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Sample records for agalactiae strains harboring

  1. Enhanced expression of lmb gene encoding laminin-binding protein in Streptococcus agalactiae strains harboring IS1548 in scpB-lmb intergenic region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Al Safadi

    Full Text Available Group B streptococcus (GBS is the main cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Bacterial surface proteins play a major role in GBS binding to and invasion of different host surfaces. The scpB and lmb genes, coding for fibronectin-binding and laminin-binding surface proteins, are present in almost all human GBS isolates. The scpB-lmb intergenic region is a hot spot for integration of two mobile genetic elements (MGEs: the insertion element IS1548 or the group II intron GBSi1. We studied the structure of scpB-lmb intergenic region in 111 GBS isolates belonging to the intraspecies major clonal complexes (CCs. IS1548 was mostly found (72.2% in CC19 serotype III strains recovered more specifically (92.3% from neonatal meningitis. GBSi1 was principally found (70.6% in CC17 strains, mostly (94.4% of serotype III, but also (15.7% in CC19 strains, mostly (87.5% of serotype II. No MGE was found in most strains of the other CCs (76.0%, notably CC23, CC10 and CC1. Twenty-six strains representing these three genetic configurations were selected to investigate the transcription and expression levels of scpB and lmb genes. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that lmb transcripts were 5.0- to 9.6-fold higher in the group of strains with IS1548 than in the other two groups of strains (P<0.001. Accordingly, the binding ability to laminin was 3.8- to 6.6-fold higher in these strains (P< or =0.001. Moreover, Lmb amount expressed on the cell surface was 2.4- to 2.7-fold greater in these strains (P<0.001. By contrast, scpB transcript levels and fibronectin binding ability were similar in the three groups of strains. Deletion of the IS1548 sequence between scpB and lmb genes in a CC19 serotype III GBS strain substantially reduced the transcription of lmb gene (13.5-fold, the binding ability to laminin (6.2-fold, and the expression of Lmb protein (5.0-fold. These data highlight the importance of MGEs in bacterial virulence and demonstrate the up-regulation of lmb gene by IS

  2. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

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    Delannoy Christian MJ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Methods Isolates from fish (n = 26, seals (n = 6, a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Results Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. Conclusions The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host

  3. Complete Genome of the Attenuated Sparfloxacin-Resistant Streptococcus agalactiae Strain 138spar

    OpenAIRE

    Pridgeon, Julia W.; Zhang, Dunhua; Zhang, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Through the selection of resistance to sparfloxacin, an attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae strain, 138spar, was obtained from its virulent parent strain, S. agalactiae 138P. The full genome of S. agalactiae 138spar is 1,838,126 bp. This genome will allow comparative genomics to identify genes associated with virulence, antibiotic resistance, or other characteristics.

  4. Complete genome sequence of an attenuated Sparfloxacin resistant Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138spar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through selection of resistance to sparfloxacin, an attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138spar was obtained from its virulent parent strain S. agalactiae 138P. The full genome of S. agalactiae 138spar is 1,838,126 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identi...

  5. Genetic analysis of Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated from neonates and their mothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchers, W.J.G.; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Toonen, M.; Kuppeveld, F.J.M. van; Trijbels-Smeulders, M.J.A.M.; Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J.A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in neonates. One of the major questions is whether the GBS strains able to cause neonatal invasive disease have peculiar genetic features. A collection of S. agalactiae strains, isolate

  6. Draft genome sequence of a nonhemolytic fish-pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Christian M J; Zadoks, Ruth N; Lainson, Frederick A; Ferguson, Hugh W; Crumlish, Margaret; Turnbull, James F; Fontaine, Michael C

    2012-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a significant Gram-positive bacterial pathogen of terrestrial and aquatic animals. A subpopulation of nonhemolytic strains which appear to be pathogenic only for poikilotherms exists. We report here the first draft genome sequence of a nonhemolytic S. agalactiae isolate recovered from a diseased fish. PMID:23105075

  7. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of a Colonizing Multilocus Sequence Type 17 Streptococcus agalactiae Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pallavi; Springman, A. Cody; Davies, H. Dele

    2012-01-01

    This report highlights the whole-genome shotgun draft sequence for a Streptococcus agalactiae strain representing multilocus sequence type (ST) 17, isolated from a colonized woman at 8 weeks postpartum. This sequence represents an important addition to the published genomes and will promote comparative genomic studies of S. agalactiae recovered from diverse sources. PMID:23045509

  8. Complete genome sequence of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P isolated from diseased Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P was isolated from the kidney of diseased Nile tilapia in Idaho during a 2007 streptococcal disease outbreak. The full genome of S. agalactiae 138P is 1,838,716 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identify genes for antigen disco...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of a Virulent Streptococcus agalactiae Strain, 138P, Isolated from Diseased Nile Tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    Pridgeon, Julia W.; Zhang, Dunhua

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P was isolated from the kidney of diseased Nile tilapia in Idaho during a 2007 streptococcal disease outbreak. The full genome sequence of S. agalactiae 138P is 1,838,701 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics analysis to identify genes for antigen discovery and vaccine development.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of a Nonhemolytic Fish-Pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Delannoy, Christian M J; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Lainson, Frederick A.; Ferguson, Hugh W.; Crumlish, Margaret; Turnbull, James F; Fontaine, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a significant Gram-positive bacterial pathogen of terrestrial and aquatic animals. A subpopulation of nonhemolytic strains which appear to be pathogenic only for poikilotherms exists. We report here the first draft genome sequence of a nonhemolytic S. agalactiae isolate recovered from a diseased fish.

  11. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of a Colonizing Multilocus Sequence Type 17 Streptococcus agalactiae Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Pallavi; Springman, A. Cody; Davies, H Dele; Manning, Shannon D.

    2012-01-01

    This report highlights the whole-genome shotgun draft sequence for a Streptococcus agalactiae strain representing multilocus sequence type (ST) 17, isolated from a colonized woman at 8 weeks postpartum. This sequence represents an important addition to the published genomes and will promote comparative genomic studies of S. agalactiae recovered from diverse sources.

  12. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    OpenAIRE

    Delannoy Christian MJ; Crumlish Margaret; Fontaine Michael C; Pollock Jolinda; Foster Geoff; Dagleish Mark P; Turnbull James F; Zadoks Ruth N

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmi...

  13. [Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS)--the characteristic of isolated strains from productive women's vagina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny, Katarzyna; Gołda-Matuszak, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of my research: to determine the frequency of colonisation Streptococcus agalactiae from productive women's vagina, an evaluation of usefulness microbiological diagnostic methods to detect GBS, to define serotype of analysed strains of S. agalactiae. After all, I tried to define fenotypic differential, biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility between GBS with and without hemolysis. All of strains S. agalactiae (n = 380) belong to bacteria Gram(+), they had B serologic group and didn't produce catalase. On the basis of TSA+5% sheep blood streptococcus with beta-hemolysis grew like a small, grey and shiny colonies with a narrow, bright ring. On the same base we had S. agalactiae without beta-hemolysis, in examine material--6% (n = 22). On the basis of Strepto B ID S. agalactiae grew like a small, round red colonies and on the base Granada agar like an orange, white colonies. The level of colonisation S. agalactiae was 22% (380GBS/1727women). Identification of analysed strains of S. agalactiae was made by test API 20 Strep. The susceptibility was examined to ampicilin, azithromycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, doxycyclin, cotrimoxasol, ciprofloxacin. Serotypes III (50%), Ia (18%) and V (14%) prevailed. PMID:20873487

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Nonhemolytic Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype V Strain 1, Isolated from the Buccal Cavity of a Canine

    OpenAIRE

    Harden, Leeanne K.; Morales, Karina M.; Hughey, Jeffery R.

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence from a nonhemolytic strain of Streptococcus agalactiae from the oral cavity of a canine was assembled. The genome is 2,165,968 bp, contains 2,055 genes, and is classified as group B streptococcus (GBS) serotype V, strain 1. A comparison to other S. agalactiae sequences shows high gene synteny with human and bovine strains.

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Nonhemolytic Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype V Strain 1, Isolated from the Buccal Cavity of a Canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Leeanne K; Morales, Karina M; Hughey, Jeffery R

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence from a nonhemolytic strain of Streptococcus agalactiae from the oral cavity of a canine was assembled. The genome is 2,165,968 bp, contains 2,055 genes, and is classified as group B streptococcus (GBS) serotype V, strain 1. A comparison to other S. agalactiae sequences shows high gene synteny with human and bovine strains. PMID:26823579

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype III, Multilocus Sequence Type 283 Strain SG-M1

    OpenAIRE

    Kurosh S. Mehershahi; Hsu, Li Yang; Koh, Tse Hsien; Chen, Swaine L.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is a common commensal strain in the human gastrointestinal tract that can also cause invasive disease in humans and other animals. We report here the complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae SG-M1, a serotype III, multilocus sequence type 283 strain, isolated from a Singaporean patient suffering from meningitis.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype III, Multilocus Sequence Type 283 Strain SG-M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehershahi, Kurosh S; Hsu, Li Yang; Koh, Tse Hsien; Chen, Swaine L

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is a common commensal strain in the human gastrointestinal tract that can also cause invasive disease in humans and other animals. We report here the complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae SG-M1, a serotype III, multilocus sequence type 283 strain, isolated from a Singaporean patient suffering from meningitis. PMID:26494662

  18. Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Strain H002, Serotype III, Isolated in China from a Pregnant Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui; Li, Liping; Luo, Fuguang; Liang, Wanwen; Gan, Xi; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the first whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain H002, serotype III, isolated in China from a woman 32 weeks pregnant. This sequence represents an important addition to the published genomes and will promote comparative genomic studies of S. agalactiae spp. isolated from diverse regions, particularly when compared with Chinese strains.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae CNCTC 10/84, a Hypervirulent Sequence Type 26 Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Hooven, Thomas A.; Randis, Tara M.; Sean C Daugherty; Narechania, Apurva; Planet, Paul J.; Tettelin, Hervé; Ratner, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is a human pathogen with a propensity to cause neonatal infections. We report the complete genome sequence of GBS strain CNCTC 10/84, a hypervirulent clinical isolate frequently used to study GBS pathogenesis. Comparative analysis of this sequence may shed light on novel pathogenic mechanisms.

  20. Complete genome sequence of an attenuated Sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138spar

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome of a sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine strain 138spar is 1,838,126 bp in size. The genome has 1892 coding sequences and 82 RNAs. The annotation of the genome is added by the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline. The publishing of this genome will allo...

  1. Complete genome sequence of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P isolated from disease Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P is 1838701 bp in size, containing 1831 genes. The genome has 1593 coding sequences, 152 pseudo genes, 16 rRNAs, 69 tRNAs, and 1 non-coding RNA. The annotation of the genome is added by the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipel...

  2. Loss of Catabolic Function in Streptococcus agalactiae Strains and Its Association with Neonatal Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Domelier, Anne-Sophie; van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie; Grandet, Adeline; Mereghetti, Laurent; Rosenau, Agnès; Quentin, Roland

    2006-01-01

    The abilities of 151 Streptococcus agalactiae strains to oxidize 95 carbon sources were studied using the Biolog system. Two populations were constituted: one with a high risk of causing meningitis (HR group; 63 strains), and the other with a lower risk of causing meningitis (LR group; 46 strains). Strains belonging to the HR group were significantly less able to use four carbon sources, i.e., α-d-glucose-1-phosphate, d-ribose, β-methyl-d-glucoside, and d,l-α-glycerol phosphate, than strains ...

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae ZQ0910, a Pathogen Causing Meningoencephalitis in the GIFT Strain of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bei; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Cai, Shuanghu; Huang, Yuchong; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Here, we reported the complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae strain ZQ0910, which was isolated from the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia in Guangdong, China.

  4. Comparative genomics analysis of Streptococcus agalactiae reveals that isolates from cultured tilapia in China are closely related to the human strain A909

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guangjin; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae, also referred to as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a frequent resident of the rectovaginal tract in humans, and a major cause of neonatal infection. In addition, S. agalactiae is a known fish pathogen, which compromises food safety and represents a zoonotic hazard. The complete genome sequence of the piscine S. agalactiae isolate GD201008-001 was compared with 14 other piscine, human and bovine strains to explore their virulence determinants, evolutionary...

  5. Serotype markers in a Streptococcus agalactiae strain collection from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavenyengwa R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Group B streptococci (GBS from Southern African areas have been less well characterized. Our objective was to study serotype and serovariant distribution of carrier GBS strains as part of a study of the epidemiology of GBS carriage in pregnant women from Zimbabwe. Materials and Methods: We studied GBS isolated from 121 healthy pregnant women living in Harare and surrounding areas, Zimbabwe. Capsular polysaccharide (CPS testing for serotype determination and surface-anchored protein testing for serosubtype determination were done by gene-based serotyping (PCR, except for the proteins R3 and a novel protein called Z, which were detected by antibody-based methods. Results: Strains of the CPS types Ia (15.7%, Ib (11.6%, II (8.3%, III (38.8%, V (24.0% and NT (1.7% were detected along with the strain-variable proteins Cί (15.7% of isolates, Cα (19.8%, Alp1 (epsilon-22.3%, Alp3 (5.0%, R4/Rib (46.3%, R3 (27.3%, Z (27.3%, and SAR5 (28.9%, which encodes the R5 protein. Up to four of the protein genes could be possessed or the gene product expressed by one and the same isolate. A total of 32 serovariants were detected. The findings assessed by us as most important were the very low prevalence of the gene Alp3 (Alp3 - 4.9%, high prevalence of R4 (Rib - 46.2%, the proteins R3 (27.3%, Z (27.3%, and of SAR5 (R5 - 28.9%. The low prevalence of Alp3, notably in GBS type V strains, differed from findings with CPS type V GBS from non-African areas. Bacteria of the various CPS types showed distinct CPS/protein-marker associations. Conclusion: The results are of importance in relation to regional variations of GBS phenotypes and genotypes and thus, of importance in planning and research in the context of future vaccine formulations.

  6. Emergence of respiratory Streptococcus agalactiae isolates in cystic fibrosis patients.

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    Vera Eickel

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-known pathogen for neonates and immunocompromized adults. Beyond the neonatal period, S. agalactiae is rarely found in the respiratory tract. During 2002-2008 we noticed S. agalactiae in respiratory secretions of 30/185 (16% of cystic fibrosis (CF patients. The median age of these patients was 3-6 years older than the median age CF patients not harboring S. agalactiae. To analyze, if the S. agalactiae isolates from CF patients were clonal, further characterization of the strains was achieved by capsular serotyping, surface protein determination and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. We found a variety of sequence types (ST among the isolates, which did not substantially differ from the MLST patterns of colonizing strains from Germany. However serotype III, which is often seen in colonizing strains and invasive infections was rare among CF patients. The emergence of S. agalactiae in the respiratory tract of CF patients may represent the adaptation to a novel host environment, supported by the altered surfactant composition in older CF patients.

  7. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain GBS85147 serotype of type Ia isolated from human oropharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Edgar Lacerda; Mariano, Diego César Batista; Viana, Marcus Vinícius Canário; Benevides, Leandro de Jesus; de Souza Rocha, Flávia; de Castro Oliveira, Letícia; Pereira, Felipe Luiz; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Leal, Carlos Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Alex Fiorini; Santos, Gabriela Silva; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Nagao, Prescilla Emy; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Hassan, Syed Shah; Pinto, Anne Cybele; Figueiredo, Henrique César Pereira; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, also referred to as Group B Streptococcus, is a frequent resident of the rectovaginal tract in humans, and a major cause of neonatal infection. The pathogen can also infect adults with underlying disease, particularly the elderly and immunocompromised ones. In addition, S. agalactiae is a known fish pathogen, which compromises food safety and represents a zoonotic hazard. This study provides valuable structural, functional and evolutionary genomic information of a human S. agalactiae serotype Ia (ST-103) GBS85147 strain isolated from the oropharynx of an adult patient from Rio de Janeiro, thereby representing the first human isolate in Brazil. We used the Ion Torrent PGM platform with the 200 bp fragment library sequencing kit. The sequencing generated 578,082,183 bp, distributed among 2,973,022 reads, resulting in an approximately 246-fold mean coverage depth and was assembled using the Mira Assembler v3.9.18. The S. agalactiae strain GBS85147 comprises of a circular chromosome with a final genome length of 1,996,151 bp containing 1,915 protein-coding genes, 18 rRNA, 63 tRNA, 2 pseudogenes and a G + C content of 35.48 %. PMID:27274785

  8. Emergence of Respiratory Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Eickel; Barbara Kahl; Beatrice Reinisch; Angelika Dübbers; Peter Küster; Claudia Brandt; Barbara Spellerberg

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-known pathogen for neonates and immunocompromized adults. Beyond the neonatal period, S. agalactiae is rarely found in the respiratory tract. During 2002–2008 we noticed S. agalactiae in respiratory secretions of 30/185 (16%) of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The median age of these patients was 3–6 years older than the median age CF patients not harboring S. agalactiae. To analyze, if the S. agalactiae isolates from CF patients were clonal, further characte...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae Strain S25 Isolated from Peritoneal Liquid of Nile Tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Rafaella Menegheti; Lima Júnior, Edson Antônio; Ribeiro Júnior, Jose Carlos; Beloti, Vanerli; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Padua, Santiago Benites; Pereira, Ulisses Pádua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is one of the major pathogens in fish production, especially in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The genomic characteristics of GBS isolated from fish must be more explored. Thus, we present here the genome of GBS S25, isolated from Nile tilapia from Brazil. PMID:27491974

  10. Macrolide and Tetracycline Resistance and Molecular Relationships of Clinical Strains of Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Culebras, Esther; Rodriguez-Avial, Iciar; Betriu, Carmen; Redondo, Montserrat; Picazo, Juan J.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanisms for tetracycline and macrolide resistance in 54 isolates of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae were analyzed by PCR. The erm(B), erm(A), and mef(A) genes, either alone or in combination, were detected in all the erythromycin-resistant isolates. The tet(M) and tet(O) genes were responsible for tetracycline resistance. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA indicated different clonal origins of the isolates.

  11. Comparative genome analysis identifies two large deletions in the genome of highly-passaged attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae strain YM001 compared to the parental pathogenic strain HN016

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui; Li, Liping; Huang, Yan; Luo, Fuguang; Liang, Wanwen; Gan, Xi; Huang, Ting; Lei, Aiying; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lianfu

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae), also known as group B Streptococcus (GBS), is an important pathogen for neonatal pneumonia, meningitis, bovine mastitis, and fish meningoencephalitis. The global outbreaks of Streptococcus disease in tilapia cause huge economic losses and threaten human food hygiene safety as well. To investigate the mechanism of S. agalactiae pathogenesis in tilapia and develop attenuated S. agalactiae vaccine, this study sequenced and comparatively analyz...

  12. Genomic comparison between pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from Nile tilapia in Thailand and fish-derived ST7 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B streptococcus (GBS), is a highly virulent pathogen in aquatic animals, causing huge mortalities worldwide. In Thailand, the serotype Ia, β-hemolytic GBS, belonging to sequence type (ST) 7 of clonal complex (CC) 7, was found to be the major cause of streptococcosis outbreaks in fish farms. In this study, we performed an in silico genomic comparison, aiming to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between the pathogenic fish strains of Thai ST7 and other ST7 from different hosts and geographical origins. In general, the genomes of Thai ST7 strains are closely related to other fish ST7s, as the core genome is shared by 92-95% of any individual fish ST7 genome. Among the fish ST7 genomes, we observed only small dissimilarities, based on the analysis of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), surface protein markers, insertions sequence (IS) elements and putative virulence genes. The phylogenetic tree based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the core genome sequences clearly categorized the ST7 strains according to their geographical and host origins, with the human ST7 being genetically distant from other fish ST7 strains. A pan-genome analysis of ST7 strains detected a 48-kb gene island specifically in the Thai ST7 isolates. The orientations and predicted amino acid sequences of the genes in the island closely matched those of Tn5252, a streptococcal conjugative transposon, in GBS 2603V/R serotype V, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus suis. Thus, it was presumed that Thai ST7 acquired this Tn5252 homologue from related streptococci. The close phylogenetic relationship between the fish ST7 strains suggests that these strains were derived from a common ancestor and have diverged in different geographical regions and in different hosts. PMID:26455417

  13. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain GBS85147 serotype of type Ia isolated from human oropharynx

    OpenAIRE

    de Aguiar, Edgar Lacerda; Mariano, Diego César Batista; Viana, Marcus Vinícius Canário; Benevides, Leandro Jesus; de Souza Rocha, Flávia; de Castro Oliveira, Letícia; Pereira, Felipe Luiz; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Leal, Carlos Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Alex Fiorini; Santos, Gabriela Silva; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Nagao, Prescilla Emy; De Castro Soares, Siomar; Hassan, Syed Shah

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, also referred to as Group B Streptococcus, is a frequent resident of the rectovaginal tract in humans, and a major cause of neonatal infection. The pathogen can also infect adults with underlying disease, particularly the elderly and immunocompromised ones. In addition, S. agalactiae is a known fish pathogen, which compromises food safety and represents a zoonotic hazard. This study provides valuable structural, functional and evolutionary genomic information of a hu...

  14. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain SA20-06, a fish pathogen associated to meningoencephalitis outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ulisses de Pádua; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Aburjaile, Flávia Figueira; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Guimarães, Luís Carlos; Silva Almeida, Sintia; Diniz, Carlos Augusto Almeida; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Gomes Sá, Pablo; Ali, Amjad; Bakhtiar, Syeda Marriam; Dorella, Fernanda Alves

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is the causative agent of meningoencephalitis in fish, mastitis in cows, and neonatal sepsis in humans. Meningoencephalitis is a major health problem for tilapia farming and is responsible for high economic losses worldwide. Despite its importance, the genomic characteristics and the main molecular mechanisms involved in virulence of S. agalactiae isolated from fish are still poorly understood. Here, we present the genomic features of the 1,8...

  15. Physiological studies in aerobic batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains harboring the MEL1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Simon; Roca, Christophe Francois Aime; Ronnow, B.;

    2000-01-01

    Physiological studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains harboring the MEL1 gene were carried out in aerobic batch cultivations on glucose-galactose mixtures and on the disaccharide melibiose, which is hydrolyzed by the enzyme melibiase (Mel1, EC 3.2.1.22) into a glucose and a galactose moiety. ...

  16. Cadmium- and mercury-resistant Bacillus strains from a salt marsh and from Boston Harbor.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, I; Levinson, H. S.; Wang, Y.; Halvorson, H O

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria resistant to cadmium or mercury or both were isolated from the Great Sippewissett Marsh (Cape Cod, Mass.) and from Boston Harbor. Many of these metal-resistant isolates were gram-positive aerobic sporeformers, although not necessarily isolated as spores. Although several of the isolated strains bore plasmids, cadmium and mercury resistances appeared to be, for the most part, chromosomally encoded. DNA sequence homology of the gram-positive cadmium- and mercury-resistant isolates was ...

  17. Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Faro

    1993-01-01

    Статья посвящена исследованию степени колонизации Streptococcus agalactiae мочеполовых (СГВ) органов и прямой кишки беременных на раннем сроке беременности и исходов беременности для матери и плода в зависимости от применения антибиотикопрофилактики. Частота колонизации СГВ составила 15,9 %, при этом в моче СГВ выявлялись с частотой 8,6 %, в отделяемом влагалища 3,5 %, в прямой кишке 10 %. Эффективность амоксициллина клавуланата, назначаемого во II триместре беременности при выявлении СГВ, со...

  18. Protein X of Streptococcus agalactiae induces opsonic antibodies in cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Rainard, P; Lautrou, Y; Sarradin, P.; Poutrel, B

    1991-01-01

    Protein X of Streptococcus agalactiae is a surface protein frequently associated with strains isolated from cases of mastitis of dairy cows. By immunizing cows with purified protein X, we obtained an antibody response which was restricted to X-bearing strains of S. agalactiae in a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This response resulted in an increase in the opsonic activity of serum for strains bearing protein X, as assessed through the augmentation of the chemiluminescence respo...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of a Streptococcus agalactiae Strain Isolated from a Preterm Neonate Blood Sepsis Patient at the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Kropp, K. A.; Lucid, A.; Carroll, J; Belgrudov, V.; Walsh, P.; Kelly, B.; Smith, C; Dickinson, P; O'Driscoll, A; Templeton, K.; Ghazal, P; Sleator, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report the draft genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae ED-NGS-1000, cultivated from a blood sample taken from a preterm neonate blood sepsis patient at the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom.

  20. Toxicity of group B Streptococcus agalactiae in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Warejcka, D. J.; Goodrum, K J; Spitznagel, J K

    1985-01-01

    Several strains of group B Streptococcus agalactiae were found to be lethal for young adult rats. When bacteria were heat killed and then injected intraperitoneally into rats, rapid death (14 to 18 h) of the rats occurred, characterized by labored breathing, hemolyzed serum, hemoglobinuria, and subungual hemorrhages. Sections of tissues from these rats failed to reveal the cause of death. Rats injected with toxic or nontoxic strains of group B S. agalactiae had reduced numbers of circulating ...

  1. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance  in Streptococcus agalactiae strains recovered from female carriers in the Bucharest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codru?a-Romani?a Usein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, we used multilocus sequence typing (MLST to understand how Romanian group B streptococcus (GBS strains fit into the global GBS population structure. Colonising isolates recovered from adult human females were tested for antibiotic resistance, were molecularly serotyped based on the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps gene cluster and further characterised using a set of molecular markers (surface protein genes, pilus-encoded islands and mobile genetic elements inserted in the scpB-lmb intergenic region. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to complement the MLST clonal distribution pattern of selected strains. Among the 55 strains assigned to six cps types (Ia, Ib, II-V, 18 sequence types (STs were identified by MLST. Five STs represented new entries to the MLST database. The prevalent STs were ST-1, ST-17, ST-19 and ST-28. Twenty molecular marker profiles were identified. The most common profiles (rib+GBSi1+PI-1, rib+GBSi1+PI-1, PI-2b and alp2/3+PI-1, PI-2a were associated with the cps III/ST-17 and cps V/ST-1 strains. A cluster of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains was detected among the cps V/ST-19 members; these strains shared alp1 and IS1548 and carried PI-1, PI-2a or both. Our results support the usefulness of implementing an integrated genotyping system at the reference laboratory level to obtain the reliable data required to make comparisons between countries.

  2. VNTR analysis reveals unexpected genetic diversity within Mycoplasma agalactiae, the main causative agent of contagious agalactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayling Roger D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma agalactiae is the main cause of contagious agalactia, a serious disease of sheep and goats, which has major clinical and economic impacts. Previous studies of M. agalactiae have shown it to be unusually homogeneous and there are currently no available epidemiological techniques which enable a high degree of strain differentiation. Results We have developed variable number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis using the sequenced genome of the M. agalactiae type strain PG2. The PG2 genome was found to be replete with tandem repeat sequences and 4 were chosen for further analysis. VNTR 5 was located within the hypothetical protein MAG6170 a predicted lipoprotein. VNTR 14 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG3350 and the hypothetical protein MAG3340. VNTR 17 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG4060 and the hypothetical protein MAG4070 and VNTR 19 spanned the 5' end of the pseudogene for a lipoprotein MAG4310 and the 3' end of the hypothetical lipoprotein MAG4320. We have investigated the genetic diversity of 88 M. agalactiae isolates of wide geographic origin using VNTR analysis and compared it with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Simpson's index of diversity was calculated to be 0.324 for PFGE and 0.574 for VNTR analysis. VNTR analysis revealed unexpected diversity within M. agalactiae with 9 different VNTR types discovered. Some correlation was found between geographical origin and the VNTR type of the isolates. Conclusion VNTR analysis represents a useful, rapid first-line test for use in molecular epidemiological analysis of M. agalactiae for outbreak tracing and control.

  3. Evidence for the Sialylation of PilA, the PI-2a Pilus-Associated Adhesin of Streptococcus agalactiae Strain NEM316.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Morello

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (or Group B Streptococcus, GBS is a commensal bacterium present in the intestinal and urinary tracts of approximately 30% of humans. We and others previously showed that the PI-2a pilus polymers, made of the backbone pilin PilB, the tip adhesin PilA and the cell wall anchor protein PilC, promote adhesion to host epithelia and biofilm formation. Affinity-purified PI-2a pili from GBS strain NEM316 were recognized by N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc, also known as sialic acid specific lectins such as Elderberry Bark Lectin (EBL suggesting that pili are sialylated. Glycan profiling with twenty different lectins combined with monosaccharide composition by HPLC suggested that affinity-purified PI-2a pili are modified by N-glycosylation and decorated with sialic acid attached to terminal galactose. Analysis of various relevant mutants in the PI-2a pilus operon by flow-cytometry and electron microscopy analyses pointed to PilA as the pilus subunit modified by glycosylation. Double labeling using PilB antibody and EBL lectin, which specifically recognizes N-acetylneuraminic acid attached to galactose in α-2, 6, revealed a characteristic binding of EBL at the tip of the pilus structures, highly reminiscent of PilA localization. Expression of a secreted form of PilA using an inducible promoter showed that this recombinant PilA binds specifically to EBL lectin when produced in the native GBS context. In silico search for potentially glycosylated asparagine residues in PilA sequence pointed to N427 and N597, which appear conserved and exposed in the close homolog RrgA from S. pneumoniae, as likely candidates. Conversion of these two asparagyl residues to glutamyl resulted in a higher instability of PilA. Our results provide the first evidence that the tip PilA adhesin can be glycosylated, and suggest that this modification is critical for PilA stability and may potentially influence interactions with the host.

  4. Comparative genomics and the role of lateral gene transfer in the evolution of bovine adapted Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Vincent P; Lang, Ping; Bitar, Paulina D. Pavinski; Lefebure, Tristan; Schukken, Ynte H.; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Michael J Stanhope

    2011-01-01

    In addition to causing severe invasive infections in humans, Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B Streptococcus (GBS), is also a major cause of bovine mastitis. Here we provide the first genome sequence for S. agalactiae isolated from a cow diagnosed with clinical mastitis (strain FSL S3-026). Comparison to eight S. agalactiae genomes obtained from human disease isolates revealed 183 genes specific to the bovine strain. Subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening for the presence/abs...

  5. Regulatorische DNA-Sequenzen in der Promoterregion des Streptococcus agalactiae Hämolysin-Genclusters

    OpenAIRE

    Appel, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The ß-hemolysin of Streptococcus agalactiae is encoded by the cyl-operon. While the CovS/CovR regulator supresses ß-hemolysis, it is unknown, if additional regulatory mechanisms exist. To analyze regulation of ß-hemolysis, a promoter region fragment of the cyl genes that can cause a prominent hyperhemolytic phenotype of S. agalactiae was further characterized. By targeted mutagenesis, we identified several short DNA sequences harboring putative repressor molecule binding sites.

  6. Streptococcus agalactiae endogenous endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Saffra, Norman; Rakhamimov, Aleksandr; Husney, Robert; Ghitan, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (SA) is a Group B Streptococcus, which is a common pathogen implicated in neonatal and geriatric sepsis. Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE) is a condition that results from haematogenous seeding of the globe, during transient or persistent bacteremia. We document a case of a non-septic geriatric patient, who developed EBE after a transient bacteraemia with SA.

  7. Heterogeneity of Hemolysin Expression during Neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae Sepsis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sigge, Anja; Schmid, Manuel; Mauerer, Stefanie; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The β-hemolysin of Streptococcus agalactiae is a major virulence factor; consequently, nonhemolytic strains rarely cause infections. We report on a case of neonatal sepsis caused by a strain displaying heterogeneous hemolysin expression. It was detected by the simultaneous isolation of hemolytic and nonhemolytic colonies from cultures of the infant's blood.

  8. Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Keefe, G P

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae continues to be a major cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle and a source of economic loss for the industry. Veterinarians are often asked to provide information on herd level control and eradication of S. agalactiae mastitis. This review collects and collates relevant publications on the subject. The literature search was conducted in 1993 on the Agricola database. Articles related to S. agalactiae epidemiology, pathogen identification techniques, milk quali...

  9. Protein degradation in bovine milk caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerstedt, Maria; Wredle, Ewa; Lam, Vo; Johansson, Monika

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae is a contagious mastitis bacterium, often associated with cases of subclinical mastitis. Different mastitis bacteria have been evaluated previously from a diagnostic point of view, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning their effect on milk composition. Protein composition is important in achieving optimal yield and texture when milk is processed to fermented products, such as cheese and yoghurt, and is thus of great economic value. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate protein degradation mainly caused by exogenous proteases originating from naturally occurring Str. agalactiae. The samples were incubated at 37°C to imitate degradation caused by the bacteria in the udder. Protein degradation caused by different strains of Str. agalactiae was also investigated. Protein degradation was observed to occur when Str. agalactiae was added to milk, but there were variations between strains of the bacteria. Caseins, the most economically important proteins in milk, were degraded up to 75% in milk inoculated with Str. agalactiae in relation to sterile ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk, used as control milk. The major whey proteins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, were degraded up to 21% in relation to the sterile control milk. These results suggest that different mastitis bacteria but also different strains of mastitis bacteria should be evaluated from a milk quality perspective to gain knowledge about their ability to degrade the economically important proteins in milk. PMID:22850579

  10. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in cancer patients: a five-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, B A S; Martins, C A S; Mendonça, J C; Miranda, P S D; Sanches, G F; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L; Nagao, P E

    2016-06-01

    Although the highest burden of Streptococcus agalactiae infections has been reported in industrialized countries, studies on the characterization and epidemiology are still limited in developing countries and implementation of control strategies remains undefined. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological aspects of S. agalactiae infections in cancer patients treated at a Reference Brazilian National Cancer Institute - INCA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We reviewed the clinical and laboratory records of all cancer patients identified as having invasive S. agalactiae disease during 2010-2014. The isolates were identified by biochemical analysis and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 263 strains of S. agalactiae were isolated from cancer patients who had been clinically and microbiologically classified as infected. S. agalactiae infections were mostly detected among adults with solid tumors (94 %) and/or patients who have used indwelling medical devices (77.2 %) or submitted to surgical procedures (71.5 %). Mortality rates (in-hospital mortality during 30 days after the identification of S. agalactiae) related to invasive S. agalactiae infections (n = 28; 31.1 %) for the specific category of neoplasic diseases were: gastrointestinal (46 %), head and neck (25 %), lung (11 %), hematologic (11 %), gynecologic (4 %), and genitourinary (3 %). We also found an increase in S. agalactiae resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin and the emergence of penicillin-less susceptible isolates. A remarkable number of cases of invasive infections due to S. agalactiae strains was identified, mostly in adult patients. Our findings reinforce the need for S. agalactiae control measures in Brazil, including cancer patients. PMID:26993288

  11. Erythromycin and Clindamycin Resistance and Telithromycin Susceptibility in Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Betriu, C.; Culebras, E.; Gómez, M.; Rodríguez-Avial, I.; Sánchez, B. A.; Ágreda, M. C.; Picazo, J J

    2003-01-01

    The rates of resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin among Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated in our hospital increased from 4.2 and 0.8% in 1993 to 17.4 and 12.1%, respectively, in 2001. Erythromycin resistance was mainly due to the presence of an Erm(B) methylase, while the M phenotype was detected in 3.8% of the strains. Telithromycin was very active against erythromycin-resistant strains, irrespective of their mechanisms of macrolide resistance.

  12. Inapparent Streptococcus agalactiae infection in adult/commercial tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiufeng; Fang, Wei; Ke, Bixia; He, Dongmei; Liang, Yuheng; Ning, Dan; Tan, Hailing; Peng, Hualin; Wang, Yunxin; Ma, Yazhou; Ke, Changwen; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    We report on inapparent infections in adult/commercial tilapia in major tilapia fish farms in Guangdong. A total of 146 suspected isolates were confirmed to be S. agalactiae using an API 20 Strep system and specific PCR amplification. All isolates were identified as serotype Ia using multiplex serotyping PCR. An MLST assay showed single alleles of adhP (10), atr (2), glcK (2), glnA (1), pheS (1), sdhA (3) and tkt (2), and this profile was designated 'unique ST 7'. The analysis of virulence genes resulted in 10 clusters, of which dltr-bca-sodA-spb1-cfb-bac (62, 42.47%) was the predominant virulence gene profile. The PFGE analysis of S. agalactiae yielded 6 distinct PFGE types (A, B, C, D, F and G), of which Pattern C (103) was the predominant type, accounting for approximately 70.55% (103/146) of the total S. agalactiae strains. Therefore, unlike what has been found in juvenile tilapia, in which PFGE pattern D/F is the major prevalent pattern, we found that pattern C was the major prevalent pattern in inapparent infected adult/commercial tilapia in Guangdong, China. In conclusion, we close a gap in the current understanding of S. agalactiae epidemiology and propose that researchers should be alert for inapparent S. agalactiae infections in adult/commercial tilapia to prevent a potential threat to food safety. PMID:27215811

  13. Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens of cultured and wild fish with a worldwide distribution. Both bacteria are potential zoonotic pathogens and have been associated most often with infections in immunocompromised people. Streptococcus in...

  14. In Vitro Activities of Tigecycline against Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae: Mechanisms of Macrolide and Tetracycline Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Betriu, C.; Culebras, E.; Rodríguez-Avial, I.; Gómez, M.; Sánchez, B. A.; Picazo, J J

    2004-01-01

    The activity of tigecycline was tested against erythromycin-resistant streptococci (107 Streptococcus pyogenes and 98 Streptococcus agalactiae strains). The presence of erythromycin and tetracycline resistance genes was determined by PCR. Among S. pyogenes strains the most prevalent gene was mef(A) (91.6%). The erm(B) gene was the most prevalent (65.3%) among S. agalactiae strains. Tigecycline proved to be very active against all the isolates tested (MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested we...

  15. An Immunocompromised Child with Bloodstream Infection Caused by Two Escherichia coli Strains, One Harboring NDM-5 and the Other Harboring OXA-48-Like Carbapenemase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasassri, M Earth; Boyce, Thomas G; Norgan, Andrew; Cunningham, Scott A; Jeraldo, Patricio R; Weissman, Scott; Patel, Robin; Banerjee, Ritu; Pogue, Jason M; Kaye, Keith S

    2016-06-01

    We describe a 16-year-old neutropenic patient from the Middle East with bloodstream infection caused by two carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli isolates that we characterized by whole-genome sequencing. While one displayed meropenem resistance and was blaNDM positive, the other demonstrated meropenem susceptibility yet harbored blaOXA181 (which encodes a blaOXA48-like enzyme). This report highlights the challenge of laboratory detection of blaOXA48-like enzymes and the clinical implications of genotypic resistance detection in carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27217442

  16. rgf Encodes a Novel Two-Component Signal Transduction System of Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Spellerberg, Barbara; Rozdzinski, Eva; Martin, Simone; Weber-Heynemann, Josefine; Lütticken, Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    The adhesion of gram-positive bacteria to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is regarded as an important determinant of pathogenicity. A comparison of the adhesion of Streptococcus agalactiae strain O90R to different ECM proteins showed that the most pronounced binding could be observed for immobilized fibrinogen. To investigate the genetic determinants of S. agalactiae fibrinogen binding, a pGhost9:ISS1 mutant library was screened for mutants displaying reduced agglutination of fibrinogen-c...

  17. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azizollah Ebrahimi; Azar Moatamedi; Sharareh Lotfalian; Pejhman Mirshokraei

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT) positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2%) S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3%) of the isolates were bio...

  18. Antibiotic Susceptibilities and Serotyping of Clinical Streptococcus Agalactiae Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay Atalay

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci, GBS are frequently responsible for sepsis and meningitis seen in the early weeks of life. GBS may cause perinatal infection and premature birth in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to serotype GBS strains isolated from clinical samples and evaluate their serotype distribution according to their susceptibilities to antibiotics and isolation sites. Material and Methods: One hundred thirty one S. agalactiae strains isolated from the clinical samples were included in the study. Of the strains, 99 were isolated from urine, 20 from soft tissue, 10 from blood and 2 from vaginal swab. Penicillin G and ceftriaxone susceptibilities of GBS were determined by the agar dilution method. Susceptibilities to erythromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin and tetracycline were determined by the Kirby-Bauer method according to CLSI criteria. Serotyping was performed using the latex aglutination method using specific antisera (Ia, Ib, II-VIII. Results: While in 131 GBS strains, serotypes VII and VIII were not detected, the most frequently isolated serotypes were types Ia (36%, III (30.5% and II (13% respectively. Serotype Ia was the most frequently seen serotype in all samples. All GBS isolates were susceptible to penicilin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin. Among the strains, tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin resistance rates were determined as 90%, 14.5%, and 13% respectively. Conclusion: Penicillin is still the first choice of treatment for the infections with all serotypes of S. agalactiae in Turkey.

  19. Characterization of Afb, a novel bifunctional protein in Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Dehbashi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in newborns and results in pneumonia and bacteremia in adults. A number of S. agalactiae components are involved in colonization of target cells. Destruction of peptidoglycan and division of covalently linked daughter cells is mediated by autolysins. In this study, autolytic activity and plasma binding ability of AFb novel recombinant protein of S. agalactiae was investigated.Materials and Methods: The gbs1805 gene was cloned and expressed. E. coli strains DH5α and BL21 were used as cloning and expression hosts, respectively. After purification, antigenicity and binding ability to plasma proteins of the recombinant protein was evaluated.Results: AFb, the 18KDa protein was purified successfully. The insoluble mature protein revealed the ability to bind to fibrinogen and fibronectin. This insoluble mature protein revealed that it has the ability to bind to fibrinogen and fibronectin plasma proteins. Furthermore, in silico analysis demonstrated the AFb has an autolytic activity.Conclusions: AFb is a novel protein capable of binding to fibrinogen and fibronectin. This findings lay a ground work for further investigation of the role of the bacteria in adhesion and colonization to the host. Keywords: Streptococcus agalactiae, Fibrinogen, Fibronectin, Autolysin

  20. DNA Microarray-Based Typing of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Nitschke, Heike; Slickers, Peter; Müller, Elke; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae frequently colonizes the urogenital tract, and it is a major cause of bacterial septicemia, meningitis, and pneumonia in newborns. For typing purposes, a microarray targeting group B streptococcus (GBS) virulence-associated markers and resistance genes was designed and validated with reference strains, as well as clinical and veterinary isolates. Selected isolates were also subjected to multilocus sequence typing. It was observed that putative typing markers, such as ...

  1. Investigation of the translation-initiation factor IF2 gene, infB, as a tool to study the population structure of Streptococcus agalactiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, J; Hauge, M; Fage-Larsen, J;

    2000-01-01

    The sequence of infB, encoding the prokaryotic translation-initiation factor 2 (IF2), was determined in eight strains of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus) and an alignment revealed limited intraspecies diversity within S. agalactiae. The amino acid sequence of IF2 from S. agalactiae...... by comparing a partial sequence of infB. A total of six alleles were detected for the region of infB analysed. The alleles correlated with the separation of the same strains of S. agalactiae into major evolutionary lineages, as shown in previous work. The partial sequences of infB were furthermore...... and from related species were aligned and revealed an interspecies conserved central and C-terminal part, and an N-terminal part that is highly variable in length and amino acid sequence. The diversity and relationships in a collection of 58 genetically distinct strains of S. agalactiae were evaluated...

  2. The β-hemolysin and intracellular survival of Streptococcus agalactiae in human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubha Sagar

    Full Text Available S. agalactiae (group B streptococci, GBS is a major microbial pathogen in human neonates and causes invasive infections in pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. The S. agalactiae β-hemolysin is regarded as an important virulence factor for the development of invasive disease. To examine the role of β-hemolysin in the interaction with professional phagocytes, the THP-1 monocytic cell line and human granulocytes were infected with a serotype Ia S. agalactiae wild type strain and its isogenic nonhemolytic mutant. We could show that the nonhemolytic mutants were able to survive in significantly higher numbers than the hemolytic wild type strain, in THP-1 macrophage-like cells and in assays with human granulocytes. Intracellular bacterial multiplication, however, could not be observed. The hemolytic wild type strain stimulated a significantly higher release of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α than the nonhemolytic mutant in THP-1 cells, while similar levels of the chemokine Interleukin-8 were induced. In order to investigate bacterial mediators of IL-8 release in this setting, purified cell wall preparations from both strains were tested and found to exert a potent proinflammatory stimulus on THP-1 cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that the β-hemolysin has a strong influence on the intracellular survival of S. agalactiae and that a tightly controlled regulation of β-hemolysin expression is required for the successful establishment of S. agalactiae in different host niches.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Cyanobacterium Geminocystis sp. Strain NIES-3709, Which Harbors a Phycoerythrin-Rich Phycobilisome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Yuu; Katayama, Mitsunori; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Misawa, Naomi; Iioka, Erica; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Kan; Eki, Toshihiko; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Yo; Ishida, Makoto; Hattori, Masahira

    2015-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Geminocystis sp. strain NIES-3709 accumulates a larger amount of phycoerythrin than the related NIES-3708 strain does. Here, we determined the complete genome sequence of the NIES-3709 strain. Our genome data suggest that the different copy number of rod linker genes for phycoerythrin leads to the different phycoerythrin contents between the two strains. PMID:25931605

  4. Antibiotic Susceptibility and Mechanisms of Erythromycin Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae: French Multicenter Study

    OpenAIRE

    De Mouy, Dany; Cavallo, Jean-Didier; Leclercq, Roland; Fabre, Roland

    2001-01-01

    Among 126 Streptococcus agalactiae isolates collected in 10 French laboratories in 1999, 27 (21.4%) had macrolide resistance related to the presence of erm(B) (11 strains), erm(A) subclass erm(TR) (10 strains), and mef(A) genes (2 strains) and the presence of combinations of erm(B) and erm(A) genes or mef(A) genes (3 strains).

  5. Molecular characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli hemolysin gene (EHEC-hlyA)-harboring isolates from cattle reveals a diverse origin and hybrid diarrheagenic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari Badouei, Mahdi; Morabito, Stefano; Najafifar, Arash; Mazandarani, Emad

    2016-04-01

    In the present study we investigated the occurrence of Escherichia coli strains harboring the gene encoding enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin (EHEC-HlyA) in cattle and the association of this gene with various diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) pathotypes. First, the bovine E. coli isolates were screened for EHEC-hlyA gene by PCR, and then they were characterized for the phylogenetic groups and the presence of the major virulence genes of different DEC pathotypes. In total, 25 virulence gene profiles were observed in 54 EHEC-hlyA+ isolates that reflect a considerable heterogeneity. The EHEC-hlyA+ strains were mostly associated with EHEC (72%), while only 7.4% were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). We also showed the presence of estA gene of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in 6 isolates (11.1%). Interestingly, two of the estA+ strains showed hybrid pathotypes with one carrying eae/estA (EPEC/ETEC), and the other one stx2/astA/estA (EHEC/ETEC). None of the isolates were related to enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC). The EHEC-plasmid encoded genes occurred in seven different combinations with EHEC-hlyA/saa/subA/espP being the most prevalent (46.3%). All stx-/eae+ strains carried O island 57 (OI-57) molecular marker(s) that may indicate these to be the progenitors of EHEC or strains losing stx. The most prevalent phylogroup was B1 (61.1%), but the most heterogeneous strains including the hybrid strains belonged to A phylogroup. Overall, our results indicate that cattle EHEC-hlyA encoding E. coli isolates consist of diverse diarrheagenic strains with the possible existence of hybrid pathotypes. Future studies are required to clarify the evolutionary aspects and clinical significance of these strains in humans and domestic animals. PMID:26855346

  6. Bacterial meningitis by streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal-Velásquez Tatiana Paola; Cortés-Daza César Camilo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: bacterial meningitis is an infectious disease considered a medicalemergency. The timely management has an important impact on the evolution of thedisease. Streptococcus agalactiae, a major causative agent of severe infections innewborns can colonize different tissues, including the central nervous system.Case report: Male patient 47 years old from rural areas, with work activity as amilker of cattle, referred to tertiary care, with disorientation, neck stiffness, and grandmal se...

  7. Dual role for pilus in adherence to epithelial cells and biofilm formation in Streptococcus agalactiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoan Konto-Ghiorghi; Emilie Mairey; Adeline Mallet; Guillaume Duménil; Elise Caliot; Patrick Trieu-Cuot; Shaynoor Dramsi

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a common human commensal and a major life-threatening pathogen in neonates. Adherence to host epithelial cells is the first critical step of the infectious process. Pili have been observed on the surface of several gram-positive bacteria including S. agalactiae. We previously characterized the pilus-encoding operon gbs1479-1474 in strain NEM316. This pilus is composed of three structural subunit proteins: Gbs1478 (PilA), Gbs1477 (PilB), and Gbs1474 (PilC), and its ...

  8. Karakteristik dan Patogenisitas Streptococcus Agalactiae Tipe ?-hemolitik dan Non-hemolitik pada Ikan Nila

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    Esti Handayani Hardi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Cirata gulfand Klaten. The isolates were Gram positive cocci, oxidative fermentative positive, motility, and catalasenegative, grown on media containing NaCl 6.5%, ?-haemolytic and non-haemolytic. Two types of S. agalactiae(?-haemolytic and non-haemolytic are different from their variety of sugars fermentation. Strains ?-haemolytic can ferment more sugars, including arabinose, sorbitol, lactose, and trehalose. Experimentalinfectivity trials on Nile tilapia (size 15 g, non-haemolytic type showed more virulent. This type causedfaster mortality, more severe behavior changes, and pathology changes than â-haemolytic type. NonhemoliticS. agalactiae caused 48% mortality 6-24 hours after injection, whereas â-haemolitic type caused17% mortality which it occured in 48 hours after injection (mortality of fish control 2,22%. Behaviordisease signs caused by non-haemolitic S. agalactiae started to happen 6 hours after injection whereas 12hours in ?-haemolytic type infection. Histopatological changes were observed on fish eye, spleen, andbrain. Hyperaemia, hyperthrophi, degeneration, and necrosis were also found on infected fish. Thisresearch was concluded that non-haemolytic of S. agalactiae was more virulent than ?-haemolytic.

  9. Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains harboring inactive extended-spectrum beta-lactamase antibiotic-resistance genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Li; Zhai Yao; Lyu Yuan; Wang Qi; An Shuchang; Chen Jichao; Chen Yusheng

    2014-01-01

    Background The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has increasingly become a major contributor to nosocomial infections and can exhibit multiple antibiotic resistance.Previous studies have focused on the resistance genes in ESBL-producing strains,and the resistance-associated genetic environment of non-ESBL-producing strains has been ignored until now.Here,we investigated the occurrence and characteristics of non-ESBL-producing K.pneumoniae,which potentially carries unexpressed resistance genes.Methods K.pneumoniae strains were collected from five medical institutions in China from February 2010 to August 2013.The VITEK-2 ESBL detection system was used as a primary screen to identify the ESBL-producing phenotype,and the three primary types of ESBL-associated genes (CTX,SHV,and TEM) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm the strains presenting with a non-ESBL-producing phenotype.mRNA expression in the non-ESBL-producing strains was further screened by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) to validate their transcriptional efficiency.Results Out of 224 clinically isolated antibiotic-sensitive K.pneumoniae strains with a non-ESBL-producing phenotype,5 (2.2%) were identified to carry inactivated ESBL blaSHV genes with intact upstream promoter regions and resistance gene sequences.Interestingly,three of the five antibiotic-sensitive K.pneumoniae strains containing ESBL blaSHV genes still exhibited mRNA transcription of blasHv,while the other two exhibited no mRNA transcription.Conclusion These findings suggest that inactivated ESBL genes exist in non-ESBL-producing antibiotic-sensitive K.pneumoniae strains,which have the potential to transform the strain into an ESBL phenotype if an inappropriate application or overdose of antibiotics is implemented during clinical management.

