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Sample records for ag peaks disappear

  1. Facile Synthesis of Ag Nanorods with No Plasmon Resonance Peak in the Visible Region by Using Pd Decahedra of 16 nm in Size as Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Huang, Hongwen; Choi, Sang-Il; Zhang, Chao; da Silva, Robson Rosa; Peng, Hsin-Chieh; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Liu, Jingyue; He, Zhike; Xia, Younan

    2015-10-27

    This article describes a seed-mediated approach to the synthesis of Ag nanorods with thin diameters and tunable aspect ratios. The success of this method is built upon our recent progress in the synthesis of Pd decahedra as uniform samples, together with controllable sizes. When used as a seed, the Pd decahedron could direct the deposition of Ag atoms along the 5-fold axis to generate a nanorod, with its diameter being determined by the lateral dimension of the seed. We were able to generate Ag nanorods with uniform diameters down to 20 nm. Under the conditions we used for growth, symmetry breaking occurred as the Ag atoms were only deposited along one side of the Pd decahedral seed to generate a Ag nanorod with the Pd seed being positioned at one of its two ends. We also systematically investigated the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties of the Ag nanorods. With the transverse mode kept below 400 nm, the longitudinal mode could be readily tuned from the visible to the near-infrared region by varying the aspect ratio. As an important demonstration, we obtained Ag nanorods with no LSPR peak in the visible spectrum (400-800 nm), which are attractive for applications related to the fabrication of touchscreen displays, solar films, and energy-saving smart windows. PMID:26372854

  2. Energy resolution studies of Ce- and Pr-doped LuAG and LuYAG crystals: escape and photo-peaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jiří A.; Nikl, Martin; Beitlerová, Alena; Horodysky, P.; Blažek, K.; Průša, P.; D´Ambrosio, C.

    Halle(Saale) : Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, 2012 - (Schweizer, S.; Ahrens, B.). P-Tue-45-P-Tue-45 [International Conference on Luminescent Detectors and Transformers of Ionizing Radiation 2012 /8./, LUMDETR 2012. 10.09.2012-14.09.2012, Halle (Saale)] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : energy resolution * escape and photo-peak * LuAG and LuYAG garnets * Ce 3+ and Pr 3+ doping Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  3. Searching for neutrino disappearence

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    A low-energy neutrino oscillation facility using 12-20 GeV/c extracted PS proton beam to produce low-energy neutrinos with a spectrum peaking around 1 to 2 GeV was directed towards the existing large detectors of WA1 (CDHS Collaboration, PS169, foreground) and of WA18 (CHARM Collaboration, PS181, background, left). Both experiments have each installed compact 'near' detectors about 150 m from the target, in the ISR area, then looking over 750 m flight path of neutrinos. See Annual Report 1982 p.43, Fig 13.

  4. Spontaneously disappearing lumbar disc protrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ushewokunze, Shungu; Abbas, Naeem; Dardis, Ronan; Killeen, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous disappearance of a herniated lumbar disc is known to occur. This case study describes a 45-year-old patient whose symptoms of lumbar radiculopathy resolved and follow-up imaging showed complete disappearance of the disc prolapse. This phenomenon strengthens the role of conservative treatment in the management of lumbar disc protrusions.

  5. Past Warmer Climate Periods at the Antarctic Margin Detected From Proxies and Measurements of Biogenic Opal in the AND-1B Core: The XRF Spectral Silver (Ag) Peak Used as a new Tool for Biogenic Opal Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, G.; Helling, D.; von Eynatten, H.; Niessen, F.; Magens, D.

    2008-12-01

    Quantification of biogenic opal in marine sediments is a time consuming job, but the results could indicate periods of higher bioproductivity and warmer conditions than today at the Antarctic margin. Within the international Antarctic Geological Drilling Program (ANDRILL), core AND-1B was drilled and recovered a 1285 m sequence from a flexural moat basin filled with glacimarine, terrigenous, volcanic and biogenic sediments below the McMurdo Ice Shelf. Our main goal is to study the variability and the stability of the Ross Ice Shelf from Miocene to Recent. The melting and collapse of large Antarctic ice shelves may cause a significant sea level rise because of accelerated inland ice glacier surges into the ocean. Biogenic opal content in sediments can be deduced indirectly from grain density measurements on single samples, or faster and more continuous by gamma ray attenuation measurements on the core, with subsequent wet bulk and grain density calculations. Spectral colour reflectance (b* value) measurements on the split core surface can also be a fast tool for opal content quantification. Of course, they all have disadvantages in comparison to direct measurement on samples using X-ray diffraction or geochemical leaching methods. Some major and minor chemical elements were measured directly on split core surfaces with a non- destructive X-Ray Fluorescence Core Scanner method (XRF-CS, Avaatech) in the field. Quantitative geochemical analyses like determination of total inorganic and organic carbon (TOC), biogenic opal as well as major and minor elements were done on core samples. We found a strong positive correlation between the counts per second of the XRF-CS Ag peak area and the biogenic opal content of the samples (r=0.81) not only in the AND-1B core but in others as well from the Antarctic margin. In literature, it is noted that diatoms could accumulate Ag in sediments, so at first we were pleased to find this Ag enrichment with our tool. But further

  6. Disappearing Saccular Intracranial Aneurysms: Do They Really Disappear?

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakumar, P. N.; Ravishankar, S.; Balasubramaya, K.S.; Chavan, R.; Goyal, G

    2007-01-01

    Evolution and natural history of cerebral aneurysms is a dynamic process. Spontaneous regression in size or complete disappearance of an aneurysm is a known phenomenon, more commonly noted in giant intracranial aneurysms. However, reappearance or regrowth of such aneurysms is rare with few anecdotal reports. We report a series of four cases including one giant aneurysm, which either disappeared or regressed on sequential angiograms. Regrowth or reappearance of two of these previously disappea...

  7. Disappearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes David B. Morris. In between twenty years as a self-employed writer, Morris held professorships at the University of Iowa, at the University of Virginia, and at Stanford University. His wider understanding of books and lives owes much to his wife, Ruth, a technical services librarian and library [...

  8. Disappearances

    OpenAIRE

    David Morris

    2011-01-01

    In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes David B. Morris. In between twenty years as a self-employed writer, Morris held professorships at the University of Iowa, at the University of Virginia, and at Stanford University. His wider understanding of books and lives owes much to his wife, Ruth, a technical services librarian and library [...

  9. Evolution of the peak in surface resistance at microwave frequencies in heavy ion irradiated superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the observation of a peak in the microwave (4.88 GHz) surface resistance in laser ablated thin films of YBa2Cu3O7-δ and its disappearance after irradiation with swift heavy ions. The surface resistance shows a prominent peak when the measurements are done in external fields up to 0.8 T although no peak is found in zero field. This peak is associated with the peak effect phenomenon and reflects the order-disorder transformation of the flux line lattice near the transition temperature. Irradiation with 200 MeV Ag ions is found to suppress the peak at 4.88 GHz whereas irradiation with 90 MeV oxygen ions is not able to suppress the peak at the same frequency. These observations and the dynamics of the vortices at microwave frequencies for both the pristine and irradiated films will be discussed. (author)

  10. [Radiological examinations that have disappeared].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puylaert, Carl B A J; Puylaert, Julien B C M

    2011-01-01

    If a radiologist from 1950 could travel in time to 2011, he or she would be baffled to see how few of the radiological examinations he was familiar with, remain. We review the radiological examinations that have disappeared since X-rays were discovered, and include the causes of their disappearance. Barium studies have mainly been replaced by endoscopy, oral cholecystography by ultrasound, and intravenous urography by CT-scan. Angiography by means of a direct puncture of carotid artery and aorta has been replaced by Seldinger angiography. Pneumencephalography and myelography have been replaced by CT and MRI. Bronchography has been replaced by bronchoscopy and CT-scan, arthrography by MRI and arthroscopy. Many other radiological examinations have been replaced by ultrasound, CT or MRI. PMID:21447222

  11. Nose peak

    OpenAIRE

    Baldessari, John

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: " It should be said that Baldessari's penchant for depicting noses in his work extends as far back as 1965 with the conception of "God Nose", one of the artist's very few pre-1965 paintings to have survived. Here, with his onestar press edition, Baldessari conceives a book about a nose, with a nose, wherein the artist's famed subject appears and disappears upon a series of pages, in one fluid sweep.".

  12. Emission of ZnO:Ag nanorods obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velázquez Lozada, E., E-mail: evlozada5@yahoo.com.mx [ESIME – Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Torchynska, T.V.; Casas Espinola, J.L. [ESFM – Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Pérez Millan, B. [UPIITA – Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and its temperature dependence have been studied in ZnO:Ag nanorods (NRs) prepared by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method. The time variation at the growth of ZnO:Ag films permits modifying the ZnO phase from the amorphous to crystalline, to change the size of ZnO:Ag NRs and to vary their emission spectra. PL spectra of ZnO:Ag NRs versus temperature has been investigated. This study reveals that the PL band related to the acceptor Ag{sub Zn} (LO phonon replicas of an acceptor bound exciton, ABE (2.877 eV)), and its second-order diffraction peak (1.44 eV) disappeared in the temperature range of 10–170 K with the formation of free exciton (FX). The PL intensity of defect related PL bands decreases monotonously in the range 10–300 K with the activation energy of 13 meV. The PL band (3.22 eV), related to the LO phonon replica of free exciton (FX-2LO) and its second-order diffraction peak (1.61 eV) increase monotonously in the range 10–300 K. FX related peak dominates in PL spectra at room temperature that testifies on the high quality of ZnO:Ag films prepared by the USP technology.

  13. Emission of ZnO:Ag nanorods obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Lozada, E.; Torchynska, T. V.; Casas Espinola, J. L.; Pérez Millan, B.

    2014-11-01

    Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and its temperature dependence have been studied in ZnO:Ag nanorods (NRs) prepared by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method. The time variation at the growth of ZnO:Ag films permits modifying the ZnO phase from the amorphous to crystalline, to change the size of ZnO:Ag NRs and to vary their emission spectra. PL spectra of ZnO:Ag NRs versus temperature has been investigated. This study reveals that the PL band related to the acceptor AgZn (LO phonon replicas of an acceptor bound exciton, ABE (2.877 eV)), and its second-order diffraction peak (1.44 eV) disappeared in the temperature range of 10-170 K with the formation of free exciton (FX). The PL intensity of defect related PL bands decreases monotonously in the range 10-300 K with the activation energy of 13 meV. The PL band (3.22 eV), related to the LO phonon replica of free exciton (FX-2LO) and its second-order diffraction peak (1.61 eV) increase monotonously in the range 10-300 K. FX related peak dominates in PL spectra at room temperature that testifies on the high quality of ZnO:Ag films prepared by the USP technology.

  14. Mexico: the aesthetic challenge of forced disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Deotté

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay is a reflection on the aesthetic of forced disappearance based on the case in Mexico in October 2014 in which 43 young students from Ayotzinapa, in the state of Guerrero, disappeared. We analyse the photographic support of this shocking event and relate it to the function of the image in other cases of serious crimes against humanity, establishing a genealogy of the aesthetic of disappearance. We present fifteen declarations on the aesthetic of disappearance which enable us to debate on old and new forms of organised violence, particularly in the Latin American context.

