mohammad; Khoramian, Babak; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Abani, Samira; Dabiri, Hossein; Beigverdi, Reza

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a leading cause of human and bovine infections. A total of 194 S. agalactiae isolates, 55 isolates from bovines and 139 from humans, were analyzed for capsular types, virulence genes (scpB, hly, rib, bca and bac) and mobile genetic elements (IS1548 and GBSi1) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex PCR. Capsular type III was predominant (61%), followed by types V, II, Ib, and IV. The scpB, hly, bca and bac virulence genes were only found among human isolates. Twelve and 2 distinct virulence gene profiles were identified among human and bovine isolates respectively. The virulence gene profiles scpB- hly- IS1548- rib-bca (51%) and scpB- hly- IS1548- bca (19%) were only predominant among human isolates. The rib gene was the most common virulence gene in both human and bovine isolates. The study showed a high prevalence of virulence genes in S. agalactiae strains isolated from human infections, these result can support the idea that S. agalactiae isolated from humans and bovines are generally unrelated and probably belonged to separate populations.

  19. Development of live attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine for tilapia via continuous passage in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L P; Wang, R; Liang, W W; Huang, T; Huang, Y; Luo, F G; Lei, A Y; Chen, M; Gan, X

    2015-08-01

    Fish Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) seriously harms the world's aquaculture industry and causes huge economic losses. This study aimed to develop a potential live attenuated vaccine of S. agalactiae. Pre-screened vaccine candidate strain S. agalactiae HN016 was used as starting material to generate an attenuated strain S. agalactiae YM001 by continuous passage in vitro. The biological characteristics, virulence, and stability of YM001 were detected, and the protective efficacy of YM001 immunization in tilapia was also determined. Our results indicated that the growth, staining, characteristics of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotype, and virulence of YM001 were changed significantly as compared to the parental strain HN016. High doses of YM001 by intraperitoneal (IP) injection (1.0 × 10(9) CFU/fish) and oral gavage (1.0 × 10(10) CFU/fish) respectively did not cause any mortality and morbidity in tilapia. The relative percent survivals (RPSs) of fishes immunized with YM001 (1.0 × 10(8) CFU/fish, one time) via injection, immersion, and oral administration were 96.88, 67.22, and 71.81%, respectively, at 15 days, and 93.61, 60.56, and 53.16%, respectively, at 30 days. In all tests with 1-3 times of immunization in tilapia, the dosages at 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(9) CFU/fish displayed the similar best results, whereas the immunoprotection of the dosages at 1 × 10(6) and 1 × 10(7) CFU/fish declined significantly (P 0.05). The level of protective antibody elicited by oral immunization was significantly higher compared to that of the control group (P < 0.01), and the antibody reached their maximum levels 14-21 days after the immunization but decreased significantly after 28 days of vaccination. YM001 bacteria were isolated from the brain, liver, kidney, and spleen tissues of fish after oral immunization and the bacteria existed for the longest time in the spleen (up to 15 days). Taken together, this study obtained a safe, stable, and highly

  20. The genomes of the non-clearing-zone-forming and natural-rubber- degrading species Gordonia polyisoprenivorans and Gordonia westfalica harbor genes expressing Lcp activity in Streptomyces strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Daniel; Dietz, David; Arenskötter, Matthias; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2008-04-01

    The latex-clearing protein (Lcp(K30)) from the rubber-degrading bacterium Streptomyces sp. strain K30 is involved in the cleavage of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene), yielding isoprenoid aldehydes and ketones. Lcp homologues have so far been detected in all investigated clearing-zone-forming rubber-degrading bacteria. Internal degenerated oligonucleotides derived from lcp genes of Streptomyces sp. strain K30 (lcp(K30)), Streptomyces coelicolor strain A3(2), and Nocardia farcinica strains IFM10152 and E1 were applied in PCR to investigate whether lcp homologues occur also in the non-clearing-zone-forming rubber-utilizing bacteria Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strains VH2 and Y2K, Gordonia alkanivorans strain 44187, and Gordonia westfalica strain Kb1, which grow adhesively on rubber. The 1,230- and 1,224-bp lcp-homologous genes from G. polyisoprenivorans strain VH2 (lcp(VH2)) and G. westfalica strain Kb1 (lcp(Kb1)) were obtained after screening genomic libraries by degenerated PCR amplification, and their translational products exhibited 50 and 52% amino acid identity, respectively, to Lcp(K30). Recombinant lcp(VH2) and lcp(Kb1) harboring cells of the non-rubber-degrading Streptomyces lividans strain TK23 were able to form clearing zones and aldehydes on latex overlay-agar plates, thus indicating that lcp(VH2) and lcp(Kb1) encode functionally active proteins. Analysis by gel permeation chromatography demonstrated lower polymer concentrations and molecular weights of the remaining polyisoprenoid molecules after incubation with these recombinant S. lividans strains. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis demonstrated that lcp(VH2) was transcribed in cells of G. polyisoprenivorans strain VH2 cultivated in the presence of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) but not in the presence of sodium acetate. Anti-Lcp(K30) immunoglobulin Gs, which were raised in this study, were rather specific for Lcp(K30) and did not cross-react with Lcp(VH2) and Lcp(Kb1). A lcp(VH2) disruption mutant was still able to grow

  1. Genomic comparison of virulent and non-virulent Streptococcus agalactiae in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, C M J; Zadoks, R N; Crumlish, M; Rodgers, D; Lainson, F A; Ferguson, H W; Turnbull, J; Fontaine, M C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae infections in fish are predominantly caused by beta-haemolytic strains of clonal complex (CC) 7, notably its namesake sequence type (ST) 7, or by non-haemolytic strains of CC552, including the globally distributed ST260. In contrast, CC23, including its namesake ST23, has been associated with a wide homeothermic and poikilothermic host range, but never with fish. The aim of this study was to determine whether ST23 is virulent in fish and to identify genomic markers of fish adaptation of S. agalactiae. Intraperitoneal challenge of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus), showed that ST260 is lethal at doses down to 10(2) cfu per fish, whereas ST23 does not cause disease at 10(7) cfu per fish. Comparison of the genome sequence of ST260 and ST23 with those of strains derived from fish, cattle and humans revealed the presence of genomic elements that are unique to subpopulations of S. agalactiae that have the ability to infect fish (CC7 and CC552). These loci occurred in clusters exhibiting typical signatures of mobile genetic elements. PCR-based screening of a collection of isolates from multiple host species confirmed the association of selected genes with fish-derived strains. Several fish-associated genes encode proteins that potentially provide fitness in the aquatic environment.

  2. Role of the serine-rich surface glycoprotein Srr1 of Streptococcus agalactiae in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis.

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    Ho Seong Seo

    Full Text Available The binding of bacteria to fibrinogen and platelets are important events in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. Srr1 is a serine-rich repeat glycoprotein of Streptococcus agalactiae that binds directly to the Aα chain of human fibrinogen. To assess the impact of Srr1 on the pathogenesis of endocarditis due to S. agalactiae, we first examined the binding of this organism to immobilized human platelets. Strains expressing Srr1 had significantly higher levels of binding to human platelets in vitro, as compared with isogenic Δsrr1 mutants. In addition, platelet binding was inhibited by pretreatment with anti-fibrinogen IgG or purified Srr1 binding region. To assess the contribution of Srr1 to pathogenicity, we compared the relative virulence of S. agalactiae NCTC 10/84 strain and its Δsrr1 mutant in a rat model of endocarditis, where animals were co-infected with the WT and the mutant strains at a 1:1 ratio. At 72 h post-infection, bacterial densities (CFU/g of the WT strain within vegetations, kidneys, and spleens were significantly higher, as compared with the Δsrr1 mutant. These results indicate that Srr1 contributes to the pathogenesis of endocarditis due to S. agalactiae, at least in part through its role in fibrinogen-mediated platelet binding.

  3. Detergents enhance EspB secretion from Escherichia coli strains harboring the locus for the enterocyte effacement (LEE) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone, Noboru; Toma, Claudia; Higa, Naomi; Koizumi, Yukiko; Ogura, Yasunori; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    2011-02-01

    The effects of detergents (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, Triton X-100, and Nonidet P-40) on the secretion of EspB from the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE) gene-positive Escherichia coli strains were examined. Clinical isolates of eight EPEC strains and seven STEC strains were used to detect EspB after they had been cultivated in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth containing one of the detergents. When the bacteria were cultured in LB broth supplemented with one of the detergents, the amount of EspB produced was increased by 2-32-fold depending on the detergent and the strain used. EspB was detected in all strains when they were cultured in LB broth containing all of the detergents. The results obtained in this study can be applied to immunological diagnostic methods for detecting EspB and also to the production of EspB for research purposes.

  4. KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains That Harbor AAC(6′)-Ib Exhibit Intermediate Resistance to Amikacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Derek N.; Clancy, Cornelius J.; Press, Ellen G.; Almaghrabi, Reem; Chen, Liang; Doi, Yohei; Nguyen, M. Hong

    2014-01-01

    The aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme AAC(6′)-Ib is common among carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) strains. We investigated amikacin (AMK) activity against 20 AAC(6′)-Ib-producing CR-Kp strains. MICs clustered at 16 to 32 μg/ml. By the time-kill study, AMK (1× and 4× the MIC) was bactericidal against 30% and 85% of the strains, respectively. At achievable human serum concentrations, however, the majority of strains showed regrowth, suggesting that AAC(6′)-Ib confers intermediate AMK resistance. AMK and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) were synergistic against 90% of the strains, indicating that the combination may overcome resistance. PMID:25288089

  5. Could β-hemolytic, group B Enterococcus faecalis be mistaken for Streptococcus agalactiae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Vincenzo; Gherardi, Giovanni; Marrollo, Roberta; Franco, Alessia; Pimentel De Araujo, Fernanda; Dottarelli, Samuele; Fazii, Paolo; Battisti, Antonio; Carretto, Edoardo

    2015-05-01

    A β-hemolytic Enterococcus faecalis strain agglutinating Lancefield group A, B, C, D, F, and G antisera was observed from a rectovaginal swab, in the context of antenatal screening for Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]). This is the first multi-Lancefield antisera-agglutinating isolate of this species, and it raised particular concern, as it may mimic GBS, leading to false reporting and useless receipt of intrapartum antibiotics.

  6. Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains harboring inactive extended-spectrum beta-lactamase antibiotic-resistance genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Li; Zhai Yao; Lyu Yuan; Wang Qi; An Shuchang; Chen Jichao; Chen Yusheng

    2014-01-01

    Background The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has increasingly become a major contributor to nosocomial infections and can exhibit multiple antibiotic resistance.Previous studies have focused on the resistance genes in ESBL-producing strains,and the resistance-associated genetic environment of non-ESBL-producing strains has been ignored until now.Here,we investigated the occurrence and characteristics of non-ESBL-producing K.pneumoniae,which potentially carries unexpressed resistance genes.Methods K.pneumoniae strains were collected from five medical institutions in China from February 2010 to August 2013.The VITEK-2 ESBL detection system was used as a primary screen to identify the ESBL-producing phenotype,and the three primary types of ESBL-associated genes (CTX,SHV,and TEM) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm the strains presenting with a non-ESBL-producing phenotype.mRNA expression in the non-ESBL-producing strains was further screened by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) to validate their transcriptional efficiency.Results Out of 224 clinically isolated antibiotic-sensitive K.pneumoniae strains with a non-ESBL-producing phenotype,5 (2.2%) were identified to carry inactivated ESBL blaSHV genes with intact upstream promoter regions and resistance gene sequences.Interestingly,three of the five antibiotic-sensitive K.pneumoniae strains containing ESBL blaSHV genes still exhibited mRNA transcription of blasHv,while the other two exhibited no mRNA transcription.Conclusion These findings suggest that inactivated ESBL genes exist in non-ESBL-producing antibiotic-sensitive K.pneumoniae strains,which have the potential to transform the strain into an ESBL phenotype if an inappropriate application or overdose of antibiotics is implemented during clinical management.

  7. Natural Mutations in Streptococcus agalactiae Resulting in Abrogation of β Antigen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Anastasia; Santos Sanches, Ilda; Florindo, Carlos; Dmitriev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae genome encodes 21 two-component systems (TCS) and a variety of regulatory proteins in order to control gene expression. One of the TCS, BgrRS, comprising the BgrR DNA-binding regulatory protein and BgrS sensor histidine kinase, was discovered within a putative virulence island. BgrRS influences cell metabolism and positively control the expression of bac gene, coding for β antigen at transcriptional level. Inactivation of bgrR abrogated bac gene expression and increased virulence properties of S. agalactiae. In this study, a total of 140 strains were screened for the presence of bac gene, and the TCS bgrR and bgrS genes. A total of 53 strains carried the bac, bgrR and bgrS genes. Most of them (48 strains) expressed β antigen, while five strains did not express β antigen. Three strains, in which bac gene sequence was intact, while bgrR and/or bgrS genes had mutations, and expression of β antigen was absent, were complemented with a constructed plasmid pBgrRS(P) encoding functionally active bgrR and bgrS gene alleles. This procedure restored expression of β antigen indicating the crucial regulatory role of TCS BgrRS. The complemented strain A49V/BgrRS demonstrated attenuated virulence in intraperitoneal mice model of S. agalactiae infection compared to parental strain A49V. In conclusion we showed that disruption of β antigen expression is associated with: i) insertion of ISSa4 upstream the bac gene just after the ribosomal binding site; ii) point mutation G342A resulting a stop codon TGA within the bac gene and a truncated form of β antigen; iii) single deletion (G) in position 439 of the bgrR gene resulting in a frameshift and the loss of DNA-binding domain of the BgrR protein, and iv) single base substitutions in bgrR and bgrS genes causing single amino acid substitutions in BgrR (Arg187Lys) and BgrS (Arg252Gln). The fact that BgrRS negatively controls virulent properties of S. agalactiae gives a novel clue for understanding of S

  8. Streptococcus agalactiae vaginitis: nonhemolytic variant on the Liofilchem® Chromatic StreptoB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; D'Antonio, Marianna; D'Amario, Claudio; Fazii, Paolo; D'Antonio, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) vaginal pathogenicity is not uniformly acknowledged throughout the literature; accordingly, in women, genital itching and burning, along with leukorrhea are commonly and almost exclusively referred to bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Conversely, GBS virulence for vagina was recognized in the past, as the organism has been observed to potentially cause local inflammation and discharge, as well as lactobacilli rarefaction. We depict here a case where a nonhemolytic (γ-hemolytic) GBS strain was found to be the etiologic agent of vaginal infection. Such uncommon S. agalactiae phenotypes are hard to be recognized and may be therefore responsible for misdiagnosing and underestimation of GBS vaginitis prevalence; here, we had the support of the Liofilchem(®) Chromatic StreptoB medium, that successfully detected such an atypical variant.

  9. NATURAL MUTATION IN THE GENE OF RESPONSE REGULATOR BgrR RESULTING IN REPRESSION OF Bac PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, A PATHOGENICITY FACTOR OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE

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    A. S. Rozhdestvenskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Streptococcus agalactiae can cause variety of diseases of newborns and adults. For successful colonization of different human tissues and organs as well as for suppression of the host immune system S. agalactiae expresses numerous virulence factors. For coordinated expression of the virulence genes S. agalactiae employs regulatory molecules including regulatory proteins of two-component systems. Results of the present study demonstrated that in S. agalactiae strain A49V the natural mutation in the brgR gene encoding for BgrR regulatory protein, which is component of regulatory system BgrRS, resulted in the repression of Bac protein synthesis, a virulence factor of S. agalactiae. A single nucleotide deletion in the bgrR gene has caused a shift of the reading frame and the changes in the primary, secondary and tertiary structures of the BgrR protein. The loss of functional activity of BgrR protein in A49V strain and repression of Bac protein synthesis have increased virulence of the strain in experimental animal streptococcal infection.

  10. Improved biomass and protein production in solid-state cultures of an Aspergillus sojae strain harboring the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Lugo, Rodrigo; Madrigal, Marvin; Yelemane, Vikas; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo

    2015-11-01

    The biotechnological value of Aspergillus sojae ATCC 20235 (A. sojae) for production of pectinases in solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been demonstrated recently. However, a common drawback of fungal solid-state cultures is the poor diffusion of oxygen into the fungi that limits its growth and biological productivity. The bacterial Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) has favored the metabolism and productivities of various bacterial and yeast strains besides alleviating hypoxic conditions of its native host, but the use of VHb in filamentous fungi still remains poor explored. Based on the known effects of VHb, this study assessed its applicability to improve A. sojae performance in SSF. The VHb gene (vgb) under control of the constitutive Aspergillus nidulants gpdA promoter was introduced into the genome of A. sojae by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful fungal transformants were identified by fluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. In solid-state cultures, the content of protease, exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG), and exo-polymethylgalacturonase (exo-PMG) of the transformed fungus (A. sojae vgb+) improved were 26, 60, and 44 % higher, respectively, in comparison to its parental strain (A. sojae wt). Similarly, biomass content was also 1.3 times higher in the transformant strain. No significant difference was observed in endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG) content between both fungal strains, suggesting dissimilar effects of VHb towards different enzymatic productions. Overall, our results show that biomass, protease, and exo-pectinase content of A. sojae in SSF can be improved by transformation with VHb.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human-Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain of the Emerging Sequence Type 213 Harboring a Multidrug Resistance IncA/C Plasmid and a blaCMY-2-Carrying IncF Plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia; Calva, Edmundo; Calva, Juan J; Wiesner, Magdalena; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Puente, José L; Vinuesa, Pablo

    2015-11-12

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 33676 was isolated in Mexico City, Mexico, from a patient with a systemic infection, and its complete genome sequence was determined using PacBio single-molecule real-time technology. Strain 33676 harbors an IncF plasmid carrying the extended-spectrum cephalosporin gene blaCMY-2 and a multidrug resistance IncA/C plasmid.

  12. Two novel functions of hyaluronidase from Streptococcus agalactiae are enhanced intracellular survival and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaofei; Guo, Changming; Xu, Yannan; Liu, Guangjin; Lu, Chengping; Liu, Yongjie

    2014-06-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the causative agent of septicemia and meningitis in fish. Previous studies have shown that hyaluronidase (Hyl) is an important virulence factor in many Gram-positive bacteria. To investigate the role of S. agalactiae Hyl during interaction with macrophages, we inactivated the gene encoding extracellular hyaluronidase, hylB, in a clinical Hyl(+) isolate. The isogenic hylb mutant (Δhylb) displayed reduced survival in macrophages compared to the wild type and stimulated a significantly higher release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), than the wild type in macrophages as well as in mice. Furthermore, only Hyl(+) strains could grow utilizing hyaluronic acid (HA) as the sole carbon source, suggesting that Hyl permits the organism to utilize host HA as an energy source. Fifty percent lethal dose (LD50) determinations in zebrafish demonstrated that the hylb mutant was highly attenuated relative to the wild-type strain. Experimental infection of BALB/c mice revealed that bacterial loads in the blood, spleen, and brain at 16 h postinfection were significantly reduced in the ΔhylB mutant compared to those in wild-type-infected mice. In conclusion, hyaluronidase has a strong influence on the intracellular survival of S. agalactiae and proinflammatory cytokine expression, suggesting that it plays a key role in S. agalactiae pathogenicity.

  13. Molecular identification and histopathological study of natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laith, AA; Ambak, Mohd Azmi; Hassan, Marina; Sheriff, Shahreza Md.; Nadirah, Musa; Draman, Ahmad Shuhaimi; Wahab, Wahidah; Ibrahim, Wan Nurhafizah Wan; Aznan, Alia Syafiqah; Jabar, Amina; Najiah, Musa

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The main objective of this study was to emphasize on histopathological examinations and molecular identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from natural infections in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Temerloh Pahang, Malaysia, as well as to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen strains to various currently available antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: The diseased fishes were observed for variable clinical signs including fin hemorrhages, alterations in behavior associated with erratic swimming, exophthalmia, and mortality. Tissue samples from the eyes, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen were taken for bacterial isolation. Identification of S. agalactiae was screened by biochemical methods and confirmed by VITEK 2 and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The antibiogram profiling of the isolate was tested against 18 standard antibiotics included nitrofurantoin, flumequine, florfenicol, amoxylin, doxycycline, oleandomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, lincomycin, colistin sulfate, oxolinic acid, novobiocin, spiramycin, erythromycin, fosfomycin, neomycin, gentamycin, and polymyxin B. The histopathological analysis of eyes, brain, liver, kidney, and spleen was observed for abnormalities related to S. agalactiae infection. Results: The suspected colonies of S. agalactiae identified by biochemical methods was observed as Gram-positive chained cocci, β-hemolytic, and non-motile. The isolate was confirmed as S. agalactiae by VITEK 2 (99% similarity), reconfirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (99% similarity) and deposited in GenBank with accession no. KT869025. The isolate was observed to be resistance to neomycin and gentamicin. The most consistent gross findings were marked hemorrhages, erosions of caudal fin, and exophthalmos. Microscopic examination confirmed the presence of marked congestion and infiltration of inflammatory cell in the eye, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen. Eye samples showed damage of the lens capsule, hyperemic and

  14. Construction of "Toxin Complex" in a Mutant Serotype C Strain of Clostridium botulinum Harboring a Defective Neurotoxin Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomonori; Nagano, Thomas; Niwa, Koichi; Uchino, Masataka; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Watanabe, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    A non-toxigenic mutant of the toxigenic serotype C Clostridium botulinum strain Stockholm (C-St), C-N71, does not produce the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). However, the original strain C-St produces botulinum toxin complex, in which BoNT is associated with non-toxic non-hemagglutinin (NTNHA) and three hemagglutinin proteins (HA-70, HA-33, and HA-17). Therefore, in this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of bont gene knockout on the formation of the "toxin complex." Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that a premature stop codon was introduced in the bont gene, whereas other genes were not affected by this mutation. Moreover, we successfully purified the "toxin complex" produced by C-N71. The "toxin complex" was identified as a mixture of NTNHA/HA-70/HA-17/HA-33 complexes with intact NTNHA or C-terminally truncated NTNHA, without BoNT. These results indicated that knockout of the bont gene does not affect the formation of the "toxin complex." Since the botulinum toxin complex has been shown to play an important role in oral toxin transport in the human and animal body, a non-neurotoxic "toxin complex" of C-N71 may be valuable for the development of an oral drug delivery system.

  15. Significant rewiring of the transcriptome and proteome of an Escherichia coli strain harboring a tailored exogenous global regulator IrrE.

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    Tingjian Chen

    Full Text Available Cell reprogramming for microorganisms via engineered or artificial transcription factors and RNA polymerase mutants has presented a powerful tool for eliciting complex traits that are practically useful particularly for industrial strains, and for understanding at the global level the regulatory network of gene transcription. We previously further showed that an exogenous global regulator IrrE (derived from the extreme radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans can be tailored to confer Escherichia coli (E. coli with significantly enhanced tolerances to different stresses. In this work, based on comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of the representative strains E1 and E0, harboring the ethanol-tolerant IrrE mutant E1 and the ethanol-intolerant wild type IrrE, respectively, we found that the transcriptome and proteome of E. coli were extensively rewired by the tailored IrrE protein. Overall, 1196 genes (or approximately 27% of E. coli genes were significantly altered at the transcriptomic level, including notably genes in the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO pathway, and genes for non-coding RNAs. The proteomic profile revealed significant up- or downregulation of several proteins associated with syntheses of the cell membrane and cell wall. Analyses of the intracellular NO level and cell growth under reduced temperature supported a close correlation between NO and ethanol tolerance, and also suggests a role for membrane fluidity. The significantly different omic profiles of strain E1 indicate that IrrE functions as a global regulator in E. coli, and that IrrE may be evolved for other cellular tolerances. In this sense, it will provide synthetic biology with a practical and evolvable regulatory "part" that operates at a higher level of complexity than local regulators. This work also suggests a possibility of introducing and engineering other exogenous global regulators to rewire the genomes of microorganism cells.

  16. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

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    Azizollah Ebrahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2% S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3% of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6% isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.

  17. [Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Loblolly Magazine" was written in observance of the 50th anniversary of the U.S. entrance into World War II. The publication features interviews conducted by East Texas high school students with Clarence Otterman, one of the few survivors of the crew of the USS Arizona, which was bombed during the attack on Pearl Harbor,…

  18. Experimental infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae identify key factors involved in host-colonization.

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    Eric Baranowski

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i the development of a specific antibody response and (ii dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma, with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs.

  19. Development and host compatibility of plasmids for two important ruminant pathogens, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae.

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    Shukriti Sharma

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media in cattle throughout the world. However, despite its clinical significance, there is a paucity of tools to genetically manipulate it, impeding our capacity to further explore the molecular basis of its virulence. To address this limitation, we developed a series of homologous and heterologous replicable plasmids from M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The shortest replicable oriC plasmid based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. bovis was 247 bp and contained two DnaA boxes, while oriC plasmids based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. agalactiae strains 5632 and PG2 were 219 bp and 217 bp in length, respectively, and contained only a single DnaA box. The efficiency of transformation in M. bovis and M. agalactiae was inversely correlated with the size of the oriC region in the construct, and, in general, homologous oriC plasmids had a higher transformation efficiency than heterologous oriC plasmids. The larger pWholeoriC45 and pMM21-7 plasmids integrated into the genomic oriC region of M. bovis, while the smaller oriC plasmids remained extrachromosomal for up to 20 serial passages in selective media. Although specific gene disruptions were not be achieved in M. bovis in this study, the oriC plasmids developed here could still be useful as tools in complementation studies and for expression of exogenous genes in both M. bovis and M. agalactiae.

  20. Characterization of Tn5801.Sag, a variant of Staphylococcus aureus Tn916 family transposon Tn5801 that is widespread in clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingoia, Marina; Morici, Eleonora; Tili, Emily; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Montanari, Maria Pia; Varaldo, Pietro E

    2013-09-01

    Tn5801, originally detected in Staphylococcus aureus Mu50, is a Tn916 family element in which a unique int gene (int5801) replaces the int and xis genes in Tn916 (int916 and xis916). Among 62 tet(M)-positive tetracycline-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae isolates, 43 harbored Tn916, whereas 19 harbored a Tn5801-like element (Tn5801.Sag, ∼20.6 kb). Tn5801.Sag was characterized (PCR mapping, partial sequencing, and chromosomal integration) and compared to other Tn5801-like elements. Similar to Tn5801 from S. aureus Mu50, tested in parallel, Tn5801.Sag was unable to undergo circularization and conjugal transfer.

  1. Construction and Prokaryotic Expression Sip-GAPDH Fusion Gene of Streptococcus agalactiae from GIFT Strain of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)%吉富罗非鱼源无乳链球菌Sip-GAPDH融合基因的构建及其原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓓; 李桂欢; 鲁义善; 汤菊芬; 黄郁葱; 吴灶和; 简纪常

    2014-01-01

    利用重叠延伸(SOEing)PCR技术,将吉富罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)源无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae) ZQ0910株表面免疫原性蛋白(Surface immunogenic protein,Sip)基因与甘油醛-3-磷酸脱氢酶(GAPDH)基因通过Linker序列融合,构建成为Sip-GAPDH融合基因。将其定向克隆至原核表达载体pET-32a(+)中,在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中进行诱导表达。结果表明,重组质粒pET-32a-Sip-GAPDH在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中表达后所获得的融合蛋白Sip-GAPDH分子量为102.01 kD,表达最佳条件为37℃,IPTG浓度0.1 mmol/L,诱导5 h。Western blot鉴定结果表明融合基因得到了成功表达。%The DNA fragment encoding the Sip and GAPDH gene of Streptococcus agalactiae strain ZQ0910 isolated from GIFT Strain of Nile Tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus)were obtained by PCR. The Sip-GAPDH gene was constructed in a Sip-linker-GAPDH format with the standard 15-amino acid linker(Gly4Ser)3 by SOEing PCR technique, and the final full length product was cloned into the pET-32a(+)vector for protein expression in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). The result showed that the expression fusion protein Sip-GAPHD were about 102.01 kD and Western blotting analysis confirmed that the 102.01 kD protein was the fusion protein, because it was specifically recognized by mouse anti-His monoclonal antibody. Inducing the cells at 37℃in 0.1 mmol/L of IPTG for 5 hours was the optimal conditions for expression of the recombinant Sip-GAPDH fusion protein.

  2. The liposoluble proteome of Mycoplasma agalactiae: an insight into the minimal protein complement of a bacterial membrane

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    Cacciotto Carla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasmas are the simplest bacteria capable of autonomous replication. Their evolution proceeded from gram-positive bacteria, with the loss of many biosynthetic pathways and of the cell wall. In this work, the liposoluble protein complement of Mycoplasma agalactiae, a minimal bacterial pathogen causing mastitis, polyarthritis, keratoconjunctivitis, and abortion in small ruminants, was subjected to systematic characterization in order to gain insights into its membrane proteome composition. Results The selective enrichment for M. agalactiae PG2T liposoluble proteins was accomplished by means of Triton X-114 fractionation. Liposoluble proteins were subjected to 2-D PAGE-MS, leading to the identification of 40 unique proteins and to the generation of a reference 2D map of the M. agalactiae liposoluble proteome. Liposoluble proteins from the type strain PG2 and two field isolates were then compared by means of 2D DIGE, revealing reproducible differences in protein expression among isolates. An in-depth analysis was then performed by GeLC-MS/MS in order to achieve a higher coverage of the liposoluble proteome. Using this approach, a total of 194 unique proteins were identified, corresponding to 26% of all M. agalactiae PG2T genes. A gene ontology analysis and classification for localization and function was also carried out on all protein identifications. Interestingly, the 11.5% of expressed membrane proteins derived from putative horizontal gene transfer events. Conclusions This study led to the in-depth systematic characterization of the M. agalactiae liposoluble protein component, providing useful insights into its membrane organization.

  3. Modular genetic architecture of the toxigenic plasmid pIS56-63 harboring cry1Ab21 in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis strain IS5056.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawska, Emilia; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis IS5056, a strain highly toxic to Trichoplusia ni larvae, produces the newly described Cry1Ab21 delta-endotoxin encoded by a gene located in the 63.8 kb pIS56-63 plasmid. In this report we present the structure and functional similarity of this plasmid to other B. thuringiensis large toxigenic plasmids with particular interest focused on its modular architecture. The 61 open reading frames (ORFs) of the plasmid made four functional modules: (i) M1-mic, the mobile insertion cassette harboring cry1Ab21; (ii) M2-tra, the putative conjugative element; (iii) M3-reg, regulation sequence; and (iv) M4-rep, the ori44 replicon. These modules display similarity to corresponding sequences in distinct B. thuringiensis plasmids, but, in general, not to plasmid of other Bacillus cereus sensu lato. The nucleotide sequence and organization of genes in pIS56-63 were highly similar (80-100%) to those in pHT73 of B. thuringiensis HT73, and in p03 of B. thuringiensis HD771, particularly within the M3-reg and M4-rep modules, and slightly less in M2-tra, the latter of which is composed of two segments exhibiting homology to sequences in pBMB28, pAH187_45, pCT83, and pIS56-85 or to pCT72, pBMB67, p04, and pIS56-68. The tetrapartite structure of the toxigenic pIS56-63 plasmid strongly suggests that its hybrid nature is a result of recombination of various genetic elements originating from different extrachromosomal and chromosomal sources in B. thuringiensis. The presence of cry1Ab21 in the mobile cassette suggests that its occurrence on pIS56-63 resulted from recombination and transposition events during the evolution of the plasmid.

  4. Structural basis of lantibiotic recognition by the nisin resistance protein from Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosa, Sakshi; Frieg, Benedikt; Mulnaes, Daniel; Kleinschrodt, Diana; Hoeppner, Astrid; Gohlke, Holger; Smits, Sander H J

    2016-01-04

    Lantibiotics are potent antimicrobial peptides. Nisin is the most prominent member and contains five crucial lanthionine rings. Some clinically relevant bacteria express membrane-associated resistance proteins that proteolytically inactivate nisin. However, substrate recognition and specificity of these proteins is unknown. Here, we report the first three-dimensional structure of a nisin resistance protein from Streptococcus agalactiae (SaNSR) at 2.2 Å resolution. It contains an N-terminal helical bundle, and protease cap and core domains. The latter harbors the highly conserved TASSAEM region, which lies in a hydrophobic tunnel formed by all domains. By integrative modeling, mutagenesis studies, and genetic engineering of nisin variants, a model of the SaNSR/nisin complex is generated, revealing that SaNSR recognizes the last C-terminally located lanthionine ring of nisin. This determines the substrate specificity of SaNSR and ensures the exact coordination of the nisin cleavage site at the TASSAEM region.

  5. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in domestic rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S Y; Geng, Y; Wang, K Y; Zhou, Z Y; Liu, X X; He, M; Peng, X; Wu, C Y; Lai, W M

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) has emerged as an important pathogen that affects humans and animals, including aquatic species. In August 2011, a severe infectious disease affecting rabbits, which caused 42% mortality, occurred in Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. The main clinical signs included acute respiratory distress syndrome, fever, paddling and convulsions. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was isolated from the primary organs and tissues of diseased rabbits and then identified as S. agalactiae by morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, 16S rDNA and gyrB gene sequences analysis. All isolates of S. agalactiae showed a similar antibiotic susceptibility, which were sensitive to florfenicol, ampicillin,gentamicin and norfloxacin, as well as being resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. agalactiae natural infection in domestic rabbits.

  6. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Suanyuk, N.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured tilapia in Surat Thani province. Isolates were Gram-positive cocci, catalase negative, alpha-haemolytic and serogroup B. Streptococcal-infected fish showed various swimming abnormalities such as swimming on their side, erratic surface or bottom swimming including serpentine movement, exophthalmia and opacity. Internally, splenomegaly, ascites as well as pale liver discoloration were observed. Fish experimentally infected by peritoneal injection using 101 -108 CFU/ fish showed 20-90% mortality within 10 days and the LD50 was 3.60x101 - 1.72x107 CFU. Haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma protein and blood cell values of infected and moribund fish were significantly decreased. Histopathological findings included the occurrence of inflammation, cells necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and the formation of granulomas in the infected organs.

  7. Culture-Negative Neonatal Meningitis and Endocarditis Caused by Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Nègre, Valérie Lefranc; Colin-Gorski, Anne-Marie; Magnier, Suzel; Maisonneuve, Lydia; Aujard, Yannick; Bingen, Edouard; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of culture-negative meningitis and endocarditis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a 27-day-old boy. S. agalactiae was detected in cerebrospinal fluid and serum by broad-spectrum PCR amplification.

  8. Mixed infection zones may be important in the epidemiology of contagious agalactia

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    Jafarizadeh Amirreza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current study was designed to detect Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc and Mycoplasma putrefaciens (Mp in sheep and goats with clinical signs consistent with contagious agalactia.

  9. GENOMIC DIVERSITY OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE FROM FISH, BOVINE AND HUMAN HOSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group B Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a cause of infectious disease in multiple poikilothermic and homothermic animal species. Epidemiological and zoonotic considerations necessitate an undertaking of a comparison of S. agalactiae isolates from different phylogenetic hosts and geographical regi...

  10. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Profiling to Evaluate the Sheep Mammary Gland Transcriptome in Response to Experimental Mycoplasma agalactiae Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini; Korb, Melanie; Brunthaler, René; Ertl, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae is a worldwide serious pathogen of small ruminants that usually spreads through the mammary route causing acute to subacute mastitis progressing to chronic persistent disease that is hard to eradicate. Knowledge of mechanisms of its pathogenesis and persistence in the mammary gland are still insufficient, especially the host-pathogen interplay that enables it to reside in a chronic subclinical state. This study reports transcriptome profiling of mammary tissue from udders of sheep experimentally infected with M. agalactiae type strain PG2 in comparison with uninfected control animals using Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed in the infected udders and RT-qPCR analyses of selected DEGs showed their expression profiles to be in agreement with results from RNA-Seq. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed majority of the DEGs to be associated with mycoplasma defense responses that are directly or indirectly involved in host innate and adaptive immune responses. Similar RNA-Seq analyses were also performed with spleen cells of the same sheep to know the specific systemic transcriptome responses. Spleen cells exhibited a comparatively lower number of DEGs suggesting a less prominent host response in this organ. To our knowledge this is the first study that describes host transcriptomics of M. agalactiae infection and the related immune-inflammatory responses. The data provides useful information to further dissect the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying mycoplasma mastitis, which is a prerequisite for designing effective intervention strategies. PMID:28081235

  11. Casereport - Agalactia of mare, agammaglobulinemia and arthritis in foal

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    Spasojević Jovan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactation is physiological state of the organism and the final process of the female reproductive cycle. Milk in the first days after birth (colostrum, in addition to the necessary nutrients contains antibodies, with whose ingesting only a newborn individual receives passive immunity that protects it from various infections over time. Mammary gland dysfunction and a lack of breast milking is called agalactia. Due to the occurrence of agalactia in mother, newborn animal is denied of intake of colostrum in its body. Thus prevents ingestion of nutrients and passive immunity, which results in the occurrence of various diseases especially infectious etiology. This paper describes the treatment of agammaglobulinemia in foal after ascertaining the occurrence of primary agalactia in mare. There is described the possibility of substitution, ie. benefits of breast milk substitutes, and the procedure of diagnosis and treatment of carpal arthritis in foal.

  12. Streptococcus agalactiae Native Valve Endocarditis: Uncommon Presentation of Multiple Myeloma.

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    Pinho Oliveira, Ana; Delgado, Anne; Martins, Cláudia; Gama, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Adults with chronic immunosuppressive conditions are at an increased risk for Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis, which is typically characterized by acute onset, presence of large vegetations, rapid valvular destruction and frequent complications. We report a rare case of a 74 years old man presenting with fever, renal infarction, ischemic stroke and uveitis. Infective endocarditis was diagnosed and Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in blood cultures. A multiple myeloma Ig G-K was also diagnosed. The infective endocarditis was successfully treated with a course of benzylpenicillin and gentamicin. The authors highlight the severity of vascular embolic disease present in this case and the diagnostic challenge. They also intend to remind about the association between Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis and chronic diseases, despite its low reported prevalence.

  13. An Overview of Vaccination Strategies and Antigen Delivery Systems for Streptococcus agalactiae Vaccines in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Paul, Joydeb; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-12-13

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging infectious disease adversely affecting Nile tilapia (Niloticus oreochromis) production in aquaculture. Research carried out in the last decade has focused on developing protective vaccines using different strategies, although no review has been carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of vaccination strategies and antigen delivery systems currently used for S. agalactiae vaccines in tilapia. Furthermore, as shown herein, current vaccine designs include the use of replicative antigen delivery systems, such as attenuated virulent strains, heterologous vectors and DNA vaccines, while non-replicative vaccines include the inactivated whole cell (IWC) and subunit vaccines encoding different S. agalactiae immunogenic proteins. Intraperitoneal vaccination is the most widely used immunization strategy, although immersion, spray and oral vaccines have also been tried with variable success. Vaccine efficacy is mostly evaluated by use of the intraperitoneal challenge model aimed at evaluating the relative percent survival (RPS) of vaccinated fish. The major limitation with this approach is that it lacks the ability to elucidate the mechanism of vaccine protection at portals of bacterial entry in mucosal organs and prevention of pathology in target organs. Despite this, indications are that the correlates of vaccine protection can be established based on antibody responses and antigen dose, although these parameters require optimization before they can become an integral part of routine vaccine production. Nevertheless, this review shows that different approaches can be used to produce protective vaccines against S. agalactiae in tilapia although there is a need to optimize the measures of vaccine efficacy.

  14. An Overview of Vaccination Strategies and Antigen Delivery Systems for Streptococcus agalactiae Vaccines in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba; Paul, Joydeb; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging infectious disease adversely affecting Nile tilapia (Niloticus oreochromis) production in aquaculture. Research carried out in the last decade has focused on developing protective vaccines using different strategies, although no review has been carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of vaccination strategies and antigen delivery systems currently used for S. agalactiae vaccines in tilapia. Furthermore, as shown herein, current vaccine designs include the use of replicative antigen delivery systems, such as attenuated virulent strains, heterologous vectors and DNA vaccines, while non-replicative vaccines include the inactivated whole cell (IWC) and subunit vaccines encoding different S. agalactiae immunogenic proteins. Intraperitoneal vaccination is the most widely used immunization strategy, although immersion, spray and oral vaccines have also been tried with variable success. Vaccine efficacy is mostly evaluated by use of the intraperitoneal challenge model aimed at evaluating the relative percent survival (RPS) of vaccinated fish. The major limitation with this approach is that it lacks the ability to elucidate the mechanism of vaccine protection at portals of bacterial entry in mucosal organs and prevention of pathology in target organs. Despite this, indications are that the correlates of vaccine protection can be established based on antibody responses and antigen dose, although these parameters require optimization before they can become an integral part of routine vaccine production. Nevertheless, this review shows that different approaches can be used to produce protective vaccines against S. agalactiae in tilapia although there is a need to optimize the measures of vaccine efficacy. PMID:27983591

  15. Conjugative transfer of resistance determinants among human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Tatiana Castro Abreu; Costa, Natália Silva; Corrêa, Ana Beatriz de Almeida; de Oliveira, Ivi Cristina Menezes; de Mattos, Marcos Correa; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Benchetrit, Leslie Claude

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major source of human perinatal diseases and bovine mastitis. Erythromycin (Ery) and tetracycline (Tet) are usually employed for preventing human and bovine infections although resistance to such agents has become common among GBS strains. Ery and Tet resistance genes are usually carried by conjugative transposons (CTns) belonging to the Tn916 family, but their presence and transferability among GBS strains have not been totally explored. Here we evaluated the presence of Tet resistance genes (tetM and tetO) and CTns among Ery-resistant (Ery-R) and Ery-susceptible (Ery-S) GBS strains isolated from human and bovine sources; and analyzed the ability for transferring resistance determinants between strains from both origins. Tet resistance and int-Tn genes were more common among Ery-R when compared to Ery-S isolates. Conjugative transfer of all resistance genes detected among the GBS strains included in this study (ermA, ermB, mef, tetM and tetO), in frequencies between 1.10(-7) and 9.10(-7), was possible from bovine donor strains to human recipient strain, but not the other way around. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of in vitro conjugation of Ery and Tet resistance genes among GBS strains recovered from different hosts.

  16. Prevalence of the colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women from a public health system in Santo Ângelo – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Rios Senger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives: Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS is part of the female genital tract microbiota, however, its clinical significance is related to infections in newborns and can cause severe cases of pneumonia, septicemia and meningitis. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of colonization by S. agalactiae in pregnant women and analyze the sensitivity profile of the isolated front of antimicrobials. Methods: Vaginal and anorectal samples of pregnant women over 30 weeks of gestation were collected from February to June 2013. The samples were stored in Stuart transport medium and then inoculated in Todd-Hewitt broth added gentamicin and acid nalidixic with subsequent subculture on blood agar plates. For identification were performed Gram test, catalase, CAMP and latex agglutination. Furthermore, the antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the test for the detection of resistance induced clindamycin in the samples resistant to erythromycin were conducted. They are also assessed, through interviews, demographic, socioeconomic and clinical and obstetric data. Results: It was observed colonization in 22.5% (18/80 of the pregnant women. The strains were sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested except erythromycin, showing a resistance of 22.2% (4/18 isolates. However, none of the samples erythromycin resistant had induced resistance to clindamycin. Conclusion: The high maternal colonization by S. agalactiae found emphasize the importance of isolation of this bacterium in late pregnancy, preventing the occurrence of neonatal infection. KEYWORDS: Streptococcus agalactiae. Pregnancy. Prevalence.

  17. Neonatal necrotizing fasciitis of the scrotum caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Junpei; Inoue, Nobuaki; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Terakawa, Toshiro; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2015-04-01

    We herein describe the case of a 27-day-old male infant who was brought to the emergency room for intermittent crying, and swelling of the left scrotum. Based on the clinical findings, necrotizing fasciitis was suspected, and surgical intervention was successfully completed within a few hours of admission. Streptococcus agalactiae type Ia was cultured from the drained abscess, and was considered the causative pathogen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal necrotizing fasciitis caused by S. agalactiae. Prompt diagnosis and immediate surgical debridement are crucial in the initial management of this disease.

  18. Unexpected genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae caprine isolates from an endemic geographically restricted area of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Fe Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae (MA isolates collected in Spain from goats in an area with contagious agalactia (CA was assessed using a set of validated and new molecular typing methods. Validated methods included pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR typing, and Southern blot hybridization using a set of MA DNA probes, including those for typing the vpma genes repertoire. New approaches were based on PCR and targeted genomic regions that diverged between strains as defined by in silico genomic comparisons of sequenced MA genomes. Results Overall, the data showed that all typing tools yielded consistent results, with the VNTR analyses being the most rapid method to differentiate the MA isolates with a discriminatory ability comparable to that of PFGE and of a set of new PCR assays. All molecular typing approaches indicated that the Spanish isolates from the endemic area in Murcia were very diverse, with different clonal isolates probably restricted to separate, but geographically close, local areas. Conclusions The important genetic diversity of MA observed in infected goats from Spain contrasts with the overall homogeneity of the genomic background encountered in MA from sheep with CA in Southern France or Italy, suggesting that assessment of the disease status in endemic areas may require different approaches in sheep and in goats. A number of congruent sub-typing tools are now available for the differentiation of caprine isolates with comparable discriminatory powers.

  19. Human Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Joyce J.; Phillip H. Klesius; Pasnik, David J.; Bohnsack, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B streptococcus (GBS) long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a clinical case of human neonatal meningitis caused disease and death in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

  20. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lianci; Kang, Shuai; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Li, Zhengwen; Zou, Yuanfeng; Liang, Xiaoxia; Li, Lixia; He, Changliang; Ye, Gang; Yin, Lizi; Shi, Fei; Lv, Cheng; Jing, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae were investigated in this study by analyzing the growth, morphology and protein of the S. agalactiae cells treated with berberine. The antibacterial susceptibility test result indicated minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae was 78 μg/mL and the time-kill curves showed the correlation of concentration-time. After the bacteria was exposed to 78 μg/mL berberine, the fragmentary cell membrane and cells unequal division were observed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), indicating the bacterial cells were severely damaged. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) study demonstrated that berberine could damage bacterial cells through destroying cellular proteins. Meanwhile, Fluorescence microscope revealed that berberine could affect the synthesis of DNA. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that berberine may damage the structure of bacterial cell membrane and inhibit synthesis of protein and DNA, which cause Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria to die eventually.