  10. The Comparison of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Fish and Bovine using Multilocus Sequence Typing

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    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing (MLST has greater utility for determining the recent ancestral lineage and the relatedness of individual strains. Group B streptococci (GBS is one of the major causes of subclinical mastitis of dairy cattle in several countries. GBS also sporadically causes epizootic infections in fish. The aim of this study was to compare the evolutionary lineage of fish and bovine isolates in relation to the S. agalactiae global population as a whole by comparing the MLST profiles. Twenty S. agalactiae isolates were obtained from dairy cattle and fish. PCR products were amplified with seven different oligonucleotide primer pairs designed from the NEM316 GBS genome sequence. Clone complexes demonstrated that bovine and fish isolates were separate populations. These findings lead us to conclude that fish S. agalactiae is not a zoonotic agent for bovine. MLST could help clarify the emergence of pathogenic clones and to decide whether the host acts as a reservoir for another pathogenic lineage.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Retail Meat That Harbor blaCTX-M and fosA3 Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Miaomiao; Lin, Dachuan; Chen, Kaichao; Chan, Edward Wai Chi; Yao, Wen; Chen, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    A total of 55 cefotaxime-resistantEscherichia coliisolates were obtained from retail meat products purchased in Shenzhen, China, during the period November 2012 to May 2013. Thirty-seven of these 55 isolates were found to harbor ablaCTX-Mgene, with theblaCTX-M-1group being the most common type.blaCMY-2was detected in 16 isolates, alone or in combination with other extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) determinants. Importantly, thefosA3gene, which encodes fosfomycin resistance, was detected in 12 isolates, with several being found to reside in the conjugative plasmid that harbored theblaCTX-Mgene. The insertion sequence IS26was observed upstream of some of theblaCTX-M-55andfosA3genes. Conjugation experiments showed thatblaCTX-Mgenes from 15 isolates were transferrable, with Inc I1 and Inc FII being the most prevalent replicons. High clonal diversity was observed among theblaCTX-Mproducers, suggesting that horizontal transfer of theblaCTX-Mgenes amongE. colistrains in retail meats is a common event and that such strains may constitute an important reservoir ofblaCTX-Mgenes, which may be readily disseminated to other potential human pathogens. PMID:26856843

  12. A clonal complex 12 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain, West Australian MRSA-59, harbors a novel pseudo-SCCmec element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Pearson, Julie; Hotzel, Helmut; Slickers, Peter; Ehricht, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    A West Australian methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain (WA MRSA-59) was characterized by microarray and sequencing. Its pseudo-staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element comprised dcs, Q9XB68-dcs, mvaS-SCC, Q5HJW6, dru, ugpQ, ydeM, mecA-mecR-mecI, txbi mecI, tnp IS431, copA2-mco (copper resistance), ydhK, arsC-arsB-arsR (arsenic resistance), open reading frame PT43, and per-2. Recombinase genes, xylR (mecR2), and PSM-mec (phenol-soluble modulin) were absent. We suggest that mec complex A should be split into two subtypes. One harbors PSM-mec and xylR (mecR2). It is found in SCCmec types II, III, and VIII. The second subtype, described herein, is present in WA MRSA-59 and some coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:26349822

  13. Beta-Hemolytic, Multi-Lancefield Antigen-Agglutinating Enterococcus durans from a Pregnant Woman, Mimicking Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Savini, Vincenzo; Franco, Alessia; Gherardi, Giovanni; Marrollo, Roberta; Argentieri, Angela Valentina; Pimentel de Araujo, Fernanda; Amoruso, Roberta; Battisti, Antonio; Fazii, Paolo; Carretto, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    A beta-hemolytic Lancefield antigen A-, B-, C-, D-, F-, and G-positive Enterococcus durans strain was cultivated from the rectovaginal swab of a pregnant woman who underwent antenatal screening for Streptococcus agalactiae. The isolate raised concern as to what extent similar strains are misrecognized and lead to false diagnosis of group B streptococci.

  14. Major surfome and secretome profile of Streptococcus agalactiae from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Insight into vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Hai-Qing; He, Run-Zhen; Li, Yan-Wei; Su, You-Lu; Li, An-Xing

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major piscine pathogen that is responsible for huge economic losses to the aquaculture industry. Safe recombinant vaccines, based on a small number of antigenic proteins, are emerging as the most attractive, cost-effective solution against S. agalactiae. The proteins of S. agalactiae exposed to the environment, including surface proteins and secretory proteins, are important targets for the immune system and they are likely to be good vaccine candidates. To obtain a precise profile of its surface proteins, S. agalactiae strain THN0901, which was isolated from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), was treated with proteinase K to cleave surface-exposed proteins, which were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Forty surface-associated proteins were identified, including ten proteins containing cell wall-anchoring motifs, eight lipoproteins, eleven membrane proteins, seven secretory proteins, three cytoplasmic proteins, and one unknown protein. In addition, culture supernatant proteins of S. agalactiae were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and all of the Coomassie-stained bands were subsequently identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of twenty-six extracellular proteins were identified, including eleven secretory proteins, seven cell wall proteins, three membrane proteins, two cytoplasmic proteins and three unknown proteins. Of these, six highly expressed surface-associated and secretory proteins are putative to be vaccine candidate of piscine S. agalactiae. Moreover, immunogenic secreted protein, a highly expressed protein screened from the secretome in the present study, was demonstrated to induce high antibody titer in tilapia, and it conferred protection against S. agalactiae, as evidenced by the relative percent survival (RPS) 48.61± 8.45%. The data reported here narrow the scope of screening protective antigens, and provide guidance in the development of a novel

  15. Cervicale spondylodiscitis veroorzaakt door Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Weynants, Luc; Weynants, Laurens; Rimbaut, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The medical history of a previously perfectly healthy 45-year-old male patient with acute cervical pain is presented. From cultures of the discus C5-C6, Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated. The patient was treated with penicillin and clindamycin, and recovered quickly. Streptococcus agalactiae is reported as a cause of invasive infections in neonati and pregnant women, but in recent years, an increasing number of infections have been reported in adults. One of the reasons may be that, nowad...

  16. Improved biomass and protein production in solid-state cultures of an Aspergillus sojae strain harboring the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Lugo, Rodrigo; Madrigal, Marvin; Yelemane, Vikas; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo

    2015-11-01

    The biotechnological value of Aspergillus sojae ATCC 20235 (A. sojae) for production of pectinases in solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been demonstrated recently. However, a common drawback of fungal solid-state cultures is the poor diffusion of oxygen into the fungi that limits its growth and biological productivity. The bacterial Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) has favored the metabolism and productivities of various bacterial and yeast strains besides alleviating hypoxic conditions of its native host, but the use of VHb in filamentous fungi still remains poor explored. Based on the known effects of VHb, this study assessed its applicability to improve A. sojae performance in SSF. The VHb gene (vgb) under control of the constitutive Aspergillus nidulants gpdA promoter was introduced into the genome of A. sojae by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful fungal transformants were identified by fluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. In solid-state cultures, the content of protease, exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG), and exo-polymethylgalacturonase (exo-PMG) of the transformed fungus (A. sojae vgb+) improved were 26, 60, and 44 % higher, respectively, in comparison to its parental strain (A. sojae wt). Similarly, biomass content was also 1.3 times higher in the transformant strain. No significant difference was observed in endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG) content between both fungal strains, suggesting dissimilar effects of VHb towards different enzymatic productions. Overall, our results show that biomass, protease, and exo-pectinase content of A. sojae in SSF can be improved by transformation with VHb. PMID:26224427

  17. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds--rewriting the textbooks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T

    2016-02-29

    Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen. PMID:26854346

  18. Conjugative transfer of resistance determinants among human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Castro Abreu Pinto; Natália Silva Costa; Ana Beatriz de Almeida Corrêa; Ivi Cristina Menezes Oliveira; Marcos Correa de Mattos; Alexandre Soares Rosado; Leslie Claude Benchetrit

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major source of human perinatal diseases and bovine mastitis. Erythromycin (Ery) and tetracycline (Tet) are usually employed for preventing human and bovine infections although resistance to such agents has become common among GBS strains. Ery and Tet resistance genes are usually carried by conjugative transposons (CTns) belonging to the Tn916 family, but their presence and transferability among GBS strains have not been totally explored. Here we evaluated ...

  19. First Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates Highly Resistant to Quinolones, with Point Mutations in gyrA and parC

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Fujiwara, Hiromitsu; Mishima, Noriko; Tanaka, Yuko; Tanimoto, Ayako; Ikawa,Shiro; Itoh, Youko; EZAKI, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    Three isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae highly resistant to multiple fluoroquinolones were isolated in Japan. Compared with susceptible strains of S. agalactiae, these quinolone-resistant strains had double point mutations within the quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA and parC; Ser-81 was changed to Leu (TCA → TTA) in the amino acid sequence deduced from gyrA, and Ser-79 was changed to Phe (TCC → TTC) in the amino acid sequence deduced from parC. Comparative sequence analysis...

  20. Molecular typing of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic variability among Streptococcus agalactiae isolates recovered from fish was characterized using single-stranded conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) analysis of the intergenic spacer region (ISR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. A total of 49 S. agalactiae ...

  1. The genetic diversity and phenotypic characterisation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz de Almeida Corrêa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae isolates are more common among pregnant women, neonates and nonpregnant adults with underlying diseases compared to other demographic groups. In this study, we evaluate the genetic and phenotypic diversity in S. agalactiae strains from Rio de Janeiro (RJ that were isolated from asymptomatic carriers. We analysed these S. agalactiae strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, as well as by determining the macrolide resistance phenotype, and detecting the presence of the ermA/B, mefA/E and lnuB genes. The serotypes Ia, II, III and V were the most prevalent serotypes observed. The 60 strains analysed were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin and levofloxacin. Resistance to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin and tetracycline was observed. Among the erythromycin and/or clindamycin resistant strains, the ermA, ermB and mefA/E genes were detected and the constitutive macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B-type resistance was the most prevalent phenotype observed. The lnuB gene was not detected in any of the strains studied. We found 56 PFGE electrophoretic profiles and only 22 of them were allocated in polymorphism patterns. This work presents data on the genetic diversity and prevalent capsular serotypes among RJ isolates. Approximately 85% of these strains came from pregnant women; therefore, these data may be helpful in developing future prophylaxis and treatment strategies for neonatal syndromes in RJ.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae PR06

    OpenAIRE

    MZ, Irma Syakina; L. K. Teh; Salleh, M. Z.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium that was first recognized as a causative agent of bovine mastitis. S. agalactiae has subsequently emerged as a significant cause of human diseases. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. agalactiae PR06, which was isolated from a septicemic patient in a local hospital in Malaysia.

  3. Pathogenesis of Streptococcus urinary tract infection depends on bacterial strain and β-hemolysin/cytolysin that mediates cytotoxicity, cytokine synthesis, inflammation and virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Leclercq, Sophie Y.; Sullivan, Matthew J.; Ipe, Deepak S.; Joshua P. Smith; Cripps, Allan W.; Ulett, Glen C.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae can cause urinary tract infection (UTI) including cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). The early host-pathogen interactions that occur during S. agalactiae UTI and subsequent mechanisms of disease pathogenesis are poorly defined. Here, we define the early interactions between human bladder urothelial cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and mouse bladder using uropathogenic S. agalactiae (UPSA) 807 and ABU-causing S. agalactiae (ABSA) 834 strains. UPSA 807 adh...

  4. Development of a quantitative PCR assay for monitoring Streptococcus agalactiae colonization and tissue tropism in experimentally infected tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y-L; Feng, J; Li, Y-W; Bai, J-S; Li, A-X

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae has become one of the most important emerging pathogens in the aquaculture industry and has resulted in large economic losses for tilapia farms in China. In this study, three pairs of specific primers were designed and tested for their specificities and sensitivities in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs) after optimization of the annealing temperature. The primer pair IGS-s/IGS-a, which targets the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, was finally chosen, having a detection limit of 8.6 copies of S. agalactiae DNA in a 20 μL reaction mixture. Bacterial tissue tropism was demonstrated by qPCR in Oreochromis niloticus 5 days post-injection with a virulent S. agalactiae strain. Bacterial loads were detected at the highest level in brain, followed by moderately high levels in kidney, heart, spleen, intestines, and eye. Significantly lower bacterial loads were observed in muscle, gill and liver. In addition, significantly lower bacterial loads were observed in the brain of convalescent O. niloticus 14 days post-injection with several different S. agalactiae strains. The qPCR for the detection of S. agalactiae developed in this study provides a quantitative tool for investigating bacterial tissue tropism in infected fish, as well as for monitoring bacterial colonization in convalescent fish. PMID:25858765

  5. A multi locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA scheme for Streptococcus agalactiae genotyping

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    Mereghetti Laurent

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilocus sequence typing (MLST is currently the reference method for genotyping Streptococcus agalactiae strains, the leading cause of infectious disease in newborns and a major cause of disease in immunocompromised children and adults. We describe here a genotyping method based on multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR analysis (MLVA applied to a population of S. agalactiae strains of various origins characterized by MLST and serotyping. Results We studied a collection of 186 strains isolated from humans and cattle and three reference strains (A909, NEM316 and 2603 V/R. Among 34 VNTRs, 6 polymorphic VNTRs loci were selected for use in genotyping of the bacterial population. The MLVA profile consists of a series of allele numbers, corresponding to the number of repeats at each VNTR locus. 98 MLVA genotypes were obtained compared to 51 sequences types generated by MLST. The MLVA scheme generated clusters which corresponded well to the main clonal complexes obtained by MLST. However it provided a higher discriminatory power. The diversity index obtained with MLVA was 0.960 compared to 0.881 with MLST for this population of strains. Conclusions The MLVA scheme proposed here is a rapid, cheap and easy genotyping method generating results suitable for exchange and comparison between different laboratories and for the epidemiologic surveillance of S. agalactiae and analyses of outbreaks.

  6. Role of the serine-rich surface glycoprotein Srr1 of Streptococcus agalactiae in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis.

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    Ho Seong Seo

    Full Text Available The binding of bacteria to fibrinogen and platelets are important events in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. Srr1 is a serine-rich repeat glycoprotein of Streptococcus agalactiae that binds directly to the Aα chain of human fibrinogen. To assess the impact of Srr1 on the pathogenesis of endocarditis due to S. agalactiae, we first examined the binding of this organism to immobilized human platelets. Strains expressing Srr1 had significantly higher levels of binding to human platelets in vitro, as compared with isogenic Δsrr1 mutants. In addition, platelet binding was inhibited by pretreatment with anti-fibrinogen IgG or purified Srr1 binding region. To assess the contribution of Srr1 to pathogenicity, we compared the relative virulence of S. agalactiae NCTC 10/84 strain and its Δsrr1 mutant in a rat model of endocarditis, where animals were co-infected with the WT and the mutant strains at a 1:1 ratio. At 72 h post-infection, bacterial densities (CFU/g of the WT strain within vegetations, kidneys, and spleens were significantly higher, as compared with the Δsrr1 mutant. These results indicate that Srr1 contributes to the pathogenesis of endocarditis due to S. agalactiae, at least in part through its role in fibrinogen-mediated platelet binding.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae GD201008-001, Isolated in China from Tilapia with Meningoencephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guangjin; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain GD201008-001, a pathogen causing meningoencephalitis in cultural tilapia in China. The genome sequence provides opportunities to understand the piscine GBS pathogenicity and its genetic basis associated with host tropism.

  8. Reductive evolution in Streptococcus agalactiae and the emergence of a host adapted lineage

    OpenAIRE

    Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Mairey, Barbara; Mangenot, Sophie; Ma, Laurence; Da Cunha, Violette; Rusniok, Christophe; Bouchier, Christiane; Barbe, Valérie; Glaser, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    International audience BackgroundDuring host specialization, inactivation of genes whose function is no more required is favored by changes in selective constraints and evolutionary bottlenecks. The Gram positive bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae (also called GBS), responsible for septicemia and meningitis in neonates also emerged during the seventies as a cause of severe epidemics in fish farms. To decipher the genetic basis for the emergence of these highly virulent GBS strains and of th...

  9. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Lianci; Kang, Shuai; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Li, Zhengwen; Zou, Yuanfeng; Liang, Xiaoxia; Li, Lixia; He, Changliang; Ye, Gang; Yin, Lizi; Shi, Fei; Lv, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae were investigated in this study by analyzing the growth, morphology and protein of the S. agalactiae cells treated with berberine. The antibacterial susceptibility test result indicated minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae was 78 μg/mL and the time-kill curves showed the correlation of concentration-time. After the bacteria was exposed to 78 μg/mL berberine, t...

  10. Identification of Major Outer Surface Proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Martin J. G.; Moore, Joanne C.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wilson, Rebecca; Pribul, Philippa K.; Younes, Zabin N.; Dobson, Richard J; Everest, Paul; Reason, Andrew J.; Redfern, Joanne M.; Greer, Fiona M.; Paxton, Thanai; Panico, Maria; Morris, Howard R; Feldman, Robert G.

    2002-01-01

    To identify the major outer surface proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus), a proteomic analysis was undertaken. An extract of the outer surface proteins was separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The visualized spots were identified through a combination of peptide sequencing and reverse genetic methodologies. Of the 30 major spots identified as S. agalactiae specific, 27 have been identified. Six of these proteins, previously unidentified in S. agalactiae, were ...

  11. NATURAL MUTATION IN THE GENE OF RESPONSE REGULATOR BgrR RESULTING IN REPRESSION OF Bac PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, A PATHOGENICITY FACTOR OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rozhdestvenskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Streptococcus agalactiae can cause variety of diseases of newborns and adults. For successful colonization of different human tissues and organs as well as for suppression of the host immune system S. agalactiae expresses numerous virulence factors. For coordinated expression of the virulence genes S. agalactiae employs regulatory molecules including regulatory proteins of two-component systems. Results of the present study demonstrated that in S. agalactiae strain A49V the natural mutation in the brgR gene encoding for BgrR regulatory protein, which is component of regulatory system BgrRS, resulted in the repression of Bac protein synthesis, a virulence factor of S. agalactiae. A single nucleotide deletion in the bgrR gene has caused a shift of the reading frame and the changes in the primary, secondary and tertiary structures of the BgrR protein. The loss of functional activity of BgrR protein in A49V strain and repression of Bac protein synthesis have increased virulence of the strain in experimental animal streptococcal infection.

  12. Molecular investigation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from environmental samples and fish specimens during a massive fish kill in Kuwait Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafar, Qasem A; Sameer, Al-Zinki; Salwa, Al-Mouqati; Samee, Al-Amad; Ahmed, Al-Marzouk; Al-Sharifi, Faisal

    2008-11-01

    This study was undertaken to identify and characterize bacterial isolates obtained simultaneously from dead fish samples during a massive fish kill in Kuwait Bay and sewage-water samples running into Kuwait Bay using conventional and molecular techniques. Of the 71 bacterial isolates studied; 66 were recovered from 7 different fish species and 5 strains were isolated from sewage samples. The species-specific identity of the isolates was established by phenotypic characteristics and by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA by using Streptococcus agalactiae-specific primers. The genotyping of 12 isolates from fish samples and all 5 isolates from sewage samples was performed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Culture methods identified 44 of 66 (67%) and 4 of 5 (80%) isolates obtained from fish and sewage samples, respectively, as S. agalactiae. The PCR amplification of 16S rRNA not only confirmed the results of conventional methods but also resulted in additional identification of 14 of 66 (21%) isolates obtained from fish samples and the remaining isolate recovered from sewage sample, as S. agalactiae. A total of 9 RAPD patterns were observed among the 17 isolates studied; these RAPD patterns were grouped into three clusters. Interestingly, four of the isolates recovered from sewage samples produced nearly identical RAPD band patterns (85-100% similarity) with some of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from Mullet kidney and brain indicting the possibility of sewage being the source of infection. PMID:19205271

  13. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Moatamedi, Azar; Lotfalian, Sharareh; Mirshokraei, Pejhman

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT) positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2%) S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3%) of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6%) isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases. PMID:25568683

  14. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Ebrahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2% S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3% of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6% isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.

  15. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Streptococcus agalactiae: Epidemiology and Mechanism of Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Wehbeh, Wehbeh; Rojas-Diaz, Roberto; Li, Xinying; Mariano, Noriel; Grenner, Louise; Segal-Maurer, Sorana; Tommasulo, Barbara; Drlica, Karl; Urban, Carl; Rahal, James J.

    2005-01-01

    Quinolone-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria were recovered from single-patient isolates and found to contain mutations in the gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated that four isolates from the same long-term care facility were closely related; in seven cases, quinolone-resistant Haemophilus influenzae and S. agalactiae bacteria were isolated from the same patient.

  16. Development and host compatibility of plasmids for two important ruminant pathogens, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukriti Sharma

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media in cattle throughout the world. However, despite its clinical significance, there is a paucity of tools to genetically manipulate it, impeding our capacity to further explore the molecular basis of its virulence. To address this limitation, we developed a series of homologous and heterologous replicable plasmids from M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The shortest replicable oriC plasmid based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. bovis was 247 bp and contained two DnaA boxes, while oriC plasmids based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. agalactiae strains 5632 and PG2 were 219 bp and 217 bp in length, respectively, and contained only a single DnaA box. The efficiency of transformation in M. bovis and M. agalactiae was inversely correlated with the size of the oriC region in the construct, and, in general, homologous oriC plasmids had a higher transformation efficiency than heterologous oriC plasmids. The larger pWholeoriC45 and pMM21-7 plasmids integrated into the genomic oriC region of M. bovis, while the smaller oriC plasmids remained extrachromosomal for up to 20 serial passages in selective media. Although specific gene disruptions were not be achieved in M. bovis in this study, the oriC plasmids developed here could still be useful as tools in complementation studies and for expression of exogenous genes in both M. bovis and M. agalactiae.

  17. Endocytosis‒Mediated Invasion and Pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae in Rat Cardiomyocyte (H9C2)

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Pooja; Muthuirulan Pushpanathan; Paramasamy Gunasekaran; Jeyaprakash Rajendhran

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae infection causes high mortality in cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients, especially in case of setting prosthetic valve during cardiac surgery. However, the pathogenesis mechanism of S. agalactiae associate with CVD has not been well studied. Here, we have demonstrated the pathogenicity of S. agalactiae in rat cardiomyocytes (H9C2). Interestingly, both live and dead cells of S. agalactiae were uptaken by H9C2 cells. To further dissect the process of S. agalactiae int...

  18. Construction and Prokaryotic Expression Sip-GAPDH Fusion Gene of Streptococcus agalactiae from GIFT Strain of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)%吉富罗非鱼源无乳链球菌Sip-GAPDH融合基因的构建及其原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓓; 李桂欢; 鲁义善; 汤菊芬; 黄郁葱; 吴灶和; 简纪常

    2014-01-01

    利用重叠延伸(SOEing)PCR技术,将吉富罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)源无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae) ZQ0910株表面免疫原性蛋白(Surface immunogenic protein,Sip)基因与甘油醛-3-磷酸脱氢酶(GAPDH)基因通过Linker序列融合,构建成为Sip-GAPDH融合基因。将其定向克隆至原核表达载体pET-32a(+)中,在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中进行诱导表达。结果表明,重组质粒pET-32a-Sip-GAPDH在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中表达后所获得的融合蛋白Sip-GAPDH分子量为102.01 kD,表达最佳条件为37℃,IPTG浓度0.1 mmol/L,诱导5 h。Western blot鉴定结果表明融合基因得到了成功表达。%The DNA fragment encoding the Sip and GAPDH gene of Streptococcus agalactiae strain ZQ0910 isolated from GIFT Strain of Nile Tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus)were obtained by PCR. The Sip-GAPDH gene was constructed in a Sip-linker-GAPDH format with the standard 15-amino acid linker(Gly4Ser)3 by SOEing PCR technique, and the final full length product was cloned into the pET-32a(+)vector for protein expression in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). The result showed that the expression fusion protein Sip-GAPHD were about 102.01 kD and Western blotting analysis confirmed that the 102.01 kD protein was the fusion protein, because it was specifically recognized by mouse anti-His monoclonal antibody. Inducing the cells at 37℃in 0.1 mmol/L of IPTG for 5 hours was the optimal conditions for expression of the recombinant Sip-GAPDH fusion protein.

  19. Streptococcus agalactiae pyomyositis in diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantrachoti, Pakpoom; Panikkath, Ragesh; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Pyomyositis is an acute infectious disorder affecting the skeletal muscle. Although seen more commonly in the tropics, cases are being reported in temperate countries, including the United States. We report a case of nontropical pyomyositis in a 58-year-old diabetic man who presented with a vague chest wall swelling. His initial clinical presentation and imaging findings suggested an intramuscular hematoma. He later developed fever with increased swelling, and pyomyositis was diagnosed after an aspiration of the swelling yielded Streptococcus agalactiae. Aspiration of the abscess and the use of appropriate antibiotics led to complete resolution of the disease. We discuss possible factors in diabetics that might predispose them to pyomyositis. PMID:27365874

  20. Laser radiation effects on Mycoplasma agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, Cerasela Z.; Grigoriu, Constantin; Dinescu, Maria; Pascale, Florentina; Popovici, Adrian; Gheorghescu, Lavinia; Cismileanu, Ana; Avram, Eugenia

    2002-08-01

    The biological effects of the laser radiation emitted by the Nd:YAG laser (second harmonic, wavelength 532 nm /fluence 32 mJ/cm2/pulse duration 6 ns) on the Mycoplasma agalactiae bacterium were studied. The radiation was found to intensify the multiplication of the bacteria irradiated in TRIS buffer (0.125 M), without however affecting the proteinic composition of the cell membrane. When the bacteria were irradiated in their growth medium (PPLO broth) being later cultivated on a solid medium (PPLO agar), the exclusive presence of the atypical colonies (granular and T-like ones) was noticed.

  1. Streptococcus agalactiae pyomyositis in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkath, Deepa; Tantrachoti, Pakpoom; Panikkath, Ragesh; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Pyomyositis is an acute infectious disorder affecting the skeletal muscle. Although seen more commonly in the tropics, cases are being reported in temperate countries, including the United States. We report a case of nontropical pyomyositis in a 58-year-old diabetic man who presented with a vague chest wall swelling. His initial clinical presentation and imaging findings suggested an intramuscular hematoma. He later developed fever with increased swelling, and pyomyositis was diagnosed after an aspiration of the swelling yielded Streptococcus agalactiae. Aspiration of the abscess and the use of appropriate antibiotics led to complete resolution of the disease. We discuss possible factors in diabetics that might predispose them to pyomyositis. PMID:27365874

  2. Structure of the Response Regulator NsrR from Streptococcus agalactiae, Which Is Involved in Lantibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Sakshi Khosa; Astrid Hoeppner; Holger Gohlke; Lutz Schmitt; Smits, Sander H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Lantibiotics are antimicrobial peptides produced by Gram-positive bacteria. Interestingly, several clinically relevant and human pathogenic strains are inherently resistant towards lantibiotics. The expression of the genes responsible for lantibiotic resistance is regulated by a specific two-component system consisting of a histidine kinase and a response regulator. Here, we focused on a response regulator involved in lantibiotic resistance, NsrR from Streptococcus agalactiae, and determined ...

  3. Contagious agalactia by Mycoplasma agalactiae in small ruminants in Brazil: first report Agalaxia contagiosa por Mycoplasma agalactiae em pequenos ruminantes no Brasil: primeiro relato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edisio Oliveira de Azevedo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two outbreaks of contagious agalactia by Mycoplasma agalactiae occurred in Paraíba State, Northeastern Region of Brazil are reported. The disease was characterized by mastitis, agalactia and polyarthritis in does and polyarthritis and conjunctivitis in kids and lambs. Fever and anorexia were also observed. Morbidy was from 26.1% to 100% in does, 36.5 to 100% in kids and 49% in lambs. In one farm 14.3% of the lactating goats and 6.4% of the kids died or were euthanized. In the other, 3.3% of the does, 36.5% of the kids and 22.9% of the lambs died and 84 affected goats were euthanized to control the disease. M. agalactiae was isolated from milk, joint exudates, nasal swabs and ear washings. The colonies were characteristic of Mycoplasma and the agent did not ferment both glucose and arginin. It was typed as Mycoplasma agalactiae by immunoperoxidase and PCR. This is the first report of M. agalactiae infection in Brazil, but the source of the infection remains unknown.Dois surtos de agalaxia contagiosa causada por Mycoplasma agalactiae são descritos no Estado da Paraíba, região Nordeste do Brasil. A doença caracterizou-se por mastite, agalaxia e poliartrite em cabras e poliartrite e cerato-conjuntivite em cabritos e cordeiros. Febre e anorexia também foram observadas. A morbidade variou de 26,1% a 100% nas cabras, 36,5% a 100% em cabritos e 49,0% em cordeiros. Na primeira fazenda, 14,3% das cabras em lactação e 6,4% dos cabritos morreram ou foram sacrificados. Na outra propriedade, 3,3% dos caprinos adultos, 36,5% dos cabritos e 22,9% dos cordeiros morreram e outros 84 caprinos foram sacrificados para controle da doença. M. agalactiae foi isolado a partir de leite, líquido articular, suabe nasal e lavado do conduto auditivo externo. Colônias características de Mycoplasma e que não fermentaram a glicose e arginina foram observadas. A identificação de M. agalactiae foi realizada por imunoperoxidase indireta e PCR. Sendo assim, M

  4. Reverse Line Blot Assay for Direct Identification of Seven Streptococcus agalactiae Major Surface Protein Antigen Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zuotao; Kong, Fanrong; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot hybridization assay (mPCR/RLB) to detect the genes encoding members of the family of variable surface-localized proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]), namely, Bca (Cα), Rib, Epsilon (Epsilon/Alp1/Alp5), Alp2, Alp3, and Alp4, and the immunoglobulin A binding protein, Bac (Cβ). We used the assay to identify these genes in a collection of well-characterized GBS isolates and reference strains. The results showed tha...

  5. [Contagious agalactia of small ruminants: epidemiology, diagnosis and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonier, D; Poumarat, F

    1996-12-01

    Contagious agalactia of small ruminants is a syndrome which affects mainly the mammary glands, joints and eyes. The principal causal agents are Mycoplasma agalactiae in sheep and M. agalactiae, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony type and M. capricolum subsp. capricolum in goats. In addition, M. putrefaciens can produce a similar clinical picture, particularly in goats. Contagious agalactia occurs on all five continents and is often enzootic. These infections are chronic in animals and in flocks. Symptomless shedding of mycoplasmas, mainly in the milk, may persist for a long time. Associated with carriage in the ears of healthy animals, these insidious infections are difficult to diagnose and control. The sale of carrier animals and contact during transhumance are the main modes of transmission between flocks, while transmission within a flock occurs through contact, suckling and milking. This review discusses clinical features, epidemiology, treatment, prevention and control. PMID:9527414

  6. Charakterisierung von Virulenzregulatoren und Virulenzfaktoren aus Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Schaller, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading cause for sepsis, meningitis and pneumonia in newborns and emerges to play a major role in infections of immunocompromised adults. In the present work the importance of the putative regulator Rgg3 for the virulence of S. agalactiae 6313 was examined. The deletion of the rgg3 gene resulted in an increased bacterial fibrinogen binding and an increased bacterial adherence to human epithelial cells. Quantitative Real-time PCR experiments with the fbsA g...

  7. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suanyuk, N.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured tilapia in Surat Thani province. Isolates were Gram-positive cocci, catalase negative, alpha-haemolytic and serogroup B. Streptococcal-infected fish showed various swimming abnormalities such as swimming on their side, erratic surface or bottom swimming including serpentine movement, exophthalmia and opacity. Internally, splenomegaly, ascites as well as pale liver discoloration were observed. Fish experimentally infected by peritoneal injection using 101 -108 CFU/ fish showed 20-90% mortality within 10 days and the LD50 was 3.60x101 - 1.72x107 CFU. Haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma protein and blood cell values of infected and moribund fish were significantly decreased. Histopathological findings included the occurrence of inflammation, cells necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and the formation of granulomas in the infected organs.

  8. GENOMIC DIVERSITY OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE FROM FISH, BOVINE AND HUMAN HOSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group B Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a cause of infectious disease in multiple poikilothermic and homothermic animal species. Epidemiological and zoonotic considerations necessitate an undertaking of a comparison of S. agalactiae isolates from different phylogenetic hosts and geographical regi...

  9. Culture-Negative Neonatal Meningitis and Endocarditis Caused by Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Nègre, Valérie Lefranc; Colin-Gorski, Anne-Marie; Magnier, Suzel; Maisonneuve, Lydia; Aujard, Yannick; Bingen, Edouard; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of culture-negative meningitis and endocarditis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a 27-day-old boy. S. agalactiae was detected in cerebrospinal fluid and serum by broad-spectrum PCR amplification.

  10. Relevance of Peptide Uptake Systems to the Physiology and Virulence of Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Samen, Ulrike; Gottschalk, Birgit; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Reinscheid, Dieter J.

    2004-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of invasive infections in human newborns. To satisfy its growth requirements, S. agalactiae takes up 9 of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids from the environment. Defined S. agalactiae mutants in one or several of four putative peptide permease systems were constructed and tested for peptide uptake, growth in various media, and expression of virulence traits. Oligopeptide uptake by S. agalactiae was shown to be mediated by the ABC transporter OppA1-F, w...

  11. Multiple Evolutionary Selections Involved in Synonymous Codon Usages in the Streptococcus agalactiae Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Ping Ma; Hao Ke; Zhi-Ling Liang; Zhen-Xing Liu; Le Hao; Jiang-Yao Ma; Yu-Gu Li

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important human and animal pathogen. To better understand the genetic features and evolution of S. agalactiae, multiple factors influencing synonymous codon usage patterns in S. agalactiae were analyzed in this study. A- and U-ending rich codons were used in S. agalactiae function genes through the overall codon usage analysis, indicating that Adenine (A)/Thymine (T) compositional constraints might contribute an important role to the synonymous codon usage patte...

  12. Genome Sequences of Two Pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates from the One-Humped Camel Camelus dromedarius

    OpenAIRE

    Zubair, Saima; de Villiers, Etienne P.; Younan, Mario; Andersson, Göran; Tettelin, Herve; Riley, David R; Jores, Joerg; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Bishop, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes a range of clinical syndromes in camels (Camelus dromedarius). We report the genome sequences of two S. agalactiae isolates that induce abscesses in Kenyan camels. These genomes provide novel data on the composition of the S. agalactiae “pan genome” and reveal the presence of multiple genomic islands.

  13. Variation of snail's abundance in two water bodies harboring strains of Pseudosuccinea columella resistant and susceptible to Fasciola hepatica miracidial infection, in Pinar del Río Province, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gutiérrez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of freshwater snails in two rural sites of Pinar del Río, Cuba, which harbor Pseudosuccinea columella susceptible and resistant to miracidia of Fasciola hepatica was followed for one year. Susceptible snails were found in the most anthropic site (IPA whereas the resistant population inhabited the most preserved one (El Azufre. Only two snail species coexisted with P. columella at IPA site (Physa cubensis and Tarebia granifera while five species were found at El Azufre, including an endemic from that province (Hemisinus cubanianus. Populations of both resistant and susceptible snails showed stable densities throughout the year, although the susceptible strain attained higher abundance. The highest densities were observed in April-May 2004 for the susceptible population whereas the resistant strain attained its highest abundance in January 2004. No record of Fossaria cubensis was made and the thiarid T. granifera occurred only at low densities. One of the sampled sites (IPA meets all the conditions for the first report of P. columella naturally infected with larvae of F. hepatica.

  14. Molecular and bacteriological investigation of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in domestic bovids from Ismailia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaig, Mahmoud Mohey; Selim, Abdelfattah

    2015-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in smallholder dairy farms in Ismailia, Egypt. A total of 340 milking cows and buffaloes were sampled from 60 farms, and 50 nasal swabs were collected from consenting farm workers. Milk samples were subjected to California mastitis test (CMT) and the positive samples were examined by bacterial culture and PCR to identify etiological agents. Based on CMT, the prevalence of SCM was 71.6 % in cattle and 43.5 % in buffaloes while the prevalence was 25.2 % at cow-quarter level and 21.7 % at buffaloes-quarter level. Bacteriological analysis showed that the most frequently identified bacteria were Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (38.3 %) and Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae (20 %). The diagnostic sensitivity of PCR compared to bacterial culture was superior with S. aureus and Str. agalactiae detection being 41 and 22.6 %, respectively. Furthermore, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains occurred in 52.2 and 45 % of isolates of animals and workers, respectively. Subclinical mastitis due to S. aureus and Str. agalactiae is endemic in smallholder dairy herds in Ismailia. The occurrence of MRSA in animals and workers highlights a need for wide epidemiological studies of MRSA and adopting control strategies. PMID:25374070

  15. Casereport - Agalactia of mare, agammaglobulinemia and arthritis in foal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Jovan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactation is physiological state of the organism and the final process of the female reproductive cycle. Milk in the first days after birth (colostrum, in addition to the necessary nutrients contains antibodies, with whose ingesting only a newborn individual receives passive immunity that protects it from various infections over time. Mammary gland dysfunction and a lack of breast milking is called agalactia. Due to the occurrence of agalactia in mother, newborn animal is denied of intake of colostrum in its body. Thus prevents ingestion of nutrients and passive immunity, which results in the occurrence of various diseases especially infectious etiology. This paper describes the treatment of agammaglobulinemia in foal after ascertaining the occurrence of primary agalactia in mare. There is described the possibility of substitution, ie. benefits of breast milk substitutes, and the procedure of diagnosis and treatment of carpal arthritis in foal.

  16. Clinical analysis of cases of neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, S J; Tang, X S; Zhao, W L; Qiu, H X; Wang, H; Feng, Z C

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of antibiotic resistance, pathogenic bacteria have become a major threat in cases of neonatal sepsis; however, guidelines for treatment have not yet been standardized. In this study, 15 cases of neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae sepsis from our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Of these, nine cases showed early-onset and six cases showed late-onset sepsis. Pathogens were characterized by genotyping and antibiotic sensitivity tests on blood cultures. Results demonstrated that in cases with early-onset sepsis, clinical manifestations affected mainly the respiratory tract, while late-onset sepsis was accompanied by intracranial infection. Therefore, we suggest including a cerebrospinal fluid examination when diagnosing neonatal sepsis. Bacterial genotyping indicated the bacteria were mainly type Ib, Ia, and III S. agalactiae. We recommend treatment with penicillin or ampicillin, since bacteria were resistant to clindamycin and tetracycline. In conclusion, our results provide valuable information for the clinical treatment of S. agalactiae sepsis in neonatal infants. PMID:27323190

  17. Phylogenetic relationships among Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from piscine, dolphin, bovine and human sources: a dolphin and piscine lineage associated with a fish epidemic in Kuwait is also associated with human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group B Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) causes of infections in multiple animals. This study examined the genetic relatedness of piscine, dolphin, and human GBS isolates and bovine GBS reference strains from different geographical regions using serological and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) techni...

  18. Teichoic acids of Streptococcus agalactiae: chemistry, cytotoxicity, and effect on bacterial adherence to human cells in tissue culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, J. C.; Panos, C.

    1984-01-01

    The ratio of teichoic acid to lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in a strain of Streptococcus agalactiae type III was found to be 8:1, with the total amount of LTA being 0.1% of the dry weight of the organism. Purified teichoic acid contained D-alanine and possibly a small amount of D-glucose and was approximately 22 glycerol phosphate units in length. The linkage between each of these units was 1-3. In addition, LTA contained a complex lipid, more glucose, and an unusually high content of a short-chain...

  19. Structural Differences between the Streptococcus agalactiae Housekeeping and Pilus-Specific Sortases: SrtA and SrtC1

    OpenAIRE

    Khare, B.; Krishnan, V; Rajashankar, K. R.; I-Hsiu, H.; Xin, M.; Ton-That, H.; Narayana, S V

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of pili on the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria requires transpeptidase enzymes called sortases. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the PI-1 pilus island of strain 2603V/R encodes two pilus-specific sortases (SrtC1 and SrtC2) and three pilins (GBS80, GBS52 and GBS104). Although either pilus-specific sortase is sufficient for the polymerization of the major pilin, GBS80, incorporation of the minor pilins GBS52 and GBS104 into the pilus structure requires SrtC1 and SrtC2, respectively...

  20. Human Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Joyce J.; Klesius, Phillip H.; Pasnik, David J.; Bohnsack, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B streptococcus (GBS) long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a clinical case of human neonatal meningitis caused disease and death in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

  1. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  2. Evaluation of the surveillance program of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H. J.; Pedersen, L. H.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Danish surveillance program of Streptococcus agalactiae in dairy herds with respect to 1) fluctuation over time of the presence of S. agalactiae in bulk tank milk, 2) sensitivity and specificity of the bacteriological method used, and 3) contamination of...... isolates. Streptococcus agalactiae was found in eight of 96 herds in which S. agalactiae had never previously been found during the surveillance program. Streptococcus agalactiae was not found in all seven sampling rounds in any of the eight herds. Comparing the approved method with supplemental findings...... bulk tank milk samples with milk from other herds. From June to September 1996, bulk tank milk was sampled from 100 Danish dairy herds seven times, with intervals of 2 wk. The samples were examined for the presence of S. agalactiae by four different methods: 1) by the method approved for the program, 2...

  3. Streptococcus agalactiae pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns cross capsular types

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, P.; Srinivasan, U; ZHANG, L.; BORCHARDT, S.M.; Debusscher, J; Marrs, C F; Foxman, B.

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a genetically diverse organism; when typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multiple types appear within a single serotype. We tested whether S. agalactiae PFGE types correspond to a specific serotype within individuals, and different individuals from the same geographic area. A total of 872 S. agalactiae isolates from 152 healthy individuals were classified by PFGE and capsular serotype. Serotype V was the most homogeneous (Simpson’s diversity index 0.5...

  4. Endocytosis‒Mediated Invasion and Pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae in Rat Cardiomyocyte (H9C2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pooja

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae infection causes high mortality in cardiovascular disease (CVD patients, especially in case of setting prosthetic valve during cardiac surgery. However, the pathogenesis mechanism of S. agalactiae associate with CVD has not been well studied. Here, we have demonstrated the pathogenicity of S. agalactiae in rat cardiomyocytes (H9C2. Interestingly, both live and dead cells of S. agalactiae were uptaken by H9C2 cells. To further dissect the process of S. agalactiae internalization, we chemically inhibited discrete parts of cellular uptake system in H9C2 cells using genistein, chlorpromazine, nocodazole and cytochalasin B. Chemical inhibition of microtubule and actin formation by nocodazole and cytochalasin B impaired S. agalactiae internalization into H9C2 cells. Consistently, reverse‒ transcription PCR (RT‒PCR and quantitative real time‒PCR (RT-qPCR analyses also detected higher levels of transcripts for cytoskeleton forming genes, Acta1 and Tubb5 in S. agalactiae‒infected H9C2 cells, suggesting the requirement of functional cytoskeleton in pathogenesis. Host survival assay demonstrated that S. agalactiae internalization induced cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells. S. agalactiae cells grown with benzyl penicillin reduced its ability to internalize and induce cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells, which could be attributed with the removal of surface lipoteichoic acid (LTA from S. agalactiae. Further, the LTA extracted from S. agalactiae also exhibited dose‒dependent cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that S. agalactiae cells internalized H9C2 cells through energy‒dependent endocytic processes and the LTA of S. agalactiae play major role in host cell internalization and cytotoxicity induction.

  5. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of an emerging human pathogen, serotype V Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Tettelin, Hervé; Masignani, Vega; Cieslewicz, Michael J.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Peterson, Scott; Wessels, Michael R.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Nelson, Karen E.; Margarit, Immaculada; Read, Timothy D.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Wolf, Alex M.; Beanan, Maureen J; Brinkac, Lauren M.; Sean C Daugherty

    2002-01-01

    The 2,160,267 bp genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae, the leading cause of bacterial sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis in neonates in the U.S. and Europe, is predicted to encode 2,175 genes. Genome comparisons among S. agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and the other completely sequenced genomes identified genes specific to the streptococci and to S. agalactiae. These in silico analyses, combined with comparative genome hybridization experiments between the ...

  6. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY IMMUNE RESPONSE TO FORMALIN INACTIVATED STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE ISOLATES IN RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    M. ABUBAKAR, G. MUHAMMAD1 AND K. IBRAHIM

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate primary and secondary immune response to formalin inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae isolates in rabbits. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from mastitic buffaloes. The organism was characterized on the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical tests. An increased geomean antibody titer was observed in rabbits inoculated with single dose (Group A) and double dose (Group B) of Streptococcus agalactiae antigen. It was also evident from th...

  7. The Novel Fibrinogen-Binding Protein FbsB Promotes Streptococcus agalactiae Invasion into Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gutekunst, Heike; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Reinscheid, Dieter J.

    2004-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in human newborns. The interaction of S. agalactiae with host proteins and the entry into host cells thereby represent important virulence traits of these bacteria. The present report describes the identification of the fbsB gene, encoding a novel fibrinogen-binding protein that plays a crucial role in the invasion of S. agalactiae into human cells. In Western blots and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) exper...

  8. Analysis of RogB-Controlled Virulence Mechanisms and Gene Expression in Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Gutekunst, Heike; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Reinscheid, Dieter J.

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in neonates and also the causative agent of different serious infections in immunocompromised adults. The wide range of diseases that are caused by S. agalactiae suggests regulatory mechanisms that control the formation of specific virulence factors in these bacteria. The present study describes a gene from S. agalactiae, designated rogB, encoding a protein with significant similarity to members of the RofA-like ...

  9. Identification of a Streptococcus agalactiae protein antigen associated with bovine mastitis isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Wanger, A R; Dunny, G. M.

    1987-01-01

    Immunoblotting was used to analyze the immune response of cows to Streptococcus agalactiae. Antibody from the milk of cows immunized (via the superficial inguinal lymph node) with formalinized S. agalactiae cells or from the milk of cows with S. agalactiae mastitis reacted strongly with a group of high-molecular-weight proteinaceous antigens. The two most predominant antigenic polypeptides in this group had apparent molecular weights of 97,000 and 104,000. Because the data indicated that thes...

  10. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY IMMUNE RESPONSE TO FORMALIN INACTIVATED STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE ISOLATES IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ABUBAKAR, G. MUHAMMAD1 AND K. IBRAHIM

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate primary and secondary immune response to formalin inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae isolates in rabbits. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from mastitic buffaloes. The organism was characterized on the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical tests. An increased geomean antibody titer was observed in rabbits inoculated with single dose (Group A and double dose (Group B of Streptococcus agalactiae antigen. It was also evident from the results that the double dose of Streptococcus agalactiae antigen in rabbits (Group B showed better and long lasting humoral antibody response as compared to single dose (Group A.

  11. Chromosomally and Extrachromosomally Mediated High-Level Gentamicin Resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendi, Parham; Furitsch, Martina; Mauerer, Stefanie; Florindo, Carlos; Kahl, Barbara C; Shabayek, Sarah; Berner, Reinhard; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is a leading cause of sepsis in neonates. The rate of invasive GBS disease in nonpregnant adults also continues to climb. Aminoglycosides alone have little or no effect on GBS, but synergistic killing with penicillin has been shown in vitro. High-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) in GBS isolates, however, leads to the loss of a synergistic effect. We therefore performed a multicenter study to determine the frequency of HLGR GBS isolates and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms leading to gentamicin resistance. From eight centers in four countries, 1,128 invasive and colonizing GBS isolates were pooled and investigated for the presence of HLGR. We identified two strains that displayed HLGR (BSU1203 and BSU452), both of which carried the aacA-aphD gene, typically conferring HLGR. However, only one strain (BSU1203) also carried the previously described chromosomal gentamicin resistance transposon designated Tn3706. For the other strain (BSU452), plasmid purification and subsequent DNA sequencing resulted in the detection of plasmid pIP501 carrying a remnant of a Tn3 family transposon. Its ability to confer HLGR was proven by transfer into an Enterococcus faecalis isolate. Conversely, loss of HLGR was documented after curing both GBS BSU452 and the transformed E. faecalis strain from the plasmid. This is the first report showing plasmid-mediated HLGR in GBS. Thus, in our clinical GBS isolates, HLGR is mediated both chromosomally and extrachromosomally. PMID:26729498

  12. Multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri to assess its genetic variability in a contagious agalactia endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatay-Dualde, Juan; Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; de la Fe, Christian; Gómez-Martín, Ángel; Paterna, Ana; Corrales, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-08-15

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) is one of the main causative agents of caprine contagious agalactia. Besides, the absence of accurate control methods eases its dispersion between different herds within endemic areas of this disease. In this context, there is a need to implement molecular typing schemes which offer valuable information useful to establish control measures and enables the surveillance of this pathogen. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic variability of different strains of Mmc from a contagious agalactia endemic area through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). For this purpose, five house-keeping genes (fusA, glpQ, gyrB, lepA, rpoB) from 39 field isolates were analysed. These isolates were obtained from different geographic areas of Spain, between the years 2004 and 2015. The results obtained in this study suggest that the selected MLST scheme could be a useful technique to monitor the genetic variability of Mmc in endemic areas. Despite the significant differences found between the assessed field isolates, they could be classified according to their geographical origin. Moreover, it was also possible to detect genetic differences between Mmc strains coming from the same herd at the same sampling time, which may need to be taken into consideration when designing or arranging prophylactic strategies. PMID:27374908

  13. Emerging trends in invasive and noninvasive isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae in a Latin American hospital: a 17-year study

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo-Ortiz, Maria del Pilar; Castañeda-Ramirez, Claudia Rocio; Recalde-Bolaños, Monica; Vélez-Londoño, Juan Diego

    2014-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae or group B Streptococcus (GBS) has been recognized as a lethal pathogen in neonates worldwide. S. agalactiae infections also severely affect pregnant women and immunosuppressed adults with substantial attributable morbidity and mortality. However, in Latin America, studies on the epidemiology and behaviour of S. agalactiae infections remain limited. Methods To better understand the behaviour of S. agalactiae infections in our region, we conducted a retrospe...

  14. Port and Harbor Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T; Guthmuller, H; DeWeert, M

    2004-12-15

    Port and Harbor Security is a daunting task to which optics and photonics offers significant solutions. We are pleased to report that the 2005 Defense and Security Symposium (DSS, Orlando, FL) will include reports on active and passive photonic systems operating from both airborne and subsurface platforms. In addition to imaging techniques, there are various photonic applications, such as total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), which can be used to ''sniff'' for traces of explosives or contaminants in marine. These non-imaging technologies are beyond the scope of this article, but will also be represented at DSS 2005. We encourage colleagues to join our technical group to help us to make our ports and harbors safer and more secure.

  15. Isolation and identification of Mycoplasma agalactiae by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR from affected sheep to Contagious agalactia of Khuzestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooladgar, A.R.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma agalactiae (M. agalactiae is one of the main causes of contagious agalactia, an infectious syndrome of sheep and goats in Khuzestan province –southwest of Iran that is characterized by mastitis and subsequent failure of milk production, arthritis, abortion and keratoconjunctivitis. This study was carried out to isolation and identification of M. agalactiae with culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR method from sheep in Khuzestan province, Iran. A total of 91 samples were collected from milk secretion, eye, ear, nose and joint exudates of sheep. All samples were cultured in PPLO broth supplemented for isolation of M. agalaciae. Extraction of the DNA of bacteria was done by phenol/chloroform method and the PCR assay was applied for detection of Mycoplasma genus in 163bp fragment of 16S rRNA gene and M. agalactiae in 375bp fragment of lipoprotein gene from culture as same as in clinical samples. Out of the 91 samples, 34(37.36% cultures were shown positive and typical Mycoplasma colonies in PPLO agar culture diagnostic method and 47(51.65% were scored positive by Mycoplasma genus PCR, 8(8.79% of the samples were scored positive by using M. agalactiae PCR as diagnostic method. Out of the 91 samples, 26 samples were shown both positive in the culture and PCR, 5 samples were shown both positive in the culture, MPCR and MAPCR. 15 samples were negative in the culture and positive in PCR whereas only 3 samples were positive in culture and negative in PCR. The results showed that the more isolations of M. agalactiae were taken from eye and less in ear and nose samples. M. agalactiae was one of the main factors of contagious agalactia that was detected for the first time from sheep in Khuzestan province.