  15. 'Peak oil' or 'peak demand'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports a workshop which addressed several energy issues like the objectives and constraints of energy mix scenarios, the differences between the approaches in different countries, the cost of new technologies implemented for this purposes, how these technologies will be developed and marketed, which will be the environmental and societal acceptability of these technical choices. Different aspects and issues have been more precisely presented and discussed: the peak oil, development of shale gases and their cost (will non conventional hydrocarbons modify the peak oil and be socially accepted?), energy efficiency (its benefits, its reality in France and other countries, its position in front of the challenge of energy transition), and strategies in the transport sector (challenges for mobility, evolution towards a model of sustainable mobility)

  16. Synthesis and luminescent properties of Ce~(3+) doped LuAG nano-sized powders by mixed solvo-thermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林香; 尹民; 郭常新; 张慰萍

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline LuAG:Ce3+(cerium3+-doped lutetium aluminum garnet) powders were prepared by mixed solvo-thermal method.Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy(FTIR) and X-ray diffraction(XRD) measurements showed that the precursors were ethanol derivatives AlO(OH) crystal with hydroxyl and carbonate group.XRD results showed that phase of Lu2O3 disappeared with the precursors were annealed at 400 °C,cubic phase LuAG:Ce3+ appeared but only one diffraction peaks of LuAP(LuAlO3) at calcination temperature to 700 °C,a...

  17. The Disappearance and Death of Ettore Majorana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Francesco; Robotti, Nadia

    2013-06-01

    At the end of March 1938, Ettore Majorana disappeared under still mysterious circumstances while he was Professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of Naples. We exploit new archival documents that provide evidence that without any doubt he was deceased before September 1939. These include documents pertaining to the foundation of a Fellowship in his name, announced on November 3, 1939, in the journal, The Missions of the Society of Jesus, and documents pertaining to the Police and Vatican inquires after his disappearance. We conclude by discussing the biographical sketch of Majorana that his uncle Giuseppe Majorana wrote before his death in 1940.

  18. Field determination of bacterial disappearance in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    1970-01-01

    The article presents two approaches to field determination of disappearance of viable, fecal bacteria after discharge with sewage into a marine environment. The first approach is based on simultaneous sampling for bacterial counting and monitoring of dilution using a conservative tracer, which is...... released continuously with the sewage. The second approach uses an abrupt release of tracer for determination of both dilution and residence time in the sewage field. In both cases, the disappearance rate is best determined by comparison of fluxes of two bacteria and of tracer through cross-sections of the...

  19. Mexico’s Glaciers and their Close Disappearance: A Precise Thermometer of the Global Warming Advance on A Global Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Ramirez Necoechea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican glaciers of the Iztaccihuatl, Orizaba’s peak (Citlaltepetl and Popocatepetl will disappear in the next 10 to 35 years, warns a study from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM (Lorenzo 1964.

  20. Mexico’s Glaciers and their Close Disappearance: A Precise Thermometer of the Global Warming Advance on A Global Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiro Ramirez Necoechea; Isabel Valenzuela Meraz; Jose Francisco Hernandez Ramirez

    2013-01-01

    Mexican glaciers of the Iztaccihuatl, Orizaba’s peak (Citlaltepetl) and Popocatepetl will disappear in the next 10 to 35 years, warns a study from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) (Lorenzo 1964).

  1. Irradiation induced dissolution of Cu and growth of Ag nanoclusters in Cu/Ag ion-exchanged soda-lime glass

    CERN Document Server

    Manikandan, D; Magudapathy, P; Nair, K G M

    2002-01-01

    Complex metal nanoclusters of Cu/Ag are formed in a soda-lime glass matrix by sequential copper and silver ion-exchange followed by ion irradiation. Optical absorption measurements showed signature of copper clusters alone in the Cu/Ag ion-exchanged sample. Irradiation of the ion-exchanged sample with He sup + ions of energy 100 keV of different fluences resulted in the growth of the silver clusters with, the optical absorption spectrum exhibiting two peaks corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance of copper and silver in the same matrix. It was found that with increase in fluence the silver clusters begin to grow while the already formed copper clusters segregate, which can be visualized from the absorption spectra, where the copper band disappears while the silver band grows with the increase in dose. Vacuum annealing of the Cu/Ag ion-exchanged samples resulted in complete disappearance of copper clusters while the silver clusters grew till they attained saturation. The glancing incidence X-ray diffrac...

  2. Disappearance and Creation of Constrained Amorphous Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Peggy; Lu, Sharon X.

    1997-03-01

    We report observation of the disappearance and recreation of rigid, or constrained, amorphous phase by sequential thermal annealing. Tempera- ture modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) is used to study the glass transition and lower melting endotherm after annealing. Cold crystallization of poly(phenylene sulfide), PPS, at a temperature just above Tg creates an initial large fraction of rigid amorphous phase (RAP). Brief, rapid annealing to a higher temperature causes RAP almost to disappear completely. Subsequent reannealing at the original lower temperature restores RAP to its original value. At the same time that RAP is being removed, Tg decreases; when RAP is restored, Tg also returns to its initial value. The crystal fraction remains unaffected by the annealing sequence.

  3. Theoretical treatment of microtubules disappearing in solution.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y; Hill, T L

    1985-01-01

    The origin of the two-phase (cap, no cap) macroscopic kinetic model of the end of a microtubule is reviewed. The model is then applied to a new theoretical problem, namely, the Mitchison-Kirschner [Mitchison, T. & Kirschner, M. W. (1984) Nature (London) 312, 237-242] experiment in which aggregated microtubules in solution spontaneously decrease in number (shorten to disappearance) while the surviving microtubules increase in length. The model fits the experiments without difficulty.

  4. 7 CFR 784.11 - Death, incompetence, or disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specified in 7 CFR part 707 may receive such benefits, as determined appropriate by FSA. ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetence, or disappearance. 784.11 Section... Death, incompetence, or disappearance. In the case of death, incompetence, disappearance or...

  5. 7 CFR 786.111 - Death, incompetence, or disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alternate person or persons specified in 7 CFR part 707 may receive such benefits, as determined appropriate... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetence, or disappearance. 786.111 Section... Death, incompetence, or disappearance. In the case of death, incompetency, disappearance, or...

  6. 7 CFR 701.33 - Death, incompetency, or disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetency, or disappearance. 701.33 Section... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.33 Death, incompetency, or disappearance. In case of death, incompetency, or disappearance of any participant, any cost-share payment due...

  7. Study of the effects of MeV Ag, Cu, Au, and Sn implantation on the optical properties of LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the results of characterization of linear absorption and nonlinear refractive index of Au, Ag, Cu and Sn ion implantation into LiNbO3. Ag was implanted at 1.5 MeV to fluences of 2 to 17 x 10 16/cm2 at room temperature. Au and Cu were implanted to fluences of 5 to 20 x 1016/cm2 at an energy of 2.0 MeV. Sn was implanted to a fluence of 1.6 x 1017/cm2 at 160 kV. Optical absorption spectrometry indicated an absorption peak for the Au implanted samples after heat treatment at 1,000 C at 620 nm. The Ag implanted samples absorption peaks shifted from 450 nm before heat treatment to 550 nm after 500 C for 1h. Heat treatment at 800 C returned the Ag implanted crystals to a clear state. Cu nanocluster absorption peaks disappears at 500 C. No Sn clusters were observed by optical absorption or XRD. The size of the Ag and Au clusters as a function of heat treatment were determined from the absorption peaks. The Ag clusters did not change appreciably in size with heat treatment. The Au clusters increased from 3 to 9 nm diameter upon heat treatment at 1000 deg C. TEM analysis performed on a Au implanted crystal indicated the formation of Au nanocrystals with facets normal to the c-axis. Measurements of the nonlinear refractive indices were carried out using the Z-scan method with a tunable dye laser pumped by a frequency doubled mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. The dye laser had a 4.5 ps pulse duration time and 76 MHz pulse repetition rate (575 nm)

  8. Magnetocaloric Studies of the Peak Effect in Nb

    OpenAIRE

    Daniilidis, N. D.; Dimitrov, I. K.; Mitrovic, V F; Elbaum, C.; Ling, X. S.

    2006-01-01

    We report a magnetocaloric study of the peak effect and Bragg glass transition in a Nb single crystal. The thermomagnetic effects due to vortex flow into and out of the sample are measured. The magnetocaloric signature of the peak effect anomaly is identified. It is found that the peak effect disappears in magnetocaloric measurements at fields significantly higher than those reported in previous ac-susceptometry measurements. Investigation of the superconducting to normal transition reveals t...

  9. ANF disappearance and tissue distribution in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disappearance of [125I]atrial natriuretic factor (ANF; Ser99-Tyr126) from the circulation and its tissue distribution with or without nonlabeled ANF pretreatment were investigated in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Preadministration of the cold peptide increased plasma radioactivity levels for over 8 min following labeled ANF injection but did not change the half-life of circulating labeled ANF. The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and volume of distribution in the first, second, and steady state phase were significantly decreased after cold ANF pretreatment. Circulating iodo-labeled ANF was taken up by several organs, even by tissues such as fat or bone, but its urinary excretion was very low. The highest uptake was found in the liver (16 +/- 1% of the injected dose), lung (14 +/- 1%), and kidney (12 +/- 1%), diminishing by 21, 89, and 59%, respectively, after cold ANF preinjection. The brain radioactivity was negligible implying an inability of [125I]ANF to cross the blood-brain barrier. Our data underscore the importance of the uptake-mediated, cold ANF preadministration suppressible clearance of ANF from the circulation, probably one of its basic elimination mechanisms. The liver, lung, and kidney are probably the most important participants in the MCR of ANF

  10. Peak flow meter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  11. Forecasting peak ozone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.W.; Layton, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    Box-Jenkins (1970) time series models are used to predict peak afternoon O3 levels. Data sets from three monitoring stations in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, are used in the analysis, one of the stations being inner-city and the others being outer-city. It is found that univariate models using only the peak O3 data-set at a site to predict future peak O3 levels are unsatisfactory. However bivariate models using peak O3 data from one site to predict peak O3 levels at another site yield good results. However it is clear that these results only arise because the O3 is formed in a well mixed layer over the region leading to a high degree of correlation between O3 peaks throughout the region. 15 references.

  12. Enhanced Raman scattering of graphene on Ag nanoislands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wei; HUANG ZhiYi; ZHOU YingHui; CAI WeiWei; KANG JunYong

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Ag nanoislands on the Raman of graphene was investigated in this work.Compared with that on the bare silicon wafer,Raman enhancement was observed in the graphene film that covered on Ag/Si surface with nanoscale Ag islands,which would be induced by the localized plasmon resonance in Ag nanostructures.The interaction between the graphene sheet and Ag/Si substrate was further studied.The peak shift and line shape of Raman spectroscopy indicated a nonuniform strain distribution in the Ag/Si supported graphene film.