  1. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  2. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype IV in Humans and Cattle, Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Kulkas, Laura; Katholm, Jorgen;

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging pathogen of nonpregnant human adults worldwide and a reemerging pathogen of dairy cattle in parts of Europe. To learn more about interspecies transmission of this bacterium, we compared contemporaneously collected isolates from humans and cattle in Finland...

  3. Phylogenetic relationships among Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from piscine, dolphin, bovine and human sources: a dolphin and piscine lineage associated with a fish epidemic in Kuwait is also associated with human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group B Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) causes of infections in multiple animals. This study examined the genetic relatedness of piscine, dolphin, and human GBS isolates and bovine GBS reference strains from different geographical regions using serological and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) techni...

  4. Regulation of PI-2b Pilus Expression in Hypervirulent Streptococcus agalactiae ST-17 BM110

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Merle, Laurence; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle; Gominet, Myriam; Bellais, Samuel; Poyart, Claire; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The widely spread Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as Group B Streptococcus, GBS) “hypervirulent” ST17 clone is strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. The PI-2b locus is mainly found in ST17 strains but is also present in a few non ST17 human isolates such as the ST-7 prototype strain A909. Here, we analysed the expression of the PI-2b pilus in the ST17 strain BM110 as compared to the non ST17 A909. Comparative genome analyses revealed the presence of a 43-base pair (bp) hairpin-like structure in the upstream region of PI-2b operon in all 26 ST17 genomes, which was absent in the 8 non-ST17 strains carrying the PI-2b locus. Deletion of this 43-bp sequence in strain BM110 resulted in a 3- to 5-fold increased transcription of PI-2b. Characterization of PI-2b promoter region in A909 and BM110 strains was carried out by RNAseq, primer extension, qRT-PCR and transcriptional fusions with gfp as reporter gene. Our results indicate the presence of a single promoter (Ppi2b) with a transcriptional start site (TSS) mapped 37 bases upstream of the start codon of the first PI-2b gene. The large operon of 16 genes located upstream of PI-2b codes for the group B carbohydrate (also known as antigen B), a major constituent of the bacterial cell wall. We showed that the hairpin sequence located between antigen B and PI-2b operons is a transcriptional terminator. In A909, increased expression of PI-2b probably results from read-through transcription from antigen B operon. In addition, we showed that an extended 5’ promoter region is required for maximal transcription of gfp as a reporter gene in S. agalactiae from Ppi2b promoter. Gene reporter assays performed in Lactococcus lactis strain NZ9000, a related non-pathogenic Gram-positive species, revealed that GBS-specific regulatory factors are required to drive PI-2b transcription. PI-2b expression is up-regulated in the BM110ΔcovR mutant as compared to the parental BM110 strain, but this effect is probably indirect

  5. Cross-Resistance to Lincosamides, Streptogramins A, and Pleuromutilins Due to the lsa(C) Gene in Streptococcus agalactiae UCN70▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbruny, Brigitte; Werno, Anja M.; Murdoch, David R.; Leclercq, Roland; Cattoir, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae UCN70, isolated from a vaginal swab obtained in New Zealand, is resistant to lincosamides and streptogramins A (LSA phenotype) and also to tiamulin (a pleuromutilin). By whole-genome sequencing, we identified a 5,224-bp chromosomal extra-element that comprised a 1,479-bp open reading frame coding for an ABC protein (492 amino acids) 45% identical to Lsa(A), a protein related to intrinsic LSA resistance in Enterococcus faecalis. Expression of this novel gene, named lsa(C), in S. agalactiae BM132 after cloning led to an increase in MICs of lincomycin (0.06 to 4 μg/ml), clindamycin (0.03 to 2 μg/ml), dalfopristin (2 to >32 μg/ml), and tiamulin (0.12 to 32 μg/ml), whereas no change in MICs of erythromycin (0.06 μg/ml), azithromycin (0.03 μg/ml), spiramycin (0.25 μg/ml), telithromycin (0.03 μg/ml), and quinupristin (8 μg/ml) was observed. The phenotype was renamed the LSAP phenotype on the basis of cross-resistance to lincosamides, streptogramins A, and pleuromutilins. This gene was also identified in similar genetic environments in 17 other S. agalactiae clinical isolates from New Zealand exhibiting the same LSAP phenotype, whereas it was absent in susceptible S. agalactiae strains. Interestingly, this extra-element was bracketed by a 7-bp duplication of a target site (ATTAGAA), suggesting that this structure was likely a mobile genetic element. In conclusion, we identified a novel gene, lsa(C), responsible for the acquired LSAP resistance phenotype in S. agalactiae. Dissection of the biochemical basis of resistance, as well as demonstration of in vitro mobilization of lsa(C), remains to be performed. PMID:21245447

  6. Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility is used to aid in the planning of harbor development and in the design and layout of breakwaters, absorbers, etc.. The goal is...

  7. Conjugative Transfer and cis-Mobilization of a Genomic Island by an Integrative and Conjugative Element of Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Puymège, Aurore; Bertin, Stéphane; Chuzeville, Sarah; Guédon, Gérard; Payot, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Putative integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), i.e., genomic islands which could excise, self-transfer by conjugation, and integrate into the chromosome of the bacterial host strain, were previously identified by in silico analysis in the sequenced genomes of Streptococcus agalactiae (M. Brochet et al., J. Bacteriol. 190:6913–6917, 2008). We investigated here the mobility of the elements integrated into the 3′ end of a tRNALys gene. Three of the four putative ICEs tested were found to ...

  8. Evaluation of the surveillance program of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H. J.; Pedersen, L. H.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Danish surveillance program of Streptococcus agalactiae in dairy herds with respect to 1) fluctuation over time of the presence of S. agalactiae in bulk tank milk, 2) sensitivity and specificity of the bacteriological method used, and 3) contamination...... of bulk tank milk samples with milk from other herds. From June to September 1996, bulk tank milk was sampled from 100 Danish dairy herds seven times, with intervals of 2 wk. The samples were examined for the presence of S. agalactiae by four different methods: 1) by the method approved for the program, 2...... the isolates. Streptococcus agalactiae was found in eight of 96 herds in which S. agalactiae had never previously been found during the surveillance program. Streptococcus agalactiae was not found in all seven sampling rounds in any of the eight herds. Comparing the approved method with supplemental findings...

  9. Conjugative transfer and cis-mobilization of a genomic island by an integrative and conjugative element of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puymège, Aurore; Bertin, Stéphane; Chuzeville, Sarah; Guédon, Gérard; Payot, Sophie

    2013-03-01

    Putative integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), i.e., genomic islands which could excise, self-transfer by conjugation, and integrate into the chromosome of the bacterial host strain, were previously identified by in silico analysis in the sequenced genomes of Streptococcus agalactiae (M. Brochet et al., J. Bacteriol. 190:6913-6917, 2008). We investigated here the mobility of the elements integrated into the 3' end of a tRNA(Lys) gene. Three of the four putative ICEs tested were found to excise but only one (ICE_515_tRNA(Lys)) was found to transfer by conjugation not only to S. agalactiae strains but also to a Streptococcus pyogenes strain. Transfer was observed even if recipient cell already carries a related resident ICE or a genomic island flanked by attL and attR recombination sites but devoid of conjugation or recombination genes (CIs-Mobilizable Element [CIME]). The incoming ICE preferentially integrates into the 3' end of the tRNA(Lys) gene (i.e., the attR site of the resident element), leading to a CIME-ICE structure. Transfer of the whole composite element CIME-ICE was obtained, showing that the CIME is mobilizable in cis by the ICE. Therefore, genomic islands carrying putative virulence genes but lacking the mobility gene can be mobilized by a related ICE after site-specific accretion.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus sp. Strain DMB20, Isolated from Alang Ship-Breaking Yard, Which Harbors Genes for Xenobiotic Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Binal; Jain, Kunal; Patel, Namrata; Pandit, Ramesh; Patel, Anand; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain DMB20, in cometabolism with other Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, exhibits azoreduction of textile dyes. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this bacterium, consisting of 6,647,181 bp with 7,668 coding sequences (CDSs). The data presented highlight multiple sets of functional genes associated with xenobiotic compound degradation.

  11. The ssbL gene harbored by the ColV plasmid of an Escherichia coli neonatal meningitis strain is an auxiliary virulence factor boosting the production of siderophores through the shikimate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Chloé; Bidet, Philippe; Benoist, Jean-François; Schlemmer, Dimitri; Sobral, Elsa; d'Humières, Camille; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2014-04-01

    The ability to capture iron is a challenge for most bacteria. The neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli strain S88 possesses several iron uptake systems, notably including siderophores. Transcriptional analysis of the ColV plasmid pS88 has shown strong induction of a previously undescribed gene with low identity to three E. coli chromosomal genes encoding phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxyheptonate aldolases involved in aromatic amino acid and catecholate/phenolate siderophore biosynthesis through the shikimate pathway. Here, we investigated the role of this gene, ssbLp (ssbL carried on the plasmid), in siderophore biosynthesis and, consequently, in S88 virulence. We constructed an S88 mutant designated S88 ΔssbLp, which exhibited reduced growth under low-iron conditions compared to the wild-type strain. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of culture supernatants showed that the mutant secreted significantly smaller amounts of enterobactin, salmochelin SX, and yersiniabactin than the wild-type strain. The mutant was also less virulent in a neonatal rat sepsis model, with significantly lower bacteremia and mortality. Supplementation with chorismate, the final product of the shikimate pathway, restored the wild-type phenotype in vitro. In a collection of human extraintestinal E. coli isolates, we found that ssbL was present only in strains harboring the iro locus, encoding salmochelins, and was located either on the chromosome or on plasmids. Acquisition of the iro locus has been accompanied by acquisition of the auxiliary gene ssbL, which boosts the metabolic pathway essential for catecholate/phenolate siderophore biosynthesis and could represent potential therapeutic targets.

  12. Chromosomally and Extrachromosomally Mediated High-Level Gentamicin Resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendi, Parham; Furitsch, Martina; Mauerer, Stefanie; Florindo, Carlos; Kahl, Barbara C; Shabayek, Sarah; Berner, Reinhard; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2016-01-04

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is a leading cause of sepsis in neonates. The rate of invasive GBS disease in nonpregnant adults also continues to climb. Aminoglycosides alone have little or no effect on GBS, but synergistic killing with penicillin has been shown in vitro. High-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) in GBS isolates, however, leads to the loss of a synergistic effect. We therefore performed a multicenter study to determine the frequency of HLGR GBS isolates and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms leading to gentamicin resistance. From eight centers in four countries, 1,128 invasive and colonizing GBS isolates were pooled and investigated for the presence of HLGR. We identified two strains that displayed HLGR (BSU1203 and BSU452), both of which carried the aacA-aphD gene, typically conferring HLGR. However, only one strain (BSU1203) also carried the previously described chromosomal gentamicin resistance transposon designated Tn3706. For the other strain (BSU452), plasmid purification and subsequent DNA sequencing resulted in the detection of plasmid pIP501 carrying a remnant of a Tn3 family transposon. Its ability to confer HLGR was proven by transfer into an Enterococcus faecalis isolate. Conversely, loss of HLGR was documented after curing both GBS BSU452 and the transformed E. faecalis strain from the plasmid. This is the first report showing plasmid-mediated HLGR in GBS. Thus, in our clinical GBS isolates, HLGR is mediated both chromosomally and extrachromosomally.

  13. Colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae during pregnancy: maternal and perinatal prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia El Beitune; Geraldo Duarte; Cláudia Maria Leite Maffei

    2005-01-01

    We reviewed colonization by group B Streptococcus beta-haemolyticus of Lancefield (SGB), or Streptococcus agalactiae, in pregnant women, and the consequences of infection for the mother and newborn infant, including factors that influence the risk for anogenital colonization by SGB. We also examined the methods for diagnosis and prophylaxis of SGB to prevent early-onset invasive neonatal bacterial disease. At present, it is justifiable to adopt anal and vaginal SGB culture as part of differen...

  14. Variation of snail's abundance in two water bodies harboring strains of Pseudosuccinea columella resistant and susceptible to Fasciola hepatica miracidial infection, in Pinar del Río Province, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gutiérrez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of freshwater snails in two rural sites of Pinar del Río, Cuba, which harbor Pseudosuccinea columella susceptible and resistant to miracidia of Fasciola hepatica was followed for one year. Susceptible snails were found in the most anthropic site (IPA whereas the resistant population inhabited the most preserved one (El Azufre. Only two snail species coexisted with P. columella at IPA site (Physa cubensis and Tarebia granifera while five species were found at El Azufre, including an endemic from that province (Hemisinus cubanianus. Populations of both resistant and susceptible snails showed stable densities throughout the year, although the susceptible strain attained higher abundance. The highest densities were observed in April-May 2004 for the susceptible population whereas the resistant strain attained its highest abundance in January 2004. No record of Fossaria cubensis was made and the thiarid T. granifera occurred only at low densities. One of the sampled sites (IPA meets all the conditions for the first report of P. columella naturally infected with larvae of F. hepatica.

  15. Molecular mapping of the cell wall polysaccharides of the human pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Péchoux, Christine; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Hols, Pascal; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2014-11-01

    The surface of many bacterial pathogens is covered with polysaccharides that play important roles in mediating pathogen-host interactions. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is recognized as a major virulence factor while the group B carbohydrate (GBC) is crucial for peptidoglycan biosynthesis and cell division. Despite the important roles of CPS and GBC, there is little information available on the molecular organization of these glycopolymers on the cell surface. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to analyze the nanoscale distribution of CPS and GBC in wild-type (WT) and mutant strains of S. agalactiae. TEM analyses reveal that in WT bacteria, peptidoglycan is covered with a very thin (few nm) layer of GBC (the ``pellicle'') overlaid by a 15-45 nm thick layer of CPS (the ``capsule''). AFM-based single-molecule mapping with specific antibody probes shows that CPS is exposed on WT cells, while it is hardly detected on mutant cells impaired in CPS production (ΔcpsE mutant). By contrast, both TEM and AFM show that CPS is over-expressed in mutant cells altered in GBC expression (ΔgbcO mutant), indicating that the production of the two surface glycopolymers is coordinated in WT cells. In addition, AFM topographic imaging and molecular mapping with specific lectin probes demonstrate that removal of CPS (ΔcpsE), but not of GBC (ΔgbcO), leads to the exposure of peptidoglycan, organized into 25 nm wide bands running parallel to the septum. These results indicate that CPS forms a homogeneous barrier protecting the underlying peptidoglycan from environmental exposure, while the presence of GBC does not prevent peptidoglycan detection. This work shows that single-molecule AFM, combined with high-resolution TEM, represents a powerful platform for analysing the molecular arrangement of the cell wall polymers of bacterial pathogens.

  16. Role of the Group B antigen of Streptococcus agalactiae: a peptidoglycan-anchored polysaccharide involved in cell wall biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Caliot

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS is a leading cause of infections in neonates and an emerging pathogen in adults. The Lancefield Group B carbohydrate (GBC is a peptidoglycan-anchored antigen that defines this species as a Group B Streptococcus. Despite earlier immunological and biochemical characterizations, the function of this abundant glycopolymer has never been addressed experimentally. Here, we inactivated the gene gbcO encoding a putative UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate:lipid phosphate transferase thought to catalyze the first step of GBC synthesis. Indeed, the gbcO mutant was unable to synthesize the GBC polymer, and displayed an important growth defect in vitro. Electron microscopy study of the GBC-depleted strain of S. agalactiae revealed a series of growth-related abnormalities: random placement of septa, defective cell division and separation processes, and aberrant cell morphology. Furthermore, vancomycin labeling and peptidoglycan structure analysis demonstrated that, in the absence of GBC, cells failed to initiate normal PG synthesis and cannot complete polymerization of the murein sacculus. Finally, the subcellular localization of the PG hydrolase PcsB, which has a critical role in cell division of streptococci, was altered in the gbcO mutant. Collectively, these findings show that GBC is an essential component of the cell wall of S. agalactiae whose function is reminiscent of that of conventional wall teichoic acids found in Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus subtilis. Furthermore, our findings raise the possibility that GBC-like molecules play a major role in the growth of most if not all beta-hemolytic streptococci.

  17. Recombination between Streptococcus suis ICESsu32457 and Streptococcus agalactiae ICESa2603 yields a hybrid ICE transferable to Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Emanuela; Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Facinelli, Bruna

    2015-07-09

    Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile genetic elements that reside in the chromosome but retain the ability to undergo excision and to transfer by conjugation. Genes involved in drug resistance, virulence, or niche adaptation are often found among backbone genes as cargo DNA. We recently characterized in Streptococcus suis an ICE (ICESsu32457) carrying resistance genes [tet(O/W/32/O), tet(40), erm(B), aphA, and aadE] in the 15K unstable genetic element, which is flanked by two ∼1.3kb direct repeats. Remarkably, ∼1.3-kb sequences are conserved in ICESa2603 of Streptococcus agalactiae 2603V/R, which carry heavy metal resistance genes cadC/cadA and mer. In matings between S. suis 32457 (donor) and S. agalactiae 2603V/R (recipient), transconjugants were obtained. PCR experiments, PFGE, and sequence analysis of transconjugants demonstrated a tandem array between ICESsu32457 and ICESa2603. Matings between tandem array-containing S. agalactiae 2603V/R (donor) and Streptococcus pyogenes RF12 (recipient) yielded a single transconjugant containing a hybrid ICE, here named ICESa2603/ICESsu32457. The hybrid formed by recombination of the left ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESsu32457 and the ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESa2603. Interestingly, the hybrid ICE was transferable between S. pyogenes strains, thus demonstrating that it behaves as a conventional ICE. These findings suggest that both tandem arrays and hybrid ICEs may contribute to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in streptococci, creating novel mobile elements capable of disseminating new combinations of antibiotic resistance genes.

  18. Seroepidemiological survey of sheep flocks from Northern Japan for Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, Massimo; Nicholas, Robin A J; Hlusek, Miroslav; Bonfini, Barbara; Osawa, Takeshi; Orusa, Riccardo; Tatami, Shingo; Takagi, Eishu; Moriya, Hiroaki; Okura, Norimoto; Kato, Kazuo; Kimura, Atsushi; Harasawa, Ryô; Ayling, Roger D

    2012-03-01

    Sheep flocks from Hokkaido, Iwate and Aomori, three northern prefectures of Japan, were screened for antibodies to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma agalactiae by ELISA. Sixty four animals out of 246 (26%) were seropositive to M. ovipneumoniae, with positive results obtained from all three prefectures. None of the sera tested were serologically positive to M. agalactiae.

  19. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Pregnant Women in Gabon, Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Belard; Nicole Toepfner; Mesküre Capan-Melser; Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma; Rella Zoleko-Manego; Mirjam Groger; Pierre-Blaise Matsiegui; Agnandji, Selidji T.; Adegnika, Ayôla A; Raquel González; Kremsner, Peter G.; Clara Menendez; Michael Ramharter; Reinhard Berner

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae is life threatening and preventive strategies suitable for resource limited settings are urgently needed. Protective coverage of vaccine candidates based on capsular epitopes will relate to local epidemiology of S. agalactiae serotypes and successful management of critical infections depends on timely therapy with effective...

  20. Fecal strings Associated with Streptococcus agalactiae Infection in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were experimentally-infected with Streptococcus agalactiae for several infectivity and vaccine studies. Some of the S. agalactiae-infected tilapia produced considerably longer (up to 20 cm in length) fecal waste strings than historically observed from tilapia at...

  1. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of an emerging human pathogen, serotype V Streptococcus agalactiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tettelin, H; Masignani, [No Value; Cieslewicz, MJ; Eisen, JA; Peterson, S; Paulsen, IT; Nelson, KE; Margarit, [No Value; Read, TD; Madoff, LC; Beanan, MJ; Brinkac, LM; Daugherty, SC; DeBoy, RT; Durkin, AS; Kolonay, JF; Madupu, R; Lewis, MR; Radune, D; Fedorova, NB; Scanlan, D; Khouri, H; Mulligan, S; Carty, HA; Cline, RT; Van Aken, SE; Gill, J; Scarselli, M; Mora, M; Iacobini, ET; Brettoni, C; Galli, G; Mariani, M; Vegni, F; Maione, D; Rinaudo, D; Rappuoli, R; Telford, JL; Kasper, DL; Grandi, G; Fraser, CM

    2002-01-01

    The 2,160,267 bp genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae, the leading cause of bacterial sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis in neonates in the U.S. and Europe, is predicted to encode 2,175 genes. Genome comparisons among S. agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and the oth

  2. Development of live attenuated sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae polyvalent vaccines to protect Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resi...

  3. Development of live attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae as potential vaccines by selecting for resistance to sparfloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resi...

  4. Streptococcus agalactiae from pregnant women: antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance mechanisms and molecular typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Bezares, B; Azcona-Gutiérrez, J M; Martin, C; Jareño, M S; Torres, C; Sáenz, Y

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance mechanisms, virulence genes and clonal relationships of macrolide- and/or lincosamide-resistant (M+/-LR) Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) isolates from pregnant women in La Rioja in Northern Spain, a region with a significant immigrant population. In total 375 GBS isolates were recovered during 2011. About three-quarters of isolates were from European nationals and the remainder distributed among 23 other nationalities. Seventy-five (20%) were classified as M+/-LR strains and 28 (37%) of these were resistant to ⩾3 classes of antibiotics. Capsular serotypes III (29·3%), V (21·3%) and II (12%) were the most frequent. A wide variety of antibiotic resistance genes were detected in M+/-LR strains; notably, 5·3% harboured the lsa(C) gene associated with cross-resistance, and tet(W) was identified in a single strain. We report, for the first time, the detection of cadmium and copper resistance encoded by tcrB + cadA + cadC genes in 20 M+/-LR strains, which raises the possibility of co-selection of antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance disseminated through mobile genetic elements. The M+/-LR strains were highly diverse by DNA macrorestriction profiles (65 patterns) and 16 multilocus sequence types (STs) distributed among six clonal complexes; the most frequent were ST1, ST19, and ST12, and two strains were novel (ST586 and ST601). In conclusion, a wide diversity of genetic lineages of macrolide, lincosamide and heavy-metal- resistant GBS strains was observed in an ethnically diverse maternal population.

  5. Severe infective endocarditis in a healthy adult due to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Itaru; Tsukimori, Ayaka; Sato, Akihiro; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    A case of severe endocarditis, with complications of multiple infarction, meningitis, and ruptured mitral chordae tendineae, caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a healthy man, is reported. Emergency cardiovascular surgery was performed on the day of admission. Infective endocarditis caused by S. agalactiae is very rare, particularly in a healthy adult. In addition, microbiological analysis revealed that S. agalactiae of sequence type (ST) 19, which belongs to serotype III, was present in the patient's vegetation, mitral valve, and blood culture. It was therefore concluded that the endocarditis was caused by ST19, which has been reported as a non-invasive type of S. agalactiae. This was an extremely rare case in which S. agalactiae of ST19 caused very severe endocarditis in an adult patient with no underlying disease.

  6. Characterization of a new CAMP factor carried by an integrative and conjugative element in Streptococcus agalactiae and spreading in Streptococci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Chuzeville

    Full Text Available Genetic exchanges between Streptococci occur frequently and contribute to their genome diversification. Most of sequenced streptococcal genomes carry multiple mobile genetic elements including Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs that play a major role in these horizontal gene transfers. In addition to genes involved in their mobility and regulation, ICEs also carry genes that can confer selective advantages to bacteria. Numerous elements have been described in S. agalactiae especially those integrated at the 3' end of a tRNA(Lys encoding gene. In strain 515 of S. agalactiae, an invasive neonate human pathogen, the ICE (called 515_tRNA(Lys is functional and carries different putative virulence genes including one encoding a putative new CAMP factor in addition to the one previously described. This work demonstrated the functionality of this CAMP factor (CAMP factor II in Lactococcus lactis but also in pathogenic strains of veterinary origin. The search for co-hemolytic factors in a collection of field strains revealed their presence in S. uberis, S. dysgalactiae, but also for the first time in S. equisimilis and S. bovis. Sequencing of these genes revealed the prevalence of a species-specific factor in S. uberis strains (Uberis factor and the presence of a CAMP factor II encoding gene in S. bovis and S. equisimilis. Furthermore, most of the CAMP factor II positive strains also carried an element integrated in the tRNA(Lys gene. This work thus describes a CAMP factor that is carried by a mobile genetic element and has spread to different streptococcal species.

  7. Multiple Evolutionary Selections Involved in Synonymous Codon Usages in the Streptococcus agalactiae Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Ping; Ke, Hao; Liang, Zhi-Ling; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Hao, Le; Ma, Jiang-Yao; Li, Yu-Gu

    2016-02-24

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important human and animal pathogen. To better understand the genetic features and evolution of S. agalactiae, multiple factors influencing synonymous codon usage patterns in S. agalactiae were analyzed in this study. A- and U-ending rich codons were used in S. agalactiae function genes through the overall codon usage analysis, indicating that Adenine (A)/Thymine (T) compositional constraints might contribute an important role to the synonymous codon usage pattern. The GC3% against the effective number of codon (ENC) value suggested that translational selection was the important factor for codon bias in the microorganism. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that (i) mutational pressure was the most important factor in shaping codon usage of all open reading frames (ORFs) in the S. agalactiae genome; (ii) strand specific mutational bias was not capable of influencing the codon usage bias in the leading and lagging strands; and (iii) gene length was not the important factor in synonymous codon usage pattern in this organism. Additionally, the high correlation between tRNA adaptation index (tAI) value and codon adaptation index (CAI), frequency of optimal codons (Fop) value, reinforced the role of natural selection for efficient translation in S. agalactiae. Comparison of synonymous codon usage pattern between S. agalactiae and susceptible hosts (human and tilapia) showed that synonymous codon usage of S. agalactiae was independent of the synonymous codon usage of susceptible hosts. The study of codon usage in S. agalactiae may provide evidence about the molecular evolution of the bacterium and a greater understanding of evolutionary relationships between S. agalactiae and its hosts.

  8. Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae by fluorescent in situ hybridization compared to culturing and the determination of prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae colonization among pregnant women in Bushehr, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Norouzi Esfahani, Marjan; Emaneini, Mohammad; Motamed, Niloofar; Rahmani, Elham; Gharibi, Somayyeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women colonized by Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci [GBS]) may transfer this microorganism to their newborns. S. agalactiae is an important cause of pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis in newborns. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is considered as a method of identification in the field of diagnostic microbiology. In this paper, we have designed a study to compare the DNA FISH after 7 h Lim broth enrichment and culturing for the identification of S. aga...

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of an oral DNA vaccine encoding Sip of Streptococcus agalactiae from Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus delivered by live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L Y; Wang, K Y; Xiao, D; Chen, D F; Geng, Y; Wang, J; He, Y; Wang, E L; Huang, J L; Xiao, G Y

    2014-05-01

    Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL7207 was used as a carrier for a reconstructed DNA vaccine against Streptococcus agalactiae. A 1.02 kb DNA fragment, encoding for a portion of the surface immunogenic protein (Sip) of S. agalactiae was inserted into pVAX1. The recombinant plasmid pVAX1-sip was transfected in EPC cells to detect the transient expression by an indirect immunofluorescence assay, together with Western blot analysis. The pVAX1-sip was transformed by electroporation into SL7207. The stability of pVAX1-sip into Salmonella was over 90% after 50 generations with antibiotic selection in vitro while remained stable over 80% during 35 generations under antibiotic-free conditions. The LD50 of SL/pVAX1-sip was 1.7 × 10(11) CFU/fish by intragastric administration which indicated a quite low virulence. Tilapias were inoculated orally at 10(8) CFU/fish, the recombinant bacteria were found present in intestinal tract, spleens and livers and eventually eliminated from the tissues 4 weeks after immunization. Fish immunized at 10(7), 10(8) and 10(9) CFU/fish with different immunization times caused various levels of serum antibody and an effective protection against lethal challenge with the wild-type strain S. agalactiae. Integration studies showed that the pVAX1-sip did not integrate with tilapia chromosomes. The DNA vaccine SL/pVAX1-sip was proved to be safe and effective in protecting tilapias against S. agalactiae infection.

  10. [Vaginal colonization of the Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant woman in Tunisia: risk factors and susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjani, A; Ben Abdallah, H; Ben Saida, N; Gozzi, C; Boukadida, J

    2006-05-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the main bacterial causes of serious infections in newborns. We have evaluated prospectively GBS vaginal colonization in pregnant women and we have tried to determine the risk factors of the colonization by GBS and the particularities of the different isolated strains. We have screened 300 pregnant women with vaginal and anal sample in a same swab. Thirty nine (13%) pregnant women are colonized by SGB, 0% in the first trimester, 10.2% in the second trimester and 17% in the third trimester. Different factors are associated significantly with GBS colonization: past history of infection in newborns, genital infection during pregnancy and parity The highest rates of resistance are found in tetracycline (97.4%), erythromycin (51.3%) and lincomycin (46.2%). All the strains were susceptible to amoxicilin and pristinamycin.

  11. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the nisin resistance protein from Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosa, Sakshi; Hoeppner, Astrid; Kleinschrodt, Diana; Smits, Sander H J

    2015-06-01

    Nisin is a 34-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide produced by Lactococcus lactis belonging to the class of lantibiotics. Nisin displays a high bactericidal activity against various Gram-positive bacteria, including some human-pathogenic strains. However, there are some nisin-non-producing strains that are naturally resistant owing to the presence of the nsr gene within their genome. The encoded protein, NSR, cleaves off the last six amino acids of nisin, thereby reducing its bactericidal efficacy. An expression and purification protocol has been established for the NSR protein from Streptococcus agalactiae COH1. The protein was successfully crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method in hanging and sitting drops, resulting in crystals that diffracted X-rays to 2.8 and 2.2 Å, respectively.

  12. "Curing" of plasmid DNA in acetogen using microwave or applying an electric pulse improves cell growth and metabolite production as compared to the plasmid-harboring strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzin, Vel; Kiriukhin, Michael; Tyurin, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Plasmid-free acetogen Clostridium sp. MT962 electrotransformed with a small cryptic plasmid pMT351 was used to develop time- and cost-effective methods for plasmid elimination. Elimination of pMT351 restored production of acetate and ethanol to the levels of the plasmid-free strain with no dry cell weight changes. Destabilizing cell membrane via microwave at 2.45 GHz, or exposure to a single 12 ms square electric pulse at 35 kV cm⁻¹, eliminated pMT351 in 42-47 % of cells. Plasmid elimination with a single square electric pulse required 10 versus 0.1 J needed to introduce the same 3,202-bp plasmid into the cells as calculated per cell sample of Clostridium sp. MT962. Microwave caused visible changes in repPCR pattern and increased ethanol production at the expense of acetate. This is the first report on microwave of microwave ovens, wireless routers, and mobile devices causing chromosomal DNA aberrations in microbes along with carbon flux change.

  13. Antigen I/II encoded by integrative and conjugative elements of Streptococcus agalactiae and role in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuzeville, Sarah; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Madec, Jean-Yves; Haenni, Marisa; Payot, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (i.e. Group B streptococcus, GBS) is a major human and animal pathogen. Genes encoding putative surface proteins and in particular an antigen I/II have been identified on Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) found in GBS. Antigens I/II are multimodal adhesins promoting colonization of the oral cavity by streptococci such as Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans. The prevalence and diversity of antigens I/II in GBS were studied by a bioinformatic analysis. It revealed that antigens I/II, which are acquired by horizontal transfer via ICEs, exhibit diversity and are widespread in GBS, in particular in the serotype Ia/ST23 invasive strains. This study aimed at characterizing the impact on GBS biology of proteins encoded by a previously characterized ICE of S. agalactiae (ICE_515_tRNA(Lys)). The production and surface exposition of the antigen I/II encoded by this ICE was examined using RT-PCR and immunoblotting experiments. Surface proteins of ICE_515_tRNA(Lys) were found to contribute to GBS biofilm formation and to fibrinogen binding. Contribution of antigen I/II encoded by SAL_2056 to biofilm formation was also demonstrated. These results highlight the potential for ICEs to spread microbial adhesins between species.

  14. [Agrobacterium-mediated sunflower transformation (Helianthus annuus L.) in vitro and in Planta using strain of LBA4404 harboring binary vector pBi2E with dsRNA-suppressor proline dehydrogenase gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishchenko, E N; Komisarenko, A G; Mikhal'skaia, S I; Sergeeva, L E; Adamenko, N I; Morgun, B V; Kochetov, A V

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the efficiency of proline dehydrogenase gene suppression towards increasing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tolerance level to water deficit and salinity, we employed strain LBA4404 harboring pBi2E with double-stranded RNA-suppressor, which were prepared on basis arabidopsis ProDH1 gene. The techniques of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in vitro and in planta during fertilization sunflower have been proposed. There was shown the genotype-depended integration of T-DNA in sunflower genome. PCR-analysis showed that ProDH1 presents in genome of inbred lines transformed in planta, as well as in T1- and T2-generations. In trans-genic regenerants the essential accumulation of free L-proline during early stages of in vitro cultivation under normal conditions was shown. There was established the essential accumulation of free proline in transgenic regenerants during cultivation under lethal stress pressure (0.4 M mannitol and 2.0% sea water salts) and its decline upon the recovery period. These data are declared about effectiveness of suppression of sunflower ProDH and gene participation in processes connected with osmotolerance.

  15. Validation of absolute quantitative real-time PCR for the diagnosis of Streptococcus agalactiae in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Fernanda de A; Lemos, Eliana G M; Pilarski, Fabiana

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) are Gram-positive cocci responsible for substantial losses in tilapia fish farms in Brazil and worldwide. It causes septicemia, meningoencephalitis and mortality of whole shoals that can occur within 72 h. Thus, diagnostic methods are needed that are rapid, specific and sensitive. In this study, a pair of specific primers for GBS was generated based on the cfb gene sequence and initially evaluated by conventional PCR. The protocols for absolute quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were then adapted to validate the technique for the identification and quantification of GBS isolated by real-time detection of amplicons using fluorescence measurements. Finally, an infectivity test was conducted in tilapia infected with GBS strains. Total DNA from the host brain was subjected to the same technique, and the strains were re-isolated to validate Koch's postulates. The assay showed 100% specificity for the other bacterial species evaluated and a sensitivity of 367 gene copies per 20 mg of brain tissue within 4 h, making this test a valuable tool for health monitoring programs.

  16. Pearl Harbor Biological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-30

    Distribution of Porifera (Wet Weight in Grams) Collected in Piling Samples from Pearl Harbor, Oahu 2.4-26 2.4-7. Syllidae 2.4-28 2.4-8. Cirratulidae...COLLECTED FROM PEARL HARBOR m .-. Sped es/Group Porifera Demospongiae Cnidaria Hydrozoa Hydrdda Anthozoa Actlnarla Stolchactlnldae Radianthus...and abundance data for 113 taxa (species, genera and higher taxa) are provided in Table 2.4-4. Wet weights are listed for all sponges ( porifera ). The

  17. Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Bacillus licheniformis Strains Isolated from Retail Powdered Infant Milk Formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Begley, Máire; Clifford, Tanya; Deasy, Thérèse; Considine, Kiera; O'Connor, Paula; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the potential antimicrobial activity of ten Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from retail infant milk formulae against a range of indicator (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Listeria innocua) and clinically relevant (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli) microorganisms. Deferred antagonism assays confirmed that all B. licheniformis isolates show antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive target organisms. PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses indicated that four of the B. licheniformis isolates produce the bacteriocin lichenicidin. The remaining six isolates demonstrated a higher antimicrobial potency than lichenicidin-producing strains. Further analyses identified a peptide of ~1,422 Da as the most likely bioactive responsible for the antibacterial activity of these six isolates. N-terminal sequencing of the ~1,422 Da peptide from one strain identified it as ILPEITXIFHD. This peptide shows a high homology to the non-ribosomal peptides bacitracin and subpeptin, known to be produced by Bacillus spp. Subsequent PCR analyses demonstrated that the six B. licheniformis isolates may harbor the genetic machinery needed for the synthesis of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase similar to those involved in production of subpeptin and bacitracin, which suggests that the ~1,422 Da peptide might be a variant of subpeptin and bacitracin.

  18. Poliartritis y tenosinovitis grave por Streptococcus agalactiae en un paciente con hipoesplenia funcional Severe polyarthritis and tenosynovitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a patient with functional hyposplenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo C. Balderramo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La artritis por Streptococcus agalactiae es infrecuente. No conocemos publicaciones de casos sobre la afección tendinosa por este microorganismo. Se presenta una mujer de 46 años que consultó por fiebre, poliartralgias, mialgias, diarrea y vómitos. Como antecedentes presentaba carcinoma papilar de tiroides e hipoesplenia funcional. Al examen se encontraba hemodinámicamente inestable, febril, con artritis de mano izquierda, muñecas, codos, hombro derecho y tobillo izquierdo. Presentaba tenosinovitis en ambos pies y en la mano izquierda. Los hemocultivos y el cultivo de la bursa olecraniana derecha fueron positivos para S. agalactiae. La ecografía mostró signos de tenosinovitis del tibial anterior izquierdo. Completó 20 días de tratamiento endovenoso con cefazolina y 12 días de cefuroxima oral. El cuadro articular revirtió completamente en 60 días. El Streptococcus agalactiae puede causar, en forma infrecuente, un síndrome de poliartritis, tenosinovitis y fiebre similar al producido por la infección gonocócica.Cases of arthritis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae are infrequent and in our knowledge there are no case reports of tenosynovitis caused by S. agalactiae. A 46-year-old woman presented with fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia, diarrhea and vomiting. She had a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma and functional hyposplenia. She was febrile, with arthritis in hands, wrists, elbows, right shoulder and left ankle joints, and presented tenosynovitis in both feet and left hand. Blood and right olecranon bursa sample cultures were positive for S. agalactiae. An ultrasound scan made at the musculus tibialis anterior of left foot revealed signs of tenosynovitis. She was treated with intravenous cefazolin for 20 days and oral cefuroxime for 12 days. The joint involvement completely subsided in 60 days. Streptococcus agalactiae can cause, infrequently, a polyarthritis and tenosynovitis syndrome similar to disseminated gonococcal

  19. Detection and enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in milk by Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Gerato Dibbern

    2015-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi organizado em dois estudos. O objetivo do primeiro estudo foi determinar o efeito da infecção intramamária (IIM) causada por S. aureus e S. agalactiae na contagem de células somáticas (CCS) e na composição do leite (gordura, proteína, lactose, sólidos totais e extrato seco desengordurado), o efeito da contagem de S. aureus e S. agalactiae sobre a composição do leite e a estimativa da frequência de vacas e de quartos infectados com S. aureus e S. agalactiae por meio da ...

  20. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Pregnant Women in Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belard, Sabine; Toepfner, Nicole; Capan-Melser, Mesküre; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Groger, Mirjam; Matsiegui, Pierre-Blaise; Agnandji, Selidji T; Adegnika, Ayôla A; González, Raquel; Kremsner, Peter G; Menendez, Clara; Ramharter, Michael; Berner, Reinhard

    2015-11-25

    Neonatal invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae is life threatening and preventive strategies suitable for resource limited settings are urgently needed. Protective coverage of vaccine candidates based on capsular epitopes will relate to local epidemiology of S. agalactiae serotypes and successful management of critical infections depends on timely therapy with effective antibiotics. This is the first report on serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. agalactiae in pregnant women from a Central African region. Serotypes V, III, and Ib accounted for 88/109 (81%) serotypes and all isolates were susceptible to penicillin and clindamycin while 13% showed intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin.

  1. Streptococcus agalactiae mural infective endocarditis in a structurally normal heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Ariyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old Caucasian man with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus type 2 was admitted with a 1-week duration of fevers, chills, and a non-productive cough. He had a left ischiorectal abscess 1 month prior to admission. Physical examination revealed caries on a left upper molar and a well-healed scar on the left buttock, but no heart murmur or evidence of micro-emboli. Blood cultures grew Streptococcus agalactiae. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a mobile mass in the right ventricle that attached to chordae tendineae without valvular disease or dysfunction. A computed tomography (CT with contrast revealed the mass within the right ventricle, a left lung cavitary lesion, and a splenic infarction. He was initially treated with penicillin G for a week. Subsequently, ceftriaxone was continued for a total of 8 weeks. A follow-up CT showed no evidence of right ventricular mass 8 weeks after discharge. This is the first reported case of S. agalactiae mural infective endocarditis in a structurally normal heart.

  2. Phenotypes, genotypes, serotypes and molecular epidemiology of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francesco, M A; Caracciolo, S; Gargiulo, F; Manca, N

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyse Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) isolates collected in Italy from vaginal and urine samples in respect to their clonality, distribution of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Three hundred and eighty-eight GBS were recovered from clinical samples. They were analysed for antibiotic resistance profiling. Erythromycin-resistant strains were further characterised by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), serotyping and the detection of alp genes of the alpha-like protein (Alp) family. GBS isolates represented 40 different sequence types (STs), grouped in five clonal complexes (CCs) and belonged to seven serotypes. Most serotype V strains (81%) possessed alp2-3; serotype Ia carried mainly epsilon, while the serotype III mainly rib. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, whereas resistance to erythromycin was detected in 15% of isolates. Most erythromycin-resistant GBS strains were of serotype V (56.8%) and belonged to the CC-1 group (50%). Macrolide resistance phenotypes were the cMLS(B) (46.5%) and the M phenotypes (46.5%) due to the presence of ermB and mefA/E genes, respectively. These results provide data which establish a baseline for monitoring erythromycin resistance in this region and also provide an insight into the correlation among clonal types, serotypes, surface protein and resistance genes. The increased prevalence of strains that displayed the M phenotype strengthens the importance of the epidemiological surveillance of macrolide resistance in GBS, which may also represent an important reservoir of resistance genes for other species.

  3. A REVIEW ON THE CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE SYNTHESIS GENES OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE%无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)荚膜多糖合成基因研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪开毓; 黄锦炉; 肖丹; 王均; 黄凌远

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important zoonotic pathogen in human, animal and fish. The capsular poly-saccharides on the cell surface have been recognized as virulence factors, of which the forming processes are regulated by the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis (cps) genes. The capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis genes exist in capsular polysaccharide operon of S. agalactiae genome, which were predicted to participate in the origination of capsular polysaccharide synthesis, polymerization of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, transport and anchor the product to the cell surface. Therefore, the cps genes achieve new applications of diagnostic techniques and the construction of attenuated mutant strains. In this paper, the basic properties of cps genes, as well as their transcription regulation, coding proteins and biological functions, regulation mechanism of capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and serotyping, and application of construction of mutant strains are analyzed and discussed. We looked forward to providing a theoretical reference on the new functions research and innovative applications of S. agalactiae cps genes.%无乳链球菌是一种人畜鱼共患的重要病原菌,菌体表面的荚膜多糖是公认的毒力因子,其合成过程受荚膜多糖合成基因的调控.荚膜多糖合成基因存在于荚膜多糖操纵子中,参与无乳链球菌荚膜多糖的合成启动、寡糖和多糖的聚合以及外输并锚定于菌体表面,在新型诊断技术和减毒突变株的构建方面取得良好的应用.本文首次就cps基因的基本属性、转录调节、编码蛋白及其生物功能、对荚膜多糖合成的调控机理、在血清分型和突变株构建的应用这六个方面进行深入分析和讨论,以期为GBS cps基因的新功能研究和创新应用提供理论参考.

  4. Annual incidence, prevalence and transmission characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mweu, Marshal M.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;

    2012-01-01

    -level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, β, and recovery......Contagious mastitis pathogens continue to pose an economic threat to the dairy industry. An understanding of their frequency and transmission dynamics is central to evaluating the effectiveness of control programmes. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to estimate the annual herd...... rate for S. agalactiae infection. Data covering the specified period, on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected annually as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme, were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and subsequently analysed...

  5. [Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in healthy adults. Description of 2 new cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero Marcotegui, M; Hidalgo Ovejero, A; Lecumberri, M Cía; Otermin Maya, I; Pereda García, A

    2009-10-01

    The importance of Streptococcus agalactiae as a pathogen in nonpregnant adults has been widely recognized in recent years, especially in the elderly or immunocompromised patients. Two cases of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by S. agalactiae in young patients with no known underlying diseases or predisposing factor to infection are reported. A systematic review of the literature (MEDLINE, 1976-May 2008) was performed, 10 cases previously reported in the literature of vertebral osteomyelitis due to S. agalactiae being found in adults under 65 years of age with no predisposing risk factors for infection, most of which have been reported over the last 10 years. We believe that this microbial etiology should be considered in patients of any age and immunological status. Other factors, other than increasing the number of patients with chronic diseases, explaining the increased rate of S. agalactiae infections in adults need to be studied.

  6. Nile Tilapia Infectivity by Genomically Diverse Streptoccocus agalactiae Isolates from Multiple Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), is recognized for causing cattle mastitis, human neonatal meningitis, and fish meningo-encephalitis. We investigated the genomic diversity of GBS isolates from different phylogenetic hosts and geographical regions using serological t...

  7. Structure of the Response Regulator NsrR from Streptococcus agalactiae, Which Is Involved in Lantibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosa, Sakshi; Hoeppner, Astrid; Gohlke, Holger; Schmitt, Lutz; Smits, Sander H J

    2016-01-01

    Lantibiotics are antimicrobial peptides produced by Gram-positive bacteria. Interestingly, several clinically relevant and human pathogenic strains are inherently resistant towards lantibiotics. The expression of the genes responsible for lantibiotic resistance is regulated by a specific two-component system consisting of a histidine kinase and a response regulator. Here, we focused on a response regulator involved in lantibiotic resistance, NsrR from Streptococcus agalactiae, and determined the crystal structures of its N-terminal receiver domain and C-terminal DNA-binding effector domain. The C-terminal domain exhibits a fold that classifies NsrR as a member of the OmpR/PhoB subfamily of regulators. Amino acids involved in phosphorylation, dimerization, and DNA-binding were identified and demonstrated to be conserved in lantibiotic resistance regulators. Finally, a model of the full-length NsrR in the active and inactive state provides insights into protein dimerization and DNA-binding.