  16. Molecular mapping of the cell wall polysaccharides of the human pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Péchoux, Christine; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Hols, Pascal; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2014-11-01

    The surface of many bacterial pathogens is covered with polysaccharides that play important roles in mediating pathogen-host interactions. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is recognized as a major virulence factor while the group B carbohydrate (GBC) is crucial for peptidoglycan biosynthesis and cell division. Despite the important roles of CPS and GBC, there is little information available on the molecular organization of these glycopolymers on the cell surface. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to analyze the nanoscale distribution of CPS and GBC in wild-type (WT) and mutant strains of S. agalactiae. TEM analyses reveal that in WT bacteria, peptidoglycan is covered with a very thin (few nm) layer of GBC (the ``pellicle'') overlaid by a 15-45 nm thick layer of CPS (the ``capsule''). AFM-based single-molecule mapping with specific antibody probes shows that CPS is exposed on WT cells, while it is hardly detected on mutant cells impaired in CPS production (ΔcpsE mutant). By contrast, both TEM and AFM show that CPS is over-expressed in mutant cells altered in GBC expression (ΔgbcO mutant), indicating that the production of the two surface glycopolymers is coordinated in WT cells. In addition, AFM topographic imaging and molecular mapping with specific lectin probes demonstrate that removal of CPS (ΔcpsE), but not of GBC (ΔgbcO), leads to the exposure of peptidoglycan, organized into 25 nm wide bands running parallel to the septum. These results indicate that CPS forms a homogeneous barrier protecting the underlying peptidoglycan from environmental exposure, while the presence of GBC does not prevent peptidoglycan detection. This work shows that single-molecule AFM, combined with high-resolution TEM, represents a powerful platform for analysing the molecular arrangement of the cell wall polymers of bacterial pathogens.

  17. Proteomic Biomarkers Associated with Streptococcus agalactiae Invasive Genogroups

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Lanotte; Marylise Perivier; Eve Haguenoer; Laurent Mereghetti; Christophe Burucoa; Stéphane Claverol; Christo Atanassov

    2013-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) is a leading cause of meningitis and sepsis in newborns and an etiological agent of meningitis, endocarditis, osteoarticular and soft tissue infections in adults. GBS isolates are routinely clustered in serotypes and in genotypes. At present one GBS sequence type (i.e. ST17) is considered to be closely associated with bacterial invasiveness and novel proteomic biomarkers could make a valuable contribution to currently available GBS typing ...

  18. Role of the Group B antigen of Streptococcus agalactiae: a peptidoglycan-anchored polysaccharide involved in cell wall biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Caliot

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS is a leading cause of infections in neonates and an emerging pathogen in adults. The Lancefield Group B carbohydrate (GBC is a peptidoglycan-anchored antigen that defines this species as a Group B Streptococcus. Despite earlier immunological and biochemical characterizations, the function of this abundant glycopolymer has never been addressed experimentally. Here, we inactivated the gene gbcO encoding a putative UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate:lipid phosphate transferase thought to catalyze the first step of GBC synthesis. Indeed, the gbcO mutant was unable to synthesize the GBC polymer, and displayed an important growth defect in vitro. Electron microscopy study of the GBC-depleted strain of S. agalactiae revealed a series of growth-related abnormalities: random placement of septa, defective cell division and separation processes, and aberrant cell morphology. Furthermore, vancomycin labeling and peptidoglycan structure analysis demonstrated that, in the absence of GBC, cells failed to initiate normal PG synthesis and cannot complete polymerization of the murein sacculus. Finally, the subcellular localization of the PG hydrolase PcsB, which has a critical role in cell division of streptococci, was altered in the gbcO mutant. Collectively, these findings show that GBC is an essential component of the cell wall of S. agalactiae whose function is reminiscent of that of conventional wall teichoic acids found in Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus subtilis. Furthermore, our findings raise the possibility that GBC-like molecules play a major role in the growth of most if not all beta-hemolytic streptococci.

  19. Characterization of a new CAMP factor carried by an integrative and conjugative element in Streptococcus agalactiae and spreading in Streptococci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Chuzeville

    Full Text Available Genetic exchanges between Streptococci occur frequently and contribute to their genome diversification. Most of sequenced streptococcal genomes carry multiple mobile genetic elements including Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs that play a major role in these horizontal gene transfers. In addition to genes involved in their mobility and regulation, ICEs also carry genes that can confer selective advantages to bacteria. Numerous elements have been described in S. agalactiae especially those integrated at the 3' end of a tRNA(Lys encoding gene. In strain 515 of S. agalactiae, an invasive neonate human pathogen, the ICE (called 515_tRNA(Lys is functional and carries different putative virulence genes including one encoding a putative new CAMP factor in addition to the one previously described. This work demonstrated the functionality of this CAMP factor (CAMP factor II in Lactococcus lactis but also in pathogenic strains of veterinary origin. The search for co-hemolytic factors in a collection of field strains revealed their presence in S. uberis, S. dysgalactiae, but also for the first time in S. equisimilis and S. bovis. Sequencing of these genes revealed the prevalence of a species-specific factor in S. uberis strains (Uberis factor and the presence of a CAMP factor II encoding gene in S. bovis and S. equisimilis. Furthermore, most of the CAMP factor II positive strains also carried an element integrated in the tRNA(Lys gene. This work thus describes a CAMP factor that is carried by a mobile genetic element and has spread to different streptococcal species.

  20. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of an emerging human pathogen, serotype V Streptococcus agalactiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tettelin, H; Masignani, [No Value; Cieslewicz, MJ; Eisen, JA; Peterson, S; Paulsen, IT; Nelson, KE; Margarit, [No Value; Read, TD; Madoff, LC; Beanan, MJ; Brinkac, LM; Daugherty, SC; DeBoy, RT; Durkin, AS; Kolonay, JF; Madupu, R; Lewis, MR; Radune, D; Fedorova, NB; Scanlan, D; Khouri, H; Mulligan, S; Carty, HA; Cline, RT; Van Aken, SE; Gill, J; Scarselli, M; Mora, M; Iacobini, ET; Brettoni, C; Galli, G; Mariani, M; Vegni, F; Maione, D; Rinaudo, D; Rappuoli, R; Telford, JL; Kasper, DL; Grandi, G; Fraser, CM

    2002-01-01

    The 2,160,267 bp genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae, the leading cause of bacterial sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis in neonates in the U.S. and Europe, is predicted to encode 2,175 genes. Genome comparisons among S. agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and the oth

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of an Invasive Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate Lacking Pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pallavi; Aronoff, David M.; Davies, H. Dele

    2016-01-01

    This report provides the whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae isolate GB00037 isolated from a newborn in Calgary, Canada. This serotype V isolate is unique because it lacks pigment production previously shown to be critical for S. agalactiae virulence. PMID:26950320

  2. Development of live attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae as potential vaccines by selecting for resistance to sparfloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resi...

  3. Development of live attenuated sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae polyvalent vaccines to protect Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resi...

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of an Invasive Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate Lacking Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pallavi; Aronoff, David M; Davies, H Dele; Manning, Shannon D

    2016-01-01

    This report provides the whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae isolate GB00037 isolated from a newborn in Calgary, Canada. This serotype V isolate is unique because it lacks pigment production previously shown to be critical for S. agalactiae virulence. PMID:26950320

  5. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Pregnant Women in Gabon, Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Belard; Nicole Toepfner; Mesküre Capan-Melser; Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma; Rella Zoleko-Manego; Mirjam Groger; Pierre-Blaise Matsiegui; Agnandji, Selidji T; Adegnika, Ayôla A.; Raquel González; Kremsner, Peter G; Clara Menendez; Michael Ramharter; Reinhard Berner

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae is life threatening and preventive strategies suitable for resource limited settings are urgently needed. Protective coverage of vaccine candidates based on capsular epitopes will relate to local epidemiology of S. agalactiae serotypes and successful management of critical infections depends on timely therapy with effective...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of an Invasive Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate Lacking Pigmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Pallavi; Aronoff, David M.; Davies, H Dele; Manning, Shannon D.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides the whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae isolate GB00037 isolated from a newborn in Calgary, Canada. This serotype V isolate is unique because it lacks pigment production previously shown to be critical for S. agalactiae virulence.

  7. Characterization of Invasive and Colonizing Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae in East African Adults▿

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Charlotte A.; McOdimba, Francis; Pflueger, Valentin; Claudia A Daubenberger; Revathi, Gunturu

    2011-01-01

    Ninety-five colonizing isolates and 74 invasive isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae from Kenyan adults were characterized by using capsular serotyping and multilocus sequence typing. Twenty-two sequence types clustering into five clonal complexes were found. Data support the view that S. agalactiae isolates belonging to a limited number of clonal complexes are invasive in adults worldwide.

  8. Fecal strings Associated with Streptococcus agalactiae Infection in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were experimentally-infected with Streptococcus agalactiae for several infectivity and vaccine studies. Some of the S. agalactiae-infected tilapia produced considerably longer (up to 20 cm in length) fecal waste strings than historically observed from tilapia at...

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Ia and III Isolates from Tilapia Farms in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Areechon, Nontawith; Kannika, Korntip; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Unajak, Sasimanas

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae serotypes Ia and III were isolated from infected tilapia in cage and pond culture farms in Thailand during 2012 to 2014, in which pathogenicity analysis demonstrated that serotype III showed higher virulence than serotype Ia. Here, we report the draft genome sequencing of piscine S. agalactiae serotypes Ia and III.

  10. Influence of Tricaine Methanesulfonate on Streptococcus agalactiae vaccination of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to study the influence of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on blood glucose levels and percent cumulative survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae 30 days post-vaccination with S. agalactiae vaccine or sham-vaccination wit...

  11. Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae by fluorescent in situ hybridization compared to culturing and the determination of prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae colonization among pregnant women in Bushehr, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Norouzi Esfahani, Marjan; Emaneini, Mohammad; Motamed, Niloofar; Rahmani, Elham; Gharibi, Somayyeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women colonized by Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci [GBS]) may transfer this microorganism to their newborns. S. agalactiae is an important cause of pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis in newborns. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is considered as a method of identification in the field of diagnostic microbiology. In this paper, we have designed a study to compare the DNA FISH after 7 h Lim broth enrichment and culturing for the identification of S. aga...

  12. Antigen I/II encoded by integrative and conjugative elements of Streptococcus agalactiae and role in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuzeville, Sarah; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Madec, Jean-Yves; Haenni, Marisa; Payot, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (i.e. Group B streptococcus, GBS) is a major human and animal pathogen. Genes encoding putative surface proteins and in particular an antigen I/II have been identified on Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) found in GBS. Antigens I/II are multimodal adhesins promoting colonization of the oral cavity by streptococci such as Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans. The prevalence and diversity of antigens I/II in GBS were studied by a bioinformatic analysis. It revealed that antigens I/II, which are acquired by horizontal transfer via ICEs, exhibit diversity and are widespread in GBS, in particular in the serotype Ia/ST23 invasive strains. This study aimed at characterizing the impact on GBS biology of proteins encoded by a previously characterized ICE of S. agalactiae (ICE_515_tRNA(Lys)). The production and surface exposition of the antigen I/II encoded by this ICE was examined using RT-PCR and immunoblotting experiments. Surface proteins of ICE_515_tRNA(Lys) were found to contribute to GBS biofilm formation and to fibrinogen binding. Contribution of antigen I/II encoded by SAL_2056 to biofilm formation was also demonstrated. These results highlight the potential for ICEs to spread microbial adhesins between species. PMID:26232503

  13. Caratterizzazione fenotipica di ceppi di Streptococcus agalactiae (streptococco di gruppo B di origine umana e bovina isolati nel Nord Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Calzolari

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Serotype, haemolytic activity and CAMP reaction of 466 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae (269 of human origin and 197 of bovine origin isolated in the North of Italy (Lombardia, Emilia were evaluated.The presence of the rare serotype VII was recorded in 3 human strains and in 1 bovine isolates. In human strains serotype III (32% was the most common followed by serotypes Ia (17.1%,V (13.8%, II (9.7%, Ib (3.7%, IV (3%,VII (1.1%; 19.6% of strains resulted nontypeable. Between bovine strains the most abundant was serotype IV (22.3%, followed by Ib and III (5.6%, II (5.1%, Ia (3.6%,V (3% and VII (0.5%, a large number was nontypeable (54.3%. Stains belonging to serotype of VI or VIII were not observed. 43 strains were anhemolytic (15 of humane origin and 28 bovine origin and 5 strains were CAMP-negative (2 humane and 3 bovine.

  14. 中国南方地区罗非鱼无乳链球菌的分子流行病学研究%Molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from tilapia in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉娟; 张德锋; 樊海平; 陈学年; 李彤彤; 李爱华

    2012-01-01

    从广东省以及海南省等地区养殖的患病罗非鱼体内分离、收集到多株致病菌,经生化分析和分子生物学鉴定,均为无乳链球菌.对这些菌株分别进行了耐药谱测定、分子分型试验以及分子血清型分析.药敏试验结果表明,2007-2010年分离到的无乳链球菌耐药谱基本相似;多位点可变数目串联重复序列分析( MLVA)试验中,选择5个高变异指数的可变数目重复位点(VNTR)进行分子分型,结果表明,所有鱼源无乳链球菌菌株为同一MLVA型,而作为对照的牛源无乳链球菌则明显不同;为了对这些菌株进一步分型,分别进行了分子血清型和表面蛋白抗原基因的检测,结果表明,鱼源无乳链球菌的分子血清型均为Ⅰa型,表面蛋白抗原均为alpha-C蛋白.这进一步说明了不同年份和不同地区的鱼源无乳链球菌在基因水平上为同一分子类型,具有相同的起源或传染源.同时也说明,我国南方地区罗非鱼无乳链球菌在这几年中未发生明显的遗传变异.这些结果为罗非鱼无乳链球菌病疫苗研制,疫病监测及药物防治的研究提供理论依据.%Streptococcus agalactiae strains were isolated and collected from moribund tilapia in Guangdong, Hainan,and Fujian Provinces, and these isolates were identified by biochemical and molecular biological characterization. In the current study, we compared the phylogenetic relationships among S. Agalactiae strains. Furthermore, we compared antibiotic sensitivity, molecular classification and molecular serotype of these strains which were isolated from different years and different geographical regions. Antibiotic sensitivity assays showed that among 20 antibiotics tested,there are 10 antibiotics that had no differences,and the other 10 items showed similar sensitivity. Five most diverse loci (Variable number of tandem repeats, VNTR) were used for the construction of MLVA to evaluate the diversity of these strains

  15. Inapparent Streptococcus agalactiae infection in adult/commercial tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiufeng Sun; Wei Fang; Bixia Ke; Dongmei He; Yuheng Liang; Dan Ning; Hailing Tan; Hualin Peng; Yunxin Wang; Yazhou Ma; Changwen Ke; Xiaoling Deng

    2016-01-01

    We report on inapparent infections in adult/commercial tilapia in major tilapia fish farms in Guangdong. A total of 146 suspected isolates were confirmed to be S. agalactiae using an API 20 Strep system and specific PCR amplification. All isolates were identified as serotype Ia using multiplex serotyping PCR. An MLST assay showed single alleles of adhP (10), atr (2), glcK (2), glnA (1), pheS (1), sdhA (3) and tkt (2), and this profile was designated ‘unique ST 7’. The analysis of virulence ge...

  16. Streptococcus agalactiae mural infective endocarditis in a structurally normal heart

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyoshi, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Keisuke; Bolger, Jr., Dennis T.

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old Caucasian man with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus type 2 was admitted with a 1-week duration of fevers, chills, and a non-productive cough. He had a left ischiorectal abscess 1 month prior to admission. Physical examination revealed caries on a left upper molar and a well-healed scar on the left buttock, but no heart murmur or evidence of micro-emboli. Blood cultures grew Streptococcus agalactiae. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a mobile mass in the right ventricle tha...

  17. Poliartritis y tenosinovitis grave por Streptococcus agalactiae en un paciente con hipoesplenia funcional Severe polyarthritis and tenosynovitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a patient with functional hyposplenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo C. Balderramo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La artritis por Streptococcus agalactiae es infrecuente. No conocemos publicaciones de casos sobre la afección tendinosa por este microorganismo. Se presenta una mujer de 46 años que consultó por fiebre, poliartralgias, mialgias, diarrea y vómitos. Como antecedentes presentaba carcinoma papilar de tiroides e hipoesplenia funcional. Al examen se encontraba hemodinámicamente inestable, febril, con artritis de mano izquierda, muñecas, codos, hombro derecho y tobillo izquierdo. Presentaba tenosinovitis en ambos pies y en la mano izquierda. Los hemocultivos y el cultivo de la bursa olecraniana derecha fueron positivos para S. agalactiae. La ecografía mostró signos de tenosinovitis del tibial anterior izquierdo. Completó 20 días de tratamiento endovenoso con cefazolina y 12 días de cefuroxima oral. El cuadro articular revirtió completamente en 60 días. El Streptococcus agalactiae puede causar, en forma infrecuente, un síndrome de poliartritis, tenosinovitis y fiebre similar al producido por la infección gonocócica.Cases of arthritis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae are infrequent and in our knowledge there are no case reports of tenosynovitis caused by S. agalactiae. A 46-year-old woman presented with fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia, diarrhea and vomiting. She had a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma and functional hyposplenia. She was febrile, with arthritis in hands, wrists, elbows, right shoulder and left ankle joints, and presented tenosynovitis in both feet and left hand. Blood and right olecranon bursa sample cultures were positive for S. agalactiae. An ultrasound scan made at the musculus tibialis anterior of left foot revealed signs of tenosynovitis. She was treated with intravenous cefazolin for 20 days and oral cefuroxime for 12 days. The joint involvement completely subsided in 60 days. Streptococcus agalactiae can cause, infrequently, a polyarthritis and tenosynovitis syndrome similar to disseminated gonococcal

  18. A REVIEW ON THE CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE SYNTHESIS GENES OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE%无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)荚膜多糖合成基因研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪开毓; 黄锦炉; 肖丹; 王均; 黄凌远

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important zoonotic pathogen in human, animal and fish. The capsular poly-saccharides on the cell surface have been recognized as virulence factors, of which the forming processes are regulated by the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis (cps) genes. The capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis genes exist in capsular polysaccharide operon of S. agalactiae genome, which were predicted to participate in the origination of capsular polysaccharide synthesis, polymerization of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, transport and anchor the product to the cell surface. Therefore, the cps genes achieve new applications of diagnostic techniques and the construction of attenuated mutant strains. In this paper, the basic properties of cps genes, as well as their transcription regulation, coding proteins and biological functions, regulation mechanism of capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and serotyping, and application of construction of mutant strains are analyzed and discussed. We looked forward to providing a theoretical reference on the new functions research and innovative applications of S. agalactiae cps genes.%无乳链球菌是一种人畜鱼共患的重要病原菌,菌体表面的荚膜多糖是公认的毒力因子,其合成过程受荚膜多糖合成基因的调控.荚膜多糖合成基因存在于荚膜多糖操纵子中,参与无乳链球菌荚膜多糖的合成启动、寡糖和多糖的聚合以及外输并锚定于菌体表面,在新型诊断技术和减毒突变株的构建方面取得良好的应用.本文首次就cps基因的基本属性、转录调节、编码蛋白及其生物功能、对荚膜多糖合成的调控机理、在血清分型和突变株构建的应用这六个方面进行深入分析和讨论,以期为GBS cps基因的新功能研究和创新应用提供理论参考.

  19. Streptococcus agalactiae mural infective endocarditis in a structurally normal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Keisuke; Bolger, Dennis T

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old Caucasian man with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus type 2 was admitted with a 1-week duration of fevers, chills, and a non-productive cough. He had a left ischiorectal abscess 1 month prior to admission. Physical examination revealed caries on a left upper molar and a well-healed scar on the left buttock, but no heart murmur or evidence of micro-emboli. Blood cultures grew Streptococcus agalactiae. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a mobile mass in the right ventricle that attached to chordae tendineae without valvular disease or dysfunction. A computed tomography (CT) with contrast revealed the mass within the right ventricle, a left lung cavitary lesion, and a splenic infarction. He was initially treated with penicillin G for a week. Subsequently, ceftriaxone was continued for a total of 8 weeks. A follow-up CT showed no evidence of right ventricular mass 8 weeks after discharge. This is the first reported case of S. agalactiae mural infective endocarditis in a structurally normal heart. PMID:27124171

  20. Harbor systems; Kowan system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumoto, K.; Mitsuhashi, M. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-10

    Container terminals these days are required to be enlarged, automated in operation, and enhanced in reliability so that they can properly deal with ships growing larger in size and containers increasing in number. Stable supply of electric power and efficient monitor and control of the related equipment are very important in securing stabilized, continuous operation for such container terminals. Outlined in this report are the electrical equipment of a modern container terminal and the large-capacity voltage fluctuation compensation unit delivered by Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., to West 5 Container Terminal, Nagoya Harbor. The electrical equipment of a terminal is a special high voltage reception/transformation facility capable of loop reception at 66kV. The 66kV cubicle type gas-insulated switch is provided with a current transformer for a sectionalized protection relay, current transformer for bus protection, and VCT bypass disconnector. The main transformer is a gas-insulated transformer, and a molded transformer is adopted for the special high voltage reception/transformation facility. The equipment monitor and control system employs a UNIX-base computer as the central processing system, and the information LAN is so designed as to be connectable to the Ethernet and P-link. 6 figs.

  1. Construction and identification of genomic expression library of Streptococcus agalactiae virulent strain Hod-1 isolated from Oreochromis niloticus%罗非鱼无乳链球菌强毒株基因组表达文库的构建及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志刚; 可小丽; 卢迈新; 方伟; 王淼; 朱华平; 高风英; 曹建萌

    2015-01-01

    为了筛选罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)在鱼体内特异诱导表达基因,该研究构建了罗非鱼无乳链球菌强毒株Hod-1的基因组表达文库.采用Sau3A Ⅰ对无乳链球菌菌株Hod-1基因组DNA进行不完全酶切,回收大小为0.5~2.0 kb的DNA片段,并与经BamH Ⅰ单酶切且去磷酸化的pET-28 a/b/c表达载体连接,转化表达宿主菌BL21(DE3).结果显示,所构建的无乳链球菌菌株Hod-1基因组表达文库含1.024×105个克隆,远大于覆盖无乳链球菌全基因组所需的最小库容量(45 579个).PCR检测结果显示重组子中外源片段的插入率为94%,插入片段大小为0.5~2.0 kb,且分布均匀,测序结果显示插入序列与GenBank中无乳链球菌基因组序列同源性高达99%以上.结果表明该研究成功构建了罗非鱼无乳链球菌的基因组表达文库,该文库可用于无乳链球菌在罗非鱼体内诱导表达基因的筛选.

  2. Structure of Streptococcus agalactiae tip pilin GBS104: a model for GBS pili assembly and host interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Vengadesan [UNESCO Regional Centre for Biotechnology (RCB), Gurgaon 122 016, Haryana (India); Dwivedi, Prabhat [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Kim, Brandon J. [San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Samal, Alexandra; Macon, Kevin [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Ma, Xin; Mishra, Arunima [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Doran, Kelly S. [San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Ton-That, Hung [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Narayana, Sthanam V. L., E-mail: narayana@uab.edu [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); UNESCO Regional Centre for Biotechnology (RCB), Gurgaon 122 016, Haryana (India)

    2013-06-01

    The crystal structure of a 75 kDa central fragment of GBS104, a tip pilin from the 2063V/R strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS), is reported. The crystal structure of a 75 kDa central fragment of GBS104, a tip pilin from the 2063V/R strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS), is reported. In addition, a homology model of the remaining two domains of GBS104 was built and a model of full-length GBS104 was generated by combining the homology model (the N1 and N4 domains) and the crystal structure of the 75 kDa fragment (the N2 and N3 domains). This rod-shaped GBS104 model is constructed of three IgG-like domains (the N1, N2 and N4 domains) and one vWFA-like domain (the N3 domain). The N1 and N2 domains of GBS104 are assembled with distinct and remote segments contributed by the N- and C-termini. The metal-binding site in the N3 domain of GBS104 is in the closed/low-affinity conformation. Interestingly, this domain hosts two long arms that project away from the metal-binding site. Using site-directed mutagenesis, two cysteine residues that lock the N3 domain of GBS104 into the open/high-affinity conformation were introduced. Both wild-type and disulfide-locked recombinant proteins were tested for binding to extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, fibrinogen and laminin, and an increase in fibronectin binding affinity was identified for the disulfide-locked N3 domain, suggesting that induced conformational changes may play a possible role in receptor binding.

  3. A novel porcine bocavirus harbors a variant NP gene

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Sung J; Sunwoo, Sun Young; Ko, Seong Sik; Je, Sang H; Lee, Dong Uk; Lyoo, Young S

    2015-01-01

    Background Porcine bocavirus is classified within the genus Bocaparvovirus, family Parvoviridae. Unlike other parvoviruses, the members of genus Bocaparvovirus (bocaparvoviruses) encode an additional open reading frame (NP1). Many strains of PBoVs have been identified in domestic pigs and recognized as a potential emerging pathogen causing respiratory and gastrointestinal disease. Findings A new strain of porcine bocavirus (PBoV) that harbored the shortest NP1 gene among all currently charact...

  4. Contagious agalactia of small ruminants: current knowledge concerning epidemiology, diagnosis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonier, D; Berthelot, X; Poumarat, F

    1997-12-01

    Contagious agalactia of small ruminants is a syndrome which principally affects the mammary glands, joints and eyes. The main causal agents are Mycoplasma agalactiae in sheep, and M. agalactiae, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony type and M. capricolum subsp. capricolum in goats. In addition, M. putrefaciens can produce a similar clinical picture, particularly in goats. Contagious agalactia occurs on all five continents and is often enzootic. The evolution of the infection tends to be chronic in affected animals and herds. Symptomless shedding of mycoplasmas, mainly in the milk, may persist for a long time. These insidious infections, associated with carriage in the ears of healthy animals, are difficult to diagnose and to control. The main mode of transmission between flocks is related to the sale of carrier animals and contact during transhumance, whereas transmission within a flock occurs through contact, suckling and milking. This review discusses the clinical features, epidemiology, treatment, prevention and control of the disease. PMID:9567311

  5. Evaluation of nine teat dip formulations under experimental challenge to staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, J W; Philpot, W N; Boddie, R L; Watts, J L

    1983-01-01

    Nine postmilking teat dips were evaluated by an experimental challenge model against either Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, or both. Formulations containing .9 and .6% sodium hypochlorite, 1% sodium dichloro-s-triazene-trione, .55% chlorhexidine gluconate, and .35% povidone iodine reduced incidence of Staphylococcus aureus infections 56.8, 28.3, 75.9, 92.5, and 77.9%. Incidence of infections with Streptococcus agalactiae was reduced 48.1 and 63.2% by 1.7 and 1% sodium dichloro-s-triazene-trione formulations. The 1% chlorhexidine gluconate and .35% povidone iodine products reduced Streptococcus agalactiae infections 71.0 and 67.0%. Three experimental 1% iodophor formulations reduced Streptococcus agalactiae infections 28.9, 44.8, and 50.7%. The experimental challenge model was refined further and provided an efficient method to determine efficacy of postmilking teat dips. PMID:6339575

  6. Nile Tilapia Infectivity by Genomically Diverse Streptoccocus agalactiae Isolates from Multiple Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), is recognized for causing cattle mastitis, human neonatal meningitis, and fish meningo-encephalitis. We investigated the genomic diversity of GBS isolates from different phylogenetic hosts and geographical regions using serological t...

  7. Effect of Eugenol against Streptococcus agalactiae and Synergistic Interaction with Biologically Produced Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Perugini Biasi-Garbin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci (GBS is an important infections agent in newborns associated with maternal vaginal colonization. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in GBS-colonized pregnant women has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of early neonatal infection in various geographic regions. However, this strategy may lead to resistance selecting among GBS, indicating the need for new alternatives to prevent bacterial transmission and even to treat GBS infections. This study reported for the first time the effect of eugenol on GBS isolated from colonized women, alone and in combination with silver nanoparticles produced by Fusarium oxysporum (AgNPbio. Eugenol showed a bactericidal effect against planktonic cells of all GBS strains, and this effect appeared to be time-dependent as judged by the time-kill curves and viability analysis. Combination of eugenol with AgNPbio resulted in a strong synergistic activity, significantly reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration values of both compounds. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed fragmented cells and changes in bacterial morphology after incubation with eugenol. In addition, eugenol inhibited the viability of sessile cells during biofilm formation and in mature biofilms. These results indicate the potential of eugenol as an alternative for controlling GBS infections.

  8. Comparison of transmission dynamics between Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae intramammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Pinyopummintr, Tanu; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of study were to determine the transmission parameters (β), durations of infection, and basic reproductive numbers (R0) of both Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis as pathogens causing mastitis outbreaks in dairy herds. A 10-mo longitudinal study was performed using 2 smallholder dairy herds with mastitis outbreaks caused by Strep. agalactiae and Strep. uberis, respectively. Both herds had poor mastitis control management and did not change their milking management during the entire study period. Quarter milk samples were collected at monthly intervals from all lactating animals in each herd for bacteriological identification. The durations of infection for Strep. uberis intramammary infection (IMI) and Strep. agalactiae IMI were examined using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the Kaplan-Meier survival functions for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were compared using log rank survival-test. The spread of Strep. uberis and Strep. agalactiae through the population was determined by transmission parameter, β, the probability per unit of time that one infectious quarter will infect another quarter, assuming that all other quarters are susceptible. For the Strep. uberis outbreak herd (31 cows), 56 new infections and 28 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. For the Strep. agalactiae outbreak herd (19 cows), 26 new infections and 9 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. The duration of infection for Strep. agalactiae (mean=270.84 d) was significantly longer than the duration of infection for Strep. uberis (mean=187.88 d). The transmission parameters (β) estimated (including 95% confidence interval) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were 0.0155 (0.0035-0.0693) and 0.0068 (0.0008-0.0606), respectively. The R0 (including 95% confidence interval) during the study were 2.91 (0.63-13.47) and 1.86 (0.21-16.61) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI, respectively. In conclusion, the transmission

  9. Mycoplasma agalactiae in semen and milk of goat from Pernambuco state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno H.L.S. Alves; José G. Silva; André R. Mota; Ana C. Campos; José W.P. Júnior; Sandra B. Santos; Rinaldo A Mota

    2013-01-01

    In goat and sheep flocks, mycoplasmosis is a disease that may cause severe economical losses associated with polyarthritis, mastitis, agalactia, conjunctivitis, pneumonia and reproductive failure. The latter may involve repeat breeding, granular vulvovaginitis, infertility and abortions. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) in semen and milk samples from naturally infected goat in the semiarid region from Pernambuco State, Northeast from Braz...

  10. Isolation and prevalence of Mycoplasma agalactiae in Kurdish sheep in Kurdistan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khezri

    Full Text Available Aim: Ruminant Mycoplasmosis are important diseases worldwide and several are listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE to be of major economic significant. The aim of this study was to isolation mycoplasmas from sheep presenting contagious agalactiae (CA in Kurdistan in the West of Iran. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine samples included (milk, conjuctiva swabs, synovial fluid and ear canal swabs were examined by PCR assay during 2011-2012. DNA was extracted from enriched samples. Two primers (forward and reverse amplify a 163bp region of 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma genus and two primers amplify 375bp region of 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma agalactiae (M. agalactiae species were used. Results: This proved that 46 samples (66.7% were infected with Mycoplasma in culture and PCR test, respectively. On the PCR test, 15 isolates (32.6% examined were positive for M. agalactiae that showed specific amplicon at 375bp. All Mycoplasma positive samples were analyzed for M. agalactiae infection by PCR method and 31 isolates (67.4% examined were negative for M. agalactiae. The finding of other mycoplasmas with significant epidemiology challenges existing plans for the control of CA in sheep population in Iran. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that M. agalactiae in CA disease in Kurdistan Province, 32.6% involved. In Iran, only M. agalactiae vaccines are commercially available, thus, the animals are not protected against these other species. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 727-731

  11. Isolation of quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae from asymptomatic Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hye Ran; Lee, Hak Mee; Lee, Yeonhee

    2008-02-01

    Seven Streptococcus agalactiae isolates were obtained from the vagina of 80 asymptomatic women. Three of these isolates showed multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes: two isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline; and one isolate was resistant to clarithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. There was no clonal relationship among the MDR isolates. This is the first report of quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant S. agalactiae. PMID:18337702

  12. Streptococcus agalactiae in adults at chiang mai university hospital: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Sirisanthana Thira; Nuntachit Nontakan; Bunchoo Manasanant; Jullaket Waree; Chaiwarith Romanee; Supparatpinyo Khuanchai

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, a Group B streptococcus, is an emerging disease in non-pregnant adults. This study describes the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of S. agalactiae infection in adult patients in northern Thailand. Methods A retrospective study was conducted between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2009 at Chiang Mai University Hospital among patients aged ≥15 years, whose clinical specimens obtained from normally s...

  13. Serology based immunological crossreactivity among various isolates of streptococcus agalactiae from mastitic buffaloes

    OpenAIRE

    R. Hussain; G. Muhammad; M. Avais; A Shakoor; R.K. Dad

    2010-01-01

    To measure the degree of immunological cross-reactivity among different isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae from mastitic cases of buffaloes and cows in four districts (Faisalabad, Jhang, Toba Tek Singh and Sargodha), two tests were used. The isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae obtained from mastitic animals from these districts were purified on Edward’s medium. Hyper immune sera were raised by injecting 1.2 x 109 cfu/ml I/V of the isolates separately into rabbits. The sera thus raise...

  14. Surface Proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae and Related Proteins in Other Bacterial Pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Gunnar; Stålhammar-Carlemalm, Margaretha; Areschoug, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is the major cause of invasive bacterial disease, including meningitis, in the neonatal period. Although prophylactic measures have contributed to a substantial reduction in the number of infections, development of a vaccine remains an important goal. While much work in this field has focused on the S. agalactiae polysaccharide capsule, which is an important virulence factor that elicits protective immunity, surface proteins have received incre...

  15. Structural characterization of the virulence factor nuclease A from Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Andrea F.; Gaudu, Philippe; Pedersen, Lars C.

    2014-01-01

    The group B pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae commonly populates the human gut and urogenital tract, and is a major cause of infection-based mortality in neonatal infants and in elderly or immunocompromised adults. Nuclease A (GBS_NucA), a secreted DNA/RNA nuclease, serves as a virulence factor for S. agalactiae, facilitating bacterial evasion of the human innate immune response. GBS_NucA efficiently degrades the DNA matrix component of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which attempt to ...

  16. Streptococcus agalactiae Septic Arthritis of the Shoulder and the Sacroiliac Joints: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Yahia Z.; Housam Aldeen Sarakbi; Nagui Abdelwahab; Issa Mattar

    2012-01-01

    Invasive group beta-streptococcal arthritis is being increasingly diagnosed as suggested by recent data. We report a case of a middle-aged lady from Sri Lanka who developed septic arthritis of the right shoulder and the left sacroiliac joint as well as an iliopsoas collection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae shortly after labor at Hamad General Hospital in Doha, Qatar. We conclude that Streptococcus agalactiae septic arthritis is rare. It can present with invasive disease in adults. It usua...

  17. Acute Neonatal Parotitis with Late-Onset Septic Shock due to Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Boulyana, M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute neonatal parotitis (ANP) is a very rare disease. Most cases are managed conservatively; early antibiotics and adequate hydration may reduce the need for surgery. The most common cause of ANP is Staphylococcus aureus. We report a rare case of acute neonatal parotitis with late-onset septic shock due to Streptococcus agalactiae. The diagnosis was confirmed with ultrasound and isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae from blood culture. The patient was treated successfully with 10 days of int...

  18. Bacterial Protein Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae by SDS-page Method for Subclinical Mastitis Irradiated Vaccine Materials in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    B.J. Tuasikal; I.W.T. Wibawan2; F.H. Pasaribu2; S. Estuningsih2

    2012-01-01

    A study have been conducted to isolate and characterize bacterial protein S. agalactiae, which is antigenic and can be used to test immunogenicity of vaccine in order to manufacture irradiated mastitis (inflammation of the udder) vaccine in ruminant. The study aims to determine the Molecular Weight (MW) bacterial protein S. agalactiae irradiation, which can be used to test the nature of its antigenic caharacteristic. The character of S. agalactiae antigenic stimulates antibody induction of th...

  19. Electrophoretic Analysis of Indian Isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis by SDS-PAGE and Immunoblotting

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Kumar; Srivastava, N. C.; Singh, V. P.; Jai Sunder

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis both are responsible for respiratory conditions in sheep and goats. M. agalactiae is a major pathogen of sheep and goats and accounts for almost 90% of outbreaks of contagious agalactia syndrome in goats and almost 100% in sheep. On the basis of clinical signs and cultural, morphological, and biochemical characterization it is almost impossible to differentiate between both the species. Moreover, due to presence of genomic and proteomic similarity mo...

  20. Variable Lipoprotein Genes of Mycoplasma agalactiae Are Activated In Vivo by Promoter Addition via Site-Specific DNA Inversions

    OpenAIRE

    Flitman-Tene, Ravenna; Mudahi-Orenstein, Sigalit; Levisohn, Sharon; Yogev, David

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae, the etiological agent of contagious agalactia of small ruminants, has a family of related genes (avg genes) which encode surface lipoprotein antigens that undergo phase variation. A series of 13 M. agalactiae clonal isolates, obtained from one chronically infected animal over a period of 7 months, were found to undergo major rearrangement events within the avg genomic locus. We show that these rearrangements regulate the phase-variable expression of individual avg genes...

  1. Alaska Harbor Seal Glacial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Floating glacial ice serves as a haul-out substrate for a significant number (10-15%) of Alaskan harbor seals, and thus surveying tidewater glacial fjords is an...

  2. Sediment toxicity in Savannah Harbor

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Savannah Harbor, located near the mouth of the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina, is impacted by industrial and municipal effluents. Contaminants released...

  3. GC-MS-Based Metabolome and Metabolite Regulation in Serum-Resistant Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Min-Yi; Peng, Bo; Cheng, Zhi-Xue; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2016-07-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes severe systemic infections in human and fish. In the present study, we established a pathogen-plasma interaction model by which we explored how S. agalactiae evaded serum-mediated killing. We found that S. agalactiae grew faster in the presence of yellow grouper plasma than in the absence of the plasma, indicating S. agalactiae evolved a way of evading the fish immune system. To determine the events underlying this phenotype, we applied GC-MS-based metabolomics approaches to identify differential metabolomes between S. agalactiae cultured with and without yellow grouper plasma. Through bioinformatics analysis, decreased malic acid and increased adenosine were identified as the most crucial metabolites that distinguish the two groups. Meanwhile, they presented with decreased TCA cycle and elevated purine metabolism, respectively. Finally, exogenous malic acid and adenosine were used to reprogram the plasma-resistant metabolome, leading to elevated and decreased susceptibility to the plasma, respectively. Therefore, our findings reveal for the first time that S. agalactiae utilizes a metabolic trick to respond to plasma killing as a result of serum resistance, which may be reverted or enhanced by exogenous malic acid and adenosine, respectively, suggesting that the metabolic trick can be regulated by metabolites. PMID:27251450

  4. Efficiency of inactive vaccines against contagious agalactia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the efficiency of three inactive vaccines against contagious agalactia prepared with samples of Mycoplasma agalactiae isolated in Brazil and different adjuvants. Vaccine 1 adsorbed with aluminum hydroxide was administered in 23 goats (Gc1 and 13 sheep (Gov1; vaccine 2 containing Montanide IMS-2215-VG was administered in 22 goats (Gc2 and 12 sheep (Gov2 and vaccine 3, containing Montanide Gel-01 was administered in 22 goats (Gc3 and 12 sheep (Gov3. All animals were negative for Ma at indirect ELISA and received two doses of 2mL each, subcutaneously, within a 21 day interval. Five animals from each species were used as control. Seventy-five days after the booster, four animals from each vaccinated group and two from the control group were challenged with 5mL of Ma culture containing 10(7cfu/mL, orally and through immersion of the female's udder in lactation. The serological response was analyzed during vaccination days (0 and 21 and at 51, 81, 111, 141 and 171 days after vaccination. The collection and analysis of the challenged animals were conducted at the day of the challenge (D0 and 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days after the challenge. The three vaccines induced the production of antibodies, having no significant statistical difference (p<0.05. Animals from groups Gc1, Gc2 and Gov2 developed higher levels of antibodies, with significant statistical difference compared to the other vaccinated group and control group (p<0.05. After the challenge, the animals from the control presented an increase in regional lymph nodes and conjunctivitis, mastitis and arthritis. In four vaccinated animals, discrete conjunctivitis and congestion of the episcleral veins was observed. It is concluded that vaccines 1 and 2 induced levels of protective antibodies in goats and sheep, sufficient for clinical protection of the animals submitted to the experimental infection, indicating its use on the prevention of contagious agalactia.

  5. 2007 China Harbor Ten People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2007 China Harbor Ten People elected the entrepreneurs who contributed a lot to port economy and enterprises this year trough their talent management.These ten people embody their social responsibility,professional skills,creative ability,and charming personality.Bearing full confidence in China's port economy,the port entrepreneurs are brave enough to explore a brand new area,so as to promote harbor economic development.

  6. Streptococcus agalactiae em gestantes: prevalência de colonização e avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women: prevalence of colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Lermontov Borger

    2005-10-01

    32nd and 41st week of gestation, regardless of risk factors, attended at the antenatal clinic between February 2003 and February 2004, were evaluated. The vaginal/anal material, collected by the same swab, was inoculated in Todd-Hewitt broth to which nalidixic acid (15 µg/mL and gentamicin (8 µg/mL were added, with following subcultures onto sheep blood-agar. Identification was carried out observing colony morphology and beta-hemolysis type on blood-agar, catalase, cAMP, and serological tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing used agar diffusion and agar dilution methods. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi2 test with the level of significance set at p0.05. All 32 isolated strains were susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, vancomycin and meropenem. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was detected in 9.4 and 6.2% of the isolates, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: the relatively high incidence (19.2% of colonization by S. agalactiae among the evaluated pregnant women and the recovery of antimicrobial resistant strains, especially those recommended in cases of penicillin allergy, emphasize the importance, for a correct prevention of neonatal infections, of detecting colonization at the end of pregnancy and evaluating antimicrobial susceptibility.

  7. Colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae during pregnancy: maternal and perinatal prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia El Beitune

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed colonization by group B Streptococcus beta-haemolyticus of Lancefield (SGB, or Streptococcus agalactiae, in pregnant women, and the consequences of infection for the mother and newborn infant, including factors that influence the risk for anogenital colonization by SGB. We also examined the methods for diagnosis and prophylaxis of SGB to prevent early-onset invasive neonatal bacterial disease. At present, it is justifiable to adopt anal and vaginal SGB culture as part of differentiated obstetrical care in order to reduce early neonatal infection. The rates, risk factors of maternal and neonatal SGB colonization, as well as the incidence of neonatal disease, may vary in different communities and need to be thoroughly evaluated in each country to allow the most appropriate preventive strategy to be selected.

  8. Structural Differences between the Streptococcus agalactiae Housekeeping and Pilus-Specific Sortases: SrtA and SrtC1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, B.; Krishnan, V.; Rajashankar, K.R.; I-Hsiu, H.; Xin, M.; Ton-That, H.; Narayana, S.V. (Texas-HSC); (Cornell); (UAB)

    2011-10-21

    The assembly of pili on the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria requires transpeptidase enzymes called sortases. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the PI-1 pilus island of strain 2603V/R encodes two pilus-specific sortases (SrtC1 and SrtC2) and three pilins (GBS80, GBS52 and GBS104). Although either pilus-specific sortase is sufficient for the polymerization of the major pilin, GBS80, incorporation of the minor pilins GBS52 and GBS104 into the pilus structure requires SrtC1 and SrtC2, respectively. The S. agalactiae housekeeping sortase, SrtA, whose gene is present at a different location and does not catalyze pilus polymerization, was shown to be involved in cell wall anchoring of pilus polymers. To understand the structural basis of sortases involved in such diverse functions, we determined the crystal structures of S. agalactiae SrtC1 and SrtA. Both enzymes are made of an eight-stranded beta-barrel core with variations in their active site architecture. SrtA exhibits a catalytic triad arrangement similar to that in Streptococcus pyogenes SrtA but different from that in Staphylococcus aureus SrtA. In contrast, the SrtC1 enzyme contains an N-terminal helical domain and a 'lid' in its putative active site, which is similar to that seen in Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus-specific sortases, although with subtle differences in positioning and composition. To understand the effect of such differences on substrate recognition, we have also determined the crystal structure of a SrtC1 mutant, in which the conserved DP(W/F/Y) motif was replaced with the sorting signal motif of GBS80, IPNTG. By comparing the structures of WT wild type SrtA and SrtC1 and the 'lid' mutant of SrtC1, we propose that structural elements within the active site and the lid may be important for defining the role of specific sortase in pili biogenesis.

  9. Structural differences between the Streptococcus agalactiae housekeeping and pilus-specific sortases: SrtA and SrtC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Khare

    Full Text Available The assembly of pili on the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria requires transpeptidase enzymes called sortases. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the PI-1 pilus island of strain 2603V/R encodes two pilus-specific sortases (SrtC1 and SrtC2 and three pilins (GBS80, GBS52 and GBS104. Although either pilus-specific sortase is sufficient for the polymerization of the major pilin, GBS80, incorporation of the minor pilins GBS52 and GBS104 into the pilus structure requires SrtC1 and SrtC2, respectively. The S. agalactiae housekeeping sortase, SrtA, whose gene is present at a different location and does not catalyze pilus polymerization, was shown to be involved in cell wall anchoring of pilus polymers. To understand the structural basis of sortases involved in such diverse functions, we determined the crystal structures of S. agalactiae SrtC1 and SrtA. Both enzymes are made of an eight-stranded beta-barrel core with variations in their active site architecture. SrtA exhibits a catalytic triad arrangement similar to that in Streptococcus pyogenes SrtA but different from that in Staphylococcus aureus SrtA. In contrast, the SrtC1 enzyme contains an N-terminal helical domain and a 'lid' in its putative active site, which is similar to that seen in Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus-specific sortases, although with subtle differences in positioning and composition. To understand the effect of such differences on substrate recognition, we have also determined the crystal structure of a SrtC1 mutant, in which the conserved DP(W/F/Y motif was replaced with the sorting signal motif of GBS80, IPNTG. By comparing the structures of WT wild type SrtA and SrtC1 and the 'lid' mutant of SrtC1, we propose that structural elements within the active site and the lid may be important for defining the role of specific sortase in pili biogenesis.

  10. 罗非鱼无乳链球菌LAMP快速检测方法的建立%Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from Tilapia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑磊; 樊海平; 吴斌; 曾占壮; 钟全福; 张新艳

    2015-01-01

    针对无乳链球菌高度保守的表面免疫相关蛋白基因,采用环介导等温扩增技术( LAMP),设计4条特异性引物,优化反应体系,建立罗非鱼无乳链球菌快速诊断方法。研究结果表明, LAMP方法检测灵敏度达到30 CFU· mL-1,且对2株罗非鱼源无乳链球菌均能扩增出特异性片段,而对14株非无乳链球菌均未扩增出相应片段。建立的LAMP检测方法具有高度的特异性和灵敏性,反应在1 h内完成,为罗非鱼无乳链球菌病的快速诊断提供了一种重要的技术手段。%To develop a technique for rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from Tilapia, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification( LAMP) was introduced to amplify the surface immunogenic protein ( SIP) gene.The detection method was established by using optimum reaction system with four specif-ic primers of the target gene.The results showed that the method had perfect specificity, and the sen-sitivity was 30 CFU · mL-1 , as the DNA of 2 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were able to be amplified, while the other 14 strains of non -Streptococcus agalactiae were not.The amplification process can be finished in 1 hour.The method provides a better choice for rapid detection of Strepto-coccus agalactiae.

  11. Diversity of prophage DNA regions of Streptococcus agalactiae clonal lineages from adults and neonates with invasive infectious disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Salloum

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic position and prophage DNA content of the genomes of 142 S. agalactiae (group-B streptococcus, GBS isolates responsible for bacteremia and meningitis in adults and neonates were studied and compared. The distribution of the invasive isolates between the various serotypes, sequence types (STs and clonal complexes (CCs differed significantly between adult and neonatal isolates. Use of the neighbor-net algorithm with the PHI test revealed evidence for recombination in the population studied (PHI, P = 2.01 × 10(-6, and the recombination-mutation ratio (R/M was 6:7. Nevertheless, the estimated R/M ratio differed between CCs. Analysis of the prophage DNA regions of the genomes of the isolates assigned 90% of the isolates to five major prophage DNA groups: A to E. The mean number of prophage DNA fragments amplified per isolate varied from 2.6 for the isolates of prophage DNA group E to 4.0 for the isolates of prophage DNA group C. The isolates from adults and neonates with invasive diseases were distributed differently between the various prophage DNA groups (P < 0.00001. Group C prophage DNA fragments were found in 52% of adult invasive isolates, whereas 74% of neonatal invasive isolates had prophage DNA fragments of groups A and B. Differences in prophage DNA content were also found between serotypes, STs and CCs (P < 0.00001. All the ST-1 and CC1 isolates, mostly of serotype V, belonged to the prophage DNA group C, whereas 84% of the ST-17 and CC17 isolates, all of serotype III, belonged to prophage DNA groups A and B. These data indicate that the transduction mechanisms, i.e., gene transfer from one bacterium to another by a bacteriophage, underlying genetic recombination in S. agalactiae species, are specific to each intraspecies lineage and population of strains responsible for invasive diseases in adults and neonates.

  12. qnrVC-Like Gene Located in a Novel Complex Class 1 Integron Harboring the ISCR1 Element in an Aeromonas punctata Strain from an Aquatic Environment in Shandong Province, China▿

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Ruirui; Guo, Xianhu; Zhang, Yuzhen; Xu, Hai

    2010-01-01

    A qnrVC-like gene, qnrVC4, was found in a novel complex class 1 integron gene cassette array following the ISCR1 element and blaPER-1 in a multidrug-resistant strain of the aquatic bacterium Aeromonas punctata. The deduced QnrVC4 protein sequence shares 45% to 81% amino acid identity with quinolone resistance determinants QnrB6, QnrA1, QnrS1, QnrC, QnrVC1, and QnrVC3. A Ser-83 to Ile amino acid substitution in gyrase A may be mainly responsible for ciprofloxacin resistance in this strain.

  13. qnrVC-like gene located in a novel complex class 1 integron harboring the ISCR1 element in an Aeromonas punctata strain from an aquatic environment in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ruirui; Guo, Xianhu; Zhang, Yuzhen; Xu, Hai

    2010-08-01

    A qnrVC-like gene, qnrVC4, was found in a novel complex class 1 integron gene cassette array following the ISCR1 element and bla(PER-1) in a multidrug-resistant strain of the aquatic bacterium Aeromonas punctata. The deduced QnrVC4 protein sequence shares 45% to 81% amino acid identity with quinolone resistance determinants QnrB6, QnrA1, QnrS1, QnrC, QnrVC1, and QnrVC3. A Ser-83 to Ile amino acid substitution in gyrase A may be mainly responsible for ciprofloxacin resistance in this strain. PMID:20516288

  14. Non-infectivity of Cattle Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is classified as a Lancefield’s group B Streptococcus (GBS). It is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis that is responsible for severe economic losses in wild and cultured fish, worldwide. Streptococcus agalactiae also causes bovine mastitis. Only limited comparativ...