  13. Are Bragg Peaks Gaussian?

    OpenAIRE

    Hammouda, Boualem

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice to assume that Bragg scattering peaks have Gaussian shape. The Gaussian shape function is used to perform most instrumental smearing corrections. Using Monte Carlo ray tracing simulation, the resolution of a realistic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument is generated reliably. Including a single-crystal sample with large d-spacing, Bragg peaks are produced. Bragg peaks contain contributions from the resolution function and from spread in the sample structure....

  14. Activated T lymphocytes disappear from circulation during endotoxemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez Krabbe, Karen; Kemp, Helle Bruunsgaard; Qvist, Jesper;

    2002-01-01

    disappearance were characterized by an activated phenotype (CD45RA(-) CD45RO(+)) as well as a phenotype linked to apoptosis (CD95(+) CD28(-)). In conclusion, endotoxin-induced lymphopenia reflects the disappearance from the circulation of activated lymphocytes prone to undergo apoptosis....

  15. 7 CFR 760.1311 - Death, incompetence, or disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with this subpart, such alternate person or persons specified in 7 CFR part 707 may receive such... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetence, or disappearance. 760.1311... Program § 760.1311 Death, incompetence, or disappearance. (a) In the case of the death, incompetency,...

  16. 7 CFR 1430.611 - Death, incompetence, or disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... benefits in accordance with this subpart, such alternate person or persons specified in 7 CFR part 707 may... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetence, or disappearance. 1430.611... Disaster Assistance Payment Program II (DDAP-II) § 1430.611 Death, incompetence, or disappearance. In...

  17. 7 CFR 1430.311 - Death, incompetence, or disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this subpart, such alternate person or persons specified in 7 CFR part 707 may receive such benefits... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetence, or disappearance. 1430.311... Disaster Assistance Payment Program § 1430.311 Death, incompetence, or disappearance. In the case of...

  18. 7 CFR 1430.222 - Death, incompetency, or disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetency, or disappearance. 1430.222 Section 1430.222 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... Contract Program § 1430.222 Death, incompetency, or disappearance. In the case of death,...

  19. 7 CFR 760.29 - Death, incompetency, or disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetency, or disappearance. 760.29 Section 760.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Provisions § 760.29 Death, incompetency, or disappearance. In the case of the death, incompetency,...

  20. AGS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in rare K decays, neutrino oscillations and other fields have generated an increasing demand for running, and improved intensity and duty cycle, at the AGS. Current projects include acceleration of polarized protons and light ions (up to mass 32). Future plans are for a booster to increase intensity and allow heavy ions (up to mass 200), and a stretcher to give 100% duty cycle. A later upgrade could yield an average current of 32 μ amps. 6 figures, 2 tables

  1. Chronic oral lactate supplementation does not affect lactate disappearance from blood after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouns, F; Fogelholm, M; Van Hall, Gerrit;

    1995-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that a 3-week oral lactate supplementation affects postexercise blood lactate disappearance in untrained male subjects. Fifteen men were randomly assigned to either a lactate supplementation (n = 8) or a placebo (n = 7) treatment. During the treatment period they...... drank an oral lactate or a maltodextrin (placebo) supplement twice a day. The lactate drink contained 10 g of lactate as calcium, sodium, and potassium salts. Blood lactate concentrations were studied before, during, and immediately after three exercise tests, both pre- and posttreatment. Peak lactate...... during the long (30- to 45-min) recovery periods amounted to / 10 mmol/L. Blood lactate changes were highly reproducible. However, a 3-week oral lactate supplementation did not result in differences in lactate disappearance. This study does not support the hypothesis that regular oral lactate intake at...

  2. Microstructure and Raman spectra of Ag-MgF2 cermet films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouhua Shi(史守华); Zhuoliang Cao(曹卓良); Zhaoqi Sun(孙兆奇)

    2003-01-01

    Ag-MgF2 cermet films with different Ag fractions were prepared by vacuum evaporation. The microstruc-ture of the films was examined by Raman scattering technique. The surface-enhanced Raman spectrumfor MgF2 molecules in the cermet film strongly suggests the existence of Ag nanoparticles dispersed inMgF2 matrix. The intensities of the Raman spectra of Ag-MgF2 cermet films increase with Ag fraction.The enhancement of Raman scattering disappears when Ag content reaches wt.20%. The analyses withthe transmission electron microscopy showed that Ag-MgF2 cermet films are mainly composed of amor-phous MgF2 matrix with embedded faced-center-cubic Ag nanoparticles. It suggests that the percolationthreshold should be around wt.20% of Ag content.

  3. Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2009-05-01

    Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100. Resource limitation (in a geological sense) is a real possibility that needs more serious consideration. The concept of 'Peak Oil' has been discussed since M. King Hubbert proposed in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. His prediction was accurate. This concept is about production rate not reserves. For many oil producing countries (and all OPEC countries) reserves are closely guarded state secrets and appear to be overstated. Claims that the reserves are 'proven' cannot be independently verified. Hubbert's Linearization Model can be used to predict when half the ultimate oil will be produced and what the ultimate total cumulative production (Qt) will be. US oil production can be used as an example. This conceptual model shows that 90% of the ultimate US oil production (Qt = 225 billion barrels) will have occurred by 2011. This approach can then be used to suggest that total global production will be about 2200 billion barrels and that the half way point will be reached by about 2010. This amount is about 5 to 7 times less than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. The decline of Non-OPEC oil production appears to have started in 2004. Of the OPEC countries, only Saudi Arabia may have spare capacity, but even that is uncertain, because of lack of data transparency. The concept of 'Peak Coal' is more controversial, but even the US National Academy Report in 2007 concluded only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves in the US are actually minable reserves and that US reserves should be reassessed using modern methods. British coal production can be

  4. Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior Disappearing after Left Capsular Genu Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyang Oh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a 74-year-old woman with obsessive-compulsive behaviors that disappeared following a left capsular genu infarction. The patient’s capsular genu infarction likely resulted in thalamocortical disconnection in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, which may have caused the disappearance of her obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The fact that anterior capsulotomy has been demonstrated to be effective for treating refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder further supports this hypothesis.

  5. Phase appearance or disappearance in two-phase flows

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier, Floraine; Degond, Pierre; Kumbaro, Anela

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the treatment of specific numerical problems which appear when phase appearance or disappearance occurs in models of two-phase flows. Such models have crucial importance in many industrial areas such as nuclear power plant safety studies. In this paper, two outstanding problems are identified: first, the loss of hyperbolicity of the system when a phase appears or disappears and second, the lack of positivity of standard shock capturing schemes such as the Roe scheme. ...

  6. Hale Central Peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    19 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the mountains that make up the central peak region of Hale Crater, located near 35.8oS, 36.5oW. Dark, smooth-surfaced sand dunes are seen to be climbing up the mountainous slopes. The central peak of a crater consists of rock brought up during the impact from below the crater floor. This autumn image is illuminated from the upper left and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  7. The peak oil debate

    OpenAIRE

    Graefe, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    For the past half-century, a debate has raged over when "peak oil" will occur—the point at which output can no longer increase and production begins to level off or gradually decline. Determining how long the oil supply will last has become even more pressing because the world’s energy supply still relies heavily on oil, and global energy demand is expected to rise steeply over the next twenty years. ; This article seeks to bring the peak oil debate into focus. The author notes that a number ...

  8. Preparation and Characterization of γ-AgI in Superionic Composite Glasses (AgIx(AgPO31-x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suminta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The γ-AgI phase was stabilized at room temperature in the composites glasses (AgIx(AgPO31-x with x = 0.6 and 0.7 via rapid quenching of their molten mixture. The measurement of the crystal structure has been carried out using an X-ray Difractometer at the Physics Departement of Ibaraki University, Japan. The micro strain and crystal size are derived from Hall’s equation. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows some Bragg peaks that correspond to the crystalline γ-AgI. By increasing the concentration of AgI, the peak width becomes more narrow and the position shifts to the higher angle. This indicates that the crystalline size and microstrain are increasing. The increase of micro strain (η, and particle size (D will increase the ionic mobility, thus increasing the ionic conductivity. It is concluded that solidification process on melt AgI into glass matrix AgPO3 not only decreases the micro strain and the particle size, but it also increases the ionic conductivity.

  9. Peak-interviewet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raalskov, Jesper; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    Peak-interviewet er en særlig effektiv metode til at gøre ubevidste menneskelige ressourcer bevidste. Fokuspersonen (den interviewede) interviewes om en selvvalgt, personlig succesoplevelse. Terapeuten/coachen (intervieweren) spørger ind til processen, som ledte hen til denne succes. Herved afdæk...

  10. Study of antibacterial activity of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles stabilized over montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Pourahmad, A.; Mehdipour Moghaddam, M. J.; Sadeghi, A.

    2015-02-01

    Silver carbonate and silver nanoparticles (NPs) over of stabilizer montmorillonite (MMT) have been synthesized in aqueous and polyol solvent, respectively. Dispersions of silver nanoparticles have been prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate over of MMT in presence and absence of Na2CO3 compound in ethylene glycol. It was observed that montmorillonite was capable of stabilizing formed Ag nanoparticles through the reduction of Ag+ ions in ethylene glycol. Na2CO3 was used as carbonate source in synthesis of Ag2CO3 NPs in water solvent and also for controlling of Ag nanoparticles size in ethylene glycol medium. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The TEM images showed that Ag NPs size in presence Na2CO3 salts was smaller than without that. The results indicated intercalation of Ag and Ag2CO3 nanoparticles into the montmorillonite clay layers. The diffuse reflectance spectra exhibited a strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) adsorption peak in the visible region, resulting from Ag nanoparticles. The antibacterial testing results showed that the Ag2CO3-MMT nanocomposite exhibited an antibacterial activity higher than Ag-MMT sample against Escherichia coli.

  11. Phase appearance or disappearance in two-phase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Cordier, Floraine; Kumbaro, Anela

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the treatment of specific numerical problems which appear when phase appearance or disappearance occurs in models of two-phase flows. Such models have crucial importance in many industrial areas such as nuclear power plant safety studies. In this paper, two outstanding problems are identified: first, the loss of hyperbolicity of the system when a phase appears or disappears and second, the lack of positivity of standard shock capturing schemes such as the Roe scheme. After an asymptotic study of the model, this paper proposes accurate and robust numerical methods adapted to the simulation of phase appearance or disappearance. Polynomial solvers are developed to avoid the use of eigenvectors which are needed in usual shock capturing schemes, and a method based on an adaptive numerical diffusion is designed to treat the positivity problems. An alternate method, based on the use of the hyperbolic tangent function instead of a polynomial, is also considered. Numerical results are presente...