  8. Comparison of transmission dynamics between Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae intramammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Pinyopummintr, Tanu; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of study were to determine the transmission parameters (β), durations of infection, and basic reproductive numbers (R0) of both Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis as pathogens causing mastitis outbreaks in dairy herds. A 10-mo longitudinal study was performed using 2 smallholder dairy herds with mastitis outbreaks caused by Strep. agalactiae and Strep. uberis, respectively. Both herds had poor mastitis control management and did not change their milking management during the entire study period. Quarter milk samples were collected at monthly intervals from all lactating animals in each herd for bacteriological identification. The durations of infection for Strep. uberis intramammary infection (IMI) and Strep. agalactiae IMI were examined using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the Kaplan-Meier survival functions for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were compared using log rank survival-test. The spread of Strep. uberis and Strep. agalactiae through the population was determined by transmission parameter, β, the probability per unit of time that one infectious quarter will infect another quarter, assuming that all other quarters are susceptible. For the Strep. uberis outbreak herd (31 cows), 56 new infections and 28 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. For the Strep. agalactiae outbreak herd (19 cows), 26 new infections and 9 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. The duration of infection for Strep. agalactiae (mean=270.84 d) was significantly longer than the duration of infection for Strep. uberis (mean=187.88 d). The transmission parameters (β) estimated (including 95% confidence interval) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were 0.0155 (0.0035-0.0693) and 0.0068 (0.0008-0.0606), respectively. The R0 (including 95% confidence interval) during the study were 2.91 (0.63-13.47) and 1.86 (0.21-16.61) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI, respectively. In conclusion, the transmission

  9. Cystine antagonism of the antibacterial action of lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide on Streptococcus agalactiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Mickelson, M. N.; Anderson, A J

    1984-01-01

    Cystine reduction in Streptococcus agalactiae, resulting in sulfhydryl formation, may account for antagonism of the antibacterial effect of lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide when cystine is present in excess of the amount needed for maximum growth. Accumulation of cystine by S. agalactiae and its reduction to form sulfhydryl compounds were demonstrated. The reduction of cystine appeared to occur by a couple reaction between glutathione reductase and glutathione-disulfide transhydr...

  10. Acute Neonatal Parotitis with Late-Onset Septic Shock due to Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Boulyana, M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute neonatal parotitis (ANP) is a very rare disease. Most cases are managed conservatively; early antibiotics and adequate hydration may reduce the need for surgery. The most common cause of ANP is Staphylococcus aureus. We report a rare case of acute neonatal parotitis with late-onset septic shock due to Streptococcus agalactiae. The diagnosis was confirmed with ultrasound and isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae from blood culture. The patient was treated successfully with 10 days of int...

  11. Surface Proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae and Related Proteins in Other Bacterial Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Gunnar; Stålhammar-Carlemalm, Margaretha; Areschoug, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is the major cause of invasive bacterial disease, including meningitis, in the neonatal period. Although prophylactic measures have contributed to a substantial reduction in the number of infections, development of a vaccine remains an important goal. While much work in this field has focused on the S. agalactiae polysaccharide capsule, which is an important virulence factor that elicits protective immunity, surface proteins have received incre...

  12. Transcriptomic response of goat mammary epithelial cells to Mycoplasma agalactiae challenge – a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogorevc, Jernej; Mihevc, Sonja Prpar; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) is one of the main aetiological agents of intramammary infections in small ruminants, causing contagious agalactia. To better understand the underlying disease patterns a primary goat mammary epithelial cell (pgMEC) culture was established from the mammary tissue......, steroid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, apoptosis signalling, transcription regulation, and cell cycle regulation. Based on the results we suggest that mammary epithelial cells in vivo contribute to the immune system by the induced expression of cytokines and other chemotactic agents, activation...

  13. Structure of Streptococcus agalactiae tip pilin GBS104: a model for GBS pili assembly and host interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Vengadesan [UNESCO Regional Centre for Biotechnology (RCB), Gurgaon 122 016, Haryana (India); Dwivedi, Prabhat [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Kim, Brandon J. [San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Samal, Alexandra; Macon, Kevin [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Ma, Xin; Mishra, Arunima [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Doran, Kelly S. [San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Ton-That, Hung [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Narayana, Sthanam V. L., E-mail: narayana@uab.edu [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); UNESCO Regional Centre for Biotechnology (RCB), Gurgaon 122 016, Haryana (India)

    2013-06-01

    The crystal structure of a 75 kDa central fragment of GBS104, a tip pilin from the 2063V/R strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS), is reported. The crystal structure of a 75 kDa central fragment of GBS104, a tip pilin from the 2063V/R strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS), is reported. In addition, a homology model of the remaining two domains of GBS104 was built and a model of full-length GBS104 was generated by combining the homology model (the N1 and N4 domains) and the crystal structure of the 75 kDa fragment (the N2 and N3 domains). This rod-shaped GBS104 model is constructed of three IgG-like domains (the N1, N2 and N4 domains) and one vWFA-like domain (the N3 domain). The N1 and N2 domains of GBS104 are assembled with distinct and remote segments contributed by the N- and C-termini. The metal-binding site in the N3 domain of GBS104 is in the closed/low-affinity conformation. Interestingly, this domain hosts two long arms that project away from the metal-binding site. Using site-directed mutagenesis, two cysteine residues that lock the N3 domain of GBS104 into the open/high-affinity conformation were introduced. Both wild-type and disulfide-locked recombinant proteins were tested for binding to extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, fibrinogen and laminin, and an increase in fibronectin binding affinity was identified for the disulfide-locked N3 domain, suggesting that induced conformational changes may play a possible role in receptor binding.

  14. Effect of Eugenol against Streptococcus agalactiae and Synergistic Interaction with Biologically Produced Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Perugini Biasi-Garbin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci (GBS is an important infections agent in newborns associated with maternal vaginal colonization. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in GBS-colonized pregnant women has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of early neonatal infection in various geographic regions. However, this strategy may lead to resistance selecting among GBS, indicating the need for new alternatives to prevent bacterial transmission and even to treat GBS infections. This study reported for the first time the effect of eugenol on GBS isolated from colonized women, alone and in combination with silver nanoparticles produced by Fusarium oxysporum (AgNPbio. Eugenol showed a bactericidal effect against planktonic cells of all GBS strains, and this effect appeared to be time-dependent as judged by the time-kill curves and viability analysis. Combination of eugenol with AgNPbio resulted in a strong synergistic activity, significantly reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration values of both compounds. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed fragmented cells and changes in bacterial morphology after incubation with eugenol. In addition, eugenol inhibited the viability of sessile cells during biofilm formation and in mature biofilms. These results indicate the potential of eugenol as an alternative for controlling GBS infections.

  15. Characterization and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates causing urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Giorgio; Biscaro, Valeria; Gargiulo, Franco; Caruso, Arnaldo; De Francesco, Maria Antonia

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) has been implicated in urinary tract infections but the microbiological characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of these strains are poorly investigated. In this study, 87 isolates recovered from urine samples of patients who had attended the Spedali Civili of Brescia (Italy) and had single organism GBS cultured were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular characterization of macrolide and levofloxacin resistance, PCR-based capsular typing and analysis of surface protein genes. By automated broth microdilution method, all isolates were susceptible to penicillin, cefuroxime, cefaclor, and ceftriaxone; 80%, 19.5% and 3.4% of isolates were non-susceptible to tetracycline, erythromycin, and levofloxacin, respectively. Macrolide resistance determinants were iMLS(B) (n=1), cMLS(B) (n=10) and M (n=5), associated with ermTR, ermB and mefA/E. Levofloxacin resistance was linked to mutations in gyrA and parC genes. Predominant capsular types were III, Ia, V, Ib and IX. Type III was associated with tetracycline resistance, while type Ib was associated with levofloxacin resistance. Different capsular type-surface protein gene combinations (serotype V-alp2, 3; serotype III-rib; serotype Ia-epsilon) were detected. A variety of capsular types are involved in significant bacteriuria. The emergence of multidrug resistant GBS may become a significant public health concern and highlights the importance of careful surveillance to prevent the emergence of these virulent GBS.

  16. Phosphoglycerate kinase enhanced immunity of the whole cell of Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Huang, Hsing-Yen; Tsai, Ming-An; Wang, Pei-Chi; Jiang, Bo-Huang; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a Gram-positive bacterium and a severe aquaculture pathogen that can infect a wide range of warmwater fish species. The outer-surface proteins in bacterial pathogens play an important role in pathogenesis. We evaluated the immunogenicity of two of the identified surface proteins namely phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and ornithine carbamoyl-transferase (OCT). PGK and OCT were over-expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and used as the subunit vaccines in tilapia. Tilapia immunized with the S. agalactiae modified bacteria vaccine (whole cell preparations with recombinant PGK and OCT proteins) individually were tested for the efficacy. OCT and PGK combined with WC had a higher survival rate. A high-level protection and significant specific antibody responses against S. agalactiae challenge was observed upon the vaccinated tilapia with the purified PGK protein and S. agalactiae whole cells. The specific antibody titer against S. agalactiae antigen suggested that increased antibody titers were correlated with post-challenge survival rate. Il-1β expression profile was higher in PGK + WC-treated group. Tnf-α expression in the PGK + WC group was significantly increased. Taken together, our results suggested the combinations of recombinant protein and whole cell may elicit immune responses that reach greater protection than that of individual S. agalactiae components.

  17. Functional analysis of the CpsA protein of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Brett R; Runft, Donna L; Streeter, Cale; Kumar, Abhin; Carion, Thomas W; Neely, Melody N

    2012-04-01

    Streptococcal pathogens, such as the group B streptococcus (GBS) Streptococcus agalactiae, are an important cause of systemic disease, which is facilitated in part by the presence of a polysaccharide capsule. The CpsA protein is a putative transcriptional regulator of the capsule locus, but its exact contribution to regulation is unknown. To address the role of CpsA in regulation, full-length GBS CpsA and two truncated forms of the protein were purified and analyzed for DNA-binding ability. Assays demonstrated that CpsA is able to bind specifically to two putative promoters within the capsule operon with similar affinity, and full-length protein is required for specificity. Functional characterization of CpsA confirmed that the ΔcpsA strain produced less capsule than did the wild type and demonstrated that the production of full-length CpsA or the DNA-binding region of CpsA resulted in increased capsule levels. In contrast, the production of a truncated form of CpsA lacking the extracellular LytR domain (CpsA-245) in the wild-type background resulted in a dominant-negative decrease in capsule production. GBS expressing CpsA-245, but not the ΔcpsA strain, was attenuated in human whole blood. However, the ΔcpsA strain showed significant attenuation in a zebrafish infection model. Furthermore, chain length was observed to be variable in a CpsA-dependent manner, but could be restored to wild-type levels when grown with lysozyme. Taken together, these results suggest that CpsA is a modular protein influencing multiple regulatory functions that may include not only capsule synthesis but also cell wall associated factors.

  18. Streptococcus agalactiae em gestantes: prevalência de colonização e avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women: prevalence of colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Lermontov Borger

    2005-10-01

    32nd and 41st week of gestation, regardless of risk factors, attended at the antenatal clinic between February 2003 and February 2004, were evaluated. The vaginal/anal material, collected by the same swab, was inoculated in Todd-Hewitt broth to which nalidixic acid (15 µg/mL and gentamicin (8 µg/mL were added, with following subcultures onto sheep blood-agar. Identification was carried out observing colony morphology and beta-hemolysis type on blood-agar, catalase, cAMP, and serological tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing used agar diffusion and agar dilution methods. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi2 test with the level of significance set at p0.05. All 32 isolated strains were susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, vancomycin and meropenem. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was detected in 9.4 and 6.2% of the isolates, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: the relatively high incidence (19.2% of colonization by S. agalactiae among the evaluated pregnant women and the recovery of antimicrobial resistant strains, especially those recommended in cases of penicillin allergy, emphasize the importance, for a correct prevention of neonatal infections, of detecting colonization at the end of pregnancy and evaluating antimicrobial susceptibility.

  19. Structural Differences between the Streptococcus agalactiae Housekeeping and Pilus-Specific Sortases: SrtA and SrtC1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, B.; Krishnan, V.; Rajashankar, K.R.; I-Hsiu, H.; Xin, M.; Ton-That, H.; Narayana, S.V. (Texas-HSC); (Cornell); (UAB)

    2011-10-21

    The assembly of pili on the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria requires transpeptidase enzymes called sortases. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the PI-1 pilus island of strain 2603V/R encodes two pilus-specific sortases (SrtC1 and SrtC2) and three pilins (GBS80, GBS52 and GBS104). Although either pilus-specific sortase is sufficient for the polymerization of the major pilin, GBS80, incorporation of the minor pilins GBS52 and GBS104 into the pilus structure requires SrtC1 and SrtC2, respectively. The S. agalactiae housekeeping sortase, SrtA, whose gene is present at a different location and does not catalyze pilus polymerization, was shown to be involved in cell wall anchoring of pilus polymers. To understand the structural basis of sortases involved in such diverse functions, we determined the crystal structures of S. agalactiae SrtC1 and SrtA. Both enzymes are made of an eight-stranded beta-barrel core with variations in their active site architecture. SrtA exhibits a catalytic triad arrangement similar to that in Streptococcus pyogenes SrtA but different from that in Staphylococcus aureus SrtA. In contrast, the SrtC1 enzyme contains an N-terminal helical domain and a 'lid' in its putative active site, which is similar to that seen in Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus-specific sortases, although with subtle differences in positioning and composition. To understand the effect of such differences on substrate recognition, we have also determined the crystal structure of a SrtC1 mutant, in which the conserved DP(W/F/Y) motif was replaced with the sorting signal motif of GBS80, IPNTG. By comparing the structures of WT wild type SrtA and SrtC1 and the 'lid' mutant of SrtC1, we propose that structural elements within the active site and the lid may be important for defining the role of specific sortase in pili biogenesis.

  20. Streptococcus agalactiae capsule polymer length and attachment is determined by the proteins CpsABCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Chiara; Balducci, Evita; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Proietti, Daniela; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Grandi, Guido; Berti, Francesco; Ros, Immaculada Margarit Y; Janulczyk, Robert

    2015-04-10

    The production of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) or secreted exopolysaccharides is ubiquitous in bacteria, and the Wzy pathway constitutes a prototypical mechanism to produce these structures. Despite the differences in polysaccharide composition among species, a group of proteins involved in this pathway is well conserved. Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) produces a CPS that represents the main virulence factor of the bacterium and is a prime target in current vaccine development. We used this human pathogen to investigate the roles and potential interdependencies of the conserved proteins CpsABCD encoded in the cps operon, by developing knock-out and functional mutant strains. The mutant strains were examined for CPS quantity, size, and attachment to the cell surface as well as CpsD phosphorylation. We observed that CpsB, -C, and -D compose a phosphoregulatory system where the CpsD autokinase phosphorylates its C-terminal tyrosines in a CpsC-dependent manner. These Tyr residues are also the target of the cognate CpsB phosphatase. An interaction between CpsD and CpsC was observed, and the phosphorylation state of CpsD influenced the subsequent action of CpsC. The CpsC extracellular domain appeared necessary for the production of high molecular weight polysaccharides by influencing CpsA-mediated attachment of the CPS to the bacterial cell surface. In conclusion, although having no impact on cps transcription or the synthesis of the basal repeating unit, we suggest that these proteins are fine-tuning the last steps of CPS biosynthesis (i.e. the balance between polymerization and attachment to the cell wall).

  1. 罗非鱼无乳链球菌LAMP快速检测方法的建立%Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from Tilapia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑磊; 樊海平; 吴斌; 曾占壮; 钟全福; 张新艳

    2015-01-01

    针对无乳链球菌高度保守的表面免疫相关蛋白基因,采用环介导等温扩增技术( LAMP),设计4条特异性引物,优化反应体系,建立罗非鱼无乳链球菌快速诊断方法。研究结果表明, LAMP方法检测灵敏度达到30 CFU· mL-1,且对2株罗非鱼源无乳链球菌均能扩增出特异性片段,而对14株非无乳链球菌均未扩增出相应片段。建立的LAMP检测方法具有高度的特异性和灵敏性,反应在1 h内完成,为罗非鱼无乳链球菌病的快速诊断提供了一种重要的技术手段。%To develop a technique for rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from Tilapia, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification( LAMP) was introduced to amplify the surface immunogenic protein ( SIP) gene.The detection method was established by using optimum reaction system with four specif-ic primers of the target gene.The results showed that the method had perfect specificity, and the sen-sitivity was 30 CFU · mL-1 , as the DNA of 2 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were able to be amplified, while the other 14 strains of non -Streptococcus agalactiae were not.The amplification process can be finished in 1 hour.The method provides a better choice for rapid detection of Strepto-coccus agalactiae.

  2. Port and Harbor Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T; Guthmuller, H; DeWeert, M

    2004-12-15

    Port and Harbor Security is a daunting task to which optics and photonics offers significant solutions. We are pleased to report that the 2005 Defense and Security Symposium (DSS, Orlando, FL) will include reports on active and passive photonic systems operating from both airborne and subsurface platforms. In addition to imaging techniques, there are various photonic applications, such as total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), which can be used to ''sniff'' for traces of explosives or contaminants in marine. These non-imaging technologies are beyond the scope of this article, but will also be represented at DSS 2005. We encourage colleagues to join our technical group to help us to make our ports and harbors safer and more secure.

  3. Diversity of prophage DNA regions of Streptococcus agalactiae clonal lineages from adults and neonates with invasive infectious disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Salloum

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic position and prophage DNA content of the genomes of 142 S. agalactiae (group-B streptococcus, GBS isolates responsible for bacteremia and meningitis in adults and neonates were studied and compared. The distribution of the invasive isolates between the various serotypes, sequence types (STs and clonal complexes (CCs differed significantly between adult and neonatal isolates. Use of the neighbor-net algorithm with the PHI test revealed evidence for recombination in the population studied (PHI, P = 2.01 × 10(-6, and the recombination-mutation ratio (R/M was 6:7. Nevertheless, the estimated R/M ratio differed between CCs. Analysis of the prophage DNA regions of the genomes of the isolates assigned 90% of the isolates to five major prophage DNA groups: A to E. The mean number of prophage DNA fragments amplified per isolate varied from 2.6 for the isolates of prophage DNA group E to 4.0 for the isolates of prophage DNA group C. The isolates from adults and neonates with invasive diseases were distributed differently between the various prophage DNA groups (P < 0.00001. Group C prophage DNA fragments were found in 52% of adult invasive isolates, whereas 74% of neonatal invasive isolates had prophage DNA fragments of groups A and B. Differences in prophage DNA content were also found between serotypes, STs and CCs (P < 0.00001. All the ST-1 and CC1 isolates, mostly of serotype V, belonged to the prophage DNA group C, whereas 84% of the ST-17 and CC17 isolates, all of serotype III, belonged to prophage DNA groups A and B. These data indicate that the transduction mechanisms, i.e., gene transfer from one bacterium to another by a bacteriophage, underlying genetic recombination in S. agalactiae species, are specific to each intraspecies lineage and population of strains responsible for invasive diseases in adults and neonates.

  4. Non-infectivity of Cattle Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is classified as a Lancefield’s group B Streptococcus (GBS). It is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis that is responsible for severe economic losses in wild and cultured fish, worldwide. Streptococcus agalactiae also causes bovine mastitis. Only limited comparativ...

  5. Infecção congênita em cabritos por Mycoplasma agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to report three cases of contagious agalactia (CA by Mycoplasma agalactiae in goat kids born with polyarthritis. The nanny goats belonging to two different herds presented clinical signs of CA during pregnancy and in parturition they were apparently healthy. The carpal articulations of the three goat kids, the tarsus articulation in one, and thigh-femoral articulation in another showed swelling, pain and impairment of the flexion-extension movements. The articular liquid was collected from two goat kids at birth and revealed a content which varied from transparent to fibrinopurulent, presenting a yellow coloring. The samples were plated on modified Hayflick. The colonies had the appearance of "fried egg" and were confirmed as being M. agalactiae by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA PCR. Blood was collected from three animals soon after birth and submitted to the indirect ELISA test for the determination of the titration of the anti- M. agalactiae antibodies. The results confirmed that the goat kids were infected during pregnancy by M. agalactiae and resulted in the birth of an offspring with clinical signs of CA being immune tolerant.

  6. TOKSISITAS PROTEIN 89 kDa PRODUK EKSTRASELULER Streptococcus agalactiae PADA IKAN NILA (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrullah Amrullah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifikasi protein toksin yang bersifat antigenik dari produk ekstraselular (ECP crude Streptococcus agalactiae penting dilakukan untuk pengembangan vaksin protein toksoid. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi toksisitas protein dengan berat molekul 89 kDa dari ECP Streptococcus agalactiae hasil fraksinasi dengan SDS-PAGE (ECPP89. Ikan nila dengan bobot sekitar 25 g masing-masing diinjeksi secara intraperitonial dengan protein ECPP89 dosis 1, 2, 4, 8, dan 16 μg/mL/ekor ikan (secara berturut-turut diberi kode ECPP89-1, ECPP89-2, ECPP89-4, ECPP89-8, dan ECPP89-16. Sebagai kontrol positif ikan diinjeksi dengan bakteri utuh S. agalactiae 1 x 104 cfu/mL (WCB dan ECP crude S. agalactiae (ECPC, sementara kontrol negatif ikan diinjeksi larutan PBS. Ikan dipelihara selama 15 hari dengan kepadatan 10 ekor (70 L air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan nila yang diinjeksi dengan ECPP89 mengalami gejala seperti perubahan morfologi, perubahan nafsu makan, dan perubahan renang ikan. Mortalitas pada perlakuan ECPP89 secara umum lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan ECPC, namun lebih rendah (p<0,05 dibandingkan dengan WCB. Mortalitas ikan pada perlakuan ECPP89-4, ECPP89-8, dan ECPP89-16 tidak berbeda tetapi secara signifikan lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan ECPC dan dua dosis perlakuan ECPP89 lainnya (p<0,05. Ikan kontrol negatif tidak mengalami kematian maupun perubahan klinis. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa ECPP89 merupakan protein toksin dari ECP S. agalactiae.

  7. Associations between capsular serotype, multilocus sequence type, and macrolide resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from Japanese infants with invasive infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, M; Wajima, T; Kuwata, Y; Chiba, N; Sunaoshi, K; Sugita, K; Sakata, H; Iwata, S; Ubukata, K

    2014-04-01

    SUMMARY Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) isolates (n = 150) from infants with invasive infections between 2006 and 2011 were analysed for capsular serotype, multilocus sequence type, and antibiotic susceptibility. In cases with late-onset disease (n = 115), primary meningitis was predominant (62.6%), but represented only 39.1% in cases with early-onset disease (n = 23). The most common serotype was III (58.7%), followed by Ia (21.3%) and Ib (12.7%). Sequence types (STs) of serotype III strains included ST17 (50.0%), ST19 (26.1%), ST335 (18.2%), ST27 (4.5%), and ST1 (1.1%). Predominant STs of serotypes Ia and Ib were ST23 (81.3%) and ST10 (84.2%), respectively. No penicillin-resistant strains were detected, but 22·0% of strains had mef(A/E), erm(A), or erm(B) genes, which mediate macrolide resistance. A new ST335, possessing an mef(A/E) gene belonging to clonal complex 19 gradually increased in frequency. Improved prevention of invasive GBS infections in infants requires timely identification, and ultimately vaccine development.

  8. [Culture media for the detection and the identification of Streptococcus agalactiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, M; Pérez, M; Carazo, C; Pareja, L; Orts, A; Cantudo, P

    1994-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, a Group B streptococcus, is the main cause of bacterial perinatal infection and is also an important opportunistic pathogen. Detection and identification of S. agalactiae are straight forward with special culture media, where Group B streptococci show a specific, typical pink or red pigment. To quickly and easily detect the pigment, culture media should contain: (i) starch; (ii) an inhibitor of the folate pathway; (iii) animal serum; (iv) a pepsic proteic hydrolysate; and (v) glucose, together with a high-capacity buffer. When selective antibiotics are added to culture media designed in this way, it is possible to detect S. agalactiae directly from clinical samples by observation of its pigment after less than 12 hours of aerobic incubation.

  9. Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis presenting as acalculous cholecystitis in a previously well woman.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brewer, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the unusual presentation of a previously very well woman with Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis in the emergency department. History, examination and preliminary laboratory and radiological investigations supported a diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis, for which she was given intravenous broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy. One day following admission, the patient deteriorated and became unresponsive. Subsequent MRI of the brain revealed multiple bihemispheric cerebral emboli and a large, mobile mitral valve thrombus was visualised on her transoesophageal echocardiogram. S agalactiae was cultured from venous blood samples and her antimicrobial cover was adjusted accordingly. Despite her presumed guarded prognosis, this patient made a remarkable recovery. To our knowledge, the association of S agalactiae endocarditis with acalculous cholecystitis has not been previously described.

  10. Experimental early pathogenesis of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in red tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iregui, C A; Comas, J; Vásquez, G M; Verján, N

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes a severe systemic disease in fish, and the routes of entry are still ill-defined. To address this issue, two groups of 33 red tilapia Oreochromis spp. each of 10 g were orally infected with S. agalactiae (n = 30), and by immersion (n = 30), six individuals were control-uninfected fish. Three tilapias were killed at each time point from 30 min to 96 h post-inoculation (pi); controls were killed at 96 h. Samples from most tissues were examined by haematoxylin-eosin (H&E), indirect immunoperoxidase (IPI) and periodic acid-Schiff; only intestine from fish infected by gavage was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The results of both experiments suggest that the main entry site of S. agalactiae in tilapia is the gastrointestinal epithelium; mucus seems to play an important defensive role, and environmental conditions may be an important predisposing factor for the infection.

  11. Acute Neonatal Parotitis with Late-Onset Septic Shock due to Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boulyana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute neonatal parotitis (ANP is a very rare disease. Most cases are managed conservatively; early antibiotics and adequate hydration may reduce the need for surgery. The most common cause of ANP is Staphylococcus aureus. We report a rare case of acute neonatal parotitis with late-onset septic shock due to Streptococcus agalactiae. The diagnosis was confirmed with ultrasound and isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae from blood culture. The patient was treated successfully with 10 days of intravenous antibiotics and supportive measures. Despite being rare, streptococcal ANP should be considered in the etiological diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic might prevent serious complications.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Combretum molle (Combretaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from crossbred dairy cows with clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Fekadu; Araya, Mengistu

    2012-08-01

    Following the rapidly expanding dairy enterprise, mastitis has remained the most economically damaging disease. The objective of this study was mainly to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts of Combretum molle (R.Br.Ex.G.Don) Engl & Diels (Combretaceae) against antibiotic-resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis using agar disc diffusion method. The leaf and bark extracts showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus at concentrations of 3 mg/ml while the stem and seed extract did not show any bioactivity. Although both leaf and bark extracts were handled in the same manner, the antibacterial activity of the bark extract against the bacterial strains had declined gradually to a lower level as time advanced after extraction. The leaf extract had sustained bioactivity for longer duration. The susceptibility of the bacteria to the leaf extract is not obviously different between S. aureus and S. agalactiae. Also, there was no difference in susceptibility to the leaf extract between the antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-sensitive bacteria. Further phytochemical and in vivo efficacy and safety studies are required to evaluate the therapeutic value of the plant against bovine mastitis.

  13. 罗非鱼组织内无乳链球菌实时荧光定量 PCR 检测方法建立%Real-time quantitative PCR for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from tilaPia tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞; 李莉萍; 黄婷; 梁万文; 梁聪; 雷爱莹; 陈明

    2015-01-01

    为建立一种罗非鱼组织内无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)的定量检测方法,以无乳链球菌 cfb 基因为靶标建立了 TaqMan 荧光探针实时定量 PCR 方法,并对该方法的特异性、敏感性及实用性进行了验证。应用建立的方法检测无乳链球菌标准菌株和阳性菌株均为阳性,阴性对照菌株均为阴性;无乳链球菌基因组 DNA 最低检测质量浓度为3.42×10-7 ng·μL -1,每个反应体系检测下限低于10个细胞;人工感染罗非鱼肝、脾、中肠和肾组织样品无乳链球菌检测结果均为阳性,组织样品每微克 DNA 可检测到无乳链球菌细胞数量分别为2.95×103个、2.45×107个、2.34×103个和4.54×104个,对照组为阴性。结果表明建立的罗非鱼组织内无乳链球菌实时荧光定量 PCR 检测方法具有准确性高、特异性和敏感性强等特点,可对罗非鱼组织内无乳链球菌进行快速定量检测,可用于罗非鱼无乳链球菌病的监测与预防。%By designing primers and probe based on the conserved region of cfb gene of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from tilapia, we developed a real-time fluorescent PCR assay for detection of S. agalactiae from tilapia tissue and verified the specificity,sensitivity and practicability of the assay. The standard and positive strains of S. agalactiae were positive,and all negative controls were negative. The minimum detectable concentration of S. agalactiae genome DNA was 3. 42 × 10 - 7 ng·μL - 1 ,and the detection limit of the assay was less than 10 cells per reaction system. The genome DNA samples of midgut,liver,spleen and kidney which were collected from tilapia artificially infected with S. agalactiae were tested by real-time PCR and were positive. The quantities of S. agalactiae detected in per μg DNA of tissue samples were 2. 95 × 103 cells,2. 45 × 107 cells,2. 34 × 103 cells and 4. 54 × 104 cells,respectively,and the controls were negative

  14. Complete Sequence of a Novel IncR-F33:A–:B– Plasmid, pKP1034, Harboring fosA3, blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-65, blaSHV-12, and rmtB from an Epidemic Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 11 Strain in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dai-Rong; Li, Jun-Jie; Sheng, Zi-Ke; Yu, Hai-Ying; Deng, Mei; Bi, Sheng; Hu, Fei-Shu; Chen, Wei; Xue, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Bo; Doi, Yohei; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    A high fosfomycin resistance rate was observed in Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) in our previous study, but little is known about its mechanisms. In this study, we explored the prevalence of plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance determinants among fosfomycin-resistant KPC-KP strains from a Chinese university hospital and determined the complete sequence of a novel fosA3-carrying plasmid isolated from an epidemic K. pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 strain. A total of 97 KPC-KP strains were studied, of which 57 (58.8%) were resistant to fosfomycin, including 44 (45.4%) harboring fosA3 and 1 harboring fosA. All fosA3-positive strains belonged to the dominant ST11-pulse type (PT) A clone according to multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, suggesting clonal dissemination. The fosA-positive isolate belonged to ST11-PTE. The fosA3-carrying plasmid pKP1034 is 136,848 bp in length and is not self-transmissible. It is a multireplicon plasmid belonging to IncR-F33:A−: B−. Besides fosA3, a variety of other resistance determinants, including blaKPC-2, rmtB, blaCTX-M-65, and blaSHV-12, are identified in pKP1034, which would allow for coselection of fosA3 by most β-lactams and/or aminoglycosides and facilitate its dissemination despite limited use of fosfomycin in China. Detailed comparisons with related plasmids revealed that pKP1034 is highly mosaic and might have evolved from alarming recombination of the blaKPC-2-carrying plasmid pKPC-LK30 from Taiwan and the epidemic fosA3-carrying plasmid pHN7A8 from mainland China. PMID:26666939

  15. 牛源性无乳链球菌血清型分布及抗生素耐药性研究%Serotype Distribution of Bovine Streptococcus agalactiae and its Drug Resistance to Antibiotics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏胜; 郁杰; 罗金印; 李新圃; 徐继英; 王旭荣; 张礼华

    2012-01-01

    本研究旨在查明牛源性无乳链球菌血清型分布及对常见抗生素的耐药情况,指导临床合理用药.对从中国部分地区奶牛场采集的临床型乳房炎病牛乳中分离鉴定出78株无乳链球菌地方菌株,制备沉淀反应抗原及6株标准血清型无乳链球菌单因子血清抗体,采用环状沉淀试验,对78株无乳链球菌地方菌株进行了血清学分型鉴定;同时采用K-B纸片法测定了这些菌株对抗生素的耐药情况.结果表明,引起奶牛乳房炎的无乳链球菌血清型主要为X型(60.26%),其次为Ⅲ型(10.26%)、R型(7.69%)、Ⅱ型(7.69%)和Ⅰb型(5.13%),Ⅰ a型尚未发现.无乳链球菌对目前临床上使用的大部分抗生素,如头孢唑啉、头孢噻肟、丁胺卡那霉素、卡那霉素、庆大霉素、四环素、强力霉素、氟苯尼考、多黏菌素B、环丙沙星、氟哌酸和头孢他啶/棒酸均较敏感;但对氨苄青霉素、链霉素、恩诺沙星、阿莫西林/棒酸和复方新诺明,有一定的耐药性,其耐药率达50%~100%.本研究对进一步研制有效的药物及疫苗,指导临床合理用药具有重要的意义.%To identify serotype distribution of bovine Streptococcus agalactiae and its drug resistance to common antibiotics, so that the correct antibiotics was applied during clinical therapy, 78 local strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were isolated from milk samples of dairy cow with clinical mastitis throughout the country. We prepared antigens for precipitation reaction and hyperimmune serum antibodies of 6 standard serotype Streptococcus agalactiae strains, then 78 local strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were identified by ring precipitation test and antibiotic resistance were analyzed. In China, the predominant serotype of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine mastitis were X-type (60. 26%), Ⅲ-type (10. 26%), R-type (7.69%), Ⅱ -type (7.69%) and I b-type (5. 13%) respectively. However, I a-type was not

  16. Poliartritis y tenosinovitis grave por Streptococcus agalactiae en un paciente con hipoesplenia funcional Severe polyarthritis and tenosynovitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a patient with functional hyposplenia

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo C. Balderramo; Ana M. Bertoli; Miguel A. PaganiniI; Abel Zárate; Zlocowski, Juan C.; Alejandro Alvarellos; Francisco Caeiro; Caeiro, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    La artritis por Streptococcus agalactiae es infrecuente. No conocemos publicaciones de casos sobre la afección tendinosa por este microorganismo. Se presenta una mujer de 46 años que consultó por fiebre, poliartralgias, mialgias, diarrea y vómitos. Como antecedentes presentaba carcinoma papilar de tiroides e hipoesplenia funcional. Al examen se encontraba hemodinámicamente inestable, febril, con artritis de mano izquierda, muñecas, codos, hombro derecho y tobillo izquierdo. Presentaba tenosin...

  17. Prey capture by harbor porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Lee; Verfuss, Ursula

    2009-01-01

      The harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is a small toothed whale living mostly in coastal waters.  There are large, but unknown, numbers in the inner Danish waters. Four are in captivity at Fjord & Bælt, Kerteminde, Denmark, one of which was born here in 2006. Harbor porpoises use their ultraso...

  18. Analysis of Streptococcus agalactiae pan-genome for prevalence, diversity and functionality of integrative and conjugative or mobilizable elements integrated in the tRNA(Lys CTT) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puymège, Aurore; Bertin, Stéphane; Guédon, Gérard; Payot, Sophie

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the first cause of invasive infections in human neonates and is also a major bovine and fish pathogen. High genomic diversity was observed in this species that hosts numerous mobile genetic elements, in particular elements transferable by conjugation. This works aims to evaluate the contribution of these elements to GBS genome diversity. Focusing on genomic islands integrated in the tRNA(Lys) (CTT) gene, a known hotspot of recombination, an extensive in silico search was performed on the sequenced genome of 303 strains of S. agalactiae isolated from different hosts. In all the isolates (except 9), whatever their origin (human, bovine, camel, dog, gray seal, dolphin, fish species or bullfrog), this locus carries highly diverse genomic islands transferable by conjugation such as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), integrative and mobilizable elements (IMEs), CIs-mobilizable elements (CIMEs) or composite elements. Transfer of an ICE from an ST67 bovine strain to a phylogenetically distant ST23 human isolate was obtained experimentally indicating that there was no barrier to ICE transfer between strains from different hosts. Interestingly, a novel family of putative IMEs that site-specifically integrate in the nic site of oriT of ICEs belonging to Tn916/ICESt3 superfamily was detected in silico. These elements carry an antibiotic resistance gene (lsa(C)) already described to confer cross-resistance to lincosamides, streptogramins A and pleuromutilins. Further work is needed to evaluate the impact of these IMEs on the transfer of targeted ICEs and the mobility and the dissemination of these IMEs.

  19. Serology based immunological crossreactivity among various isolates of streptococcus agalactiae from mastitic buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hussain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To measure the degree of immunological cross-reactivity among different isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae from mastitic cases of buffaloes and cows in four districts (Faisalabad, Jhang, Toba Tek Singh and Sargodha, two tests were used. The isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae obtained from mastitic animals from these districts were purified on Edward’s medium. Hyper immune sera were raised by injecting 1.2 x 109 cfu/ml I/V of the isolates separately into rabbits. The sera thus raised were tested for in vitro immunological cross-reactivity through counter immuno-electrophoresis and bacterial agglutination test. Eight Streptococcus agalactiae isolates were selected and named A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H. In the bacterial agglutination test, all variants were similar antigenically and showed positive reactions, but a few reactions were negative, so the cross-reactivity among the variants was (93.75 % with respect to the positive reactions. The percentage of negative reactions was (6.25 %. The cross-reactivity among the Str. agalactiae isolates was 98.43% by modified counter immuno-electrophoresis assay.

  20. Efficacy of an experimentally inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia aquaculture is one of the fastest growing segments of fish production in Brazil. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is largely cultivated in the state of Parana, where Streptococcus agalactiae is the cause of severe disease outbreaks. The objective of this paper was to evaluate an inactiva...

  1. A comparative investigation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from fish and cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis and causes severe economic losses in wild and cultured fish and cattle, worldwide. In fish, infection can result in septicemia with hemorrhages on the body surface and in the external and internal organs. Streptococcus agalacti...

  2. Serine-Rich Repeat Proteins and Pili Promote Streptococcus agalactiae Colonization of the Vaginal Tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheen, Tamsin R.; Jimenez, Alyssa; Wang, Nai-Yu; Banerjee, Anirban; van Sorge, Nina M.; Doran, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium found in the female rectovaginal tract and is capable of producing severe disease in susceptible hosts, including newborns and pregnant women. The vaginal tract is considered a major reservoir for GBS, and maternal v

  3. Genomic Diversity of Streptoccocus agalactiae Isolates from Multiple Hosts and Their Infectivity in Nile Tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), has a broad host range and can be pathogenic to numerous animals, including fish. GBS is most recognized for causing cattle mastitis and human neonatal meningitis, it also causes fatal meningo-encephalitis in fish. We investigat...

  4. Physiological impact of transposable elements encoding DDE transposases in the environmental adaptation of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fléchard, Maud; Gilot, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    We have referenced and described Streptococcus agalactiae transposable elements encoding DDE transposases. These elements belonged to nine families of insertion sequences (ISs) and to a family of conjugative transposons (TnGBSs). An overview of the physiological impact of the insertion of all these elements is provided. DDE-transposable elements affect S. agalactiae in a number of aspects of its capability to adapt to various environments and modulate the expression of several virulence genes, the scpB-lmB genomic region and the genes involved in capsule expression and haemolysin transport being the targets of several different mobile elements. The referenced mobile elements modify S. agalactiae behaviour by transferring new gene(s) to its genome, by modifying the expression of neighbouring genes at the integration site or by promoting genomic rearrangements. Transposition of some of these elements occurs in vivo, suggesting that by dynamically regulating some adaptation and/or virulence genes, they improve the ability of S. agalactiae to reach different niches within its host and ensure the 'success' of the infectious process.

  5. Spring forward with improved Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus resistant to Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia aquaculture worldwide is valued around US $ 7 billion. Tilapia are an important source of protein for domestic (top 5 most consumed seafoods) and global food security. Two gram postitive bacteria, Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae, are responsible for billion dollar losses annually. Gen...

  6. Orange County Littoral Cell CRSMP Harbor Receiver Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Harbor reciever sites from Everest (2009) 'Harbor Area Management Plan, In-Harbor Beach Replenishment Strategy', Technical Report. Prepared for Harbor Resources...

  7. Molecular detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine raw milk samples obtained directly from bulk tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Acácia Orieth; Cortez, Adriana; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Helio

    2012-08-01

    Mastitis is the most common infectious disease affecting dairy cattle; in addition, it remains the most economically important disease of dairy industries around the world. Streptococcus agalactiae, a contagious pathogen associated with subclinical mastitis, is highly infectious. This bacterium can cause an increase in bulk tank bacterial counts (BTBC) and bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC). The microbiological identification of S. agalactiae in samples from bulk tanks is an auxiliary method to control contagious mastitis. Thus, there are some limitations for time-consuming cultures or identification methods and additional concerns about the conservation and transport of samples. Bulk tank samples from 247 dairy farms were cultured and compared through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), directed to 16S rRNA genes of S. agalactiae, followed by BTBC and S. agalactiae isolation. The mean value of BTBC was 1.08×10(6) CFU mL(-1) and the bacterium was identified through the microbiological method in 98 (39.7%; CI(95%)=33.8-45.9%) and through PCR in 110 (44.5%; CI(95%)=38.5-50.8%) samples. Results indicated sensitivity of 0.8571±0.0353 (CI(95%)=0.7719-0.9196) and specificity of 0.8255±0.0311 (CI(95%)=0.7549-0.8827). The lack of significant difference between microbiological and molecular results (κ=0.6686±0.0477 and CI(95%)=0.5752-0.7620) indicated substantial agreement between the methods. This suggests that PCR can be used for bulk tank samples to detect contagious mastitis caused by S. agalactiae.

  8. Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae: a case of S. agalactiae infection in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chutima Tantikitti; Naraid Suanyuk; Akkarawit Itsaro

    2012-01-01

    A multiplex PCR (m-PCR) technique was developed for simultaneous detection of the causative agents responsible forstreptococcosis of cultured fish in Thailand i.e., Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus garvieae.The study on the sensitivity of the technique indicated that the minimum detected DNA concentration was 9.76, 39.06, and19.53 pg for S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieae, respectively. Detection of streptococcosis in healthy and diseased Niletilapia (Oreoch...

  9. Differential pathogenicity of five Streptococcus agalactiae isolates of diverse geographic origin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish and has caused significant morbidity amd mortality worldwide. The work in this study assessed whether pathogenic differences exist among isolates from different geographic locations. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were administered an...

  10. Záchyt Streptococcus agalactiae u těhotných žen a novorozenců

    OpenAIRE

    HÁLOVÁ, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    S. agalactiae are common commensals of the nasopharynx, vagina and gastrointestinal tract. Now digestive tract is considered a very likely source of vaginal colonization. Colonization by the bacteria is in many cases asymptomatic. S. agalactiae causes a variety of infections in neonates and is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Transmission takes place vertically from colonized mother to fetus. A potential source of GBS infections may also be mother's milk. This type of tran...

  11. Sediment toxicity in Savannah Harbor

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Savannah Harbor, located near the mouth of the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina, is impacted by industrial and municipal effluents. Contaminants released...

  12. Alaska Harbor Seal Glacial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Floating glacial ice serves as a haul-out substrate for a significant number (10-15%) of Alaskan harbor seals, and thus surveying tidewater glacial fjords is an...

  13. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of IgD in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Response to Streptococcus agalactiae Stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Wang, Pei; Wu, Zao-He; Lu, Yi-Shan; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Jian, Ji-Chang

    2016-03-08

    IgD is considered to be a recently-evolved Ig and a puzzling molecule, being previously found in all vertebrate taxa, except for birds. Although IgD likely plays an important role in vertebrate immune responses, the function of IgD in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is virtually unknown. In the present study, a membrane form of IgD (mIgD) heavy chains were cloned from the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (designated On-mIgD). The On-mIgD heavy chain's cDNA is composed of 3347 bp with a 31 bp of 5'-UTR, 3015 bp open reading frame (ORF) and 301 bp 3'-UTR, encoding a polypeptide of 1004 amino acids (GenBank accession no: KF530821). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that On-mIgD heavy chains showed the highest similarity to Siniperca chuatsi. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that On-mIgD expression occurred predominately in head kidney, thymus, spleen, and kidney. After Streptococcus agalactiae infection, transcripts of On-mIgD increased and reached its peak at 48 h in the head kidney and thymus, and 72 h in the spleen, respectively. Taken together, these results collectively indicated that IgD could possibly have a key role to play in the immune response when bacterial infections in Nile tilapia.

  14. In vitro susceptibilities of caprine Mycoplasma agalactiae field isolates to six antimicrobial agents using the E test methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filioussis, George; Petridou, Evanthia; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Kritas, Spyridon K

    2014-12-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, spiramycin and erythromycin against 30 caprine Greek isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae were determined using E test methodology. The E test strips were placed on Eaton's agar medium without antimicrobials and phenol red. MICs were then read by determining where the growth inhibition zone intersected with the MIC scale on the strip. An MIC value of 8 µg/mL was considered as a guide to mycoplasma resistance. All isolates were sensitive to fluoroquinolones (MIC50, 0.19 g/mL; MIC90, 0.38 µg/mL; highest MIC, 0.5 µg/mL), spectinomycin (MIC50, 0.5 µg/mL; MIC90, 1 µg/mL; highest MIC, 1 µg/mL), and spiramycin (MIC50, 1 µg/mL; MIC90, 1.5 µg/mL; highest MIC, 2 µg/mL). Two strains exhibited resistance to tetracycline (MIC 32 µg/mL) but these were not found to carry any of the tet(M), tet(O), and tet(S) resistance genes. Finally all isolates expressed resistance to erythromycin (MIC50, 128 µg/mL; MIC90, >256 µg/mL).

  15. 2007 China Harbor Ten People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2007 China Harbor Ten People elected the entrepreneurs who contributed a lot to port economy and enterprises this year trough their talent management.These ten people embody their social responsibility,professional skills,creative ability,and charming personality.Bearing full confidence in China's port economy,the port entrepreneurs are brave enough to explore a brand new area,so as to promote harbor economic development.