  15. Infecção congênita em cabritos por Mycoplasma agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to report three cases of contagious agalactia (CA by Mycoplasma agalactiae in goat kids born with polyarthritis. The nanny goats belonging to two different herds presented clinical signs of CA during pregnancy and in parturition they were apparently healthy. The carpal articulations of the three goat kids, the tarsus articulation in one, and thigh-femoral articulation in another showed swelling, pain and impairment of the flexion-extension movements. The articular liquid was collected from two goat kids at birth and revealed a content which varied from transparent to fibrinopurulent, presenting a yellow coloring. The samples were plated on modified Hayflick. The colonies had the appearance of "fried egg" and were confirmed as being M. agalactiae by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA PCR. Blood was collected from three animals soon after birth and submitted to the indirect ELISA test for the determination of the titration of the anti- M. agalactiae antibodies. The results confirmed that the goat kids were infected during pregnancy by M. agalactiae and resulted in the birth of an offspring with clinical signs of CA being immune tolerant.

  16. Initiation of Protein Synthesis by a Labeled Derivative of the Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 Strain during Transit from the Stomach to the Cecum in Mice Harboring Human Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Oozeer, R; Mater, D. D. G.; Goupil-Feuillerat, N.; Corthier, G

    2004-01-01

    Although studies on the survival of bacteria in the digestive tract have been reported in the literature, little data are available on the physiological adaptation of probiotics to the digestive environment. In previous work, a transcriptional fusion system (i.e., luciferase genes under the control of a deregulated promoter) was used to demonstrate that a derivative of the Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 strain, ingested in a fermented milk and thus exhibiting initially a very weak metabolic a...

  17. Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis presenting as acalculous cholecystitis in a previously well woman.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brewer, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the unusual presentation of a previously very well woman with Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis in the emergency department. History, examination and preliminary laboratory and radiological investigations supported a diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis, for which she was given intravenous broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy. One day following admission, the patient deteriorated and became unresponsive. Subsequent MRI of the brain revealed multiple bihemispheric cerebral emboli and a large, mobile mitral valve thrombus was visualised on her transoesophageal echocardiogram. S agalactiae was cultured from venous blood samples and her antimicrobial cover was adjusted accordingly. Despite her presumed guarded prognosis, this patient made a remarkable recovery. To our knowledge, the association of S agalactiae endocarditis with acalculous cholecystitis has not been previously described.

  18. Brachial Plexus Neuritis Associated With Streptococcus agalactiae Infection: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Jung; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Joon Sung; Lim, Seong Hoon; Hong, Bo Young

    2014-08-01

    Brachial plexus neuritis is reportedly caused by various factors; however, it has not been described in association with Streptococcus agalactiae. This is a case report of a patient diagnosed with brachial plexus neuritis associated with pyogenic arthritis of the shoulder. A 57-year-old man visited the hospital complaining of sudden weakness and painful swelling of the left arm. The diagnosis was pyogenic arthritis of the left shoulder, and the patient was treated with open irrigation and debridement accompanied by intravenous antibiotic therapy. S. agalactiae was isolated from a wound culture, and an electrodiagnostic study showed brachial plexopathy involving the left upper and middle trunk. Nine weeks after onset, muscle strength improved in most of the affected muscles, and an electrodiagnostic study showed signs of reinnervation. In conclusion, S. agalactiae infection can lead to various complications including brachial plexus neuritis. PMID:25229037

  19. Proteomic biomarkers associated with Streptococcus agalactiae invasive genogroups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lanotte

    Full Text Available Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae is a leading cause of meningitis and sepsis in newborns and an etiological agent of meningitis, endocarditis, osteoarticular and soft tissue infections in adults. GBS isolates are routinely clustered in serotypes and in genotypes. At present one GBS sequence type (i.e. ST17 is considered to be closely associated with bacterial invasiveness and novel proteomic biomarkers could make a valuable contribution to currently available GBS typing data. For that purpose we analyzed the protein profiles of 170 genotyped GBS isolates by Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI. Univariate statistical analysis of the SELDI profiles identified four protein biomarkers significantly discriminating ST17 isolates from those of the other sequence types. Two of these biomarkers (MW of 7878 Da and 12200 Da were overexpressed and the other two (MW of 6258 Da and 10463 Da were underexpressed in ST17. The four proteins were isolated by mass spectrometry-assisted purification and their tryptic peptides analyzed by LC-MS/MS. They were thereby identified as the small subunit of exodeoxyribonuclease VII, the 50S ribosomal protein L7/L12, a CsbD-like protein and thioredoxin, respectively. In conclusion, we identified four candidate biomarkers of ST17 by SELDI for high-throughput screening. These markers may serve as a basis for further studies on the pathophysiology of GBS infection, and for the development of novel vaccines.

  20. Distribution of Serotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes among Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates from Bovine and Human Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Belgin; Schukken, Y. H.; de Santisteban, C.; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the emergence and transmission of antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae, we compared phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 52 human and 83 bovine S. agalactiae isolates. Serotypes found among isolates from human hosts included V (48.1%), III (19.2%), Ia and Ib (13.5% each), and II (5.8%). Among isolates from bovine hosts, molecular serotypes III and II were predominant (53 and 14.5%, respectively). Four and 21 different ribotypes were found among human and b...

  1. Serotypes of Streptococcus agalactiae cultured from dairy milk samples in Québec

    OpenAIRE

    Daignault, Danielle; Guévremont, Evelyne; Guillemette, Jean-Marc; Messier, Serge; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Higgins, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae remains an important pathogen of dairy herds in Québec, but data about antigenic characteristics of this microorganism are sparse. This study was conducted to determine the variety of S. agalactiae serotypes in dairy herds in Québec. Two hundred and ninety-five isolates cultured from the milk of individual cows from 7 regions of Québec were serotyped. Sixty-two percent of the isolates were untypeable. Among the 38% of typeable isolates, serotype III was found most fre...

  2. 罗非鱼组织内无乳链球菌实时荧光定量 PCR 检测方法建立%Real-time quantitative PCR for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from tilaPia tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞; 李莉萍; 黄婷; 梁万文; 梁聪; 雷爱莹; 陈明

    2015-01-01

    为建立一种罗非鱼组织内无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)的定量检测方法,以无乳链球菌 cfb 基因为靶标建立了 TaqMan 荧光探针实时定量 PCR 方法,并对该方法的特异性、敏感性及实用性进行了验证。应用建立的方法检测无乳链球菌标准菌株和阳性菌株均为阳性,阴性对照菌株均为阴性;无乳链球菌基因组 DNA 最低检测质量浓度为3.42×10-7 ng·μL -1,每个反应体系检测下限低于10个细胞;人工感染罗非鱼肝、脾、中肠和肾组织样品无乳链球菌检测结果均为阳性,组织样品每微克 DNA 可检测到无乳链球菌细胞数量分别为2.95×103个、2.45×107个、2.34×103个和4.54×104个,对照组为阴性。结果表明建立的罗非鱼组织内无乳链球菌实时荧光定量 PCR 检测方法具有准确性高、特异性和敏感性强等特点,可对罗非鱼组织内无乳链球菌进行快速定量检测,可用于罗非鱼无乳链球菌病的监测与预防。%By designing primers and probe based on the conserved region of cfb gene of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from tilapia, we developed a real-time fluorescent PCR assay for detection of S. agalactiae from tilapia tissue and verified the specificity,sensitivity and practicability of the assay. The standard and positive strains of S. agalactiae were positive,and all negative controls were negative. The minimum detectable concentration of S. agalactiae genome DNA was 3. 42 × 10 - 7 ng·μL - 1 ,and the detection limit of the assay was less than 10 cells per reaction system. The genome DNA samples of midgut,liver,spleen and kidney which were collected from tilapia artificially infected with S. agalactiae were tested by real-time PCR and were positive. The quantities of S. agalactiae detected in per μg DNA of tissue samples were 2. 95 × 103 cells,2. 45 × 107 cells,2. 34 × 103 cells and 4. 54 × 104 cells,respectively,and the controls were negative

  3. 牛源性无乳链球菌血清型分布及抗生素耐药性研究%Serotype Distribution of Bovine Streptococcus agalactiae and its Drug Resistance to Antibiotics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏胜; 郁杰; 罗金印; 李新圃; 徐继英; 王旭荣; 张礼华

    2012-01-01

    本研究旨在查明牛源性无乳链球菌血清型分布及对常见抗生素的耐药情况,指导临床合理用药.对从中国部分地区奶牛场采集的临床型乳房炎病牛乳中分离鉴定出78株无乳链球菌地方菌株,制备沉淀反应抗原及6株标准血清型无乳链球菌单因子血清抗体,采用环状沉淀试验,对78株无乳链球菌地方菌株进行了血清学分型鉴定;同时采用K-B纸片法测定了这些菌株对抗生素的耐药情况.结果表明,引起奶牛乳房炎的无乳链球菌血清型主要为X型(60.26%),其次为Ⅲ型(10.26%)、R型(7.69%)、Ⅱ型(7.69%)和Ⅰb型(5.13%),Ⅰ a型尚未发现.无乳链球菌对目前临床上使用的大部分抗生素,如头孢唑啉、头孢噻肟、丁胺卡那霉素、卡那霉素、庆大霉素、四环素、强力霉素、氟苯尼考、多黏菌素B、环丙沙星、氟哌酸和头孢他啶/棒酸均较敏感;但对氨苄青霉素、链霉素、恩诺沙星、阿莫西林/棒酸和复方新诺明,有一定的耐药性,其耐药率达50%~100%.本研究对进一步研制有效的药物及疫苗,指导临床合理用药具有重要的意义.%To identify serotype distribution of bovine Streptococcus agalactiae and its drug resistance to common antibiotics, so that the correct antibiotics was applied during clinical therapy, 78 local strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were isolated from milk samples of dairy cow with clinical mastitis throughout the country. We prepared antigens for precipitation reaction and hyperimmune serum antibodies of 6 standard serotype Streptococcus agalactiae strains, then 78 local strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were identified by ring precipitation test and antibiotic resistance were analyzed. In China, the predominant serotype of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine mastitis were X-type (60. 26%), Ⅲ-type (10. 26%), R-type (7.69%), Ⅱ -type (7.69%) and I b-type (5. 13%) respectively. However, I a-type was not

  4. Rapid Detection of Stretococcus agalactiae Isolated from Tilapia with Double PCR%双重 PC R检测罗非鱼源无乳链球菌方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊海平; 吴斌; 张新艳; 邓志武; 郑磊; 钟全福; 曾占壮

    2014-01-01

    Two pairs of specific primers were designed and synthesized according to the 16S rRNA and Surface immunogenic protein (sip) gene sequence of tilapia Stretococcus agalactiae ,and a double-PCR method for rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from tilapia was established through optimization of reaction system and reaction condition ,by which two specific fragments for S .agalactiae of 1 305 bp and 121 bp were producted . Specificity test showed that two specific bands ,16S rRNA and sip ,could only be detected in the S . agalactiae , and none was amplified from Streptococcus inia .The minimum detectable quantity of the S . agalactiae strains 070717LL was 1.05 × 102 CFU . In the tissues from spleen , brain and kidney of tilapias affected by the S . agalactiae strain 070717LL the strains DNA were detected , especially in kidney and spleen tissues . In conclusion ,this double-PCR method was specific ,sensitive rapid ,and applicable for epidemiological investigation of S . agalactiae in tilapia .%根据罗非鱼源无乳链球菌16S rRNA 基因和sip基因序列,设计、合成2对特异性引物,通过对反应体系和反应条件优化,建立快速检测无乳链球菌的双重PCR方法。该方法扩增无乳链球菌可获得1305 bp和121 bp 2个特异性片段;对6株链球菌属的菌株进行特异性分析,仅无乳链球菌能扩增出16S rRNA 基因和sip基因2条特异性条带,而海豚链球菌无条带检出;经灵敏度试验,可检测到无乳链球菌菌株070717LL的最小量为1.05×102 CFU ;同时,双重PCR可以检测出无乳链球菌菌株070717LL人工感染的罗非鱼脾、脑、肾组织中细菌DNA ,特别是脾脏和肾脏组织的样品检测效果好。结果证明所建立的方法具有快速、特异性强、灵敏度高等优点,适用于对罗非鱼源无乳链球菌病的流行病学调查。

  5. Bacterial Protein Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae by SDS-page Method for Subclinical Mastitis Irradiated Vaccine Materials in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. Tuasikal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study have been conducted to isolate and characterize bacterial protein S. agalactiae, which is antigenic and can be used to test immunogenicity of vaccine in order to manufacture irradiated mastitis (inflammation of the udder vaccine in ruminant. The study aims to determine the Molecular Weight (MW bacterial protein S. agalactiae irradiation, which can be used to test the nature of its antigenic caharacteristic. The character of S. agalactiae antigenic stimulates antibody induction of the immune system, in which case is the body's defense system against mastitis disease in cattle. In this study, irradiation of gamma ray is used to attenuate the pathogenicity of bacteria by reducing S. agalactiae antigenic caharacteristic. Previous research, in irradiation dose orientation before antigenic protein isolation of S. agalactiae, indicated that irradiation lethal dose to 50% (LD50 is 17 Gy. The characterization of S. agalactiae bacteria isolate using SDS-page method results in no significance different between irradiated and non-irradiated group, which indicated by MW range 75 – 100 kDa base on marker standard which used, or 99 kDa by the linier equation of Y = 11,60 – 0.05X (where Y = bands distance; X = MW standard protein; r2 = 0.99. In conclusion, 17 Gy irradiation dose does not impair antigenic property of S. agalactiae and therefore, can be applied to produce base material of irradiated vaccine for mastitis

  6. Bacterial Protein Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae by SDS-page Method for Subclinical Mastitis Irradiated Vaccine Materials in Dairy Cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study have been conducted to isolate and characterize bacterial protein S. agalactiae, which is antigenic and can be used to test immunogenicity of vaccine in order to manufacture irradiated mastitis (inflammation of the udder) vaccine in ruminant. The study aims to determine the Molecular Weight (MW) bacterial protein S. agalactiae irradiation, which can be used to test the nature of its antigenic caharacteristic. The character of S. agalactiae antigenic stimulates antibody induction of the immune system, in which case is the body's defense system against mastitis disease in cattle. In this study, irradiation of gamma ray is used to attenuate the pathogenicity of bacteria by reducing S. agalactiae antigenic characteristic. Previous research, in irradiation dose orientation before antigenic protein isolation of S. agalactiae, indicated that irradiation lethal dose to 50% (LD50) is 17 Gy. The characterization of S. agalactiae bacteria isolate using SDS-page method results in no significance different between irradiated and non-irradiated group, which indicated by MW range 75 - 100 kDa base on marker standard which used, or 99 kDa by the linier equation of Y = 11,60 - 0.05X (where Y = bands distance; X = MW standard protein); r2 = 0.99. In conclusion, 17 Gy irradiation dose does not impair antigenic property of S. agalactiae and therefore, can be applied to produce base material of irradiated vaccine for mastitis. (author)

  7. Isolation and identification of Mycoplasma agalactiae by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR from sheep of Qom province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abtin, A.R.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Contagious agalactia (C.A is an infectious syndrome of sheep that is characterized by mastitis andsubsequent failure of milk production, arthritis, abortion and keratoconjunctivitis. Mycoplasma agalactiae(M. agalactiae is the main cause of the disease in sheep. The aim of this study was isolation andidentification of M. agalactiae with culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay from sheep of Qomprovince in Iran. A total of 102 samples were collected from milk secretion, eye, ear and joint exudates ofsheep. All samples were cultured in PPLO broth supplemented for M. agalaciae isolation. The bacteriaDNAs were extracted by phenol/chloroform method and the PCR assay was applied for detecting ofMycoplasma genus in 163bp fragment of 16S rRNA gene and M. agalactiae in 375bp fragment oflipoprotein gene from culture as same as in clinical samples. Out of the 102 samples, 19(18.63% cultureswere shown positive and typical Mycoplasma colonies in PPLO agar culture diagnostic method and59(57.8% were scored positive by Mycoplasma genus PCR, 19(18.62% of the samples were scoredpositive by using M. agalactiae PCR as diagnostic method. Out of the 102 samples, 19 samples wereshown both positive in the culture and PCR, 42 samples were shown both negative in the culture and PCR.40 samples were negative in the culture and positive in PCR whereas only one sample was positive inculture and negative in PCR. The results showed that the more isolations of M. agalactiae were taken from milk and less in joint samples. M. agalactiae was one of the main factors of contagious agalactia that was detected for the first time from sheep in Qom province.

  8. Mapping Antigenic Sites of an Immunodominant Surface Lipoprotein of Mycoplasma agalactiae, AvgC, with the Use of Synthetic Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Santona, Antonella; Carta, Franco; Fraghí, Peppinetta; Turrini, Franco

    2002-01-01

    As a first step toward the design of an epitope vaccine to prevent contagious agalactia, the strongly immunogenic 55-kDa protein of Mycoplasma agalactiae was studied and found to correspond to the AvgC protein encoded by the avgC gene. The avg genes of M. agalactiae, which encode four variable surface lipoproteins, display a significant homology to the vsp (variable membrane surface lipoproteins) genes of the bovine pathogen Mycoplasma bovis at their promoter region as well as their N-terminu...

  9. Serine-Rich Repeat Proteins and Pili Promote Streptococcus agalactiae Colonization of the Vaginal Tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheen, Tamsin R.; Jimenez, Alyssa; Wang, Nai-Yu; Banerjee, Anirban; van Sorge, Nina M.; Doran, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium found in the female rectovaginal tract and is capable of producing severe disease in susceptible hosts, including newborns and pregnant women. The vaginal tract is considered a major reservoir for GBS, and maternal v

  10. Purification, crystallization and halide phasing of a Streptococcus agalactiae backbone pilin GBS80 fragment

    OpenAIRE

    Vengadesan, Krishnan; Ma, Xin; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Ton-That, Hung; Narayana, Sthanam V. L

    2010-01-01

    The C-terminal fragment of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus) major (backbone) pilin GBS80 was purified and crystallized in two different space groups. Single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) data collected to 2.0 Å resolution on a iodide (NaI) derivative crystal using the home source were used to obtain initial phases.

  11. Milk protein profiles in response to Streptococcus agalactiae subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongthaisong, Pongphol; Katawatin, Suporn; Thamrongyoswittayakul, Chaiyapas; Roytrakul, Sittiruk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the milk protein profiles of normal milk and those of milk during the course of subclinical mastitis, caused by natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry were used to assess protein profiles and to identify the proteins. The results showed that S. agalactiae subclinical mastitis altered the protein profiles of milk. Following Mascot database matching, 11 and 12 protein types were identified in the milk collected from healthy and S. agalactiae subclinical mastitic udders, respectively. The distinct presence of the antibacterial protein cathelicidin-1 was detected in infected milk samples, which in turn was highly correlated to the severity of subclinical mastitis as represented by the milk somatic cell count (r = 0.616), but not the bacterial count. The protein profile of milk reveals changes in the host response to S. agalactiae intramammary infection; cathelicidin-1 could therefore serve as a biomarker for the detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. PMID:26632331

  12. A comparative investigation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from fish and cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis and causes severe economic losses in wild and cultured fish and cattle, worldwide. In fish, infection can result in septicemia with hemorrhages on the body surface and in the external and internal organs. Streptococcus agalacti...

  13. Genomic Diversity of Streptoccocus agalactiae Isolates from Multiple Hosts and Their Infectivity in Nile Tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), has a broad host range and can be pathogenic to numerous animals, including fish. GBS is most recognized for causing cattle mastitis and human neonatal meningitis, it also causes fatal meningo-encephalitis in fish. We investigat...

  14. Efficacy of an experimentally inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia aquaculture is one of the fastest growing segments of fish production in Brazil. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is largely cultivated in the state of Parana, where Streptococcus agalactiae is the cause of severe disease outbreaks. The objective of this paper was to evaluate an inactiva...

  15. 鱼类无乳链球菌病%Streptococcus agalactiae Infection in Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程世亮; 刘新风; 郑文; 黄艺丹; 张君; 郑建

    2016-01-01

    Sterptococcus agalactiae ,also called group B Streptococcus ,is a worldwide-distributed Gram-positive bacterium.It is a major bacterial pathogen to humans,and also to fish.Recently,S .agalactiae has become one of the major causes of streptococcosis in fish.The clinical signs of fish infected with S . agalactiae include exophthalmia,distended abdomen,curvature of the spinal cord,bleeding at the base of the fins,etc.Due to its high morbidity and mortality,the disease caused by S .agalactiae leads to serious economic loss and threats the sound development of aquaculture.This paper overviewed the research pro-gress on the fish disease caused by S .agalactiae ,and introduced its pathogenesis,the methods of identifi-cation and the current development of vaccines against S .agalactiae from fish in order to provide refer-ences for the further investigation on S .agalactiae ,as well as the disease control and prevention in aqua-culture.%无乳链球菌亦称为 B 组链球菌,是一种在自然界广泛存在的革兰阳性菌,是人类的重要病原之一,也是鱼类的重要病原菌。近年来,无乳链球菌成为鱼类链球菌病的主要病原之一,鱼类感染无乳链球菌的常见临床症状包括眼球突出、腹部肿胀、脊骨弯曲、鳍条基部出血等,发病率和死亡率高,常造成严重的经济损失,危害着水产养殖业的健康发展。论文对鱼类无乳链球菌病的研究进行了总结,对鱼类无乳链球菌病病原、致病机理进行综述,介绍了鱼类无乳链球菌病常见的诊断方法,以及现阶段针对鱼类无乳链球菌病的疫苗开发情况,旨在进一步丰富、完善鱼类无乳链球菌病的研究资料,为更好的防治鱼类无乳链球菌病提供参考。

  16. Dissemination of IncI2 Plasmids That Harbor the blaCTX-M Element among Clinical Salmonella Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Marcus Ho-yin; Liu, Lizhang; Yan, Meiying; Chan, Edward Wai-chi; Chen, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) determinant CTX-M-55 is increasingly prevalent in Escherichia coli but remains extremely rare in Salmonella. This study reports the isolation of a plasmid harboring the blaCTX-M-55 element in a clinical Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strain resistant to multiple antibiotics. This plasmid is genetically identical to several known IncI2-type elements harbored by E. coli strains recovered from animals. This finding indicates that IncI2 plasmids ...

  17. Biological Characteristics of PathogenicStreptococcus agalactiae Isolated FromAequidens rivulatus%红尾皇冠鱼(Aequidens rivulatus)病原无乳链球菌的分离、鉴定与特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚学良; 徐晓丽; 李贺密; 钟文慧; 臧莉; 李灏; 杨超敬

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of ornamental fish has been gaining more and more popularity and commercial importance. Consequently ornamental fish diseases have also caught attentions.Aequidens rivulatus is one of the most important ornamental fish in commercial fisheries in Tianjin of China. In recent years mass death ofA. rivulatus has caused heavy economic losses. In this study we aimed to identify the biological characteristics of the pathogens which caused diseases inA. rivulatus. A dominant bacterium 071901 was isolated from the kidney of diseasedA. rivulatus and was confirmed to be pathogenic toA. rivulatus in artificial challenge test. We examined the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of this bacterium, and analyzed 16S rRNA andcfb gene (GBS-specific gene cfb, CAMP factor) for further identification. The 16S rRNA gene andcfb gene were partially sequenced and compared with data from the GenBank database. BLAST showed that 16S rRNA gene andcfb gene of strain 071901 were highly similar to their counterparts registered in GenBank. Based on the morphological observation and physiological and biochemical characterization, strain 071901 was identified asStreptococcus agalactiae. Phylogenetic trees ofS. agalactiae based on 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain 071901 was branched into the same cluster asS. agalactiae and showed the highest similarity to S. agalactiae.The results of molecular analysis ofcfb gene were consistent with the previous results from the biochemical assays.We then performed antimicrobial susceptibility assay for 30 antimicrobial agents and found that strain 071901 was susceptible to 19 agents including erythromycin, azithromycin and florfenicol, and was highly resistant to 11 agents including enrofloxacin, bacitracin and furazolidone. In conclusion our results demonstrated thatS. agalactiae was the pathogen that caused high mortality inA. rivulatus.%为查明天津地区养殖红尾皇冠鱼(Aequidens rivulatus)大量死亡的原

  18. Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae: a case of S. agalactiae infection in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chutima Tantikitti; Naraid Suanyuk; Akkarawit Itsaro

    2012-01-01

    A multiplex PCR (m-PCR) technique was developed for simultaneous detection of the causative agents responsible forstreptococcosis of cultured fish in Thailand i.e., Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus garvieae.The study on the sensitivity of the technique indicated that the minimum detected DNA concentration was 9.76, 39.06, and19.53 pg for S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieae, respectively. Detection of streptococcosis in healthy and diseased Niletilapia (Oreoch...

  19. Efficacy of two barrier teat dips containing chlorous acid germicides against experimental challenge with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddie, R L; Nickerson, S C; Kemp, G K

    1994-10-01

    Two postmilking teat dips were tested for efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae using experimental challenge procedures recommended by the National Mastitis Council. Both dips contained chlorous acid as the primary germicidal agent and lactic acid or mandelic acid as the chlorous acid activator. The dip activated with mandelic acid significantly reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae. The IMI rate was reduced 68.7% for Staph. aureus and 56.4% for Strep. agalactiae. The dip activated with lactic acid significantly reduced new Staph. aureus IMI by 69.3% but did not significantly reduce new Strep. agalactiae IMI (35.2% reduction) through the full 11-wk study period. Teat skin condition did not change from pretrial status after using either teat dip during the study. PMID:7836608

  20. Differential pathogenicity of five Streptococcus agalactiae isolates of diverse geographic origin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish and has caused significant morbidity amd mortality worldwide. The work in this study assessed whether pathogenic differences exist among isolates from different geographic locations. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were administered an...

  1. Dissemination of IncI2 Plasmids That Harbor the blaCTX-M Element among Clinical Salmonella Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marcus Ho-Yin; Liu, Lizhang; Yan, Meiying; Chan, Edward Wai-Chi; Chen, Sheng

    2015-08-01

    The extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) determinant CTX-M-55 is increasingly prevalent in Escherichia coli but remains extremely rare in Salmonella. This study reports the isolation of a plasmid harboring the blaCTX-M-55 element in a clinical Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strain resistant to multiple antibiotics. This plasmid is genetically identical to several known IncI2-type elements harbored by E. coli strains recovered from animals. This finding indicates that IncI2 plasmids harboring the blaCTX-M genes may undergo cross-species migration among potential bacterial pathogens, with E. coli as the major source of such elements. PMID:26014934

  2. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of IgD in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Response to Streptococcus agalactiae Stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Wang, Pei; Wu, Zao-He; Lu, Yi-Shan; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Jian, Ji-Chang

    2016-01-01

    IgD is considered to be a recently-evolved Ig and a puzzling molecule, being previously found in all vertebrate taxa, except for birds. Although IgD likely plays an important role in vertebrate immune responses, the function of IgD in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is virtually unknown. In the present study, a membrane form of IgD (mIgD) heavy chains were cloned from the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (designated On-mIgD). The On-mIgD heavy chain's cDNA is composed of 3347 bp with a 31 bp of 5'-UTR, 3015 bp open reading frame (ORF) and 301 bp 3'-UTR, encoding a polypeptide of 1004 amino acids (GenBank accession no: KF530821). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that On-mIgD heavy chains showed the highest similarity to Siniperca chuatsi. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that On-mIgD expression occurred predominately in head kidney, thymus, spleen, and kidney. After Streptococcus agalactiae infection, transcripts of On-mIgD increased and reached its peak at 48 h in the head kidney and thymus, and 72 h in the spleen, respectively. Taken together, these results collectively indicated that IgD could possibly have a key role to play in the immune response when bacterial infections in Nile tilapia. PMID:27005611

  3. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of IgD in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Response to Streptococcus agalactiae Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available IgD is considered to be a recently-evolved Ig and a puzzling molecule, being previously found in all vertebrate taxa, except for birds. Although IgD likely plays an important role in vertebrate immune responses, the function of IgD in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is virtually unknown. In the present study, a membrane form of IgD (mIgD heavy chains were cloned from the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (designated On-mIgD. The On-mIgD heavy chain’s cDNA is composed of 3347 bp with a 31 bp of 5′-UTR, 3015 bp open reading frame (ORF and 301 bp 3′-UTR, encoding a polypeptide of 1004 amino acids (GenBank accession no: KF530821. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that On-mIgD heavy chains showed the highest similarity to Siniperca chuatsi. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis showed that On-mIgD expression occurred predominately in head kidney, thymus, spleen, and kidney. After Streptococcus agalactiae infection, transcripts of On-mIgD increased and reached its peak at 48 h in the head kidney and thymus, and 72 h in the spleen, respectively. Taken together, these results collectively indicated that IgD could possibly have a key role to play in the immune response when bacterial infections in Nile tilapia.

  4. Isolation and Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae from Dairy Cow Mastitis in Qinghai Province%青海地区奶牛无乳链球菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨有武

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is one of pathogenic bacterium that inducing mastitis of dairy cow. In order to master the popularity and laid the reference for selection of medicine to treat mastitis, 258 samples were collected from 16 dairy cow farms in Qinghai province, and 137 Streptococcus strains were isolated,including Streptococcus agalactiae 42 strains after subculture, gram straining, plasma-coagulase test, CAMP test, biochemical tests and animal pathogenicity tests. The results indicated that Streptococcus agalactiae was the primary pathogenic bacteria of mastitis. All of Streptococcus agalactiaes were hypersensitive to cephradine, and partially resistant to amikacin ofloxacin, ampicillin and sulfanilamide group after K-B medicine sensitivity test.%无乳链球菌是导致奶牛乳房炎的常见病原菌之一,为了掌握青海地区无乳链球菌的流行情况及常用药物的敏感性,从而为本地区更好的预防与治疗奶牛乳房炎提供保障.本试验在青海地区16个奶牛场共采集258份乳房炎乳样,经革兰氏染色与绵羊鲜血琼脂培养基培养纯化,获得疑似链球菌137株;随后经玻片法血浆凝固酶试验、CAMP试验、生化试验与动物致病性试验对无乳链球菌进行鉴定,结果显示,137株链球菌中含有无乳链球菌42株,分离率为30.7%;经K-B纸片扩散法对无乳链球菌耐药性检测结果显示,该地区无乳链球菌主要对头孢类高度敏感,对氧氟沙星、磺胺类、氨苄青霉素与阿米卡星中度敏感.

  5. Single nucleotide resolution RNA-seq uncovers new regulatory mechanisms in the opportunistic pathogen [i]Streptococcus agalactiae[/i

    OpenAIRE

    Sauvage, Elisabeth; Sismeiro, Odile; Villain, Adrien; Da Cunha, Violette; Caliot, Marie-Elise; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Bouloc, Philippe; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Glaser, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus, is a leading cause of neonatal infections and an increasing cause of infections in adults with underlying diseases. In an effort to reconstruct the transcriptional networks involved in S. agalactiae physiology and pathogenesis, we performed an extensive and robust characterization of its transcriptome through a combination of differential RNA-sequencing in eight different growth conditions or genetic backgrounds and strand-specifi...

  6. Serotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multi-locus sequence type profiles of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates circulating in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate the serotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multi-locus sequence type (MLST profiles of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae in Beijing to provide references for the prevention and treatment of S. agalactiae infections.All isolates were identified using the CAMP test and the latex-agglutination assay and serotyped using a Strep-B-Latex kit, after which they were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, macrolide-resistance genes, and MLST profiles.In total, 56 S. agalactiae isolates were identified in 863 pregnant women (6.5%. Serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V were identified, among which types III (32.1%, Ia (17.9%, Ib (16.1%, and V (14.3% were the predominant serotypes. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin and ceftriaxone. The nonsusceptiblity rates measured for erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, telithromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin were 85.7%, 92.9%, 98.2%, 30.4%, 73.2%, 91%, and 39.3%, respectively. We identified 14 sequence types (STs for the 56 isolates, among which ST19 (30.4% was predominant. The rate of fluoroquinolone resistance was higher in serotype III than in the other serotypes. Among the 44 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 32 (72.7% carried ermB.S. agalactiae isolates of the serotypes Ia, Ib, III, and V are common in Beijing. Among the S. agalactiae isolates, the macrolide and clindamycin resistance rates are extremely high. Most of the erythromycin-resistant isolates carry ermB.

  7. CRSMP Potential Harbor Borrow Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Harbor locations as identified originally in the California Shoreline Database compiled by Noble Consultants (Jon Moore) for California Department of Boating and...

  8. Serotype IV Streptococcus agalactiae ST-452 has arisen from large genomic recombination events between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17 lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rinaudo, C Daniela; Donati, Claudio; Barucco, Mara; Torricelli, Giulia; Edwards, Morven S; Baker, Carol J; Margarit, Imma; Rosini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) causes life-threatening infections in newborns and adults with chronic medical conditions. Serotype IV strains are emerging both among carriers and as cause of invasive disease and recent studies revealed two main Sequence Types (STs), ST-452 and ST-459 assigned to Clonal Complexes CC23 and CC1, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of 70 type IV GBS and subsequent phylogenetic analysis elucidated the localization of type IV isolates in a SNP-based phylogenetic tree and suggested that ST-452 could have originated through genetic recombination. SNPs density analysis of the core genome confirmed that the founder strain of this lineage originated from a single large horizontal gene transfer event between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17. Indeed, ST-452 genomes are composed by two parts that are nearly identical to corresponding regions in ST-24 (CC23) and ST-291 (CC17). Chromosome mapping of the major GBS virulence factors showed that ST-452 strains have an intermediate yet unique profile among CC23 and CC17 strains. We described unreported large recombination events, involving the cps IV operon and resulting in the expansion of serotype IV to CC23. This work sheds further light on the evolution of GBS providing new insights on the recent emergence of serotype IV. PMID:27411639

  9. Serotype IV Streptococcus agalactiae ST-452 has arisen from large genomic recombination events between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17 lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rinaudo, C. Daniela; Donati, Claudio; Barucco, Mara; Torricelli, Giulia; Edwards, Morven S.; Baker, Carol J.; Margarit, Imma; Rosini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) causes life-threatening infections in newborns and adults with chronic medical conditions. Serotype IV strains are emerging both among carriers and as cause of invasive disease and recent studies revealed two main Sequence Types (STs), ST-452 and ST-459 assigned to Clonal Complexes CC23 and CC1, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of 70 type IV GBS and subsequent phylogenetic analysis elucidated the localization of type IV isolates in a SNP-based phylogenetic tree and suggested that ST-452 could have originated through genetic recombination. SNPs density analysis of the core genome confirmed that the founder strain of this lineage originated from a single large horizontal gene transfer event between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17. Indeed, ST-452 genomes are composed by two parts that are nearly identical to corresponding regions in ST-24 (CC23) and ST-291 (CC17). Chromosome mapping of the major GBS virulence factors showed that ST-452 strains have an intermediate yet unique profile among CC23 and CC17 strains. We described unreported large recombination events, involving the cps IV operon and resulting in the expansion of serotype IV to CC23. This work sheds further light on the evolution of GBS providing new insights on the recent emergence of serotype IV. PMID:27411639

  10. 孕妇泌尿生殖道无乳链球菌感染的耐药性分析%Drug resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae causing urogenital tract infections in pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐水清; 周俊; 王先利

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析孕妇泌尿生殖道无乳链球菌的耐药性,为临床感染的预防、合理用药提供参考依据。方法收集医院2009年2月-2013年11月门诊及住院3000例孕产妇的临床资料,培养鉴定阴道分泌物、宫腔内容物、中段尿以及羊水培养中的细菌,并对分离的无乳链球菌进行药敏试验,统计分析数据采用WHONET 5.5软件进行。结果分离出无乳链球菌281株占9.37%,其中阴道分泌物检出率居首位,阳性率为12.61%,羊水检出率最低,阳性率为0.93%;所有无乳链球菌对利奈唑胺、头孢唑林、万古霉素敏感率为100.00%;对头孢曲松、青霉素无耐药株,但有中介株,中介率分别为2.85%、1.78%;对红霉素、克林霉素、左氧氟沙星耐药率分别为60.50%、55.87%、47.69%。结论对孕妇泌尿生殖道进行无乳链球菌药敏试验,不仅能有效地预防该菌感染,还可以为临床提供治疗及指导依据,进一步预防其危害性。%OBJECTIVE To analyze the drug resistance of the Streptococcus agalactiae causing urogenital tract in‐fections in pregnant women so as to provide guidance for prevention of clinical infection and reasonable use of anti‐biotics .METHODS The clinical data were collected from 3 000 pregnant women who were treated in the outpatient department or hospitalized from Feb 2009 to Nov 2013 .The vaginal secretions ,uterine cavity contents ,midstream urine ,and amniotic fluid were cultured for bacteria ,the drug susceptibility testing of the isolated S . agalactiae strains was carried out ,and the statistical analysis of data was performed with the use of WHONET 5 .5 software . RESULTS Totally 281 (9 .37% ) strains of S .agalactiae were isolated ,of which 12 .61% were isolated from the vaginal secretions and 0 .93% were isolated from the amniotic fluid .The drug susceptibility rates of all the S . agalactiae strains to linezolid

  11. 77 FR 39411 - Safety Zone; Village of Sackets Harbor, Lake Ontario, Sackets Harbor, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Village of Sackets Harbor, Lake Ontario... establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Ontario, Sackets Harbor, NY. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Ontario during the Village of Sackets Harbor Fireworks display....

  12. 33 CFR 117.603 - Manchester Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manchester Harbor. 117.603... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.603 Manchester Harbor. The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Bridge at mile 1.0 in Manchester, shall operate as follows: (a)...

  13. Fasciite necrosante por Streptococcus agalactiae em paciente diabética: relato de caso = Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a diabetic patient: case report

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Descrever um caso de fasciite necrosante e choque séptico ocasionado por Streptococcus agalactiae, que acometeu uma paciente com diabetes mellitus. Esta análise foi realizada através dos dados do prontuário e resultados de exames laboratoriais da paciente, que estava internada no Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. Descrição do caso: Paciente do gênero feminino, 73 anos, diagnosticada com diabetes mellitus e cirrose micronodular, foi interna...

  14. 1株致病性兔无乳链球菌的分离、鉴定与系统发育分析%Isolation, identification and phylogenetic analysis of a pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae in rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任思宇; 耿毅; 汪开毓; 罔赵英; 刘星星; 吴春艳

    2013-01-01

    negative.Phylogenetic analysis showed that it was hardly differentiated between S.difficilis and S.agalactiae on the basis of 16S rRNA,however,the phylogenetic tree constructed by comparing gyrB sequences of the separated strain showed that P110323 belonged to S.agalactiae.According to the morphological,biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis,the isolated strain was identified as S.agalactiae.The direct identification of the capsular type by multiplex PCR method indicated that P110323 was S.agalactiae Ia.

  15. 孕妇生殖道无乳链球菌带菌状况及药物敏感性分析%Analysis of carrying status and drug susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae in genital tract of pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林爱心; 袁春雷; 汪伟山; 谭南; 杨晓华; 李丽莲

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解孕妇生殖道无乳链球菌携带及耐药状况,为临床用药提供依据。方法取孕妇阴道分泌物标本进行细菌培养,分离出的无乳链球菌经 VITEK 2全自动细菌鉴定分析仪进行鉴定和药物敏感试验。结果1042份标本中分离出无乳链球菌56例,分离率为5.4%。药物敏感试验结果显示无乳链球菌对青霉素、头孢唑啉、万古霉素、利奈唑烷、呋喃妥因均高度敏感,未发现中介或耐药菌株;左旋氧氟沙星、莫西沙星及克林霉素、红霉素、四环素的敏感率分别为84.0%、84.0%、71.4%、39.3%和8.9%。结论该院孕妇无乳链球菌的携带率不高,青霉素和头孢唑啉可作为治疗的首选药。临床和实验室应重视孕妇无乳链球菌的检测。%Objective To understand the carrying status and drug resistance of streptococcus agalactiae in the genital tract of pregnant women.Methods The vaginal discharge from pregnant women was collected for conducting the bacterial culture.The iso-lated streptococcus agalactiae was performed the identification and the drugs susceptibility test by the VITEK 2 fully automatice bacterial identification analyzer.Results Among 1 042 samples,streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in 6 cases with the separation rate of 5.4%.The drug sensitivity test showed the Streptococcus agalactiae was highly sensitive to penicillin,cefazolin,vancomycin, linezolid and nitrofurantoin.The intermediate strains or drug resistant strains were not found.The sensitive rate to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and clindamycin,erythromycin,tetracycline were 84.0%,84.0%,71.4%,39.3% and 8.9% respectively.Conclusion The carrying rate of streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women is not high in our hospital.Penicillin and cefazolin should be as the drug of first choice for therapy and the clincal and laboratory nould payattention to detection of streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women.

  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of laminin-binding protein (Lmb) from Streptococcus agalactiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laminin-binding protein from S. agalactiae was expressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. Laminin-binding protein (Lmb), a surface-exposed lipoprotein from Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus), mediates attachment to human laminin and plays a crucial role in the adhesion/invasion of eukaryotic host cells. However, the structural basis of laminin binding still remains unclear. In the context of detailed structural analysis, the lmb gene has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 Å and belonged to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.63, b = 70.60, c = 75.37 Å, β = 96.77°

  17. 内蒙古无乳链球菌耐药性及四环素耐药基因检测%Drug resistance and tetracycline resistance gene identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from bovine in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜琳; 郝永清

    2016-01-01

    为了解内蒙古地区隐性乳房炎无乳链球菌分离株耐药性及耐药基因,采集内蒙古不同地区的规模化养殖场隐性乳房炎乳样,采用 Kirby-Bauer(K-B)纸片扩散法测试分离株对16种抗菌药物的敏感性,PCR 方法检测其耐药基因.结果显示:无乳链球菌对大部分抗生素较敏感.对其有较强抑菌作用的药物为:青霉素 G、头孢噻肟、头孢唑啉、阿莫西林、红霉素、环丙沙星、恩诺沙星、氧氟沙星、林可霉素、呋喃妥因、万古霉素.其敏感性达到90%~100%.该菌株对四环素有较强的耐药性,耐药率达77.27%.PCR 扩增四环素耐药基因 tetM 、tetO 、tetK 、tetL ,结果显示22株无乳链球菌均含有 tetM 基因,其基因的检出率为100%.其中7株同时含有 tetK 基因,tetO 、tetL 基因未检出.%In order to understand drug resistance and tetracycline resistance gene of Streptococcus agalactiae epidemic strains,the prevalent strains of S .agalactiae from the main bovine culture area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region were detected through Kirby-B auer(K-B)method and PCR.Drug susceptibility testing indicated that the S .agalactiae isolated strains were sensitive to most antibiotics. The S .agalactiae isolates were susceptible to penicillin,cefotaxime,cefazolin,amoxicillin,erythromy-cin,ciprofloxacin,enrofloxacin,ofloxacin,clindamycin,nitrofurantoin,and vancomycin with susceptibili-ties rates of 90% to 100%.In contrast,the S .agalactiae isolates were resistant to tetracycline with re-sistance rates of 77.27%.Four resistance genes including tetM ,tet O ,tetK ,and tetL were characterized by PCR.All strains carried the resistance gene tetM and 7 strains also carried the resistance gene tetK . The resistance genes tetO and tetL were not detected.The results indicated that the resistance gene were related to the resistant type of antimicrobial agents and was important for further research and clinical therapy resistance mechanisms.

  18. Remodeling of the Streptococcus agalactiae Transcriptome in Response to Growth Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Mereghetti; Izabela Sitkiewicz; Nicole M Green; Musser, James M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To act as a commensal bacterium and a pathogen in humans and animals, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) must be able to monitor and adapt to different environmental conditions. Temperature variation is a one of the most commonly encountered variables. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the extent to which GBS modify gene expression in response to temperatures encountered in the various hosts, we conducted a whole genome transcriptome analysis of orga...

  19. Effect of Eugenol against Streptococcus agalactiae and Synergistic Interaction with Biologically Produced Silver Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Perugini Biasi-Garbin; Eliane Saori Otaguiri; Alexandre Tadachi Morey; Mayara Fernandes da Silva; Ana Elisa Belotto Morguette; César Armando Contreras Lancheros; Danielle Kian; Márcia Regina Eches Perugini; Gerson Nakazato; Nelson Durán; Celso Vataru Nakamura; Lucy Megumi Yamauchi; Sueli Fumie Yamada-Ogatta

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci (GBS)) is an important infections agent in newborns associated with maternal vaginal colonization. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in GBS-colonized pregnant women has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of early neonatal infection in various geographic regions. However, this strategy may lead to resistance selecting among GBS, indicating the need for new alternatives to prevent bacterial transmission and even to treat GBS infection...

  20. Streptococcus agalactiae vaginitis: nonhemolytic variant on the Liofilchem® Chromatic StreptoB

    OpenAIRE

    Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; D’Antonio, Marianna; D’Amario, Claudio; Fazii, Paolo; D’Antonio, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) vaginal pathogenicity is not uniformly acknowledged throughout the literature; accordingly, in women, genital itching and burning, along with leukorrhea are commonly and almost exclusively referred to bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Conversely, GBS virulence for vagina was recognized in the past, as the organism has been observed to potentially cause local inflammation and discharge, as well as lactobacilli rarefaction...

  1. Streptococcus agalactiae clones infecting humans were selected and fixed through the extensive use of tetracycline

    OpenAIRE

    Da Cunha, Violette; Davies, Mark R.; Douarre, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle; Margarit, Immaculada; Spinali, Sebastien; Perkins, Tim; Lechat, Pierre; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Ma, Laurence; Romi, Benedetta; Souche, Erika; Tichit, Magali; Lopez-Sanchez, Maria-Jose

    2014-01-01

    International audience Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a commensal of the digestive and genitourinary tracts of humans that emerged as the leading cause of bacterial neonatal infections in Europe and North America during the 1960s. Due to the lack of epidemiological and genomic data, the reasons for this emergence are unknown. Here we show by comparative genome analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction of 229 isolates that the rise of human GBS infections correspond...

  2. Capsular Gene Typing of Streptococcus agalactiae Compared to Serotyping by Latex Agglutination

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, K.; Poulsen, K.; Maione, D.; Rinaudo, C. D.; Baldassarri, L.; Telford, J L; Sorensen, U. B. S.; Kilian, M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated three different PCR-based capsular gene typing methods applied to 312 human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) isolates and compared the results to serotyping results obtained by latex agglutination. Among 281 human isolates 27% could not be typed by latex agglutination. All 312 isolates except 5 could be typed by the three PCR methods combined. Two of these methods were multiplex assays. Among the isolates that were typeable by both latex agglutina...

  3. Rapid tube CAMP test for identification of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B).

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, E. A.; Tapsall, J W; Smith, D D

    1980-01-01

    A rapid CAMP test for the presumptive identification of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B) is described. Sheep erythrocytes, sensitized by staphylococcal beta-lysin and suspended in phosphate-buffered saline, were used to determine the lytic capacity of the neutralized supernatant fluids of 4-h broth cultures of streptococci being tested. A total of 96.2% of 130 group B streptococci gave positive CAMP tests, that is, lysis of the sheep erythrocytes after 10 min of exposure of strep...

  4. Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Eastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Yongchun Yang; Yinglong Liu; Yunlei Ding; Li Yi; Zhe Ma; Hongjie Fan; Chengping Lu

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and two Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) isolates were collected from dairy cattle with subclinical mastitis in Eastern China during 2011. Clonal groups were established by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Capsular polysaccharides (CPS), pilus and alpha-like-protein (Alp) family genes were also characterized by molecular techniques. MLST analysis revealed that these isolates were limited to three clo...

  5. Brachial Plexus Neuritis Associated With Streptococcus agalactiae Infection: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Yu Jung; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Joon Sung; Lim, Seong Hoon; Hong, Bo Young

    2014-01-01

    Brachial plexus neuritis is reportedly caused by various factors; however, it has not been described in association with Streptococcus agalactiae. This is a case report of a patient diagnosed with brachial plexus neuritis associated with pyogenic arthritis of the shoulder. A 57-year-old man visited the hospital complaining of sudden weakness and painful swelling of the left arm. The diagnosis was pyogenic arthritis of the left shoulder, and the patient was treated with open irrigation and deb...

  6. Optimal Culture Conditions and Medium of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Tilapia%罗非鱼源无乳链球菌培养基及培养条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贺; 吴灶和; 王蓓; 黄郁葱; 鲁义善; 简纪常

    2012-01-01

    The culture and the characteristics of growth of Streptococcus agalactiae (ZJGY08) were studied as the model strain. The effects of different factors, including nutritional factors, initial pH value, dissolved oxygen and temperature, on its growth in the fluid culture medium named Brian Heart Infusion (BHI) were explored to optimize its growth parameters. The results indicated that the initial pH 7 - 8 and the temperatures 28 - 37 degrees and the shake speed 180 - 200 r/min were optimal for the Streptococcus agalactiae. The maximal bacteria's concentration could be got by supplying 20 mg/mL yeast powder and 2 mg/mL glucose in the BHI.%研究无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)ZQGY08的培养与生长特性,探讨脑心浸液(Brian Heart Infusion,BHI)培养基的营养因子、初始pH值、溶氧、温度等因素对无乳链球菌生长的影响,并采用正交实验法对无乳链球菌培养基营养因子添加量进行优化.结果表明,无乳链球菌生长的最适初始pH为7~8,培养温度为28 ~ 37℃,振荡转速为180~ 200 r/min.在BHI培养基中添加20 mg/mL的酵母粉和2 mg/mL的葡萄糖即可在对数期获得最大细菌量.

  7. Mycoplasma agalactiae in semen and milk of goat from Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno H.L.S. Alves

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In goat and sheep flocks, mycoplasmosis is a disease that may cause severe economical losses associated with polyarthritis, mastitis, agalactia, conjunctivitis, pneumonia and reproductive failure. The latter may involve repeat breeding, granular vulvovaginitis, infertility and abortions. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma in semen and milk samples from naturally infected goat in the semiarid region from Pernambuco State, Northeast from Brazil. Thirty-nine semen samples and 81 milk samples were submitted to DNA extraction using a commercially available kit and following the manufacturer's instructions. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was then performed in accordance with protocols described in the literature. The results of the present study revealed the presence of Ma in the DNA of 17.9% (7/39 of the semen samples and 3.7% (3/81 of the milk samples. The results obtained in the present study confirm the elimination of the DNA of Ma in the semen and milk samples. The presence of this agent in goat flocks is considered very risky in terms of reproductive disorders and contagious agalactia outbreaks in the Northeast region of Brazil.

  8. Annual incidence, prevalence and transmission characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mweu, Marshal M.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;

    2012-01-01

    Contagious mastitis pathogens continue to pose an economic threat to the dairy industry. An understanding of their frequency and transmission dynamics is central to evaluating the effectiveness of control programmes. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to estimate the annual herd......-level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, β, and recovery...... increasing trend in both the incidence and prevalence of S. agalactiae over the study period. Per 100 herd-years the value of β was 54.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.0–63.7); entry rate 0.3 (95% CI 0.2–0.4); infection-related exit rate 7.1 (95% CI 5.6–8.9); non-infection related exit rate 9.2 (95% CI 7...