  12. Enhanced Raman scattering and photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO heterojunction nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chongqi; Zheng, Yuanhui; Zhan, Yingying; Lin, Xingyi; Zheng, Qi; Wei, Kemei

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we study the enhancement of Raman signals and photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO heterojunctions with an Ag content of 1 at.%, which were synthesized by photochemical deposition of Ag nanoparticles onto pre-synthesized ZnO nanorods. A strong interaction between Ag and ZnO nanocrystals were evidenced by XPS and UV-vis spectroscopy. The binding energy of Ag nanoparticles shifts toward lower energy compared to that of pure Ag nanoparticles, revealing that electrons transfer from Ag to the ZnO nanocrystals. The red shift of the plasmon absorption peak of Ag nanoparticles in Ag/ZnO heterojunctions further confirms the strong interaction between the two components. This strong interaction, arising from the coupling between Ag and ZnO nanocrystals, is responsible for the enhancement of Raman signals and photocatalytic activity of the Ag/ZnO heterojunctions. PMID:21847472

  13. Radiation hardness of LuAG:Ce and LuAG:Pr scintillator crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Derdzyan, M V; Belsky, A; Dujardin, C; Lecoq, P; Lucchini, M; Ovanesyan, K L; Pauwels, K; Pedrini, C; Petrosyan, A G

    2012-01-01

    Single crystals of LuAG:Ce, LuAG:Pr and un-doped LuAG were grown by the vertical Bridgman method and studied for radiation hardness under gamma-rays with doses in the range 10-10(5) Gy (Co-60). A wide absorption band peaking at around 600 nm springs up in all three types of crystals after the irradiations. The second band peaking at around 375 nm appears in both LuAG:Pr and un-doped LuAG. Compositional variations have been done to reveal the spectral behavior of induced color centers in more detail and to understand their origin. Similarities in behavior of Yb2+ centers in as-grown garnets are found, indicating that radiation induced color centers can be associated with residual trace amounts of Yb present in the raw materials. Un-doped LuAG and LuAG:Ce demonstrate moderate radiation hardness (the induced absorption coefficients being equal to 0.05-0.08 cm(-1) for accumulated doses of 10(3)-10(4) Gy), while LuAG:Pr is less radiation hard. The ways to improve the radiation hardness are discussed.

  14. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong; Xiong, Tianqing; Wang, Tingting

    2014-02-01

    Porous AgBr@Ag and AgBrI@Ag plasmonic photocatalysts were synthesized by a multistep route, including a dealloying method to prepare porous Ag, a transformation from Ag to AgBr and AgBrI, and a photo-reduction process to form Ag nanoparticles on the surface of AgBr and AgBrI. It was found that the porous structure kept unchanged during Ag was transferred into AgBr, AgBrI, AgBr@Ag, and AgBrI@Ag. Both porous AgBr@Ag and porous AgBrI@Ag showed much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than cubic AgBr@Ag for the degradation of methyl orange, which is because the interconnected pore channels not only provide more reactive sites but also favor the transportation of photo-generated electrons and holes. For AgBrI@Ag, AgBrI solid solution formed at the interface of AgBr and AgI, and the phase junction can effectively separate the photo-generated electrons and holes, favorable to the improvement of photocatalytic activity. The optimal I content for obtaining the highest activity is ∼10 at.%.

  15. KPipe: a decisive test for muon neutrino disappearance

    CERN Document Server

    Axani, Spencer N; Conrad, Janet M; Shaevitz, Mike H; Spitz, Josh; Wongjirad, Taritree

    2015-01-01

    The short baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, KPipe, is designed to perform a sensitive search for muon neutrino disappearance in the current global fit allowed regions for sterile neutrinos. KPipe is to be located at the Material Life Science Experimental Facility at J-PARC: the world's most intense source of 236~MeV, monoenergetic muon neutrinos. By measuring the $\

  16. 7 CFR 82.17 - Death, incompetency, or disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., under 7 CFR part 707 of this title, be eligible for payments and benefits covered by this part, may... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetency, or disappearance. 82.17 Section... DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.17 Death, incompetency,...

  17. 7 CFR 81.17 - Death, incompetency, or disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 707 be eligible for payments and benefits covered by that part, may receive the tree... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetency, or disappearance. 81.17 Section... DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS PRUNE/DRIED PLUM DIVERSION PROGRAM § 81.17 Death, incompetency,...

  18. The Economics of Peak Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil” refers to the future decline in world production of crude oil and to the accompanying potentially calamitous effects. The peak oil literature typically rejects economic analysis. This chapter, following Holland (2008), argues that economic analysis is indeed appropriate for analyzing oil scarcity since standard economic models can replicate the observed peaks in oil production. Moreover, the emphasis on peak oil is misplaced since peaking is not a good indicator of scarcity, peak o...

  19. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB)

  20. Disappearance of neutron magic numbers and deformation coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disappearance of N=8, 20 and 28 magic numbers in the neutron excess nuclei is a representative example of the special features of the unstable nuclei. In this lecture of summer school, the problems of the magic number disappearance are presented. And the appearance of the deformation coexistence and the anomalous cluster structure come into the problem with them. At the begging the Antisymmetrized Molecular Dynamic (AMD) framework is explained with finite range two body central force and Gorgny DIS force composed of the zero range spin-orbit force and saturability. Island of inversion is explained in the nuclear chart shown in the figure and energy curves of the nuclei near 32Mg and the excitation level schemes of 32Mg are shown in the serial figures. As one of the extreme example of the nuclear structure the deformation of 19F is picked up. The level schemes and structures of 21F are shown as well. The molecule-like structure in the island of inversion is clear. The rotational band energy of fluorine isotopes are shown up to 29F. As a new deformation area, disappearance of N=28 magic number is in the spotlight recently. In this case it is characteristic properties that the parities of the orbits to form the gap must be the same but the angular momenta should be different by 2. According to the AMD research, it is shown that deformations of prolate, three-axis asymmetric and oblate characters coexist in the very low excitation energy region accompanying the disappearance of N=28 gap. The concept of magic numbers has been very fundamental in nuclear physics since the success of shell model. At present its disappearance in the unstable nuclei is one of the most challenging problems in the understanding of the nuclear many body problems. (S. Funahashi)

  1. Disappearance of diabetic macular hard exudates after hemodialysis introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuo,Toshihiko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    We report herein the disappearance of macular hard exudates after the introduction of hemodialysis in diabetic patients. A 62-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man with diabetes mellitus showed hard exudates in the macula of the left eyes. Both patients had previously undergone panretinal photocoagulation in both eyes. During the follow-up, hemodialysis was introduced for deteriorating chronic renal failure caused by diabetic nephropathy. Half a year later, macular hard exudates in the left eyes disappeared dramatically in both patients, but the visual acuity remained the same. No additional laser treatment was done during the observation period. Hemodialysis is considered to have accelerated the resolution of macular hard exudates in both patients. The deposition of macular hard exudates in diabetic patients is due in part to concurrent poor renal function.

  2. Experimental limits on neutron disappearance into another braneworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent theoretical works have shown that matter swapping between two parallel braneworlds could occur under the influence of magnetic vector potentials. In our visible world, galactic magnetism possibly produces a huge magnetic potential. As a consequence, this Letter discusses the possibility to observe neutron disappearance into another braneworld in certain circumstances. The setup under consideration involves stored ultracold neutrons - in a vessel - which should exhibit a non-zero probability p to disappear into an invisible brane at each wall collision. An upper limit of p is assessed based on available experimental results. This value is then used to constrain the parameters of the theoretical model. Possible improvements of the experiments are discussed, including enhanced stimulated swapping by artificial means.

  3. Disappearance of Black Hole Singularity in Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Modesto, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    We apply techniques recently introduced in quantum cosmology to the Schwarzschild metric inside the horizon and near the black hole singularity at r = 0. In particular, we use the quantization introduced by Husain and Winkler, which is suggested by Loop Quantum Gravity and is based on an alternative to the Schrodinger representation introduced by Halvorson. Using this quantization procedure, we show that the black hole singularity disappears and spacetime can be dynamically extended beyond th...

  4. Fighting impunity of enforced disappearances through a regional model

    OpenAIRE

    C.; Genovese; Wilt, de, J.

    2014-01-01

    Grievous moral opprobrium has often been the trigger justifying the recourse to individual criminal responsibility of perpetrators. The process of ‘justice cascade’ initiated by the Nuremberg trials should not come to a halt. Though the current measures of criminal justice enforcement within international tribunals and national courts prove to be necessary mechanisms, they are not always sufficient. Bringing forward the crime of enforced disappearance as an illustration of a phenomenon where ...

  5. Fabrication of Sn-3.5Ag Eutectic Alloy Powder by Annealing Sub-Micrometer Sn@Ag Powder Prepared by Citric Acid-Assisted Ag Immersion Plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Sang-Soo; Choi, Eun Byeol; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    A Sn-3.5Ag eutectic alloy powder has been developed by chemically synthesizing sub-micrometer Sn@Ag powder at room temperature. This synthesis was achieved by first obtaining a sub-micrometer Sn powder for the core using a modified variant of the polyol method, and then coating this with a uniformly thin and continuous Ag layer through immersion plating in 5.20 mM citric acid. The citric acid was found to play multiple roles in the Ag coating process, acting as a chelating agent, a reducing agent and a stabilizer to ensure coating uniformity; and as such, the amount used has an immense influence on the coating quality of the Ag shells. It was later verified by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis that the coated Ag layer transfers to the Sn core via diffusion to form an Ag3Sn phase at room temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry also revealed that the synthesized Sn@Ag powder is nearly transformed into Sn-3.5Ag eutectic alloy powder upon annealing three times at a temperature of up to 250 degrees C, as evidenced by a single melting peak at 220.5 degrees C. It was inferred from this that Sn-3.5Ag eutectic alloy powder can be successfully prepared through the synthesis of core Sn powders by a modified polyol method, immersion plating using citric acid, and annealing, in that order. PMID:26726525

  6. Measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters from muon neutrino disappearance with an off-axis beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Adam, J; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S W; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bertram, I; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F D M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Caravaca Rodríguez, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Curioni, A; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Frank, E; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Gaudin, A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Golan, T; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Jung, C K; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kim, S B; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Kogan, G; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kumaratunga, S; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lee, K P; Licciardi, C; Lim, I T; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Lopez, G D; Ludovici, L; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Marzec, J; Masliah, P; Mathie, E L; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Monfregola, L; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagasaki, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Naples, D; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Otani, M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Pac, M Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Pearce, G F; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pinzon Guerra, E S; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J-M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Szeglowski, T; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Taylor, I J; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J

    2013-11-22

    The T2K Collaboration reports a precision measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with an off-axis neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV. Near detector measurements are used to constrain the neutrino flux and cross section parameters. The Super-Kamiokande far detector, which is 295 km downstream of the neutrino production target, collected data corresponding to 3.01×10(20) protons on target. In the absence of neutrino oscillations, 205±17 (syst) events are expected to be detected while only 58 muon neutrino event candidates are observed. A fit to the neutrino rate and energy spectrum, assuming three neutrino flavors and normal mass hierarchy yields a best-fit mixing angle sin2(θ23)=0.514±0.082 and mass splitting |Δm(32)(2)|=2.44(-0.15)(+0.17)×10(-3) eV2/c4. Our result corresponds to the maximal oscillation disappearance probability. PMID:24313479

  7. Electrical and optical characteristics of Ag/CdTe thin film structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of Ag diffusion on electrical, optical and structural properties of Ag/CdTe structures have been investigated. In the range of 280-420 degrees Celsius the effective coefficient of thermal diffusion and photodiffusion are described. The acceleration of Ag diffusion under illumination was tentatively attributed to photoionization of Ag increasing the interstitial flux of silver. Ag/CdTe structures exposed to annealing were characterized by X-ray diffraction, conductivity-temperature and optical transmission measurements. In XRD patterns of annealed Ag/CdTe structures, besides the intensive peak of cubic CdTe, the weak peaks of Ag2Te phase are also present. The temperature dependence of conductivity and the absorption spectra of annealed Ag/CdTe structures showed the energy levels 0.13 eV and 0.10 eV respectively and nature of these levels were discussed