  16. Isolation and Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae from Dairy Cow Mastitis in Qinghai Province%青海地区奶牛无乳链球菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨有武

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is one of pathogenic bacterium that inducing mastitis of dairy cow. In order to master the popularity and laid the reference for selection of medicine to treat mastitis, 258 samples were collected from 16 dairy cow farms in Qinghai province, and 137 Streptococcus strains were isolated,including Streptococcus agalactiae 42 strains after subculture, gram straining, plasma-coagulase test, CAMP test, biochemical tests and animal pathogenicity tests. The results indicated that Streptococcus agalactiae was the primary pathogenic bacteria of mastitis. All of Streptococcus agalactiaes were hypersensitive to cephradine, and partially resistant to amikacin ofloxacin, ampicillin and sulfanilamide group after K-B medicine sensitivity test.%无乳链球菌是导致奶牛乳房炎的常见病原菌之一,为了掌握青海地区无乳链球菌的流行情况及常用药物的敏感性,从而为本地区更好的预防与治疗奶牛乳房炎提供保障.本试验在青海地区16个奶牛场共采集258份乳房炎乳样,经革兰氏染色与绵羊鲜血琼脂培养基培养纯化,获得疑似链球菌137株;随后经玻片法血浆凝固酶试验、CAMP试验、生化试验与动物致病性试验对无乳链球菌进行鉴定,结果显示,137株链球菌中含有无乳链球菌42株,分离率为30.7%;经K-B纸片扩散法对无乳链球菌耐药性检测结果显示,该地区无乳链球菌主要对头孢类高度敏感,对氧氟沙星、磺胺类、氨苄青霉素与阿米卡星中度敏感.

  17. SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF Streptococcus agalactiae, A PATHOGEN CAUSING STREPTOCOCCOSIS IN TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen identification based on biochemical properties can barely differentiate Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae. Beside that, this technique is also limited by the length of time required to complete the assays. Therefore, rapid diagnosis is necessary to initiate prompt therapeutic and prophylactic measures in order to limit any potential economic losses caused by such pathogens. The aim of the present study was to identify Streptococcosis species using amplification of S. agalactiae DNA sequence with species-specific primer Sdi 61 AGGAAACCTGCCATTTGCG and Sdi 252 CAATCTATTTCTAGATCGTGG and perform phylogenetic analysis based on DNA nucleotide sequence data. The sequencing of PCR products was performed at BPPT Puspiptek Serpong by using the respective PCR primers, Big Dye Terminator Chemistry and AmpliTaq-FS DNA polymerase. The sequencing reactions were run on the ABI Prism version 3103 – Avant Genetic Analyzer (USA and the result was read by Sequence Navigator program (Applied Biosystem. Alignment multiple analysis was done based on the data from Genebank with BLASTN (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast.cgi on the nucleotide level. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were generated with Genetyx programme version 7 with UPGMA and MEGA software version 4.0. The result revealed that the isolates from brain, eye, and kidney of diseased Tilapia were infected by S. agalactiae and it has 99% similarity with Genebank. It has close relationship with S. agalactiae at genebank with UPGMA method. These isolates showed high variation in the first sequence which is similar to S. iniae. The information of S. agalactiae genomes suggests that gene acquisition, duplication, and reassortment have played an important role in genetic diversity and evolution of S. agalactiae. Screening of breeder fish stocks with the developed PCR methodology, followed by elimination of infected stocks, would provide an efficient strategy to control fish

  18. Transcriptomic response of goat mammary epithelial cells to Mycoplasma agalactiae challenge – a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogorevc, Jernej; Mihevc, Sonja Prpar; Hedegaard, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) is one of the main aetiological agents of intramammary infections in small ruminants, causing contagious agalactia. To better understand the underlying disease patterns a primary goat mammary epithelial cell (pgMEC) culture was established from the mammary tissue...... and challenged with Ma. High-throughput mRNA sequencing was performed to reveal differentially expressed genes (DEG) at different time-points (3 h, 12 h, and 24 h) post infection (PI). The pathway enrichment analysis of the DEG showed that infection significantly affected pathways associated with immune response...... of the complement system and apoptosis pathways, and expression of genes coding for antimicrobial molecules and peptides. In our study we attempted to interpret the detected transcriptomic changes in a biological context and infer mammary infection resistance candidate genes, interesting for further validation...

  19. The MCP-8 gene and its possible association with resistance to Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gui Hong; Wan, Zi Yi; Xia, Jun Hong; Liu, Feng; Liu, Xiao Jun; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-09-01

    Mast cell proteases play an important role in the regulation of the immune response. We identified the cDNA of the mast cell protease 8 (MCP-8) gene and analyzed its genomic structure in tilapia. The ORF of the MCP-8 was 768 bp, encoding 255 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the MCP-8 gene was expressed predominantly in spleen, moderately in liver, blood, brain, gill, intestine, skin, and weakly expressed in kidney, muscle and eye. After a challenge with Streptococcus agalactiae, the gene was induced significantly (p 0.05). These results suggest that the MCP-8 gene play an important role in the resistance to S. agalactiae in tilapia. The SNP markers in the MCP-8 gene associated with the resistance to the bacterial pathogen may facilitate selection of tilapia resistant to the bacterial disease.

  20. Use of a Serotype-Specific DNA Microarray for Identification of Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Linyan; Wang, Quan; Li, Yayue; Kong, Fanrong; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.; Cao, Boyang; Wang, Lei; Feng, Lu

    2006-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) is an important cause of sepsis and meningitis. Nine GBS serotypes, based on capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigens, have been described. Their distribution varies worldwide and needs to be monitored to understand the epidemiology of GBS disease and inform the development of vaccines. In this study, we sequenced cpsH of GBS serotype II (cpsHII) and compared it with that of the other eight serotypes to identify serotype-specific regions. We...

  1. Molecular cloning and bioinformatic analysis of the Streptococcus agalactiae neuA gene isolated from tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, E L; Wang, K Y; Chen, D F; Geng, Y; Huang, L Y; Wang, J; He, Y

    2015-06-01

    Cytidine monophosphate (CMP) N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc) synthetase, which is encoded by the neuA gene, can catalyze the activation of sialic acid with CMP, and plays an important role in Streptococcus agalactiae infection pathogenesis. To study the structure and function of the S. agalactiae neuA gene, we isolated it from diseased tilapia, amplified it using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers, and cloned it into a pMD19-T vector. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion, and identified by sequencing. Molecular characterization analyses of the neuA nucleotide amino acid sequence were performed using bioinformatic tools and an online server. The results showed that the neuA nucleotide sequence contained a complete coding region, which comprised 1242 bp, encoding 413 amino acids (aa). The aa sequence was highly conserved and contained a Glyco_tranf_GTA_type superfamily and an SGNH_hydrolase superfamily conserved domain, which are related to sialic acid activation catalysis. The NeuA protein possessed many important sites related to post-translational modification, including 28 potential phosphorylation sites and 2 potential N-glycosylation sites, had no signal peptides or transmembrane regions, and was predicted to reside in the cytoplasm. Moreover, the protein had some B-cell epitopes, which suggests its potential in development of a vaccine against S. agalactiae infection. The codon usage frequency of neuA differed greatly in Escherichia coli and Homo sapiens genes, and neuA may be more efficiently expressed in eukaryotes (yeast). S. agalactiae neuA from tilapia maintains high structural homology and sequence identity with CMP-NeuNAc synthetases from other bacteria.

  2. 孕妇泌尿生殖道无乳链球菌感染的耐药性分析%Drug resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae causing urogenital tract infections in pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐水清; 周俊; 王先利

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析孕妇泌尿生殖道无乳链球菌的耐药性,为临床感染的预防、合理用药提供参考依据。方法收集医院2009年2月-2013年11月门诊及住院3000例孕产妇的临床资料,培养鉴定阴道分泌物、宫腔内容物、中段尿以及羊水培养中的细菌,并对分离的无乳链球菌进行药敏试验,统计分析数据采用WHONET 5.5软件进行。结果分离出无乳链球菌281株占9.37%,其中阴道分泌物检出率居首位,阳性率为12.61%,羊水检出率最低,阳性率为0.93%;所有无乳链球菌对利奈唑胺、头孢唑林、万古霉素敏感率为100.00%;对头孢曲松、青霉素无耐药株,但有中介株,中介率分别为2.85%、1.78%;对红霉素、克林霉素、左氧氟沙星耐药率分别为60.50%、55.87%、47.69%。结论对孕妇泌尿生殖道进行无乳链球菌药敏试验,不仅能有效地预防该菌感染,还可以为临床提供治疗及指导依据,进一步预防其危害性。%OBJECTIVE To analyze the drug resistance of the Streptococcus agalactiae causing urogenital tract in‐fections in pregnant women so as to provide guidance for prevention of clinical infection and reasonable use of anti‐biotics .METHODS The clinical data were collected from 3 000 pregnant women who were treated in the outpatient department or hospitalized from Feb 2009 to Nov 2013 .The vaginal secretions ,uterine cavity contents ,midstream urine ,and amniotic fluid were cultured for bacteria ,the drug susceptibility testing of the isolated S . agalactiae strains was carried out ,and the statistical analysis of data was performed with the use of WHONET 5 .5 software . RESULTS Totally 281 (9 .37% ) strains of S .agalactiae were isolated ,of which 12 .61% were isolated from the vaginal secretions and 0 .93% were isolated from the amniotic fluid .The drug susceptibility rates of all the S . agalactiae strains to linezolid

  3. Sheep primary cells as in vitro models to investigate Mycoplasma agalactiae host cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Shrilakshmi; Gabriel, Cordula; Kragl, Martin; Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini

    2015-10-01

    Appropriate infection models are imperative for the understanding of pathogens like mycoplasmas that are known for their strict host and tissue specificity, and lack of suitable cell and small animal models has hindered pathogenicity studies. This is particularly true for the economically important group of ruminant mycoplasmas whose virulence factors need to be elucidated for designing effective intervention strategies. Mycoplasma agalactiae serves as a useful role model especially because it is phylogenetically very close to M. bovis and causes similar symptoms by as yet unknown mechanisms. Here, we successfully prepared and characterized four different primary sheep cell lines, namely the epithelial and stromal cells from the mammary gland and uterus, respectively. Using immunohistochemistry, we identified vimentin and cytokeratin as specific markers to confirm the typical cell phenotypes of these primary cells. Furthermore, M. agalactiae's consistent adhesion and invasion into these primary cells proves the reliability of these cell models. Mimicking natural infections, mammary epithelial and stromal cells showed higher invasion and adhesion rates compared to the uterine cells as also seen via double immunofluorescence staining. Altogether, we have generated promising in vitro cell models to study host-pathogen interactions of M. agalactiae and related ruminant pathogens in a more authentic manner.

  4. Mycoplasma agalactiae in semen and milk of goat from Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno H.L.S. Alves

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In goat and sheep flocks, mycoplasmosis is a disease that may cause severe economical losses associated with polyarthritis, mastitis, agalactia, conjunctivitis, pneumonia and reproductive failure. The latter may involve repeat breeding, granular vulvovaginitis, infertility and abortions. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma in semen and milk samples from naturally infected goat in the semiarid region from Pernambuco State, Northeast from Brazil. Thirty-nine semen samples and 81 milk samples were submitted to DNA extraction using a commercially available kit and following the manufacturer's instructions. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was then performed in accordance with protocols described in the literature. The results of the present study revealed the presence of Ma in the DNA of 17.9% (7/39 of the semen samples and 3.7% (3/81 of the milk samples. The results obtained in the present study confirm the elimination of the DNA of Ma in the semen and milk samples. The presence of this agent in goat flocks is considered very risky in terms of reproductive disorders and contagious agalactia outbreaks in the Northeast region of Brazil.

  5. DETEKSI POLYMORPHISME DENGAN SUBSTITUSI NUKLEOTIDA TUNGGAL PADA Streptococcus agalactiae ISOLAT LOKAL INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kasus penyakit pada budidaya ikan nila di wilayah di Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Sulawesi Utara dan Papua Barat, disebabkan Streptococcus yang menyebabkan penyakit Streptococcosis di mana 80% disebabkan oleh grup B S. agalactiae. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan deteksi pada nukleotida isolat S. agalactiae untuk mengetahui sampai sejauh mana terjadinya nukleotida polimorfisme tunggal (SNP pada isolat tersebut. Identifikasi menggunakan PCR dilakukan terhadap 16S rDNA dan primer spesifik spesies terhadap S. agalactiae yaitu agal I 5’-ATAAGAGTAATTAACACATGTTAG-3’ (forward dan agal II 5’-ACTTCGGGTGTTACAAAC-3’(reverse dengan target 1250 bp. Produk PCR diamplifikasi terlebih dahulu menggunakan tujuh pasangan primer oligonukleotida yang berbeda yang didesain dari sekuens genom NEM316 GBS. Sekuens yang diperoleh dibandingkan dengan sekuens di Gene Bank database menggunakan National Center for Biotechnology Information Blast search tool. Hasil yang diperoleh ternyata ada dua basa yang berubah yaitu pada basa 24 dan basa 167. Pada basa 24 jelas terjadi subtitusi basa baru yaitu G, yang seharusnya tidak ada basa tersebut pada gen adhP-54 dan adhP-49 standar. Sedangkan pada basa 167 terjadi perbedaan basa dari seharusnya A pada standar menjadi G pada isolat 2.

  6. Structural characterization of the virulence factor nuclease A from Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Andrea F; Gaudu, Philippe; Pedersen, Lars C

    2014-11-01

    The group B pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae commonly populates the human gut and urogenital tract, and is a major cause of infection-based mortality in neonatal infants and in elderly or immunocompromised adults. Nuclease A (GBS_NucA), a secreted DNA/RNA nuclease, serves as a virulence factor for S. agalactiae, facilitating bacterial evasion of the human innate immune response. GBS_NucA efficiently degrades the DNA matrix component of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which attempt to kill and clear invading bacteria during the early stages of infection. In order to better understand the mechanisms of DNA substrate binding and catalysis of GBS_NucA, the high-resolution structure of a catalytically inactive mutant (H148G) was solved by X-ray crystallography. Several mutants on the surface of GBS_NucA which might influence DNA substrate binding and catalysis were generated and evaluated using an imidazole chemical rescue technique. While several of these mutants severely inhibited nuclease activity, two mutants (K146R and Q183A) exhibited significantly increased activity. These structural and biochemical studies have greatly increased our understanding of the mechanism of action of GBS_NucA in bacterial virulence and may serve as a foundation for the structure-based drug design of antibacterial compounds targeted to S. agalactiae.

  7. Identification of genes preferentially expressed by highly virulent piscine Streptococcus agalactiae upon interaction with macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ming Guo

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. In this study, we used a mouse model and in vitro cell infection to evaluate the pathogenetic characteristics of S. agalactiae GD201008-001, isolated from tilapia in China. This bacterium was found to be highly virulent and capable of inducing brain damage by migrating into the brain by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The phagocytosis assays indicated that this bacterium could be internalized by murine macrophages and survive intracellularly for more than 24 h, inducing injury to macrophages. Further, selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS was used to investigate microbial gene expression associated with intracellular survival. This positive cDNA selection technique identified 60 distinct genes that could be characterized into 6 functional categories. More than 50% of the differentially expressed genes were involved in metabolic adaptation. Some genes have previously been described as associated with virulence in other bacteria, and four showed no significant similarities to any other previously described genes. This study constitutes the first step in further gene expression analyses that will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms used by S. agalactiae to survive in macrophages and to cross the BBB.

  8. Comparison of culture and PCR to detect Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri in ear swabs taken from goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Joaquín; Corrales, Juan C; Martín, Angel Gómez; Sánchez, Antonio; Contreras, Antonio; de la Fe, Christian

    2010-01-06

    This study was designed to evaluate the validity of PCR for the direct detection of Mycoplasma (M.) agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc), as the two species most frequently causing contagious agalactia (CA) in goats. The PCR method was compared with the traditional culture technique to determine which method was most efficient at identifying all auricular carriers present in herds. The samples analyzed were 307 ear swabs taken from goats reared in a CA endemic area. We assessed the validity of each technique to detect each species and agreement between both methods. For each species, the result was taken as true-positive when at least one of the two tests was positive. Of the swabs tested, 246 were scored positive by PCR (235 and 11 for Mmc and M. agalactiae, respectively) and 117 showed a positive culture result (113 for Mmc and 4 for M. agalactiae). 133 of the PCR-positive samples (124 and 9 for Mmc and M. agalactiae, respectively) yielded negative culture results and 4 culture-positive samples tested negative using PCR (2 for each species). Sensitivity and negative predictive values for PCR were 84.62 and 99.32 (for M. agalactiae) and 99.16 and 97.22% (for Mmc) respectively, and for culture were 30.77 and 97.03 (for M. agalactiae) and 47.08 and 36.08% (for Mmc), respectively. PCR proved to be a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of mycoplasmas in the external ear of asymptomatic carriers. Tools such as this are needed to adopt efficient control measures against CA.

  9. 孕妇生殖道无乳链球菌带菌状况及药物敏感性分析%Analysis of carrying status and drug susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae in genital tract of pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林爱心; 袁春雷; 汪伟山; 谭南; 杨晓华; 李丽莲

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解孕妇生殖道无乳链球菌携带及耐药状况,为临床用药提供依据。方法取孕妇阴道分泌物标本进行细菌培养,分离出的无乳链球菌经 VITEK 2全自动细菌鉴定分析仪进行鉴定和药物敏感试验。结果1042份标本中分离出无乳链球菌56例,分离率为5.4%。药物敏感试验结果显示无乳链球菌对青霉素、头孢唑啉、万古霉素、利奈唑烷、呋喃妥因均高度敏感,未发现中介或耐药菌株;左旋氧氟沙星、莫西沙星及克林霉素、红霉素、四环素的敏感率分别为84.0%、84.0%、71.4%、39.3%和8.9%。结论该院孕妇无乳链球菌的携带率不高,青霉素和头孢唑啉可作为治疗的首选药。临床和实验室应重视孕妇无乳链球菌的检测。%Objective To understand the carrying status and drug resistance of streptococcus agalactiae in the genital tract of pregnant women.Methods The vaginal discharge from pregnant women was collected for conducting the bacterial culture.The iso-lated streptococcus agalactiae was performed the identification and the drugs susceptibility test by the VITEK 2 fully automatice bacterial identification analyzer.Results Among 1 042 samples,streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in 6 cases with the separation rate of 5.4%.The drug sensitivity test showed the Streptococcus agalactiae was highly sensitive to penicillin,cefazolin,vancomycin, linezolid and nitrofurantoin.The intermediate strains or drug resistant strains were not found.The sensitive rate to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and clindamycin,erythromycin,tetracycline were 84.0%,84.0%,71.4%,39.3% and 8.9% respectively.Conclusion The carrying rate of streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women is not high in our hospital.Penicillin and cefazolin should be as the drug of first choice for therapy and the clincal and laboratory nould payattention to detection of streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women.

  10. 1株致病性兔无乳链球菌的分离、鉴定与系统发育分析%Isolation, identification and phylogenetic analysis of a pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae in rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任思宇; 耿毅; 汪开毓; 罔赵英; 刘星星; 吴春艳

    2013-01-01

    negative.Phylogenetic analysis showed that it was hardly differentiated between S.difficilis and S.agalactiae on the basis of 16S rRNA,however,the phylogenetic tree constructed by comparing gyrB sequences of the separated strain showed that P110323 belonged to S.agalactiae.According to the morphological,biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis,the isolated strain was identified as S.agalactiae.The direct identification of the capsular type by multiplex PCR method indicated that P110323 was S.agalactiae Ia.

  11. 内蒙古无乳链球菌耐药性及四环素耐药基因检测%Drug resistance and tetracycline resistance gene identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from bovine in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜琳; 郝永清

    2016-01-01

    为了解内蒙古地区隐性乳房炎无乳链球菌分离株耐药性及耐药基因,采集内蒙古不同地区的规模化养殖场隐性乳房炎乳样,采用 Kirby-Bauer(K-B)纸片扩散法测试分离株对16种抗菌药物的敏感性,PCR 方法检测其耐药基因.结果显示:无乳链球菌对大部分抗生素较敏感.对其有较强抑菌作用的药物为:青霉素 G、头孢噻肟、头孢唑啉、阿莫西林、红霉素、环丙沙星、恩诺沙星、氧氟沙星、林可霉素、呋喃妥因、万古霉素.其敏感性达到90%~100%.该菌株对四环素有较强的耐药性,耐药率达77.27%.PCR 扩增四环素耐药基因 tetM 、tetO 、tetK 、tetL ,结果显示22株无乳链球菌均含有 tetM 基因,其基因的检出率为100%.其中7株同时含有 tetK 基因,tetO 、tetL 基因未检出.%In order to understand drug resistance and tetracycline resistance gene of Streptococcus agalactiae epidemic strains,the prevalent strains of S .agalactiae from the main bovine culture area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region were detected through Kirby-B auer(K-B)method and PCR.Drug susceptibility testing indicated that the S .agalactiae isolated strains were sensitive to most antibiotics. The S .agalactiae isolates were susceptible to penicillin,cefotaxime,cefazolin,amoxicillin,erythromy-cin,ciprofloxacin,enrofloxacin,ofloxacin,clindamycin,nitrofurantoin,and vancomycin with susceptibili-ties rates of 90% to 100%.In contrast,the S .agalactiae isolates were resistant to tetracycline with re-sistance rates of 77.27%.Four resistance genes including tetM ,tet O ,tetK ,and tetL were characterized by PCR.All strains carried the resistance gene tetM and 7 strains also carried the resistance gene tetK . The resistance genes tetO and tetL were not detected.The results indicated that the resistance gene were related to the resistant type of antimicrobial agents and was important for further research and clinical therapy resistance mechanisms.

  12. Optimal Culture Conditions and Medium of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Tilapia%罗非鱼源无乳链球菌培养基及培养条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贺; 吴灶和; 王蓓; 黄郁葱; 鲁义善; 简纪常

    2012-01-01

    The culture and the characteristics of growth of Streptococcus agalactiae (ZJGY08) were studied as the model strain. The effects of different factors, including nutritional factors, initial pH value, dissolved oxygen and temperature, on its growth in the fluid culture medium named Brian Heart Infusion (BHI) were explored to optimize its growth parameters. The results indicated that the initial pH 7 - 8 and the temperatures 28 - 37 degrees and the shake speed 180 - 200 r/min were optimal for the Streptococcus agalactiae. The maximal bacteria's concentration could be got by supplying 20 mg/mL yeast powder and 2 mg/mL glucose in the BHI.%研究无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)ZQGY08的培养与生长特性,探讨脑心浸液(Brian Heart Infusion,BHI)培养基的营养因子、初始pH值、溶氧、温度等因素对无乳链球菌生长的影响,并采用正交实验法对无乳链球菌培养基营养因子添加量进行优化.结果表明,无乳链球菌生长的最适初始pH为7~8,培养温度为28 ~ 37℃,振荡转速为180~ 200 r/min.在BHI培养基中添加20 mg/mL的酵母粉和2 mg/mL的葡萄糖即可在对数期获得最大细菌量.

  13. Transcriptomic and genomic evidence for Streptococcus agalactiae adaptation to the bovine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of bovine mastitis, which is the dominant health disorder affecting milk production within the dairy industry and is responsible for substantial financial losses to the industry worldwide. However, there is considerable evidence for host adaptation (ecotypes) within S. agalactiae, with both bovine and human sourced isolates showing a high degree of distinctiveness, suggesting differing ability to cause mastitis. Here, we (i) generate RNAseq data from three S. agalactiae isolates (two putative bovine adapted and one human) and (ii) compare publicly available whole genome shotgun sequence data from an additional 202 isolates, obtained from six host species, to elucidate possible genetic factors/adaptations likely important for S. agalactiae growth and survival in the bovine mammary gland. Results Tests for differential expression showed distinct expression profiles for the three isolates when grown in bovine milk. A key finding for the two putatively bovine adapted isolates was the up regulation of a lactose metabolism operon (Lac.2) that was strongly correlated with the bovine environment (all 36 bovine sourced isolates on GenBank possessed the operon, in contrast to only 8/151 human sourced isolates). Multi locus sequence typing of all genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis using conserved operon genes from 44 S. agalactiae isolates and 16 additional Streptococcus species provided strong evidence for acquisition of the operon via multiple lateral gene transfer events, with all Streptococcus species known to be major causes of mastitis, identified as possible donors. Furthermore, lactose fermentation tests were only positive for isolates possessing Lac.2. Combined, these findings suggest that lactose metabolism is likely an important adaptation to the bovine environment. Additional up regulation in the bovine adapted isolates included genes involved in copper homeostasis, metabolism of purine, pyrimidine

  14. First report of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from Oreochromis niloticus in Piura, Peru: Molecular identification and histopathological lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Ortega Asencios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae isolated in farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from Piura, Peru and to characterize the histopathological lesions caused by this pathogen. Sixteen tilapias were sampled with clinic signs of the disease such as erratic swimming, exophthalmia and haemorrhages on the body and fins. Qualitative PCR in real time and histopathological analysis were performed. Nine fishes positives to S. agalactiae were found. The main histopathological findings were fibrinosuppurative epicarditis, periesplenitis, meninigitis and panophtaltmitis with predominance of mononuclear infiltration in all tissues. The correlation between qPCR and histopathological findings demonstrated nine fish (prevalence of 56.25% with Cq lower than 30, associated to high degree of tissue injuries. This study reports the first isolation of S. agalactiae by PCR in real time in tilapia farmed in Peru and characterizes the major histopathological changes caused by this bacterium.

  15. Binding of glycoprotein Srr1 of Streptococcus agalactiae to fibrinogen promotes attachment to brain endothelium and the development of meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Seong Seo

    Full Text Available The serine-rich repeat glycoprotein Srr1 of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS is thought to be an important adhesin for the pathogenesis of meningitis. Although expression of Srr1 is associated with increased binding to human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMEC, the molecular basis for this interaction is not well defined. We now demonstrate that Srr1 contributes to GBS attachment to hBMEC via the direct interaction of its binding region (BR with human fibrinogen. When assessed by Far Western blotting, Srr1 was the only protein in GBS extracts that bound fibrinogen. Studies using recombinant Srr1-BR and purified fibrinogen in vitro confirmed a direct protein-protein interaction. Srr1-BR binding was localized to amino acids 283-410 of the fibrinogen Aα chain. Structural predictions indicated that the conformation of Srr1-BR is likely to resemble that of SdrG and other related staphylococcal proteins that bind to fibrinogen through a "dock, lock, and latch" mechanism (DLL. Deletion of the predicted latch domain of Srr1-BR abolished the interaction of the BR with fibrinogen. In addition, a mutant GBS strain lacking the latch domain exhibited reduced binding to hBMEC, and was significantly attenuated in an in vivo model of meningitis. These results indicate that Srr1 can bind fibrinogen directly likely through a DLL mechanism, which has not been described for other streptococcal adhesins. This interaction was important for the pathogenesis of GBS central nervous system invasion and subsequent disease progression.

  16. Surgidero de Batabanó Harbor, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmans, R.; Van Kessel, L.; Lendering, K.; Oud, M.; Tromp, R.

    2011-01-01

    The harbor of Surgidero de Batabano is a harbor that lies in the Gulf of Batabano in the South-Western part of Cuba. It serves as a connection between the main land of Cuba and the islands 'Isla de la Juventud' and Cayo Largo. The Batabano harbor suffers from sediment accretion. The accretion of sed

  17. Harbor Expansion Facilitates Crude and Petrochemicals Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Douwei Harbor attracting petrochem investment Substantial progress has been made in the preliminary preparation of Douwei Harbor project in Hui'an, Fujian Province. It is one of the major four transfer ports in China planned by the Ministry of Transportation. A number of projects, with a total investment approaching 10 billion yuan,will come under construction in the harbor zone.

  18. On the agalactia post partum in the sow. A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansson, I; Einarsson, S; Larsson, K; Bäckström, L

    1978-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the clinical symptoms of agalactic sows post partum in randomly selected swine herds. The study comprised 71 sows affected with agalactia post partum and 71 healthy sows from the same herds used as controls. Average morbidity of the disease in these 50 herds, consisting of an average of 25 sows, was 12.8%. Sixty-three per cent of the agalactic sows were affected within one day after farrowing. There was no difference in gestation length between healthy sows and agalactic sows. The body temperature was significantly higher for affected than for healthy sows. Mastitis was diagnosed in 35 out of 71 agalactic sows. The criteria for mastitis were swelling and herdening of one or several udder glands. Vaginal discharge was recorded for affected sows (55/57) as well as for healthy sows (51/58) and is therefore not significantly associated with agalactia. The temperament of the agalactic sows was moderately or severely affected in 62 out of 71 agalactic sows. Constipation was recorded for 13/59 agalactic sows and for 3/57 normal sows. The agalactic sows had significantly higher number of piglets per litter at birth while the litter size was higher for healthy sows at weaning. Numerically, more sows were culled among agalactic sows (16/48) than among normal sows (6/42). Moreover, sows affected with agalactia at the previous parturition were more inclined to meet with the disease at the next parturition. Further studies comprising large groups of animals are, however, necessary for evaluation of this question.

  19. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater South Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater North Light to Channel Islands Harbor North Jetty Light 5....

  20. Knowledge based recognition of harbor target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Bing; Li Jinzong; Cheng Aijun

    2006-01-01

    A fast knowledge based recognition method of the harbor target in large gray remote-sensing image is presented. First, the distributed features and the inherent feature are analyzed according to the knowledge of harbor targets; then, two methods for extracting the candidate region of harbor are devised in accordance with different sizes of the harbors; after that, thresholds are used to segment the land and the sea with strategies of the segmentation error control; finally, harbor recognition is implemented according to its inherent character (semi-closed region of seawater).

  1. NECROTIZING FASCIITIS OF THE POSTERIOR CERVICAL COMPARTMENT: AN ATYPICAL CASE DUE TO STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Abramo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a fulminant infection that affects the deep and superficial fascia while initially sparing the overlying skin and underlying muscle. The involvement of the cervicalcompartment is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Immunocompromised patients are prone to this infection. We present a case of a 80 year-old diabetic woman suffering from streptococcal cervical NF (probably secondary to a arm injury with an uncommon involvement of the posterior cervical compartment, highlighting the atypical responsible microorganism (Streptococcus Agalactiae, the role of imaging for early diagnosis and the timely surgical and medical treatment for a successful outcome.

  2. Emergence of carbapenem non-susceptible multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains of clonal complexes 103(B) and 92(B) harboring OXA-type carbapenemases and metallo-β-lactamases in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Rajagopalan; Vasanth, Vaidyanathan; Vasanth, Thamodharan; Shabareesh, Pidathala Raghavendra Venkata; Shashikala, P; Devi, Chandrakesan Sheela; Kalaivani, Ramakrishnan; Asir, Johny; Sudhakar, Pagal; Prashanth, K

    2015-05-01

    The molecular epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii obtained from a south Indian tertiary care hospital were investigated by repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR (REP-PCR) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Analysis of resistant determinants was achieved by PCR screening for the presence of genes encoding OXA-carbapenemases, metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and efflux pumps. REP-PCR generated around eight clusters of high heterogeneity; of these, two major clusters (I and V) appeared to be clonal in origin. Analysis of representative isolates from different clusters by MLST revealed that most of the isolates belonged to sequence type 103 of CC103(B) . Second most prevalent ST belonged to clonal complex (CC) 92(B) which is also referred to as international clone II. Most of the isolates were multi-drug resistant, being susceptible only to polymyxin-B and newer quinolones. Class D β-lactamases such as blaOXA-51-like (100%), blaOXA-23-like (56.8%) and blaOXA-24-like (14.8%) were found to be predominant, followed by a class B β-lactamase, namely blaIMP-1 (40.7%); none of the isolates had blaOXA-58 like, blaNDM-1 or blaSIM-1 . Genes of efflux-pump adeABC were predominant, most of isolates being biofilm producers that were PCR-positive for autoinducer synthase gene (>94%). Carbapenem non-susceptible isolates were highly diverse and present throughout the hospital irrespective of type of ward or intensive care unit. Although previous reports have documented diverse resistant mechanisms in A. baumannii, production of MBL and OXA-type of carbapenamases were found to be the predominant mechanism(s) of carbapenem resistance identified in strains isolated from Southern India.

  3. 新生儿无乳链球菌感染的危险因素及药敏分析%The study of risk factors for neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae infection and sensitivity analysis of antibacterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹超; 陆文香; 周莉靖

    2015-01-01

    80 cases of neo‐nates were infected by Streptococcus agalactiae ,,and the neonates diagnosed with septicemia ,omphalitis ,premature birth ,intrau‐terine infection and aspiration pneumonia were accounted for 8 .75% ,10 .00% ,15 .00% ,22 .50% and 43 .75% ,respectively .The positive rate of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in mother′s reproductive tract specimens was 51 .25% ,and the results of drug sensitive test were consistent with those of neonates .9 cases of cesarean section ,accounted for 11 .25% ;71 cases of natural child‐birth ,accounted for 88 .75% .In the 80 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae ,the sensitivity of vancomycin ,linezolid ,penicillin and ceftriaxone were all 100 .00% ,and resistance rates of Streptococcus agalactiae to erythromycin ,clindamycin and levofloxacin were higher ,and were 77 .50% ,57 .50% and 33 .75% respectively .Conclusion Maternal Streptococcus agalactiae carriers and mode of delivery may be risk factors for neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae infection .Obstetricians should pay attention to routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in perinatal pregnant women ,the laboratory should improve the efficacy in detecting Streptococcus aga‐lactiae and provide the results of antibacterials resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae immediately ,in order to provide references for clinical rational drug use .

  4. 齐口裂腹鱼无乳链球菌的分离鉴定及其感染的病理损伤%Isolation, identification and pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae from Schizothorax prenanti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余泽辉; 张佳; 耿毅; 邓梦玲; 汪开毓; 黄小丽; 陈德芳; 王均

    2014-01-01

    In 2012-2013, a serious infectious disease characterized by exophthalmia, hemorrhage, and neurological symptoms emerged in Schizothorax prenanti farms in Sichuan Province. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was found in liver and kidney smears. Two strains of Gram-positive, chain-forming cocci were isolated from the diseased fish. The colonies had a smooth-surface and were white, circular, regular and pin-head sized after incubation at 28℃for 48 h on brain heart infusion (BHI). Artificial infection proved that the isolates were the pathogen of the disease. It was primarily identified to be Streptococcus agalactiae according to morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Furthermore, a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis by BLAST in GenBank indicated that the two isolates showed high levels of similarity to S. agalactiae (more than 96.5%). A phylogenetic tree was constructed comparing the 16S rDNA sequences of both isolates (GenBank accession number KF773744 and KF761304) to other related bacterial species in the GenBank database. In the phylogenetic tree the two isolates and other S. agalactiae strains constituted a branch. In addition, the two isolates were positive in a specific PCR detection of S. agalactiae based on the cfb gene. Based on the phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and specific PCR detection, both isolates were identified as S. agalactiae. The sensitivity results showed that both strains were sensitive to doxycycline, amoxicillin, cephalothin V, ofloxacin and levofloxacin, but showed some difference in sensitivity to neomycin and amikacin. Histopathologically, the S. agalactiae infection could cause serious pathological changes in multi-organs and tissues, especially in liver, kidney and brain. The main pathologic lesions were degeneration, necrosis and infiltration of the inflammation cells. Electron microscopical examination found that bacteria could invade hepatocytes, renal cells and

  5. Spatiotemporal patterns, annual baseline and movement-related incidence of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Danish dairy herds: 2000–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mweu, Marshal M.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;

    2014-01-01

    2000 to 2009 and (2) to estimate the annual herd-level baseline and movement-related incidence risks of S. agalactiae infection over the 10-year period.The analysis involved registry data on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae...... surveillance scheme as well as live cattle movements into dairy herds during the specified 10-year period. The results indicated that the predicted risk of a herd becoming infected with S. agalactiae varied spatiotemporally; the risk being more homogeneous and higher in the period after 2005. Additionally...

  6. Latent infection of male goats with Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri at an artificial insemination centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fe, Christian; Gómez Martín, Angel; Amores, Joaquín; Corrales, Juan C; Sánchez, Antonio; Poveda, José B; Contreras, Antonio

    2010-10-01

    Contagious agalactia affects goats and is caused by several species of mycoplasma including Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc). Male goats, latently infected with M. agalactiae and Mmc, were identified at a dairy goat breeding artificial insemination centre. In three samplings, conducted over 1 year, ear swabs were assessed for both of the above organisms using culture and PCR techniques. Serological examination for antibodies against these organisms was performed at each time-point and conjunctival, nasal, rectal and preputial swabs were taken from a sub-sample of animals. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and M. agalactiae were detected in 80 and four ear swabs, respectively and serology confirmed the presence of both agents. A point prevalence of 0.06 goats infected with Mmc at the first sampling point increased to 0.97 at the last sampling, suggesting spread of infection. Both organisms were also detected in preputial and conjunctival swabs suggesting the shedding of these pathogens by other routes. These findings should inform World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines on avoiding the introduction of such pathogens into artificial insemination centres and suggest the need to review current recommendations.

  7. Molecular and functional characterization of CD59 from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhen; Wang, Bei; Zhou, Wei; Lu, Yishan; Zhu, Weiwei; Tang, Jufen; Jian, JiChang; Wu, Zaohe

    2015-05-01

    CD59, the major inhibitor of membrane attack complex, plays a crucial role in regulation of complement activation. In this paper, a CD59 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-CD59) was cloned and its expression pattern under the stimulation of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for complement-inhibitory activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-CD59. In healthy Nile tilapia, the On-CD59 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the brain. When immunized with inactivated S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-CD59 in the skin, brain, head kidney, thymus and spleen, with quite different kinetic expressions. The assays for the complement-inhibitory activity suggested that recombinant On-CD59 protein had a species-selective inhibition of complement. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-CD59 protein may possess both binding activities to PGN and LTA and inhibiting activity of S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-CD59 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia.

  8. Combination of selective enrichment and MALDI-TOF MS for rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae colonisation of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ábrók, Marianna; Arcson, Ágnes; Lázár, Andrea; Urbán, Edit; Deák, Judit

    2015-07-01

    Sample preparation was optimized for MALDI-TOF MS directly from selective enrichment broth to detect Streptococcus agalactiae. The method was tested on 100 vaginal samples of pregnant women; positive and negative predictive values were 100 and 91%, respectively. If it indicates positivity, colonisation can be reported 18-24h after sample collection.

  9. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosward, Katrina L; House, John K; Deveridge, Amber; Mathews, Karen; Sheehy, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-characterized bovine mastitis pathogen that is known to be highly contagious and capable of spreading rapidly in affected dairy herds. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel molecular diagnostic method that has the capability to provide rapid, cost-effective screening for pathogens to support on-farm disease control and eradication programs. In the current study, a LAMP test was developed to detect S. agalactiae in milk. The assay was validated on a bank of existing clinical mastitis milk samples that had previously been identified as S. agalactiae positive via traditional microbiological culture techniques and PCR. The LAMP assay was conducted on bacterial colonies and DNA extracted from milk in tube- and plate-based formats using multiple detection platforms. The 1-h assay conducted at 64 °C exhibited repeatability (coefficient of variation) of 2.07% (tube) and 8.3% (plate), sensitivity to ~20 pg of extracted DNA/reaction, and specificity against a panel of known bacterial mastitis pathogens. Of the 109 known S. agalactiae isolates assessed by LAMP directly from bacterial cells in culture, 108 were identified as positive, in accordance with PCR analysis. The LAMP analysis from the corresponding milk samples indicated that 104 of these milks exhibited a positive amplification curve. Although exhibiting some limitations, this assay provides an opportunity for rapid screening of milk samples to facilitate on-farm management of this pathogen.

  10. Presence of contagious agalactia causing mycoplasmas in Spanish goat artificial insemination centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, J; Gómez-Martín, A; Corrales, J C; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; De la Fe, C

    2011-04-15

    Male goats admitted to artificial insemination centres come from herds that have shown no clinical symptoms of contagious agalactia (CA) for the last 6 mo. However, prior reports suggest that this control measure may not be completely effective. This study was designed to detect the presence of CA-causing mycoplasmas in 9 Spanish centres, comprising 159 goats (147 males and 12 teaser does) of 8 different breeds. A microbiological study was conducted during 8 mo on 448 samples (318 ear swabs, 119 semen samples and 11 milk samples). In 86 samples (84 swabs, 1 semen sample and 1 milk sample), CA-causative mycoplasmas were detected by PCR or culture, and 52 animals (49 goat males and 3 teaser does) tested positive. Most of these positive animals were auricular carriers (n = 50), mainly of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc), although some M. agalactiae (Ma) and, interestingly, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc) carriers were also identified. At least 1 animal infected by CA-causing mycoplasmas was detected in 8 of the 9 centres (88.8%) although in most (66.7%) no infected animals or only 1 or 2 positive animals were identified. Our results indicate the presence of CA carriers as asymptomatic animals in reproductive programmes. These findings have already prompted efficient measures to detect and avoid the entry of these carriers in Spanish centres. We recommend similar measures for all centres in areas where CA is endemic.

  11. Anatomic location of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and Mycoplasma agalactiae in naturally infected goat male auricular carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, Angel; De la Fe, Christian; Amores, Joaquín; Sánchez, Antonio; Contreras, Antonio; Paterna, Ana; Buendía, Antonio J; Corrales, Juan C

    2012-06-15

    This study sought to determine whether male goat auricular carriers of mycoplasmas known to cause contagious agalactia could harbour these microorganisms at anatomical sites other than the ears. A microbiological study was conducted in 6 naturally infected bucks that had been diagnosed as chronic auricular asymptomatic carriers of Mycoplasma (M.) mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) more than one year previously. To detect mycoplasmas, cultures and PCR were performed on 46 samples taken from each goat from the cardio-respiratory, digestive, nervous, lymph and genitourinary systems and several joints. Of a total of 274 samples analyzed, 28 were positive for mycoplasmas (10.1%): Mmc was detected in 17 (6.1%), Mycoplasma (M.) agalactiae in 12 (4.3%) and both microorganisms were identified in one of the samples. In all 6 goats, mixed infection was observed despite none being auricular carriers of M. agalactiae. Mycoplasma spp. were identified at 15 different sites; the most frequent sites being the joints (31.2%, 5 positive samples), lymph nodes (25%, 4 positive samples) and respiratory tract (25%, 4 positive samples). Positive results were also obtained in three brain tissue (18.7%), two cardiac tissue (12.5%) and one ileum, urethra, testicle and bulbourethral gland (6.25%) samples. The histopathological findings may suggest the presence of mild chronic conditions in some of the organs where the bacteria were found. Our findings reveal for the first time the capacity of Mmc and M. agalactiae to colonize several other organ systems in chronically naturally infected auricular carriers, possibly representing an added risk factor for the spread of these microorganisms. In the case of M. agalactiae, colonization seemed to be independent of the animal's auricular carrier state.

  12. CRSMP Potential Harbor Borrow Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Harbor locations as identified originally in the California Shoreline Database compiled by Noble Consultants (Jon Moore) for California Department of Boating and...

  13. Development of primer sets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification that enables rapid and specific detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three ...

  14. Additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae capsular type Ib: is genetic resistance correlated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus (S.) iniae and S. agalactiae are both economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens affecting the globally farmed tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). Historically control of these bacteria in tilapia culture has included biosecurity, therapeutants and vaccination strategies. Genet...

  15. 海南罗非鱼无乳链球菌分离鉴定及其特性研究%Isolation, identification and characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周清; 沈锦玉; 徐洋; 姚嘉赟; 潘晓艺; 郝贵杰; 尹文林

    2012-01-01

    从海南省患暴发性疾病的罗非鱼(Tilapia)上分离出1株细菌HNLFYL4,对分离菌株进行了鉴定及致病性和药物敏感性研究.通过形态学观察和生理生化鉴定,结果显示,分离菌株为无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae).对分离菌株的16S rRNA基因进行PCR扩增和测序,所得序列已登录到GenBank,登录号为HQ645983,与GenBank中收录的链球菌16S rRNA 基因进行比对并构建系统进化树,结果表明,分离菌株的16S rRNA基因序列与无乳链球菌同源性高达100%,进一步确定分离菌株为无乳链球菌.人工感染显示分离菌株对小白鼠和罗非鱼均具有致病性,对小白鼠的LD50为1.0×104 CFU/mL,对体重为500g±20g的罗非鱼的LD50为1.729×109CFU/mL.分离菌株对氯霉素、青霉素G、呋喃妥因等敏感,对丁胺卡那、链霉素、卡那霉素等不敏感.%One pathogenic bacteria strain HNLFYL4 was isolated from diseased tilapia in Hainan. In this study, bacteria isolation and identification, artificial infection tests were used for analysis of the cause of the severe disease. The isolate was identified as Streptococcus agalactiae based on morphology, cultural performance and biochemical characteristics. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate was amplified and compared with those of other Streptococcus retrieved from GenBank. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate had the most homology with that of S. Agalactiae in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree of Streptococcus showed that the isolate was clustered together with S. Agalactiae. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis further proved that the isolate belonged to S. Agalactiae. The virulent tests were carried out by using the pure culture of the bacteria artificially infected tilapia and mouse. The isolate was pathogenic to tilapia and mouse. LD50 was 1. 0 x 10 CFU/mL to mouse and 1. 729 x 10 CFU/mL to tilapia. Drug sensitivity experiment showed that the isolate was highly sensitive to chloramphenicol, penicillin

  16. 75 FR 78601 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Seeber/Claiborne Avenue) ] vertical lift bridge across the Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, mile 0.9, (Gulf Intracoastal Waterway mile 6.7 East of Harvey Lock), at New Orleans, Orleans Parish,...

  17. 76 FR 8653 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Seeber/Claiborne Avenue) vertical lift bridge across the Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, mile 0.9, (Gulf Intracoastal Waterway mile 6.7 East of Harvey Lock), at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana. This...

  18. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of...