  9. Orientation of streptococcus agalactiae irradiation dose for subclinical mastitis vaccine in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment to determine the effect of gamma-ray irradiation in debilitating Streptococcus agalactiae as a cause of subclinical mastitis (inflammation of the udder) in cows has been conducted. S. agalactiae bacteria was isolated from subclinical mastitis found in dairy cows in the field was then observed for its cell growth. The bacteria which have reached mid-log phase of growth, were divided into 5 treatment groups, of which each was irradiated at dose level of 0; 25; 50; 75; and 100Gy. Irradiated bacteria subsequently were grown on Brain Heart Infusion agar (BHI), and each of its colonies was counted for LD50 determination. The obtained curves from irradiated treatment bacterial shown viability percentage by the linier equation of Y = 95.414 e-0,0371X; R2 = 0.9979, while Y = % viability and X = dose of irradiation. The calculation done in this experiment shows that irradiation dose of 17.4 Gy weaken the bacteria pathogenicity of S. agalactiae to the level of LD50. (author)

  10. Identification of genes preferentially expressed by highly virulent piscine Streptococcus agalactiae upon interaction with macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ming Guo

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. In this study, we used a mouse model and in vitro cell infection to evaluate the pathogenetic characteristics of S. agalactiae GD201008-001, isolated from tilapia in China. This bacterium was found to be highly virulent and capable of inducing brain damage by migrating into the brain by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The phagocytosis assays indicated that this bacterium could be internalized by murine macrophages and survive intracellularly for more than 24 h, inducing injury to macrophages. Further, selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS was used to investigate microbial gene expression associated with intracellular survival. This positive cDNA selection technique identified 60 distinct genes that could be characterized into 6 functional categories. More than 50% of the differentially expressed genes were involved in metabolic adaptation. Some genes have previously been described as associated with virulence in other bacteria, and four showed no significant similarities to any other previously described genes. This study constitutes the first step in further gene expression analyses that will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms used by S. agalactiae to survive in macrophages and to cross the BBB.

  11. New Harbor in Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenstad, Jaran Gjerlandj; Eppeland, Kjetil Grødal; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The international airport of Greenland is located in Kangerlussuaq, making it an important connection point for tourists and transportation of goods. However, the existing harbor in Kangerlussuaq experiences major challenges in the form of extensive sedimentation of glaciofluvial sediments transp...

  12. Chignik small boat harbor planning aid report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Unless additional salmon use data would indicate otherwise, harbor site 3 is considered the environmentally preferred alternative for construction of a...

  13. Phaeobacter inhibens from the Roseobacter clade has an environmental niche as a surface colonizer in harbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Lone; Rasmussen, Bastian Barker; Wemheuer, Bernd; Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Porsby, Cisse H; Breider, Sven; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    Phaeobacter inhibens belongs to the marine Roseobacter clade and is important as a carbon and sulfur metabolizer, a biofilm former and producer of the antibiotic tropodithietic acid (TDA). The majority of cultured strains have been isolated from marine aquaculture sites, however, their niche in the environment is to date unknown. Here, we report on the repeated isolation of Phaeobacter inhibens strains from a marine environment (harbors) not related to aquaculture. Based on phenotype and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, a total of 64 P. inhibens strains were identified from 35 samples (eukaryotic organisms or biofilms on inert surfaces) in Jyllinge Harbor during late summer and autumn, but not during winter and spring in 2009, 2011, and 2012. P. inhibens strains were also isolated from biofilms at three other Danish harbors (in 2012), but not from the surrounding seawater. Ten of the 14 samples from which P. inhibens was cultured contained bryozoans. DNA was extracted (in 2012) from 55 out of 74 Jyllinge Harbor samples, and 35 were positive for Phaeobacter using a genus-specific PCR. P. inhibens strains were isolated from nine of these samples. DNA and RNA were isolated from 13 random samples and used for amplification of 16S rRNA. P. inhibens was detected in five of these samples, all of which were biofilm samples, by pyrotag-sequencing at a prevalence of 0.02-0.68% of the prokaryotic community. The results indicated that P. inhibens had a niche in biofilms of fouled surfaces in harbor areas and that the population followed a seasonal fluctuation. PMID:26343311

  14. ConStrains identifies microbial strains in metagenomic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chengwei; Knight, Rob; Siljander, Heli; Knip, Mikael; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    An important fraction of microbial diversity is harbored in strain individuality, so identification of conspecific bacterial strains is imperative for improved understanding of microbial community functions. Limitations in bioinformatics and sequencing technologies have to date precluded strain identification owing to difficulties in phasing short reads to faithfully recover the original strain-level genotypes, which have highly similar sequences. We present ConStrains, an open-source algorithm that identifies conspecific strains from metagenomic sequence data and reconstructs the phylogeny of these strains in microbial communities. The algorithm uses single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns in a set of universal genes to infer within-species structures that represent strains. Applying ConStrains to simulated and host-derived datasets provides insights into microbial community dynamics. PMID:26344404

  15. Binding of glycoprotein Srr1 of Streptococcus agalactiae to fibrinogen promotes attachment to brain endothelium and the development of meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Seong Seo

    Full Text Available The serine-rich repeat glycoprotein Srr1 of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS is thought to be an important adhesin for the pathogenesis of meningitis. Although expression of Srr1 is associated with increased binding to human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMEC, the molecular basis for this interaction is not well defined. We now demonstrate that Srr1 contributes to GBS attachment to hBMEC via the direct interaction of its binding region (BR with human fibrinogen. When assessed by Far Western blotting, Srr1 was the only protein in GBS extracts that bound fibrinogen. Studies using recombinant Srr1-BR and purified fibrinogen in vitro confirmed a direct protein-protein interaction. Srr1-BR binding was localized to amino acids 283-410 of the fibrinogen Aα chain. Structural predictions indicated that the conformation of Srr1-BR is likely to resemble that of SdrG and other related staphylococcal proteins that bind to fibrinogen through a "dock, lock, and latch" mechanism (DLL. Deletion of the predicted latch domain of Srr1-BR abolished the interaction of the BR with fibrinogen. In addition, a mutant GBS strain lacking the latch domain exhibited reduced binding to hBMEC, and was significantly attenuated in an in vivo model of meningitis. These results indicate that Srr1 can bind fibrinogen directly likely through a DLL mechanism, which has not been described for other streptococcal adhesins. This interaction was important for the pathogenesis of GBS central nervous system invasion and subsequent disease progression.

  16. 卵形鲳鲹感染无乳链球菌与海豚链球菌的研究%Pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae and S. iniae in diseased ovate pompano Trachinotus ovatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷; 梁万文; 陈明; 李莉萍; 王瑞; 张彬; 甘西; 罗洪林; 陈福艳; 蔡小辉; 杨传萍

    2014-01-01

    于2011年8月对广西北海疑似链球菌感染的卵形鲳鲹Trachinotus ovatus进行病原分离鉴定,经人工感染试验,确定分离的两株病原菌(编号为TSG002和TSG004)为卵形鲳鲹的致病菌,然后对两株病原菌进行形态学、生理生化特征、16S rRNA基因序列和二重PCR快速检测综合鉴定,构建系统进化树,最后对两株菌进行药敏分析。根据染色形态特征和二重PCR快速检测,初步鉴定菌株TSG002和TSG004分别为无乳链球菌和海豚链球菌,菌株TSG002和TSG004的16S rRNA基因序列(登录号分别为KF826095和KF826094)分别与无乳链球菌 ATCC13813 strain JCM 5671基因(登录号 NR040821.1)和海豚链球菌ATCC29178基因(登录号AF335572.1)的相似性最高,均达99%。药敏试验结果表明,两株菌对头孢曲松、头孢呋辛、头孢哌酮、恩诺沙星、氧氟沙星、阿莫西林、多粘菌素B、头孢噻吩和头孢他啶均敏感。研究表明,感染无乳链球菌和海豚链球菌的卵形鲳鲹可发病死亡,在病鱼中同时分离到两种链球菌尚属首例。%Two bacterial strains TSG002 and TSG004 were isolated from the diseased ovate pompano Trachinotus ovatus collected in Beihai,Guangxi Province,China in August of 2011,and were confirmed to be the pathogens of the diseased ovate pompano by animal challenge test, and by morphology, physiological and biochemical examina-tion and 16S rRNA genetic analysis. In addition,the sensitivity of both strains to twenty-two antibiotics were stud-ied. The results showed that strains TSG002 and TSG004 were similar to bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae and S. in-iae, based on the morphology, physiology and biochemistry examinations. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the l6 S rRNA sequence of strains TSG002 ( KF826095 ) and TSG004 ( KF826094 ) has high similarity ( 99%) to S. agalactiae (NR040821. 1) and S. iniae (AF335572. 1) in GenBank. Phylogenetic tree of Streptococcus spp. built

  17. Méningo-encéphalite à Streptococcus agalactiae chez l'adulte non immunodéprimé

    OpenAIRE

    Rafai, Mostafa; Chouaib, Naoufal; Zidouh, Saad; Bakkali, Hicham; Belyamani, Lahcen

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae est un Streptocoque beta-hémolytique du groupe B (SGB), c'est un germe commensal occasionnel de la peau, du tube digestif et des voies génito-urinaires. Nous rapportons un cas inhabituel d'une méningo-encéphalite due au Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) multisensible à l'antibiogramme chez un sujet adulte immunocompétent admis au service des urgences pour prise en charge de troubles de conscience fébrile. L’évolution clinique et biologique à J10 était favorable et le pat...

  18. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Harbor, Mass. 110.30... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.30 Boston Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of South Boston... the local Harbor Master, Hull, Mass. (m) Hingham Harbor Area 1. Beginning at position latitude...

  19. 齐口裂腹鱼无乳链球菌的分离鉴定及其感染的病理损伤%Isolation, identification and pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae from Schizothorax prenanti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余泽辉; 张佳; 耿毅; 邓梦玲; 汪开毓; 黄小丽; 陈德芳; 王均

    2014-01-01

    In 2012-2013, a serious infectious disease characterized by exophthalmia, hemorrhage, and neurological symptoms emerged in Schizothorax prenanti farms in Sichuan Province. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was found in liver and kidney smears. Two strains of Gram-positive, chain-forming cocci were isolated from the diseased fish. The colonies had a smooth-surface and were white, circular, regular and pin-head sized after incubation at 28℃for 48 h on brain heart infusion (BHI). Artificial infection proved that the isolates were the pathogen of the disease. It was primarily identified to be Streptococcus agalactiae according to morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Furthermore, a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis by BLAST in GenBank indicated that the two isolates showed high levels of similarity to S. agalactiae (more than 96.5%). A phylogenetic tree was constructed comparing the 16S rDNA sequences of both isolates (GenBank accession number KF773744 and KF761304) to other related bacterial species in the GenBank database. In the phylogenetic tree the two isolates and other S. agalactiae strains constituted a branch. In addition, the two isolates were positive in a specific PCR detection of S. agalactiae based on the cfb gene. Based on the phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and specific PCR detection, both isolates were identified as S. agalactiae. The sensitivity results showed that both strains were sensitive to doxycycline, amoxicillin, cephalothin V, ofloxacin and levofloxacin, but showed some difference in sensitivity to neomycin and amikacin. Histopathologically, the S. agalactiae infection could cause serious pathological changes in multi-organs and tissues, especially in liver, kidney and brain. The main pathologic lesions were degeneration, necrosis and infiltration of the inflammation cells. Electron microscopical examination found that bacteria could invade hepatocytes, renal cells and

  20. 新生儿无乳链球菌感染的危险因素及药敏分析%The study of risk factors for neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae infection and sensitivity analysis of antibacterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹超; 陆文香; 周莉靖

    2015-01-01

    80 cases of neo‐nates were infected by Streptococcus agalactiae ,,and the neonates diagnosed with septicemia ,omphalitis ,premature birth ,intrau‐terine infection and aspiration pneumonia were accounted for 8 .75% ,10 .00% ,15 .00% ,22 .50% and 43 .75% ,respectively .The positive rate of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in mother′s reproductive tract specimens was 51 .25% ,and the results of drug sensitive test were consistent with those of neonates .9 cases of cesarean section ,accounted for 11 .25% ;71 cases of natural child‐birth ,accounted for 88 .75% .In the 80 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae ,the sensitivity of vancomycin ,linezolid ,penicillin and ceftriaxone were all 100 .00% ,and resistance rates of Streptococcus agalactiae to erythromycin ,clindamycin and levofloxacin were higher ,and were 77 .50% ,57 .50% and 33 .75% respectively .Conclusion Maternal Streptococcus agalactiae carriers and mode of delivery may be risk factors for neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae infection .Obstetricians should pay attention to routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in perinatal pregnant women ,the laboratory should improve the efficacy in detecting Streptococcus aga‐lactiae and provide the results of antibacterials resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae immediately ,in order to provide references for clinical rational drug use .

  1. Frequency of isolation of streptococus agalactiae in pregnant women and their offspring Frecuencia de aislamiento de Streptococcus agalactiae en un grupo de embarazadas y sus productos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Agudelo O.

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A group of 88 pregnant women and 61 of their newborn Infants was studied In order to determine the frequency of isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae; all genital maternal cultures were negative but 3 mothers and 2 Infants had positive pharyngeal secretions; no evidence of streptococcal disease was found in the colonized Infants. The frequency of colonization found in this study agrees with that reported by other authors but the reduced number of cases does not allow In depth epidemiological considerations.

    Se estudiaron 88 madres y 61 de sus recién nacidos con el fin de determinar la frecuencia de aislamiento de Streptococcus agalactiae (estreptococo beta hemolítico del grupo B; no se aisló el germen de ninguno de los cultivos tomados de las secreciones del cuello uterino pero sí a partir de las muestras faringeas, en tres de las madres (3.4% y en dos de sus hijos. El tercer niño no se estudió porque su nacimiento ocurrió por cesárea. Las cifras encontradas en el presente trabajo están de acuerdo con lo que relata la literatura, pero el bajo número de casos estudiado no permite hacer consideraciones epidemiológicas más profundas.

  2. Biofilm formation by Streptococcus agalactiae: influence of environmental conditions and implicated virulence factors

    OpenAIRE

    Rosini, Roberto; Margarit, Immaculada

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is an important human pathogen that colonizes the urogenital and/or the lower gastro-intestinal tract of up to 40% of healthy women of reproductive age and is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in the neonates. GBS can also infect the elderly and immuno-compromised adults, and is responsible for mastitis in bovines. Like other Gram-positive bacteria, GBS can form biofilm-like three-dimensional structures that could enhance its abilit...

  3. NECROTIZING FASCIITIS OF THE POSTERIOR CERVICAL COMPARTMENT: AN ATYPICAL CASE DUE TO STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Abramo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a fulminant infection that affects the deep and superficial fascia while initially sparing the overlying skin and underlying muscle. The involvement of the cervicalcompartment is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Immunocompromised patients are prone to this infection. We present a case of a 80 year-old diabetic woman suffering from streptococcal cervical NF (probably secondary to a arm injury with an uncommon involvement of the posterior cervical compartment, highlighting the atypical responsible microorganism (Streptococcus Agalactiae, the role of imaging for early diagnosis and the timely surgical and medical treatment for a successful outcome.

  4. Spatiotemporal patterns, annual baseline and movement-related incidence of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Danish dairy herds: 2000–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mweu, Marshal M.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;

    2014-01-01

    Several decades after the inception of the five-point plan for the control of contagious mastitis pathogens, Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) persists as a fundamental threat to the dairy industry in many countries. A better understanding of the relative importance of within- and between......-herd sources of new herd infections coupled with the spatiotemporal distribution of the infection, may aid in effective targeting of control efforts. Thus, the objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the spatiotemporal patterns of infection with S. agalactiae in the population of Danish dairy herds from...

  5. Phäno- und genotypische Charakterisierung von Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield-Serogruppe B), isoliert von subklinischen Rindermastitiden

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Kristin

    2002-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden 79 Streptococcus agalactiae-Kulturen, isoliert von subklinischen Mastitiden von 54 Kühen aus sieben Milcherzeugerbetrieben des Bundeslandes Hessen, mittels konventioneller sowie molekularer Methoden vergleichend untersucht. Bei den zunächst angewandten Identifizierungsverfahren handelte es sich unter anderem um eine biochemische Differenzierung, die serologische Gruppenbestimmung sowie um den durch Polymerasekettenreaktion (PCR)-vermittelten Nachweis vo...

  6. Phäno- und Genotypisierung von Streptokokken der serologischen Gruppe B (Streptococcus agalactiae), isoliert von verschiedenen Tierarten

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Ali Önder

    2002-01-01

    In den vorliegenden Untersuchungen wurden 101 Streptokokkenkulturen, isoliert von Hund, Katze, Kaninchen, Meerschweinchen, Affe, Pferd, Nutria, Schwein, Rind und Mensch, mit konventionellen und molekularen Verfahren als Streptococcus agalactiae bzw. als Streptokokken der serologischen Gruppe B identifiziert und weitergehend charakterisiert. Dies beinhaltete eine biochemische Differenzierung, die serologische Gruppenbestimmung und, vermittelt durch Polymerasekettenreaktion, den Nachwe...

  7. The effect of pre-enrichment on recovery of Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus and mycoplasma from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, M. C.; Tyler, J. W.; Luiz, D. M.; Holmberg, C. A.; Picanso, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether pre-enrichment would increase sensitivity of detecting Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae, Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, and mycoplasma in bovine milk. Two procedures were followed, one involving direct inoculation of milk on bovine blood agar, and the other involving preenrichment in broth followed by inoculation on agar. Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of isolation as a function of culture procedure and two additional covariates, the California Mastitis Test (CMT) score of the milk and the type of sample (indicating sample storage temperature and herd mastitis status). A total of 13778 milk samples was cultured for each of the three bacteria. By using results of both direct inoculation and pre-enrichment, the probability of isolation compared to use of direct inoculation only and adjusted for effects of other variables was increased 3.6-fold for Str. agalactiae, 1.6-fold for S. aureus and 1.7-fold for mycoplasma. The probability of isolation for all three bacteria increased as the CMT score increased. For Str. agalactiae, there was a statistical interaction predicting that enrichment improved the odds of isolation more from milk with high CMT scores than from milk with low scores. Results indicate that pre-enrichment can substantially increase the sensitivity of bacteriological screening of dairy cows for mastitis caused by Str. agalactiae, S. aureus, and mycoplasma. PMID:2691266

  8. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosward, Katrina L; House, John K; Deveridge, Amber; Mathews, Karen; Sheehy, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-characterized bovine mastitis pathogen that is known to be highly contagious and capable of spreading rapidly in affected dairy herds. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel molecular diagnostic method that has the capability to provide rapid, cost-effective screening for pathogens to support on-farm disease control and eradication programs. In the current study, a LAMP test was developed to detect S. agalactiae in milk. The assay was validated on a bank of existing clinical mastitis milk samples that had previously been identified as S. agalactiae positive via traditional microbiological culture techniques and PCR. The LAMP assay was conducted on bacterial colonies and DNA extracted from milk in tube- and plate-based formats using multiple detection platforms. The 1-h assay conducted at 64 °C exhibited repeatability (coefficient of variation) of 2.07% (tube) and 8.3% (plate), sensitivity to ~20 pg of extracted DNA/reaction, and specificity against a panel of known bacterial mastitis pathogens. Of the 109 known S. agalactiae isolates assessed by LAMP directly from bacterial cells in culture, 108 were identified as positive, in accordance with PCR analysis. The LAMP analysis from the corresponding milk samples indicated that 104 of these milks exhibited a positive amplification curve. Although exhibiting some limitations, this assay provides an opportunity for rapid screening of milk samples to facilitate on-farm management of this pathogen. PMID:26778303

  9. Presence of Mycoplasma agalactiae in semen of naturally infected asymptomatic rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; Tatay-Dualde, Juan; de la Fe, Christian; Paterna, Ana; Sánchez, Antonio; Corrales, Juan C; Contreras, Antonio; Gómez-Martín, Ángel

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the presence of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma), the main causative agent of ovine contagious agalactia (CA), in semen of naturally infected rams. Therefore, semen samples from 167 rams residing in three different artificial insemination (AI) centers of a CA-endemic area were studied by microbiological and molecular techniques. In addition, serial ejaculates from the same rams were evaluated to determine the excretion dynamics of Ma. Of the 384 samples studied, Ma was detected in 56 (14.58%) which belonged to 44 different rams (26.35%). These findings confirm the ability of Ma to be excreted in semen of asymptomatic rams. Furthermore, these results also evidence the presence of these asymptomatic carriers of Ma in ovine AI centers, representing a serious health risk regarding the spread and maintenance of CA, especially in endemic areas. Moreover, the excretion of Ma in semen also points to the risk of venereal transmission of this disease. The current results highlight the need to implement control measures to prevent the admission of infected rams in AI centers and the necessity to continuously monitor semen samples to effectively detect infected individuals. PMID:27045625

  10. Drug resistance of clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae causing infection in patients%临床患者感染无乳链球菌分离株的耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍婷婷; 闵小春; 王威

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical distribution and drug resistance of the Streptococcus agalactiae cau-sing infection so as to provide guidance for reasonable clinical use of antibiotics.METHODS The S.agalactiae strains were isolated from the submitted specimens that were obtained from the outpatients and inpatients from Jan,2011 to Dec,2012.The drug susceptibility testing was performed by using disk diffusion method (K-B meth-od),and the drug resistance phenotype was determined based on the erythromycin and clindamycin double disk synergy test (D-test).RESULTS A total of 118 strains of S.agalactiae have been isolated,36.4% of the strains were isolated from the department of obstetrics and gynecology vaginal secretions were the major specimens source,accounting for 36.4%.The drug resistance rates of the S.agalactiae to erythromycin (58.5%)and clin-damycin (53.4%)were the highest.The cMLSB was the predominant drug resistance phenotype,followed by the drug resistance rate to levofloxacin (22.0%);the drug resistance rate of the isolated S.agalactiae to levofloxacin was higher in 2011(28.6%)than in 2010(12.2%)(P<0.05).No strains were found to be resistant to penicillin, ceftriaxone,cefotaxime,or vancomycin.CONCLUSION Penicillin remains the preferred antibiotic for the treatment of S.agalactiae infection.It is necessary to reconsider the value of erythromycin and clindamycin in prevention and treatment of the S.agalactiae infection and focus on the increasing drug resistance rate to quinolones.%目的:了解无乳链球菌感染的临床分布及耐药特点,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法无乳链球菌分离自2011年1月-2012年12月门诊及住院患者送检各类感染标本,采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)进行抗菌药物敏感性试验,红霉素和克林霉素双纸片协同试验(D试验)确定其耐药表型。结果分离的118株无乳链球菌主要分离自妇产科,占36.4%,标本主要

  11. 海南罗非鱼无乳链球菌分离鉴定及其特性研究%Isolation, identification and characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周清; 沈锦玉; 徐洋; 姚嘉赟; 潘晓艺; 郝贵杰; 尹文林

    2012-01-01

    从海南省患暴发性疾病的罗非鱼(Tilapia)上分离出1株细菌HNLFYL4,对分离菌株进行了鉴定及致病性和药物敏感性研究.通过形态学观察和生理生化鉴定,结果显示,分离菌株为无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae).对分离菌株的16S rRNA基因进行PCR扩增和测序,所得序列已登录到GenBank,登录号为HQ645983,与GenBank中收录的链球菌16S rRNA 基因进行比对并构建系统进化树,结果表明,分离菌株的16S rRNA基因序列与无乳链球菌同源性高达100%,进一步确定分离菌株为无乳链球菌.人工感染显示分离菌株对小白鼠和罗非鱼均具有致病性,对小白鼠的LD50为1.0×104 CFU/mL,对体重为500g±20g的罗非鱼的LD50为1.729×109CFU/mL.分离菌株对氯霉素、青霉素G、呋喃妥因等敏感,对丁胺卡那、链霉素、卡那霉素等不敏感.%One pathogenic bacteria strain HNLFYL4 was isolated from diseased tilapia in Hainan. In this study, bacteria isolation and identification, artificial infection tests were used for analysis of the cause of the severe disease. The isolate was identified as Streptococcus agalactiae based on morphology, cultural performance and biochemical characteristics. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate was amplified and compared with those of other Streptococcus retrieved from GenBank. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate had the most homology with that of S. Agalactiae in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree of Streptococcus showed that the isolate was clustered together with S. Agalactiae. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis further proved that the isolate belonged to S. Agalactiae. The virulent tests were carried out by using the pure culture of the bacteria artificially infected tilapia and mouse. The isolate was pathogenic to tilapia and mouse. LD50 was 1. 0 x 10 CFU/mL to mouse and 1. 729 x 10 CFU/mL to tilapia. Drug sensitivity experiment showed that the isolate was highly sensitive to chloramphenicol, penicillin

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Selected Standard Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria Producing Bacteriocins – Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Bodaszewska-Lubas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction:In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the antibacterial potential of standard strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB producing bacteriocins of various classes, thus demonstrating various mechanisms of cell membrane damages against the Streptococcus agalactiae strains (Group B Streptococcus, GBS, depending on surface polysaccharides and surface alpha-like protein genes.Materials/Methods:Antimicrobial property of the strains of L. plantarum C 11, L. sakei DSMZ 6333, and L. lactis ATCC 11454 producing bacteriocins: JK and EF plantaricins, sakacin and nisin, respectively, against the GBS strains was evaluated. The chosen to the study GBS strains were represented by serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, V and they had bca, epsilon, rib, alp2 or alp3 alpha-like protein genes. The experiment was conducted by means of suspension culture and the bacteria count was determined using the serial dilution method.Results:A great ability of L. plantarum C 11 strain was proven to inhibit the GBS growth. The strain of L. sakei DSMZ 6333 did not demonstrate any ability to inhibit the growth of GBS, whereas L. lactis ATCC 11454 inhibited the growth of S. agalactiae indicator strains to a minor extent. Statistically significant differences were demonstrated between the GBS strains representing various serotypes against the antimicrobial activity of model LAB strains. The least sensitive to the activity of bacteriocins were the strains representing serotypes Ib and III, whereas the strains representing serotype II were the most sensitive. The sensitivity of the GBS strains to the antimicrobial activity of LAB was not dependent on alpha-like protein genes.Discussion:Among the LAB standard strains producing bacteriocins, the strongest antimicrobial property was observed in the strain of L. plantarum C 11. Because of the generally known and verified strong antagonistic property of the strains of L. plantarum species against indicator bacteria, it is necessary

  13. 罗非鱼源γ溶血性无乳链球菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and identification of γ-hemolytic streptococcus agalactiae from tilapia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎娅; 罗福广; 左跃; 易弋; 伍时华; 杨军

    2014-01-01

    On September 5, 2012, a disease outbreak was occurred at a tilapia farm in Liuzhou , Guangxi.Aγ-hemolyt-ic gram-positive streptococcus was isolated from brain of infected tilapia .The isolate was identified as rare Streptococcus agalactiae by biochemical assays, PCR identify and 16S rDNA analysis.The strain was γ-hemolytic and negative in CAMP test which showed it was different from normal Streptococcus agalactia strains.The isolate exhibited high virulence to tilapia by experimental infection .Drug sensitivity experiment showed that it was resistant to norfloxacin , polymyxin B , co-trimoxazole and sensitive to 17 types of antibiotics such as penicillin G , et al.%2012年9月5日广西柳州市某罗非鱼养殖场出现暴发性疾病,从患病罗非鱼的脑组织中分离到1株γ溶血性革兰氏阳性链球菌。通过生理生化试验、基于cfb基因的PCR鉴定及16S rDNA序列分析,将该菌株鉴定为无乳链球菌。该菌株为γ溶血性, CAMP试验阴性,与常见无乳链球菌有较大差别。人工感染试验结果显示分离菌株对罗非鱼具有很强的致病性。药物敏感试验结果显示分离菌株对诺氟沙星、多黏菌素B、复方新诺明耐药,对青霉素G等17种药物均敏感。

  14. Development of primer sets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification that enables rapid and specific detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three ...

  15. ESTUDIO DE SENSIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DE 183 CEPAS DE STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE AISLADAS EN REGION VAGINO-PERINEAL DE EMBARAZADAS EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Belmar J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available fluctúa entre 1 y 3 por 1000 recién nacidos vivos. Se han entregado pautas dirigidas a reducir las tasas de sepsis precoz con la administración de antibióticos intraparto. Se ha propuesto como antibiótico de primera elección la Penicilina o Ampicilina, y Clindamicina para pacientes alérgicos a las primeras, pero también se ha planteado el uso de Eritromicina o Cefazolina. Se estudia la sensibilidad a estas drogas, en 183 cepas de Streptococcus Grupo B, aisladas en 917 embarazadas, al final del tercer trimestre, en región vaginal y pStreptococcus agalactiae (Grupo B Streptococcus is the main bacterial agent involved in neonatal sepsis of early onset (1 to 3/1000 live newborns. Has been given standards for reducing the rates of neonatal sepsis of early onset using antibiotics during labor. Has been proposed as the first choice Penicilin or Ampicilin and Clindamicin for allergic patients. Erythromycin and Cefazolin has been proposed to treat this patients. This report study sensibilities for this drugs in 183 Group B Streptococcus strains from vaginal and perianal region of 917 pregnant women during the last trimester

  16. Harbor porpoise population (Estimates of harbor porpoise population size in the main basin of Puget Sound)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Estimates of harbor porpoise population size in the main basin of Puget Sound will be developed from analyses of small boat line transect visual surveys conducted...

  17. Diversity and Mobility of Integrative and Conjugative Elements in Bovine Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, and S. uberis▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Haenni, Marisa; Saras, Estelle; Bertin, Stéphane; Leblond, Pierre; Madec, Jean-Yves; Payot, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Bovine isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 76), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (n = 32), and Streptococcus uberis (n = 101) were analyzed for the presence of different integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) and their association with macrolide, lincosamide, and tetracycline resistance. The diversity of the isolates included in this study was demonstrated by multilocus sequence typing for S. agalactiae and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for S. dysgalactiae and S. u...

  18. An Evaluation of a Teat Dip with Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid in Preventing Bovine Mammary Gland Infection from Experimental Exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Barnum, D A; Johnson, R. E.; Brooks, B W

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of a teat dip with dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (1.94%) for the prevention of intramammary infections was determined in cows experimentally challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus. The infection rates with Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus were 62.5% and 75% in undipped quarters, 12.5% and 21.5% in dipped quarters with a reduction rate of 80% and 71% respectively. The significance of some findings in relation to mastitis control a...

  19. The Transcriptional Regulator RovS Controls the Attachment of Streptococcus agalactiae to Human Epithelial Cells and the Expression of Virulence Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Samen, Ulrike M.; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Reinscheid, Dieter J.

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is part of the normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract and also the leading cause of bacterial infections in human newborns and immunocompromised adults. The colonization and infection of different regions within the human host require a regulatory network in S. agalactiae that senses environmental stimuli and controls the formation of specific virulence factors. In the present study, we characterized an Rgg-like transcriptional regulator, designated RovS (re...

  20. Temporal Characterization of Carrot Broth-Enhanced Real-Time PCR as an Alternative Means for Rapid Detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from Prenatal Anorectal and Vaginal Screenings ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Munson, Erik; Napierala, Maureen; Munson, Kimber L.; Culver, Anne; Hryciuk, Jeanne E.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of overnight carrot broth culture using the BD GeneOhm StrepB assay (carrot broth-enhanced PCR) yields increased sensitivity compared to that of carrot broth culture alone for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae. We investigated the prospect of reducing the carrot broth incubation time prior to PCR performance. In vitro experimentation demonstrated that carrot broth-enhanced PCR nominally detected 10 CFU S. agalactiae after 4 h of carrot broth incubation with competitive flora....

  1. Modeling of Tsunami Currents in Harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme events, such as large wind waves and tsunamis, are well recognized as a damaging hazard to port and harbor facilities. Wind wave events, particularly those with long period spectral components or infragravity wave generation, can excite resonance inside harbors leading to both large vertical motions and strong currents. Tsunamis can cause great damage as well. The geometric amplification of these very long waves can create large vertical motions in the interior of a harbor. Additionally, if the tsunami is composed of a train of long waves, which it often is, resonance can be easily excited. These long wave motions create strong currents near the node locations of resonant motions, and when interacting with harbor structures such as breakwaters, can create intense turbulent rotational structures, typical in the form of large eddies or gyres. These gyres have tremendous transport potential, and have been observed to break mooring lines, and even cause ships to be trapped inside the rotation, moving helplessly with the flow until collision, grounding, or dissipation of the eddy (e.g. Okal et al., 2006). This presentation will introduce the traditional theory used to predict wave impacts on harbors, discussing both how these models are practically useful and in what types of situations require a more accurate tool. State-of-the-art numerical models will be introduced, with a focus on recent developments in Boussinesq-type modeling. The Boussinesq equations model can account the dispersive, turbulent and rotational flow properties frequently observed in nature. Also they have the ability to coupling currents and waves and can predict nonlinear wave propagation over uneven bottom from deep (or intermediate) water area to shallow water area. However, during the derivation of a 2D-horizontal equation set, some 3D flow features, such those driven by as the dispersive stresses and the effects of the unresolved small scale 3D turbulence, are excluded. Consequently

  2. Aerial Survey Units for Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys of coastal Alaska are the primary method for estimating abundance of harbor seals. A particular challenge associated with aerial surveys of harbor...

  3. Akutan, Alaska bottomfish harbor study feasibility stage: Planning aid report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Six alternatives are presently being studied by the Corps of Engineers, in conjunction with facilitating construction of a bottomfish harbor at Akutan Harbor...

  4. 2007-2012年中国罗非鱼无乳链球菌流行菌株血清型分析%Serotype of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in China from 2007 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉萍; 甘西; 陈明; 王瑞; 黄婷; 梁万文; 雷爱莹; 李健; 黄维义; 唐佳有; 施金谷

    2014-01-01

    采用PCR血清型鉴定方法,对2007-2012年从广西、广东、海南、福建和云南等地养殖的罗非鱼Oreochromis niloticus中分离获得的168株无乳链球菌Streptococcus agalactiae流行菌株的血清型进行分析。结果表明:有159株为Ⅰa血清型,6株为Ⅰb血清型,3株为Ⅲ血清型。各区域流行菌株血清型也存在差异:从广西自治区7个地区50个养殖场的罗非鱼中分离的61株无乳链球菌中,有54株为Ⅰa型,4株为Ⅰb型,3株为Ⅲ型;从广东省10个地区59个养殖场的罗非鱼中分离的64株无乳链球菌中,有63株为Ⅰa型,1株为Ⅰb型;从海南省5个地区26个养殖场的罗非鱼中分离的33株无乳链球菌中,有32株为Ⅰa型,1株为Ⅰb型;从福建省漳州6个养殖场的罗非鱼中分离的6株和从云南省文山4个养殖场的罗非鱼中分离的4株均为Ⅰa型。研究表明,2007-2012年中国罗非鱼链球菌病流行菌株血清型存在Ⅰa、Ⅰb和Ⅲ3种血清型,Ⅰa型为主要血清型,研究结果可为准确分析中国罗非鱼链球菌病流行规律和特点提供数据,为该病防治及疫苗候选菌株筛选提供理论基础。%PCR typing assay was used to evaluate serotype of 168 Streptococcus agalactiae prevalent strains isolated from Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Guangxi,Guangdong,Hainan,Fujian and Yunnan provinces in China from 2007 to 2012. There were 159 strains ofⅠa,6 strains ofⅠb, and 3 strains of Ⅲ, with differences in serotypes of isolates from different regions. In the 61 strains isolated from 50 farms in 7 regions in Guangxi,54 strains wereⅠa, 4 strains Ⅰb, and 3 strains Ⅲ. There were 64 strains isolated from 59 farms in 10 regions in Guangdong, with 63 strains of Ⅰa,1 strain of Ⅰb. Thirty-three strains were isolated from 26 farms in 5 regions in Hannan, including 32 strains of Ⅰa, and 1 strains ofⅠb. Four strains ofⅠa were isolated from 6 farms in Zhangzhou in Fujian and Wenshan in Yunnan

  5. 77 FR 25890 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Manchester Harbor, Manchester, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Manchester Harbor, Manchester, MA... of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Bridge across Manchester Harbor, mile 1.0, at Manchester... Transportation Bridge, across Manchester Harbor, mile 1.0, at Manchester, Massachusetts, has a vertical...

  6. Virulence of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates harboring bla KPC-2 carbapenemase gene in a Caenorhabditis elegans model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Lavigne

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC is a carbapenemase increasingly reported worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae. The aim of this study was to analyze the virulence of several KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. The studied strains were (i five KPC-2 clinical strains from different geographical origins, belonging to different ST-types and possessing plasmids of different incompatibility groups; (ii seven transformants obtained after electroporation of either these natural KPC plasmids or a recombinant plasmid harboring only the bla KPC-2 gene into reference strains K. pneumoniae ATCC10031/CIP53153; and (iii five clinical strains cured of plasmids. The virulence of K. pneumoniae isolates was evaluated in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. The clinical KPC producers and transformants were significantly less virulent (LT50: 5.5 days than K. pneumoniae reference strain (LT50: 4.3 days (p<0.01. However, the worldwide spread KPC-2 positive K. pneumoniae ST258 strains and reference strains containing plasmids extracted from K. pneumoniae ST258 strains had a higher virulence than KPC-2 strains belonging to other ST types (LT50: 5 days vs. 6 days, p<0.01. The increased virulence observed in cured strains confirmed this trend. The bla KPC-2 gene itself was not associated to increased virulence.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance profiles and genetic characterisation of macrolide resistant isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila AM Nakamura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 100 clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae recovered from genitourinary tract specimens of non-pregnant individuals living in Rio de Janeiro were submitted for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of macrolide resistance genes and evaluation of the genetic diversity of erythromycin-resistant isolates. By agar diffusion method, all isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, penicillin and vancomycin. Isolates were resistant to levofloxacin (1%, clindamycin (5%, erythromycin (11% and tetracycline (83% and were intermediated to erythromycin (4% and tetracycline (6%. Erythromycin-resistant and intermediated isolates presented the following phenotypes: M (n = 3, constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS B, n = 5 and inductive MLS B (n = 7. Determinants of macrolide resistance genes, erm and mef, were detected in isolates presenting MLS B and M phenotypes, respectively. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA profiles of erythromycin-resistant isolates were clustered into two major groups of similarity.

  8. Complete Atrioventricular Block Complicating Mitral Infective Endocarditis Caused by Streptococcus Agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masaru; Nagashima, Koichi; Kato, Mahoto; Akutsu, Naotaka; Hayase, Misa; Ogura, Kanako; Iwasawa, Yukino; Aizawa, Yoshihiro; Saito, Yuki; Okumura, Yasuo; Nishimaki, Haruna; Masuda, Shinobu; Hirayama, Astushi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Infective endocarditis (IE) involving the mitral valve can but rarely lead to complete atrioventricular block (CAVB). CASE REPORT A 74-year-old man with a history of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii) presented to our emergency room with fever and loss of appetite, which had lasted for 5 days. On admission, results of serologic tests pointed to severe infection. Electrocardiography showed normal sinus rhythm with first-degree atrioventricular block and incomplete right bundle branch block, and transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography revealed severe mitral regurgitation caused by posterior leaflet perforation and 2 vegetations (5 mm and 6 mm) on the tricuspid valve. The patient was initially treated with ceftriaxone and gentamycin because blood and cutaneous ulcer cultures yielded S. agalactiae. On hospital day 2, however, sudden CAVB requiring transvenous pacing occurred, and the patient's heart failure and infection worsened. Although an emergent surgery is strongly recommended, even in patients with uncontrolled heart failure or infection, surgery was not performed because of the Child-Pugh class B liver cirrhosis. Despite intensive therapy, the patient's condition further deteriorated, and he died on hospital day 16. On postmortem examination, a 2×1-cm vegetation was seen on the perforated posterior mitral leaflet, and the infection had extended to the interventricular septum. Histologic examination revealed extensive necrosis of the AV node. CONCLUSIONS This rare case of CAVB resulting from S. agalactiae IE points to the fact that in monitoring patients with IE involving the mitral valve, clinicians should be aware of the potential for perivalvular extension of the infection, which can lead to fatal heart block. PMID:27604147

  9. Pathogenesis of Streptococcus urinary tract infection depends on bacterial strain and β-hemolysin/cytolysin that mediates cytotoxicity, cytokine synthesis, inflammation and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Sophie Y; Sullivan, Matthew J; Ipe, Deepak S; Smith, Joshua P; Cripps, Allan W; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae can cause urinary tract infection (UTI) including cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). The early host-pathogen interactions that occur during S. agalactiae UTI and subsequent mechanisms of disease pathogenesis are poorly defined. Here, we define the early interactions between human bladder urothelial cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and mouse bladder using uropathogenic S. agalactiae (UPSA) 807 and ABU-causing S. agalactiae (ABSA) 834 strains. UPSA 807 adhered, invaded and killed bladder urothelial cells more efficiently compared to ABSA 834 via mechanisms including low-level caspase-3 activation, and cytolysis, according to lactate dehydrogenase release measures and cell viability. Severe UPSA 807-induced cytotoxicity was mediated entirely by the bacterial β-hemolysin/cytolysin (β-H/C) because an β-H/C-deficient UPSA 807 isogenic mutant, UPSA 807ΔcylE, was not cytotoxic in vitro; the mutant was also significantly attenuated for colonization in the bladder in vivo. Analysis of infection-induced cytokines, including IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in vitro and in vivo revealed that cytokine and chemokine responses were dependent on expression of β-H/C that also elicited severe bladder neutrophilia. Thus, virulence of UPSA 807 encompasses adhesion to, invasion of and killing of bladder cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses that elicit neutrophil infiltration, and β-H/C-mediated subversion of innate immune-mediated bacterial clearance from the bladder. PMID:27383371

  10. 2006-2011年无乳链球菌的临床分布及药敏监测%Clinical distribution and drug sensitivities of Streptococcus agalactiae in hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭远瑜; 张福林; 倪克明; 楚旭

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查分析无乳链球菌(GBS)的耐药情况及其临床分布,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 对临床各科室送检各类标本进行无乳链球菌的培养,经ATB-Expression细菌分析系统进行鉴定和药敏试验;所有资料采用WHONET 5.6软件进行回顾性分析.结果 共分离448株GBS,临床标本分离率最高的是泌尿生殖道分泌物(86.8%),科室检出最多的是妇产科(85.0%);药敏结果显示:耐药率最高的是四环素94.9%,其次是红霉素80.1%和克林霉素62.7%,其他耐药率分别为左旋氧氟沙星36.4%,奎奴普丁/达福普汀20.3%,氯霉素16.3%,头孢噻肟1.1%,青霉素0.2%;呋喃妥因、万古霉素和利奈唑胺耐药率均为0%;克林霉素耐药率表现出下降趋势,左旋氧氟沙星呈现上升趋势.结论 加强无乳链球菌的培养检测,关注无乳链球菌的耐药趋势;提高临床重视并指导临床合理用药和治疗.%Objective To investigate the drug susceptibility and distribution of the Streptococcus agalactiaes and provide the evidence for clinical drug usage. Methods Various types of clinical specimens were cultured for Streptococcus agalactiae examination. 448 clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiaes ( GBS) were identified and their drug sensitivities were determined by ATB-Expression system, and all of the data was analyzed by WHONE T5. 6 Software. Results A total of 448 strains were isolated; the isolation rate of urogenital tract secretion was the highest (86. 8% ) , and most of the strains came from the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (85. 0% ) . The resistance rates of GBS to tetracycline was the the highest (94. 9% ) , followed by erythromycin (80. 1% ) and clindamycin (62. 7% ). The resistance rates to other antibiotics were as follows; levo-floxacin 36. 4% , moxifloxacin 20. 8% , quinupristin/dalfopristin 20. 3% , chloramphenicol 16. 3% , cefotaxime 1.1%, penicillin 0.2%; nitrofurantoin, vancomycin and

  11. Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women in Zimbabwe: Epidemiology and serotype marker characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mavenyengwa, Rooyen Tinago

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundStreptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) is one of the leading causes of serious bacterial infections such as septicaemia, pneumonia and meningitis in newborns, causing 0.5 to more than 2 cases per 1,000 live births. Children may be infected from their mothers during delivery from GBS colonizing the birth canal. GBS is also an important cause of premature delivery and may cause infections in parturient women. Significant differences in colonization rates have been shown...

  12. Evaluation of the Rapid Mastitis Test for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bovine mammary glands.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, J L; Owens, W E

    1988-01-01

    A latex agglutination test system (Rapid Mastitis Test [RMT]; Immucell, Portland, Maine) containing reagents for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae from bovine intramammary infections was evaluated with 527 staphylococcal and 267 streptococcal isolates. The RMT Staphylococcus aureus reagent detected 94.2% of 242 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 80% of 25 Staphylococcus intermedius isolates, and 42.8% of 21 tube coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus isol...

  13. Preliminary observations on the use of latex agglutination test for the detection of mastitis due to Streptococcus agalactiae in cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, R C; Barnum, D A

    1986-01-01

    A commercial latex agglutination test for the detection of Group B streptococcal antigens was used to detect infection due to Streptococcus agalactiae in whey of bovine milk samples. Fifteen out of 17 known infections were detected, but it was necessary to incubate the wheys at 37 degrees C for 18 hours in nine of the samples. It was found that the latex agglutination test could detect Group streptococcal carbohydrate antigens in whey samples from artificially infected quarters from one to fo...

  14. Extensive Adaptive Changes Occur in the Transcriptome of Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus) in Response to Incubation with Human Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Mereghetti; Izabela Sitkiewicz; Nicole M Green; Musser, James M.

    2008-01-01

    To enhance understanding of how Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) adapts during invasive infection, we performed a whole-genome transcriptome analysis after incubation with whole human blood. Global changes occurred in the GBS transcriptome rapidly in response to blood contact following shift from growth in a rich laboratory medium. Most (83%) of the significantly altered transcripts were down-regulated after 30 minutes of incubation in blood, and all functional categories...

  15. Identification of a high-virulence clone of serotype III Streptococcus agalactiae by growth characteristics at 40 degrees C.

    OpenAIRE

    Mattingly, S J; Maurer, J J; Eskew, E K; Cox, F

    1990-01-01

    A high-virulence clone of serotype III Streptococcus agalactiae causing invasive neonatal disease was previously identified by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. A simple procedure involving growth at 40 degrees C distinguished all isolates classified in this high-virulence clone from other serotype III isolates, which are more frequently associated with asymptomatically colonized infants, as well as the other serotypes of group B streptococci. The high-virulence clone failed to grow at 40 de...

  16. Distribution of Pilus Islands in Streptococcus agalactiae That Cause Human Infections: Insights into Evolution and Implication for Vaccine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, E. R.; Andreu, A; Melo-Cristino, J.; Ramirez, M.

    2013-01-01

    At least one pilus island, PI-1 (70%), PI-2a (79%), or PI-2b (21%), was found among 898 Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) isolates recovered from humans, supporting the use of pilus proteins in vaccines. The stability and dominance of PI-1 and PI-2a in multiple serotypes and founder multilocus sequence types disseminated worldwide suggest it could be the PI combination present in ancestral GBS human pathogens.

  17. The effect of pre-enrichment on recovery of Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus and mycoplasma from bovine milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Thurmond, M C; Tyler, J W; Luiz, D. M.; Holmberg, C A; Picanso, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether pre-enrichment would increase sensitivity of detecting Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae, Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, and mycoplasma in bovine milk. Two procedures were followed, one involving direct inoculation of milk on bovine blood agar, and the other involving preenrichment in broth followed by inoculation on agar. Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of isolation as a function of culture procedure and two additional covariate...

  18. Nucleotide composition bias and codon usage trends of gene populations in Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. agalactiae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiao-Xia Ma; Yu-Ping Feng; Jia-Ling Bai; De-Rong Zhang; Xin-Shi Lin; Zhong-Ren Ma

    2015-06-01

    Because of the low GC content of the gene population, amino acids of the two mycoplasmas tend to be encoded by synonymous codons with an A or T end. Compared with the codon usage of ovine, Mycoplasma capricolum and M. agalactiae tend to select optimal codons, which are rare codons in ovine. Due to codon usage pattern caused by genes with key biological functions, the overall codon usage trends represent a certain evolutionary direction in the life cycle of the two mycoplasmas. The overall codon usage trends of a gene population of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum can be obviously separated from other mycoplasmas, and the overall codon usage trends of M. agalactiae are highly similar to those of M. bovis. These results partly indicate the independent evolution of the two mycoplasmas without the limits of the host cell’s environment. The GC and AT skews estimate nucleotide composition bias at different positions of nucleotide triplets and the protein consideration caused by the nucleotide composition bias at codon positions 1 and 2 largely take part in synonymous codon usage patterns of the two mycoplasmas. The correlation between the codon adaptation index and codon usage variation indicates that the effect of codon usage on gene expression in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum is opposite to that of M. agalactiae, further suggesting independence of the evolutionary process influencing the overall codon usage trends of gene populations of mycoplasmas.

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy of intramuscular versus intramammary treatment of subclinical Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis in dairy cows in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J; Chaffer, M; Sanchez, J; Torres, G; Macias, D; Jaramillo, M; Duque, P C; Ceballos, A; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed in 17 Colombian dairy herds to determine the cure risk among cows subclinically infected with Streptococcus agalactiae exposed to 2 antibiotic therapies. Composite milk samples were collected before milking at the onset of the trial (pretreatment) and 2 subsequent times over a period of approximately 63 d. The intramammary application (IMM) of ampicillin-cloxacillin was compared with the intramuscular application (IM) of penethamate hydriodide, and cure risks after an initial and retreatment application were assessed. Cure risk after the initial treatment was higher (82.4%) for the IMM treatment than for IM therapy (65.8%). However, no difference was observed in the cure risk of refractory cases after retreatment (IMM=52.6% vs. IM=51.2%). The cumulative cure risk (both initial and retreatment) was 90.4 and 82.9% for the IMM and IM products, respectively. A 2-level random effects logistic model that controlled for pretreatment cow-level somatic cell count, indicated that IM treatment (odds ratio=0.37) had a lower cure risk than IMM and a tendency for a lower cure risk with increasing baseline somatic cell count. Our findings suggest that both products and administration routes can reduce the prevalence of S. agalactiae in affected herds, but the IMM product had a better efficacy in curing the infection. In addition to the treatment protocol, the cow somatic cell count should be considered when making management decisions for cows infected with S. agalactiae. PMID:26074229

  20. Characterization of two novel gadd45a genes in hybrid tilapia and their responses to the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yubang; Ma, Keyi; Liu, Feng; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-07-01

    Diseases are one of the major challenges in tilapia aquaculture. Identification of DNA markers associated with disease resistance may facilitate the acceleration of the selection for disease resistance. Gadd45a (growth arrest and DNA damage 45 A), a stress-inducible gene in humans and mice, has not been studied in fish. We characterized the two prologues of Gadd45a genes in hybrid tilapia. Gadd45a1 and Gadd45a2 shared an identical gene structure and showed an amino acid sequence identity of 73.8%. Their expressions were detected in all 10 tissues examined, with the kidney and gill having high transcriptional expressions. The expression levels of Gadd45a1 were significantly lower than those of Gadd45a2 in all examined tissues. After a challenge with a bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae, the expressions of the two genes were up-regulated significantly in the spleen, kidney, liver and intestine. These findings suggest that the two Gadd45a genes play an important role in the resistance to S. agalactiae in tilapia. We identified 10 SNPs in the two genes. The SNP markers in the two Gadd45a genes could be used to examine whether they are associated with resistance to S. agalactiae. PMID:27103004

  1. 我国罗非鱼源新型无乳链球菌的分离、鉴定及其分子特征%Isolation, identification, and molecular characteristics of a new geno-type of Streptococcus agalactiae from cultured tilapia in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德锋; 刘礼辉; 任燕; 李宁求; 林强; 潘厚军; 石存斌; 吴淑勤

    2015-01-01

    characteristics, and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. All of the isolates were identified as S. agalactiae, and the WT1451–WT1459 strains grew slowly and could not utilize trehalose and ribose. In addition, TC-1, TC-2, and BL1441–BL1448 isolates were positive forβ-hemolysis on sheep’s blood agar plates, but WT1451–WT1459 isolates did not exhibit hemolysis. The genetic characteristics of these isolates were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), molecular serotyping, and virulence-related gene sequencing. The results indicated that TC-1, TC-2, and BL1441–BL1448 isolates were common types of Ia-ST7 S. agalactiae in tilapia in China. However, the WT1451–WT1459 isolates were rare types of Ib-ST261 S. agalactiae in tilapia worldwide. PCR revealed that the virulence-related genes bac, bca, bibA, cfb, hylB, iagA, fbsB, and cylE were present in TC-1, TC-2, and BL1441–BL1448 isolates, and the virulence-related genotype of these strains was bac+-bca+-bibA+-cfb+-hylB+-iagA+-fbsB+-lmb–-scpB–-cylE+-gbs20186–. However, the WT1451–WT1459 isolates were positive for bibA, cfb, hylB, iagA, fbsB, and gbs20186, and the virulence-related genotype was bac–-bca–-bibA+-cfb+-hylB+-iagA+-fbsB+-lmb–-scpB–-cylE–-gbs20186+. Despite the fact that the number of the virulence-related genes of the WT1451 strain was less than that of the BL1441 strain, the former was more virulent than the latter in tilapia. In this study, the virulence tests were conducted by intraperitoneal in-jection of the BL1441 and WT1451 strains in tilapia. The results of the challenge experiments showed that the WT1451 strain possessed stronger pathogenicity to tilapia than that of BL1441 strain. The WT1451 strain caused 85%mortality in tilapia at a dose of 4.5×103 CFU/mL. The BL1441 strain showed weak virulence in tilapia, with cumulative mortality of 65%at a dose of 4.5×108 CFU/mL postchallenge. In summary, the 19 S. agalactiae strains isolated from tilapia in Wenchang were divided into

  2. Safe Harbors for Quantity Discounts and Bundling

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis W. Carlton; Michael Waldman

    2008-01-01

    The courts and analysts continue to struggle to articulate safe harbors for a wide variety of common business pricing practices in which either a single product is sold at a discount if purchased in bulk or in which multiple products are bundled together at prices different from the ones that would emerge if the products were purchased separately. The phenomenon of tying in which the sale of one product is conditioned on the purchase of another is closely related to bundling. Its analysis rel...