  8. Electrical and optical characteristics of Ag/CdTe thin film structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Effect of Ag diffusion on electrical, optical and structural properties of Ag/CdTe structures have been investigated. In the range of 280-420 degrees Celsius the effective coefficient of thermal diffusion and photodiffusion are described. The acceleration of Ag diffusion under illumination was tentatively attributed to photoionization of Ag increasing the interstitial flux of silver. Ag/CdTe structures exposed to annealing were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), conductivity-temperature and optical transmission measurements. In XRD patterns of annealed Ag/CdTe structures, besides the intensive peak of cubic CdTe, the weak peaks of Ag2Te phase are also present. The temperature dependence of conductivity and the absorption spectra of annealed Ag/CdTe structures showed the energy levels 0.13 eV and 0.10 eV respectively and nature of these levels were discussed

  9. Effect of relaxation on the energetics and electronic structure of clean Ag3PO4(111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinguo, Ma; Jie, Yan; Na, Liu; Lin, Zhu; Bei, Wang; Chuyun, Huang; Hui, Lü

    2016-03-01

    The effect of relaxation on the energetics and electronic structure of clean Ag3PO4(111) surface has been studied, carried out using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) incorporating the GGA+U formalism. After atomic relaxation of the Ag3PO4(111) surface, it is found that O atoms are exposed to the outermost surface, due to an inward displacement of more than 0.06 nm for the two threefold-coordinated Ag atoms and an outward displacement of about 0.004 nm for three O atoms in the sublayer. The atomic relaxations result in a large transfer of surface charges from the outermost layer to the inner layer, and the surface bonds have a rehybridization, which makes the covalence increase and thus causes the surface bonds to shorten. The calculated energy band structures and density of states of the Ag3PO4(111) surface present that the atomic relaxation narrows the valence band width 0.15 eV and increases the band gap width 0.26 eV. Meantime, the two surface peaks for the unrelaxed structure disappear at the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band after the relaxed structure, which induces the transformation from a metallic to a semi-conducting characteristic. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51472081, 51102150, 61106046), the Development Funds of Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center (Nos. HBSKFMS2014003, HBSKFMS2014011), and the Foundation for High-Level Talents (No. GCRC13014).

  10. Study on antibacterial activity of chemically synthesized PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New method of synthesizing PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite. • Surface Plasmon resonance and formation of composite at nano level were analyzed. • HR-TEM study revealed uniform distribution of nanoparticles. • PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited good antibacterial activity. - Abstract: Pristine polyaniline (PANI), PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method using aniline as monomer, ammonium persulphate as oxidant and metal (Ag, Au and Ag-Au) colloids. UV-Vis analysis exhibited surface Plasmon resonances of Ag, Au, Ag-Au nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra revealed the shift in peak position of N-H stretching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the presence of Ag, Au and Au-Ag nanoparticles. HR-TEM images show nanosizes of Ag, Au, Ag-Au and the incorporation of such nanoparticles into the PANI matrix. Pristine PANI, PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites were tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method. PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited higher antibacterial activity against both gram-positive [Streptococcus sp. (MTCC 890), Staphylococcus sp. (MTCC 96)] and gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli (MTCC 1671) and Klebsiella sp. (MTCC 7407)] when compared with PANI-Ag nanocomposite, PANI-Au nanocomposite and pristine PANI. The novelty of this study is the polymer-bimetal synthesis and its antibacterial potential

  11. Study on antibacterial activity of chemically synthesized PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomi, Pandi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Prabu, Halliah Gurumallesh, E-mail: hgprabu2010@gmail.com [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Manisankar, Paramasivam [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravikumar, Sundaram [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Area Studies, School of Marine Sciences, Alagappa University, Thondi Campus 623 409, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New method of synthesizing PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite. • Surface Plasmon resonance and formation of composite at nano level were analyzed. • HR-TEM study revealed uniform distribution of nanoparticles. • PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited good antibacterial activity. - Abstract: Pristine polyaniline (PANI), PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method using aniline as monomer, ammonium persulphate as oxidant and metal (Ag, Au and Ag-Au) colloids. UV-Vis analysis exhibited surface Plasmon resonances of Ag, Au, Ag-Au nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra revealed the shift in peak position of N-H stretching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the presence of Ag, Au and Au-Ag nanoparticles. HR-TEM images show nanosizes of Ag, Au, Ag-Au and the incorporation of such nanoparticles into the PANI matrix. Pristine PANI, PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites were tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method. PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited higher antibacterial activity against both gram-positive [Streptococcus sp. (MTCC 890), Staphylococcus sp. (MTCC 96)] and gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli (MTCC 1671) and Klebsiella sp. (MTCC 7407)] when compared with PANI-Ag nanocomposite, PANI-Au nanocomposite and pristine PANI. The novelty of this study is the polymer-bimetal synthesis and its antibacterial potential.

  12. Multipole plasmons and their disappearance in few-nanometer silver nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Raza, Søren; Christensen, Thomas; Di Vece, Marcel; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N Asger; Stenger, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) of individual silver nanoparticles encapsulated in silicon nitride, we observe besides the usual dipole resonance an additional surface plasmon (SP) resonance corresponding to higher angular momenta. We even observe both resonances for nanoparticle radii as small as 4 nm, where previously only the dipole resonance was assumed to play a role. Electron beams positioned outside of the particles mostly excite the dipole mode, but the higher-order resonance can even dominate the dipole peak when exciting at the particle surface, the usual choice for maximal EELS signal. This allows us to study the radius dependence of both resonances separately. For particles smaller than 4 nm, the higher-order SP mode disappears, in agreement with generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) theory, while the dipole resonance blueshift exceeds GNOR predictions. Unlike in optical spectra, multipole surface plasmons are important in EELS spectra even of ultra-small metallic nanoparticles.

  13. Reducing strength prevailing at root surface of plants promotes reduction of Ag+ and generation of Ag(0/Ag2O nanoparticles exogenously in aqueous phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddisetty Pardha-Saradhi

    Full Text Available Potential of root system of plants from wide range of families to effectively reduce membrane impermeable ferricyanide to ferrocyanide and blue coloured 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP to colourless DCPIPH2 both under non-sterile and sterile conditions, revealed prevalence of immense reducing strength at root surface. As generation of silver nanoparticles (NPs from Ag+ involves reduction, present investigations were carried to evaluate if reducing strength prevailing at surface of root system can be exploited for reduction of Ag+ and exogenous generation of silver-NPs. Root system of intact plants of 16 species from 11 diverse families of angiosperms turned clear colorless AgNO3 solutions, turbid brown. Absorption spectra of these turbid brown solutions showed silver-NPs specific surface plasmon resonance peak. Transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray confirmed the presence of distinct NPs in the range of 5-50 nm containing Ag. Selected area electron diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the silver NPs showed Bragg reflections, characteristic of crystalline face-centered cubic structure of Ag(0 and cubic structure of Ag2O. Root system of intact plants raised under sterile conditions also generated Ag(0/Ag2O-NPs under strict sterile conditions in a manner similar to that recorded under non-sterile conditions. This revealed the inbuilt potential of root system to generate Ag(0/Ag2O-NPs independent of any microorganism. Roots of intact plants reduced triphenyltetrazolium to triphenylformazon and impermeable ferricyanide to ferrocyanide, suggesting involvement of plasma membrane bound dehydrogenases in reduction of Ag+ and formation of Ag(0/Ag2O-NPs. Root enzyme extract reduced triphenyltetrazolium to triphenylformazon and Ag+ to Ag(0 in presence of NADH, clearly establishing potential of dehydrogenases to reduce Ag+ to Ag(0, which generate Ag(0/Ag2O-NPs. Findings presented in this manuscript put

  14. Make peak flow a habit!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your peak flow is one of the best ways to control your asthma and to keep it from getting worse. Asthma attacks ... Most times, they build slowly. Checking your peak flow can tell you if an attack is coming, ...

  15. Disappearance of isospin effect in projectile fragmentation at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 140 MeV/u 40,48Ca+9Be and 58,64Ni+9Be reactions are simulated by the statistical abrasion ablation model, and the simulation results are compared to the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) experimental data. By comparing the fragment isotopic distributions of 40,48Ca and 58,64Ni, we study the isospin effect in the projectile fragmentation induced by the neutron-rich nuclei at intermediate energy experimentally and theoretically. It is found that the isospin effect in projectile fragmentation decreases and even disappears as the violence of the collision increases. (nuclear physics)

  16. Directed transverse flow and its disappearance for asymmetric reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the directed transverse flow for mass asymmetry reactions. This is done by keeping the target fixed and varying the projectile mass from 4He to 131Xe. We find that directed transverse flow is sensitive to the mass of the projectile. We also study the disappearance of flow at a particular impact parameter called Geometry of Vanishing Flow (GVF) for such mass asymmetry reactions. Our results indicate that GVF is sensitive to the beam energy as well as to the mass of the projectile.

  17. Measuring the Disappearance of Muon Neutrinos with the MINOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radovic, Alexander [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It measures the flux from the predominately muon neutrino NuMI beam first 1 km from beam start and then again 735 km later using a pair of steel scintillator tracking calorimeters. The comparison of measured neutrino energy spectra at our Far Detector with the prediction based on our Near Detector measurement allows for a measurement of the parameters which define neutrino oscillations. This thesis will describe the most recent measurement of muon neutrino disappearance in the NuMI muon neutrino beam using the MINOS experiment.

  18. An improved measurement of muon antineutrino disappearance in MINOS

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, P.; Ayres, D. S.; Backhouse, C.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G.J.; Boehnlein, D. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Danko, I. Z.

    2012-01-01

    We report an improved measurement of muon anti-neutrino disappearance over a distance of 735km using the MINOS detectors and the Fermilab Main Injector neutrino beam in a muon anti-neutrino enhanced configuration. From a total exposure of 2.95e20 protons on target, of which 42% have not been previously analyzed, we make the most precise measurement of the anti-neutrino "atmospheric" delta-m squared = 2.62 +0.31/-0.28 (stat.) +/- 0.09 (syst.) and constrain the anti-neutrino atmospheric mixing ...

  19. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments ≥ FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments

  20. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here

  1. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here.

  2. Gamma Radiolytic Formation of Alloyed Ag-Pt Nanocolloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Temgire

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal dispersions of Ag-Pt composite nanoparticles were prepared by gamma radiolysis technique in the presence of nonionic surfactant Brij'97. Simultaneous as well as sequential reduction methods were employed in order to study the structural formation of Ag-Pt bimetallic clusters. Similar shape and trend was observed in optical spectra for both methods. Radiolysis yielded nearly spherical Ag-Pt bimetallic clusters by use of AgNO3 instead of AgClO4. The disappearance of the silver resonance and the simultaneous growth of the 260 nm resonance are independent of cluster structure and degree of alloying. To understand formation of Ag-Pt aggregate, the optical studies were also done as a function of amount of dose absorbed, concentration of surfactant, that is, Brij'97. The shape of the absorption spectrum did not change with increase in gamma radiation dose. TEM analysis exhibited fine dispersions of Ag-Pt clusters surrounded by a mantle when capped with Brij'97. The particle size obtained was in the range of 5–9 nm. On the basis of optical, XRD, and TEM analysis, alloy formation is discussed.