  19. 罗非鱼源γ溶血性无乳链球菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and identification of γ-hemolytic streptococcus agalactiae from tilapia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎娅; 罗福广; 左跃; 易弋; 伍时华; 杨军

    2014-01-01

    On September 5, 2012, a disease outbreak was occurred at a tilapia farm in Liuzhou , Guangxi.Aγ-hemolyt-ic gram-positive streptococcus was isolated from brain of infected tilapia .The isolate was identified as rare Streptococcus agalactiae by biochemical assays, PCR identify and 16S rDNA analysis.The strain was γ-hemolytic and negative in CAMP test which showed it was different from normal Streptococcus agalactia strains.The isolate exhibited high virulence to tilapia by experimental infection .Drug sensitivity experiment showed that it was resistant to norfloxacin , polymyxin B , co-trimoxazole and sensitive to 17 types of antibiotics such as penicillin G , et al.%2012年9月5日广西柳州市某罗非鱼养殖场出现暴发性疾病,从患病罗非鱼的脑组织中分离到1株γ溶血性革兰氏阳性链球菌。通过生理生化试验、基于cfb基因的PCR鉴定及16S rDNA序列分析,将该菌株鉴定为无乳链球菌。该菌株为γ溶血性, CAMP试验阴性,与常见无乳链球菌有较大差别。人工感染试验结果显示分离菌株对罗非鱼具有很强的致病性。药物敏感试验结果显示分离菌株对诺氟沙星、多黏菌素B、复方新诺明耐药,对青霉素G等17种药物均敏感。

  20. Madaket Harbor, Nantucket, Massachusetts. Water Resources Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    beamc. Tnis material will be re-deposited,, viaj troio it 1-apfro1inr ox prior location. j, MADAKET HARBOR NANTUCKET, MASSACHUSETTS FEASIBILITY...re- colonization of approximately 395 acres by scallops and quahogs. Also, barring any future disruption of the harbor area, the continued use of

  1. 33 CFR 117.549 - Cambridge Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cambridge Harbor. 117.549 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.549 Cambridge Harbor. The draw of the S342 bridge, mile 0.1 at Cambridge, shall open on signal from 6 a.m. to 8 p.m.; except that, from...

  2. Streptococcus agalactiae Endophthalmitis in Boston Keratoprosthesis in a Patient with Steven–Johnson Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Humoud M.; Talea, Mohammed; Kirat, Omar; Stone, Donald U.; May, William N.; Kozak, Igor

    2016-01-01

    A 25-year-old Syrian male with a previous episode of Stevens-Johnson syndrome with bilateral corneal cicatrization previously underwent surgery for Type 1 Boston Keratoprosthesis (K-Pro). Sixteen months after the K-Pro surgery, the patient presented with decreased vision to hand motion and microbial keratitis of the graft around the K-Pro with purulent discharge. Corneal scrapings were nonrevealing. B-scan in 3 days showed increased debris in the vitreous cavity and thickened retinochoroidal layer. Intravitreal tap and injections of vancomycin and ceftazidime were performed. The vitreous culture revealed β-hemolytic Streptococcus agalactiae; fungal cultures were negative. Repeat B-scan 3 days later demonstrated decreased vitreous opacity, and the patient felt more comfortable and was without pain. His visual acuity improved to 20/70, ocular findings have been stable for 9 months, and the patient continues to be monitored. PMID:27994401

  3. Streptococcus agalactiae clones infecting humans were selected and fixed through the extensive use of tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Violette; Davies, Mark R; Douarre, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle; Margarit, Immaculada; Spinali, Sebastien; Perkins, Tim; Lechat, Pierre; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Ma, Laurence; Romi, Benedetta; Tichit, Magali; Lopez-Sanchez, Maria-José; Descorps-Declere, Stéphane; Souche, Erika; Buchrieser, Carmen; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Moszer, Ivan; Clermont, Dominique; Maione, Domenico; Bouchier, Christiane; McMillan, David J; Parkhill, Julian; Telford, John L; Dougan, Gordan; Walker, Mark J; Holden, Matthew T G; Poyart, Claire; Glaser, Philippe

    2014-08-04

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a commensal of the digestive and genitourinary tracts of humans that emerged as the leading cause of bacterial neonatal infections in Europe and North America during the 1960s. Due to the lack of epidemiological and genomic data, the reasons for this emergence are unknown. Here we show by comparative genome analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction of 229 isolates that the rise of human GBS infections corresponds to the selection and worldwide dissemination of only a few clones. The parallel expansion of the clones is preceded by the insertion of integrative and conjugative elements conferring tetracycline resistance (TcR). Thus, we propose that the use of tetracycline from 1948 onwards led in humans to the complete replacement of a diverse GBS population by only few TcR clones particularly well adapted to their host, causing the observed emergence of GBS diseases in neonates.

  4. L-proline increases survival of tilapias infected by Streptococcus agalactiae in higher water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xian-Liang; Han, Yi; Ren, Shi-Tong; Ma, Yan-Mei; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2015-05-01

    Streptococcosis causes massive tilapia kills, which results in heavy economic losses of tilapia farming industry. Out of the Streptococcosis, Streptococcus agalactiae is the major pathogen. The bacterium causes higher mortality of tilapias in higher than lower temperatures. However, effect of temperature on metabolic regulation which is related to the mortality is largely unknown. The present study showed 50% and 70% mortality of tilapias cultured in 25 °C and 30 °C, respectively, in comparison with no death in 20 °C following infection caused by S. agalactiae. Then, GC/MS based metabolomics was used to investigate a global metabolic response of tilapia liver to the two higher water temperatures compared to 20 °C. Thirty-six and forty-five varied abundance of metabolites were identified in livers of tilapias cultured at 25 °C and 30 °C, respectively. More decreasing abundance of amino acids and increasing abundance of carbohydrates were detected in 30 °C than 25 °C groups. On the other hand, out of the pathways enriched, the first five biggest impact pathways belong to amino acid metabolism. Decreasing abundance of l-proline was identified as a crucial biomarker for indexing higher water temperature and a potential modulator to reduce the high death. This was validated by engineering injection or oral addition of l-proline. Exogenous l-proline led to elevated amino acid metabolism, which contributes to the elevated survivals. Our findings provide a potential metabolic modulator for controlling the disease, and shed some light on host metabolic prevention to infectious diseases.

  5. Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Causing Community- and Hospital-acquired Infections in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoqin Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, a colonizing agent in pregnant women and the main cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, has been increasingly associated with invasive disease in nonpregnant adults. We collected a total of 87 non-repetitive S. agalactiae isolates causing community-acquired (CA and hospital-acquired (HA infections in nonpregnant adults from a teaching hospital in Shanghai between 2009 and 2013. We identified and characterized their antibiotic resistance, sequence type (ST, serotype, virulence, and biofilm formation. The most frequent STs were ST19 (29.9%, ST23 (16.1%, ST12 (13.8%, and ST1 (12.6%. ST19 had significantly different distributions between CA- and HA-group B Streptococci (GBS isolates. The most frequent serotypes were III (32.2%, Ia (26.4%, V (14.9%, Ib (13.8%, and II (5.7%. Serotype III/ST19 was significantly associated with levofloxacin resistance in all isoates. The HA-GBS multidrug resistant rate was much higher than that of CA-GBS. Virulence genes pavA, cfb were found in all isolates. Strong correlations exist between serotype Ib (CA and HA and surface protein genes spb1 and bac, serotype III (HA and surface protein gene cps and GBS pilus cluster. The serotype, epidemic clone, PFGE-based genotype, and virulence gene are closely related between CA-GBS and HA-GBS, and certain serotypes and clone types were significantly associated with antibiotic resistance. However, CA-GBS and HA-GBS still had significant differences in their distribution of clone types, antibiotic resistance, and specific virulence genes, which may provide a basis for infection control.

  6. 2007-2012年中国罗非鱼无乳链球菌流行菌株血清型分析%Serotype of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in China from 2007 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉萍; 甘西; 陈明; 王瑞; 黄婷; 梁万文; 雷爱莹; 李健; 黄维义; 唐佳有; 施金谷

    2014-01-01

    采用PCR血清型鉴定方法,对2007-2012年从广西、广东、海南、福建和云南等地养殖的罗非鱼Oreochromis niloticus中分离获得的168株无乳链球菌Streptococcus agalactiae流行菌株的血清型进行分析。结果表明:有159株为Ⅰa血清型,6株为Ⅰb血清型,3株为Ⅲ血清型。各区域流行菌株血清型也存在差异:从广西自治区7个地区50个养殖场的罗非鱼中分离的61株无乳链球菌中,有54株为Ⅰa型,4株为Ⅰb型,3株为Ⅲ型;从广东省10个地区59个养殖场的罗非鱼中分离的64株无乳链球菌中,有63株为Ⅰa型,1株为Ⅰb型;从海南省5个地区26个养殖场的罗非鱼中分离的33株无乳链球菌中,有32株为Ⅰa型,1株为Ⅰb型;从福建省漳州6个养殖场的罗非鱼中分离的6株和从云南省文山4个养殖场的罗非鱼中分离的4株均为Ⅰa型。研究表明,2007-2012年中国罗非鱼链球菌病流行菌株血清型存在Ⅰa、Ⅰb和Ⅲ3种血清型,Ⅰa型为主要血清型,研究结果可为准确分析中国罗非鱼链球菌病流行规律和特点提供数据,为该病防治及疫苗候选菌株筛选提供理论基础。%PCR typing assay was used to evaluate serotype of 168 Streptococcus agalactiae prevalent strains isolated from Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Guangxi,Guangdong,Hainan,Fujian and Yunnan provinces in China from 2007 to 2012. There were 159 strains ofⅠa,6 strains ofⅠb, and 3 strains of Ⅲ, with differences in serotypes of isolates from different regions. In the 61 strains isolated from 50 farms in 7 regions in Guangxi,54 strains wereⅠa, 4 strains Ⅰb, and 3 strains Ⅲ. There were 64 strains isolated from 59 farms in 10 regions in Guangdong, with 63 strains of Ⅰa,1 strain of Ⅰb. Thirty-three strains were isolated from 26 farms in 5 regions in Hannan, including 32 strains of Ⅰa, and 1 strains ofⅠb. Four strains ofⅠa were isolated from 6 farms in Zhangzhou in Fujian and Wenshan in Yunnan

  7. Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women in Zimbabwe: Epidemiology and serotype marker characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mavenyengwa, Rooyen Tinago

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundStreptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) is one of the leading causes of serious bacterial infections such as septicaemia, pneumonia and meningitis in newborns, causing 0.5 to more than 2 cases per 1,000 live births. Children may be infected from their mothers during delivery from GBS colonizing the birth canal. GBS is also an important cause of premature delivery and may cause infections in parturient women. Significant differences in colonization rates have been shown...

  8. Successful off-label use of the Cepheid Xpert GBS in a late-onset neonatal meningitis by Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; Coclite, Eleonora; Fusilli, Paola; D’Incecco, Carmine; Fazii, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a late-onset neonatal meningitis by Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus - GBS) that was diagnosed with a latex agglutination assay (on cerebrospinal fluid, CSF), as well as by using, for the first time, Xpert GBS (Cepheid, US) on CSF. Due to empirical antibiotics given before sampling, both CSF and blood culture were negative, so the abovementioned diagnostics was crucial. Moreover, the Xpert GBS assay, performed according to an off-label, modified protocol (...

  9. Molecular characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae from vaginal colonization and neonatal infections: a 4-year multicenter study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Mavroidi, Angeliki; Vourli, Sofia; Panopoulou, Maria; Zachariadou, Levantia; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos; Spiliopoulou, Iris; Zerva, Loukia; Petinaki, Efthymia

    2014-04-01

    A multicenter collection comprising of 171 Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from pregnant women recovered between 2007 and 2010 and 46 from unmatched neonates with invasive infections was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genetic characterization. High rates of erythromycin resistance (20.47%) were observed only in isolates from pregnant women. ST1 was dominant in the vaginal colonization, whereas the hypervirulent ST-17 clone was detected in 67.39% of neonatal infections.

  10. 2006-2011年无乳链球菌的临床分布及药敏监测%Clinical distribution and drug sensitivities of Streptococcus agalactiae in hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭远瑜; 张福林; 倪克明; 楚旭

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查分析无乳链球菌(GBS)的耐药情况及其临床分布,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 对临床各科室送检各类标本进行无乳链球菌的培养,经ATB-Expression细菌分析系统进行鉴定和药敏试验;所有资料采用WHONET 5.6软件进行回顾性分析.结果 共分离448株GBS,临床标本分离率最高的是泌尿生殖道分泌物(86.8%),科室检出最多的是妇产科(85.0%);药敏结果显示:耐药率最高的是四环素94.9%,其次是红霉素80.1%和克林霉素62.7%,其他耐药率分别为左旋氧氟沙星36.4%,奎奴普丁/达福普汀20.3%,氯霉素16.3%,头孢噻肟1.1%,青霉素0.2%;呋喃妥因、万古霉素和利奈唑胺耐药率均为0%;克林霉素耐药率表现出下降趋势,左旋氧氟沙星呈现上升趋势.结论 加强无乳链球菌的培养检测,关注无乳链球菌的耐药趋势;提高临床重视并指导临床合理用药和治疗.%Objective To investigate the drug susceptibility and distribution of the Streptococcus agalactiaes and provide the evidence for clinical drug usage. Methods Various types of clinical specimens were cultured for Streptococcus agalactiae examination. 448 clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiaes ( GBS) were identified and their drug sensitivities were determined by ATB-Expression system, and all of the data was analyzed by WHONE T5. 6 Software. Results A total of 448 strains were isolated; the isolation rate of urogenital tract secretion was the highest (86. 8% ) , and most of the strains came from the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (85. 0% ) . The resistance rates of GBS to tetracycline was the the highest (94. 9% ) , followed by erythromycin (80. 1% ) and clindamycin (62. 7% ). The resistance rates to other antibiotics were as follows; levo-floxacin 36. 4% , moxifloxacin 20. 8% , quinupristin/dalfopristin 20. 3% , chloramphenicol 16. 3% , cefotaxime 1.1%, penicillin 0.2%; nitrofurantoin, vancomycin and

  11. Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 4- 12 Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry...library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/CHL TR-14-12 October 2014 Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis...system of levees, gates, and drainage structures in the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal (IHNC) basin and the greater New Orleans, Louisiana, area. Two

  12. Nucleotide composition bias and codon usage trends of gene populations in Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. agalactiae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiao-Xia Ma; Yu-Ping Feng; Jia-Ling Bai; De-Rong Zhang; Xin-Shi Lin; Zhong-Ren Ma

    2015-06-01

    Because of the low GC content of the gene population, amino acids of the two mycoplasmas tend to be encoded by synonymous codons with an A or T end. Compared with the codon usage of ovine, Mycoplasma capricolum and M. agalactiae tend to select optimal codons, which are rare codons in ovine. Due to codon usage pattern caused by genes with key biological functions, the overall codon usage trends represent a certain evolutionary direction in the life cycle of the two mycoplasmas. The overall codon usage trends of a gene population of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum can be obviously separated from other mycoplasmas, and the overall codon usage trends of M. agalactiae are highly similar to those of M. bovis. These results partly indicate the independent evolution of the two mycoplasmas without the limits of the host cell’s environment. The GC and AT skews estimate nucleotide composition bias at different positions of nucleotide triplets and the protein consideration caused by the nucleotide composition bias at codon positions 1 and 2 largely take part in synonymous codon usage patterns of the two mycoplasmas. The correlation between the codon adaptation index and codon usage variation indicates that the effect of codon usage on gene expression in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum is opposite to that of M. agalactiae, further suggesting independence of the evolutionary process influencing the overall codon usage trends of gene populations of mycoplasmas.

  13. In vitro susceptibilities of field isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae to oxytetracycline, tylosin, enrofloxacin, spiramycin and lincomycin-spectinomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, G R; Sammartino, C; Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D

    2003-08-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tetracycline, enrofloxacin, tylosin, spiramycin and a lincomycin:spectinomycin 1:2 combination, against 24 Sicilian isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae, the causative organism of contagious agalactia were determined in vitro by a broth dilution method. Enrofloxacin was the most effective antimicrobial in vitro with a range of MIC values from 0.125 to 0.500 microg/ml and an MIC(50) of 0.203 and MIC(90) of 0.365 microg/ml. Using the MIC(50) and MIC(90) values the remaining four antimicrobials are ranked in order of in vitro effectiveness as follows: tylosin (MIC(50)0.292; MIC(90)0.525 microg/ml) was slightly more effective than tetracycline (MIC(50)0.296; MIC(90)0.533 microg/ml), followed by lincomycin:spectinomycin (MIC(50)0.521; MIC(90)0.938 microg/ml) and spiramycin (MIC(50)1.583; MIC(90)2.850 microg/ml). MIC values above 1.000 microg/ml were obtained using tetracycline, tylosin and spiramycin for some M. agalactiae isolates.

  14. Characterization of two novel gadd45a genes in hybrid tilapia and their responses to the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yubang; Ma, Keyi; Liu, Feng; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-07-01

    Diseases are one of the major challenges in tilapia aquaculture. Identification of DNA markers associated with disease resistance may facilitate the acceleration of the selection for disease resistance. Gadd45a (growth arrest and DNA damage 45 A), a stress-inducible gene in humans and mice, has not been studied in fish. We characterized the two prologues of Gadd45a genes in hybrid tilapia. Gadd45a1 and Gadd45a2 shared an identical gene structure and showed an amino acid sequence identity of 73.8%. Their expressions were detected in all 10 tissues examined, with the kidney and gill having high transcriptional expressions. The expression levels of Gadd45a1 were significantly lower than those of Gadd45a2 in all examined tissues. After a challenge with a bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae, the expressions of the two genes were up-regulated significantly in the spleen, kidney, liver and intestine. These findings suggest that the two Gadd45a genes play an important role in the resistance to S. agalactiae in tilapia. We identified 10 SNPs in the two genes. The SNP markers in the two Gadd45a genes could be used to examine whether they are associated with resistance to S. agalactiae.

  15. Evaluation of the efficacy of intramuscular versus intramammary treatment of subclinical Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis in dairy cows in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J; Chaffer, M; Sanchez, J; Torres, G; Macias, D; Jaramillo, M; Duque, P C; Ceballos, A; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed in 17 Colombian dairy herds to determine the cure risk among cows subclinically infected with Streptococcus agalactiae exposed to 2 antibiotic therapies. Composite milk samples were collected before milking at the onset of the trial (pretreatment) and 2 subsequent times over a period of approximately 63 d. The intramammary application (IMM) of ampicillin-cloxacillin was compared with the intramuscular application (IM) of penethamate hydriodide, and cure risks after an initial and retreatment application were assessed. Cure risk after the initial treatment was higher (82.4%) for the IMM treatment than for IM therapy (65.8%). However, no difference was observed in the cure risk of refractory cases after retreatment (IMM=52.6% vs. IM=51.2%). The cumulative cure risk (both initial and retreatment) was 90.4 and 82.9% for the IMM and IM products, respectively. A 2-level random effects logistic model that controlled for pretreatment cow-level somatic cell count, indicated that IM treatment (odds ratio=0.37) had a lower cure risk than IMM and a tendency for a lower cure risk with increasing baseline somatic cell count. Our findings suggest that both products and administration routes can reduce the prevalence of S. agalactiae in affected herds, but the IMM product had a better efficacy in curing the infection. In addition to the treatment protocol, the cow somatic cell count should be considered when making management decisions for cows infected with S. agalactiae.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Selected Standard Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria Producing Bacteriocins – Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Bodaszewska-Lubas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction:In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the antibacterial potential of standard strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB producing bacteriocins of various classes, thus demonstrating various mechanisms of cell membrane damages against the Streptococcus agalactiae strains (Group B Streptococcus, GBS, depending on surface polysaccharides and surface alpha-like protein genes.Materials/Methods:Antimicrobial property of the strains of L. plantarum C 11, L. sakei DSMZ 6333, and L. lactis ATCC 11454 producing bacteriocins: JK and EF plantaricins, sakacin and nisin, respectively, against the GBS strains was evaluated. The chosen to the study GBS strains were represented by serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, V and they had bca, epsilon, rib, alp2 or alp3 alpha-like protein genes. The experiment was conducted by means of suspension culture and the bacteria count was determined using the serial dilution method.Results:A great ability of L. plantarum C 11 strain was proven to inhibit the GBS growth. The strain of L. sakei DSMZ 6333 did not demonstrate any ability to inhibit the growth of GBS, whereas L. lactis ATCC 11454 inhibited the growth of S. agalactiae indicator strains to a minor extent. Statistically significant differences were demonstrated between the GBS strains representing various serotypes against the antimicrobial activity of model LAB strains. The least sensitive to the activity of bacteriocins were the strains representing serotypes Ib and III, whereas the strains representing serotype II were the most sensitive. The sensitivity of the GBS strains to the antimicrobial activity of LAB was not dependent on alpha-like protein genes.Discussion:Among the LAB standard strains producing bacteriocins, the strongest antimicrobial property was observed in the strain of L. plantarum C 11. Because of the generally known and verified strong antagonistic property of the strains of L. plantarum species against indicator bacteria, it is necessary

  17. Chignik small boat harbor planning aid report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Unless additional salmon use data would indicate otherwise, harbor site 3 is considered the environmentally preferred alternative for construction of a small...

  18. An attempt to identify the likely sources of Escherichia coli harboring toxin genes in rainwater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2012-05-01

    In this study, 200 Escherichia coli isolates from 22 rainwater tank samples in Southeast Queensland, Australia were tested for the presence of 10 toxin genes (i.e., stx(1), stx(2), hlyA, ehxA, LT1, ST1, cdtB, east1, cnf1, and cvaC) associated with intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes. Among the 22 rainwater tanks tested, 5 (28%), 7 (32%), 7 (32%), and 1 (5%) tanks contained E. coli harboring ST1, east1, cdtB, and cvaC genes, respectively. Of the 200 E. coli isolates from the 22 tanks, 43 (22%) strains from 13 (59%) tanks were harboring toxin gene. An attempt was made to establish a link between bird and possum fecal contamination and the presence of these potential clinically significant E. coli strains harboring toxin genes in rainwater tanks. Among the 214 E. coli isolates tested from birds, 30 (14%), 11 (5%) and 18 (8%) strains contained east1, cdtB, and cvaC toxin genes, respectively. Similarly, among the 214 possum E. coli isolates, 74 (35%) contained only the east1 toxin gene. All E. coli strains from rainwater tanks, bird and possum fecal samples harboring toxin genes were biochemically fingerprinted. Biochemical phenotypes (BPTs) of 14 (33%) E. coli strains from 7 rainwater tanks and 9 (21%) E. coli strains from 6 rainwater tanks were identical to a number of BPTs of E. coli strains isolated from bird and possum feces suggesting that these animals may be the sources of these E. coli in rainwater tanks. as a precautionary measure, it is recommended that rainwater should be treated prior to drinking. In addition, proper maintenance of roof and gutter hygiene and elimination of overhanging tree branches and other structures where possible to prevent the movement of possums are highly recommended.

  19. Characterization of Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae from Diseased Farmed and Wild Marine Fish from the U.S. Gulf Coast, Latin America, and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Wang, Rui; Wiles, Judy; Baumgartner, Wes; Green, Christopher; Plumb, John; Hawke, John

    2015-06-01

    We examined Lancefield serogroup B Streptococcus isolates recovered from diseased, cultured hybrid Striped Bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis × White Bass M. chrysops) and wild and cultured Gulf Killifish Fundulus grandis from coastal waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Gulf coast) and compared those isolates to strains from tilapias Oreochromis spp. reared in Mississippi, Thailand, Ecuador, and Honduras and to the original Gulf coast strain identified by Plumb et al. ( 1974 ). The isolates were subjected to phylogenetic, biochemical, and antibiotic susceptibility analyses. Genetic analysis was performed using partial sequence comparison of (1) the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene; (2) the sipA gene, which encodes a surface immunogenic protein; (3) the cspA gene, which encodes a cell surface-associated protein; and (4) the secY gene, which encodes components of a general protein secretion pathway. Phylogenies inferred from sipA, secY, and cspA gene sequence comparisons were more discriminating than that inferred from the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. The U.S. Gulf coast strains showed a high degree of similarity to strains from South America and Central America and belonged to a unique group that can be distinguished from other group B streptococci. In agreement with the molecular findings, biochemical and antimicrobial resistance analyses demonstrated that the isolates recovered from the U.S. Gulf coast and Latin America were more similar to each other than to isolates from Thailand. Three laboratory challenge methods for inducing streptococcosis in Gulf Killifish were evaluated-intraperitoneal (IP) injection, immersion (IMM), and immersion plus abrasion (IMMA)-using serial dilutions of S. agalactiae isolate LADL 97-151, a representative U.S. Gulf coast strain. The dose that was lethal to 50% of test fish by 14 d postchallenge was approximately 2 CFU/fish via IP injection. In contrast, the fish that were challenged via IMM or IMMA presented cumulative mortality

  20. Comparison of whole genome sequences from human and non-human Escherichia coli O26 strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri N Norman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O26 is the second leading E. coli serogroup responsible for human illness outbreaks behind E. coli O157:H7. Recent outbreaks have been linked to emerging pathogenic O26:H11 strains harboring stx2 only. Cattle have been recognized as an important reservoir of O26 strains harboring stx1; however the reservoir of these emerging stx2 strains is unknown. The objective of this study was to identify nucleotide polymorphisms in human and cattle-derived strains in order to compare differences in polymorphism derived genotypes and virulence gene profiles between the two host species. Whole genome sequencing was performed on 182 epidemiologically unrelated O26 strains, including 109 human-derived strains and 73 non-human-derived strains. A panel of 289 O26 strains (241 STEC and 48 non-STEC was subsequently genotyped using a set of 283 polymorphisms identified by whole genome sequencing, resulting in 64 unique genotypes. Phylogenetic analyses identified seven clusters within the O26 strains. The seven clusters did not distinguish between isolates originating from humans or cattle; however, clusters did correspond with particular virulence gene profiles. Human and non-human-derived strains harboring stx1 clustered separately from strains harboring stx2, strains harboring eae, and non-STEC strains. Strains harboring stx2 were more closely related to non-STEC strains and strains harboring eae than to strains harboring stx1. The finding of human and cattle-derived strains with the same polymorphism derived genotypes and similar virulence gene profiles, provides evidence that similar strains are found in cattle and humans and transmission between the two species may occur.

  1. Uncaria tomentosa increases growth and immune activity in Oreochromis niloticus challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis-Aguinaga, Jefferson; Claudiano, Gustavo S; Marcusso, Paulo F; Manrique, Wilson Gómez; de Moraes, Julieta R Engrácia; de Moraes, Flávio R; Fernandes, João B K

    2015-11-01

    Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) is an Amazon herb using in native cultures in Peru. In mammals, it has been described several effects of this herb. However, this is the first report of its use on the diet of fish. The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of this plant on the growth and immune activity in Oreochromis niloticus. Nile tilapia (81.3 ± 4.5 g) were distributed into 5 groups and supplemented with 0 (non-supplement fish), 75, 150, 300, and 450 mg of U. tomentosa.kg(-1) of diet for a period of 28 days. Fish were inoculated in the swim bladder with inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae and samples were taken at 6, 24, and 48 h post inoculation (HPI). Dose dependent increases were noted in some of the evaluated times of thrombocytes and white blood cells counts (WBC) in blood and exudate, burst respiratory activity, lysozyme activity, melanomacrophage centers count (MMCs), villi length, IgM by immunohistochemistry in splenic tissue, and unexpectedly on growth parameters. However, dietary supplementation of this herb did not affect red blood cells count (RBC), hemoglobin, and there were no observed histological lesions in gills, intestine, spleen, and liver. The current results demonstrate for the first time that U. tomentosa can stimulate fish immunity and improve growth performance in Nile tilapia.

  2. Virulence factors, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigverdi, Reza; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Mirsalehian, Akbar; Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Boroumandi, Shahram; Taherikalani, Morovat; Emaneini, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Forty-one Streptococcus agalactiae isolates collected from pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation were analysed for their capsular types, antimicrobial resistance determinants, distribution of virulence factors and genetic relatedness using PCR and multiplex PCR. Capsular type III was predominant (65.8%), followed by capsular type II (14.6%), Ib (7.3%), and V(4.9%). All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin, linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristin. Resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin were found in 97.6%, 24.4%, and 14.6% of isolates, respectively. The most common antimicrobial resistance gene was tetM found in 97.6% of the isolates followed by ermTR and ermB found in 12% and 7.3% of isolates, respectively. The most common virulence gene was hly (100%), followed by scpB (97.6%), bca (97.6%), rib (53.65%) and bac (4.9%). The insertion sequence IS1548 was found in 63.4% of isolates. By multi locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) typing, 30 different allelic profiles or MLVA types (MTs) were identified. The most frequent was the MT1 (5/41, 12.2%) and followed by MT2 (4/41, 9.75%). Our data revealed that population structure of these isolates is highly diverse and indicates different MLVA types.

  3. Significance, management and prevention of Streptococcus agalactiae infection during the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Reinhard

    2004-06-01

    The highest annual death rate during the first five decades of life occurs in the first year, particularly during the perinatal period between the onset of labor and 72 h after birth. Invasive bacterial disease evoking the severe inflammatory response syndrome is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Group B streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) is the most important pathogen in this period of life, although the concept of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis has impressively reduced the rate of culture-proven invasive infection in neonates. This strategy, however, has considerable limitations since group B streptococcus-related stillbirths or prematurity and late-onset sepsis cannot be prevented. Moreover, the use of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis has significantly increased the use of antibiotics during labor and therefore may select for intrapartum infections caused by other bacteria, including those resistant to antibiotics. Several advances in the development of vaccines and research on virulence factors and pathways involved in the immune response to group B streptococcus have been accomplished within the last years, including complete sequencing of the group B streptococcus genome. Development of effective vaccines and implementation of vaccination strategies will be one of the key challenges in the future for prevention of neonatal group B Streptococcus infections.

  4. Remodeling of the Streptococcus agalactiae transcriptome in response to growth temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Mereghetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To act as a commensal bacterium and a pathogen in humans and animals, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS must be able to monitor and adapt to different environmental conditions. Temperature variation is a one of the most commonly encountered variables. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the extent to which GBS modify gene expression in response to temperatures encountered in the various hosts, we conducted a whole genome transcriptome analysis of organisms grown at 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C. We identified extensive transcriptome remodeling at various stages of growth, especially in the stationary phase (significant transcript changes occurred for 25% of the genes. A large proportion of genes involved in metabolism was up-regulated at 30 degrees C in stationary phase. Conversely, genes up-regulated at 40 degrees C relative to 30 degrees C include those encoding virulence factors such as hemolysins and extracellular secreted proteins with LPXTG motifs. Over-expression of hemolysins was linked to larger zones of hemolysis and enhanced hemolytic activity at 40 degrees C. A key theme identified by our study was that genes involved in purine metabolism and iron acquisition were significantly up-regulated at 40 degrees C. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Growth of GBS in vitro at different temperatures resulted in extensive remodeling of the transcriptome, including genes encoding proven and putative virulence genes. The data provide extensive new leads for molecular pathogenesis research.

  5. Biofilm formation by Streptococcus agalactiae: influence of environmental conditions and implicated virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosini, Roberto; Margarit, Immaculada

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is an important human pathogen that colonizes the urogenital and/or the lower gastro-intestinal tract of up to 40% of healthy women of reproductive age and is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in the neonates. GBS can also infect the elderly and immuno-compromised adults, and is responsible for mastitis in bovines. Like other Gram-positive bacteria, GBS can form biofilm-like three-dimensional structures that could enhance its ability to colonize and persist in the host. Biofilm formation by GBS has been investigated in vitro and appears tightly controlled by environmental conditions. Several adhesins have been shown to play a role in the formation of GBS biofilm-like structures, among which are the protein components of pili protruding outside the bacterial surface. Remarkably, antibodies directed against pilus proteins can prevent the formation of biofilms. The implications of biofilm formation in the context of GBS asymptomatic colonization and dissemination to cause invasive disease remain to be investigated in detail.

  6. Structure of Streptococcus agalactiae glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase holoenzyme reveals a novel surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Chapelle A; Schormann, Norbert; Senkovich, Olga; Fry, Alexandra; Banerjee, Surajit; Ulett, Glen C; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2014-10-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a conserved cytosolic enzyme, which plays a key role in glycolysis. GAPDH catalyzes the oxidative phosphorylation of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate using NAD or NADP as a cofactor. In addition, GAPDH localized on the surface of some bacteria is thought to be involved in macromolecular interactions and bacterial pathogenesis. GAPDH on the surface of group B streptococcus (GBS) enhances bacterial virulence and is a potential vaccine candidate. Here, the crystal structure of GBS GAPDH from Streptococcus agalactiae in complex with NAD is reported at 2.46 Å resolution. Although the overall structure of GBS GAPDH is very similar to those of other GAPDHs, the crystal structure reveals a significant difference in the area spanning residues 294-307, which appears to be more acidic. The amino-acid sequence of this region of GBS GAPDH is also distinct compared with other GAPDHs. This region therefore may be of interest as an immunogen for vaccine development.

  7. Identification of high immunoreactive proteins from Streptococcus agalactiae isolates recognized by human serum antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzychczy-Wloch, Monika; Gorska, Sabina; Brzozowska, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej; Heczko, Piotr B; Bulanda, Malgorzata

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the studies was to identify immunogenic proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) isolates. Investigation of the immunoreactivity with human sera allowed us to determine major immunogenic proteins which might be potential candidates for the development of vaccine. For the study, we have selected 60 genetically different, well-characterized GBS clinical isolates. The proteins immunoreactivity with 24 human sera from patients with GBS infections, carriers, and control group without GBS was detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. As a result, some major immunogenic proteins were identified, of which four proteins with molecular masses of about 45 to 50 kDa, which exhibited the highest immunoreactivity features, were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The proteins were identified by comparative analysis of peptides masses using MASCOT and statistical analysis. The results showed known molecules such as enolase (47.4 kDa), aldehyde dehydrogenase (50.6 kDa), and ones not previously described such as trigger factor (47 kDa) and elongation factor Tu (44 kDa). The preliminary results indicated that some GBS proteins that elicit protective immunity hold promise not only as components in a vaccine as antigens but also as carriers or adjuvants in polysaccharide conjugate vaccines, but more studies are needed.

  8. Biofilm formation by Streptococcus agalactiae: influence of environmental conditions and implicated virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma eMargarit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS is an important human pathogen that colonizes the urogenital and/or the lower gastro-intestinal tract of up to 40% of healthy women of reproductive age and is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in the neonates. GBS can also infect the elderly and immuno-compromised adults, and is responsible for mastitis in bovines. Like other Gram-positive bacteria, GBS can form biofilm-like three-dimensional structures that could enhance its ability to colonize and persist in the host. Biofilm formation by GBS has been investigated in vitro and appears tightly controlled by environmental conditions. Several adhesins have been shown to play a role in the formation of GBS biofilm-like structures, among which are the protein components of pili protruding outside the bacterial surface. Remarkably, antibodies directed against pilus proteins can prevent the formation of biofilms. The implications of biofilm formation in the context of GBS asymptomatic colonization and dissemination to cause invasive disease remain to be investigated in detail.

  9. Molecular epidemiology and distribution of serotypes, genotypes, and antibiotic resistance genes of Streptococcus agalactiae clinical isolates from Guelma, Algeria and Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergal, A; Loucif, L; Benouareth, D E; Bentorki, A A; Abat, C; Rolain, J-M

    2015-12-01

    This study describes, for the first time, the genetic and phenotypic diversity among 93 Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) isolates collected from Guelma, Algeria and Marseille, France. All strains were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The molecular support of antibiotic resistance and serotyping were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The phylogenetic lineage of each GBS isolate was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and grouped into clonal complexes (CCs) using eBURST. The isolates represented 37 sequence types (STs), 16 of which were novel, grouped into five CCs, and belonging to seven serotypes. Serotype V was the most prevalent serotype in our collection (44.1%). GBS isolates of each serotype were distributed among multiple CCs, including cps III/CC19, cps V/CC1, cps Ia/CC23, cps II/CC10, and cps III/CC17. All isolates presented susceptibility to penicillin, whereas resistance to erythromycin was detected in 40% and tetracycline in 82.2% of isolates. Of the 37 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 75.7% showed the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB)-resistant phenotype and 24.3% exhibited the macrolide (M)-resistant phenotype. Constitutive MLSB resistance (46%) mediated by the ermB gene was significantly associated with the Guelma isolates, whereas the M resistance phenotype (24.3%) mediated by the mefA/E gene dominated among the Marseille isolates and belonged to ST-23. Tetracycline resistance was predominantly due to tetM, which was detected alone (95.1%) or associated with tetO (3.7%). These results provide epidemiological data in these regions that establish a basis for monitoring increased resistance to erythromycin and also provide insight into correlations among clones, serotypes, and resistance genes.

  10. Narrow harbors. Few joint ventures will find haven in the investment-interest safe harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, G J; Swoboda, J

    1991-12-01

    Investors and potential investors had hoped for meaningful guidance from the safe harbor regulations on appropriate structures for healthcare joint ventures. Unfortunately, the narrowly drawn final investment-interest safe harbor offers relatively little meaningful guidance or protection for the vast majority of such ventures. The Illegal Remuneration Statute (also known as the fraud and abuse statute) was first enacted in 1972 to prohibit members of the healthcare community from exchanging patient referrals for any kind of remuneration. In 1987 Congress instructed the secretary of Health and Human Services to create "safe harbors" for legitimate payment practices that, although they may violate the statute's strict prohibition, will be protected from prosecution. The investment-interest safe harbor has garnered the most attention. It provides two safe harbors, one for investments in large entities and one for investments in small entities. Both safe harbors contain onerous threshold requirements and other restrictions that diminish the usefulness of the safe harbor for all but a very few ventures. In addition, the Office of the Inspector General has created other obstacles to forming and preserving "safe" healthcare business ventures, including a refusal to "grandfather" or create a "safe harbor restructuring period" for existing business arrangements. Because most existing or planned joint ventures do not qualify for the investment-interest safe harbor, investors are forced to make their business decisions on the basis of the same factors used before publication of the safe harbor regulations. Such analysis will continue to focus on factors that demonstrate organizations' intent in making payments to investors as a return on investments.

  11. Detection of Streptococcus agalactiae colonization in pregnant women by using combined swab cultures: cross-sectional prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Marconi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Maternal Streptococcus agalactiae colonization and early-onset neonatal sepsis have aroused interest in the worldwide literature. Streptococcal neonatal disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period, especially among premature neonates. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of maternal streptococcal colonization by using combined swab cultures, compared with swab collection from a single site. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista. METHODS: Samples were obtained from 405 patients at gestational ages of 35 to 37 weeks. Swabs from the perianal (rectal region, vaginal introitus and upper lateral vaginal vault were cultured in Todd-Hewitt selective broth. Colonies suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae were subjected to the catalase and CAMP (Christie, Atkins, Munch-Petersen tests. To evaluate the positivity of combined swab cultures, Tukey's test was used for comparison of proportions. RESULTS: The prevalence of streptococcal colonization was 25.4%. Among the patients with positive cultures, 28.1% had this at only one collection site, 24.2% simultaneously at two sites and 47.5% at all three sites. Associating the swabs from two collection sites significantly increased streptococcal isolation, compared with a single swab (P < 0.05, except for perianal (rectal collection. Use of combined swabs from three collection sites showed statistically higher isolation rates. CONCLUSION: In combined swab cultures collected from three collection sites, the prevalence of maternal Streptococcus agalactiae colonization was higher than in swabs collected from a single site.

  12. Streptococcus agalactiae: HASTA AHORA EL ÚNICO Streptococcus PATÓGENO DE TILAPIAS CULTIVADAS EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AP Jiménez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estreptococosis son un conjunto de enfermedades ocasionadas por un grupo de cocos Gram positivos con similares signologías que involucran distintos órganos en los individuos afectados. La identiÀcación precisa de cada uno de estos microorganismos no se logra de manera deÀnitiva por los métodos tradicionales microbiológicos, por lo que se debe acudir a otro tipo de metodologías como las técnicas de biología molecular. En 1999 se identiÀcó por primera vez en Colombia la estreptococosis en híbridos de tilapias de cultivo. La pos-terior secuenciación del ADN de distintos aislamientos obtenidos de varias regiones del país demostró un 98,8% de aÀnidad con el Streptococcus agalactiae. El presente estudio pretende deÀnir si hasta la fecha existe solo esta especie de Streptococcus en el país causan-do infección o enfermedad en tilapias de cultivo o, por el contrario, son varias las especies que intervienen en los cuadros infecciosos. Se evaluaron aislamientos de tejidos, de agua y fango de los sitios de cultivo, así como de lugares de expendio de tilapia roja (Oreochromissp., utilizando técnicas microbiológicas, inmunoperoxidasa indirecta (IPI y PCR, espe-cíÀcas para el aislamiento e identiÀcación del S. agalactiae. Los resultados del presente estudio demostraron que hasta la fecha en el país únicamente se ha identiÀcado la especie S. agalactiae causando infección o enfermedad en tilapias. No tenemos evidencia de que otros Streptococcus reportados internacionalmente como S. iniae y otros Gram positivos causen estreptococosis en Colombia.La tilapia parece ser el principal reservorio del S. agalactiae en el país, y el riesgo zoonótico, aunque existe, es mínimo si se toman las medidas apropia-das de bioseguridad.

  13. Structural damage monitoring of harbor caissons with interlocking condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons.

  14. Importancia clínica del Streptococcus agalactiae como causante de infección.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Crespo Ortiz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus agalactiae o estreptococo ß-hemolítico del grupo b (S. b es causa importante de sepsis neonatal y de infecciones en gestantes y adultos inmunocomprometidos. Se trata de una bacteria encapsulada cuya virulencia se atribuye a una toxina polisacárida y se caracteriza por presentar una alta concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM a la penicilina. Su papel como patógeno potencial se ha reconocido ampliamente en países industrializados donde en la actualidad se desarrollan estrategias de diagnóstico y prevención dada su alta morbimortalidad; sin embargo, en países en desarrollo no se informa con frecuencia la infección por este germen, básicamente debido a la circulación de serotipos menos virulentos y la falta de una búsqueda y diagnóstico adecuados. La experiencia de la Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia, revela en poco tiempo la presencia frecuente de esta bacteria como colonizante y como origen de infecciones severas en neonatos y adultos, con una resistencia moderada a la penicilina y alta a la gentamicina y tetraciclina. Por las implicaciones de esta infección y por lo imperativo de conocer más acerca de ella, se revisan las características de la infección y de los casos, con lo que se pretende alertar sobre la presencia de este germen en Cali a fin de orientar hacia estrategias adecuadas para mejorar su descubrimiento en el laboratorio y hacer un buen diagnóstico y un manejo terapéutico eficaz.

  15. Assignment of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates to clonal complexes using a small set of single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Gwendolyn L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus (GBS is an important human pathogen, particularly of newborns. Emerging evidence for a relationship between genotype and virulence has accentuated the need for efficient and well-defined typing methods. The objective of this study was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based method for assigning GBS isolates to multilocus sequence typing (MLST-defined clonal complexes. Results It was found that a SNP set derived from the MLST database on the basis of maximisation of Simpsons Index of Diversity provided poor resolution and did not define groups concordant with the population structure as defined by eBURST analysis of the MLST database. This was interpreted as being a consequence of low diversity and high frequency horizontal gene transfer. Accordingly, a different approach to SNP identification was developed. This entailed use of the "Not-N" bioinformatic algorithm that identifies SNPs diagnostic for groups of known sequence variants, together with an empirical process of SNP testing. This yielded a four member SNP set that divides GBS into 10 groups that are concordant with the population structure. A fifth SNP was identified that increased the sensitivity for the clinically significant clonal complex 17 to 100%. Kinetic PCR methods for the interrogation of these SNPs were developed, and used to genotype 116 well characterized isolates. Conclusion A five SNP method for dividing GBS into biologically valid groups has been developed. These SNPs are ideal for high throughput surveillance activities, and combining with more rapidly evolving loci when additional resolution is required.

  16. 16 CFR 312.10 - Safe harbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safe harbors. 312.10 Section 312.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE... provide the same or greater protections for children as those contained in §§ 312.2 through 312.9; (2)...

  17. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Volume 55 of the Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology is dedicated to the study of the brain. The symposium was subdivided into four major sections. Papers were presented in Molecular Mechanisms for Signalling; Neural Development; Sensory and Motor Systems; and Cognitive Neuroscience. Individual papers from the symposium are abstracted separately. (MHB)

  18. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains the first part of the proceeding of the 53rd Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. This years topic was Immune Recognition. Part 1, this volume, contains papers prepared by presenters of the sessions entitled Introduction, Lymphocyte Development and Receptor Selection, and Recognition by Antibodies, Antigen Recognition by T cells. (DT)

  19. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains the second part of the proceedings of the 53rd Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. This years topic was Immune Recognition. This volume, part 2, contains papers prepared by presenters for two sessions entitled Signals for Lymphocyte Activation, Proliferation, and Adhesion, and entitled Tolerance and Self Recognition. (DT)

  20. Molecular and functional characterization of peptidoglycan-recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhen; Chen, Shannan; Hou, Jing; Huo, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ruan, Baiye; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Li, Li; Lu, Yishan; Nie, Pin

    2016-07-01

    PGRP-SC2, the member of PGRP family, plays an important role in regulation of innate immune response. In this paper, a PGRP-SC2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-PGRP-SC2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for amidase activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-PGRP-SC2. In healthy tilapia, the On-PGRP-SC2 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the muscle. When infected with S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-PGRP-SC2 in the spleen, head kidney and brain. The assays for the amidase activity suggested that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein had a Zn(2+)-dependent PGN-degrading activity. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein could significantly reduce bacterial load in target organs attacked by S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-PGRP-SC2 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of two Streptococcus agalactiae proteins: the family II inorganic pyrophosphatase and the serine/threonine phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, Mika K.; Lehtiö, Lari [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 65, FIN-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Rubens, Craig E. [Division of Infectious Disease, Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98105 (United States); Goldman, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.goldman@helsinki.fi [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 65, FIN-00014, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-09-01

    Two S. agalactiae proteins, the inorganic pyrophosphatase and the serine/threonine phosphatase, were crystallized and diffraction data were collected and processed from these crystals. The data from the two protein crystals extended to 2.80 and 2.65 Å, respectively. Streptococcus agalactiae, which infects human neonates and causes sepsis and meningitis, has recently been shown to possess a eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein phosphorylation signalling cascade. Through their target proteins, the S. agalactiae Ser/Thr kinase and Ser/Thr phosphatase together control the growth as well as the morphology and virulence of this organism. One of the targets is the S. agalactiae family II inorganic pyrophosphatase. The inorganic pyrophosphatase and the serine/threonine phosphatase have therefore been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected from their crystals. The data were processed using XDS. The inorganic pyrosphosphatase crystals diffracted to 2.80 Å and the Ser/Thr phosphatase crystals to 2.65 Å. Initial structure-solution experiments indicate that structure solution will be successful in both cases. Solving the structure of the proteins involved in this cascade is the first step towards understanding this phenomenon in atomic detail.