  3. 3D measurements of buildings and environment for harbor simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Börlin, Niclas; Igasto, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Oryx Simulations develops and manufactures real-time physics simulators for training of harbor crane operator in several of the world’s major harbors. Currently, the modelling process is labor-intensive and a faster solution that can produce accurate, textured models of harbor scenes is desired. The accuracy requirements vary across the scene, and in some areas accuracy can be traded for speed. Due to the heavy equipment involved, reliable error estimates are important throughout the scene. T...

  4. Harbor seal whiskers synchronize with frequency of upstream wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Heather; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Harbor seals are able to use their whiskers to track minute water movements, such as those left in the wake of a fish. The current study is a simple representation of what the whiskers experience as the seal chases a fish. A scaled whisker model (average cross-flow diameter: dw) is first tested in a towing tank by itself and then towed behind a larger cylinder (dc = 2 . 5dw), which serves as a wake generator. A flexing plate attached to the model base allows the whisker to freely vibrate in response to the flow. Measurements from strain gages on the plate are calibrated to tip deflections. While in the cylinder wake, the whisker vibrates with an amplitude up to ten times higher than it does on its own (A /dw = 0 . 15). Also, the whisker synchronizes with the vortex shedding frequency (fs =0/. 2 U dc) of the upstream cylinder over the range of reduced velocities tested, whereas on its own, the whisker oscillates around its own natural frequency in water. Seals may use the difference in vibration amplitude and frequency between these two cases to help detect the presence of a vortex wake.

  5. Molecular epidemiology and distribution of serotypes, genotypes, and antibiotic resistance genes of Streptococcus agalactiae clinical isolates from Guelma, Algeria and Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergal, A; Loucif, L; Benouareth, D E; Bentorki, A A; Abat, C; Rolain, J-M

    2015-12-01

    This study describes, for the first time, the genetic and phenotypic diversity among 93 Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) isolates collected from Guelma, Algeria and Marseille, France. All strains were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The molecular support of antibiotic resistance and serotyping were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The phylogenetic lineage of each GBS isolate was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and grouped into clonal complexes (CCs) using eBURST. The isolates represented 37 sequence types (STs), 16 of which were novel, grouped into five CCs, and belonging to seven serotypes. Serotype V was the most prevalent serotype in our collection (44.1%). GBS isolates of each serotype were distributed among multiple CCs, including cps III/CC19, cps V/CC1, cps Ia/CC23, cps II/CC10, and cps III/CC17. All isolates presented susceptibility to penicillin, whereas resistance to erythromycin was detected in 40% and tetracycline in 82.2% of isolates. Of the 37 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 75.7% showed the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB)-resistant phenotype and 24.3% exhibited the macrolide (M)-resistant phenotype. Constitutive MLSB resistance (46%) mediated by the ermB gene was significantly associated with the Guelma isolates, whereas the M resistance phenotype (24.3%) mediated by the mefA/E gene dominated among the Marseille isolates and belonged to ST-23. Tetracycline resistance was predominantly due to tetM, which was detected alone (95.1%) or associated with tetO (3.7%). These results provide epidemiological data in these regions that establish a basis for monitoring increased resistance to erythromycin and also provide insight into correlations among clones, serotypes, and resistance genes. PMID:26415872

  6. Hazardous substances shipping at inland water harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety measures and regulations system covering the aspects of fire protection, professional and ecological safety are aimed to create a safe working environment, by detection and remedy of conditions that are potentially hazardous for the well-being of the employees or are leading to certain undesired events. Such unwanted incidents may result in different consequences: operating person's injury, environment pollution or material damage. This study attempts to illustrate the organization of work during hazardous matter loading and unloading at inland water harbors, based on legal provisions and decrees involving safety precautions, and in order to achieve constant enhancement of operating procedure, decreasing thereby the number of work-related injuries and various accidental situations. Fundamental precondition required to prevent possible accidents and to optimize general safety policy is to recognize and control any danger or potential hazard, as well as to be familiar with the legal provisions covering the inland waterway transport of harmful substances.(author)

  7. Biofilm formation by Streptococcus agalactiae: influence of environmental conditions and implicated virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma eMargarit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS is an important human pathogen that colonizes the urogenital and/or the lower gastro-intestinal tract of up to 40% of healthy women of reproductive age and is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in the neonates. GBS can also infect the elderly and immuno-compromised adults, and is responsible for mastitis in bovines. Like other Gram-positive bacteria, GBS can form biofilm-like three-dimensional structures that could enhance its ability to colonize and persist in the host. Biofilm formation by GBS has been investigated in vitro and appears tightly controlled by environmental conditions. Several adhesins have been shown to play a role in the formation of GBS biofilm-like structures, among which are the protein components of pili protruding outside the bacterial surface. Remarkably, antibodies directed against pilus proteins can prevent the formation of biofilms. The implications of biofilm formation in the context of GBS asymptomatic colonization and dissemination to cause invasive disease remain to be investigated in detail.

  8. Remodeling of the Streptococcus agalactiae transcriptome in response to growth temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Mereghetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To act as a commensal bacterium and a pathogen in humans and animals, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS must be able to monitor and adapt to different environmental conditions. Temperature variation is a one of the most commonly encountered variables. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the extent to which GBS modify gene expression in response to temperatures encountered in the various hosts, we conducted a whole genome transcriptome analysis of organisms grown at 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C. We identified extensive transcriptome remodeling at various stages of growth, especially in the stationary phase (significant transcript changes occurred for 25% of the genes. A large proportion of genes involved in metabolism was up-regulated at 30 degrees C in stationary phase. Conversely, genes up-regulated at 40 degrees C relative to 30 degrees C include those encoding virulence factors such as hemolysins and extracellular secreted proteins with LPXTG motifs. Over-expression of hemolysins was linked to larger zones of hemolysis and enhanced hemolytic activity at 40 degrees C. A key theme identified by our study was that genes involved in purine metabolism and iron acquisition were significantly up-regulated at 40 degrees C. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Growth of GBS in vitro at different temperatures resulted in extensive remodeling of the transcriptome, including genes encoding proven and putative virulence genes. The data provide extensive new leads for molecular pathogenesis research.

  9. Uncaria tomentosa increases growth and immune activity in Oreochromis niloticus challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis-Aguinaga, Jefferson; Claudiano, Gustavo S; Marcusso, Paulo F; Manrique, Wilson Gómez; de Moraes, Julieta R Engrácia; de Moraes, Flávio R; Fernandes, João B K

    2015-11-01

    Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) is an Amazon herb using in native cultures in Peru. In mammals, it has been described several effects of this herb. However, this is the first report of its use on the diet of fish. The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of this plant on the growth and immune activity in Oreochromis niloticus. Nile tilapia (81.3 ± 4.5 g) were distributed into 5 groups and supplemented with 0 (non-supplement fish), 75, 150, 300, and 450 mg of U. tomentosa.kg(-1) of diet for a period of 28 days. Fish were inoculated in the swim bladder with inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae and samples were taken at 6, 24, and 48 h post inoculation (HPI). Dose dependent increases were noted in some of the evaluated times of thrombocytes and white blood cells counts (WBC) in blood and exudate, burst respiratory activity, lysozyme activity, melanomacrophage centers count (MMCs), villi length, IgM by immunohistochemistry in splenic tissue, and unexpectedly on growth parameters. However, dietary supplementation of this herb did not affect red blood cells count (RBC), hemoglobin, and there were no observed histological lesions in gills, intestine, spleen, and liver. The current results demonstrate for the first time that U. tomentosa can stimulate fish immunity and improve growth performance in Nile tilapia. PMID:26434713

  10. Comparative characterization of bovine testicular hyaluronidase and a hyaluronate lyase from Streptococcus agalactiae in pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettl, Martin; Hoechstetter, Julia; Asen, Iris; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin

    2003-03-01

    Although bovine testicular hyaluronidase (BTH) has been used in several medical fields for many years, these drugs are poorly characterized. We compared pharmaceutical BTH preparations (Neopermease, Hylase "Dessau") and a hyaluronate lyase from Streptococcus agalactiae. The BTH preparations were complex mixtures of proteins (SDS-PAGE, gel filtration) with enzymatic activity in different fractions. In the case of Neopermease the highest specific activity was found in the 58 kDa fraction (optimum at pH 3.6), whereas the 77 and 33 kDa fractions showed markedly lower specific activities at an optimal pH of 6.2. Maximum specific activity of the bacterial enzyme (approx. 1000 micromol min(-1) mg(-1)) was found at pH 5.0, being 410- and 5100-times higher compared to Neopermease and Hylase "Dessau", respectively. The hyaluronate lyase preparation was separated into two main proteins [100 kDa (pI=8.9) and 85 kDa (pI=9.2)] which were enzymatically active in SDS substrate-PAGE. Zymography after limited proteolysis of the bacterial enzyme with trypsin revealed active fragments (75-50 kDa). Our results suggest that hyaluronate lyase is an alternative for BTH, of which there has been a shortage, since companies have stopped the production of BTH preparations due to the risk of BSE. PMID:12659938

  11. Multiplex PCR and a chromogenic DNA macroarray for the detection of Listeria monocytogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Enterobacter sakazakii, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens in milk and meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Tsen, Hau-Yang; Chen, Hsin-Yen; Chang, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Chien-Ku; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Pai, Wan-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Food products, such as milk and meat products including cheese, milk powder, fermented milk, sausage, etc. are susceptible to the contamination by pathogenic and deteriorative bacteria. These bacteria include Listeria monocytogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter sakazakii, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Pseudomonas fluorescens, etc. Traditional methods for the detection of these microorganisms are laborious and time consuming. Therefore, rapid and accurate diagnostic methods are needed. In this study, we designed the DNA probes and PCR primers for the detection of aforementioned microorganisms. By using two sets of multiplex PCR, followed by a chromogenic macroarray system, these organisms in milk or other food products could be simultaneously detected. When the system was used for the inspection of milk or meat homogenate containing 10(0) target cells per milliliter or gram of the sample, all these bacterial species could be identified after an 8h pre-enrichment step. The system consisting of a multiplex PCR step followed by macroarray allowed us to detect multiple target bacterial species simultaneously without the use of agarose gel electrophoresis. Compared to the commonly used multiplex PCR method, this approach has the additional advantage of detecting more bacterial strains because some bacterial strains generate PCR products with the same molecular sizes which can be differentiated by macroarray but not by electrophoresis. PMID:22101309

  12. 49 CFR 578.7 - Criminal safe harbor provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal safe harbor provision. 578.7 Section 578... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CIVIL AND CRIMINAL PENALTIES § 578.7 Criminal safe harbor provision. (a) Scope. This section sets forth the requirements regarding...

  13. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  14. 33 CFR 110.255 - Ponce Harbor, P.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Floats for marking anchors in place will be allowed; stakes or mooring piles are prohibited. 33 CFR Ch. I... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ponce Harbor, P.R. 110.255... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.255 Ponce Harbor, P.R. (a) Small-craft anchorage. On...

  15. 78 FR 21597 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... measures to protect glacially-associated harbor seal habitats in Alaska (78 FR 15669; March 12, 2013.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 12, 2013, NMFS published an ANPR in the Federal Register (78 FR 15669) to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BB71 Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1309 - Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. 165.1309 Section 165.1309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. (a) Regulated area. A regulated navigation area is established...

  17. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In...

  18. 33 CFR 110.138 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Harbor, Mass. 110.138 Section 110.138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.138 Boston Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1)...

  19. 33 CFR 110.38 - Edgartown Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Edgartown Harbor, Mass. 110.38 Section 110.38 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.38 Edgartown Harbor, Mass. An area in the inner...

  20. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of...

  1. 33 CFR 110.32 - Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass. 110.32 Section 110.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.32 Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass. (a) Area...

  2. 33 CFR 110.37 - Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. 110.37 Section 110.37 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.37 Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. All the...

  3. 33 CFR 110.26 - Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass. 110.26 Section 110.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Mass. The area comprises that portion of the harbor lying between the extreme low water line...

  4. Méningo-encéphalite à Streptococcus agalactiae chez l'adulte non immunodéprimé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafai, Mostafa; Chouaib, Naoufal; Zidouh, Saad; Bakkali, Hicham; Belyamani, Lahcen

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae est un Streptocoque beta-hémolytique du groupe B (SGB), c'est un germe commensal occasionnel de la peau, du tube digestif et des voies génito-urinaires. Nous rapportons un cas inhabituel d'une méningo-encéphalite due au Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) multisensible à l'antibiogramme chez un sujet adulte immunocompétent admis au service des urgences pour prise en charge de troubles de conscience fébrile. L’évolution clinique et biologique à J10 était favorable et le patient à été transféré au service de neurologie pour complément de prise en charge secondaire. L'originalité de notre observation réside dans la rareté du type d'infection par ce germe puise qu'elle est la troisième à notre connaissance d'une méningo-encéphalite à Streptococcus agalactiae dans la littérature, c'est ainsi que même s'il est très rarement en cause, il doit être considéré comme une étiologie possible de méningo-encéphalite chez l'adulte en dehors de la grossesse, quelle que soit le statut immunitaire du patient, et sans méconnaitre le rôle du terrain sous-jacent dans l’émergence de cette pathologie infectieuse polymorphe est potentiellement grave. PMID:25995802

  5. DETERMINACION DE LA PORTACION DE STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B) EN EMBARAZADAS DURANTE EL TERCER TRIMESTRE MEDIANTE INMUNOENSAYO

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Abarzúa; Claudia Zajer; Ana María Guzmán; Cristián Belmar; Jorge Beker; Alonso Rioseco; Enrique Oyarzún

    2002-01-01

    Dado que la sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B es una enfermedad de alta letalidad, y considerando además que la portación de este germen en nuestra población de embarazadas se acerca a 20%, es que, resulta muy importante disponer de algún test rápido y confiable para realizar screening. Este estudio evalúa el rendimiento de un inmunoensayo para pesquisa de Streptococcus agalactiae en embarazadas sin factores de riesgo y a fines del tercer trimestre. Los resultados muestran una baja se...

  6. Effect of carryover and presampling procedures on the results of real-time PCR used for diagnosis of bovine intramammary infections with Streptococcus agalactiae at routine milk recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser; Mweu, Marshal Mutinda; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in dairy herds with conventional milking parlours. Misclassification may result in unnecessary costs for treatment and culling. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the effect of carryover on PCR-positivity for S. agalactiae at different PCR cycle threshold...... (Ct) cut-offs by estimating the between-cow correlation while accounting for the milking order, and (2) evaluate the effect of aseptic presampling procedures (PSP) on PCR-positivity at the different Ct-value cut-offs. The study was conducted in four herds with conventional milking parlours at routine...

  7. Cloning and molecular characterization of cpsE gene of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from tilapia%罗非鱼源无乳链球菌cpsE基因的克隆和分子特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪开毓; 付希; 肖丹; 黄锦炉; 王均; 王浩丞

    2011-01-01

    The cpsE gene of Streptococcus agalactiae virulent strain isolated from tilapia was amplified by PCR with specific primers and cloned into pMD19-T vector. The recombinant plasmid was strongly confirmed by PCR combined with restriction enzyme digestion (BarnH Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ ). Molecular characterization analysis of cpsE gene was performed by bioinformatics tools like Clustal X 2.0, MEGA 4.1 ,Bioedit 7.0, TMHMM, NetPhos 2.0, NetNGlyc 1.0, SignalP 3.0 Server, PSIpred, SAM_T08 and CUSP. Results indicated that amino acid sequence deduced by cpsE of tilapia S. agalactiae was highly conserved and has revealed a surprising degree( 100% ) of homology among strains isolated from human and other mammals. Polypeptide analyzed in this study contained a Glycosyltransferases superfamily conserved domain that functioned as enzyme that catalyzed the transfer of sugar moieties from activated donor molecules to specific acceptor molecules. Moreover,the polypeptide possessed 3 phosphorylation sites which related to post-translational modification. The hydrophilic regions were larger than hydrophobic regions and transmembrane domain was predicted to exist in polypeptide chain. The analysis of codon bias demonstrated the codon usage frequency of cpsE of tilapia S. agalactiae was distinctly different and it preferred to perform in eucaryote.%利用特异性引物,采用PCR扩增出分离自患病罗非鱼无乳链球菌强毒株的cpsE基因,将其克隆到pMDl9-T载体上,通过菌落PCR鉴定和利用限制性内切酶BamH I和HindⅢ对重组质粒进行双酶切鉴定之后送测序公司测序,并利用生物信息学软件Clustal X 2.0、MEGA 4.1、Bioedit 7.0、TMHMM、NetPhos 2.0、NetNGlyc 1.0、SignalP 3.0 Server、PSIpred、SAM_T08以及CUSP等分析cpsE基因的分子特性.结果显示,罗非鱼源无乳链球菌cpsE编码氨基酸序列具有高度保守性,与人源、动物源无乳链球菌亲缘性达100%,具有1个参与催化糖基元转运的Glycosyltransferases

  8. Interaction of Streptococcus agalactiae and cellular innate immunity in colonization and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybille eLandwehr-Kenzel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS is highly adapted to humans, where it is a normal constituent of the intestinal and vaginal flora. Yet, GBS has highly invasive potential and causes excessive inflammation, sepsis and death at the beginning of life, in the elderly and in diabetic patients. Thus GBS is a model pathobiont that thrives in the healthy host, but has not lost its potential virulence during coevolution with mankind. It remains incompletely understood how the innate immune system contains GBS in the natural niches, the intestinal and genital tracts, and which molecular events underlie breakdown of mucocutaneous resistance. Newborn infants between days seven and 90 of life are at risk of a particularly striking sepsis manifestation (late onset disease, LOD, where the transition from colonization to invasion and dissemination, and thus from health to severe sepsis is typically fulminant and not predictable. The great majority of late-onset sepsis cases is caused by one clone, GBS ST-17, which expresses HvgA as a signature virulence factor and adhesin. In mice, HvgA promotes the crossing of both the mucosal and the blood brain barrier. Expression levels of HvgA and other GBS virulence factors, such as pili and toxins, are regulated by the upstream two-component control system CovR/S. This in turn is modulated by acidic epithelial pH, high glucose levels and during the passage through the mouse intestine. After invasion, GBS has the ability to subvert innate immunity by mechanisms like GAPDH-dependent induction of IL-10 and β-protein binding to the inhibitory phagocyte receptors sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 5 and 14. On the host side, sensing of GBS nucleic acids and lipopeptides by both Toll-like receptors (TLRs and the inflammasome appears to be critical for host resistance against GBS. Yet, comprehensive models on the interplay between GBS and human immune cells at the colonizing site are just

  9. Assignment of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates to clonal complexes using a small set of single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Gwendolyn L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus (GBS is an important human pathogen, particularly of newborns. Emerging evidence for a relationship between genotype and virulence has accentuated the need for efficient and well-defined typing methods. The objective of this study was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based method for assigning GBS isolates to multilocus sequence typing (MLST-defined clonal complexes. Results It was found that a SNP set derived from the MLST database on the basis of maximisation of Simpsons Index of Diversity provided poor resolution and did not define groups concordant with the population structure as defined by eBURST analysis of the MLST database. This was interpreted as being a consequence of low diversity and high frequency horizontal gene transfer. Accordingly, a different approach to SNP identification was developed. This entailed use of the "Not-N" bioinformatic algorithm that identifies SNPs diagnostic for groups of known sequence variants, together with an empirical process of SNP testing. This yielded a four member SNP set that divides GBS into 10 groups that are concordant with the population structure. A fifth SNP was identified that increased the sensitivity for the clinically significant clonal complex 17 to 100%. Kinetic PCR methods for the interrogation of these SNPs were developed, and used to genotype 116 well characterized isolates. Conclusion A five SNP method for dividing GBS into biologically valid groups has been developed. These SNPs are ideal for high throughput surveillance activities, and combining with more rapidly evolving loci when additional resolution is required.

  10. Importancia clínica del Streptococcus agalactiae como causante de infección.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Crespo Ortiz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus agalactiae o estreptococo ß-hemolítico del grupo b (S. b es causa importante de sepsis neonatal y de infecciones en gestantes y adultos inmunocomprometidos. Se trata de una bacteria encapsulada cuya virulencia se atribuye a una toxina polisacárida y se caracteriza por presentar una alta concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM a la penicilina. Su papel como patógeno potencial se ha reconocido ampliamente en países industrializados donde en la actualidad se desarrollan estrategias de diagnóstico y prevención dada su alta morbimortalidad; sin embargo, en países en desarrollo no se informa con frecuencia la infección por este germen, básicamente debido a la circulación de serotipos menos virulentos y la falta de una búsqueda y diagnóstico adecuados. La experiencia de la Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia, revela en poco tiempo la presencia frecuente de esta bacteria como colonizante y como origen de infecciones severas en neonatos y adultos, con una resistencia moderada a la penicilina y alta a la gentamicina y tetraciclina. Por las implicaciones de esta infección y por lo imperativo de conocer más acerca de ella, se revisan las características de la infección y de los casos, con lo que se pretende alertar sobre la presencia de este germen en Cali a fin de orientar hacia estrategias adecuadas para mejorar su descubrimiento en el laboratorio y hacer un buen diagnóstico y un manejo terapéutico eficaz.

  11. Retail ready-to-eat food as a potential vehicle for Staphylococcus spp. harboring antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Laniewska-Trokenheim, Lucja

    2014-06-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) food, which does not need thermal processing before consumption, could be a vehicle for the spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. As part of general microbiological safety checks, staphylococci are routinely enumerated in these kinds of foods. However, the presence of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci in RTE food is not routinely investigated, and data are only available from a small number of studies. The present study evaluated the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from 858 RTE foods (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes, salads). Of 113 strains isolated, S. aureus was the most prevalent species, followed by S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. epidermidis. More than half (54.9%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one class of tested antibiotic; of these, 35.4% of the strains were classified as multidrug resistant. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (49.6%), followed by clindamycin (39.3%), tigecycline (27.4%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (22.2%), rifampin (20.5%), tetracycline (17.9%), and erythromycin (8.5%). All methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbored the mecA gene. Among the isolates resistant to at least one antibiotic, 38 harbored tetracycline resistance determinant tet (M), 24 harbored tet (L), and 9 harbored tet (K). Of the isolates positive for tet (M) genes, 34.2% were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545-like integrase family gene. Our results indicated that retail RTE food could be considered an important route for the transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harboring multiple antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:24853524

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of two Streptococcus agalactiae proteins: the family II inorganic pyrophosphatase and the serine/threonine phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two S. agalactiae proteins, the inorganic pyrophosphatase and the serine/threonine phosphatase, were crystallized and diffraction data were collected and processed from these crystals. The data from the two protein crystals extended to 2.80 and 2.65 Å, respectively. Streptococcus agalactiae, which infects human neonates and causes sepsis and meningitis, has recently been shown to possess a eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein phosphorylation signalling cascade. Through their target proteins, the S. agalactiae Ser/Thr kinase and Ser/Thr phosphatase together control the growth as well as the morphology and virulence of this organism. One of the targets is the S. agalactiae family II inorganic pyrophosphatase. The inorganic pyrophosphatase and the serine/threonine phosphatase have therefore been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected from their crystals. The data were processed using XDS. The inorganic pyrosphosphatase crystals diffracted to 2.80 Å and the Ser/Thr phosphatase crystals to 2.65 Å. Initial structure-solution experiments indicate that structure solution will be successful in both cases. Solving the structure of the proteins involved in this cascade is the first step towards understanding this phenomenon in atomic detail

  13. The Cell Lysis Activity of the Streptococcus agalactiae Bacteriophage B30 Endolysin Relies on the Cysteine, Histidine-Dependent Amidohydrolase/Peptidase Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, David M.; Foster-Frey, Juli; Dong, Shengli; Rousseau, Geneviève M.; Moineau, Sylvain; Pritchard, David G.

    2006-01-01

    The Streptococcus agalactiae bacteriophage B30 endolysin contains three domains: cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP), Acm glycosidase, and the SH3b cell wall binding domain. Truncations and point mutations indicated that the Acm domain requires the SH3b domain for activity, while the CHAP domain is responsible for nearly all the cell lysis activity.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of two Streptococcus agalactiae proteins: the family II inorganic pyrophosphatase and the serine/threonine phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, Mika K.; Lehtiö, Lari [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 65, FIN-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Rubens, Craig E. [Division of Infectious Disease, Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98105 (United States); Goldman, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.goldman@helsinki.fi [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 65, FIN-00014, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-09-01

    Two S. agalactiae proteins, the inorganic pyrophosphatase and the serine/threonine phosphatase, were crystallized and diffraction data were collected and processed from these crystals. The data from the two protein crystals extended to 2.80 and 2.65 Å, respectively. Streptococcus agalactiae, which infects human neonates and causes sepsis and meningitis, has recently been shown to possess a eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein phosphorylation signalling cascade. Through their target proteins, the S. agalactiae Ser/Thr kinase and Ser/Thr phosphatase together control the growth as well as the morphology and virulence of this organism. One of the targets is the S. agalactiae family II inorganic pyrophosphatase. The inorganic pyrophosphatase and the serine/threonine phosphatase have therefore been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected from their crystals. The data were processed using XDS. The inorganic pyrosphosphatase crystals diffracted to 2.80 Å and the Ser/Thr phosphatase crystals to 2.65 Å. Initial structure-solution experiments indicate that structure solution will be successful in both cases. Solving the structure of the proteins involved in this cascade is the first step towards understanding this phenomenon in atomic detail.

  15. P48 Major Surface Antigen of Mycoplasma agalactiae Is Homologous to a malp Product of Mycoplasma fermentans and Belongs to a Selected Family of Bacterial Lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Rosati, Sergio; Pozzi, Sarah; Robino, Patrizia; Montinaro, Barbara; Conti, Amedeo; Fadda, Manlio; Pittau, Marco

    1999-01-01

    A major surface antigenic lipoprotein of Mycoplasma agalactiae, promptly recognized by the host's immune system, was characterized. The mature product, P48, showed significant similarity and shared conserved amino acid motifs with lipoproteins or predicted lipoproteins from Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bacillus subtilis, and Treponema pallidum.

  16. Molecular and functional characterization of peptidoglycan-recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhen; Chen, Shannan; Hou, Jing; Huo, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ruan, Baiye; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Li, Li; Lu, Yishan; Nie, Pin

    2016-07-01

    PGRP-SC2, the member of PGRP family, plays an important role in regulation of innate immune response. In this paper, a PGRP-SC2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-PGRP-SC2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for amidase activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-PGRP-SC2. In healthy tilapia, the On-PGRP-SC2 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the muscle. When infected with S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-PGRP-SC2 in the spleen, head kidney and brain. The assays for the amidase activity suggested that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein had a Zn(2+)-dependent PGN-degrading activity. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein could significantly reduce bacterial load in target organs attacked by S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-PGRP-SC2 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia. PMID:27033804

  17. Complete genome sequences of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni 14980A (turkey feces) and Campylobacter coli 14983A (housefly from turkey farm), harboring a novel gentamicin resistance mobile element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in foodborne pathogens is a major food safety and public health issue. Here we describe whole-genome sequences of two MDR strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from turkey feces and a housefly in a turkey farm. Both strains harbor a novel chromosomal genta...

  18. Contagious agalactia due to Mycoplasma spp. in small dairy ruminants: epidemiology and prospects for diagnosis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, Angel; Amores, Joaquín; Paterna, Ana; De la Fe, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Contagious agalactia (CA) is a serious disease of small dairy ruminants that has a substantial economic impact on the goat and sheep milk industries. The main aetiological agent of the disease is Mycoplasma agalactiae, although other species, such as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and Mycoplasma putrefaciens, are pathogenic in goats. There are two clinical-epidemiological states of CA in sheep and goats; herds and flocks may exhibit outbreaks of CA or may be chronically infected, the latter with a high incidence of subclinical mastitis and only occasional clinical cases. The complex epidemiology of CA is related to the genetic characteristics and mechanisms of molecular variation of the Mycoplasma spp. involved, along with presence of CA-mycoplasmas in wild ruminant species. In goats, the situation is particularly complex and asymptomatic carriers have been detected in chronically infected herds. The coexistence of other non-pathogenic mycoplasmas in the herd further complicates the diagnosis of CA and the design of efficient strategies to control the disease. Routes of infection, such as the venereal route, may be involved in the establishment of chronic infection in herds. Current challenges include the need for improved diagnostic methods for detection of chronic and subclinical infections and for the design of more efficient vaccines. PMID:23759248

  19. Infection and pathology in Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), caused by exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae via different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamare-Deboutteville, J; Bowater, R; Condon, K; Reynolds, A; Fisk, A; Aviles, F; Barnes, A C

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, 96 wild Queensland groupers, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), have been found dead in NE Australia. In some cases, Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) was isolated. At present, a GBS isolate from a wild grouper case was employed in experimental challenge trials in hatchery-reared Queensland grouper by different routes of exposure. Injection resulted in rapid development of clinical signs including bilateral exophthalmia, hyperaemic skin or fins and abnormal swimming. Death occurred in, and GBS was re-isolated from, 98% fish injected and was detected by PCR in brain, head kidney and spleen from all fish, regardless of challenge dose. Challenge by immersion resulted in lower morbidity with a clear dose response. Whilst infection was established via oral challenge by admixture with feed, no mortality occurred. Histology showed pathology consistent with GBS infection in organs examined from all injected fish, from fish challenged with medium and high doses by immersion, and from high-dose oral challenge. These experimental challenges demonstrated that GBS isolated from wild Queensland grouper reproduced disease in experimentally challenged fish and resulted in pathology that was consistent with that seen in wild Queensland grouper infected with S. agalactiae. PMID:25117665

  20. Effect Of Gamma Ray Irradiation On Streptococcus Agalactiae Growth For Vaccine Agent Of Mastitis Disease In Dairy Cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been conducted to determine the effect of gamma ray irradiation to attenuate infectivity of S. agalactiae as dominant bacteria causing mastitis in dairy cattle. The aim of the study is obtaining optimum irradiation dosage to provide radio vaccine for mastitis. S. agalactiae isolate bacteria of which has reach the mid log-phase was cultured and divided into 6 treatment groups of irradiation doses, i.e. 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 kGy. Following irradiation, bacteria were then cultured in BHI agar media for colony counting to determine the LD50, resulting 7.5x108; 5.0x107; 7.0x106; 9.5x105; 1.5x104; and 3.5x103 cell/ml, respectively. Result of this study shows the higher irradiation doses the lower number of bacteria per ml, and LD50, which found to be under 0.2 kGy of irradiation dose

  1. Streptococcus agalactiae infective endocarditis complicated by large vegetations at aortic valve cusps along with intracoronary extension: An autopsy case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Ayako

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae infective endocarditis is a rare condition with high mortality owing to complications of large vegetations and systemic emboli. A 49-year-old man was found dead in his house. He had a history of hepatic cirrhosis and had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes 2years previously. He had presented with a high fever 10days before his death. An autopsy revealed 50mL of purulent pericardial effusion, and S. agalactiae was detected from the culture of this pericardial effusion. Two slender rope-like vegetations were present at the right aortic valve cusp and noncoronary aortic valve cusp. The vegetation at the right aortic valve cusp extended into the right coronary artery. The right coronary artery was broadly occluded by white rod-like material. The mitral valves were also affected, and the posterior papillary muscle was ruptured. Myocardial infarction was not observed. Systemic microscopic Gram-positive bacterial masses were observed in several organs. The death was attributed to acute myocardial ischemia caused by occlusive intracoronary extension of the vegetation at the proximal right coronary artery. PMID:26926519

  2. Molecular characterization and expression of CD2 in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to Streptococcus agalactiae stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhen; Wang, Bei; Tang, Jufen; Lu, Yishan; Jian, JiChang; Wu, Zaohe; Nie, Pin

    2016-03-01

    The cluster of differentiation 2 (CD2), functioning as a cell adhesion and costimulatory molecule, plays a crucial role in T-cell activation. In this paper, the CD2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-CD2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the stimulation of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed On-CD2 protein consists of two extracellular Ig-like domains, a transmembrane region, and a long proline-rich cytoplasmic tail, which is a hallmark of CD2, and several important structural characteristics required for T-cell activation were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-CD2. In healthy tilapia, the On-CD2 transcripts were mainly detected in the head kidney, spleen, blood and thymus. Moreover, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-CD2 after immunized by formalin-inactivated S. agalactiae and the expression reached the highest level at 12 h in the brain and head kidney, 48 h in the spleen, and 72 h in the thymus, respectively. This is the first report on the expression of CD2 induced by bacteria vaccination in teleosts. These findings indicated that On-CD2 may play an important role in the immune response to intracellular bacteria in Nile tilapia. PMID:26804651

  3. Construction of Killer Wine Yeast Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Tetsuji; Choi, Eon-Ho; Ryu, Dewey

    1985-01-01

    A double-stranded RNA plasmid which confers the superkiller phenotype was transferred into a wine yeast (Montrachet strain 522) and its leucine-requiring derivative (strain 694) by cytoduction, using the protoplast fusion technique. The killer wine yeast constructed completely suppressed the growth of killer-sensitive strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in yeast extract-peptone-glucose medium at pH 4.5, whereas the killer effect was somewhat decreased at pH 3.5. The wine yeast harboring the k...

  4. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  5. Boston Harbor and approaches samples (WILLETT72 shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Boston Harbor (and its approaches) is a glacially carved, tidally dominated estuary in western Massachusetts Bay. Characterized by low river discharge and...

  6. Sediments of Boston Harbor acquired in 1968 (MENCHER shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A study was made of the composition, grain-size distribution, and organic content of grab samples collected from Boston Harbor. In general, the coarsest mean sizes...

  7. Characterizing freshwater and nutrient fluxes to West Falmouth Harbor, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data present oceanographic and water-quality observations made at 4 locations in West Falmouth Harbor and 3 in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. While both...

  8. Apra Harbor, Guam Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apra Harbor, Guam Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  9. Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP was written to guide management on Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  10. Bar Harbor, ME Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bar Harbor, Maine Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  11. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  12. Aumento de resistencia de Streptococcus agalactiae vaginal-anal en el tercer trimestre de gestación a eritromicina y clindamicina al cabo de una década de tamizaje universal Streptococcus agalactiae increase in resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin in vaginal-anal colonization in third quarter of pregnancy in one decade of universal screening

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Abarzúa C.; Alejandra Arias E; Patricia García C; Constanza Ralph T; Jaime Cerda L; Ingrid Riedel K; Cynthia Gárate O

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: Streptococcus agalactiae es el principal agente causal de sepsis perinatal precoz. La adquisición de políticas de prevención ha traído consigo la utilización frecuente de antimicrobianos intra-parto. La vigilancia de resistencia antimicrobiana se hace indispensable para definir el fármaco de elección y alternativas en dicha profilaxis. Nuestro centro realiza tamizaje universal desde hace 10 años. Objetivos: Determinar la evolución de la resistencia antimicrobiana de S. agalactia...

  13. Clinical distribution and drug resistance of 179 isolates of Streptococcus agalactia%179株无乳链球菌的标本分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宇岚; 黄尔; 欧启水; 杨滨; 陈守涛; 荀振; 张泽佳; 闫翔宇; 郭少英; 留玉芬; 高丽钦; 甘龙杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigated the clinical distributions and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactia strains isolated from the patients .Methods The identification and susceptibility of the strains were mainly measured by automatic VITEK‐Ⅱ system ,the K‐B disc diffusion tests were used for the resistance test of erythromycin ,meropenem ,and D‐test .Results The iso‐lates were mainly from urine (63 .1% ) ,genital tract(7 .8% ) and wound secretion(6 .7% ) .They were obtained from patients in dif‐ferent situations ,including 110 patients who were older than 50 years old (61 .5% ) ,113 female patients (63 .1% ) ,12 gravidas (6 .7% ) ,3 vertical transmitted newborns(1 .7% ) ,and 82 patients with cancer ,undergoing chemo radiotherapy ,with diabetes ,tuber‐culosis or after operations(45 .8% ) .The resistant rates of the isolated Streptococcus agalactia to erythromycin and clindamycin were 42 .9% -93 .3% and 41 .9% -80 .0% respectively .The positive rate of D‐test was 4 .1% .The strains were highly resistant to tet‐racycline(>80% ) ,while the resistance to penicillin was below 10% except in 2008 .All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and meropenem .Only one strain was resistant to Quinupristin‐dalfopristin .Conclusion Streptococcus agalactia infection in adults most‐ly cause genitourinary tract ,skin and soft tissue infections .There were more females than males with Streptococcus agalactia infec‐tion .Penicillin andβ‐lactams are still the first choice for the treatment .Erythromycin ,clindamycin and tetracycline should be used with caution under the guidance of laboratory susceptibility test results .%目的:分析临床分离无乳链球菌的标本分布和对常用抗菌药物的耐药性。方法收集不同来源标本,在VIT EKⅡ微生物分析仪上采用GPI卡和GP67卡进行菌种鉴定和药敏实验,红霉素、美罗培南的药敏实验及D‐试验采用K‐B纸片法检测。

  14. Global transcriptional profiling reveals Streptococcus agalactiae genes controlled by the MtaR transcription factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvek Urska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS is a significant bacterial pathogen of neonates and an emerging pathogen of adults. Though transcriptional regulators are abundantly encoded on the GBS genome, their role in GBS pathogenesis is poorly understood. The mtaR gene encodes a putative LysR-type transcriptional regulator that is critical for the full virulence of GBS. Previous studies have shown that an mtaR- mutant transports methionine at reduced rates and grows poorly in normal human plasma not supplemented with methionine. The decreased virulence of the mtaR mutant was correlated with a methionine transport defect; however, no MtaR-regulated genes were identified. Results Microarray analysis of wild-type GBS and an mtaR mutant revealed differential expression of 12 genes, including 1 upregulated and 11 downregulated genes in the mtaR mutant. Among the downregulated genes, we identified a cluster of cotranscribed genes encoding a putative methionine transporter (metQ1NP and peptidase (pdsM. The expression of four genes potentially involved in arginine transport (artPQ and arginine biosynthesis (argGH was downregulated and these genes localized to two transcriptional units. The virulence factor cspA, which encodes an extracellular protease, was downregulated. Additionally, the SAN_1255 locus, which putatively encodes a protein displaying similarity to plasminogen activators, was downregulated. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the global influence of MtaR on GBS gene expression. This study implicates the metQ1NP genes as encoding the MtaR-regulated methionine transporter, which may provide a mechanistic explanation for the methionine-dependent growth defect of the mtaR mutant. In addition to modulating the expression of genes involved in metabolism and amino acid transport, inactivation of mtaR affected the expression of other GBS genes implicated in pathogenesis. These findings

  15. Multicentre epidemiological survey on the incidence of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lodolo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ß-hemolytic streptococci group B (GBS cause infections of the urinary tract, endometrium, amnion, and superinfection of wounds, with complications in 2% -4% of cases in pregnant woman.The infection transmitted to newborns is a cause of sepsis and meningitis with high incidence of mortality.A recent report on a multicentric study of the ISS, showed that detection of S. agalactiae in pregnant women in different realities of healthcare, ranging from 3.9% to 19.4%. This survey covers a sample of 29607 women screened in a total of 36852 childbirths, with a positivity of 4183 subjects equal to 14.1%. Thanks to the GBS Study Group of Piemonte and Valle d’Aosta microbiology laboratories, with the support of 42 study centres have been involved. Collection techniques, types of medium, environmental of incubation of the culture, possible enrichment in broth, of the swabs of 28491 women during 2006/2007 have been considered. 24.36% were vaginal swab while 75.64% vagino/rectal. According to data collected at 31 centers with eligible data (22,175 pregnant GBS positivity was 12.7% (CI [Confidence Interval] + / -95%: 13.1% -12.2% with wide variability between individual centers (2% -22.6%. The enrichment broth is used by 6 out of 9 centers with positivity> 15% (M: 20.05%, from 6 to 14 with positivity between 10-15% (M: 12.61%, from none to 8 centers with less than 10% positivity (M: 4.95%.This multicentre survey underlined the preference for vagino/rectal swab, as recommended by the literature. The frequency of GBS positivity of pregnant women on the whole samples is similar to that found in other national surveys, even if with large differences between the different centers.The sensitivity tends to increase with the use of enrichment techniques, whose use is uneven between the centers, perhaps indicating the need for greater uniformity of protocols based on the results of microbiological analysis EBM (Evidence Based Medicine.

  16. 罗非鱼致病性无乳链球菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验%Isolation, identification and drug susceptibility test of tilapia pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳华; 彭亚; 刘杰; 彭民毅; 黄钧; 胡大胜; 陈明; 马旦梅; 曾桂忠

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]Pathogenic bacteria strains were isolated and identified from diseased tilapia cultured in a fish farm in Santang Town, Nanning City, Guangxi. A drug sensitivity test was conducted to seek out the aetiological agent and provide references for effective prevention and control. [Method]The strains were separated from the brain tissue in dying tilapias using routine method. Pathogenicity of the strains was determined by an artificial infection experiment. The strains were identi-fied using API20Strep and the 16S rRNA sequences. K-B was applied to test the drug sensitivity. [Result]Four Gram-positive cocci (GXN01, GXN02,GXN03 and GXN04) possessed strong pathogenicity against healthy tilapia and they might be the aetiological agent causing tilapia to death. The four strains were identified as Streptococcus agalactiae. All the strains shared 99.2%-99.7% similarities with those S. agalactiae strains reported in GenBank (JQ039365,JQ039376,JQ990156, JQ039366, JF423948, HQ645984 and GU217535). These four strains also shared high similarities(99.9%) with each other. Drug susceptibility test results showed that the four strains were sensitive to ofloxacin, cephalosporinVI, cefobid and sarafloxacin hydrochloric,but resistant to gentamicin, norfloxacin, sulfadoxine-6-methoxymethoxypyrimidine and sulfa-methoxy-pyrimidine. [Conclusion]The deaths of tilapia might be caused by S. agalactiae infection. Four kinds of drugs (CephalosporinVI, Ofloxacin, Cefobid and Sarafloxacin hydrochloric) could be used for prevention and treatment.%【目的】对广西南宁市郊三塘镇某养殖场患病罗非鱼进行病原菌分离鉴定及药敏试验,旨在找出罗非鱼的发病原因,为该病的有效防治提供依据。【方法】用常规方法从患病濒死罗非鱼脑部分离病原菌,通过人工感染试验确定分离菌株的致病性,用API20 Strep生化鉴定系统和16S rRNA鉴定病原菌,并采用K-B纸片扩散法进行药敏试验

  17. Evaluation of upland disposal of Oakland Harbor, California, sediment. Volume 2: Inner and outer harbor sediments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.R.; Brandon, D.L.; Tatem, H.E.; Simmers, J.W.; Skogerboe, J.G.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes testing and evaluation performed by the Environmental Laboratory of the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station on sediment from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbor, California. Test protocols from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Technical Framework for the Management of Dredged Material were used in the present evaluation to determine the potential for migration of contaminants into effluent, surface runoff, leachate, plants, and animals at an undetermined upland disposal site. One composite sediment each from Oakland Inner Harbor and Oakland Outer Harbor was tested. The composite sample consisted of sediment cores taken from the mud line to 44-ft depth. Both Oakland Harbor sediments had clayey sand textures. Total organic carbon concentrations in sediment from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were 3,364 and 6,042 mg/kg, respectively. Based on test results, Oakland Harbor sediments will require management of suspended solids in effluent and surface runoff and a mixing zone of at least 20 to 1 to meet the strictest assumed water quality criteria or standards. Management controls should be considered at the upland site, since plants grew poorly and contained elevated cadmium, lead, and selenium and earthworms accumulated arsenic, cadmium, and nickel. Contaminant migration, Sediment testing, Contaminated sediments, Upland disposal, Dredged material.

  18. Streptococcus agalactiae alpha-like protein 1 possesses both cross-reacting and Alp1-specific epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvam, Augusta I; Mavenyengwa, Rooyen T; Radtke, Andreas; Maeland, Johan A

    2011-08-01

    Most isolates of group B streptococci (GBS) express an alpha-like protein (Alp), Cα (encoded by bca), Alp1 (also called epsilon; alp1), Alp2 (alp2), Alp3 (alp3), Alp4 (alp4), or R4/Rib (rib). These proteins are chimeras with a mosaic structure and with antigenic determinants with variable immunological cross-reactivities between the Alps, including Alp1 and Cα cross-reactivity. This study focused on antigenic domains of Alp1, studied by using rabbit antisera in immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based tests and whole cells of GBS or trypsin-extracted and partially purified antigens from the strains A909 (serotype Ia/Cα, Cβ) and 335 (Ia/Alp1). Alp1 and Cα shared an antigenic determinant, Alp1/Cα common, not harbored by other Alps, probably located in the Alp1 and Cα repeat units, as these units are nearly identical in genomic sequence. An antigenic Alp1 determinant was Alp1 specific and was most likely located in the N-terminal unit of Alp1 in which an Alp1-specific primer site for PCR is also located. In addition, Alp1 possessed a domain with low immunogenicity which cross-reacted immunologically with Alp2 and Alp3, with unknown location in Alp1. Alp1 was partially degraded by trypsin during antigen extraction but with the antigenic domains preserved. The results indicate that Cα and Alp1 are immunologically related in the same manner that R4 (Rib) and Alp3 are related. The domain called Alp1 specific should be important in GBS serotyping as a surface-anchored serosubtype marker. The Alp1/Cα common determinant may be of prime interest as an immunogenic domain in a GBS vaccine. PMID:21653744

  19. Identification and serotyping of Streptococcus agalactiae by PCR%无乳链球菌及其血清型的PCR方法鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤炜; 周雪; 于立权; 吴志军; 朱战波; 崔玉东

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important pathogen that causes bovine mastitis and life-threatening invasive infections (septicemia,pneumonia,and meningitis) during the neonatal period.To rapidly identify capsular serotypes of S.agalactiae,a total of 22 bovine Streptococcus isolates from different regions of China were typed by biochemical tests and multiplex PCR to amplify the conserved sip and cps genes of the S.agalactiae.The results shown 17 of the 22 isolates were positive for sip gene,whereas,15 of the 17 S.agalactiae were positive identified by biochemical tests.Furthermore,the multiplex PCR also revealed that among the 17 isolates,the cps gene serotypes were 4 of Ia,11 of Ⅱ and 2 of Ⅲ,repectively.This study may provide a reference for identification and serotyping of S.agalactiae.%无乳链球菌(S.agalactiae)是引起奶牛乳房炎和新生儿期侵袭性感染(包括败血症、肺炎和脑膜炎)的重要病原菌.为快速准确地鉴定S.agalactiae及其血清型,本研究对22株从国内不同地区分离的牛源链球菌进行生化鉴定以及针对S.agalactiae保守基因sip进行PCR鉴定,并采用多重PCR技术扩增sip基因阳性菌株的cps基因进行血清分型.结果显示,PCR扩增sip基因阳性17株,其中15株生化试验与PCR结果一致;多重PCR扩增cps基因显示,其中Ia型4株、Ⅱ型11株、Ⅲ型2株.本研究为鉴定S.agalactiae及其血清型提供了参考.

  20. Reactive oxygen species involved in apoptosis induction of human respiratory epithelial (A549) cells by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréia Ferreira Eduardo; Moraes, João Alfredo; de Oliveira, Jessica Silva Santos; dos Santos, Michelle Hanthequeste Bittencourt; Santos, Gabriela da Silva; Barja-Fidalgo, Christina; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Nagao, Prescilla Emy

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus; GBS) is an important pathogen and is associated with pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis in neonates and adults. GBS infections induce cytotoxicity of respiratory epithelial cells (A549) with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ψm). The apoptosis of A549 cells by GBS was dependent on the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 with increased pro-apoptotic Bim and Bax molecules and decreased Bcl-2 pro-survival protein. Treatment of infected A549 cells with ROS inhibitors (diphenyleniodonium chloride or apocynin) prevented intracellular ROS production and apoptosis. Consequently, oxidative stress is included among the cellular events leading to apoptosis during GBS human invasive infections. PMID:26490153

  1. Structural and Functional Analysis of Cell Wall-anchored Polypeptide Adhesin BspA in Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Sara; Heal, Timothy J; Pidwill, Grace R; Till, Marisa; Robson, Alice; Lamont, Richard J; Sessions, Richard B; Jenkinson, Howard F; Race, Paul R; Nobbs, Angela H

    2016-07-29

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is the predominant cause of early-onset infectious disease in neonates and is responsible for life-threatening infections in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Clinical manifestations of GBS infection include sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Here, we describe BspA, a deviant antigen I/II family polypeptide that confers adhesive properties linked to pathogenesis in GBS. Heterologous expression of BspA on the surface of the non-adherent bacterium Lactococcus lactis confers adherence to scavenger receptor gp340, human vaginal epithelium, and to the fungus Candida albicans Complementary crystallographic and biophysical characterization of BspA reveal a novel β-sandwich adhesion domain and unique asparagine-dependent super-helical stalk. Collectively, these findings establish a new bacterial adhesin structure that has in effect been hijacked by a pathogenic Streptococcus species to provide competitive advantage in human mucosal infections. PMID:27311712

  2. Desempenho e hematologia de tilápias-do-nilo alimentadas com Saccharomyces cerevisiae e vacinadas contra Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Salvador

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a inter-relação entre a suplementação alimentar com parede celular de Saccharomyces cerevisae e a vacinação contra Streptococcus agalactiae e seu efeito sobre o desempenho produtivo e as variáveis hematológicas de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Oitenta e quatro tilápias-do-nilo foram distribuídas em 12 caixas de fibra (n=7, em arranjo fatorial 2x2x3, correspondente a dois níveis de suplementação com parede celular de levedura, dois tipos de inoculação e três tempos de avaliação. Os peixes foram alimentados durante 77 dias. A vacinação dos peixes foi realizada 60 dias após o início da alimentação. Quinze dias após a vacinação, todos os peixes foram submetidos ao desafio com cepa viva de S. agalactiae, e 6, 24 e 48 horas após o desafio, o sangue foi colhido da veia caudal para avaliações. Peixes alimentados com ração suplementada apresentam maior ganho de peso e taxa de crescimento específico, e a interação entre os efeitos da dieta e da vacinação resulta em maiores taxas de hematócrito, hemoglobina e leucócitos.