  3. Microwave synthesis of Ag@SiO{sub 2} core–shell using oleylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimipour, Masoud, E-mail: masoud.karimipour@gmail.com; Shabani, Elahe; Mollaei, Mohsen; Molaei, Mehdi [Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using microwave irradiation. Oleylamine was used as a stabilizer and capping agent, dimethylformamide as a reducing agent, and deionized water as a solvent. Synthetic parameters of Ag nanoparticles were optimized systematically. The Ag nanoparticles were used subsequently without any treatment in the preparation of Ag@SiO{sub 2} core–shell nanoparticles. UV–Vis spectroscopy shows a characteristic plasmon peak at 407 and 430 nm for Ag nanoparticles and Ag@SiO{sub 2} core–shells, respectively. Transmission electron microscope images show that Ag nanoparticles have the average size of 15 nm. It is also depicted that the core–shell structure was formed uniformly with the average size of 100 and 25 nm for Ag core and SiO{sub 2} shell, respectively. The application of Na-Cit in the preparation of core–shells yields single Ag core structure.

  4. Microwave synthesis of Ag@SiO2 core–shell using oleylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using microwave irradiation. Oleylamine was used as a stabilizer and capping agent, dimethylformamide as a reducing agent, and deionized water as a solvent. Synthetic parameters of Ag nanoparticles were optimized systematically. The Ag nanoparticles were used subsequently without any treatment in the preparation of Ag@SiO2 core–shell nanoparticles. UV–Vis spectroscopy shows a characteristic plasmon peak at 407 and 430 nm for Ag nanoparticles and Ag@SiO2 core–shells, respectively. Transmission electron microscope images show that Ag nanoparticles have the average size of 15 nm. It is also depicted that the core–shell structure was formed uniformly with the average size of 100 and 25 nm for Ag core and SiO2 shell, respectively. The application of Na-Cit in the preparation of core–shells yields single Ag core structure

  5. The Solar Internetwork. II. Magnetic Flux Appearance and Disappearance Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Gošić, Milan; Iniesta, Jose Carlos Del Toro; Suárez, David Orozco; Katsukawa, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale internetwork magnetic fields are important ingredients of the quiet Sun. In this paper we analyze how they appear and disappear on the solar surface. Using high resolution \\textit{Hinode} magnetograms, we follow the evolution of individual magnetic elements in the interior of two supergranular cells at the disk center. From up to 38 hr of continuous measurements, we show that magnetic flux appears in internetwork regions at a rate of $120\\pm3$~Mx~cm$^{-2}$~day$^{-1}$ ($7.3 \\pm 0.2 \\times 10^{24}$~Mx~day$^{-1}$ over the entire solar surface). Flux disappears from the internetwork at a rate of $125 \\pm 6$~Mx~cm$^{-2}$~day$^{-1}$ ($7.6\\pm 0.4 \\times 10^{24}$~Mx~day$^{-1}$) through fading of magnetic elements, cancellation between opposite-polarity features, and interactions with network patches, which converts internetwork elements into network features. Most of the flux is lost through fading and interactions with the network, at nearly the same rate of about 50~Mx~cm$^{-2}$~day$^{-1}$. Our results ...

  6. New evidence of early Neanderthal disappearance in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Bertila; Hernández, Cristo M; Mallol, Carolina; Mercier, Norbert; Sistiaga, Ainara; Soler, Vicente

    2014-10-01

    The timing of the end of the Middle Palaeolithic and the disappearance of Neanderthals continue to be strongly debated. Current chronometric evidence from different European sites pushes the end of the Middle Palaeolithic throughout the continent back to around 42 thousand years ago (ka). This has called into question some of the dates from the Iberian Peninsula, previously considered as one of the last refuge zones of the Neanderthals. Evidence of Neanderthal occupation in Iberia after 42 ka is now very scarce and open to debate on chronological and technological grounds. Here we report thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates from El Salt, a Middle Palaeolithic site in Alicante, Spain, the archaeological sequence of which shows a transition from recurrent to sporadic human occupation culminating in the abandonment of the site. The new dates place this sequence within MIS 3, between ca. 60 and 45 ka. An abrupt sedimentary change towards the top of the sequence suggests a strong aridification episode coinciding with the last Neanderthal occupation of the site. These results are in agreement with current chronometric data from other sites in the Iberian Peninsula and point towards possible breakdown and disappearance of the Neanderthal local population around the time of the Heinrich 5 event. Iberian sites with recent dates (<40 ka) attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic should be revised in the light of these data. PMID:25016565

  7. Decoupling approximation design using the peak to peak gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Cornel

    2013-04-01

    Linear system design for accurate decoupling approximation is examined using the peak to peak gain of the error system. The design problem consists in finding values of system parameters to ensure that this gain is small. For this purpose a computationally inexpensive upper bound on the peak to peak gain, namely the star norm, is minimized using a stochastic method. Examples of the methodology's application to tensegrity structures design are presented. Connections between the accuracy of the approximation, the damping matrix, and the natural frequencies of the system are examined, as well as decoupling in the context of open and closed loop control.

  8. Mechanisms of TL for production of the 230 {sup o}C peak in natural sodalite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Nilo F., E-mail: nilocano@dfn.if.usp.b [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Professional School of Physics, University of San Agustin of Arequipa, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Blak, Ana R. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ayala-Arenas, Jorge S. [Professional School of Physics, University of San Agustin of Arequipa, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Watanabe, Shigueo [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    The thermoluminescence (TL) peak in natural sodalite near 230 {sup o}C, which appears only after submitted to thermal treatments and to gamma irradiation, has been studied in parallel with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum appearing under the same procedure. This study revealed a full correlation between the 230 {sup o}C TL peak and the eleven hyperfine lines from EPR spectrum. In both case, the centers disappear at the same temperature and are restored after gamma irradiation. A complete model for the 230 {sup o}C TL peak is presented and discussed. In addition to the correlation and TL model, specific characteristics of the TL peaks are described.

  9. Ethylene glycol-based Ag plating for the wet chemical fabrication of one micrometer Cu/Ag core/shell particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cu@Ag particles less than one micrometer were fabricated through Ag polyol-plating. • Ag polyol-plating was tried without using additional reagents on Cu core particles. • Continuity, uniformity, and thickness of the Ag shell depended on plating conditions. • The sample showed an excellent oxidation initiation temperature of 280 °C. • Anti-oxidation properties of Cu@Ag powders strongly depend on the Ag shell thickness. - Abstract: With the aim of preparing an inexpensive metal filler that can be added to conductive adhesives used in fine-pitch electronic applications, a polyol solution was used to fabricate Ag-coated Cu (Cu@Ag) particles with a size on the order of one micron without the need for additional reagents. The continuity, uniformity, and thickness of the Ag shell were found to be strongly dependent on the plating conditions, particularly the reaction temperature. The Ag shell prepared at a peak temperature of 180 °C from a precursor with an initial Ag concentration of 15 wt.% was judged to be an optimum one. This same sample also showed an excellent oxidation initiation temperature of approximately 280 °C. It was inferred that the oxidation resistance of the Cu@Ag powder is largely determined by the continuity, uniformity and thickness of the Ag shell

  10. Dynamic of degradation and disappearance of monocrotophos in submerged soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results indicated that the disappearance rates of monocrotophos and its degraded products were much faster in the unsterilized soil than that in the sterilized soil. Their half lives were 27.29 and 69.16 days respectively. Monocrotophos degraded into both methanol extractable and unextractable residues in the submerged soil. The analysis of 14C-methanol extractable residue by TLC and ARG indicated that degraded products of monocrotophos were triether phosphate, N-demethyl Azodrin, O, O-dimethyl-vinyl-phosphate, O-demethyl Azodrin, and O, C-demethyl Azodrin. The principal degraded extratable product of monocrotophos was triether phosphate, which incresed from 5% of the parent solution of monocrotophos to a range of 28-83%; its degradation process was much faster in the unterilized soil than in the sterilized soil

  11. Black holes, wormholes, and the disappearance of global charge

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, Sidney Richard; Coleman, Sidney; Hughes, Shane

    1993-01-01

    One of the paradoxes associated with the theory of the formation and subsequent Hawking evaporation of a black hole is the disappearance of conserved global charges. It has long been known that metric fluctuations at short distances (wormholes) violate global-charge conservation; if global charges are apparently conserved at ordinary energies, it is only because wormhole-induced global-charge-violating terms in the low-energy effective Lagrangian are suppressed by large mass denominators. However, such suppressed interactions can become important at the high energy densities inside a collapsing star. We analyze this effect for a simple model of the black-hole singularity. (Our analysis is totally independent of any detailed theory of wormhole dynamics; in particular it does not depend on the wormhole theory of the vanishing of the cosmological constant.) We find that in general all charge is extinguished before the infalling matter crosses the singularity. No global charge appears in the outgoing Hawking radi...

  12. An Improved Measurement of Electron Antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, David M

    2012-01-01

    The theory of neutrino oscillations explains changes in neutrino flavor, count rates, and spectra from solar, atmospheric, accelerator, and reactor neutrinos. These oscillations are characterized by three mixing angles and two mass-squared differences. The solar mixing angle, {\\theta}_12, and the atmospheric mixing angle, {\\theta}_23, have been well measured, but until recently the neutrino mixing angle {\\theta}_13 was not well known. The Daya Bay experiment, located northeast of Hong Kong at the Guangdong Nuclear Power Complex in China, has made a precise measurement of electron antineutrino disappearance using six functionally-identical gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator-based detectors at three sites with distances between 364 and 1900 meters from six reactor cores. This proceeding describes the Daya Bay updated result, using 127 days of good run time collected between December 24, 2011 and May 11, 2012. For the far site, the ratio of the observed number of events to the expected number of events assumin...