  2. Molecular characterization and expression of CD2 in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to Streptococcus agalactiae stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhen; Wang, Bei; Tang, Jufen; Lu, Yishan; Jian, JiChang; Wu, Zaohe; Nie, Pin

    2016-03-01

    The cluster of differentiation 2 (CD2), functioning as a cell adhesion and costimulatory molecule, plays a crucial role in T-cell activation. In this paper, the CD2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-CD2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the stimulation of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed On-CD2 protein consists of two extracellular Ig-like domains, a transmembrane region, and a long proline-rich cytoplasmic tail, which is a hallmark of CD2, and several important structural characteristics required for T-cell activation were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-CD2. In healthy tilapia, the On-CD2 transcripts were mainly detected in the head kidney, spleen, blood and thymus. Moreover, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-CD2 after immunized by formalin-inactivated S. agalactiae and the expression reached the highest level at 12 h in the brain and head kidney, 48 h in the spleen, and 72 h in the thymus, respectively. This is the first report on the expression of CD2 induced by bacteria vaccination in teleosts. These findings indicated that On-CD2 may play an important role in the immune response to intracellular bacteria in Nile tilapia.

  3. Characterization of the duodenase-1 gene and its associations with resistance to Streptococuus agalactiae in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yubang; Fu, Gui Hong; Liu, Feng; Yue, Gen Hua

    2015-08-01

    Tilapia is a group of cultured teleost fishes whose production is threatened by some diseases. Identification of DNA markers associated with disease resistance in candidate genes may facilitate to accelerate the selection of disease resistance. The gene encoding a duodenase, which can trigger immune response, has not been studied in fish. We characterized the cDNA of duodenase-1 gene of hybrid tilapia. Its ORF is 759 bp, encoding a serine protease of 252 amino acids. This gene consisted of five exons and four introns. Its expression was detected in all 10 tissues examined, and it was highly expressed in the intestine and kidney. After a challenge with the bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus agalactiae, its expression was up-regulated significantly in the intestine, liver and spleen. We identified seven SNPs in the gene and found that four of them were significantly associated with the resistance to S. agalactiae (P tilapia. The SNP markers in the duodenase-1 gene associated with resistance to the bacterial pathogen, may facilitate the selection of tilapia resistant to the bacterial disease.

  4. Viability of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri in goat milk samples stored under different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Joaquín; Sánchez, Antonio; Martín, Angel Gómez; Corrales, Juan C; Contreras, Antonio; de la Fe, Christian

    2010-10-26

    Control programs for contagious agalactia (CA) involve monitoring milk samples to detect this disease. This study was designed to establish the effects of the preservatives generally used in dairy laboratories and storage temperature on the viability of Mycoplasma (M.) agalactiae (Ma) and M. mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) in goat milk samples. In total, 1440 determinations were conducted for each mycoplasma species in milk samples subjected to different storage temperatures (refrigeration at 4°C or freezing at -20°C), preservation strategies (no preservative, NP; azidiol, AZ; or bronopol, BR) and storage times at each temperature (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 24h at 4°C and 48h, 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks at -20°C). Our findings reveal the similar viability of Mmc in milk samples stored at 4°C for 24h under the three preservation conditions examined. In contrast, the isolation of Ma in refrigerated milk samples was compromised by the presence of BR, and in smaller measure by the treatments AZ and NP. Freezing milk samples considerably reduced the viability of both mycoplasmas. Given the different sensitivity of the two mycoplasma species to BR, refrigerated milk samples treated with AZ could be used to detect infections caused by both species through culture-based methods.

  5. Contagious agalactia due to Mycoplasma spp. in small dairy ruminants: epidemiology and prospects for diagnosis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, Angel; Amores, Joaquín; Paterna, Ana; De la Fe, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Contagious agalactia (CA) is a serious disease of small dairy ruminants that has a substantial economic impact on the goat and sheep milk industries. The main aetiological agent of the disease is Mycoplasma agalactiae, although other species, such as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and Mycoplasma putrefaciens, are pathogenic in goats. There are two clinical-epidemiological states of CA in sheep and goats; herds and flocks may exhibit outbreaks of CA or may be chronically infected, the latter with a high incidence of subclinical mastitis and only occasional clinical cases. The complex epidemiology of CA is related to the genetic characteristics and mechanisms of molecular variation of the Mycoplasma spp. involved, along with presence of CA-mycoplasmas in wild ruminant species. In goats, the situation is particularly complex and asymptomatic carriers have been detected in chronically infected herds. The coexistence of other non-pathogenic mycoplasmas in the herd further complicates the diagnosis of CA and the design of efficient strategies to control the disease. Routes of infection, such as the venereal route, may be involved in the establishment of chronic infection in herds. Current challenges include the need for improved diagnostic methods for detection of chronic and subclinical infections and for the design of more efficient vaccines.

  6. Infection and pathology in Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), caused by exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae via different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamare-Deboutteville, J; Bowater, R; Condon, K; Reynolds, A; Fisk, A; Aviles, F; Barnes, A C

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, 96 wild Queensland groupers, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), have been found dead in NE Australia. In some cases, Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) was isolated. At present, a GBS isolate from a wild grouper case was employed in experimental challenge trials in hatchery-reared Queensland grouper by different routes of exposure. Injection resulted in rapid development of clinical signs including bilateral exophthalmia, hyperaemic skin or fins and abnormal swimming. Death occurred in, and GBS was re-isolated from, 98% fish injected and was detected by PCR in brain, head kidney and spleen from all fish, regardless of challenge dose. Challenge by immersion resulted in lower morbidity with a clear dose response. Whilst infection was established via oral challenge by admixture with feed, no mortality occurred. Histology showed pathology consistent with GBS infection in organs examined from all injected fish, from fish challenged with medium and high doses by immersion, and from high-dose oral challenge. These experimental challenges demonstrated that GBS isolated from wild Queensland grouper reproduced disease in experimentally challenged fish and resulted in pathology that was consistent with that seen in wild Queensland grouper infected with S. agalactiae.

  7. Streptococcus agalactiae infective endocarditis complicated by large vegetations at aortic valve cusps along with intracoronary extension: An autopsy case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Ayako

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae infective endocarditis is a rare condition with high mortality owing to complications of large vegetations and systemic emboli. A 49-year-old man was found dead in his house. He had a history of hepatic cirrhosis and had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes 2years previously. He had presented with a high fever 10days before his death. An autopsy revealed 50mL of purulent pericardial effusion, and S. agalactiae was detected from the culture of this pericardial effusion. Two slender rope-like vegetations were present at the right aortic valve cusp and noncoronary aortic valve cusp. The vegetation at the right aortic valve cusp extended into the right coronary artery. The right coronary artery was broadly occluded by white rod-like material. The mitral valves were also affected, and the posterior papillary muscle was ruptured. Myocardial infarction was not observed. Systemic microscopic Gram-positive bacterial masses were observed in several organs. The death was attributed to acute myocardial ischemia caused by occlusive intracoronary extension of the vegetation at the proximal right coronary artery.

  8. Aerial Survey Units for Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys of coastal Alaska are the primary method for estimating abundance of harbor seals. A particular challenge associated with aerial surveys of harbor...

  9. Akutan, Alaska bottomfish harbor study feasibility stage: Planning aid report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Six alternatives are presently being studied by the Corps of Engineers, in conjunction with facilitating construction of a bottomfish harbor at Akutan Harbor located...

  10. Virulence of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates harboring bla KPC-2 carbapenemase gene in a Caenorhabditis elegans model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Lavigne

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC is a carbapenemase increasingly reported worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae. The aim of this study was to analyze the virulence of several KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. The studied strains were (i five KPC-2 clinical strains from different geographical origins, belonging to different ST-types and possessing plasmids of different incompatibility groups; (ii seven transformants obtained after electroporation of either these natural KPC plasmids or a recombinant plasmid harboring only the bla KPC-2 gene into reference strains K. pneumoniae ATCC10031/CIP53153; and (iii five clinical strains cured of plasmids. The virulence of K. pneumoniae isolates was evaluated in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. The clinical KPC producers and transformants were significantly less virulent (LT50: 5.5 days than K. pneumoniae reference strain (LT50: 4.3 days (p<0.01. However, the worldwide spread KPC-2 positive K. pneumoniae ST258 strains and reference strains containing plasmids extracted from K. pneumoniae ST258 strains had a higher virulence than KPC-2 strains belonging to other ST types (LT50: 5 days vs. 6 days, p<0.01. The increased virulence observed in cured strains confirmed this trend. The bla KPC-2 gene itself was not associated to increased virulence.

  11. 78 FR 75207 - National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9068 of December 5, 2013 National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2013 By the... resolve. On National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, we honor the men and women who selflessly sacrificed... forces of tyranny and oppression in the Second World War. In remembrance of Pearl Harbor and to...

  12. 32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is responsible for prescribing and enforcing such rules...

  13. 75 FR 76613 - National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8614 of December 7, 2010 National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2010 By the... service members and civilians awoke on a quiet Sunday to a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by Japanese... lives lost were forever seared into our national memory. The deadly attack on Pearl Harbor did...

  14. 77 FR 73889 - National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Part V The President Proclamation 8914--National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2012 Executive Order... National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... American people. In less than 2 hours, the bombs that rained on Pearl Harbor robbed thousands of men,...

  15. Teaching about Pearl Harbor. Curriculum Enhancement Series #1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Anna Marshall

    These materials consist of sample lesson plans for teaching about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, in both U.S. and world history classes. The lesson plans challenge students to examine how current attitudes toward the Japanese may be rooted in World War II and Pearl Harbor. Selected bibliographies on Pearl Harbor, World…

  16. Remembering Pearl Harbor at 75 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Sopcheck, Janet; Milbrath, Gwyneth

    2016-12-01

    : On December 7, 1941, the Sunday-morning quiet of the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, was shattered by dive-bombing Japanese fighter planes. The planes came in two waves-and when it was all over, more than 2,400 were killed and more than 1,100 were injured.Nurses were stationed at U.S. Naval Hospital Pearl Harbor, Tripler General Hospital (now Tripler Army Medical Center), Hickam Field Hospital, Schofield Barracks Station Hospital, and aboard the USS Solace, and witnessed the devastation. But they also did what nurses do in emergencies-they responded and provided care to those in need. Here are the stories of a few of those nurses.

  17. Gulfport Harbor, Mississippi. Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    the finback whale (Balaenoptera physalus), humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae ), sei whale (B. borealis), green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas...Environmental Policy Act, as amended, 42 USC 4321, et seq. Rivers and Harbors Act, 33 USC 401 et seq. Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act, 16...USC 1001, et seq. Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, as amended, 16 USC 1271, et seq. Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act

  18. Multicentre epidemiological survey on the incidence of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lodolo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ß-hemolytic streptococci group B (GBS cause infections of the urinary tract, endometrium, amnion, and superinfection of wounds, with complications in 2% -4% of cases in pregnant woman.The infection transmitted to newborns is a cause of sepsis and meningitis with high incidence of mortality.A recent report on a multicentric study of the ISS, showed that detection of S. agalactiae in pregnant women in different realities of healthcare, ranging from 3.9% to 19.4%. This survey covers a sample of 29607 women screened in a total of 36852 childbirths, with a positivity of 4183 subjects equal to 14.1%. Thanks to the GBS Study Group of Piemonte and Valle d’Aosta microbiology laboratories, with the support of 42 study centres have been involved. Collection techniques, types of medium, environmental of incubation of the culture, possible enrichment in broth, of the swabs of 28491 women during 2006/2007 have been considered. 24.36% were vaginal swab while 75.64% vagino/rectal. According to data collected at 31 centers with eligible data (22,175 pregnant GBS positivity was 12.7% (CI [Confidence Interval] + / -95%: 13.1% -12.2% with wide variability between individual centers (2% -22.6%. The enrichment broth is used by 6 out of 9 centers with positivity> 15% (M: 20.05%, from 6 to 14 with positivity between 10-15% (M: 12.61%, from none to 8 centers with less than 10% positivity (M: 4.95%.This multicentre survey underlined the preference for vagino/rectal swab, as recommended by the literature. The frequency of GBS positivity of pregnant women on the whole samples is similar to that found in other national surveys, even if with large differences between the different centers.The sensitivity tends to increase with the use of enrichment techniques, whose use is uneven between the centers, perhaps indicating the need for greater uniformity of protocols based on the results of microbiological analysis EBM (Evidence Based Medicine.

  19. Global transcriptional profiling reveals Streptococcus agalactiae genes controlled by the MtaR transcription factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvek Urska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS is a significant bacterial pathogen of neonates and an emerging pathogen of adults. Though transcriptional regulators are abundantly encoded on the GBS genome, their role in GBS pathogenesis is poorly understood. The mtaR gene encodes a putative LysR-type transcriptional regulator that is critical for the full virulence of GBS. Previous studies have shown that an mtaR- mutant transports methionine at reduced rates and grows poorly in normal human plasma not supplemented with methionine. The decreased virulence of the mtaR mutant was correlated with a methionine transport defect; however, no MtaR-regulated genes were identified. Results Microarray analysis of wild-type GBS and an mtaR mutant revealed differential expression of 12 genes, including 1 upregulated and 11 downregulated genes in the mtaR mutant. Among the downregulated genes, we identified a cluster of cotranscribed genes encoding a putative methionine transporter (metQ1NP and peptidase (pdsM. The expression of four genes potentially involved in arginine transport (artPQ and arginine biosynthesis (argGH was downregulated and these genes localized to two transcriptional units. The virulence factor cspA, which encodes an extracellular protease, was downregulated. Additionally, the SAN_1255 locus, which putatively encodes a protein displaying similarity to plasminogen activators, was downregulated. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the global influence of MtaR on GBS gene expression. This study implicates the metQ1NP genes as encoding the MtaR-regulated methionine transporter, which may provide a mechanistic explanation for the methionine-dependent growth defect of the mtaR mutant. In addition to modulating the expression of genes involved in metabolism and amino acid transport, inactivation of mtaR affected the expression of other GBS genes implicated in pathogenesis. These findings

  20. Virulence of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates harboring bla KPC-2 carbapenemase gene in a Caenorhabditis elegans model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Cuzon, Gaelle; Combescure, Christophe; Bourg, Gisèle; Sotto, Albert; Nordmann, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) is a carbapenemase increasingly reported worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae. The aim of this study was to analyze the virulence of several KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. The studied strains were (i) five KPC-2 clinical strains from different geographical origins, belonging to different ST-types and possessing plasmids of different incompatibility groups; (ii) seven transformants obtained after electroporation of either these natural KPC plasmids or a recombinant plasmid harboring only the bla KPC-2 gene into reference strains K. pneumoniae ATCC10031/CIP53153; and (iii) five clinical strains cured of plasmids. The virulence of K. pneumoniae isolates was evaluated in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. The clinical KPC producers and transformants were significantly less virulent (LT50: 5.5 days) than K. pneumoniae reference strain (LT50: 4.3 days) (pKPC-2 positive K. pneumoniae ST258 strains and reference strains containing plasmids extracted from K. pneumoniae ST258 strains had a higher virulence than KPC-2 strains belonging to other ST types (LT50: 5 days vs. 6 days, pKPC-2 gene itself was not associated to increased virulence.

  1. Clinical distribution and drug resistance of 179 isolates of Streptococcus agalactia%179株无乳链球菌的标本分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宇岚; 黄尔; 欧启水; 杨滨; 陈守涛; 荀振; 张泽佳; 闫翔宇; 郭少英; 留玉芬; 高丽钦; 甘龙杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigated the clinical distributions and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactia strains isolated from the patients .Methods The identification and susceptibility of the strains were mainly measured by automatic VITEK‐Ⅱ system ,the K‐B disc diffusion tests were used for the resistance test of erythromycin ,meropenem ,and D‐test .Results The iso‐lates were mainly from urine (63 .1% ) ,genital tract(7 .8% ) and wound secretion(6 .7% ) .They were obtained from patients in dif‐ferent situations ,including 110 patients who were older than 50 years old (61 .5% ) ,113 female patients (63 .1% ) ,12 gravidas (6 .7% ) ,3 vertical transmitted newborns(1 .7% ) ,and 82 patients with cancer ,undergoing chemo radiotherapy ,with diabetes ,tuber‐culosis or after operations(45 .8% ) .The resistant rates of the isolated Streptococcus agalactia to erythromycin and clindamycin were 42 .9% -93 .3% and 41 .9% -80 .0% respectively .The positive rate of D‐test was 4 .1% .The strains were highly resistant to tet‐racycline(>80% ) ,while the resistance to penicillin was below 10% except in 2008 .All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and meropenem .Only one strain was resistant to Quinupristin‐dalfopristin .Conclusion Streptococcus agalactia infection in adults most‐ly cause genitourinary tract ,skin and soft tissue infections .There were more females than males with Streptococcus agalactia infec‐tion .Penicillin andβ‐lactams are still the first choice for the treatment .Erythromycin ,clindamycin and tetracycline should be used with caution under the guidance of laboratory susceptibility test results .%目的:分析临床分离无乳链球菌的标本分布和对常用抗菌药物的耐药性。方法收集不同来源标本,在VIT EKⅡ微生物分析仪上采用GPI卡和GP67卡进行菌种鉴定和药敏实验,红霉素、美罗培南的药敏实验及D‐试验采用K‐B纸片法检测。

  2. Identification and serotyping of Streptococcus agalactiae by PCR%无乳链球菌及其血清型的PCR方法鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤炜; 周雪; 于立权; 吴志军; 朱战波; 崔玉东

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important pathogen that causes bovine mastitis and life-threatening invasive infections (septicemia,pneumonia,and meningitis) during the neonatal period.To rapidly identify capsular serotypes of S.agalactiae,a total of 22 bovine Streptococcus isolates from different regions of China were typed by biochemical tests and multiplex PCR to amplify the conserved sip and cps genes of the S.agalactiae.The results shown 17 of the 22 isolates were positive for sip gene,whereas,15 of the 17 S.agalactiae were positive identified by biochemical tests.Furthermore,the multiplex PCR also revealed that among the 17 isolates,the cps gene serotypes were 4 of Ia,11 of Ⅱ and 2 of Ⅲ,repectively.This study may provide a reference for identification and serotyping of S.agalactiae.%无乳链球菌(S.agalactiae)是引起奶牛乳房炎和新生儿期侵袭性感染(包括败血症、肺炎和脑膜炎)的重要病原菌.为快速准确地鉴定S.agalactiae及其血清型,本研究对22株从国内不同地区分离的牛源链球菌进行生化鉴定以及针对S.agalactiae保守基因sip进行PCR鉴定,并采用多重PCR技术扩增sip基因阳性菌株的cps基因进行血清分型.结果显示,PCR扩增sip基因阳性17株,其中15株生化试验与PCR结果一致;多重PCR扩增cps基因显示,其中Ia型4株、Ⅱ型11株、Ⅲ型2株.本研究为鉴定S.agalactiae及其血清型提供了参考.

  3. Controlling contagious agalactia in artificial insemination centers for goats and detection of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri in semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, A; Corrales, J C; Amores, J; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Paterna, A; De la Fe, C

    2012-04-01

    Many goat artificial insemination (AI) centers in Spain have adopted new measures to control contagious agalactia (CA). To avoid the introduction of male goats carrying mycoplasma organisms subclinically in their external ear canal (auricular carriers) in these centers, two ear swabs and a blood sample are obtained from all candidate animals for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture (swabs) and serologic tests to detect the presence of mycoplasmas. In addition, the semen produced at these centers is routinely cultured and PCR tested also to detect the presence of mycoplasmas. One y after the introduction of this program, we tested 48 ear swabs and 24 blood samples from 24 candidates for admission to these AI Centers. Three of these ear swab samples (3/48, 6.25%) scored positive for the presence of mycoplasmas; Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) was detected in two samples and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) in one. All animals were serologically negative for Ma. Also, out of 173 semen samples obtained from 137 admitted animals (2 and 3 samples were obtained in 16 and 10 bucks, respectively), one (1/173, 0.56%) was positive for Mmc. Our findings suggest that ear swab and semen samples are useful tools to control CA at AI Centers. The introduction of this program has also resulted in the first detection of Mmc in semen from a naturally infected goat, confirming the ability of this mycoplasma to colonize the reproductive tract of male goats. These results highlight the need to improve control measures in semen producing centers to minimize the risk of CA transmission.

  4. Desempenho e hematologia de tilápias-do-nilo alimentadas com Saccharomyces cerevisiae e vacinadas contra Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Salvador

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a inter-relação entre a suplementação alimentar com parede celular de Saccharomyces cerevisae e a vacinação contra Streptococcus agalactiae e seu efeito sobre o desempenho produtivo e as variáveis hematológicas de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Oitenta e quatro tilápias-do-nilo foram distribuídas em 12 caixas de fibra (n=7, em arranjo fatorial 2x2x3, correspondente a dois níveis de suplementação com parede celular de levedura, dois tipos de inoculação e três tempos de avaliação. Os peixes foram alimentados durante 77 dias. A vacinação dos peixes foi realizada 60 dias após o início da alimentação. Quinze dias após a vacinação, todos os peixes foram submetidos ao desafio com cepa viva de S. agalactiae, e 6, 24 e 48 horas após o desafio, o sangue foi colhido da veia caudal para avaliações. Peixes alimentados com ração suplementada apresentam maior ganho de peso e taxa de crescimento específico, e a interação entre os efeitos da dieta e da vacinação resulta em maiores taxas de hematócrito, hemoglobina e leucócitos.

  5. Numerical study of transient nonlinear harbor resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that nonlinear wave-wave interactions play an important role in harbor resonance. Nevertheless it is not clear how waves take part in those interactions. The aim of this paper is to investigate those processes for a rectangular harbor at transient phases. Long-period oscillations excited by bichromatic waves are simulated by the Boussinesq model. The simulations start from calm conditions for the purpose of studying the response process. The internal wavemaker stops working after the oscillations have reached a quasi-steady state, and it is used to simulate the damp process. In order to analyze temporary features of wave-wave interactions in different states, the wavelet-based bispectrum is employed. The influence of the short wave frequencies on long-period oscillations is investigated, and reasons are tried to be given from nonlinear triad interactions between different wave components and the interaction of short waves and the bay entrance. Finally, the response time and the damp time are estimated by a simple method.

  6. Cold spring harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    For many decades, it has been clear that cells have a multitude of ways of sensing their environment and converting a plethora of external signals into measured intracellular responses. Now we realize that many first messengers do not act directly through second messengers, but instead work at the genetic level by binding to cytoplasmically located receptors, which can then bind to DNA and turn on or off the functioning of specific genes. Today, we refer to the way that external signals are passed through various cellular components as signal transduction processes, with receptors and their associated molecules known as biological transducers. Because most transducer molecules are present in very limited amounts, their study at the biochemical level until recently was at best difficult, and hypothesis as to how they functioned were almost impossible to test rigorously. Today, recombinant DNA techniques have dramatically changed the picture. Even very rare receptors are now open to analyses if their respective genes can be cloned, and virtually every month, the amino acid sequence of a new key biological transducer is established. The time was thus appropriate last June to hold a Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on the Molecular Biology of Signal Transduction. The final program consisted of 119 speakers, who spoke before an audience of 439, the largest ever yet to attend a Cold spring Harbor Symposium. This volume contains 61 papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the energy data base.

  7. Cold spring harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    For many decades, it has been clear that cells have a multitude of ways of sensing their environment and converting a plethora of external signals into measured intracellular responses. Now we realize that many first messengers do not act directly through second messengers, but instead work at the genetic level by binding to cytoplasmically located receptors, which can then bind to DNA and turn on or off the functioning of specific genes. Today, we refer to the way that external signals are passed through various cellular components as signal transduction processes, with receptors and their associated molecules known as biological transducers. Because most transducer molecules are present in very limited amounts, their study at the biochemical level until recently was at best difficult, and hypotheses as to how they functioned were almost impossible to test rigorously. Today, recombinant DNA techniques have dramatically changed the picture. Even very rare receptors are now open to analysis if their respective genes can be cloned, and virtually every month the amino acid sequence of a new key biological transducer is established. The time was thus appropriate last June to hold a Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on the Molecular Biology of Signal Transduction. The final program consisted of 119 speakers, who spoke before an audience of 439, the largest ever yet to attend a Cold Spring Harbor Symposium. This volume contains 54 papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the energy data base.

  8. Ostéomyélites et ostéoarthrites à streptocoque béta-hémolytique du groupe B ("Streptococcus agalactiae")

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Loan Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Le "streptococcus agalactiae" est un pathogène retrouvé de façon quasi exclusive chez le nourrisson et la femme enceinte. Les données récentes de la littérature suggèrent une augmentation de sa responsabilité dans les ostéomyélites. De janvier 1999 à juillet 2003, 22 patients hospitalisés à Genève ont présenté une ostéomyélite à "streptococcus agalactiae", prouvée par biopsie osseuse. Tous les patients présentaient un facteur de risque favorisant l'infection, dont 16 (72%) un diabète de type ...

  9. Short communication: comparing real-time PCR and bacteriological cultures for Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus in bulk-tank milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, G; Caminiti, A; Delle Donne, G; Moroni, P; Santi, A; Galletti, G; Tamba, M; Bolzoni, G; Bertocchi, L

    2014-09-01

    For more than 30 yr, a control plan for Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus has been carried out in more than 1,500 dairy herds of the province of Brescia (northern Italy). From 2010 to 2011, the apparent prevalence of Strep. agalactiae has been relatively stable around 10%, but the apparent prevalence of Staph. aureus has been greater than 40% with an increasing trend. The aim of this paper was to estimate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3 assays for the detection of Strep. agalactiae and Staph. aureus in bulk-tank milk samples (BTMS) in field conditions. The assays were a qualitative and a quantitative bacteriological culture (BC) for each pathogen and a homemade multiplex real-time PCR (rt-PCR). Because a gold standard was not available, the sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were evaluated using a Bayesian latent class approach. In 2012 we collected one BTMS from 165 dairy herds that were found positive for Strep. agalactiae in the previous 2-yr campaigns of eradication plan. In most cases, BTMS collected in these herds were positive for Staph. aureus as well, confirming the wide spread of this pathogen. At the same time we also collected composite milk samples from all the 8,624 lactating cows to evaluate the within-herd prevalence of Strep. agalactiae. Streptococcus agalactiae samples were cultured using a selective medium Tallium Kristalviolette Tossin, whereas for Staph. aureus, we used Baird Parker modified medium with added Rabbit Plasma Fibrinogen ISO-Formulation. In parallel, BTMS were tested using the rt-PCR. Regarding Strep. agalactiae, the posterior median of Se and Sp of the 2 BC was similar [qualitative BC: Se=98%, posterior credible interval (95%PCI): 94-100%, and Sp=99%, 95%PCI: 96-100%; quantitative BC: Se=99%, 95%PCI: 96-100%, and Sp=99%, 95%PCI: 95-100%] and higher than those of the rt-PCR (at 40 cycle threshold, Se=92%, 95%PCI: 85-97%; Sp=94%, 95%PCI: 88-98%). Also in case of Staph. aureus, the posterior medians

  10. Ostéomyélites et ostéoarthrites à Streptocoque béta-hémolytique du groupe B (Streptococcus agalactiae)

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Loan Catherine; Bernard, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Le «streptococcus agalactiae» est un pathogène retrouvé de façon quasi exclusive chez le nourrisson et la femme enceinte. Les données récentes de la littérature suggèrent une augmentation de sa responsabilité dans les ostéomyélites. De janvier 1999 à juillet 2003, 22 patients hospitalisés à Genève ont présenté une ostéomyélite à «streptococcus agalactiae», prouvée par biopsie osseuse. Tous les patients présentaient un facteur de risque favorisant l’infection, dont 16 (72%) un diabète de type ...

  11. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguo Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  12. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deguo; Liu, Yanhong

    2015-05-26

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  13. An examination of teat drying with disinfectant impregnated cloths on the bacteriological quality of milk and on the transfer of Streptococcus agalactiae before milking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, C H; Higgs, T M; Bramley, A J

    1985-08-01

    Total bacterial counts of the milk from individual cows were measured for three groups of ten winter housed cows at three milkings. The teats were either (i) left unwashed or (ii) washed with disinfected water (60 ppm available iodine) and dried with individual paper towels or (iii) washed with plain water and then dried with a single fabric cloth impregnated with a polymeric bisguanide and a quaternary ammonium compound. The mean total bacterial counts/ml for the groups were 5820, 2108 and 1116 respectively. Treatments (ii) and (iii) were also compared for their ability to prevent the inter-teat transfer of bacteria. Before teat washing and drying, one teat of each cow was deliberately contaminated with Streptococcus agalactiae. Significantly fewer teats (5/30) became contaminated with Str. agalactiae when treatment (iii) was used for teat washing and drying compared with treatment (ii) (20/30).

  14. Boussinesq Modeling for Inlets, Harbors, and Structures (Bouss-2D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    2). BMT provides key engineering estimates for storms and non-storm waves, wave setup and wave-induced currents necessary for a risk-based design...Mississippi River Gulf Outlet, New Orleans Flood Control Gates, LA; Buffalo Harbor, NY; Tau Harbor, and Faleasao Harbor, American Samoa. BMT helps...innovative infrastructures design; probabilistic engineering design and rehabilitation estimates for jetties, breakwaters for coastal protection

  15. Economic Impact of Cruise Ship Passengers in Bar Harbor, Maine

    OpenAIRE

    Gabe, Todd; Lynch, Colleen; McConnon, James; Allen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This report examines the economic impact of cruise ship passengers in Bar Harbor, Maine. In 2002, 64 cruise ships docked in Bar Harbor carrying about 120,000 passengers and crewmembers. The analysis presented in the report is based on 1,080 passenger surveys conducted between August and October of 2002. Economic impact figures are based on a total of 97,190 passengers, which is the capacity of the 64 cruise ships that were scheduled to visit Bar Harbor in 2002.

  16. O-Glycosylation of the N-terminal Region of the Serine-rich Adhesin Srr1 of Streptococcus agalactiae Explored by Mass Spectrometry *

    OpenAIRE

    Chaze, Thibault; Guillot, Alain; Valot, Benoît; Langella, Olivier; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Di Guilmi, Anne-Marie; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Mistou, Michel-Yves

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Serine-rich (Srr) proteins exposed at the surface of Gram-positive bacteria are a family of adhesins that contribute to the virulence of pathogenic staphylococci and streptococci. Lectin-binding experiments have previously shown that Srr proteins are heavily glycosylated. We report here the first mass-spectrometry analysis of the glycosylation of Streptococcus agalactiae Srr1. After Srr1 enrichment and trypsin digestion, potential glycopeptides were identified in colli...

  17. A STUDY OF MARINE FOULING IN MONTEREY HARBOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIERS, *FOULING, *HARBORS, *MARINE BIOLOGY, CALIFORNIA, PACIFIC OCEAN, NAVAL RESEARCH, CRUSTACEA, ANIMALS, PERIODIC VARIATIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS, TIME, DISTRIBUTION, SEA WATER, PLATYHELMINTHES , OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA.

  18. A putative multi-replicon plasmid co-harboring beta-lactamase genes blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-14 and blaTEM-1 and trimethoprim resistance gene dfrA25 from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 strain in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu; Shen, Pinghua; Liang, Wei; Jin, Jialin; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2017-01-01

    The global emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a major public health threat requiring immediate and aggressive action. Some older generation antibiotics, such as trimethoprim, serve as alternatives for treatment of infections. Here, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pHS091147, which co-harbored the carbapenemase (blaKPC-2) and trimethoprim resistance genes (dfrA25) from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 clone recovered in Shanghai, China. pHS091147 had three replication genes, several plasmid-stability genes and an intact type IV secretion system gene cluster. Besides blaKPC-2 and dfrA25, pHS091147 carried several other resistance genes, including β-lactamase genes blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-14, sulphonamide resistance gene sul1, a quinolone resistance gene remnant (ΔqnrB2), and virulence associated gene iroN. Notably, the multidrug-resistance region was a chimeric structure composed of three subregions, which shared strong sequence homology with several plasmids previously assigned in Genbank. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the co-localization of blaKPC-2 and dfrA25 on a novel putative multi-replicon plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 clone. PMID:28152085

  19. Harbor seal whiskers synchronize with frequency of upstream wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Heather; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Harbor seals are able to use their whiskers to track minute water movements, such as those left in the wake of a fish. The current study is a simple representation of what the whiskers experience as the seal chases a fish. A scaled whisker model (average cross-flow diameter: dw) is first tested in a towing tank by itself and then towed behind a larger cylinder (dc = 2 . 5dw), which serves as a wake generator. A flexing plate attached to the model base allows the whisker to freely vibrate in response to the flow. Measurements from strain gages on the plate are calibrated to tip deflections. While in the cylinder wake, the whisker vibrates with an amplitude up to ten times higher than it does on its own (A /dw = 0 . 15). Also, the whisker synchronizes with the vortex shedding frequency (fs =0/. 2 U dc) of the upstream cylinder over the range of reduced velocities tested, whereas on its own, the whisker oscillates around its own natural frequency in water. Seals may use the difference in vibration amplitude and frequency between these two cases to help detect the presence of a vortex wake.

  20. Submarine harbor navigation using image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubberud, Stephen C.; Kramer, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    The process of ingress and egress of a United States Navy submarine is a human-intensive process that takes numerous individuals to monitor locations and for hazards. Sailors pass vocal information to bridge where it is processed manually. There is interest in using video imaging of the periscope view to more automatically provide navigation within harbors and other points of ingress and egress. In this paper, video-based navigation is examined as a target-tracking problem. While some image-processing methods claim to provide range information, the moving platform problem and weather concerns, such as fog, reduce the effectiveness of these range estimates. The video-navigation problem then becomes an angle-only tracking problem. Angle-only tracking is known to be fraught with difficulties, due to the fact that the unobservable space is not the null space. When using a Kalman filter estimator to perform the tracking, significant errors arise which could endanger the submarine. This work analyzes the performance of the Kalman filter when angle-only measurements are used to provide the target tracks. This paper addresses estimation unobservability and the minimal set of requirements that are needed to address it in this complex but real-world problem. Three major issues are addressed: the knowledge of navigation beacons/landmarks' locations, the minimal number of these beacons needed to maintain the course, and update rates of the angles of the landmarks as the periscope rotates and landmarks become obscured due to blockage and weather. The goal is to address the problem of navigation to and from the docks, while maintaining the traversing of the harbor channel based on maritime rules relying solely on the image-based data. The minimal number of beacons will be considered. For this effort, the image correlation from frame to frame is assumed to be achieved perfectly. Variation in the update rates and the dropping of data due to rotation and obscuration is considered

  1. 21 CFR 526.1696d - Penicillin G procaine-novobiocin for intramammary infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and... caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. (iii)...

  2. Cyclomodulins in urosepsis strains of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Damien; Delmas, Julien; Cady, Anne; Robin, Frédéric; Sivignon, Adeline; Oswald, Eric; Bonnet, Richard

    2010-06-01

    Determinants of urosepsis in Escherichia coli remain incompletely defined. Cyclomodulins (CMs) are a growing functional family of toxins that hijack the eukaryotic cell cycle. Four cyclomodulin types are actually known in E. coli: cytotoxic necrotizing factors (CNFs), cycle-inhibiting factor (Cif), cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), and the pks-encoded toxin. In the present study, the distribution of CM-encoding genes and the functionality of these toxins were investigated in 197 E. coli strains isolated from patients with community-acquired urosepsis (n = 146) and from uninfected subjects (n = 51). This distribution was analyzed in relation to the phylogenetic background, clinical origin, and antibiotic resistance of the strains. It emerged from this study that strains harboring the pks island and the cnf1 gene (i) were strongly associated with the B2 phylogroup (P, urosepsis origin (P, urosepsis groups, suggesting that the pks island is more important for the colonization process and the cnf1 gene for virulence. pks- or cnf1-harboring strains were significantly associated with susceptibility to antibiotics (amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, and quinolones [P, <0.001 to 0.043]). Otherwise, only 6% and 1% of all strains harbored the cdtB and cif genes, respectively, with no particular distribution by phylogenetic background, antimicrobial susceptibility, or clinical origin.

  3. New Harbor in Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenstad, Jaran Gjerlandj; Eppeland, Kjetil Grødal; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    transported by rivers from the inland ice to the inner parts of the fjord. These sediment layers reduce the water depth and prevent container- and cruiseships to dock, imposing large additional maintenance costs, and inefficient operability. Through engineering geological field and lab investigations......The international airport of Greenland is located in Kangerlussuaq, making it an important connection point for tourists and transportation of goods. However, the existing harbor in Kangerlussuaq experiences major challenges in the form of extensive sedimentation of glaciofluvial sediments...... sediment deposits at the location are reusable as construction material and may reduce construction costs. Bathymetry investigations indicate however that measures must be taken to increase the water depth, and the offshore sediments were found not suitable as support for foundations....

  4. 某院妇产科住院患者的无乳链球菌感染情况及耐药性研究%Research of infectious situation and drug resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae in patients of the department of gynecology and obstetrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽滨; 聂署萍; 陆学东; 林立鹏; 邓凤娴

    2016-01-01

    cultivated vaginal swab speci‐mens of pregnant women were 730 ,among which ,12 samples were positive Streptococcus agalactiae ,which accounted for 1 .64% . The total number of cultivated vaginal swab specimens of gynecological patients was 583 ,among which ,6 samples were positive Streptococcus ,which accounted for 1 .03% .The number of first fetal pregnant women was 505 ,among which ,8 cases carried with Streptococcus .And the positive rate was 1 .59% .The number of second fetal pregnant women was 227 ,among which ,4 cases car‐ried with Streptococcus agalactiae .And the positive rate was 1 .76% .The difference between the two groups had no statistical sig‐nificance(P>0 .05) .All positive Streptococcus agalactiae strains had high sensitivity to cephalosporin antibiotics ,while there were no strains resistant to cefoperazone ,cefuroxime sodium and ceftriaxone ,and the sensitive rate was 100% .In addition ,the resistant rates of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were as high as 38 .89% and 27 .78% .Conclusion The Streptococcus agalactiae infected rate of patients in obstetrical department is higher than that of patients in gynecology department .Streptococcus agalactiae strains have high sensitivity to cephalosporin antibiotics ,while ,they have high resistance to quinolone antibiotics .

  5. Effect of carryover and presampling procedures on the results of real-time PCR used for diagnosis of bovine intramammary infections with Streptococcus agalactiae at routine milk recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Yasser S; Mweu, Marshal M; Nielsen, Søren S; Katholm, Jørgen; Klaas, Ilka C

    2014-03-01

    The use of PCR tests as diagnostics for intramammary infections (IMI) based on composite milk samples collected in a non-sterile manner at milk recordings is increasing. Carryover of sample material between cows and non-aseptic PCR sampling may be incriminated for misclassification of IMI with Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in dairy herds with conventional milking parlours. Misclassification may result in unnecessary costs for treatment and culling. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the effect of carryover on PCR-positivity for S. agalactiae at different PCR cycle threshold (Ct) cut-offs by estimating the between-cow correlation while accounting for the milking order, and (2) evaluate the effect of aseptic presampling procedures (PSP) on PCR-positivity at the different Ct-value cut-offs. The study was conducted in four herds with conventional milking parlours at routine milk recordings. Following the farmers' routine pre-milking preparation, 411 of 794 cows were randomly selected for the PSP treatment. These procedures included removing the first streams of milk and 70% alcohol teat disinfection. Composite milk samples were then collected from all cows and tested using PCR. Data on milking order were used to estimate the correlation between consecutively milked cows in each milking unit. Factors associated with the PCR-positivity for S. agalactiae were analyzed using generalized estimating equations assuming a binomially-distributed outcome with a logit link function. Presampling procedures were only significant using cut-off 37. A first-order autoregressive correlation structure provided the best correlation between consecutively milked cows. The correlation was 13%, 11%, 9% at cut-offs <40, 37, and 34, respectively. PSP did not reduce the odds of cows being PCR-positive for S. agalactiae. In conclusion, carryover and non-aseptic sampling affected the PCR results and should therefore be considered when samples from routine milk

  6. 77 FR 27625 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI AGENCY..., Prevention Department, Coast Guard Sector Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI at (414) 747-7188, email Jon.K.Grob....935, Safety Zone, Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI, at the following time for the following events:...

  7. 75 FR 44141 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI AGENCY... Sector Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI at 414-747-7154, e-mail Adam.D.Kraft@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY... Harbor, Milwaukee, WI, for the following events: (1) Arab World Festival fireworks display on August...

  8. 75 FR 34361 - Safety Zone, Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone, Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS..., call ] or e-mail BM1 Adam Kraft, Prevention Department, Coast Guard Sector Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI... enforce the safety zone listed in 33 CFR 165.935, Safety Zone, Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI, for...

  9. 78 FR 37456 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Sector Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI at (414) 747-7148, email joseph.p.mccollum@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY... Harbor, Milwaukee, WI, at the following times for the following events: (1) Polish Fest fireworks...

  10. 78 FR 28742 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Sector Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI at (414) 747-7148, email joseph.p.mccollum@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY... Harbor, Milwaukee, WI, for the 2013 Pridefest fireworks. This zone will be enforced from 9:15 p.m....

  11. 75 FR 49848 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI AGENCY..., WI at 414-747-7154, e-mail Adam.D.Kraft@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zone listed in 33 CFR 165.935, Safety Zone, Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI, for...

  12. 75 FR 22234 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI AGENCY... BM1 Adam Kraft, Prevention Department, Coast Guard Sector Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI at 414-747-7154... zone listed in 33 CFR 165.935, Safety Zones, Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI, for the following...

  13. 33 CFR 110.255 - Ponce Harbor, P.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ponce Harbor, P.R. 110.255 Section 110.255 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.255 Ponce Harbor, P.R. (a) Small-craft anchorage. On...

  14. 33 CFR 110.26 - Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass. 110.26 Section 110.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Mass. The area comprises that portion of the harbor lying between the extreme low water line...

  15. 33 CFR 110.38 - Edgartown Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Edgartown Harbor, Mass. 110.38 Section 110.38 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.38 Edgartown Harbor, Mass. An area in the inner...

  16. 33 CFR 110.37 - Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. 110.37 Section 110.37 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.37 Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. All the...

  17. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of...

  18. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In...

  19. 33 CFR 110.32 - Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass. 110.32 Section 110.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.32 Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass. (a) Area...

  20. 32 CFR 705.31 - USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. 705.31... NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.31 USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. (a) Limited space and the desirability of keeping the Memorial simple and dignified require...

  1. 33 CFR 110.238 - Apra Harbor, Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam. 110.238 Section 110.238 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.238 Apra Harbor, Guam. (a) The anchorage grounds (Datum: WGS 84). (1) General Anchorage. The...

  2. 33 CFR 117.181 - Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. 117.181 Section 117.181 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.181 Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. The draws of the...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1450 - Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai, HI. 80.1450 Section 80.1450 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1450 Nawiliwili Harbor, Kauai,...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line...

  5. 78 FR 29089 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI... Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following areas are safety...

  6. 78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI.... 14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1470 - Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1470 Section 80.1470 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1470 Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii,...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1460 - Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. 80.1460 Section 80.1460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. A line...

  9. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  10. 33 CFR 110.111 - Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. 110.111 Section 110.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.111 Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. An area in the main channel within the...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1134 - Monterey Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monterey Harbor, CA. 80.1134 Section 80.1134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1134 Monterey Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1110 - Dana Point Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dana Point Harbor, CA. 80.1110 Section 80.1110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1110 Dana Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136 Section 80.1136 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  14. 33 CFR 110.210 - San Diego Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, CA. 110.210... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.210 San Diego Harbor, CA. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1... Commander, Naval Base, San Diego, CA. The administration of these anchorages is exercised by the...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152 Section 80.1152 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1138 - Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. 80.1138 Section 80.1138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1138 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1116 - Redondo Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redondo Harbor, CA. 80.1116 Section 80.1116 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1116 Redondo Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1142 - San Francisco Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Francisco Harbor, CA. 80.1142 Section 80.1142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1142 San Francisco Harbor, CA. A straight...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1108 - Oceanside Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oceanside Harbor, CA. 80.1108 Section 80.1108 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1108 Oceanside Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1126 - Santa Barbara Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. 80.1126 Section 80.1126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1126 Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. A line...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1140 - Pillar Point Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pillar Point Harbor, CA. 80.1140 Section 80.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1140 Pillar Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1104 - San Diego Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, CA. 80.1104 Section 80.1104 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1104 San Diego Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  3. 33 CFR 110.58 - Cos Cob Harbor, Greenwich, Conn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cos Cob Harbor, Greenwich, Conn. 110.58 Section 110.58 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.58 Cos Cob Harbor, Greenwich, Conn. (a) Area...

  4. Prostaglandin induced parturition in swine with some aspects on prevention of the MMA (metritis, mastitis, agalactia) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, S; Gustafsson, B; Larsson, K

    1975-09-01

    The effect of PGF2alpha to induce parturition in sows was studied in two herds. In one herd with a total number of 150 sows and with a good health status 12 sows were injected intramuscularly with 12.5 mg PGF2alpha during late pregnancy (110--114 days). During the same period 12 sows were treated intramuscularly with saline solution at corresponding gestation stage. The results are given in Tables I and II. The mean age calculated as number of litters was 2.6 in the experimental group and 4.3 in the control group. All sows treated with PGF2alpha farrowed within 30 hours after injection at an average time of 25.4 hours. The controls farrowed at an average 80.2 hours after injection. The mean farrowing time was 4.4 hours for the PG-treated sows while the corresponding figure for the controls was 6.6 hours. The litter size at birth, after 3 weeks and at weaning was somewhat higher in the experimental group. The same applies to the litter weight at the age of 3 weeks. The course of parturition was normal in all sows and the health condition during lactation was good. In another herd -- numbering 18 sows -- all sows which hade farrowed during the last 4 months before the present investigation, had developed the Mastitis-Metritis-Agalactia syndrome (MMA). The symptoms were a prolonged gestation length (116--117 days), fever, mastitis and agalactia. During the present study 3 sows were left untreated while 5 sows were given an intramuscular injection with 12.5 mg PGF2alpha during late pregnancy (112--114 days). Four of the five PG-treated sows farrowed within 32 hours, while the fifth sow farrowed 100 hours after injection. The sow not responding to the PG-treatment and the untreated sows all developed MMA while the four sows responding to treatment remained healthy. The gestation length in treated sows responding to treatment was 113--115 days. In the sows developing MMA the gestation length was 116--117 days. The potential effect for prevention of MMA of shortening the

  5. Complete genome sequences of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni 14980A (turkey feces) and Campylobacter coli 14983A (housefly from turkey farm), harboring a novel gentamicin resistance mobile element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in foodborne pathogens is a major food safety and public health issue. Here we describe whole-genome sequences of two MDR strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from turkey feces and a housefly in a turkey farm. Both strains harbor a novel chromosomal genta...