  3. Ostéomyélites et ostéoarthrites à streptocoque béta-hémolytique du groupe B ("Streptococcus agalactiae")

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Loan Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Le "streptococcus agalactiae" est un pathogène retrouvé de façon quasi exclusive chez le nourrisson et la femme enceinte. Les données récentes de la littérature suggèrent une augmentation de sa responsabilité dans les ostéomyélites. De janvier 1999 à juillet 2003, 22 patients hospitalisés à Genève ont présenté une ostéomyélite à "streptococcus agalactiae", prouvée par biopsie osseuse. Tous les patients présentaient un facteur de risque favorisant l'infection, dont 16 (72%) un diabète de type ...

  4. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguo Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  5. Vaginal calculi in a juvenile harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Stephanie A; Garner, Michael M; Berta, Susan; Dubpernell, Sandra; Klope, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    A large number of vaginal calculi were observed in a juvenile harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) stranded on Whidbey Island, Washington. Vaginal calculi have been reported in other species, but not in harbor porpoises. Histologic examination of the urinary tract revealed mucosal hyperplasia most likely attributable to the calculi. The calculi were numerous (>30), composed completely of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), and on culture yielded Enterococcus spp., a bacterium not usually associated with struvite urolith formation in domestic animals. The only other lesion of note was severe hepatic lipidosis, and its relationship to the development of the vaginal calculi is unknown. PMID:22946417

  6. Klonierung, Sequenzierung und Charakterisierung der genetischen Determinante des CAMP-Faktors (=cbf-Gen) der Gruppe-B-Streptokokken (Streptococcus agalactiae)

    OpenAIRE

    Blankenstein, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    The CAMP reaction, a synergistic lysis of sheep erythrocytes by Staphylococcus aureus (beta-toxin) and group B streptococci (Streptococcus agalactiae) was first described in 1944 by Christie et al.. This phenomenon is caused by the CAMP-factor, an extra-cellular protein which role pathogenicity and virulence is still unknown. The focus of this work is the molecular isolation and characterization of the CAMP-factor gene of group B streptococci (cbf-Gene). First cloning attempts were made using...

  7. The use of polyethylene intramammary device in protection of the lactating bovine udder against experimental infection with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus agalactiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, B W; Barnum, D A

    1982-01-01

    The susceptibility of lactating bovine udder quarters fitted with a polyethylene intramammary device to infection was investigated. Following experimental challenge with Streptococcus agalactiae or Staphylococcus aureus, the incidence of infection was significantly (p less than 0.05) lower in intramammary device-fitted quarters compared to control quarters. In general, total foremilk and strippings milk somatic cell counts for intramammary device-fitted and control quarters were not significa...

  8. Presence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of contagious mastitis agents (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae) isolated from milks of dairy cows with subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    İKİZ, Serkan; BAŞARAN, Beren; BİNGÖL, Enver Barış; ÇETİN, Ömer; KAŞIKÇI, Güven; ÖZGÜR, Naciye Yakut; UÇMAK, Melih; Yilmaz, Özge; GÜNDÜZ, Mehmet Can; SABUNCU, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is recognized as one of the most important diseases affecting the dairy industry. The antibiotic susceptibility test is important to achieve accurate treatment in subclinical mastitis. This study was conducted to determine the presence of contagious mastitis agents (Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus) in 270 bovine milk samples collected from 132 dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in 15 different dairy farms located in the Marmara Region of Turkey. A total of 256 ba...

  9. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Deguo Wang; Yanhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactia...

  10. Isolation, screening, and characterization of surface-active agent-producing, oil-degrading marine bacteria of Mumbai Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanram, Rajamani; Jagtap, Chandrakant; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-04-15

    Diverse marine bacterial species predominantly found in oil-polluted seawater produce diverse surface-active agents. Surface-active agents produced by bacteria are classified into two groups based on their molecular weights, namely biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers. In this study, surface-active agent-producing, oil-degrading marine bacteria were isolated using a modified Bushnell-Haas medium with high-speed diesel as a carbon source from three oil-polluted sites of Mumbai Harbor. Surface-active agent-producing bacterial strains were screened using nine widely used methods. The nineteen bacterial strains showed positive results for more than four surface-active agent screening methods; further, these strains were characterized using biochemical and nucleic acid sequencing methods. Based on the results, the organisms belonged to the genera Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Comamonas, Chryseomicrobium, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Nesterenkonia, Pseudomonas, and Serratia. The present study confirmed the prevalence of surface-active agent-producing bacteria in the oil-polluted waters of Mumbai Harbor. PMID:26912197

  11. Dolphin Morbillivirus Infection in a Captive Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina)

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzariol, Sandro; Peletto, Simone; Mondin, Alessandra; Centelleghe, Cinzia; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Casalone, Cristina; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2013-01-01

    During the second morbillivirus epidemic (2007 to 2011) in cetaceans along the Italian coastline, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was detected by molecular analyses in a captive harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), with pathological findings consistent with morbillivirus infection. This report confirms interspecies DMV transmission from cetaceans to pinnipeds.

  12. Conjoined Fetal Twins in a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jennifer K; Gaydos, Joseph K; McKlveen, Tori; Poppenga, Robert; Wicinas, Kay; Anderson, Elizabeth; Raverty, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In July 2013, a stranded harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) died giving birth to conjoined fetuses. The twins were joined at the abdomen and thoracolumbar spine with the vertebral axis at 180°. The cause of this unique anomaly--a first for this species--was not identified. PMID:26528575

  13. 33 CFR 110.45a - Mattapoisett Harbor, Mattapoisett, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mattapoisett Harbor, Mattapoisett, Mass. 110.45a Section 110.45a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Mattapoisett, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 beginning at a point on the shore at latitude 41°39′23″ N., longitude...

  14. Complete genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas rubra SCSIO 6842, harboring a putative conjugative plasmid pMBL6842.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baiyuan; Wang, Pengxia; Zeng, Zhenshun; Cai, Xingsheng; Wang, Guanghua; Wang, Xiaoxue

    2016-04-20

    Pseudoalteromonas is a genus of Gram-negative and is ubiquitously distributed in the ocean. Many Pseudoalteromonas species are capable of producing pigments, which can serve as an alternative source to replace synthetic pigments used in the food industry. Prodigiosins belong to a family of secondary metabolite characterized by a common pyrrolyl pyrromethane skeleton, and have been successfully applied to yogurt, milk and carbonated drinks as substitutes for synthetic additives. The strain Pseudoalteromonas rubra SCSIO 6842 can produce cycloprodigiosin and harbors a conjugative plasmid. Here we report the complete genome of P. rubra SCSIO 6842 for a better understanding of the molecular basis of cycloprodigiosin production and regulation. PMID:26970053

  15. Estimation of test characteristics of real-time PCR and bacterial culture for diagnosis of subclinical intramammary infections with Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy cattle in 2012 using latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser; Toft, Nils; Katholm, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    The misdiagnosis of intramammary infections (IMI) with Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) could lead farmers to treat or cull animals unnecessarily. The objective of this field study was to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of real-time PCR at different cut-offs for cycle...... threshold (Ct) values against bacterial culture (BC) for diagnosis of S. agalactiae IMI using latent class analysis to avoid the assumption of a perfect reference test. A total of 614 dairy cows were randomly selected from 6 herds with bulk tank PCR Ct value ≤ 39 for S. agalactiae and S. aureus. At milk...... recording, 2456 quarter milk samples were taken aseptically for BC and the routinely taken cow level milk samples were analyzed by PCR. Results showed that 53 cows (8.6%) were positive for S. agalactiae IMI by BC. Sensitivity of PCR at cut-offs; ≤ 39, ≤ 37, ≤ 34, and ≤ 32, was 96.2%, 91.9%, 87.2% and 73...

  16. Underwater noise from three types of offshore wind turbines: estimation of impact zones for harbor porpoises and harbor seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougaard, Jakob; Henriksen, Oluf Damsgaard; Miller, Lee A

    2009-06-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from three different types of wind turbines in Denmark and Sweden (Middelgrunden, Vindeby, and Bockstigen-Valar) during normal operation. Wind turbine noise was only measurable above ambient noise at frequencies below 500 Hz. Total sound pressure level was in the range 109-127 dB re 1 microPa rms, measured at distances between 14 and 20 m from the foundations. The 1/3-octave noise levels were compared with audiograms of harbor seals and harbor porpoises. Maximum 1/3-octave levels were in the range 106-126 dB re 1 microPa rms. Maximum range of audibility was estimated under two extreme assumptions on transmission loss (3 and 9 dB per doubling of distance, respectively). Audibility was low for harbor porpoises extending 20-70 m from the foundation, whereas audibility for harbor seals ranged from less than 100 m to several kilometers. Behavioral reactions of porpoises to the noise appear unlikely except if they are very close to the foundations. However, behavioral reactions from seals cannot be excluded up to distances of a few hundred meters. It is unlikely that the noise reaches dangerous levels at any distance from the turbines and the noise is considered incapable of masking acoustic communication by seals and porpoises. PMID:19507958

  17. Uricase production by a recombinant Hansenula polymorpha strain harboring Candida utilis uricase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyu; Wang, Zhaoyue; He, Xiuping; Guo, Xuena; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Borun

    2008-06-01

    Uricase is an important medical enzyme which can be used to determine urate in clinical analysis, to therapy gout, hyperuricemia, and tumor lysis syndrome. Uricase of Candida utilis was successfully expressed in Hansenula polymorpha under the control of methanol oxidase promoter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor signal peptide as the secretory sequence. Recombinant H. polymorpha MU200 with the highest extracellular uricase production was characterized with three copies of expression cassette and selected for process optimization for the production of recombinant enzyme. Among the parameters investigated in shaking flask cultures, the pH value of medium and inoculum size had great influence on the recombinant uricase production. The maximum extracellular uricase yield of 2.6 U/ml was obtained in shaking flask culture. The yield of recombinant uricase was significantly improved by the combined use of a high cell-density cultivation technique and a pH control strategy of switching culture pH from 5.5 to 6.5 in the induction phase. After induction for 58 h, the production of recombinant uricase reached 52.3 U/ml (about 2.1 g/l of protein) extracellularly and 60.3 U/ml (about 2.4 g/l) intracellularly in fed-batch fermentation, which are much higher than those expressed in other expression systems. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the heterologous expression of uricase in H. polymorpha. PMID:18437374

  18. Comparative evaluation of a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, YTR 830, combined with different beta-lactam antibiotics against bacteria harboring known beta-lactamases.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutmann, L; Kitzis, M D; Yamabe, S; Acar, J F

    1986-01-01

    YTR 830, a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, combined with amoxicillin or carbenicillin, showed a synergistic effect similar to that observed with clavulanic acid, and generally better than that with sulbactam, against strains harboring chromosome-encoded penicillinases and broad-spectrum beta-lactamases or plasmid-determined beta-lactamases. With ampicillin, YTR 830 showed the best synergistic activity of the inhibitors against Proteus morganii, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterobacter cloacae and...

  19. Defined Map Units of the seafloor of Boston Harbor and Approaches (BOTTOMTYPE, UTM 19, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data is a qualitatively-derived interpretative polygon shapefile defining the bottom types of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches,...

  20. bh_2mmbbath: Multibeam Bathymetry 2 meter/pixel of Boston Harbor and Approaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution bathymetric measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km² of...

  1. Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (2003-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset supports efforts to estimate the abundance and trends in population size of Alaska harbor seals. Annual surveys of harbor seal populations are...

  2. Telemetry data from satellite tags deployed on harbor seals in Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between 2004 and 2006 we conducted four harbor seal tagging trips in Cook Inlet during the months of October and May. In total, we captured and released 93 harbor...

  3. Observed Haul-out Locations for Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys of coastal Alaska are the primary method for estimating abundance of harbor seals. A particular challenge associated with aerial surveys of harbor...

  4. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in Stony Brook Harbor, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J. M.; Young, C.; Wong, T.; Hanson, G. N.

    2012-12-01

    As nutrients can significantly impact coastal ecosystems, understanding their path to embayments and oceans is crucial. In Stony Brook Harbor (Long Island, NY), submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the only significant contribution of freshwater and thus constitutes the main pathway for nutrients, which may eventually reach Long Island Sound. Subterranean estuaries have been shown to be highly reactive zones where nitrogen attenuation can occur. Understanding the fate of nitrogen in Stony Brook Harbor requires knowing the volume of groundwater entering the bay as well as the amount of denitrification, in the context of the hydrogeological framework. This is achieved by combining electrical resistivity survey, water sampling in piezometers, point conductivity and seepage measurements. A Trident probe inserted 60 cm deep into the sediments allows measuring the conductivity and temperature of the sediments and the overlying seawater. In spring 2011, five Trident transects spreading across the head of the harbor were used as a preliminary study to reveal potential locations for SGD. Locations with significant difference between sediment and seawater temperature and/or conductivities were further investigated using an AGI SuperSting 8-channel receiver resistivity meter. Two ultrasonic seepage meters were deployed in May and July 2011 about 20 m below the low tide mark. Five piezometers were aligned parallel to one resistivity survey. Our resistivity data indicate superficial mixing in the intertidal zone. The freshwater extends quite far under the seafloor, above 67 meters after the low tide mark for one location. The freshwater/saltwater interface seems to be almost horizontal. The piezometer data agree relatively well with the resistivity data. The preliminary average seepage rates observed vary from 3 to 60 cm/d. The resistivity sections reveal the presence of a thin layer of high conductivity above the low tide mark. This matches the observation of a superficial

  5. Social structure and underwater behavior of harbor seals in southern Monterey Bay, California

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Teri Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    To understand harbor seal social and mating strategies, I examined site fidelity, seasonal abundance and distribution, herd integrity, and underwater behavior of individual harbor seals in southern Monterey Bay. Individual harbor seals (n = 444) were identified by natural markings and represented greater than 80% of an estimated 520 seals within this community. Year to year fidelity of individual harbor seals to southern Monterey Bay coastline was 84% (n = 388), and long-term association...

  6. 78 FR 13479 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Regulations New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers,'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 1738). We received... Operation Regulations New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers,'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 75917... Regulation; New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers, CT,'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 1738)...

  7. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo... temporary safety zone in the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY for the Boom Days Fireworks. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from Doug's Dive, the NFTA small boat harbor and a portion of the...

  8. 75 FR 59078 - Safety Zone; Ledge Removal Project, Bass Harbor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ledge Removal Project, Bass Harbor, ME... temporary safety zone around a ledge removal project in Bass Harbor, Maine. The United States Army Corps of... and around Bass Harbor both to increase mooring capacity for fishing trawlers and recreational...

  9. 77 FR 43513 - Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation, Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA from 12 p.m. through 8 p.m. on... notice of enforcement of the Special Local Regulation for Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd...

  10. 33 CFR 165.765 - Regulated Navigation Area; Port Everglades Harbor, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Everglades Harbor, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. 165.765 Section 165.765 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.765 Regulated Navigation Area; Port Everglades Harbor, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. (a) Location. The following area in Port Everglades harbor is a regulated navigation area: all waters of...

  11. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta

    2016-02-02

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA), by exploiting the indigenous microbes of the environment to be treated, could represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective we aimed to i) identify the main drivers of the bacterial communities\\' richness in the sediments, ii) establish enrichment cultures with different hydrocarbon pollutants evaluating their effects on the bacterial communities\\' composition, and iii) obtain a collection of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria potentially exploitable in ABA. The correlation between the selection of different specialized bacterial populations and the type of pollutants was demonstrated by culture-independent analyses, and by establishing a collection of bacteria with different hydrocarbon degradation traits. Our observations indicate that pollution dictates the diversity of sediment bacterial communities and shapes the ABA potential in harbor sediments.

  12. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Marta; Mapelli, Francesca; Magagnini, Mirko; Chouaia, Bessem; Armeni, Monica; Marasco, Ramona; Crotti, Elena; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2016-03-15

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA), by exploiting the indigenous microbes of the environment to be treated, could represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective we aimed to i) identify the main drivers of the bacterial communities' richness in the sediments, ii) establish enrichment cultures with different hydrocarbon pollutants evaluating their effects on the bacterial communities' composition, and iii) obtain a collection of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria potentially exploitable in ABA. The correlation between the selection of different specialized bacterial populations and the type of pollutants was demonstrated by culture-independent analyses, and by establishing a collection of bacteria with different hydrocarbon degradation traits. Our observations indicate that pollution dictates the diversity of sediment bacterial communities and shapes the ABA potential in harbor sediments. PMID:26849913

  13. A streptococcal NRAMP homologue is crucial for the survival of Streptococcus agalactiae under low pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabayek, Sarah; Bauer, Richard; Mauerer, Stefanie; Mizaikoff, Boris; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a commensal bacterium of the human gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts as well as a leading cause of neonatal sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis. Maternal vaginal carriage is the main source for GBS transmission and thus the most important risk factor for neonatal disease. Several studies in eukaryotes identified a group of proteins natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) that function as divalent cation transporters for Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) and confer on macrophages the ability to control replication of bacterial pathogens. Genome sequencing predicted potential NRAMP homologues in several prokaryotes. Here we describe for the first time, a pH-regulated NRAMP Mn(2+) /Fe(2+) transporter in GBS, designated MntH, which confers resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is crucial for bacterial growth and survival under low pH conditions. Our investigation implicates MntH as an important colonization determinant for GBS in the maternal vagina as it helps bacteria to adapt to the harsh acidic environment, facilitates bacterial adherence, contributes to the coexistence with the vaginal microbiota and plays a role in GBS intracellular survival inside macrophages. PMID:27150893

  14. Pathological manifestations and immune responses of serotypes Ia and III Streptococcus agalactiae infections in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atchariya Suwannasang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS infections cause serious worldwide damage to fish farming. Here, we evaluated the pathological manifestations and immune responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus infected with GBS serotype Ia (GBS-Ia and GBS serotypes III (GBS-III. Experimental infection of fish with GBS by intraperitoneal injection indicated the severity of GBS-Ia infection as shown by the LD50 of GBS-Ia and GBS-III, being 1.58106 CFU/fish and 2.10108 CFU/fish, respectively. The onset of disease and clinical observation revealed notable differences between the GBS-Ia and GBS-III infections. Histological findings showed severe changes of the liver, pancreas, kidney and brain of fish infected with GBS. In addition, significantly different haemato-immunological parameters were observed between GBS-Ia and GBS-III infected fish. Differences in the pathological manifestations and immune responses of GBS-Ia and GBS-III infections in tilapia are of practical use for fish pathologists who monitor tilapia mortality resulting from GBS infections.

  15. Extensive adaptive changes occur in the transcriptome of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus in response to incubation with human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Mereghetti

    Full Text Available To enhance understanding of how Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS adapts during invasive infection, we performed a whole-genome transcriptome analysis after incubation with whole human blood. Global changes occurred in the GBS transcriptome rapidly in response to blood contact following shift from growth in a rich laboratory medium. Most (83% of the significantly altered transcripts were down-regulated after 30 minutes of incubation in blood, and all functional categories of genes were abundantly represented. We observed complex dynamic changes in the expression of transcriptional regulators and stress response genes that allow GBS to rapidly adapt to blood. The transcripts of relatively few proven virulence genes were up-regulated during the first 90 minutes. However, a key discovery was that genes encoding proteins involved in interaction with the host coagulation/fibrinolysis system and bacterial-host interactions were rapidly up-regulated. Extensive transcript changes also occurred for genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, including multi-functional proteins and regulators putatively involved in pathogenesis. Finally, we discovered that an incubation temperature closer to that occurring in patients with severe infection and high fever (40 degrees C induced additional differences in the GBS transcriptome relative to normal body temperature (37 degrees C. Taken together, the data provide extensive new information about transcriptional adaptation of GBS exposed to human blood, a crucial step during GBS pathogenesis in invasive diseases, and identify many new leads for molecular pathogenesis research.

  16. DETERMINACION DE LA PORTACION DE STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B EN EMBARAZADAS DURANTE EL TERCER TRIMESTRE MEDIANTE INMUNOENSAYO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abarzúa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B es una enfermedad de alta letalidad, y considerando además que la portación de este germen en nuestra población de embarazadas se acerca a 20%, es que, resulta muy importante disponer de algún test rápido y confiable para realizar screening. Este estudio evalúa el rendimiento de un inmunoensayo para pesquisa de Streptococcus agalactiae en embarazadas sin factores de riesgo y a fines del tercer trimestre. Los resultados muestran una baja sensibilidad y un bajo valor predictivo positivo para este método, lo que no lo hace recomendable para su implementación clínicaNeonatal sepsis of early onset by group B Streptococcus has a high mortality rate. Twenty percent of our pregnant population have vaginal colonization by this bacterial agent, so clinical practice require a fast and efficient screening test. This report checks a Group B Streptococcus immunoassay screening test in the last trimester for pregnant women without risk factors. The low sensitivity and low positive predictive value of the test make it not recomendable for clinical practice

  17. Detection and Enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae from Bovine Milk Samples by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Nara Ladeira; Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Botaro, Bruno Garcia; Silva, Luis Felipe de Prada E; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with DNA extraction directly from composite milk and bulk tank samples for detection and enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae (SAG) causing subclinical mastitis. Dilutions of sterile reconstituted skim milk inoculated with SAG ATCC 13813 were used to establish a standard curve (cfu/mL) for the qPCR assay targeting SAG. The analytical sensitivity and repeatability of the qPCR assay were determined. Bulk tank (BTM; n = 38) and composite milk samples (CM; n = 26) collected from lactating cows with positive isolation of SAG were submitted to the qPCR protocol and SAG plate counting, with results from both methods compared. Amplification of DNA was not possible in two out of 64 samples, indicating that qPCR was able to detect SAG in 96 and 97% of BTM and CM samples, respectively. The inter-assay coefficient of variation was <5%, showing that the technique had adequate repeatability. The qPCR protocol can be a high-throughput and rapid diagnostic assay to accurately detect SAG from BTM and CM samples compared with conventional microbiological culture method. However, the evaluated qPCR protocol is not accurate for enumerating SAG in milk samples, probably due to quantification of DNA of non-viable cells. PMID:26134534

  18. Building Energy Audit Report for Pearl Harbor, HI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-09-30

    A building energy audit was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at selected Pearl Harbor buildings, identify cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This report documents the findings of that assessment.

  19. Study on Variable Action Value Standard for Harbor Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Xiaoping; Zhao, Qianyi; Jin, Weiliang

    2014-01-01

    To meet with different levels of requirements from proprietors and users and to offer a basis for variable action value to the designers, associated with the standards, this dissertation studied the value standard of load effect and environmental effect. For load effect, on the foundation of analyzing variable load effect model, we used equal exceeding probability principle to calculate the load adjustment coefficient for the cargo loading in harbor and river port under different designing se...

  20. The usefulness of molecular techniques to assess the presence of Aeromonas spp. harboring virulence markers in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Kingombe, César I; Huys, Geert; Howald, Denise; Luthi, Elisabeth; Swings, Jean; Jemmi, Thomas

    2004-07-15

    A total of 78 raw and 123 processed and ready-to-eat retail food samples were used to assess the presence of motile Aeromonas spp. harboring virulence genes (cytotoxic enterotoxin and hemolysin genes) using a recently described PCR method in comparison with the conventional cultivation method based on the use of Ampicillin-Dextrin Agar (ADA) medium. With the ADA-based method, 65/201 (32.3%) samples showed presumptive Aeromonas spp. colonies whereas the PCR method revealed the presence of Aeromonas spp. harboring the targeted virulence genes in 51/201 (25.4%) of the tested samples. The rate of contaminated samples and the presence of pathogenic Aeromonas were significantly lower with both methods for processed than in case of raw samples. A polyphasic identification approach including biochemical and molecular techniques was applied to a selection of 34 PCR-positive presumptive Aeromonas isolates. Following fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, a total of 33 isolates (97%) could be identified to the DNA hybridization group (HG) level. The majority of these isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas hydrophila HG3 (50%) and Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (HG8/10) (38%). Molecular characterization of PCR amplicons obtained from these strains by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) fingerprinting and PCR-Amplicon Sequence Analysis (PCR-ASA) allowed classification of all strains in a known PCR-RFLP and PCR-ASA type. In conclusion, the current findings demonstrate that the combined use of PCR-based virulence marker detection, PCR-RFLP and PCR-ASA offers a rapid, sensitive, and specific system to assess the presence and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. harboring virulence markers in food samples. PMID:15193799

  1. Antibiotic Resistance Determinants in a Pseudomonas putida Strain Isolated from a Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Lázaro; Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Fernández, Matilde; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Roca, Amalia; Porcel, Mario; de la Torre, Jesús; Segura, Ana; Plesiat, Patrick; Jeannot, Katy; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267) kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the...

  2. Cloning and Prokaryotic Expression of Streptococcus Agalactiae Sip Gene%无乳链球菌Sip基因的克隆与原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学云; 王蒴; 吴建勇; 王登峰; 李建军

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus Agalactiae surface immunogenic protein (Sip) is a highly conservative important target for the study of Streptococcus Agalactiae vaccine. The Sip gene was amplified by PCR and be inserted into vector pET-22b from a recombinant vector pET-22b-Sip. After identified by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing methods, the recombinant plasmid was transformed into BL21 (DE3) and induced to express by IPTG. The size and reactionogenicity of recombinant protein was detected. The results showed that the sip gene was 1300bp and was 99.16% in homology with reference sequence of GeneBank. The recombinant protein was found to be about 50KDa as expected and showed good reactionogenicity. This research provided the basis and foundation for the immunization against Streptococcus Agalactiae.%无乳链球菌表面免疫相关蛋白(Surface immunogenic proteins, Sip)具有高度保守性,是无乳链球菌疫苗研究的重要靶标.通过PCR技术扩增Sip基因,将其插入pET-22b载体构建重组质粒pET-22b-Sip,并对重组质粒进行双酶切、PCR鉴定及测序;转入BL21(DE3)中诱导表达,检测重组蛋白的大小及反应原性.结果表明,所扩增Sip基因大小为1 300bp,与GeneBank参考序列同源性为99.16%;蛋白分析表明,目的蛋白大小为50KDa,具有良好的反应原性,为无乳链球菌的免疫预防提供依据和基础.

  3. 鱼源无乳链球菌致病机理研究进展%Review on Pathogenesis of Streptococcus agalactiae from Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝璟琳; 杨弘

    2013-01-01

    从无乳链球菌的感染与传播途径,引起的病理学变化,致病机制,毒力因子和理化因子的影响等5个方面对鱼源无乳链球菌的致病机理作一综述。%The studies on pathogenesis of Streptococcus agalactiae from fish were summarized as viewed from the following five factors: transmission studies, pathogenic mechanism, Group B Streptococcus (GBS) virulence and environmental factors.

  4. Molecular characterization and virulence gene profiling of pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae populations from tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) farms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Katagiri, Takayuki; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2014-05-19

    Streptococcus spp. were recovered from diseased tilapia in Thailand during 2009-2010 (n = 33), and were also continually collected from environmental samples (sediment and water) from tilapia farms for 9 months in 2011 (n = 25). The relative percent recovery of streptococci from environmental samples was 13-67%. All streptococcal isolates were identified as S. agalactiae (group B streptococci [GBS]) by a species-specific polymerase chain reaction. In molecular characterization assays, 4 genotypic categories comprised of 1) molecular serotypes, 2) the infB allele, 3) virulence gene profiling patterns (cylE, hylB, scpB, lmb, cspA, dltA, fbsA, fbsB, bibA, gap, and pili backbone-encoded genes), and 4) randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting patterns, were used to describe the genotypic diversity of the GBS isolates. There was only 1 isolate identified as molecular serotype III, while the others were serotype Ia. Most GBS serotype Ia isolates had an identical infB allele and virulence gene profiling patterns, but a large diversity was established by RAPD analysis with diversity tending to be geographically dependent. Experimental infection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) revealed that the GBS serotype III isolate was nonpathogenic in the fish, while all 5 serotype Ia isolates (3 fish and 2 environmental isolates) were pathogenic, with a median lethal dose of 6.25-7.56 log10 colony-forming units. In conclusion, GBS isolates from tilapia farms in Thailand showed a large genetic diversity, which was associated with the geographical origins of the bacteria. PMID:24842288

  5. Emergence of Fatal Avian Influenza in New England Harbor Seals

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, S. J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, H S; Chan, J. M.; Carpenter, Z. W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J T; Pedersen, J; Karesh, W; Daszak, P; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. L...

  6. Caffeine in Boston Harbor past and present, assessing its utility as a tracer of wastewater contamination in an urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of comb...

  7. 携带毒力岛(HPI)大肠杆菌性小儿腹泻%DETECTION OF HIGH-PATHOGENICITY ISLAND-HARBORING ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM CHILDREN WITH DIARRHEA DISEASE IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆义; 李连青

    2004-01-01

    [ Objective] To investigate the etiologicla status of etiologica status of high - pathogenicity island - arboring Escherichia coli (HPIEC) in diarrhea disease among children. [Method] Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was isolated and identified from the stool specimens of 1032 children with diarrhea diseases by culturing, serotyping, Polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR), the High- pathogenicity island- harboring Escherichia coli (HPIEC) was identified by PCR and in situ hybridization. [ Results] A total of 652 strains of E. Coli isolated from 1032 stool speci mens and confirmed by serotyping,PCR and colony hybridization out of which 225 were identified as diarrheagenic E. Coli, including 20 EPEC, 81 ETEC,47 SLTEC ,74 ESIEC, and 3 EIEC strains. 112 (17.2 % ) irp2 virulent gene positive E. Coli (HPIEC) were detected from the 652 strains, out of which 24 were from the 74 ESIEC strains and 17 from the 47 SLTEC strains. The typical clinical symptoms of children with diarrhea disease caused by HPI - harboring E.coli included anorexia( 87.5 % ), abdominal pain (58.0 % ), diarrhea ( 75.9 %, Over six episoders, mostly of mucous stool a day), and fever(50.9 % ). [Conclusion]High - pathogenicity island - harboring E. Coli is one of the important pathogens of diarrhea diseas es in children.

  8. Detection of verotoxin (Shiga-like toxin-producing and eae harboring Escherichia coli in some wild captive and domestic Equidae and Canidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koochakzadeh, A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of STEC and EPEC strains and E. coli O157 serogroup in some Equidae and Canidae. The fecal samples of 79 animals from 6 different species were evaluated for presence of these strains. All the Isolates were tested for virulence genes using multiplex-PCR. Non-sorbitol fermenting (NSF Escherichia coli isolates and positive strains for virulence factors were subjected to serogroupe specific PCR for rfb O157 gene. None of the STEC, EPEC and NFS strains in this study belonged to O157 serogroupe. While 36.64% of animals carried strains positive for one or more of the virulence factors tested, and 18.9% of animals harbored STEC strains (stx1, stx2 was not detected in this study. eae and Ehly positive strains were found in 3.79% and 22.7% of animals respectively. In conclusion, these species can act as a reservoir for EPEC and STEC strains. Also, since the study was conducted in some parts of Iran, a more accurate conclusion needs more distributed sampling. To our knowledge this is the first study which reports the faecal shedding of STEC and EPEC from wild captive Canidae and Equidae in Iran.

  9. Prevalence of vaginal and rectal colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women with preterm labor in Clinica Maternidad Rafael Calvo for the period August 2011 to January 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Ramos Niradiz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: to be premature is the main cause of perinatal morbimortality, identifyingto the infections during the pregnancy as cause of preterm labor. It has been describedthat colonization of pregnant women by the bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae entailsunfavorable effects about the maternal and neonatal health.Objective: to determine the frequency of vaginal and rectal colonization by Streptococcusagalactiae and its susceptibility to antibiotics in pregnant women with preterm labor.Methods: with prior informed consent, vaginal and rectal specimens were taken to pregnantwomen with preterm labor who admitted to the Clínica Maternidad Rafael Calvo, Cartagena,Colombia, between August 1st, 2011 and January 31st, 2012. The isolations of S.agalactiae were gotten by means of culture in selective medium CHROMagar™ StrepB. Theconfirmation of the specie was carried out by means of CRP with specific primers. Proofsof antibiotic susceptibility were done with Kirby-Bauer methods. Additionally, a form wasapplied to register socio-demographic data and medical record. As an independent variablewas used the colonization, which was correlated with socio-demographic and obstetric dataand with prenatal results. Telephonic follow-up was done for one month.Results: 93 patients were included in the study. A prevalence of 37.6% for vaginal andrectal colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae was found. 15 (16.1% newborns presentedneonatal sepsis. There were not found statistically significant differences in the perinatalresults between the colonized and not colonized groups. There were found statistically significantdifferences in the gestational age between early preterm and late preterm births.Conclusions: Although the occurrence of neonatal sepsis was associated with being earlypremature, there was not association with the colonization status by Streptococcus agalactiaein the mother. It is required the realization of studies that orientate to establishif

  10. Effects of some dietary crude plant extracts on the growth and gonadal maturity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and their resistance to Streptococcus agalactiae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, Zana H; Abdelhadi, Yasser M; Christianus, Annie; Karim, Murni; Romano, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    A 90-day feeding trial was conducted on the growth performance, feeding efficacy, body indices, various hematological and plasma biochemical parameters, and histopathological examination of the gonads from male and female Nile tilapia fingerlings when fed different crude plant extracts from Cinnamomum camphora, Euphorbia hirta, Azadirachta indica, or Carica papaya at 2 g kg(-1) compared to a control diet. This was followed by a 14-day challenge to Streptococcus agalactiae. All treatments were triplicated, and each treatment consisted of 30 fish. Results showed that C. papaya extracts were the most effective at delaying gonadal maturation to both male and female tilapia, as well as significantly increasing (P 0.05). Further, crude body lipid was lower in the C. camphora, E. hirta and C. papaya treatments, but was only significantly lower for the E. hirta treatment compared to the control. Meanwhile, none of the hematological or biochemical parameters were significantly affected, although plasma ALT was significantly lower for tilapia fed A. indica compared to the control. After the 14-day bacterial challenge, tilapia fed C. camphora supplementation had significantly higher survival, compared to the control, but was not significantly higher than the other supplemented diets. Results indicate that dietary C. papaya extract can significantly promote growth and delay gonadal maturation to both male and female tilapia, while C. camphora was the most effective prophylactic to S. agalactiae and may be a cost-effective and eco-friendly alternative to antibiotics. PMID:26643907

  11. New world bats harbor diverse influenza A viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suxiang Tong

    Full Text Available Aquatic birds harbor diverse influenza A viruses and are a major viral reservoir in nature. The recent discovery of influenza viruses of a new H17N10 subtype in Central American fruit bats suggests that other New World species may similarly carry divergent influenza viruses. Using consensus degenerate RT-PCR, we identified a novel influenza A virus, designated as H18N11, in a flat-faced fruit bat (Artibeus planirostris from Peru. Serologic studies with the recombinant H18 protein indicated that several Peruvian bat species were infected by this virus. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that, in some gene segments, New World bats harbor more influenza virus genetic diversity than all other mammalian and avian species combined, indicative of a long-standing host-virus association. Structural and functional analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase indicate that sialic acid is not a ligand for virus attachment nor a substrate for release, suggesting a unique mode of influenza A virus attachment and activation of membrane fusion for entry into host cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that bats constitute a potentially important and likely ancient reservoir for a diverse pool of influenza viruses.

  12. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF OSTEOARTHRITIS IN HARBOR SEALS (PHOCA VITULINA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana Rubio; Contreras, Guillermo J Sánchez; Acosta, Cristina Juliá; Lacave, Géraldine; Prins, Pier; Marck, Klaas

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, 543 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and 124 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were admitted to the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre in Pieterburen, The Netherlands. In 19 seals (3%), signs of infection in a hind flipper were observed. Initial treatment consisting of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs resolved the symptoms in 15 animals. In four harbor seals, estimated to be 3 to 4 mo old, a necrotizing infection developed that resulted in osteoarthritis of the tarsus or tibiotarsal joint or both. Bacterial culture revealed the presence of polymicrobial infection in three of the four animals. Treatment consisted of amputation of the hind flipper under general anesthesia combined with tumescent anesthesia in the operation field. Amputations were done at the diaphysis of the tibia and fibula. After resecting these bones, the flipper was discarded, leaving a good muscle-skin cuff to cover the edges of the bones and close the skin without tension. The estimated blood loss varied between land). PMID:26352960

  13. Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, H.S.; Chan, J.M.; Carpenter, Z.W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J.T.; Pedersen, J.; Karesh, W.; Daszak, P.; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2012-01-01

    From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. Lectin staining and agglutination assays indicated the presence of the avian-preferred SAα-2,3 and mammalian SAα-2,6 receptors in seal respiratory tract, and the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes bearing either the SAα-2,3 or the SAα-2,6 receptor. The emergence of this A/harbor seal/Massachusetts/1/2011 virus may herald the appearance of an H3N8 influenza clade with potential for persistence and cross-species transmission.

  14. Harbor Seal Vibrissa Morphology Reduces Vortex-Induced Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Heather; Dahl, Jason; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Studies show that harbor seals are adept at tracking small movements in the water, such as those left in the wake of fish, by using their highly sensitive whiskers to detect fluid structures, even without auditory or visual cues. The present work investigates the intriguing claim that the unique morphology of the harbor seal whisker suppresses Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV). This implies that the geometry is specialized to reduce the background noise caused by the whisker's own wake in the detection of the upstream target. Forces on a rigid whisker model (scale: 50x) being towed steadily down a water tank while experiencing imposed oscillations are measured. A range of frequencies and amplitudes are tested, the hydrodynamic lift coefficient in phase with velocity (CL,v) is calculated for each, and values are combined in a contour plot. The region of positive CL,v peaks at an amplitude ratio of 0.1, indicating that the whisker's undulatory, asymmetric structure considerably reduces (but does not entirely suppress) regions where the structure experiences VIV in comparison with a standard cylinder, whose peak reaches an amplitude ratio of 0.8.

  15. Septicaemia in emerald monitors (Varanus prasinus Schlegel 1839) caused by Streptococcus agalactiae acquired from mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, U; König, A; Yildirim, A O; Lämmler, Ch; Kipar, A

    2003-09-24

    The present study was performed to investigate both the identity and the source of the bacteria responsible for a fatal septicaemia observed in a group of three subadult emerald monitors (Varanus prasinus Schlegel 1839). The emerald monitors were necropsied and examined by light microscopy, including immunohistology, and by electron microscopy. Tissue samples were additionally submitted for bacteriological, virological and parasitological examinations. The virological and parasitological results were noncontributory, whereas the bacteriological investigation resulted in the isolation of gram-positive cocci which were characterized biochemically and serologically and by molecular analysis. The death of the emerald monitors was caused by a partially leukocyte-associated septicaemic infection with streptococci of serological group B of serotype V. Phenotypically and genotypically identical group B streptococci were isolated from the intestine of subadult mice, obtained from the feed used for the monitors. The genotypical characterization included an identical DNA fingerprint of strains of both origins, indicating the epidemiological relation between the feeding mice and the infections of the monitors. PMID:12935754

  16. Development of nested PCR for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from tilapia%罗非鱼无乳链球菌巢式 PCR 检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵辰; 易弋; 黎娅; 黄荷; 伍时华; 杨军

    2016-01-01

    Based on the cfb gene sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae, two pairs of primers were designed and synthesized and the amplification conditions were optimized to establish the nested PCR method which could identify S.agalactiae with high sensitively.The results showed that S.agalactiae could be directly detected from blood sample at a minimum concentra -tion as 8.7 ×10 4 CFU/ml by this method.Nineteen clinical S.agalactiae -infected tilapia samples collected from Guangxi province were applied to verify this method.The results showed that 260 bp fragment could be amplified in 18 samples and the sequencing analysis revealed that all the amplified fragment were cfb gene of S.agalactiae.The detection accuracy of this method was 94.7%.%根据无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)cfb 基因序列,设计、合成2对引物,优化扩增条件,建立了快速高灵敏度鉴别无乳链球菌的巢式 PCR 方法。结果显示:使用该方法对罗非鱼(Oreochromis mossambicus)血液样品进行检测,可检测到活菌浓度为8.7×104 CFU/mL 的无乳链球菌。对采自广西地区受无乳链球菌感染的19份罗非鱼样品进行检测,18份可获得目的片段,扩增到的序列均为无乳链球菌 cfb 基因序列,检测准确度达到94.7%。

  17. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not

  18. First isolation of Schizophyllum commune in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, Yasuko; Hirano, Yuzo; Watabe, Hirofumi; Hosaka, Kentaro; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2016-07-01

    To date, Schizophyllum commune infection has been identified in only humans and dogs. A 7-year-old female harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) died after exhibiting corneal opacity, anorexia, and labored respiration. At necropsy, phthisis of the left eyeball was detected, and multiple nodular lesions were observed in the thoracic and abdominal regions, especially in the lung, heart, and lymph nodes. Histopathologically, numerous hyphae were seen in granulomatous lesions in the eyes, lung, heart, and lymph nodules. An isolate on potato dextrose agar from the eyes, lung, and sputum yielded a rapidly growing white woolly mycelia with basidiocarps (fruiting bodies) at 37°C. A suitable temperature for mycelial growth was obtained at 25°C, although sustained growth also occurred at 37°C. The fungal isolate, KH-JPN15-011, had distinctive features including hyphae bearing spicules and clamp connections, which were consistent with the characteristics of basidiomycete fungus. The sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA showed 99.67% (617 bp) similarity with those of S. commune Phylogenetic analysis showed that the present isolate is most closely related to the samples from the Old World. This is the first report of a fatal disease caused by S. commune in exotic animals. Previously reported human and canine infections have not included granulomatous endophthalmitis and myocarditis. After considering these and previous findings, there is a possibility that S. commune from the Old World may include numerous highly pathogenic strains. PMID:26933208

  19. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Lin, Xian-Dan [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Wen [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Shi, Mang [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Guo, Wen-Ping [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Xiao-He [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Xing, Jian-Guang [Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  20. Prokaryotic expression and immunogenicity analysis of C5a peptidase (ScpB) of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from tilapia%罗非鱼无乳链球菌C5a肽酶(ScpB)的原核表达及其免疫原性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆勇; 可小丽; 卢迈新; 朱华平; 高风英; 刘志刚

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major bacterial pathogen that has caused severe economic losses in many spe-cies of freshwater, marine and estuarine fish worldwide. ScpB is a highly conserved surface protein among all group B streptococcus (GBS) strains and is an attractive surface-exposed antigen for inclusion among vaccine components against GBS. In this study, the scpB gene was amplified from the genomic DNA of an S. agalactiae strain isolated from diseased tilapia farmed in Guangdong province, China. The scpB gene contains a 2 799 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding 932 amino acids. The molecular mass of the deduced protein was 103 kD. Blast analysis showed that it shares high similarity with scpB sequences of human GBSs registered in GenBank. Prokaryotic expression vector pET32a (+) was used to construct a recombinant expression vector pET32a (+)-scpB, which was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Colonies containing the recombinant expression vector pET32a (+)-scpB were selected and then induced to express using 0.5 mmol/L IPTG for 8 h at 37℃. The expressed recombinant protein was purified by nickel chelate affinity chromatography and ultrafiltration tube enrichment. SDS-PAGE analysis and western blotting showed a spe-cific protein band of about 121 kD. The recombinant strain could produce large amounts of ScpB protein, mainly in the form of an inclusion body. To analyze the immunogenicity of the recombinant protein, the purified fusion protein and Freund’s adjuvant were mixed according to a certain proportions to produce vaccines. Three immune dosages, 1μg/g(F1), 3μg/g(F3) and 5μg/g(F5) were used. Four weeks after immunization, tilapia were challenged by artificial infection with the GBS ZP-N strain, which was previously isolated and confirmed to be a tilapia pathogen by our labo-ratory. The recorded relative percent survivals (RPS) of the vaccinated groups ranged from 69.99%to 89%, of which group F5 has the highest RPS. The lysozyme

  1. Monitoring and Characterization of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Strains from Healthy and Sick Animals in Spain in 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Teshager, Tirushet; Sáenz, Yolanda; Porrero, María Concepción; Domínguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    Genes encoding CTX-M-14, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-32, SHV-12, TEM-52, or CMY-2 β-lactamases were detected in 21 Escherichia coli strains recovered during 2003 from sick animals (11 of 459 [2.4%] strains) and healthy animals (10 of 158 [6.3%] strains) in Spain. Twelve of these strains harbored blaCTX-M genes and showed unrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns.

  2. Environmental Impact of Artificial Harbors in Tropic Pacific Oceanic Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Chunting; Russell Howorth; HE Chaoxiong

    2004-01-01

    For loading and unloading of boats or ships round the clock, the access channel and its expanded part-a port are excavated on the lagoon and ocean reef flats in the tropic Pacific oceanic islands. Without moles, the access channel-port traps sediment and further transports it to the ocean or lagoon, resulting in coastal erosion. The wide uneven reef flat with a large catchment area tends to cause the formation of tide currents in the channel-port, while strong waves on the narrow even reef flat can give rise to rip currents. An access channel-port with a mole on one side or two moles on both sides results in less erosion. A model is recommended as an artificial harbor on the ocean coast, which is an excavated port surrounded by a mole, connected with the ocean by an access channel and with the shore by a bridge-shaped pier.

  3. Jam Formation of Traffic Flow in Harbor Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a study concerning occurrence and growth of traffic jam in a harbor tunnel. The single-lane with three sections (downgrade, flat, and upgrade) is taken into account and they are characterized with different velocity limit. At the low density, the traffic current increases linearly with density and saturates at some values of immediately density. As the density increases, the traffic jam appears firstly before the upgrade section and then extends to the downgrade section. Additionally, the relationships of the velocity and headway against position in different densities are obtained from simulation. These results clearly clarify where and when the traffic jam appears. Finally, the critical densities are derived via the theoretical analysis before and after the discontinuous fronts and the theoretical results are consistent with the critical values of simulation results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  4. Geographic, seasonal, and diurnal surface behavior of harbor porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Jonas; Christiansen, C.T.; Kjellerup, Sanne;

    2013-01-01

    are essential information on the status and management of the species. Thirty-five free-ranging harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were tracked in the region between the Baltic and the North Sea for 25-349 d using Argos satellite transmitters. No differences were found in surface behavior between...... geographical areas or the size of the animals. Slight differences were found between the two sexes and time of day. Surface time peaked in April, where 6% was spent with the transmitter above surface and 61.5% between 0 and 2 m depth, while the minimum values occurred in February (3.4% and 42.5%, respectively......). The analyses reveal that individual variation among porpoises is the most important factor in explaining variation in surface rates. However, the large number of animals documented in the present study covering a wide range of age and sex groups justifies the use of the seasonal average surface times...

  5. Environmental security of the port and harbors' sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obhodas, Jasmina; Valkovic, Vladivoj; Davorin, Sudac; Matika, Dario; Pavić, Ivica

    2009-05-01

    While polluted sediments present a threat to the health of the marine ecosystem and indirectly to the public health, ammunition dump sites being mostly unprotected and neglected, present a serious threat to human security, environmental security and could be possible objects of misuse. Of special interest are sediments in ports and marinas. Those are the places where any suspicious object needs to be analyzed for the presence of explosives and CW. After analyzing several hundreds of sediment samples collected along the Adriatic coast, it has been found that they could be grouped in 7 categories: bays, beaches, villages, ports, marinas - pier area, marina - service areas and others. We have shown that the sediments in ports and harbors contain increased values of elements present in antifouling paints (Cu, As, Zn and Pb). Their presence modifies the response of survey probes while screening the sea floor for the presence of explosives and CW.

  6. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M R; Ward, J A; Mayhew, H L; Word, J Q; Niyogi, D K; Kohn, N P [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-10-01

    During the summer of 1991, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted to conduct sampling and testing of sediments proposed for dredging of Richmond Harbor, California. The MSL collected sediment cores to a depth of [minus]40 ft MLLW ([minus]38 ft + 2 ft overdepth) from 28 (12-in. core) and 30 (4-in. core) stations. The sediment cores were allocated to six composite samples referred to as sediment treatments, which were then subjected to physical, chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation testing. Physical and chemical parameters included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), priority pollutant metals, and butyltins. The results from the test treatments were compared to results from five reference treatments representative of potential in-bay and offshore disposal sites.

  7. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the summer of 1991, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted to conduct sampling and testing of sediments proposed for dredging of Richmond Harbor, California. The MSL collected sediment cores to a depth of -40 ft MLLW (-38 ft + 2 ft overdepth) from 28 (12-in. core) and 30 (4-in. core) stations. The sediment cores were allocated to six composite samples referred to as sediment treatments, which were then subjected to physical, chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation testing. Physical and chemical parameters included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), priority pollutant metals, and butyltins. The results from the test treatments were compared to results from five reference treatments representative of potential in-bay and offshore disposal sites

  8. NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION IN NY/NJ HARBOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Lelie, D.; Reid-Green, J. D.; Stern, E. A.

    2003-12-31

    We have investigated the feasibility of using natural attenuation methods for ecosystem restoration in New York/New Jersey Harbor. Measurements were made of the most probable number of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in native sediments and in samples, which had been supplemented with an appropriate electron donor and electron acceptor. The results showed that the activity of the endogenous microbial population in the native sediment was high enough to make possible adequate chemical transformation rates. The bioavailability of the zinc in the sediments was measured using the BIOMET biosensor technique. The bioavailability of the zinc was effectively eliminated following the microbial activities. We concluded that natural attenuation could be used effectively in treating sediments from Newark Bay and surrounding waters and that the resultant materials could likely be used in environmental restoration projects of the type proposed for construction in South Kearny, NJ.

  9. Two novel EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains isolated from human infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Prager

    Full Text Available The so far highest number of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome was associated with a food-borne outbreak in 2011 in Germany which was caused by an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC of the rare serotype O104:H4. Most importantly, the outbreak strain harbored genes characteristic of both EHEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC. Such strains have been described seldom but due to the combination of virulence genes show a high pathogenicity potential. To evaluate the importance of EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains in human disease, we analyzed the EHEC strain collection of the German National Reference Centre for Salmonella and other Bacterial Enteric Pathogens (NRC. After exclusion of O104:H4 EHEC/EAEC strains, out of about 2400 EHEC strains sent to NRC between 2008 and 2012, two strains exhibited both EHEC and EAEC marker genes, specifically were stx2 and aatA positive. Like the 2011 outbreak strain, one of the novel EHEC/EAEC harbored the Shiga toxin gene type stx2a. The strain was isolated from a patient with bloody diarrhea in 2010, was serotyped as O59:H-, belonged to MLST ST1136, and exhibited genes for type IV aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF. The second strain was isolated from a patient with diarrhea in 2012, harbored stx2b, was typed as Orough:H-, and belonged to MLST ST26. Although the strain conferred the aggregative adherence phenotype, no known AAF genes corresponding to fimbrial types I to V were detected. In summary, EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains are currently rarely isolated from human disease cases in Germany and two novel EHEC/EAEC of rare serovars/MLST sequence types were characterized.

  10. Resultados de la aplicación del protocolo basado en screening para la búsqueda de Streptococcus agalactiae en el tercer trimestre del embarazo: Posible impacto sobre la sepsis neonatal precoz por este agente PERFORMANCE OF A Streptococcus agalactiae UNIVERSAL SCREENING PROTOCOL DURING THE THIRD THRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY: IMPLICATIONS IN REDUCING NEONATAL GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL SEPSIS

    OpenAIRE

    ANA M. GUZMÁN D.; FERNANDO ABARZÚA C.; CRISTIAN BELMAR J.; PATRICIA GARCÍA C.