  13. Observation of Reactor Antineutrino Disappearance at RENO and Future Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation (RENO) in South Korea observed electron anti-neutrino disappearance using data taken from August 2011 to March 2012 (about 222 live-days) at Yonggwang nuclear reactor site. The observed deficit resulted in measuring the last unknown neutrino mixing angle, sin22θ13, as 0.113 +/- 0.013 (stat) +/- 0.019 (sys.) which is 4.9 sigma level discovery over no oscillation hypothesis. We have taken about 440 live-days of data in total so far and those data are being analyzed. The ultimate goal of RENO analysis is that we would like to reduce statistical and systematic errors down to more than half of what are now by taking data for 3 years in total and by improving analysis method and reducing background. At the end, our future project, RENO-50, is discussed

  14. Simvastatin-induced nocturnal leg pain disappears with pravastatin substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojaković Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Statins have similar side effects that do not always occur at the same rate among the various statins. We present a case of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity that disappeared when pravastatin was substituted for the original drug. Case Outline. A 74-year-old male, a nonsmoker, complained of severe nocturnal leg cramps. The patient also complained that similar painful cramping occurred when he walked rapidly or jogged. Because some components of his lipid panel exceeded the ‘desirable’ range, and as he had a history of myocardial infarction, his family physician prescribed simvastatin (40 mg/day. The patient had taken this medication for the past eight years. The painful nocturnal episodes started two years ago and affected either one or the other leg. Four months ago we discontinued his simvastatin and prescribed pravastatin (80 mg/day. At a follow-up visit six weeks later, the patient reported that his leg pains at night and the pain experienced after brisk walking had disappeared. Four months after the substitution of pravastatin for simvastatin, the patient reported that his complete lack of symptoms had continued. Conclusion. These painful muscle cramps were probably caused by an inadequate vascular supply to the calf and foot muscles. Perhaps a combination of advanced age and atherosclerotic changes created a predisposition for the simvastatin-induced leg cramps. Pravastatin differs from simvastatin in several ways. It is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4 oxidases, and thus is not influenced by CYP 3A4 inhibitors like simvastatin. Also, simvastatin is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within the SLCO1B1 gene on the chromosome 12 and established myopathy, while pravastatin lacks this association. These differences may contribute to increased tolerance to pravastatin in this particular case.

  15. Study on antibacterial activity of chemically synthesized PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomi, Pandi; Prabu, Halliah Gurumallesh; Manisankar, Paramasivam; Ravikumar, Sundaram

    2014-05-01

    Pristine polyaniline (PANI), PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method using aniline as monomer, ammonium persulphate as oxidant and metal (Ag, Au and Ag-Au) colloids. UV-Vis analysis exhibited surface Plasmon resonances of Ag, Au, Ag-Au nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra revealed the shift in peak position of N-H stretching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the presence of Ag, Au and Au-Ag nanoparticles. HR-TEM images show nanosizes of Ag, Au, Ag-Au and the incorporation of such nanoparticles into the PANI matrix. Pristine PANI, PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites were tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method. PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited higher antibacterial activity against both gram-positive [Streptococcus sp. (MTCC 890), Staphylococcus sp. (MTCC 96)] and gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli (MTCC 1671) and Klebsiella sp. (MTCC 7407)] when compared with PANI-Ag nanocomposite, PANI-Au nanocomposite and pristine PANI. The novelty of this study is the polymer-bimetal synthesis and its antibacterial potential.

  16. Infrared Spectroscopic Study on the Structure of Ag2O. B2O3 Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic investigation of binary silver borate glasses in the system xAg2 O. (1-x) B2 O3 for various values of x (0< x <0.77) has been performed in order to understand the glass modifying properties of Ag2 O. The IR spectra show clearly the disappearance of boroxol rings and the formation, in a first step, of tetraborate groups and later of diborate groups as the oxide content increases. For high Ag2 O content, borate groups with non-bridging oxygen atoms are formed

  17. Ferromagnetic resonance of ultrathin Co /Ag superlattices on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakazei, G. N.; Martin, P. P.; Ruiz, A.; Varela, M.; Alonso, M.; Paz, E.; Palomares, F. J.; Cebollada, F.; Rubinger, R. M.; Carmo, M. C.; Sobolev, N. A.

    2008-04-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) is used to probe the magnetic properties of Co /Ag superlattices (SLs) with ultrathin Co layers (2-6Å). Different series of 5×[Ag/Co] multilayers have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates, monitoring the growth by reflection high energy electron diffraction. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy confirms the growth of local areas with the designed SL periodicity, a sharp compositional modulation, well defined Ag-Co interfaces, and a perfect fcc (111) stacking. FMR spectra have been recorded at various polar angles in the 0°-90° range. A single and extremely broad resonance peak is observed in all cases. While SLs with Ag layers thinner than 10Å exhibit similar values of the perpendicular anisotropy, a clear reduction is observed for samples with Ag layers about 14Å thick. Possible causes for this change are discussed.

  18. The AGS CNI polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new polarimeter is being installed in the Brookhaven AGS, based on the successful proton-carbon polarimeters in RHIC. The polarimeter will measure the left-right asymmetry for proton-carbon elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) region, for vertically polarized protons in the AGS. The polarimeter offers a much higher figure of merit than the existing AGS polarimeter which is based on larger angle proton-proton elastic scattering. We expect to measure the polarization in the AGS with a single or a few acceleration cycles. We also plan to measure the polarization in 2 ms bins during the AGS acceleration ramp. Multiple ramps will be necessary, probably over 30 minutes to an hour

  19. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition.

  20. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition

  1. Enigmatic Solar Wind Disappearance Events – Do We Understand Them?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Janardhan P.

    2006-06-01

    At the Sun–Earth distance of one astronomical unit (1 AU), the solar wind is known to be strongly supersonic and super Alfvénic with Mach and Alfvén numbers being on average 12 and 9 respectively. Also, solar wind densities (average ∼ 10 cm-3) and velocities (average ∼ 450 km s-1) at 1 AU, are known to be inversely correlated with low velocities having higher than average densities and vice versa. However, on May 11 and 12 1999 the Earth was engulfed by an unusually low density (< 0.1 cm-3) and low velocity (< 350 km s-1) solar wind with an Alfvén Mach number significantly less than 1. This was a unique low-velocity, low-density, sub-Alfvénic solar wind flow which spacecraft observations have shown lasted more than 24 hours. One consequence of this extremely tenuous solar wind was a spectacular expansion of the Earth’s magnetosphere and bow shock. The expanding bow shock was observed by several spacecraft and reached record upstream distances of nearly 60 Earth radii, the lunar orbit. The event was so dramatic that it has come to be known as the solar wind disappearance event. Though extensive studies of this event were made by many authors in the past, it has only been recently shown that the unusual solar wind flows characterizing this event originated from a small coronal hole in the vicinity of a large active region on the Sun. These recent results have put to rest speculation that such events are associated with global phenomenon like the periodic solar polar field reversal that occurs at the maximum of each solar cycle. In this paper we revisit the 11 May 1999 event, look at other disappearance events that have ocurred in the past, examine the reasons why speculations about the association of such events with global phenomena like solar polar field reversals were made and also examine the role of transient coronal holes as a possible solar source for such events.

  2. The growth of AgGaTe2 layers on glass substrates with Ag2Te buffer layer by closed space sublimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AgGaTe2 layer growth was performed by the closed space sublimation method on the Mo/glass substrate. The Ag2Te buffer layer was inserted between AgGaTe2 and Mo layers, to improve the quality of grown layers. Crystallographic properties were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the surface morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Ag2Te layer grown on the Mo/glass exhibited a membrane filter structure from the SEM observation. XRD spectra of layers grown with and without the buffer layer were compared. The AgGaTe2 layer with the Ag2Te buffer layer exhibited peaks originating from AgGaTe2, and a very strong diffraction peak of 112 was observed. On the other hand, it was cleared that the layer grown without the buffer layer exhibited no strong peaks associated with AgGaTe2, but Ga-Te compounds. From this, crystallographic properties of the AgGaTe2 layer were drastically improved by the insertion of the Ag2Te buffer layer. Moreover, the surface morphology exhibited a smooth surface when the Ag2Te buffer layer was inserted. The nucleation site density of AgGaTe2 was probably increased since the membrane filter structure exhibited numbers of kinks at the edge. Chemical reaction between Ga and Mo was also eliminated. It was cleared that the insertion of the buffer layer and its surface morphology were an important parameter to grow high quality AgGaTe2 layers. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. The growth of AgGaTe{sub 2} layers on glass substrates with Ag{sub 2}Te buffer layer by closed space sublimation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uruno, Aya; Usui, Ayaka; Takeda, Yuji; Inoue, Tomohiro [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kagami Memorial Research Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Waseda University, 2-8-26 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    The AgGaTe{sub 2} layer growth was performed by the closed space sublimation method on the Mo/glass substrate. The Ag{sub 2}Te buffer layer was inserted between AgGaTe{sub 2} and Mo layers, to improve the quality of grown layers. Crystallographic properties were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the surface morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Ag{sub 2}Te layer grown on the Mo/glass exhibited a membrane filter structure from the SEM observation. XRD spectra of layers grown with and without the buffer layer were compared. The AgGaTe{sub 2} layer with the Ag{sub 2}Te buffer layer exhibited peaks originating from AgGaTe{sub 2}, and a very strong diffraction peak of 112 was observed. On the other hand, it was cleared that the layer grown without the buffer layer exhibited no strong peaks associated with AgGaTe{sub 2}, but Ga-Te compounds. From this, crystallographic properties of the AgGaTe{sub 2} layer were drastically improved by the insertion of the Ag{sub 2}Te buffer layer. Moreover, the surface morphology exhibited a smooth surface when the Ag{sub 2}Te buffer layer was inserted. The nucleation site density of AgGaTe{sub 2} was probably increased since the membrane filter structure exhibited numbers of kinks at the edge. Chemical reaction between Ga and Mo was also eliminated. It was cleared that the insertion of the buffer layer and its surface morphology were an important parameter to grow high quality AgGaTe{sub 2} layers. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Black holes, wormholes, and the disappearance of global charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sidney; Hughes, Shane

    1993-07-01

    One of the paradoxes associated with the theory of the formation and subsequent Hawking evaporation of a black hole is the disappearance of conserved global charges. It has long been known that metric fluctuations at short distances (wormholes) violate global-charge conservation; if global charges are apparently conserved at ordinary energies, it is only because wormhole-induced global-charge-violating terms in the low-energy effective Lagrangian are suppressed by large mass denominators. However, such suppressed interactions can become important at the high energy densities inside a collapsing star. We analyze this effect for a simple model of the black-hole singularity. (Our analysis is totally independent of any detailed theory of wormhole dynamics; in particular it does not depend on the wormhole theory of the vanishing of the cosmological constant.) We find that in general all charge is extinguished before the infalling matter crosses the singularity. No global charge appears in the outgoing Hawking radiation because it has all gone down the wormholes.

  5. Observation of Reactor Electron Antineutrino Disappearance at RENO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation (RENO) has obtained a definitive measurement of the smallest neutrino mixing angle of θ13 by observing the disappearance of electron antineutrinos emitted from a nuclear reactor, excluding the no-oscillation hypothesis at 4.9 σ. From the deficit, the best fit value of sin22θ13 is obtained as 0.113±0.013(stat.)±0.019(syst.) based on a rate-only analysis. Antineutrinos from six 2.8 GWth reactors at the Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant in Korea, are detected by two identical detectors at 294 m and 1383 m, respectively, from the reactor array center. In the 229 day data-taking period between 11 August 2011 and 26 March 2012, the far (near) detector observed 17102 (154088) electron antineutrino candidate events with a background fraction of 5.5% (2.7%). The ratio of observed to expected numbers of the reactor antineutrinos in the far detector is 0.920±0.009(stat.)±0.014(syst.)