  6. Retail ready-to-eat food as a potential vehicle for Staphylococcus spp. harboring antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Laniewska-Trokenheim, Lucja

    2014-06-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) food, which does not need thermal processing before consumption, could be a vehicle for the spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. As part of general microbiological safety checks, staphylococci are routinely enumerated in these kinds of foods. However, the presence of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci in RTE food is not routinely investigated, and data are only available from a small number of studies. The present study evaluated the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from 858 RTE foods (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes, salads). Of 113 strains isolated, S. aureus was the most prevalent species, followed by S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. epidermidis. More than half (54.9%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one class of tested antibiotic; of these, 35.4% of the strains were classified as multidrug resistant. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (49.6%), followed by clindamycin (39.3%), tigecycline (27.4%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (22.2%), rifampin (20.5%), tetracycline (17.9%), and erythromycin (8.5%). All methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbored the mecA gene. Among the isolates resistant to at least one antibiotic, 38 harbored tetracycline resistance determinant tet (M), 24 harbored tet (L), and 9 harbored tet (K). Of the isolates positive for tet (M) genes, 34.2% were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545-like integrase family gene. Our results indicated that retail RTE food could be considered an important route for the transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harboring multiple antibiotic resistance genes.

  7. Metal binding is critical for the folding and function of laminin binding protein, Lmb of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Ragunathan

    Full Text Available Lmb is a 34 kDa laminin binding surface adhesin of Streptococcus agalactiae. The structure of Lmb reported by us recently has shown that it consists of a metal binding crevice, in which a zinc ion is coordinated to three highly conserved histidines. To elucidate the structural and functional significance of the metal ion in Lmb, these histidines have been mutated to alanine and single, double and triple mutants were generated. These mutations resulted in insolubility of the protein and revealed altered secondary and tertiary structures, as evidenced by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy studies. The mutations also significantly decreased the binding affinity of Lmb to laminin, implicating the role played by the metal binding residues in maintaining the correct conformation of the protein for its binding to laminin. A highly disordered loop, proposed to be crucial for metal acquisition in homologous structures, was deleted in Lmb by mutation (ΔLmb and its crystal structure was solved at 2.6 Å. The ΔLmb structure was identical to the native Lmb structure with a bound zinc ion and exhibited laminin binding activity similar to wild type protein, suggesting that the loop might not have an important role in metal acquisition or adhesion in Lmb. Targeted mutations of histidine residues confirmed the importance of the zinc binding crevice for the structure and function of the Lmb adhesin.

  8. Detection and Enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae from Bovine Milk Samples by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Nara Ladeira; Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Botaro, Bruno Garcia; Silva, Luis Felipe de Prada E; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with DNA extraction directly from composite milk and bulk tank samples for detection and enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae (SAG) causing subclinical mastitis. Dilutions of sterile reconstituted skim milk inoculated with SAG ATCC 13813 were used to establish a standard curve (cfu/mL) for the qPCR assay targeting SAG. The analytical sensitivity and repeatability of the qPCR assay were determined. Bulk tank (BTM; n = 38) and composite milk samples (CM; n = 26) collected from lactating cows with positive isolation of SAG were submitted to the qPCR protocol and SAG plate counting, with results from both methods compared. Amplification of DNA was not possible in two out of 64 samples, indicating that qPCR was able to detect SAG in 96 and 97% of BTM and CM samples, respectively. The inter-assay coefficient of variation was <5%, showing that the technique had adequate repeatability. The qPCR protocol can be a high-throughput and rapid diagnostic assay to accurately detect SAG from BTM and CM samples compared with conventional microbiological culture method. However, the evaluated qPCR protocol is not accurate for enumerating SAG in milk samples, probably due to quantification of DNA of non-viable cells.

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Five Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates Harboring the New and Recently Described Subtilase Cytotoxin Allelic Variant subAB2-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasara, Taurai; Fierz, Lisa; Schmidt, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present here the draft genome sequences of five Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains which tested positive in a primary subAB screening. Assembly and annotation of the draft genomes revealed that all strains harbored the recently described allelic variant subAB2-3. Based on the sequence data, primers were designed to identify and differentiate this variant. PMID:28232433

  10. Human case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus canis sequence type 9 harboring the scm gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Daisuke; Abe, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Takahide; Takahashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus canis (Sc) is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. The similarity of the 16S rRNA from the infecting species to that of the Sc type strain, as well as the amplification of the species-specific cfg gene, encoding a co-hemolysin, was used to confirm the species identity. Furthermore, the isolate was confirmed as sequence type 9. The partial scm gene sequence harbored by the isolate was closely related to those of other two Sc strains. While this isolate did not possess the erm(A), erm(B), or mef(A), macrolide/lincosamide resistance genes, it was not susceptible to azithromycin: its susceptibility was intermediate. Even though human Sc bacteremia is rare, clinicians should be aware of this microorganism, as well as Pasteurella sp., Prevotella sp., and Capnocytophaga sp., when examining and treating patients with fever who maintain close contact with companion animals.

  11. Properties of an Arcanobacterium haemolyticum strain isolated from a donkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammra, Osama; Balbutskaya, Anna; Nagib, Samy; Alber, Jörg; Lämmler, Christoph; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Timke, Markus; Kostrzewa, Markus; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize phenotypically and genotypically an Arcanobacterium haemolyticum strain (A. haemolyticum P646) isolated from a purulent nasal discharge of a donkey. A. haemolyticum P646 showed, compared to sheep blood, an enhanced hemolytic reaction on rabbit blood agar, a synergistic CAMP-like reaction with Streptococcus agalactiae and Rhodococcus equi as indicator strains, a reverse CAMP reaction in the zone of Staphylococcus aureus beta-hemolysin and the typical biochemical properties of this species. The species identity could be confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis, by sequencing the 16S rDNA and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoding gene gap and by amplification of A. haemolyticum specific parts of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region and 23S rDNA. A. haemolyticum P646 and the reference strain A. haemolyticum DSM 20595 were further characterized by amplification of the putative virulence genes encoding arcanolysin, phospholipase D, hemolysin A, CAMP factor family protein, a collagen binding protein and two neuraminidases which were present for A. haemolyticum DSM 20595. A. haemolyticum P646 showed a comparable gene spectrum but was negative for the genes encoding collagen binding protein and neuraminidase H. To our knowledge, the present study is the first phenotypic and genotypic characterization of an A. haemolyticum strain isolated from a donkey.

  12. Cloning and Prokaryotic Expression of Streptococcus Agalactiae Sip Gene%无乳链球菌Sip基因的克隆与原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学云; 王蒴; 吴建勇; 王登峰; 李建军

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus Agalactiae surface immunogenic protein (Sip) is a highly conservative important target for the study of Streptococcus Agalactiae vaccine. The Sip gene was amplified by PCR and be inserted into vector pET-22b from a recombinant vector pET-22b-Sip. After identified by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing methods, the recombinant plasmid was transformed into BL21 (DE3) and induced to express by IPTG. The size and reactionogenicity of recombinant protein was detected. The results showed that the sip gene was 1300bp and was 99.16% in homology with reference sequence of GeneBank. The recombinant protein was found to be about 50KDa as expected and showed good reactionogenicity. This research provided the basis and foundation for the immunization against Streptococcus Agalactiae.%无乳链球菌表面免疫相关蛋白(Surface immunogenic proteins, Sip)具有高度保守性,是无乳链球菌疫苗研究的重要靶标.通过PCR技术扩增Sip基因,将其插入pET-22b载体构建重组质粒pET-22b-Sip,并对重组质粒进行双酶切、PCR鉴定及测序;转入BL21(DE3)中诱导表达,检测重组蛋白的大小及反应原性.结果表明,所扩增Sip基因大小为1 300bp,与GeneBank参考序列同源性为99.16%;蛋白分析表明,目的蛋白大小为50KDa,具有良好的反应原性,为无乳链球菌的免疫预防提供依据和基础.

  13. 78 FR 68867 - Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Proposed... Office of Workers' Compensation (OWCP) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed collection...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background: The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs, (OWCP) administers...

  14. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  15. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  16. Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  17. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Pearl Harbor Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  18. Extrachromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid in R factor-harboring Enterobacteriaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, JK; Bak, AL; Christiansen, C;

    1976-01-01

    Extrachromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from 24 different R factor-harboring Enterobacteriaceae was isolated and characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy. The R factors represented 15 different patterns of transferable drug resistance found in enterobacteria from...

  19. Characterizing freshwater and nutrient fluxes to West Falmouth Harbor, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data present oceanographic and water-quality observations made at 4 locations in West Falmouth Harbor and 3 in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. While both Buzzards...

  20. Apra Harbor, Guam Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apra Harbor, Guam Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  1. 77 FR 25890 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Manchester Harbor, Manchester, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Manchester Harbor, Manchester, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The...

  2. 78 FR 52783 - Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ...: September 11, 2013, 6:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. (Eastern). Location: Partnership Office, 15 State Street, 8th... recommendations to the Boston Harbor Islands Partnership with respect to the implementation of a management...

  3. Caracterização Genética da Resistência à Eritromicina em Streptococcus agalactia e Degestantes saudáveis

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Sandra Marisa de Oliveira Sequeira

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Biologia Clínica Laboratorial Streptococcus agalactiae (Grupo B de Lancefield, EGB), um microrganismo comensal do homem, reconhecido em 1920 como o agente etiológico da mastite bovina, tem sido associado a infecções em parturientes e recém-nascidos, sendo o principal agente de septicemia e meningite neonatal. Para evitar a infecção perinatal recomenda-se a pesquisa da bactéria na região vagino-perianal durante o terceiro semestre de gravidez, indicando o tratamen...

  4. Artritis séptica de rodilla por Streptococcus agalactiae: presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Sesma Solis, P. J.; Fernandez Garcia, L.; García de Quevedo Puerta, D.; García López, A.

    1994-01-01

    Se describe un caso de artritis séptica de rodilla en un paciente diabético de 69 años. En el momento de la presentación se hallaba sometido a curas locales de una úlcera crónica en el mismo miembro y a antibioterapia oral inespecífica por supuesta infección urinaria. En el cultivo del líquido sinovial se identificó un Streptococcus agalactiae (Estreptococo del grupo B). La infección no remitió con antibioterapia intravenosa electiva e irrigación-aspiración articular repetidas, re...

  5. 鱼源无乳链球菌致病机理研究进展%Review on Pathogenesis of Streptococcus agalactiae from Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝璟琳; 杨弘

    2013-01-01

    从无乳链球菌的感染与传播途径,引起的病理学变化,致病机制,毒力因子和理化因子的影响等5个方面对鱼源无乳链球菌的致病机理作一综述。%The studies on pathogenesis of Streptococcus agalactiae from fish were summarized as viewed from the following five factors: transmission studies, pathogenic mechanism, Group B Streptococcus (GBS) virulence and environmental factors.

  6. Assessment of Modifications for Improving Navigation at Hilo Harbor, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    issues include (a) wave energy propagation from offshore into Hilo Bay to the harbor through the dredged navigation channel, (b) modification of...1-5) extends to the 40 ft (13 m) depth contour before transitioning to deeper depths offshore . Reefs are also present in the interior of the harbor...conditions in this numerical modeling study. Models were used for wave transformation between the offshore , entrance, ERDC/CHL TR-16-9 18 and

  7. Genome Sequence of the Multiple-β-Lactam-Antibiotic-Resistant Bacterium Acidovorax sp. Strain MR-S7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takamasa; Kusada, Hiroyuki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Hanada, Satoshi; Kimura, Nobutada

    2013-06-27

    Acidovorax sp. strain MR-S7 was isolated from activated sludge in a treatment system for wastewater containing β-lactam antibiotic pollutants. Strain MR-S7 demonstrates multidrug resistance for various types of β-lactam antibiotics at high levels of MIC. The draft genome sequence clarified that strain MR-S7 harbors unique β-lactamase genes.

  8. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers Lest We Forget: Remembering Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites about Pearl Harbor (Hawaii). Includes Web sites that cover Pearl Harbor history, a live view of Pearl Harbor, stories from people who remember where they were during the attack, information on the naval station at Pearl Harbor, and a virtual tour of the USS Arizona. (CMK)

  9. 33 CFR 334.1430 - Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam... Harbor, Island of Guam; restricted area. (a) The restricted area. The waters within Apra Inner Harbor and adjacent waters of Apra Outer Harbor inclosed by a line beginning at the northeast corner of a pier...

  10. 75 FR 26198 - Foreign-Trade Zone 152 - Burns Harbor, Indiana, Application for Reorganization under Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 152 - Burns Harbor, Indiana, Application for Reorganization...-purpose zone currently consists of six sites in the Burns Harbor/Gary, Indiana area: Site 1: (533,288 sq...); Site 2: (441 acres) within the Port of Indiana/Burns International Harbor, Burns Harbor (Porter...

  11. Characterization of Tunisian marine sediments in Rades and Gabes harbors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imen BEL HADJ ALI; Zoubeir LAFHAJ; Mounir BOUASSIDA; Imen SAID

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to study the geotechnical and environmental characteristics of sediments dredged from two Tunisian harbors:Rades and Gabes. The first harbor represents the main facility place in the national transport chain. The second one is selected as its sediments present a serious ecological constraint caused by the discharge of wastes into the marine environment. These sediments are either discarded at sea or landfilled despite their harmful effects on the environment. The article is divided into three main sections. The first one presents the material that was carried for Rades and Gabes harbors. The conservation conditions and the used experimental tests are detailed. Geotechnical characterization includes the determination of the grain size distribution, the water content, the Atterberg limits, the methylene blue value, the specific area, the bulk density, the specific unit weight, the organic and carbonate contents. Environmental characterization is assessed by the determination of metals concentrations in a leaching solution. The second section deals with the description and analysis of geotechnical properties of Rades and Gabes harbors’ sediments. The results obtained show that Rades harbor sediments are slightly sandy clayey silts whereas Gabes harbor sediments are silty sands characterized by a highly plastic clay fraction. Both of the two sediments don’t exhibit a high organic content. Finally, chemical, mineralogical and environmental properties are presented and then analysed. The experimental results obtained show that Rades and Gabes sediments could be used as a sand substitute in the formulation of a new construction material. Gabes harbor sediments are more polluted than Rades harbor sediments.

  12. Estimation of test characteristics of real-time PCR and bacterial culture for diagnosis of subclinical intramammary infections with Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy cattle in 2012 using latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser; Toft, Nils; Katholm, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    threshold (Ct) values against bacterial culture (BC) for diagnosis of S. agalactiae IMI using latent class analysis to avoid the assumption of a perfect reference test. A total of 614 dairy cows were randomly selected from 6 herds with bulk tank PCR Ct value ≤ 39 for S. agalactiae and S. aureus. At milk...... cut-offs, indicating under estimation of S. agalactiae IMI in the examined dairy cows. In conclusion, Se of PCR is always higher than Se of BC at all tested cut-offs. The lower cut-off, the more comparable becomes Se of PCR and Se of BC. The changes in Se in both PCR and BC at different Ct-value cut...... definition of infection may reflect a more general condition of cows being positive for S. agalactiae. Our findings indicate that PCR Ct-value cut-offs should be chosen according to the underlying latent infection definition of interest. Latent class analysis proposes a useful alternative to classic test...

  13. Ten Year Resurveys of the Biodiversity of Marine Communities and Introduced Species in Pearl Harbor, Honolulu Harbor, and Ke’Ehi Lagoon, O’Ahu, Hawai’i

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-30

    observations at the former collection stations, snorkeling surveys were conducted throughout Pearl Harbor and Ke’ehi Lagoon to estimate the abundance of introduced algae and in Pearl Harbor to document the occurrence of reef corals.

  14. Development of nested PCR for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from tilapia%罗非鱼无乳链球菌巢式 PCR 检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵辰; 易弋; 黎娅; 黄荷; 伍时华; 杨军

    2016-01-01

    Based on the cfb gene sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae, two pairs of primers were designed and synthesized and the amplification conditions were optimized to establish the nested PCR method which could identify S.agalactiae with high sensitively.The results showed that S.agalactiae could be directly detected from blood sample at a minimum concentra -tion as 8.7 ×10 4 CFU/ml by this method.Nineteen clinical S.agalactiae -infected tilapia samples collected from Guangxi province were applied to verify this method.The results showed that 260 bp fragment could be amplified in 18 samples and the sequencing analysis revealed that all the amplified fragment were cfb gene of S.agalactiae.The detection accuracy of this method was 94.7%.%根据无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)cfb 基因序列,设计、合成2对引物,优化扩增条件,建立了快速高灵敏度鉴别无乳链球菌的巢式 PCR 方法。结果显示:使用该方法对罗非鱼(Oreochromis mossambicus)血液样品进行检测,可检测到活菌浓度为8.7×104 CFU/mL 的无乳链球菌。对采自广西地区受无乳链球菌感染的19份罗非鱼样品进行检测,18份可获得目的片段,扩增到的序列均为无乳链球菌 cfb 基因序列,检测准确度达到94.7%。

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Beer Spoilage Bacterium Megasphaera cerevisiae Strain PAT 1T

    OpenAIRE

    Kutumbaka, Kirthi K.; Pasmowitz, Joshua; Mategko, James; Reyes, Dindo; Friedrich, Alex; Han, Sukkyun; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Neal-McKinney, Jason; Janagama, Harish K.; Nadala, Cesar; Samadpour, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    The genus Megasphaera harbors important spoilage organisms that cause beer spoilage by producing off flavors, undesirable aroma, and turbidity. Megasphaera cerevisiae is mainly found in nonpasteurized low-alcohol beer. In this study, we report the draft genome of the type strain of the genus, M. cerevisiae strain PAT 1T.

  16. Respiratory properties of blood in the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Lisette B; Hansen, Marie N; van Elk, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    blood. Further, O(2) affinity tended to increase with increasing body mass. A high O(2) affinity favors O(2) extraction from the lungs, but a normal Bohr effect (¿logP(50)/¿pH=-0.46) gradually lowers O(2) affinity during dives (where CO(2) accumulates) to assist O(2) off-loading to perfused tissues......Harbor porpoises are active divers that exchange O(2) and CO(2) with the environment during a fast single breath upon surfacing. We investigated blood O(2)-transporting properties, buffer characteristics, Cl(-) transport via the erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1), circulating nitric oxide...... metabolites and hemoglobin nitrite reduction in harbor porpoises with the aim to evaluate traits that are adaptive for diving behavior. Blood O(2) affinity was higher in harbor porpoises than in similar sized terrestrial mammals, as supported by our parallel recordings of O(2) equilibria in sheep and pig...

  17. Respiratory properties of blood in the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Lisette B.; Hansen, Marie Niemann; van Elk, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Harbor porpoises are active divers that exchange O2 and CO2 with the environment during a fast single breath upon surfacing. We investigated blood O2-transporting properties, buffer characteristics, Cl– transport via the erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1), circulating nitric oxide metabolites...... and hemoglobin nitrite reduction in harbor porpoises with the aim to evaluate traits that are adaptive for diving behavior. Blood O2 affinity was higher in harbor porpoises than in similar sized terrestrial mammals, as supported by our parallel recordings of O2 equilibria in sheep and pig blood. Further, O2...... affinity tended to increase with increasing body mass. A high O2 affinity favors O2 extraction from the lungs, but a normal Bohr effect (ΔlogP50/ΔpH = –0.46) gradually lowers O2 affinity during dives (where CO2 accumulates) to assist O2 off-loading to perfused tissues. The true plasma non...

  18. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; He, Jin-Rong; Wang, Ke; Li, Ming-Hui; Cao, Jian-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Liu; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-02-01

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses.

  19. 鱼类无乳链球菌病的研究进展%Research Progress on Fish Streptococcus agalactiae Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓永强; 汪开毓

    2016-01-01

    无乳链球菌是常见的人兽共患病原菌,常导致新生儿肺炎、脑膜炎、败血症及奶牛乳腺炎。近年来,在水生动物体内也频繁分离到该菌,尤其是自2007年以来,该菌每年都在中国广东、海南、福建、广西等罗非鱼主要养殖区暴发流行,严重威胁着罗非鱼养殖业的健康发展。作者综述了当前国内外对鱼类无乳链球菌病的病原学、流行病学、症状、病理变化、毒力因子(荚膜多糖、CAMP 因子、表面免疫原性蛋白、α蛋白、C5a 肽酶)和防控等方面的研究进展,以期为中国鱼类无乳链球菌病的防控提供参考。%Streptococcus agalactiae is common zoonotic bacteria,which cause neonatal pneumonia, meningitis,septicemia and mastitis in dairy cows.In recent years,it was also be isolated from aquatic animals frequently.Especially since 2007,diseases caused by the bacteria outbreak in Guangdong,Hainan,Fujian,Guangxi and other tilapia aquaculture areas and had a serious threat to the healthy development of tilapia aquaculture in china.In this paper,research progresses on fish Streptococcus agalactiae disease were reviewed.The etiology,epidemiology,symptoms,path-ological changes,virulence factors (capsular polysaccharide,CAMP factor,Sip,protein alpha,C5a peptidase)and prevention and control were included in the review,which would provide refer-ences for the fish Streptococcus agalactiae disease prevention and control.

  20. Prokaryotic expression and immunogenicity analysis of C5a peptidase (ScpB) of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from tilapia%罗非鱼无乳链球菌C5a肽酶(ScpB)的原核表达及其免疫原性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆勇; 可小丽; 卢迈新; 朱华平; 高风英; 刘志刚

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major bacterial pathogen that has caused severe economic losses in many spe-cies of freshwater, marine and estuarine fish worldwide. ScpB is a highly conserved surface protein among all group B streptococcus (GBS) strains and is an attractive surface-exposed antigen for inclusion among vaccine components against GBS. In this study, the scpB gene was amplified from the genomic DNA of an S. agalactiae strain isolated from diseased tilapia farmed in Guangdong province, China. The scpB gene contains a 2 799 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding 932 amino acids. The molecular mass of the deduced protein was 103 kD. Blast analysis showed that it shares high similarity with scpB sequences of human GBSs registered in GenBank. Prokaryotic expression vector pET32a (+) was used to construct a recombinant expression vector pET32a (+)-scpB, which was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Colonies containing the recombinant expression vector pET32a (+)-scpB were selected and then induced to express using 0.5 mmol/L IPTG for 8 h at 37℃. The expressed recombinant protein was purified by nickel chelate affinity chromatography and ultrafiltration tube enrichment. SDS-PAGE analysis and western blotting showed a spe-cific protein band of about 121 kD. The recombinant strain could produce large amounts of ScpB protein, mainly in the form of an inclusion body. To analyze the immunogenicity of the recombinant protein, the purified fusion protein and Freund’s adjuvant were mixed according to a certain proportions to produce vaccines. Three immune dosages, 1μg/g(F1), 3μg/g(F3) and 5μg/g(F5) were used. Four weeks after immunization, tilapia were challenged by artificial infection with the GBS ZP-N strain, which was previously isolated and confirmed to be a tilapia pathogen by our labo-ratory. The recorded relative percent survivals (RPS) of the vaccinated groups ranged from 69.99%to 89%, of which group F5 has the highest RPS. The lysozyme

  1. Electrochemical Oxidation of PAHs in Water from Harbor Sediment Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    to contamination by PAH, heavy metals, TBT etc. In Denmark, contaminated harbor sediment is pumped ashore to inland lakes or upland sites where treatment of the runoff water is required before discharge to the recipient. In this study, electrochemical oxidation (EO) has been investigated as a method for treatment...

  2. 19 CFR 24.24 - Harbor maintenance fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Port descriptions and notations Alabama 1901—Mobile Alaska 3126—Anchorage Includes Seldovia Harbor, and... transporting commercial cargo by water in the business of the owner, lessee or operator of the vessel. (4... intervals of at least once each business day. (5) Humanitarian assistance is considered to be...

  3. 77 FR 35846 - Safety Zone; Sheboygan Harbor Fest, Sheboygan, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sheboygan Harbor Fest, Sheboygan, WI AGENCY... safety zone on Lake Michigan and the Sheboygan River, Sheboygan, WI. This safety zone is intended...

  4. 33 CFR 110.45a - Mattapoisett Harbor, Mattapoisett, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mattapoisett Harbor, Mattapoisett, Mass. 110.45a Section 110.45a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Mattapoisett, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 beginning at a point on the shore at latitude 41°39′23″ N., longitude...

  5. Army Engineer Divers: First In Port-Au-Prince Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    America . Shortly after the quake hit, United States Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) diverted the USNS Grasp and the 544th to Port-au-Prince. Once there...Prince harbor. Pe- troleum floated on top of the water, and numerous marine hazards like jellyfish , human waste, and debris floated be- neath the

  6. 77 FR 22489 - Special Anchorage Regulations, Newport Bay Harbor, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Master Plan Subcommittee of the City of Newport Harbor Commission led an outreach campaign involving a... meetings, the City of Newport asked the Coast Guard to amend its anchorage regulations. The Coast Guard... incorporated into area A-11 under revised Sec. 110.95(k). An image of the anchorage areas is available in...

  7. 新生儿无乳链球菌败血症临床分析%Clinical analysis of 11 cases of neonatal streptococcus agalactiae sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾淑娟; 丘惠娴

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨新生儿无乳链球菌败血症的临床特点及耐药性.方法:对11例新生儿无乳链球菌败血症患儿的临床资料和治疗结果进行回顾性分析.结果:2012年确诊新生儿败血症25例中无乳链球菌感染占44.0%,其中早发败血症7例,晚发败血症4例;临床表现发热6例,黄疸5例,肺炎5例 (早发感染占4例),颅内感染4例 (晚发感染占3例);所有血培养对青霉素、头孢类抗生素和万古霉素均无耐药性,对四环素耐药100.0%,对克林霉素耐药72.7%.结论:无乳链球菌败血症早发感染临床以呼吸道表现为主,晚发感染常合并颅内感染,需注意完善脑脊液检查.治疗上首选青霉素、头孢菌素,克林霉素耐药性高不宜临床选用.%Objective:To investigate the neonatal streptococcus agalactiae sepsis clinical characteristics and resistance in order to guide clinical treatment.Methods:The clinical features and resistance of 11 neonatal streptococcus agalactiae sepsis which admitted in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed.Results:25 cases neonatal sepsis were diagnozed in 2012,streptococcus agalactiae infections accounted for 44%,including 7 cases of early-onset sepsis,4 cases of late-onset sepsis.Clinical manifestations:6 cases got fever,5 cases got jaundice,5 cases got pneumonia (including 4 cases of early-onset infection),4 cases got intracranial infection (including 3 cases late-onset infection).All blood cultures had no resistance to penicillin,cephalosporins and vancomycin,100% resistance to tetracycline,72.7% resistance to clindamycin.Conclusion:The trend of streptococcus agalactiae sepsis is growing in 2012,early-onset infection is often associated with respiratory symptoms,late-onset infection is often associated with intracranial infection,we need to pay attention to improve the cerebrospinal fluid examination.We can choose penicillin,cephalosporin for treatment.Clindamycin is not

  8. Whole-genome single-nucleotide-polymorphism analysis for discrimination of Clostridium botulinum group I strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Timme, Ruth; Raphael, Brian H; Zink, Donald; Sharma, Shashi K

    2014-04-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a genetically diverse Gram-positive bacterium producing extremely potent neurotoxins (botulinum neurotoxins A through G [BoNT/A-G]). The complete genome sequences of three strains harboring only the BoNT/A1 nucleotide sequence are publicly available. Although these strains contain a toxin cluster (HA(+) OrfX(-)) associated with hemagglutinin genes, little is known about the genomes of subtype A1 strains (termed HA(-) OrfX(+)) that lack hemagglutinin genes in the toxin gene cluster. We sequenced the genomes of three BoNT/A1-producing C. botulinum strains: two strains with the HA(+) OrfX(-) cluster (69A and 32A) and one strain with the HA(-) OrfX(+) cluster (CDC297). Whole-genome phylogenic single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) analysis of these strains along with other publicly available C. botulinum group I strains revealed five distinct lineages. Strains 69A and 32A clustered with the C. botulinum type A1 Hall group, and strain CDC297 clustered with the C. botulinum type Ba4 strain 657. This study reports the use of whole-genome SNP sequence analysis for discrimination of C. botulinum group I strains and demonstrates the utility of this analysis in quickly differentiating C. botulinum strains harboring identical toxin gene subtypes. This analysis further supports previous work showing that strains CDC297 and 657 likely evolved from a common ancestor and independently acquired separate BoNT/A1 toxin gene clusters at distinct genomic locations.

  9. Analysis of the type II-A CRISPR-Cas system of Streptococcus agalactiae reveals distinctive features according to genetic lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eLier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins are found in 90% of archaea and about 40% of bacteria. In this original system, CRISPR arrays comprise short, almost unique sequences called spacers that are interspersed with conserved palindromic repeats. These systems play a role in adaptive immunity and participate to fight non-self DNA such as integrative and conjugative elements, plasmids, and phages. In Streptococcus agalactiae, a bacterium implicated in colonisation and infections in humans since the 1960s, two CRISPR-Cas systems have been described. A type II-A system, characterised by proteins Cas9, Cas1, Cas2 and Csn2, is ubiquitous, and a type I-C system, with the Cas8c signature protein, is present in about 20% of the isolates. Unlike type I-C, which appears to be non-functional, type II-A appears fully functional. Here we studied type II-A CRISPR-Cas loci from 126 human isolates of S. agalactiae belonging to different clonal complexes that represent the diversity of the species and that have been implicated in colonisation or infection. The CRISPR-Cas locus was analysed both at spacer and repeat levels. Major distinctive features were identified according to the phylogenetic lineages previously defined by multilocus sequence typing, especially for the Sequence Type (ST 17, which is considered hypervirulent. Among other idiosyncrasies, ST-17 shows a significantly lower number of spacers in comparison with other lineages. This characteristic could reflect the peculiar virulence or colonisation specificities of this lineage.

  10. Comparison of carrot broth- and selective Todd-Hewitt broth-enhanced PCR protocols for real-time detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in prenatal vaginal/anorectal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Timothy; Munson, Erik; Culver, Anne; Vaughan, Katharine; Hryciuk, Jeanne E

    2008-11-01

    The reporting of accurate Streptococcus agalactiae screening results in a short time frame is of tremendous clinical benefit. A total of 203 consecutive primary vaginal/anorectal specimens were cultured in selective Todd-Hewitt broth (LIM broth) and with the StrepB carrot broth kit (carrot broth). One-day broth cultures were subjected to both centrifugation and clarification of a 500-mul aliquot prior to sample lysis (protocol A) and direct lysis of a 50-mul aliquot (protocol B). The lysates were subsequently analyzed by the BD GeneOhm StrepB assay. The results were compared to the carrot broth culture results derived from visualization of pigment on day 1 or from a subculture of carrot broth. Thirty-four carrot broth cultures (16.7%) generated diagnostic pigment following overnight incubation; an additional 26 (12.8%) were positive for S. agalactiae upon subculture. Carrot broth-enhanced PCR by the use of either protocol A or protocol B trended toward a higher rate of positive results (33.0%) than the rate observed by either the LIM broth-enhanced PCR (30.5%) or full carrot broth culture analysis (29.6%). In the context of the result on day 1, both carrot broth- and LIM broth-enhanced PCRs generated more true-positive results (P protocols of carrot broth- or LIM broth-enhanced PCR were >/=95.4%. Whereas protocol A resolved the results for 99.8% of the specimens in the evaluation upon initial testing, a 5.7% initial unresolved rate and a 1.5% final unresolved rate were determined by the use of protocol B. The use of carrot broth within a rapid and highly accurate molecular reflex testing algorithm can limit follow-up testing to cultures without evidence of pigmentation.

  11. Comprehensive identification and profiling of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) microRNAs response to Streptococcus agalactiae infection through high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Gan, Zhen; Cai, Shuanghu; Wang, Zhongliang; Yu, Dapeng; Lin, Ziwei; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs are a kind of small non-coding RNAs that participate in various biological processes. Deregulated microRNA expression is associated with several types of diseases. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is an important commercial fish species in China. To identify miRNAs and investigate immune-related miRNAs of O. niloticus, we applied high-throughput sequencing technology to identify and analyze miRNAs from tilapia infected with Streptococcus agalactiae at a timescale of 72 h divided into six different time points. The results showed that a total of 3009 tilapia miRNAs were identified, including in 1121 miRNAs which have homologues in the currently available databases and 1878 novel miRNAs. The expression levels of 218 tilapia miRNAs were significantly altered at 6 h-72 h post-bacterial infection (pi), and these miRNAs were therefore classified as differentially expressed tilapia miRNAs. For the 1121 differentially expressed tilapia miRNAs target 41961 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that some target genes of tilapia miRNAs were grouped mainly into the categories of apoptotic process, signal pathway, and immune response. This is the first report of comprehensive identification of O. niloticus miRNAs being differentially regulated in spleen in normal conditions relating to S. agalactiae infection. This work provides an opportunity for further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of miRNA regulation in O. niloticus host-pathogen interactions.

  12. Molecular and antigenic characterization of a Mycoplasma bovis strain causing an outbreak of infectious keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Alberto; Addis, Maria Filippa; Chessa, Bernardo; Cubeddu, Tiziana; Profiti, Margherita; Rosati, Sergio; Ruiu, Angelo; Pittau, Marco

    2006-01-01

    An unusually high incidence of infectious keratoconjunctivitis followed by pneumonia and arthritis was observed in beef calves of a managed herd. No Moraxella spp. or bacteria other than Mycoplasma spp. were obtained from conjunctival and nasal swabs. A strategy was designed for characterization of bovine mycoplasmas at species and strain level on the basis of a combination of molecular tools and the immunoblotting method. The strategy made it possible to rapidly assign the bacterium responsible for this outbreak to one of the phylogenetic clusters of bovine mycoplasmas delineated in this study and then to identify it as Mycoplasma bovis. The strain, designated Sar 1, showed a 100% 16S rDNA sequence identity with two European strains (120/81 and MC3386) isolated in Germany and Ireland, respectively, and hosts a vsp gene analog to the vspA, vsp422-4, and vsp422-8 genes of the M. bovis reference strain PG45T and of the field strain 422. The use of a cross-reactive rabbit serum developed against the Mycoplasma agalactiae immunodominant antigen P48 confirmed the molecular findings. The immunological response of calves against M. bovis was also investigated. This is the first report on the occurrence of M. bovis on the Island of Sardinia (Italy).

  13. bh_2mmbbath: Multibeam Bathymetry 2 meter/pixel of Boston Harbor and Approaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution bathymetric measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km² of...

  14. Defined Map Units of the seafloor of Boston Harbor and Approaches (BOTTOMTYPE, UTM 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data is a qualitatively-derived interpretative polygon shapefile defining the bottom types of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches,...

  15. bh_2mmbbath: Multibeam Bathymetry 2 meter/pixel of Boston Harbor and Approaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution bathymetric measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km² of...

  16. Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (2003-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset supports efforts to estimate the abundance and trends in population size of Alaska harbor seals. Annual surveys of harbor seal populations are...

  17. Observed Haul-out Locations for Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys of coastal Alaska are the primary method for estimating abundance of harbor seals. A particular challenge associated with aerial surveys of harbor...

  18. 75 FR 61096 - Regulated Navigation Area; Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Navigation Areas: Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA (a) Location. The following areas are...

  19. Telemetry data from satellite tags deployed on harbor seals in Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between 2004 and 2006 we conducted four harbor seal tagging trips in Cook Inlet during the months of October and May. In total, we captured and released 93 harbor...

  20. Sequence Analysis of Staphylococcus hyicus ATCC 11249T, an Etiological Agent of Exudative Epidermitis in Swine, Reveals a Type VII Secretion System Locus and a Novel 116-Kilobase Genomic Island Harboring Toxin-Encoding Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Adkins, Pamela R F; Stewart, George C; Middleton, John R

    2015-02-19

    Staphylococcus hyicus is the primary etiological agent of exudative epidermitis in swine. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of the type strain revealed a locus encoding a type VII secretion system and a large chromosomal island harboring the genes encoding exfoliative toxin ExhA and an EDIN toxin homolog.

  1. 76 FR 71598 - Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final...) and a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the CCP for Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge... . Include ``Pearl Harbor final CCP'' in the subject. Mail: O`ahu National Wildlife Refuge Complex,...

  2. 3 CFR 8463 - Proclamation 8463 of December 4, 2009. National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2009 8463 Proclamation 8463 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8463 of December 4, 2009 Proc. 8463 National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2009By the President of... by the Imperial Japanese on Pearl Harbor was an attempt to break the American will and destroy...

  3. 78 FR 13479 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... rule was delayed due to the construction of the I-95 Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge across the Quinnipiac... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor... Regulations New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers,'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 1738). We...

  4. 78 FR 36662 - Safety Zone; Fairport Harbor Mardi Gras, Lake Erie, Fairport, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fairport Harbor Mardi Gras, Lake Erie... restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Fairport Harbor Mardi Gras Fireworks display. This... necessary to ensure the safety of spectators and vessels during the Fairport Harbor Mardi Gras. This...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1401 - Apra Harbor, Guam-safety zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam-safety zones... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1401 Apra Harbor, Guam—safety... Safety Zone B—The waters of Apra Outer Harbor encompassed within an arc of 680 yards radius centered...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1404 - Apra Harbor, Guam-security zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam-security zone... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1404 Apra Harbor, Guam—security zone. (a) The following is designated as Security Zone C—The waters of Apra Outer Harbor,...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1402 - Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated....1402 Apra Outer Harbor, Guam—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters of the Pacific Ocean and Apra Outer Harbor enclosed by a line beginning at latitude...

  8. 75 FR 14493 - Safety Zone; Dive Platform, Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Dive Platform, Pago Pago Harbor, American...; Dive Platform, Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa in the Federal Register (75 FR 5907). We received no... Pago Pago Inner Harbor, in an estimated 160 feet of water, approximately 350-feet from the fuel...

  9. 75 FR 5907 - Safety Zone; Dive Platform, Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Dive Platform, Pago Pago Harbor, American... a temporary safety zone around a dive platform vessel in Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa, while... Purpose On October 7, 1949 the 4,130-ton gasoline tanker CHEHALIS sank in Pago Pago Inner Harbor, in...

  10. 46 CFR 45.181 - Load line exemption requirements for the Burns Harbor and Milwaukee routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load line exemption requirements for the Burns Harbor... line exemption requirements for the Burns Harbor and Milwaukee routes. Barges operating on the Burns... (Milwaukee and/or Burns Harbor); (4) Design type (covered/uncovered hopper, deck, etc.); (5)...

  11. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta

    2016-02-02

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA), by exploiting the indigenous microbes of the environment to be treated, could represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective we aimed to i) identify the main drivers of the bacterial communities\\' richness in the sediments, ii) establish enrichment cultures with different hydrocarbon pollutants evaluating their effects on the bacterial communities\\' composition, and iii) obtain a collection of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria potentially exploitable in ABA. The correlation between the selection of different specialized bacterial populations and the type of pollutants was demonstrated by culture-independent analyses, and by establishing a collection of bacteria with different hydrocarbon degradation traits. Our observations indicate that pollution dictates the diversity of sediment bacterial communities and shapes the ABA potential in harbor sediments.

  12. Historical bathymetric changes near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, T.L.; Sherwood, C.R. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Large changes in the distribution of sediment near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington, have occurred since the long rock jetties were built to confine flow. Spits to the north and south of the entrance have grown, the entrance channel has deepened, and the outer bar has eroded and moved offshore. The shorelines of North Beach and South Beach have experienced significant amounts of both erosion and accretion since the jetties were constructed around the turn of the century. Recently, the erosion rate at South Beach has increased and, because Half Moon Bay is growing at the expense of the shoreward side of Point Chehalis, the vegetated portion of the spit is now less than 350 ft wide at the narrowest section. The US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District, requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory evaluate long-term trends in erosion near the entrance to Grays Harbor.

  13. DEMON Acoustic Ship Signature Measurements in an Urban Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil Woo Chung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection, classification, and tracking of small vessels are important tasks for improving port security and the security of coastal and offshore operations. Hydroacoustic sensors can be applied for the detection of noise generated by vessels, and this noise can be used for vessel detection, classification, and tracking. This paper presents recent improvements aimed at the measurement and separation of ship DEMON (Detection of Envelope Modulation on Noise DEMON acoustic signatures in busy harbor conditions. Ship signature measurements were conducted in the Hudson River and NY Harbor. The DEMON spectra demonstrated much better temporal stability compared with the full ship spectra and were measured at distances up to 7 km. The combination of cross-correlation and methods allowed separation of the acoustic signatures of ships in busy urban environments.

  14. Abundance and distribution of dinoflagellate cysts in Xiamen Western Harbor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Wenqing; LIN Yuanshao; FANG Luping

    2004-01-01

    In a grid investigation, dinoflagellate cysts were collected from sediments in Xiamen Western Harbor in May of 2000,from which five species of cysts were identified: Alexandrium tamarensis, A. minutum, Lingulodinium polyedra,Gonyaulax scrippsae and Gymnodinium catenatum, account for about 21% in the species composition. The quantitative analysis of the sediments shows that the number of dinoflagellate cysts varies from 51 to 256 cysts/g of sediment, the highest value (>200 cysts/g) being recorded at the stations of the central part of the bay, while the lowest (<100 cysts/g) at the bay mouth. A good linear relationship is found between cyst amount and fine-grained sediments. Complex physiognomies on the seabed, topographty in the bay and weak water exchange are the main factors not only in cyst accumulation but also in their distribution pattern, and have resulted in the difference in cyst densities between the inner bay and the outer bay in the harbor.

  15. Abundance and distribution of dinoflagellate cysts in Xiamen Western Harbor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Wenqing; LIN Yuanshao; FANG Luping

    2004-01-01

    In a grid investigation, dinoflagellate cysts were collected from sediments in Xiamen Western Harbor in May of 2000,from which five species of cysts were identified: Alexandrium tamarensis, A. minutum, Lingulodinium polyedra,Gonyaulax scrippsae and Gymnodinium catenatum, account for about 21% in the species composition. The quantitative analysis of the sediments shows that the number of dinoflagellate cysts varies from 51 to 256 cysts/g of sediment, the highest value (>200 cysts/g) being recorded at the stations of the central part of the bay, while the lowest (<100 cysts/g) at the bay mouth. A good linear relationship is found between cyst amount and fine-grained sediments. Complex physiognomies on the seabed, topographty in the bay and weak water exchange are the main factors not only in cyst accumulation but also in their distribution pattern, and have resulted in the difference in cyst densities between the inner bay and the outer bay in the harbor.

  16. Waves, Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport Modeling at Grays Harbor, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    material placement was accomplished with four vessels; the Liberty and Lummi Island scows, and the Essayons and Yaquina trailing suction hopper...is water, including pore water and water entrained during dredging). Essayons The Essayons trailing suction hopper dredge has a capacity of 6,000...is expected to be small. ERDC/CHL TR-10-13 139 Figure 8-1. Cow Point Reach, Grays Harbor WA. One 5-gallon bucket of dredged material was

  17. Building Energy Audit Report for Pearl Harbor, HI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-09-30

    A building energy audit was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at selected Pearl Harbor buildings, identify cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This report documents the findings of that assessment.

  18. 广东地区感染养殖罗非鱼的无乳链球菌分子分型研究%Molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia in Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方伟; 梁宇恒; 宁丹; 柯碧霞; 柯昌文; 邓小玲; 彭华林; 孙九峰; 王云新

    2016-01-01

    %.Ten distribution patterns of virulence gene were identified,dltR-bca-sodA-spb1 -cfb-bac (38.24%,65 /1 70),dltr-bca-sodA-spb1 -bac (23.53%,40 /1 70),and dltr-bca-sodA-spb1 -cfb-bac-scpB (22,35%,38 /1 70)were the predominant patterns,followed by dltr-bca-sodA-spb1 -bac-scpb (8.24%,1 4 /1 70)and dltr-bca-sodA-spb1 (4.71 %,8 /1 70).The single allele was observed in each of seven loci,adhP (1 0),pheS (1 ),atr (2),glnA (1 ),sdhA (3),glcK (2),tkt (2)and result in unique ST 7 (Sequencing Type 7).One hundred and forty-six isolates were assigned to six clus-ters based on the PFGE results.The similarity between these clusters ranged from 86% to 1 00%.Cluster A (1 8),B (1 6),C (1 03)and D (7)were the predominant clusters,account for 98.63% of all iso-lates.Cluster A and C were distributed in all four areas,Cluster B were mainly isolated from Wuchuan, Maoming and Yangjiang,whereas Cluster D were isolated from Maoming,Zhuhai and Yangjiang.The u-nique clusters F and G were isolated from Maoming and Zhuhai,respectively.In addition,the clones in Clusters A --D isolated from different areas in Guangdong showed 1 00% similarity.High proportion of strains with virulence gene was observed in Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated from tilapia farm in Guandong.All of isolates belonged to the unique ST7.The clones with 1 00% similarity were identified in different area suggesting the cross infection and transmission in Guangdong,China.

  19. Rapid containment of coincident outbreaks with 2 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Agnès; Laurans, Caroline; Broucqsault-Dedrie, Céline; Vanbaelinghem, Clément; Verheyde, Isabelle; Ledez, Rita; Nyunga, Martine; Nottebaert, Sandrine; Waes, Sylvaine; Vachée, Anne

    2014-08-01

    In our intensive care unit, coincident outbreaks were caused by concomitant cross-transmission of 2 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains harboring distinct mechanisms of resistance. One strain produced extended-spectrum ß-lactamase in combination with reduced permeability. The other produced oxacillinase-48 carbapenemase. Rapid phenotypic detection of carbapenemase production allowed timely implementation of appropriate infection control measures.

  20. Sequences of Wolbachia wsp genes reveal multiple infection of individual northern corn rootworms (Diabrotica barberi) by several Wolbachia strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi)(NCR) populations in the USA are infected with at least 4 strains of the endosymbiont, Wolbachia. NCR from eastern Illinois to Pennsylvania appear to harbor at least 4 different strains designated wBar1, wBar3, wBar4, and wBar5. NCR from central Illinois ...