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) es la principal causa de sepsis neonatal precoz (SNP). Recientemente el CDC ha planteado tratar sólo pacientes con factores de riesgo o detectar a las portadoras realizando cultivo vaginal-perianal en el 3º trimestre del embarazo (screening universal). En nuestro hospital hasta el año 1999 sólo se trataba a las pacientes con factores de riesgo, presentando en el bienio 1997/1998 una tasa de SNP por SGB de 1,84/1.000 nacidos vivos. Entre octubre 1999 y noviembre ...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Methanotrophic Gammaproteobacterium Methyloglobulus morosus DSM 22980 Strain KoM1

    OpenAIRE

    Poehlein, Anja; Daniel, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the methanotrophic gammaproteobacterium Methyloglobulus morosus DSM 22980 strain KoM1, which is proposed to be the type species for the novel genus Methyloglobulus. The genome (4.143 Mb) consists of a single circular chromosome and harbors genes for 2-aminoethylphosphonate (ciliatine) biosynthesis.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Naphthalene Degrader Herbaspirillum sp. Strain RV1423

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Ruy; Rodelas, Belén; Geffers, Robert; Boon, Nico; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2014-01-01

    Herbaspirillum sp. strain RV1423 was isolated from a site contaminated with alkanes and aromatic compounds and harbors the complete pathway for naphthalene degradation. The new features found in RV1423 increase considerably the versatility and the catabolic potential of a genus of bacteria previously considered mainly to be diazotrophic endophytes to plants. PMID:24652979

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. KHS3, a Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon-Chemotactic Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Gasperotti, Ana Florencia; Studdert, Claudia Alicia; Revale, Santiago; Herrera Seitz, María Karina

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Halomonas sp. KHS3, isolated from seawater from Mar del Plata harbor, is reported. This strain is able to grow using aromatic compounds as a carbon source and shows strong chemotactic response toward these substrates. Genes involved in motility, chemotaxis, and degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons were identified.

  14. 75 FR 5907 - Safety Zone; Dive Platform, Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Dive Platform, Pago Pago Harbor, American... a temporary safety zone around a dive platform vessel in Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa,...

  15. 75 FR 14493 - Safety Zone; Dive Platform, Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...; Dive Platform, Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa in the Federal Register (75 FR 5907). We received no... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Dive Platform, Pago Pago Harbor, American... temporary safety zone around the USNS Sioux or M/V EL LOBO GRANDE II dive platform and the 332-foot...

  16. 33 CFR 117.213 - New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers. 117.213 Section 117.213 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac and Mill Rivers. The draws of the Tomlinson bridge, mile 0.0, the Ferry...

  17. 33 CFR 207.580 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.580 Section 207.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.580 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.;...

  18. Sedimentation and chronology of heavy metal pollution in Oslo harbor, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepland, Aivo; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Lepland, Aave;

    2010-01-01

    indicate that propeller wash affects the seabed in the Oslo harbor. The propeller-induced turbulence causes erosion, and in places exposes and remobilizes contaminated sediments that accumulated in the harbor during previous decades. Such re-exposure of contaminated sediments could be detrimental to local...

  19. 76 FR 36311 - Special Local Regulation; Extreme Sailing Series Boston; Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Sailing Series Boston; Boston Harbor, Boston, Massachusetts, in the Federal Register (76 FR 20595). We... race area: All waters of Boston Harbor near Boston, MA, surface to bottom, encompassed by an area... participating in the Extreme Sailing Series event from entering the designated race area. DATES: This rule...

  20. 75 FR 21651 - Final Environmental Impact Statement; Prisoners Harbor Coastal Wetland Restoration Plan, Channel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement; Prisoners Harbor Coastal Wetland Restoration... impacts of restoring the coastal wetland and lower riparian corridor at Prisoners Harbor on Santa Cruz... productivity by removing fill and restoring the historic wetland; (3) provide an enhanced visitor experience...

  1. 33 CFR 110.27 - Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. 110.27 Section 110.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.27 Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass. North...

  2. 33 CFR 110.40 - Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. 110.40 Section 110.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Falmouth, Mass. All the waters of the harbor northward of the inner end of the entrance channel....

  3. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. 110.31 Section 110.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42... jurisdiction, and at the discretion, of the local Harbor Master, Hull, Mass....

  4. 75 FR 53572 - Safety Zone; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd... establishing a temporary safety zone within the navigation channel in Budd Inlet, WA during Olympia Harbor Days... to restrict vessel traffic movement on specified waters of the Budd Inlet, WA during Olympia...

  5. 76 FR 30825 - Special Local Regulation; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... the Federal Register (76 FR 006). We did not receive any comments on the proposed rule. We did not... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat... and an area extending north of the channel in Budd Inlet, WA during the annual Olympia Harbor Days...

  6. 76 FR 1384 - Special Local Regulation; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat... annual Olympia Harbor Days tug boat races. This action is necessary to restrict vessel movement...

  7. Congress Investigates: Pearl Harbor and 9/11 Congressional Hearing Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, Christine

    2011-01-01

    On the morning of December 7, 1941, Japanese bombers staged a surprise attack on U.S. military forces at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Sixty years after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States was attacked again. On the morning of September 11, 2001, four commercial airplanes hijacked by 19 terrorists killed nearly 3,000 people when they crashed…

  8. Receiving beam patterns in the horizontal plane of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Janssen, M.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, de D.

    2005-01-01

    Receiving beam patterns of a harbor porpoise were measured in the horizontal plane, using narrow-band frequency modulated signals with center frequencies of 16, 64, and 100 kHz. Total signal duration was 1000 ms, including a 200 ms rise time and 300 ms fall time. The harbor porpoise was trained to p

  9. 75 FR 38019 - Safety Zone; Fixed Mooring Balls, South of Barbers Pt. Harbor Channel, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fixed Mooring Balls, South of Barbers Pt... placement of six fixed mooring balls in an area south of Barbers Pt. Harbor Channel, the Coast Guard is... Safety Zone; Fixed Mooring Balls, South of Barbers Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii. (a) Location....

  10. 78 FR 19158 - Safety Zone; USA Triathlon, Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to establish a safety zone within Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This Zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Milwaukee Harbor due to the 2013 and 2014 Olympic and Sprint Distance National Championships. This proposed safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the 2013 and 2014 Olympic......

  11. 33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.930 Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval...

  12. Outbreak Caused by Enterobacteriaceae Harboring NDM-1 Metallo-β-Lactamase Carried in an IncFII Plasmid in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Pedro; Bobadilla-del Valle, Miriam; Tovar-Calderón, Estrella; Leal-Vega, Francisco; Hernández-Cruz, Araceli; Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Niembro-Ortega, María Dolores; Sifuentes-Osornio, José

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carrying New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) have rarely been reported in Latin America. We report of an outbreak caused by a blaNDM-1-harboring plasmid spread through different bacterial species, including Escherichia coli (ST617) and Enterobacter cloacae (ST182) isolates from the same patient and three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (ST22) derived from three epidemiologically related patients. IncFII plasmids were found in all strains. Measures to control the outbreak were applied successfully. PMID:26282410

  13. Genomic and Functional Characterization of the Unusual pLOCK 0919 Plasmid Harboring the spaCBA Pili Cluster in Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0919

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Koryszewska-Bagińska, Anna; Grynberg, Marcin; Nowak, Adriana; Cukrowska, Bożena; Kozakova, Hana; Bardowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the extensive bioinformatic and functional analyses of the unusual pLOCK 0919, a plasmid originating from the probiotic Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0919 strain. This plasmid is atypical because it harbors the spaCBA-srtC gene cluster encoding SpaCBA pili. We show that all other spaCBA-srtC sequences of the Lactobacillus genus that have been previously described and deposited in GenBank are present in the chromosomal DNA. Another important observation for pLOCK 0919 is that the sp...

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Seven Bacterial Strains Isolated from a Polymicrobial Culture of Coccolith-Bearing (C-Type) Emiliania huxleyi M217

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosana, Albert Remus R.; Orata, Fabini D.; Xu, Yue; Simkus, Danielle N.; Bramucci, Anna R.; Boucher, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Strains of Rhodobacteraceae, Sphingomonadales, Alteromonadales, and Bacteroidetes were isolated from a polymicrobial culture of the coccolith-forming (C-type) haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi strain M217. The genomes encode genes for the production of algal growth factors and the consumption of their hosts’ metabolic by-products, suggesting that the polymicrobial culture harbors many symbiotic interactions. PMID:27417845

  15. 新生儿无乳链球菌败血症临床分析%Clinical analysis of 11 cases of neonatal streptococcus agalactiae sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾淑娟; 丘惠娴

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨新生儿无乳链球菌败血症的临床特点及耐药性.方法:对11例新生儿无乳链球菌败血症患儿的临床资料和治疗结果进行回顾性分析.结果:2012年确诊新生儿败血症25例中无乳链球菌感染占44.0%,其中早发败血症7例,晚发败血症4例;临床表现发热6例,黄疸5例,肺炎5例 (早发感染占4例),颅内感染4例 (晚发感染占3例);所有血培养对青霉素、头孢类抗生素和万古霉素均无耐药性,对四环素耐药100.0%,对克林霉素耐药72.7%.结论:无乳链球菌败血症早发感染临床以呼吸道表现为主,晚发感染常合并颅内感染,需注意完善脑脊液检查.治疗上首选青霉素、头孢菌素,克林霉素耐药性高不宜临床选用.%Objective:To investigate the neonatal streptococcus agalactiae sepsis clinical characteristics and resistance in order to guide clinical treatment.Methods:The clinical features and resistance of 11 neonatal streptococcus agalactiae sepsis which admitted in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed.Results:25 cases neonatal sepsis were diagnozed in 2012,streptococcus agalactiae infections accounted for 44%,including 7 cases of early-onset sepsis,4 cases of late-onset sepsis.Clinical manifestations:6 cases got fever,5 cases got jaundice,5 cases got pneumonia (including 4 cases of early-onset infection),4 cases got intracranial infection (including 3 cases late-onset infection).All blood cultures had no resistance to penicillin,cephalosporins and vancomycin,100% resistance to tetracycline,72.7% resistance to clindamycin.Conclusion:The trend of streptococcus agalactiae sepsis is growing in 2012,early-onset infection is often associated with respiratory symptoms,late-onset infection is often associated with intracranial infection,we need to pay attention to improve the cerebrospinal fluid examination.We can choose penicillin,cephalosporin for treatment.Clindamycin is not

  16. Manila clams from Hg polluted sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons (Italy) harbor detoxifying Hg resistant bacteria in soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mechanism of mercury detoxification has been suggested by a previous study on Hg bioaccumulation in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the polluted Marano and Grado lagoons and in this study we demonstrate that this event could be partly related to the detoxifying activities of Hg-resistant bacteria (MRB) harbored in clam soft tissues. Therefore, natural clams were collected in six stations during two different periods (winter and spring) from Marano and Grado Lagoons. Siphons, gills and hepatopancreas from acclimatized clams were sterile dissected to isolate MRB. These anatomical parts were glass homogenized or used for whole, and they were lying on a solid medium containing 5 mg l−1 HgCl2 and incubated at 30 °C. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis, revealing that strains were representative of eight bacterial genera, four of which were Gram-positive (Enterococcus, Bacillus, Jeotgalicoccus and Staphylococcus) and other four were Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Raoultella and Enterobacter). Plasmids and merA genes were found and their sequences determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique shows the presence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria by using different molecular probes in siphon and gills. Bacterial clumps inside clam flesh were observed and even a Gram-negative endosymbiont was disclosed by transmission electronic microscope inside clam cells. Bacteria harbored in cavities of soft tissue have mercury detoxifying activity. This feature was confirmed by the determination of mercuric reductase in glass-homogenized siphons and gills. -- Highlights: ► We isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative Hg resistant strains from soft tissues of Ruditapes philippinarum. ► We identify 14 mercury resistant strains by 16S rRNA gene sequences. ► Bacteria in siphon and gill tissues of clams were observed by TEM and identified with different

  17. Manila clams from Hg polluted sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons (Italy) harbor detoxifying Hg resistant bacteria in soft tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, Franco, E-mail: baldi@unive.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Cà Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Cà Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Faleri, Claudia [Department of Environmental Science ‘G. Sarfatti’, University of Siena, 53100 Siena (Italy); Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Via Romana, 17, University of Florence, 50125 Florence (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    A mechanism of mercury detoxification has been suggested by a previous study on Hg bioaccumulation in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the polluted Marano and Grado lagoons and in this study we demonstrate that this event could be partly related to the detoxifying activities of Hg-resistant bacteria (MRB) harbored in clam soft tissues. Therefore, natural clams were collected in six stations during two different periods (winter and spring) from Marano and Grado Lagoons. Siphons, gills and hepatopancreas from acclimatized clams were sterile dissected to isolate MRB. These anatomical parts were glass homogenized or used for whole, and they were lying on a solid medium containing 5 mg l{sup −1} HgCl{sub 2} and incubated at 30 °C. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis, revealing that strains were representative of eight bacterial genera, four of which were Gram-positive (Enterococcus, Bacillus, Jeotgalicoccus and Staphylococcus) and other four were Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Raoultella and Enterobacter). Plasmids and merA genes were found and their sequences determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique shows the presence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria by using different molecular probes in siphon and gills. Bacterial clumps inside clam flesh were observed and even a Gram-negative endosymbiont was disclosed by transmission electronic microscope inside clam cells. Bacteria harbored in cavities of soft tissue have mercury detoxifying activity. This feature was confirmed by the determination of mercuric reductase in glass-homogenized siphons and gills. -- Highlights: ► We isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative Hg resistant strains from soft tissues of Ruditapes philippinarum. ► We identify 14 mercury resistant strains by 16S rRNA gene sequences. ► Bacteria in siphon and gill tissues of clams were observed by TEM and identified

  18. Comprehensive identification and profiling of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) microRNAs response to Streptococcus agalactiae infection through high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Gan, Zhen; Cai, Shuanghu; Wang, Zhongliang; Yu, Dapeng; Lin, Ziwei; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs are a kind of small non-coding RNAs that participate in various biological processes. Deregulated microRNA expression is associated with several types of diseases. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is an important commercial fish species in China. To identify miRNAs and investigate immune-related miRNAs of O. niloticus, we applied high-throughput sequencing technology to identify and analyze miRNAs from tilapia infected with Streptococcus agalactiae at a timescale of 72 h divided into six different time points. The results showed that a total of 3009 tilapia miRNAs were identified, including in 1121 miRNAs which have homologues in the currently available databases and 1878 novel miRNAs. The expression levels of 218 tilapia miRNAs were significantly altered at 6 h-72 h post-bacterial infection (pi), and these miRNAs were therefore classified as differentially expressed tilapia miRNAs. For the 1121 differentially expressed tilapia miRNAs target 41961 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that some target genes of tilapia miRNAs were grouped mainly into the categories of apoptotic process, signal pathway, and immune response. This is the first report of comprehensive identification of O. niloticus miRNAs being differentially regulated in spleen in normal conditions relating to S. agalactiae infection. This work provides an opportunity for further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of miRNA regulation in O. niloticus host-pathogen interactions. PMID:27050313

  19. Identification of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Strains from Avian Organic Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Puño-Sarmiento

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%, three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%, 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%, but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.

  20. Tsunami Hazard Assessment in New Zealand Ports and Harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, J. C.; Wotherspoon, L.; Power, W. L.; Goring, D.; Barberopoulou, A.; Melville, B.; Shamseldin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The New Zealand Ministry of Science and Innovation (MSI) has sponsored a 3-year collaborative project involving industry, government and university research groups to better assess and prepare for tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. As an island nation, New Zealand is highly dependent on its maritime infrastructure for commercial and recreational interests. The recent tsunamis of 2009, 2010 and 2011 (Samoa, Chile and Japan) highlighted the vulnerability of New Zealand's marine infrastructure to strong currents generated by such far field events. These events also illustrated the extended duration of the effects from such tsunamis, with some of the strongest currents and highest water levels occurring many hours, if not days after the tsunami first arrival. In addition, New Zealand also sits astride the Tonga-Kermadec subduction zone, which given the events of recent years, cannot be underestimated as a major near field hazard. This presentation will discuss the modeling and research strategy that will be used to mitigate tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. This will include a detailed time-series analysis (including Fourier and discrete Wavelet techniques) of water levels recorded throughout New Zealand form recent tsunami events (2009 Samoa, 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan). The information learned from these studies will guide detailed numerical modeling of tsunami induced currents at key New Zealand ports. The model results will then be used to guide a structural analysis of the relevant port structures in terms of hydrodynamic loads as well as mooring and impact loads due to vessel and/or debris. Ultimately the project will lead to an improvement in New Zealand's tsunami response plans by providing a decision making flow chart, targeted for marine facilities, to be used by emergency management officials during future tsunami events.Tsunami effects at Port Charles, New Zealand: (top) inundation into a neighborhood and (bottom left and right

  1. [Susceptibility of clinically-isolated bacteria strains to respiratory quinolones and evaluation of antimicrobial agent efficacy by Monte Carlo simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Tadashi; Yamada, Yukiji; Kimura, Takeshi; Kodama, Mai; Fujitomo, Yumiko; Masaki, Nakanishi; Toshiaki, Komori; Keisuke, Shikata; Fujita, Naohisa

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory quinolones (RQs) are broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents used for the treatment of a wide variety of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. However, bacterial resistance to quinolones has been on the increase. In this study, we investigated the predicted efficacy of RQs for various strains of 9 bacterial species clinically isolated at our university hospital using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method based on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. In addition, the influence of the patients' renal function on the efficacy of RQs was evaluated. We surveyed antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 9 bacterial species (n = number of strains) [Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 15), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 14), Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 19), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (n = 24), Escherichia coli (n = 35), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 17), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 14), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 31), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 11)] to 4 RQs [garenoxacin (GRNX), levofloxacin (LVFX), sitafloxacin (STFX), and moxifloxacin (MFLX)]. We found that compared with the other RQs, Gram-positive cocci was most resistant to LVFX, and that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC₉₀) values for S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, and MSSA were high (2, 16, > 16, and 8 µg/mL, respectively). In regard to Gram-negative rods, the susceptibility of E. coli to RQs was found to be decreased, with the MIC₉₀ values of GRNX, LVFX, STFX, and MFLX being > 16, 16, 1, and 16 µg/mL, respectively. MCS revealed that the target attainment rate of the area under the unbound concentration-time curve divided by the MIC₉₀ (ƒ · AUC/MIC ratio), against S. pneumoniae was 86.9-100%, but against E. coli was low (52.1-66.2%). The ƒ · AUC/MIC target attainment rate of LVFX against S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and S. agalactiae tended to decrease due to increased creatinine clearance, and that of LVFX and STFX against MSSA also

  2. Abstracts of papers presented at the LVIII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on quantitative Biology: DNA and chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the LVIII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitles DNA & Chromosomes. The meeting was held June 2--June 9, 1993 at Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

  3. bh_1mBS.tif: Backscatter Imagery from Sidescan Sonar 1 meter/pixel of Boston Harbor and Approaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution acoustic backscatter measurements of the seafloor from Boston Harbor and the harbor approaches, Massachusetts. Approximately 170 km²...

  4. Genetic markers for detection of Escherichia coli K-12 harboring ampicillin-resistance plasmid from an industrial wastewater treatment effluent pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, G A R; Xavier, M A S; Oliveira, D A; Menezes, E V; Magalhães, S S G; Gandra, J A C D; Xavier, A R E O

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology industries that use recombinant DNA technology are potential sources for release of genetically modified organisms to the environment. Antibiotic-resistance marker genes are commonly used for recombinant bacteria selection. One example is the marker gene coding for β-lactamase (bla) in plasmids found in Escherichia coli K-12. The aim of this study was to provide an approach to develop a molecular method for genetic marker detection in E. coli K-12 harboring bla genes from an industrial wastewater treatment effluent pond (IWTEP). For the detection of bla and Achromobacter lyticus protease I (api) genes in samples from IWTEP, we employed multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using E. coli K-12 genetic marker detection primers, previously described in the literature, and primers designed in our laboratory. The microbiological screening method resulted in 22 bacterial colony-forming units isolated from three different IWTEP harvesting points. The multiplex PCR amplicons showed that five isolates were positive for the bla gene marker and negative for the E. coli K-12 and api genes. The 16S rRNA regions of positive microorganisms carrying the bla gene were genotyped by the MicroSeq®500 system. The bacteria found were Escherichia spp (3/5), Chromobacterium spp (1/5), and Aeromonas spp (1/5). None of the 22 isolated microorganisms presented the molecular pattern of E. coli K-12 harboring the bla gene. The presence of microorganisms positive for the bla gene and negative for E. coli K-12 harboring bla genes at IWTEP suggests that the ampicillin resistance found in the isolated bacteria could be from microorganisms other than the E. coli K-12 strain harboring plasmid. PMID:27323199

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Dairy Cows with Clinical Mastitis in Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia%内蒙古通辽市某奶牛场乳房炎无乳链球菌的分离、鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚团莲

    2016-01-01

    旨在调查引起内蒙古通辽地区奶牛乳房炎发生的优势病原菌。采用常规方法对采集自该地区某奶牛场的3份临床型乳房炎患牛奶样进行优势致病菌的分离鉴定,采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)评价分离菌对兽医临床常用抗菌药物的敏感性。结果表明,从3份乳样中共分离到14株菌,经生化试验鉴定为无乳链球菌;药敏试验结果表明,分离菌对链霉素及磺胺嘧啶表现出较强的耐药性,而卡那霉素、庆大霉素及麦迪霉素对分离菌则表现出较好的抑菌效果。%The aim of the present study was to determine the dominant species of bacteria associated with bovine mastitis in Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia. Three quarter milk samples were collected from dairy cows with clinical mastitis and were used to isolate pathogenic bacteria by conventional method. The antimicrobial susceptibility test of the isolates was conducted using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The results revealed that a total of 14 strains were isolated from the 3 samples and they were subsequently phenotypically identified as Streptococcus agalactiae. While reduced susceptibility to streptomycin and sulfadiazine were observed, kanamycin, gentamicin and midecamycin are found as susceptible drugs for the isolated Streptococcus strains.

  6. 罗非鱼无乳链球菌C5a肽酶的克隆及原核表达质粒构建%Cloning and construction of recombinant expression plasmid of C5 a peptidase of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from tilapia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆勇; 可小丽; 卢迈新; 朱华平; 高风英

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae surface proteins can stimulate the host to produce protective immune. The protein C5a peptidase is widespread in a variety of serotypes of Streptococcus strains,highly conserved and has good immunogenicity. It is a possible carrier protein that could induce protective immune response by itself. However,the immune epitopes and the role of virulence groups of S. agalactiae scpB gene of fish is still unclear. In this study,the scpB gene was amplified from genome DNA of S. agalactiae isolated from tilapia by PCR with specific primers. Restriction analysis and DNA sequencing confirmed that the scpB gene has a ORF of 3 405 bp, encoding 1 134 amino acid,which was highly conserved and had a surprising degree of homology among strains i-solated from other mammals. Molecular analysis of scpB gene was performed by bioinformatics tools such as DNAstar,Clustal X 2. 0,MEGA 5. 05,ExPASy ProtParam,NCBI Protein blast,and NCBI Conserved Domain et al. The results showed that the amino acid encoded by the scpB gene contained 3 catalytic triad,7 putative active sites,2 specific hits,and 4 super families (2 Peptidases-S8-S53,1 DUF1034,and 1 FlgD-lg). Moreover,it was found that C5a peptidase had mutiple epitopes,suggesting that the protein may have strong immunogenicity. Then the PCR product was inserted into pET32a(+) and the constructed recombinant plasmid pET32a(+)/scpB was transformed to E. coli BL21(DE3) for expression. The positive colony,which were identified by PCR and diges-tion (EcoRⅠand XhoⅠ),showed that the recombinant plasmid pET32a (+)/scpB was constructed successfully. This study paved the way for further study of immune mechanism and polypeptide vaccine based on C5 a peptidase from the tilapia S. agalactiae.%为进一步了解无乳链球菌表面蛋白C5a肽酶scpB基因免疫表位及毒力作用基团的相关信息,通过提取罗非鱼无乳链球菌基因组DNA,利用特异性引物PCR扩增出scpB基因的全长开放阅读框( ORF)

  7. Synanthropic Cockroaches (Blattidae: Periplaneta spp.) Harbor Pathogenic Leptospira in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier A; Bonilla, Álvaro; Lehmicke, Anna Joy J; Castillo, Andrés; Astudillo-Hernández, Miryam

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis cases in Colombia are typically linked to peridomestic rodents; however, empirical data suggest that Leptospira-infected patients with no apparent exposure to these reservoirs are common. Cockroaches (Periplaneta spp.) have equal or greater interaction with humans than rodents, yet their potential role as carriers of Leptospira has not been assessed. We determined if pathogenic Leptospira is harbored by Periplaneta spp. in Cali (Colombia) and the variables influencing this relationship. Fifty-nine cockroaches were captured from seven sites and DNA was extracted from the body surface and digestive tract for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, targeting genes secY and flaB. Logistic regression models and proportion tests showed a higher likelihood for Leptospira to be isolated from body surfaces (P > 0.001) and from individuals inside houses (six times more likely). These findings are the first to demonstrate an association between Periplaneta spp. and Leptospira, suggesting the need to investigate the potential for cockroaches to serve as reservoirs or transport hosts for Leptospira. PMID:26553295

  8. Explosion of white dwarfs harboring hybrid CONe cores

    CERN Document Server

    Bravo, E; Gutiérrez, J L; Doherty, C L

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been found that off-centre carbon burning in a subset of intermediate-mass stars does not propagate all the way to the center, resulting in a class of hybrid CONe cores. Here, we consider the possibility that stars hosting these hybrid CONe cores might belong to a close binary system and, eventually, become white dwarfs accreting from a non-degenerate companion at rates leading to a supernova explosion. We have computed the hydrodynamical phase of the explosion of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs harboring hybrid cores, assuming that the explosion starts at the center, either as a detonation (as may be expected in some degenerate merging scenarios) or as a deflagration (that afterwards transitions into a delayed detonation). We assume these hybrid cores are made of a central CO volume, of mass M(CO), surrounded by an ONe shell. We show that, in case of a pure detonation, a medium-sized CO-rich region, M(CO)<0.4 Msun, results in the ejection of a small fraction of the mantle while leaving a ...

  9. Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) can perceive optic flow under water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläser, Nele; Mauck, Björn; Kandil, Farid I; Lappe, Markus; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Frederike D

    2014-01-01

    Optic flow, the pattern of apparent motion elicited on the retina during movement, has been demonstrated to be widely used by animals living in the aerial habitat, whereas underwater optic flow has not been intensively studied so far. However optic flow would also provide aquatic animals with valuable information about their own movement relative to the environment; even under conditions in which vision is generally thought to be drastically impaired, e. g. in turbid waters. Here, we tested underwater optic flow perception for the first time in a semi-aquatic mammal, the harbor seal, by simulating a forward movement on a straight path through a cloud of dots on an underwater projection. The translatory motion pattern expanded radially out of a singular point along the direction of heading, the focus of expansion. We assessed the seal's accuracy in determining the simulated heading in a task, in which the seal had to judge whether a cross superimposed on the flow field was deviating from or congruent with the actual focus of expansion. The seal perceived optic flow and determined deviations from the simulated heading with a threshold of 0.6 deg of visual angle. Optic flow is thus a source of information seals, fish and most likely aquatic species in general may rely on for e. g. controlling locomotion and orientation under water. This leads to the notion that optic flow seems to be a tool universally used by any moving organism possessing eyes. PMID:25058490

  10. Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina can perceive optic flow under water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Gläser

    Full Text Available Optic flow, the pattern of apparent motion elicited on the retina during movement, has been demonstrated to be widely used by animals living in the aerial habitat, whereas underwater optic flow has not been intensively studied so far. However optic flow would also provide aquatic animals with valuable information about their own movement relative to the environment; even under conditions in which vision is generally thought to be drastically impaired, e. g. in turbid waters. Here, we tested underwater optic flow perception for the first time in a semi-aquatic mammal, the harbor seal, by simulating a forward movement on a straight path through a cloud of dots on an underwater projection. The translatory motion pattern expanded radially out of a singular point along the direction of heading, the focus of expansion. We assessed the seal's accuracy in determining the simulated heading in a task, in which the seal had to judge whether a cross superimposed on the flow field was deviating from or congruent with the actual focus of expansion. The seal perceived optic flow and determined deviations from the simulated heading with a threshold of 0.6 deg of visual angle. Optic flow is thus a source of information seals, fish and most likely aquatic species in general may rely on for e. g. controlling locomotion and orientation under water. This leads to the notion that optic flow seems to be a tool universally used by any moving organism possessing eyes.

  11. Evaluation of older bay mud sediment from Richmond Harbor, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The older, bay mud (OBM) unit predates modem man and could act as a barrier to the downward transport of contaminants from the younger bay mud (YBM) because of its hard-packed consistency. However, its chemical and biological nature have not been well characterized. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted three independent studies of OBM sediment in January 1993, January 1994, and October 1994. These studies evaluated potential chemical contamination and biological effects of OBM that could occur as a result of dredging and disposal activities. These evaluations were performed by conducting chemical analysis, solid-phase toxicity tests, suspended- particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests on the OBM sediment. If the sediment chemistry and toxicity results showed no or minimal contamination and toxicological responses, then either the OBM could be left exposed in Richmond Harbor after dredging the YBM without leaving a source of contamination, or if the project depths necessitate, the OBM would be acceptable for disposal at an appropriate disposal site.

  12. Atmospheric dispersion of PCB from a contaminated Lake Michigan harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Andres; Spak, Scott N.; Petrich, Nicholas T.; Hu, Dingfei; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2015-12-01

    Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) in East Chicago is an industrial waterway on Lake Michigan and a source of PCBs to Lake Michigan and the overlying air. We hypothesized that IHSC is an important source of airborne PCBs to surrounding communities. We used AERMOD to model hourly PCB concentrations, utilizing emission fluxes from a prior study and hourly meteorology provided by the State of Indiana. We also assessed dispersion using hourly observed meteorology from a local airport and high resolution profiles simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model. We found that emissions from IHSC waters contributed about 15% of the observed ∑PCB concentrations close to IHSC when compared on an hourly basis and about 10% of observed annual concentrations at a nearby school. Concentrations at the school due to emissions from IHSC ranged from 0 to 18,000 pg m-3, up to 20 times higher than observed background levels, with an annual geometric mean (GSD) of 19 (31) pg m-3. Our findings indicate that IHSC is an important source of PCBs to East Chicago, but not the only source. Four observed enriched PCB3 samples suggest a nearby non-Aroclor source.

  13. Variability of Kepler Solar-Like Stars Harboring Small Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Steve B; Giampapa, Mark S; Everett, Mark E; Silva, David R; Szkody, Paula

    2015-01-01

    We examine Kepler light curve variability on habitable zone transit timescales for a large uniform sample of spectroscopically studied Kepler exoplanet host stars. The stars, taken from Everett et al. (2013) are solar-like in their properties and each harbors at least one exoplanet (or candidate) of radius $\\le$2.5\\re. The variability timescale examined is typical for habitable zone planets orbiting solar-like stars and we note that the discovery of the smallest exoplanets ($\\le$1.2\\re) with corresponding transit depths of less than $\\sim$0.18 mmag, occur for the brightest, photometrically quietest stars. Thus, these detections are quite rare in $Kepler$ observations. Some brighter and more evolved stars (subgiants), the latter which often show large radial velocity jitter, are found to be among the photometrically quietest solar-like stars in our sample and the most likely small planet transit hunting grounds. The Sun is discussed as a solar-like star proxy to provide insights into the nature and cause of ph...

  14. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  15. 广东地区感染养殖罗非鱼的无乳链球菌分子分型研究%Molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia in Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方伟; 梁宇恒; 宁丹; 柯碧霞; 柯昌文; 邓小玲; 彭华林; 孙九峰; 王云新

    2016-01-01

    %.Ten distribution patterns of virulence gene were identified,dltR-bca-sodA-spb1 -cfb-bac (38.24%,65 /1 70),dltr-bca-sodA-spb1 -bac (23.53%,40 /1 70),and dltr-bca-sodA-spb1 -cfb-bac-scpB (22,35%,38 /1 70)were the predominant patterns,followed by dltr-bca-sodA-spb1 -bac-scpb (8.24%,1 4 /1 70)and dltr-bca-sodA-spb1 (4.71 %,8 /1 70).The single allele was observed in each of seven loci,adhP (1 0),pheS (1 ),atr (2),glnA (1 ),sdhA (3),glcK (2),tkt (2)and result in unique ST 7 (Sequencing Type 7).One hundred and forty-six isolates were assigned to six clus-ters based on the PFGE results.The similarity between these clusters ranged from 86% to 1 00%.Cluster A (1 8),B (1 6),C (1 03)and D (7)were the predominant clusters,account for 98.63% of all iso-lates.Cluster A and C were distributed in all four areas,Cluster B were mainly isolated from Wuchuan, Maoming and Yangjiang,whereas Cluster D were isolated from Maoming,Zhuhai and Yangjiang.The u-nique clusters F and G were isolated from Maoming and Zhuhai,respectively.In addition,the clones in Clusters A --D isolated from different areas in Guangdong showed 1 00% similarity.High proportion of strains with virulence gene was observed in Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated from tilapia farm in Guandong.All of isolates belonged to the unique ST7.The clones with 1 00% similarity were identified in different area suggesting the cross infection and transmission in Guangdong,China.

  16. Streptococcus agalactiae isolates of serotypes Ia, III and V from human and cow are able to infect tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Rui; Luo, Fu-Guang; Huang, Yan; Liang, Wan-Wen; Huang, Ting; Lei, Ai-Ying; Gan, Xi; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-10-22

    Recent studies have shown that group B streptococcus (GBS) may be infectious across hosts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pathogenicity of clinical GBS isolates with serotypes Ia, III and V from human and cow to tilapia and the evolutionary relationship among these GBS strains of different sources. A total of 27 clinical GBS isolates from human (n=10), cow (n=2) and tilapia (n=15) were analyzed using serotyping, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among them, 15 isolates were tested for their pathogenicity to tilapia. The results showed that five human GBS strains (2 serotype III, 2 serotype Ia and 1 serotype V) infected tilapia with mortality rate ranging from 56.67% to 100%, while the other five human GBS strains tested were unable to infect tilapia. In addition, two cow GBS strains C001 and C003 of serotype III infected tilapia. However, they had significantly lower pathogenicity than the five human strains. Furthermore, human GBS strains H005 and H008, which had very strong ability to infect tilapia, had the same PFGE pattern. MLST analysis showed that the five human and the two cow GBS strains that were able to infect tilapia belonged to clonal complexes CC19, CC23 and CC103. The study for the first time confirmed that human or cow GBS clonal complexes CC19, CC23 and CC103 containing strains with serotypes Ia, III and V could infect tilapia and induce clinical signs under experimental conditions. PMID:26255553

  17. Role of the group B antigen of Streptococcus agalactiae a peptidoglycan-anchored polysaccharide involved in cell wall biogenesis : a Peptidoglycan-Anchored Polysaccharide involved in cell wall biogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Élise Caliot; Shaynoor Dramsi; Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier; Pascal Courtin; Saulius Kulakauskas; Christine Péchoux; Patrick Trieu-Cuot; Michel-Yves Mistou

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of infections in neonates and an emerging pathogen in adults. The Lancefield Group B carbohydrate (GBC) is a peptidoglycan-anchored antigen that defines this species as a Group B Streptococcus. Despite earlier immunological and biochemical characterizations, the function of this abundant glycopolymer has never been addressed experimentally. Here, we inactivated the gene gbcO encoding a putative UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1-...

  18. First report of an OXA-48-producing multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain from Gaza, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Al Laham, Nahed; Chavda, Kalyan D; Mediavilla, Jose R; Jacobs, Michael R; Bonomo, Robert A; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2015-07-01

    We report the first multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain producing the carbapenemase OXA-48 (Pm-OXA-48) isolated at Al-Shifa hospital in Gaza, Palestine. Draft genome sequencing of Pm-OXA-48 identified 16 antimicrobial resistance genes, encoding resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, phenicols, streptothricin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Complete sequencing of the bla(OXA-48)-harboring plasmid revealed that it is a 72 kb long IncL/M plasmid, harboring carbapenemase gene bla(OXA-48), extended spectrum β-lactamase gene bla(CTX-M-14), and aminoglycoside resistance genes strA, strB, and aph(3')-VIb. PMID:25896692

  19. Muscle strain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  20. Muscle strain treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  1. Public health assessment for Wyckoff Company/Eagle Harbor, Eagle Harbor Operable Units, Bainbridge Island, King County, Washington, Region 10. Cerclis No. WAD009248295. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-06

    The Wyckoff/Eagle Harbor site is a National Priorities List (NPL) site located on the east side of Bainbridge Island, Kitsap County, Washington. The harbor has become contaminated with heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the many years of ship repair and painting as well as from the application of creosote, pentachlorophenol, and other wood preservatives to pilings. The Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) states that the major human health concern is consumption of clam meat contaminated with PAHs. The public health assessment has determined that exposure to contaminants found in Eagle Harbor sediments, shellfish, fish, and crab is a health hazard for those people who ignore warnings.

  2. Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Lake Iliamna, Alaska, 1984-2013 (NODC Accession 0123188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset provides counts of harbor seals from aerial surveys over Lake Iliamna, Alaska, USA. The data have been collated from three previously published sources...

  3. A Dataset of Aerial Survey Counts of Harbor Seals in Iliamna Lake, Alaska: 1984-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset provides counts of harbor seals from aerial surveys over Iliamna Lake, Alaska, USA. The data have been collated from three previously published sources...

  4. Critical wildlife areas in Port Etches and Constantine Harbor, Hinchinbrook Island, Prince William Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents critical wildlife areas in Port Etches and Constantine Harbor, Hinchinbrook Islands, and Prince William Sound during the 1976 and 1977....

  5. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry from Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory. The netCDF and Arc ASCII grids include multibeam bathymetry from the Reson SeaBat 8125 multibeam sonar...

  6. Sedimentation and chronology of heavy metal pollution in Oslo harbor, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratigraphic profiles of Cu, Cd and Hg in ten sediment cores from the Oslo harbor, Norway, combined with results of radiometric dating demonstrate that pollution by these metals peaked between 1940 and 1970. Dating results indicate that Hg discharges peaked between 1940 and 1950, Cd reached maximum ca. 1955-1960, and Cu has the highest concentration in sediment interval corresponding to ca. 1970. Geochemical profiles and maxima of Cu, Cd and Hg concentrations can be used as chronostratigraphic markers for sediment cores from the Oslo harbor. Acoustic backscatter and sediment core data indicate that propeller wash affects the seabed in the Oslo harbor. The propeller-induced turbulence causes erosion, and in places exposes and remobilizes contaminated sediments that accumulated in the harbor during previous decades. Such re-exposure of contaminated sediments could be detrimental to local ecosystems and offset remediation efforts, warranting further impact studies and potential mitigation strategies to prevent redistribution.

  7. Aerial Survey Trend Counts of Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska (1984-2006) - ADF&G

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys were conducted during 1983–2006 in the Ketchikan, Sitka, Kodiak, and Bristol Bay areas of Alaska to estimate trends in abundance of harbor seals.

  8. Use of various genetic markers in differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis strains from animals and humans and for studying epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    van Soolingen, D.; de Haas, P E; HAAGSMA, J.; Eger, T.; Hermans, P W; Ritacco, V.; A. Alito; van Embden, J D

    1994-01-01

    One hundred fifty-three Mycobacterium bovis strains from cattle, various animal species from zoos and wild parks, and humans were analyzed for three different genetic markers for use in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis. M. bovis strains isolated from cattle were found to carry a single IS6110 element, whereas the majority of strains from other animals such as antelopes, monkeys, and seals harbored multiple IS6110 elements, suggesting that the reservoirs in cattle and wild animals are s...

  9. Weighing and control of bulk material in ship-lading process at harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes a new weighing and control system for bulk material in ship-loading process at harbor. It adopts nuclear radiation measurement, computer control and digital signal process techniques to weigh the bulk material with no-touch with the advantages of stability and anti-jamming. The measure accuracy reaches to 0.5% - 1.0%. It is was applicable in the bad condition of ship-loading spot at harbor

  10. A Nonstationary Negative Binomial Time Series with Time-Dependent Covariates: Enterococcus Counts in Boston Harbor

    OpenAIRE

    E. Andres Houseman; Brent Coull; James Shine

    2004-01-01

    Boston Harbor has had a history of poor water quality, including by enteric pathogens. We conduct a statistical analysis of data collected by the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) between 1996 and 2002 to evaluate the effects of court-mandated improvements in sewage treatment. We propose a negative binomial model for time series of Enterococcus counts in Boston Harbor, where nonstationarity and autocorrelation are modeled using a nonparametric smooth function of time in the predi...

  11. Assessment of toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Dong, Cheng-Di; Kao, Chih-Ming

    2013-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination and toxicity levels in the surface sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors. Eighty surface sediment samples were collected from twenty locations in Kaohsiung Harbor for PAH analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Concentrations of total PAHs varies from 34.0 to 16,700 ng/g with a mean concentration of 1490±2689 ng/g. The spatial distribution of PAHs reveals that PAH concentration is relatively higher in the river mouth regions, especially in the Salt River mouth where it gradually diminishes toward the harbor region. Distributions of PAHs, during both the wet and dry seasons, show that PAHs are more easily disbursed in the receiving sea water thereby leading to a wider range of chemical distribution. Hence, most of the chemicals accumulate in the harbor water channel. Diagnostic ratios show that the possible source of PAHs in the southern industrial area of the harbor could be coal combustion while in the other zones it could be petroleum combustion and/or a mixed sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ(carc)) of PAHs varied from 3.9 to 1970 ng TEQ/g. The higher total TEQ(carc) values were found in the southern industrial area of the harbor. As compared with US sediment quality guidelines, the observed levels of PAHs in the industrial zone exceeded the effects range low (ERL), which will eventually cause acute biological damage. Based on the analyses using the SQGs, surface sediments from Kaohsiung Harbor were moderately contaminated and most samples have a low probability of toxicity pollution, except for the Salt River mouth situated in the south Kaohsiung Harbor area. This area has a medium to high probability of toxicity pollution. PMID:22818911

  12. Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. Strain A3H3, Isolated from Arsenic-Rich Marine Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Koechler, Sandrine; Plewniak, Frédéric; Barbe, Valérie; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne; Jost, Bernard; Joulian, Catherine; Philipps, Muriel; Vicaire, Serge; Vincent, Stéphanie; Ye, Tao; Bertin, Philippe N.

    2013-01-01

    We report the genome sequence of Halomonas sp. strain A3H3, a bacterium with a high tolerance to arsenite, isolated from multicontaminated sediments of the l’Estaque harbor in Marseille, France. The genome is composed of a 5,489,893-bp chromosome and a 157,085-bp plasmid.

  13. Program Calibrates Strain Gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Gary D.

    1991-01-01

    Program dramatically reduces personnel and time requirements for acceptance tests of hardware. Data-acquisition system reads output from Wheatstone full-bridge strain-gauge circuit and calculates strain by use of shunt calibration technique. Program nearly instantaneously tabulates and plots strain data against load-cell outputs. Modified to acquire strain data for other specimens wherever full-bridge strain-gauge circuits used. Written in HP BASIC.

  14. Evaluation of Three Commercial Broth Media for Pigment Detection and Identification of a Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae)▿

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria da Glória; Facklam, Richard; Jackson, Delois; Beall, Bernard; McGee, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    Detection of group B Streptococcus (GBS) strains at various bacterial concentrations was evaluated using three pigment-producing broth media. At 103 CFU/ml, StrepB carrot broth (SBCB), Granada instant liquid biphasic (IGLB), and Northeast Laboratory GBS screening medium (NEL-GBS) showed 100% detection, but at the lower bacterial counts, SBCB and IGLB were more sensitive than NEL-GBS after 24 h.

  15. Hibridación in situ para la detección de Streptococcus agalactiae en tejidos de tilapia (Oreochromis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Pulido

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La estreptococosis es uno de los problemas sanitarios más serios en la acuicultura mundial.En Colombia la enfermedad afecta de manera importante las explotaciones detilapia. Se estandarizó la técnica de hibridación in situ (HIS en tejidos de tilapia previamenteidentificados como positivos a la presencia de S. agalactiae por la técnicade inmunoperoxidasa indirecta (IPI y microbiología. Se obtuvo señal positiva en elinterior de los granulomas con una especificidad del 100%. Se logró amplificar significativamentela señal mediante el uso de la tiramida. La HIS en tejidos de tilapia puedeser usada para el diagnóstico y estudios de patogenésis y epidemiológicos con este microorganismo.Se requieren futuras investigaciones para optimizar la marcación de lasbacterias libres en los tejidos y evaluar la sensibilidad de la técnica.

  16. Increasing of temperature induces pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae and the up-regulation of inflammatory related genes in infected Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2014-08-01

    Temperature strongly affects the health of aquatic poikilotherms. In Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), elevated water temperatures increase the severity of streptococcosis. Here we investigated the effects of temperature on the vulnerability and inflammatory response of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci; GBS). At 35 and 28 °C, GBS took 4 and 7h, respectively to reach the log-phase and, when incubated with tilapia whole blood, experienced survival rates of 97% and 2%, respectively. The hemolysis activity of GBS grown at 35 °C was five times higher than that of GBS grown at 28 °C. GBS expressed cylE (β-hemolysin/cytolysin), cfb (CAMP factor) and PI-2b (pili-backbone) much more strongly at 35 °C than at 28 °C. Challenging Nile tilapia reared at 35 and 28 °C with GBS resulted in accumulated mortalities of about 85% and 45%, respectively. At 35 °C, infected tilapia exhibited tremendous inflammatory responses due to a dramatic up-regulation (30-40-fold) of inflammatory-related genes (cyclooxygenase-2, IL-1β and TNF-α) between 6 and 96 h-post infection. These results suggest that the increase of GBS pathogenicity to Nile tilapia induced by elevated temperature is associated with massive inflammatory responses, which may lead to acute mortality. PMID:24856132

  17. RNA-Seq revealed the impairment of immune defence of tilapia against the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae with simulated climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Liu, Peng; Wan, Zi Yi; Huang, Shu Qing; Wen, Yan Fei; Lin, Grace; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-08-01

    Global warming is one of the causes of disease outbreaks in fishes. Understanding its mechanisms is critical in aquaculture and fisheries. We used tilapia to study the effects of a high temperature on the infection of a bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae using RNA-Seq. We found that the dissolved oxygen level in water at 32 °C is lower than at 22 °C, and tilapia infected with the pathogen died more rapidly at 32 °C. The gene expression profiles showed significant differences in fish raised under different conditions. We identified 126 and 576 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 4 and 24 h post infection at 22 °C, respectively, whereas at 32 °C, the data were 312 and 1670, respectively. Almost all responding pathways at 22 °C were involved in the immune responses, whereas at 32 °C, the enriched pathways were not only involved in immune responses but also involved in oxygen and energy metabolisms. We identified significant signals of immunosuppression of immune responses at 32 °C. In addition, many of the enriched transcription factors and DEGs under positive selection were involved in immune responses, oxygen and/or energy metabolisms. Our results suggest that global warming could reduce the oxygen level in water and impair the defence of tilapia against bacterial infection. PMID:27377027

  18. Stabilization and in situ management of radioactive contaminated sediments of Port Hope harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the findings of laboratory and field studies undertaken to assess the feasibility of in situ management of contaminated sediments in Port Hope harbor. The contaminated sediments stem from historic releases from an adjacent radium and uranium refinery, and uranium, arsenic, and radium are the most abundant contaminants. With improved emission controls, currently accumulating sediments have much lower levels of contamination, and the harbor waters currently meet water quality limits for the contaminants of concern. Within a few years, however, the continuing sedimentation will render the harbor unusable. Field tests have confirmed the dredging will result in incomplete removal of the contaminated sediments and that sediment suspension and the release of pores waters during dredging will produce harbor water contaminant concentrations that would require the treatment of large volumes of water. In addition, no remedial work can start until a site for the dredged material can be found. The local community inquired whether in situ burial of the sediments and abandonment of the harbor would provide safe disposal

  19. Mass balances on selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the New York-New Jersey Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Valle, Sandra N; Panero, Marta A; Muñoz, Gabriela R; Shor, Leslie M

    2010-01-01

    Mass balances on 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the New York-New Jersey Harbor (hereafter "the Harbor") were constructed using monitoring data from the water column, sediment, and atmosphere. Inputs considered included tributaries, atmospheric deposition, wastewater treatment plant discharges, combined sewer overflows (CSOs), and stormwater runoff. Removal processes examined included tidal exchange between the Harbor and the coastal Bight and Long Island Sound, volatilization, and accumulation or burial of sediment-bound PAHs in the Harbor. The PAHs investigated were fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, perylene, benzo[ghi]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene. The results show inputs and outputs are fairly well balanced for most compounds, a finding that suggests aerobic biodegradation may not be a key loss process in this Harbor, as has been assumed in other systems. The main pathway for inputs of all PAHs is stormwater runoff. Atmospheric deposition is an important conveyor of PAHs with molecular weights sustainable management of urban water resources. PMID:20176837

  20. 罗非鱼无乳链球菌Sip基因的克隆、表达及免疫原性分析%CLONING, EXPRESSION AND IMMUNOGENICITY ANALYSIS OF SURFACE IMMUNOGENIC PROTEIN (SIP) OF TILAPIA STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎炯; 叶星; 可小丽; 卢迈新; 迟妍妍; 田园园

    2012-01-01

    表面免疫原性蛋白(Surface Immunogenic Protein,Sip)是B群链球菌(Group BStreptococcus,GBS)的一种表面蛋白,在GBS多种血清型的菌株中均有表达.研究从实验室分离到的罗非鱼无乳链球菌广东株的基因组DNA中扩增出Sip基因,构建原核表达载体pColdII-Sip,转化大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)BL21 (DE3)菌株.经诱导表达、SDS-PAGE电泳检测显示重组蛋白主要以可溶形式表达.重组蛋白用亲和层析的方法纯化,蛋白纯度达98%.纯化后的重组蛋白免疫罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus,GIFT strain)以分析其免疫原性.受免鱼免疫14d后进行人工攻毒试验,免疫组的相对保护率为70%-87%.酶联免疫吸附试验(Elisa)显示受免鱼对重组蛋白产生了较好的免疫应答,免疫剂量为3 tg/g和5 μg/g时受免鱼血清抗体滴度可达1:128000.研究结果显示重组蛋白Sip具有较强的免疫原性和保护作用,Sip基因可作为罗非鱼链球菌基因工程亚单位疫苗候选基因.%Surface immunogenic protein (Sip) is a kind of immune related protein that exists in group B Streptococcus, which expresses in many serotypes of GBS. In this present study, Sip gene was amplified from the genomic DNA of a Streptococcus agalactiae strain isolated from sick pond-cultured tilapia in Guangdong province, China. The Sip gene contained a 1305 bp Open Reading Frame (ORF), which encoded 434 amino acids. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequences was 56 kD. Blast analysis showed that it shared high identities (100%) with Sip sequences of human GBS registered in GenBank, while lower identities (< 50%) was found compared with other species of Streptococcus. Prediction of epitopes by DNAStar software showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of this Sip gene could form 29 epitopes indicating strong immunogenicity of the Sip. Prokaryotic expression vector pColdII was used to construct a recombinant expression vector pColdII-Sip. Employing PCR method, the