  1. Streptococcus agalactiae isolates of serotypes Ia, III and V from human and cow are able to infect tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Rui; Luo, Fu-Guang; Huang, Yan; Liang, Wan-Wen; Huang, Ting; Lei, Ai-Ying; Gan, Xi; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-10-22

    Recent studies have shown that group B streptococcus (GBS) may be infectious across hosts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pathogenicity of clinical GBS isolates with serotypes Ia, III and V from human and cow to tilapia and the evolutionary relationship among these GBS strains of different sources. A total of 27 clinical GBS isolates from human (n=10), cow (n=2) and tilapia (n=15) were analyzed using serotyping, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among them, 15 isolates were tested for their pathogenicity to tilapia. The results showed that five human GBS strains (2 serotype III, 2 serotype Ia and 1 serotype V) infected tilapia with mortality rate ranging from 56.67% to 100%, while the other five human GBS strains tested were unable to infect tilapia. In addition, two cow GBS strains C001 and C003 of serotype III infected tilapia. However, they had significantly lower pathogenicity than the five human strains. Furthermore, human GBS strains H005 and H008, which had very strong ability to infect tilapia, had the same PFGE pattern. MLST analysis showed that the five human and the two cow GBS strains that were able to infect tilapia belonged to clonal complexes CC19, CC23 and CC103. The study for the first time confirmed that human or cow GBS clonal complexes CC19, CC23 and CC103 containing strains with serotypes Ia, III and V could infect tilapia and induce clinical signs under experimental conditions.

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Dairy Cows with Clinical Mastitis in Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia%内蒙古通辽市某奶牛场乳房炎无乳链球菌的分离、鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚团莲

    2016-01-01

    旨在调查引起内蒙古通辽地区奶牛乳房炎发生的优势病原菌。采用常规方法对采集自该地区某奶牛场的3份临床型乳房炎患牛奶样进行优势致病菌的分离鉴定,采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)评价分离菌对兽医临床常用抗菌药物的敏感性。结果表明,从3份乳样中共分离到14株菌,经生化试验鉴定为无乳链球菌;药敏试验结果表明,分离菌对链霉素及磺胺嘧啶表现出较强的耐药性,而卡那霉素、庆大霉素及麦迪霉素对分离菌则表现出较好的抑菌效果。%The aim of the present study was to determine the dominant species of bacteria associated with bovine mastitis in Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia. Three quarter milk samples were collected from dairy cows with clinical mastitis and were used to isolate pathogenic bacteria by conventional method. The antimicrobial susceptibility test of the isolates was conducted using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The results revealed that a total of 14 strains were isolated from the 3 samples and they were subsequently phenotypically identified as Streptococcus agalactiae. While reduced susceptibility to streptomycin and sulfadiazine were observed, kanamycin, gentamicin and midecamycin are found as susceptible drugs for the isolated Streptococcus strains.

  3. Similarities between Yangshan Harbor area and the Yangtze estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By analysis of published papers on the Yangtze estuary and hydrological and sediments datain Yangshan Harbor area, many similarities are found between Yangshan Harbor area and the Yangtzeestuary. These similarities include the phenomenon of stagnating flow areas, the distributivecharacteristics of the highest suspended sediment concentration areas, superficial sediments and shoalbars. The stagnating flow area is the major similarity which causes other similarities. These similaritiesindicate that: 1) Turbidity Maximum and mouth bars in estuaries are mainly caused by the hydraulicbalance of stagnating flow areas of estuaries; 2) The stagnating sand area of sands caused by stagnatingflow area often locates on the narrower side of the stagnating flow area; 3) The location (or shape) offine sediments area caused by stagnating flow area reflects the location (or shape) of the stagnatingflow area. Both Yangshan Harbor area and the Yangtze estuary are the important developmental areasin the future (man-made similarity). In-depth studies on these similarities between Yangshan Harborarea and the Yangtze estuary will have momentous theoretical and practical significance.

  4. Molecular Drug Susceptibility Testing and Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae Strains from South America▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pushpendra; Busso, Philippe; Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto; Aranzazu, Nacarid; Monot, Marc; Honore, Nadine; de Faria Fernandes Belone, Andrea; Virmond, Marcos; Villarreal-Olaya, Maria Esther; Rivas, Carlos; Cole, Stewart T.

    2011-01-01

    Possible drug resistance in Mycobacterium leprae strains from Venezuela and three other South American countries was surveyed by molecular methods. None of the 230 strains from new leprosy cases exhibited drug resistance-associated mutations. However, two of the three strains from relapsed cases contained dapsone resistance mutations, and one strain also harbored a rifampin resistance mutation. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of these strains revealed five subtypes: 3I (73.8%), 4P (11.6%), 1D (6.9%), 4N (6%), and 4O (1.7%). PMID:21444694

  5. Prevalencia de Mycoplasma agalactiae y Toxoplasma gondii en caprinos y ovinos de los municipios del sur de la Guajira y el Norte del Cesar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fabián Porras Pinto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los departamentos de la Guajira y Cesar son considerados los principales productores de ovinos y caprinos del país, según censo del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA en el año 2015. Estas especies animales revisten interés desde el punto de vista sanitario, no solo por los productos obtenidos de ellos, sino también por la capacidad que tienen de ser reservorio de diferentes agentes infecciosos. A la fecha en Colombia no se encuentran reportes relacionados con la prevalencia de agentes infecciosos, como es el caso de Mycoplasma agalactiae y Toxoplasma gondii en estas poblaciones animales, razón por la cual, en 2015 se comienza a desarrollar un trabajo inter-institucional titulado: “Proyecto Piloto de Excelencia Sanitaria en Ganadería para la Guajira y el Cesar”, proyecto en el que participan entidades públicas y privadas, el cual, anida el presente trabajo. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de M. agalactiae y T. gondii en caprinos y ovinos, basada en la determinación de IgG dirigida a estos agentes infecciosos, para la construcción de un perfil sanitario en los municipios del sur de la Guajira y el Norte del Cesar. Materiales y métodos: El presente trabajo corresponde a un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, que tuvo como universo de estudio una población de 15.300 ovinos y caprinos del sur de la Guajira y norte del Cesar definida por Censo realizado en 2015 por el ICA. Tomado como base esta población, se calculó un tamaño muestral de 1039 individuos mediante la herramienta WinEpi versión 2.0 (Zaragoza, España. Resultados: La determinación de la prevalencia de M. agalactiae y T. gondii se realizará mediante la evaluación de la presencia de IgG sérica específica para estos agentes infecciosos mediante pruebas comerciales de ELISA indirecta, según las recomendaciones de los fabricantes. Las pruebas serán realizadas a sueros provenientes de muestras sanguíneas de animales incluidos en la

  6. [Susceptibility of clinically-isolated bacteria strains to respiratory quinolones and evaluation of antimicrobial agent efficacy by Monte Carlo simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Tadashi; Yamada, Yukiji; Kimura, Takeshi; Kodama, Mai; Fujitomo, Yumiko; Masaki, Nakanishi; Toshiaki, Komori; Keisuke, Shikata; Fujita, Naohisa

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory quinolones (RQs) are broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents used for the treatment of a wide variety of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. However, bacterial resistance to quinolones has been on the increase. In this study, we investigated the predicted efficacy of RQs for various strains of 9 bacterial species clinically isolated at our university hospital using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method based on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. In addition, the influence of the patients' renal function on the efficacy of RQs was evaluated. We surveyed antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 9 bacterial species (n = number of strains) [Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 15), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 14), Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 19), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (n = 24), Escherichia coli (n = 35), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 17), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 14), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 31), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 11)] to 4 RQs [garenoxacin (GRNX), levofloxacin (LVFX), sitafloxacin (STFX), and moxifloxacin (MFLX)]. We found that compared with the other RQs, Gram-positive cocci was most resistant to LVFX, and that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC₉₀) values for S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, and MSSA were high (2, 16, > 16, and 8 µg/mL, respectively). In regard to Gram-negative rods, the susceptibility of E. coli to RQs was found to be decreased, with the MIC₉₀ values of GRNX, LVFX, STFX, and MFLX being > 16, 16, 1, and 16 µg/mL, respectively. MCS revealed that the target attainment rate of the area under the unbound concentration-time curve divided by the MIC₉₀ (ƒ · AUC/MIC ratio), against S. pneumoniae was 86.9-100%, but against E. coli was low (52.1-66.2%). The ƒ · AUC/MIC target attainment rate of LVFX against S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and S. agalactiae tended to decrease due to increased creatinine clearance, and that of LVFX and STFX against MSSA also

  7. 携带毒力岛(HPI)大肠杆菌性小儿腹泻%DETECTION OF HIGH-PATHOGENICITY ISLAND-HARBORING ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM CHILDREN WITH DIARRHEA DISEASE IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆义; 李连青

    2004-01-01

    [ Objective] To investigate the etiologicla status of etiologica status of high - pathogenicity island - arboring Escherichia coli (HPIEC) in diarrhea disease among children. [Method] Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was isolated and identified from the stool specimens of 1032 children with diarrhea diseases by culturing, serotyping, Polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR), the High- pathogenicity island- harboring Escherichia coli (HPIEC) was identified by PCR and in situ hybridization. [ Results] A total of 652 strains of E. Coli isolated from 1032 stool speci mens and confirmed by serotyping,PCR and colony hybridization out of which 225 were identified as diarrheagenic E. Coli, including 20 EPEC, 81 ETEC,47 SLTEC ,74 ESIEC, and 3 EIEC strains. 112 (17.2 % ) irp2 virulent gene positive E. Coli (HPIEC) were detected from the 652 strains, out of which 24 were from the 74 ESIEC strains and 17 from the 47 SLTEC strains. The typical clinical symptoms of children with diarrhea disease caused by HPI - harboring E.coli included anorexia( 87.5 % ), abdominal pain (58.0 % ), diarrhea ( 75.9 %, Over six episoders, mostly of mucous stool a day), and fever(50.9 % ). [Conclusion]High - pathogenicity island - harboring E. Coli is one of the important pathogens of diarrhea diseas es in children.

  8. Caffeine in Boston Harbor past and present, assessing its utility as a tracer of wastewater contamination in an urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of comb...

  9. Colistin- and Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia coli Harboring mcr-1 and blaNDM-5, Causing a Complicated Urinary Tract Infection in a Patient from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Mediavilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Colistin is increasingly used as an antibiotic of last resort for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections. The plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was initially identified in animal and clinical samples from China and subsequently reported worldwide, including in the United States. Of particular concern is the spread of mcr-1 into carbapenem-resistant bacteria, thereby creating strains that approach pan-resistance. While several reports of mcr-1 have involved carbapenem-resistant strains, no such isolates have been described in the United States. Here, we report the isolation and identification of an Escherichia coli strain harboring both mcr-1 and carbapenemase gene blaNDM-5 from a urine sample in a patient without recent travel outside the United States. The isolate exhibited resistance to both colistin and carbapenems, but was susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The mcr-1- and blaNDM-5-harboring plasmids were completely sequenced and shown to be highly similar to plasmids previously reported from China. The strain in this report was first isolated in August 2014, highlighting an earlier presence of mcr-1 within the United States than previously recognized.

  10. 33 CFR 110.87 - Henderson Harbor, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.87 Henderson Harbor, N.Y. (a) Area A. The area in the... latitude 43°51′08.8″ N, longitude 76°12′08.9″ W, thence to latitude 43°51′09.0″ N, longitude 76°12′19.0″ W, thence to latitude 43°51′33.4″ N, longitude 76°12′19.0″ W, thence to latitude 43°51′33.4″ N, longitude...

  11. The Magic Background of Pearl Harbor. Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Hsinking on the activities of a Ukranian Nationalist leader who had been sent from Berlin to Harbin , Manchuria . On May 25 a Japanese observer in Rome...Jap. official in Fr. In-Ch. uuuuuuu_uuuuuuuuu_uuuu IV, 456 Harbin , Manchuria UUUUU__UUUUU-_Uhn__-hUU___UhU_h_hh II,183 IV, 29,30,241,420 V, 14 Harbin ...HARBOR On June 5 a dispatch from Hsinking to Moscow dealt with border troubles between Japan and Russia. The border between Manchuria and Mongolia had

  12. Monitoring and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli strains from healthy and sick animals in Spain in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Teshager, Tirushet; Sáenz, Yolanda; Porrero, María Concepción; Domínguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2005-03-01

    Genes encoding CTX-M-14, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-32, SHV-12, TEM-52, or CMY-2 beta-lactamases were detected in 21 Escherichia coli strains recovered during 2003 from sick animals (11 of 459 [2.4%] strains) and healthy animals (10 of 158 [6.3%] strains) in Spain. Twelve of these strains harbored bla(CTX-M) genes and showed unrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns.

  13. Monitoring and Characterization of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Strains from Healthy and Sick Animals in Spain in 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Teshager, Tirushet; Sáenz, Yolanda; Porrero, María Concepción; Domínguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    Genes encoding CTX-M-14, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-32, SHV-12, TEM-52, or CMY-2 β-lactamases were detected in 21 Escherichia coli strains recovered during 2003 from sick animals (11 of 459 [2.4%] strains) and healthy animals (10 of 158 [6.3%] strains) in Spain. Twelve of these strains harbored blaCTX-M genes and showed unrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. PMID:15728945

  14. Two novel EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains isolated from human infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Prager

    Full Text Available The so far highest number of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome was associated with a food-borne outbreak in 2011 in Germany which was caused by an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC of the rare serotype O104:H4. Most importantly, the outbreak strain harbored genes characteristic of both EHEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC. Such strains have been described seldom but due to the combination of virulence genes show a high pathogenicity potential. To evaluate the importance of EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains in human disease, we analyzed the EHEC strain collection of the German National Reference Centre for Salmonella and other Bacterial Enteric Pathogens (NRC. After exclusion of O104:H4 EHEC/EAEC strains, out of about 2400 EHEC strains sent to NRC between 2008 and 2012, two strains exhibited both EHEC and EAEC marker genes, specifically were stx2 and aatA positive. Like the 2011 outbreak strain, one of the novel EHEC/EAEC harbored the Shiga toxin gene type stx2a. The strain was isolated from a patient with bloody diarrhea in 2010, was serotyped as O59:H-, belonged to MLST ST1136, and exhibited genes for type IV aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF. The second strain was isolated from a patient with diarrhea in 2012, harbored stx2b, was typed as Orough:H-, and belonged to MLST ST26. Although the strain conferred the aggregative adherence phenotype, no known AAF genes corresponding to fimbrial types I to V were detected. In summary, EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains are currently rarely isolated from human disease cases in Germany and two novel EHEC/EAEC of rare serovars/MLST sequence types were characterized.

  15. Assessing auditory evoked potentials of wild harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruser, Andreas; Dähne, Michael; van Neer, Abbo; Lucke, Klaus; Sundermeyer, Janne; Siebert, Ursula; Houser, Dorian S; Finneran, James J; Everaarts, Eligius; Meerbeek, Jolanda; Dietz, Rune; Sveegaard, Signe; Teilmann, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    Testing the hearing abilities of marine mammals under water is a challenging task. Sample sizes are usually low, thus limiting the ability to generalize findings of susceptibility towards noise influences. A method to measure harbor porpoise hearing thresholds in situ in outdoor conditions using auditory steady state responses of the brainstem was developed and tested. The method was used on 15 live-stranded animals from the North Sea during rehabilitation, shortly before release into the wild, and on 12 wild animals incidentally caught in pound nets in Denmark (inner Danish waters). Results indicated that although the variability between individuals is wide, the shape of the hearing curve is generally similar to previously published results from behavioral trials. Using 10-kHz frequency intervals between 10 and 160 kHz, best hearing was found between 120 and 130 kHz. Additional testing using one-third octave frequency intervals (from 16 to 160 kHz) allowed for a much faster hearing assessment, but eliminated the fine scale threshold characteristics. For further investigations, the method will be used to better understand the factors influencing sensitivity differences across individuals and to establish population-level parameters describing hearing abilities of harbor porpoises.

  16. The historical significance of anaesthesia events at Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowhurst, Ja

    2014-07-01

    Up to the end of World War II, less than 10% of the general anaesthetics administered was with intravenous barbiturates. The remaining 90% of anaesthetics given in the USA were with diethyl ether. In the United Kingdom and elsewhere, chloroform was also popular. Diethyl ether administration was a relatively safe and simple procedure, often delegated to nurses or junior doctors with little or no specific training in anaesthesia. During the Japanese attack on the US bases at Pearl Harbor, with reduced stocks of diethyl ether available, intravenous Sodium Pentothal(®), a most 'sophisticated and complex' drug, was used with devastating effects in many of those hypovolaemic, anaemic and septic patients. The hazards of spinal anaesthesia too were realised very quickly. These effects were compounded by the dearth of trained anaesthetists. This paper presents the significance of the anaesthesia tragedies at Pearl Harbor, and the discovery in the next few years of many other superior drugs that caused medical and other health professionals to realise that anaesthesia needed to be a specialist medical discipline in its own right. Specialist recognition, aided by the foundation of the National Health Service in the UK, the establishment of Faculties of Anaesthesia and appropriate training in pharmacology, physiology and other sciences soon followed. Modern anaesthesiology, as we understand it today, was born and a century or more of ether anaesthesia finally ceased.

  17. PIV Analysis of Wake Induced by Real Harbor Seal Whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunjevac, Joseph; Rinehart, Aidan; Flaherty, Justin; Zhang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Harbor Seals are able to accurately detect minute disturbances in the ambient flow using their whiskers, which is attributed to the exceptional capability of the whiskers to suppress vortex-induced vibrations in the wake. To explore potential applications for designing smart devices, such as high-sensitivity underwater flow sensors and drag reduction components, research has studied the role of key parameters of the whisker morphology on wake structure. Due to the inherent variation in size and angle of incidence along the length of whiskers, it is not well understood how a real seal whisker changes wake structure, in particular the vortex shedding behavior. This work aims to understand the flow around a single real seal whisker using Particle Image Velocimetry at low Reynolds numbers (i.e. a few hundred) in a water channel. Variations in flow structure are inspected between several different real whiskers and whisker models. The results will provide insights of the effects of the natural geometry of the harbor seal whiskers on wake flow compared to idealized whisker-like models.

  18. RNA-Seq revealed the impairment of immune defence of tilapia against the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae with simulated climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Liu, Peng; Wan, Zi Yi; Huang, Shu Qing; Wen, Yan Fei; Lin, Grace; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-08-01

    Global warming is one of the causes of disease outbreaks in fishes. Understanding its mechanisms is critical in aquaculture and fisheries. We used tilapia to study the effects of a high temperature on the infection of a bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae using RNA-Seq. We found that the dissolved oxygen level in water at 32 °C is lower than at 22 °C, and tilapia infected with the pathogen died more rapidly at 32 °C. The gene expression profiles showed significant differences in fish raised under different conditions. We identified 126 and 576 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 4 and 24 h post infection at 22 °C, respectively, whereas at 32 °C, the data were 312 and 1670, respectively. Almost all responding pathways at 22 °C were involved in the immune responses, whereas at 32 °C, the enriched pathways were not only involved in immune responses but also involved in oxygen and energy metabolisms. We identified significant signals of immunosuppression of immune responses at 32 °C. In addition, many of the enriched transcription factors and DEGs under positive selection were involved in immune responses, oxygen and/or energy metabolisms. Our results suggest that global warming could reduce the oxygen level in water and impair the defence of tilapia against bacterial infection.

  19. Increasing of temperature induces pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae and the up-regulation of inflammatory related genes in infected Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2014-08-06

    Temperature strongly affects the health of aquatic poikilotherms. In Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), elevated water temperatures increase the severity of streptococcosis. Here we investigated the effects of temperature on the vulnerability and inflammatory response of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci; GBS). At 35 and 28 °C, GBS took 4 and 7h, respectively to reach the log-phase and, when incubated with tilapia whole blood, experienced survival rates of 97% and 2%, respectively. The hemolysis activity of GBS grown at 35 °C was five times higher than that of GBS grown at 28 °C. GBS expressed cylE (β-hemolysin/cytolysin), cfb (CAMP factor) and PI-2b (pili-backbone) much more strongly at 35 °C than at 28 °C. Challenging Nile tilapia reared at 35 and 28 °C with GBS resulted in accumulated mortalities of about 85% and 45%, respectively. At 35 °C, infected tilapia exhibited tremendous inflammatory responses due to a dramatic up-regulation (30-40-fold) of inflammatory-related genes (cyclooxygenase-2, IL-1β and TNF-α) between 6 and 96 h-post infection. These results suggest that the increase of GBS pathogenicity to Nile tilapia induced by elevated temperature is associated with massive inflammatory responses, which may lead to acute mortality.

  20. Evaluation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor and memory in adult rats survivors of the neonatal meningitis by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichello, Tatiana; Lemos, Joelson C; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Carradore, Mirelle M; Moreira, Ana Paula; Collodel, Allan; Zanatta, Jessiele R; Valvassori, Samira S; Quevedo, João

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major cause of severe morbidity and mortality in neonates and young infants, causing sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis. The survivors from this meningitis can suffer serious long-term neurological consequences, such as, seizures, hearing loss, learning and memory impairments. Neurotrophins, such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) control the neuronal cell death during the brain development and play an important role in neuronal differentiation, survival and growth of neurons. Neonate Wistar rats, received either 10μL of sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of GBS suspension at a concentration of 1×10(6)cfu/mL. Sixty days after induction of meningitis, the animals underwent behavioral tests, after were killed and the hippocampus and cortex were retired for analyze of the BDNF and NGF levels. In the open-field demonstrated no difference in motor, exploratory activity and habituation memory between the groups. The step-down inhibitory avoidance, when we evaluated the long-term memory at 24h after training session, we found that the meningitis group had a decrease in aversive memory when compared with the long-term memory test of the sham group. BDNF levels decreased in hippocampus and cortex; however the NGF levels decreased only in hippocampus. These findings suggest that the meningitis model could be a good research tool for the study of the biological mechanisms involved in the behavioral alterations secondary to GBS meningitis.

  1. Evaluation of Resuspension from Propeller Wash in Pearl Harbor and San Diego Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Technical Report 2036 July 2014 Evaluation of Resuspension from Propeller Wash in Pearl Harbor and San Diego Bay P.F. Wang...2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Resuspension from Propeller Wash in Pearl Harbor and San Diego Bay...calibrated for San Diego Bay, CA; Pearl Harbor , HI; and Sinclair Inlet, WA. Once validated with the field data, CH3D was used to predict footprints

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain BH072, Isolated from Honey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Xin; de Jong, Anne; Zhou, Zhijiang; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    The genome of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BH072, isolated from a honey sample and showing strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens, is 4.07 Mb and harbors 3,785 coding sequences (CDS). Several gene clusters for nonribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and a complete gene c

  3. Genome Sequence of Creatinine-Fermenting Tissierella creatinophila Strain KRE 4T (DSM 6911)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacke, Heiko; Daniel, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tissierella creatinophila strain KRE 4T (DSM 6911) is a strictly anaerobic, creatinine-fermenting, and creatine-fermenting organism, which has been isolated from sewage sludge. The draft genome consists of one circular chromosome (2.5 Mb) and harbors 2,533 predicted protein-encoding genes. PMID:28336595

  4. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar galleriae strain HD-29, a typical strain of commercial biopesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Tian, Long-Jun; Zheng, Jinshui; Gao, Qiu-Ling; Wang, Yue-Ying; Peng, Dong-Hai; Ruan, Li-Fang; Sun, Ming

    2015-02-10

    Bacillus thuringiensis serovar galleriae is highly toxic to Lepidoptera insect pests, and has been widely used as Bt biopesticide in many countries. Here we reported the complete genome of strain HD-29, a standard serotype strain in galleriae serovariety. More than previous work reported, it harbors ten plasmids, and three large ones carry eight insecticidal protein genes (cry1Aa, cry1Ac, cry1Ca, cry1Da, cry1Ia, cry2Ab, cry9Ea and vip3Aa) and an intact zwittermicin A biosynthetic gene cluster.

  5. Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hansen, Mette Sif; Holm, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined.......Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined....

  6. Grand Marais Harbor, Cook County, Minnesota, Operation and Maintenance Activities, Environment Assessment Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    the Ojibway, who called the harbor "great pond". Later the French voyageurs gave the harbor the name it now carries. Interpreted literally, Grand...Marais means "great swamp" but in the special vocabu- lary of the voyageurs , "usrais" referred to a harbor-of-refuge or a protected cove. " 2.621 The...total commerce for Grand Marais Harbor consisted of logs and pulpwood. Commerce reached a peak of over 78,000 tons in 1958, then diminished somewhat

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia cordobensis Type Strain LMG 27620, Isolated from Agricultural Soils in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draghi, Walter Omar; Mancini Villagra, Ulises M.; Wall, Luis Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Burkholderia are commonly found in diverse ecological niches in nature. We report here the draft genome sequence of Burkholderia cordobensis type strain LMG 27620, isolated from agricultural soil in Córdoba, Argentina. This strain harbors several genes involved in chitin utilization and phenol degradation, which make it an interesting candidate for biocontrol purposes and xenobiotic degradation in polluted environments. PMID:26494680

  8. A whole-genome microarray reveals genetic diversity among Helicobacter pylori strains

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Nina; Guillemin, Karen; McDaniel, Timothy K.; Sherlock, Gavin; Tompkins, Lucy; Falkow, Stanley

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomach of half of the world's population, causing a wide spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic gastritis to ulcers to gastric cancer. Although the basis for these diverse clinical outcomes is not understood, more severe disease is associated with strains harboring a pathogenicity island. To characterize the genetic diversity of more and less virulent strains, we examined the genomic content of 15 H. pylori clinical isolate...

  9. Toward Bioremediation of Methylmercury Using Silica Encapsulated Escherichia coli Harboring the mer Operon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aunica L Kane

    Full Text Available Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal and the ability of the neurotoxin methylmercury to biomagnify in the food chain is a serious concern for both public and environmental health globally. Because thousands of tons of mercury are released into the environment each year, remediation strategies are urgently needed and prompted this study. To facilitate remediation of both organic and inorganic forms of mercury, Escherichia coli was engineered to harbor a subset of genes (merRTPAB from the mercury resistance operon. Protein products of the mer operon enable transport of mercury into the cell, cleavage of organic C-Hg bonds, and subsequent reduction of ionic mercury to the less toxic elemental form, Hg(0. E. coli containing merRTPAB was then encapsulated in silica beads resulting in a biological-based filtration material. Performing encapsulation in aerated mineral oil yielded silica beads that were smooth, spherical, and similar in diameter. Following encapsulation, E. coli containing merRTPAB retained the ability to degrade methylmercury and performed similarly to non-encapsulated cells. Due to the versatility of both the engineered mercury resistant strain and silica bead technology, this study provides a strong foundation for use of the resulting biological-based filtration material for methylmercury remediation.

  10. A recombinant varicella vaccine harboring a respiratory syncytial virus gene induces humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kouki; Matsuura, Masaaki; Ota, Megumi; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2015-11-09

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) Oka vaccine strain (vOka) is highly efficient and causes few adverse events; therefore, it is used worldwide. We previously constructed recombinant vOka (rvOka) harboring the mumps virus gene. Immunizing guinea pigs with rvOka induced the production of neutralizing antibodies against the mumps virus and VZV. Here, we constructed recombinant vOka viruses containing either the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subgroup A fusion glycoprotein (RSV A-F) gene or RSV subgroup B fusion glycoprotein (RSV B-F) gene (rvOka-RSV A-F or rvOka-RSV B-F). Indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses confirmed the expression of each recombinant RSV protein in virus-infected cells. Immunizing guinea pigs with rvOka-RSV A-F or rvOka-RSV B-F led to the induction of antibodies against RSV proteins. These results suggest that the current varicella vaccine genome can be used to generate custom-made vaccine vectors to develop the next generation of live vaccines.

  11. Down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis in transgenic Leucaena leucocephala harboring O-methyltransferase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Smita; Dwivedi, Upendra Nath

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, a 0.47 kb OMT gene construct from aspen, encoding for an enzyme O-methyltransferase (OMT, EC 2.1.1.6), in antisense orientation was used to down-regulate lignin biosynthesis in Leucaena leucocephala. The plants were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring the antisense gene, and the transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification of the npt II gene. The integration of a heterologous antisense OMT gene construct in transformed plants led to a maximum of 60% reduction in OMT activity relative to control. The evaluation of total lignin content by the Klason method revealed a maximum of 28% reduction. Histochemical analyses of stem sections depicted a reduction in lignin content and normal xylem development. The results also suggested a probable increase in aldehyde levels and a decrease in syringyl units. Lignin down-regulation was accompanied by an increase in methanol soluble phenolics to an extent that had no impact on wood discoloration, and the plants displayed a normal phenotype. Concomitantly, an increase of up to 9% in cellulose content was also observed. Upon alkali extraction, modified lignin was more extractable as evident from reduced Klason lignin in saponified residue and increased alkali soluble phenolics. The results together suggested that the extent of down-regulation of OMT activity achieved may lead to quality amelioration of Leucaena with respect to its applicability in pulp and paper manufacture as well as nutritive and easily digestible forage production.

  12. Toward Bioremediation of Methylmercury Using Silica Encapsulated Escherichia coli Harboring the mer Operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Aunica L; Al-Shayeb, Basem; Holec, Patrick V; Rajan, Srijay; Le Mieux, Nicholas E; Heinsch, Stephen C; Psarska, Sona; Aukema, Kelly G; Sarkar, Casim A; Nater, Edward A; Gralnick, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal and the ability of the neurotoxin methylmercury to biomagnify in the food chain is a serious concern for both public and environmental health globally. Because thousands of tons of mercury are released into the environment each year, remediation strategies are urgently needed and prompted this study. To facilitate remediation of both organic and inorganic forms of mercury, Escherichia coli was engineered to harbor a subset of genes (merRTPAB) from the mercury resistance operon. Protein products of the mer operon enable transport of mercury into the cell, cleavage of organic C-Hg bonds, and subsequent reduction of ionic mercury to the less toxic elemental form, Hg(0). E. coli containing merRTPAB was then encapsulated in silica beads resulting in a biological-based filtration material. Performing encapsulation in aerated mineral oil yielded silica beads that were smooth, spherical, and similar in diameter. Following encapsulation, E. coli containing merRTPAB retained the ability to degrade methylmercury and performed similarly to non-encapsulated cells. Due to the versatility of both the engineered mercury resistant strain and silica bead technology, this study provides a strong foundation for use of the resulting biological-based filtration material for methylmercury remediation.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Lin, Xian-Dan [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Wen [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Shi, Mang [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Guo, Wen-Ping [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Xiao-He [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Xing, Jian-Guang [Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  14. Identification of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Strains from Avian Organic Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Puño-Sarmiento

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%, three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%, 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%, but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.

  15. Identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from avian organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Gazal, Luis Eduardo; Medeiros, Leonardo P; Nishio, Erick K; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-08-28

    The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.

  16. Evidence of exposure to Brucella sp. in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimanis, A S; Koopman, H N; Westgate, A J; Nielsen, K; Leighton, F A

    2008-04-01

    Novel strains of Brucella recently have been discovered in marine mammals. To investigate Brucella exposure and infection in a general population of cetaceans, blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed from wild harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) incidentally caught in fishing gear in the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Two of 170 (1.2%) animals had detectable antibodies against Brucella, but no organisms were isolated from genital swabs or tissues from 22 and 8 porpoises, respectively. Genetic analysis of inflamed testes from 20 animals yielded no amplification of Brucella DNA. This is the first evidence of exposure to Brucella in porpoises from the western North Atlantic, and the prevalence is much lower than documented for conspecifics from the eastern North Atlantic.

  17. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  18. Jam Formation of Traffic Flow in Harbor Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何红弟; 卢伟真; 董力耘

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study concerning occurrence and growth of traffic jam in a harbor tunnel. The single-lane with three sections (downgrade, fiat, and upgrade) is taken into account and they are characterized with different velocity limit. At the low density, the traffic current increases linearly with density and saturates at some values of immediately density. As the density increases, the traffic jam appears firstly before the upgrade section and then extends to the downgrade section. Additionally, the relationships of the velocity and headway against position in different densities are obta/ned from simulation. These results clearly clarify where and when the traffic jam appears. Finally, the critical densities are derived via the theoretical analysis before and after the discontinuous fronts and the theoretical results are consistent with the critical values of simulation results.

  19. Environmental Impact of Artificial Harbors in Tropic Pacific Oceanic Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Chunting; Russell Howorth; HE Chaoxiong

    2004-01-01

    For loading and unloading of boats or ships round the clock, the access channel and its expanded part-a port are excavated on the lagoon and ocean reef flats in the tropic Pacific oceanic islands. Without moles, the access channel-port traps sediment and further transports it to the ocean or lagoon, resulting in coastal erosion. The wide uneven reef flat with a large catchment area tends to cause the formation of tide currents in the channel-port, while strong waves on the narrow even reef flat can give rise to rip currents. An access channel-port with a mole on one side or two moles on both sides results in less erosion. A model is recommended as an artificial harbor on the ocean coast, which is an excavated port surrounded by a mole, connected with the ocean by an access channel and with the shore by a bridge-shaped pier.

  20. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M R; Ward, J A; Mayhew, H L; Word, J Q; Niyogi, D K; Kohn, N P [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-10-01

    During the summer of 1991, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted to conduct sampling and testing of sediments proposed for dredging of Richmond Harbor, California. The MSL collected sediment cores to a depth of [minus]40 ft MLLW ([minus]38 ft + 2 ft overdepth) from 28 (12-in. core) and 30 (4-in. core) stations. The sediment cores were allocated to six composite samples referred to as sediment treatments, which were then subjected to physical, chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation testing. Physical and chemical parameters included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), priority pollutant metals, and butyltins. The results from the test treatments were compared to results from five reference treatments representative of potential in-bay and offshore disposal sites.

  1. Water level oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seiches are normal modes of water bodies responding to geophysical forcings with potential to significantly impact ecology and maritime operations. Analysis of high-frequency (1 Hz water level data in Monterey, California, identifies harbor modes between 10 and 120 s that are attributed to specific geographic features. It is found that modal amplitude modulation arises from cross-modal interaction and that offshore wave energy is a primary driver of these modes. Synchronous coupling between modes is observed to significantly impact dynamic water levels. At lower frequencies with periods between 15 and 60 min, modes are independent of offshore wave energy, yet are continuously present. This is unexpected since seiches normally dissipate after cessation of the driving force, indicating an unknown forcing. Spectral and kinematic estimates of these low-frequency oscillations support the idea that a persistent anticyclonic mesoscale gyre adjacent to the bay is a potential mode driver, while discounting other sources.

  2. Water level oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Seiches are normal modes of water bodies responding to geophysical forcings with potential to significantly impact ecology and maritime operations. Analysis of high-frequency (1 Hz water level data in Monterey California identifies Harbor modes between 10 and 120 s that are attributed with specific geographic features. It found that modal amplitude modulation arises from cross-modal interaction and that offshore wave energy is a primary driver of these modes. Synchronous coupling between modes is observed to significantly impact dynamic water levels. At lower frequencies between 15 and 60 min modes are independent of offshore wave energy, yet are continuously present. This is unexpected since seiches normally dissipate after cessation of the driving force, indicating an unknown forcing. Spectral and kinematic estimates of these low frequency oscillations supports the idea that a persistent anticyclonic mesoscale gyre adjacent to the Bay is a potential mode driver, while discounting other sources.

  3. Hiatal hernia in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancani, Barbara; Field, Cara L; Dennison, Sophie; Pulver, Robert; Tuttle, Allison D

    2012-06-01

    A 2-wk-old stranded harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) rescued by Mystic Aquarium showed signs of the presence of a hiatal hernia during rehabilitation. Contrast radiographs of esophagus and stomach revealed an intrathoracic radiodensity that contains filling defects typical of stomach, consistent with gastric rugal folds. Mural thickening was observed at the level of the cardia consistent with a diagnosis of a hiatal hernia. Although clinical improvement was noted with medical therapy and tube feeding, surgical correction of the hiatal hernia was considered necessary for full resolution. However, owing to the animal's low body weight, the corrective hernia surgery was postponed until the body condition improved. The seal needed to be surgically treated for a corneal ulcer, and while anesthetized with isoflurane, the seal became dyspneic and developed cardiac arrhythmias; ultimately cardiac arrest ensued. Resuscitation was unsuccessfully attempted and the seal was euthanized. Necropsy confirmed the radiographic diagnosis and further characterized a paraesophageal hiatal hernia.

  4. The defining DNA methylation signature of Floating-Harbor Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Rebecca L; Schenkel, Laila C; Nikkel, Sarah M; Ainsworth, Peter J; Pare, Guillaume; Boycott, Kym M; Bulman, Dennis E; Sadikovic, Bekim

    2016-12-09

    Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition characterized by short stature, delayed osseous maturation, expressive language impairment, and unique facial dysmorphology. We previously identified mutations in the chromatin remodeling protein SRCAP (SNF2-related CBP Activator Protein) as the cause of FHS. SRCAP has multiple roles in chromatin and transcriptional regulation; however, specific epigenetic consequences of SRCAP mutations remain to be described. Using high resolution genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, we identified a unique and highly specific DNA methylation "epi-signature" in the peripheral blood of individuals with FHS. Both hyper and hypomethylated loci are distributed across the genome, preferentially occurring in CpG islands. Clonal bisulfite sequencing of two hypermethylated (FIGN and STPG2) and two hypomethylated (MYO1F and RASIP1) genes confirmed these findings. The identification of a unique methylation signature in FHS provides further insight into the biological function of SRCAP and provides a unique biomarker for this disorder.

  5. Geographic, seasonal, and diurnal surface behavior of harbor porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Jonas; Christiansen, C.T.; Kjellerup, Sanne;

    2013-01-01

    are essential information on the status and management of the species. Thirty-five free-ranging harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were tracked in the region between the Baltic and the North Sea for 25-349 d using Argos satellite transmitters. No differences were found in surface behavior between geographical...... areas or the size of the animals. Slight differences were found between the two sexes and time of day. Surface time peaked in April, where 6% was spent with the transmitter above surface and 61.5% between 0 and 2 m depth, while the minimum values occurred in February (3.4% and 42.5%, respectively......). The analyses reveal that individual variation among porpoises is the most important factor in explaining variation in surface rates. However, the large number of animals documented in the present study covering a wide range of age and sex groups justifies the use of the seasonal average surface times...

  6. NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION IN NY/NJ HARBOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Lelie, D.; Reid-Green, J. D.; Stern, E. A.

    2003-12-31

    We have investigated the feasibility of using natural attenuation methods for ecosystem restoration in New York/New Jersey Harbor. Measurements were made of the most probable number of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in native sediments and in samples, which had been supplemented with an appropriate electron donor and electron acceptor. The results showed that the activity of the endogenous microbial population in the native sediment was high enough to make possible adequate chemical transformation rates. The bioavailability of the zinc in the sediments was measured using the BIOMET biosensor technique. The bioavailability of the zinc was effectively eliminated following the microbial activities. We concluded that natural attenuation could be used effectively in treating sediments from Newark Bay and surrounding waters and that the resultant materials could likely be used in environmental restoration projects of the type proposed for construction in South Kearny, NJ.

  7. Identificação de Escherichia coli e Streptococcus agalactiae em amostras placentárias de gestantes a termo com e sem suspeita de infecção

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Pâmella Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    A infecção neonatal pode ser responsável por consequências graves ao recém-nascido, caracterizada no nascimento como sepse precoce ou sepse tardia, pela elevada taxa de morbi-mortalidade neonatal. Os agentes infecciosos bacterianos mais frequentes descritos são os estreptococos (Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus anginosus e Streptococcus pneumoniae) e a Escherichia coli, cuja incidência ainda é pouco conhecida por não apresentar notificação compulsória e os e...

  8. A four-year monitoring of community-acquired Streptococcus agalactiae infection in urogenital tract%社区获得性泌尿生殖道无乳链球菌感染4年监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国钢; 周杨霄; 李佳俊; 方美芳; 万汝根

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the status of the community-acquired Streptococcus agalactiae infection of urogenital tract and drug resistance for the rational use of antibiotics. METHODS A retrospective analysis and statistics were performed for the S. Agalactiae isolated from the genitourinary tract specimens of outpatient in our hospital from Jan 2007 to Dec 2010. RESULTS The resistance rates of S. Agalactiae to erythromycin and clindamycin showed an increasing trend year by years the resistance rates to the tetracycline and levofloxacin had no significant difference among four years; the resistance rate to penicillin was less than 10. 0% ; The resistance to vancomycin and linezolid had not be found. The positive rate of D-test was 28. 6%. CONCLUSION Use of macrolides and clindamycin should be minimized in the treatment of S. Agalactiae infection. Penicillin antibiotics can not be used in preventive and empirical therapy. Clinicians should have a reasonable choice in antibiotics based on the susceptibility results.%目的 了解社区获得性泌尿生殖道无乳链球菌感染现状及耐药性分析,以指导临床合理用药.方法 对2007年1月-2010年12月送检的泌尿生殖道标本所分离的无乳链球菌,进行回顾性分析.结果 红霉素、克林霉素对无乳链球菌的耐药率呈逐年上升趋势,且增长速度很快;四环素与左氧氟沙星的耐药率4年间无明显差异;青霉素耐药率均<10.0%;万古霉素及利奈唑胺未发现耐药;D试验阳性率为28.6%.结论 在诊治无乳链球菌感染的过程中,应尽量减少大环内酯类药物及克林霉素的使用,青霉素类抗菌药物已不能作为预防和经验治疗用药,临床医师应根据药敏结果合理选择抗菌药物.

  9. The CD16+ monocyte subset is more permissive to infection and preferentially harbors HIV-1 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Philip J; Tippett, Emma; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Paukovics, Geza; Cameron, Paul U; Solomon, Ajantha; Lewin, Sharon R; Gorry, Paul R; Jaworowski, Anthony; Greene, Warner C; Sonza, Secondo; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2007-05-15

    HIV-1 persists in peripheral blood monocytes in individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with viral suppression, despite these cells being poorly susceptible to infection in vitro. Because very few monocytes harbor HIV-1 in vivo, we considered whether a subset of monocytes might be more permissive to infection. We show that a minor CD16+ monocyte subset preferentially harbors HIV-1 in infected individuals on HAART when compared with the majority of monocytes (CD14highCD16-). We confirmed this by in vitro experiments showing that CD16+ monocytes were more susceptible to CCR5-using strains of HIV-1, a finding that is associated with higher CCR5 expression on these cells. CD16+ monocytes were also more permissive to infection with a vesicular stomatitis virus G protein-pseudotyped reporter strain of HIV-1 than the majority of monocytes, suggesting that they are better able to support HIV-1 replication after entry. Consistent with this observation, high molecular mass complexes of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) were observed in CD16+ monocytes that were similar to those observed in highly permissive T cells. In contrast, CD14highCD16- monocytes contained low molecular mass active APOBEC3G, suggesting this is a mechanism of resistance to HIV-1 infection in these cells. Collectively, these data show that CD16+ monocytes are preferentially susceptible to HIV-1 entry, more permissive for replication, and constitute a continuing source of viral persistence during HAART.

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women. First study in a province of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, P; Pegels, E; Laczeski, M; Quiroga, M; Vergara, M

    2013-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal infections. Our purpose was to characterize GBS colonization in pregnant women, current serotypes, resistance phenotypes and genes associated with virulence. In Misiones, Argentina, there are no previous data on this topic. Vaginal-rectal swabs from 3125 pregnant women were studied between 2004 and 2010. GBS strains were identified by conventional and serological methods (Phadebact Strep B Test, ETC International, Bactus AB, Sweden). Serotypes were detected using Strep-B Latex (Statens Serum Institut, Denmark). Resistance phenotypes were determined by the double-disk test. Genes were studied by PCR. Maternal colonization was 9.38%. Resistance to erythromycin was 11.6%, and the constitutive phenotype was the predominant one. Serotype Ia was the most frequent, whereas serotypes IV, VI, VII and VIII were not detected. The lmb, bca and hylB genes were detected in more than 79% of the strains. In this study, the colonization rate with GBS and the serotype distribution were compared with studies reported in other areas of the country. The high resistance to erythromycin in Misiones justifies performing antibiotic susceptibility testing. The serotype distribution, the genes encoding putative virulence factors, and the patterns of resistance phenotypes of GBS may vary in different areas. They thus need to be evaluated in each place to devise strategies for prevention.

  11. Chemical and Biological Characterization of Black Rock Harbor Dredged Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    the first test (Table.- 833). Dissolved oxygen was at or above saturation. Mortality in the control appeared to be the result of gas supersaturation ...Reference Strain and Four Geographical Strains of Artemia as Food for Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) Larvae," Aquaculture , Vol 29, pp...EVIDENCE OF SUPERSATURATION . (1) PERCENT FOR SOLID PHASE TESTS (2) MILLIGRAMS/LITER FOR SUSPENDED PARTICULATE TESTS, DRY WEIGHTS OR COULTER COUNTS OR

  12. Muscle strain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  13. Muscle strain treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  14. Sprains and Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wrestling put people at risk for strains. Gymnastics, tennis, rowing, golf, and other sports that require extensive gripping can increase the risk of hand and forearm strains. Elbow strains sometimes occur in people who participate in ...

  15. 77 FR 45239 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Fornito, Operations Support Group, Eastern Service Center, Federal... and new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures have been developed at Hancock County-Bar Harbor... Approach Procedures at Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport. The geographic coordinates for the airport...

  16. 33 CFR 100.113 - Provincetown Harbor Swim for Life, Provincetown, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provincetown Harbor Swim for Life, Provincetown, MA. 100.113 Section 100.113 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.113 Provincetown Harbor...

  17. The Greening of Harbor Heights Elementary School: It Teaches Us the Business, Says Sixth-Grader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewdson, Alex

    1974-01-01

    Harbor Heights Elementary School in the Peninsula school district of Washington State is engaged in a career education research project. The sixth-graders of Harbor Heights use a fully equipped greenhouse to become aware of the working world through the occupations associated with ornamental horticulture. (DS)

  18. 33 CFR 110.240 - San Juan Harbor, P.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Juan Harbor, P.R. 110.240 Section 110.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.240 San Juan Harbor, P.R. (a) The anchorage...

  19. 33 CFR 110.27 - Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. 110.27 Section 110.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.27 Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. North...

  20. 33 CFR 110.40 - Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. 110.40 Section 110.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Falmouth, Mass. All the waters of the harbor northward of the inner end of the entrance channel....