  6. Existence and disappearance of conical singularities in GLPV theories

    CERN Document Server

    De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    In a class of Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories, we derive both vacuum and interior Schwarzschild solutions under the condition that the derivatives of a scalar field $\\phi$ with respect to the radius $r$ vanish. If the parameter $\\alpha_{\\rm H}$ characterizing the deviation from Horndeski theories approaches a non-zero constant at the center of a spherically symmetric body, we find that the conical singularity arises at $r=0$ with the Ricci scalar given by $R=-2\\alpha_{\\rm H}/r^2$. This originates from violation of the geometrical structure of four-dimensional curvature quantities. The conical singularity can disappear for the models in which the parameter $\\alpha_{\\rm H}$ vanishes in the limit that $r \\to 0$. We propose explicit models without the conical singularity by properly designing the classical Lagrangian in such a way that the main contribution to $\\alpha_{\\rm H}$ comes from the field derivative $\\phi'(r)$ around $r=0$. We show that the extension of covariant Galileons with a diatoni...

  7. Surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence in amorphous silicon carbide films by adjusting Ag island film sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ag island films with different sizes are deposited on hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (α-SiC:H) films, and the influences of Ag island films on the optical properties of the α-SiC:H films are investigated. Atomic force microscope images show that Ag nanoislands are formed after Ag coating, and the size of the Ag islands increases with increasing Ag deposition time. The extinction spectra indicate that two resonance absorption peaks which correspond to out-of-plane and in-plane surface plasmon modes of the Ag island films are obtained, and the resonance peak shifts toward longer wavelength with increasing Ag island size. The photoluminescence (PL) enhancement or quenching depends on the size of Ag islands, and PL enhancement by 1.6 times on the main PL band is obtained when the sputtering time is 10 min. Analyses show that the influence of surface plasmons on the PL of α-SiC:H is determined by the competition between the scattering and absorption of Ag islands, and PL enhancement is obtained when scattering is the main interaction between the Ag islands and incident light. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. Peak Oil and other threatening peaks-Chimeras without substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radetzki, Marian, E-mail: marian@radetzki.bi [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The Peak Oil movement has widely spread its message about an impending peak in global oil production, caused by an inadequate resource base. On closer scrutiny, the underlying analysis is inconsistent, void of a theoretical foundation and without support in empirical observations. Global oil resources are huge and expanding, and pose no threat to continuing output growth within an extended time horizon. In contrast, temporary or prolonged supply crunches are indeed plausible, even likely, on account of growing resource nationalism denying access to efficient exploitation of the existing resource wealth.

  9. Peak Oil and other threatening peaks. Chimeras without substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radetzki, Marian [Luleaa University of Technology (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The Peak Oil movement has widely spread its message about an impending peak in global oil production, caused by an inadequate resource base. On closer scrutiny, the underlying analysis is inconsistent, void of a theoretical foundation and without support in empirical observations. Global oil resources are huge and expanding, and pose no threat to continuing output growth within an extended time horizon. In contrast, temporary or prolonged supply crunches are indeed plausible, even likely, on account of growing resource nationalism denying access to efficient exploitation of the existing resource wealth. (author)

  10. Peak Oil and other threatening peaks-Chimeras without substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Peak Oil movement has widely spread its message about an impending peak in global oil production, caused by an inadequate resource base. On closer scrutiny, the underlying analysis is inconsistent, void of a theoretical foundation and without support in empirical observations. Global oil resources are huge and expanding, and pose no threat to continuing output growth within an extended time horizon. In contrast, temporary or prolonged supply crunches are indeed plausible, even likely, on account of growing resource nationalism denying access to efficient exploitation of the existing resource wealth.

  11. Electricity Portfolio Management: Optimal Peak / Off-Peak Allocations

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Ronald; Mahieu, Ronald; Schlichter, Felix

    2007-01-01

    textabstractElectricity purchasers manage a portfolio of contracts in order to purchase the expected future electricity consumption profile of a company or a pool of clients. This paper proposes a mean-variance framework to address the concept of structuring the portfolio and focuses on how to allocate optimal positions in peak and off-peak forward contracts. It is shown that the optimal allocations are based on the difference in risk premiums per unit of day-ahead risk as a measure of relati...

  12. Microstructure and optical properties of nano Ag-ITO films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Nano Ag-ITO films with Ag volume fraction of 0.3%-1.0% were prepared by radio-frequency magnetron co-sputtering and analyzed by X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy.Microstructure analysis shows that the films are composed of polycrystalline ITO matrix embedded with Ag nanoparticles with a mean size of 60-100 nm.Transmissivity spectra of Ag-ITO films indicate that the visible light transmissivity of the films decreases with increasing the Ag fraction.The transmissivity of the annealed films is higher than that of the as-deposited films.The volume 0.3% Ag-ITO films have the highest light reflectance.The annealed films exhibit lower light absorptance than as-deposited films.A surface plasmon resonance(SPR) peak of volume 0.3% Ag-ITO films is located around 510 nm.Compared with the annealed ITO film,the annealed volume 0.3% Ag-ITO film shows 10% higher reflectivity,while its transmittance is almost the same as that of the annealed ITO film,indicating its potential application in new-type transflective displays.

  13. Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters from Muon Neutrino Disappearance with an Off-axis Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S W; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bertram, I; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Rodriguez, J Caravaca; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Curioni, A; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Frank, E; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Gaudin, A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Golan, T; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Jung, C K; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kim, S B; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Kogan, G; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kumaratunga, S; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lee, K P; Licciardi, C; Lim, I T; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Lopez, G D; Ludovici, L; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Marzec, J; Masliah, P; Mathie, E L; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Monfregola, L; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagasaki, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Otani, M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Pac, M Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Pearce, G F; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Guerra, E S Pinzon; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sanchez, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Szeglowski, T; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Taylor, I J; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J

    2013-01-01

    The T2K collaboration reports a precision measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with an off-axis neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV. Near detector measurements are used to constrain the neutrino flux and cross section parameters. The Super-Kamiokande far detector, which is 295 km downstream of the neutrino production target, collected data corresponding to $3.01 \\times 10^{20}$ protons on target. In the absence of neutrino oscillations, $205 \\pm 17$ (syst.) events are expected to be detected and only 58 muon neutrino event candidates are observed. A fit to the neutrino rate and energy spectrum assuming three neutrino flavors, normal mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{23}\\leq \\pi/4$ yields a best-fit mixing angle $\\sin^2(2\\theta_{23})=1.000$ and mass splitting $|\\Delta m^2_{32}| =2.44 \\times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2$/c$^4$. If $\\theta_{23}\\geq \\pi/4$ is assumed, the best-fit mixing angle changes to $\\sin^2(2\\theta_{23})=0.999$ and the mass splitting remains unchanged.

  14. Height preference and strain in Ag islands on Si(111)-(7x7)

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, D. K.; Bhattacharjee, K.; Satpati, B.; Roy, S; Kuri, G.; Satyam, P. V.; Dev, B. N.

    2003-01-01

    Growth and strain behavior of thin Ag films on Si substrate have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and high resolution x-ray diffraction studies. Ag islands formed on Si at room temperature growth show strongly preferred heights and flat top. At low coverage, islands containing two atomic layers of Ag are overwhelmingly formed. At higher coverages island height distribution shows strong peaks at relative heights corresponding ...

  15. TATTOOLING AND HBS Ag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Farjam

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between tattooing and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, sera form 49 tattooed individuals, mostly men aged 15-62 years, and 82 healthy controls matched for age, sex and social class were tested for HBsAg and anti-HBsAg. HBsAg was detected more significantly in tattooed cases than in controls, 24.5% and 6% respectively. Seven (33% of the individuals who had been tattooed within the preceding year, the average time between tattooing and serum collection being 18 weeks, were found to be HBsAg positive, and the predominant subtype was AWY . Anti-HBsAg was detected in %30 and %18 of the tattooed cases and controls respectively. Four of the 18 tattooed individuals and two of the five controls with a history of jaundice had abnormal liver function tests. Drug addiction was notice equally among the tattooed and control groups. Since tattooing is still popular among some population groups in Iran, public Health measures are recommended for the prevention and control of the medical hazards of tattooing, including hepatitis type B.

  16. Hubbert's Peak -- A Physicist's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Oil, as used in agriculture and transportation, is the lifeblood of modern society. It is finite in quantity and will someday be exhausted. In 1956, Hubbert proposed a theory of resource production and applied it successfully to predict peak U.S. oil production in 1970. Bartlett extended this work in publications and lectures on the finite nature of oil and its production peak and depletion. Both Hubbert and Bartlett place peak world oil production at a similar time, essentially now. Central to these analyses are estimates of total ``oil in place'' obtained from engineering studies of oil reservoirs as this quantity determines the area under the Hubbert's Peak. Knowing the production history and the total oil in place allows us to make estimates of reserves, and therefore future oil availability. We will then examine reserves data for various countries, in particular OPEC countries, and see if these data tell us anything about the future availability of oil. Finally, we will comment on synthetic oil and the possibility of carbon-neutral synthetic oil for a sustainable future.

  17. Ag recovery from copper anode slime by acid leaching at atmospheric pressure to synthesize silver nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atefeh Khaleghi; Sattar Ghader; Dariush Afzali

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, recovery of silver from anode slime of Sarcheshmeh copper complex in Iran and subsequent synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaching solution is investigated. Sarcheshmeh anode slime is mainly consisted of Cu, Ag, Pb and Se. Amount of Ag in the considered anode slime was 5.4%(by weight). The goal was to recover as much as possible Ag from anode slime at atmospheric pressure to synthesize Ag nanoparticles. Therefore, acid leaching was used for this purpose. The anode slime was leached with sulfuric and nitric acid from room to 90 ?C at different acid concentrations and the run which yielded the most recovery of Ag was selected for Ag nanoparticles synthesis. At this condition, Cu, Pb and Se are lea-ched as well as Ag. To separate Ag from leach solution HCl was added and silver was precipitated as AgCl which were then dissolved by ammonia solution. The Ag nanoparticles are synthesized from this solution by chemical reduction method by aid of sodium borohydride in the presence of PVP and PEG as stabiliz-ers. The synthesized Ag nanoparticles showed a peak of 394 nm in UV-vis spectrum and TEM images showed a rather uniform Ag nanoparticles of 12 nm.

  18. ON THE ORIGIN OF STRESS PEAK IN UNI-AXIAL STRETCHING OF AMORPHOUS POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Renyuan; SHEN Jingshu

    1997-01-01

    Rubber of high molar mass, like cis-polybutadiene, shows a stress peak on the engineering stress-strain curve during stretching at room temperature. In this work cispolybutadiene samples were swollen in a poor solvent, CHCla/EtOH (1/1 v/v), for different times. It was found that both the initial modulus and the stress peak on stretching decreased in magnitude with increasing swelling time and the peak disappeared entirely after1 hour of swelling. On further swelling the initial modulus increased somewhat and a small stress peak re-appeared after swelling for 2 h. The disappearance of the stress peak after swelling is interpreted as the result of disruption of cohesional entanglements present in the initial rubber sample. The re-appearance of a small stress peak and the increase of modulus on further swelling are interpreted as being of the same nature as the phenomenon of anti-plasticization. It is the result of forming some new cohesional entanglements of larger binding energies through longer range chain segmental motions excited after the disruption of the previously existing cohesional entanglements in the rubber. Thus an understanding of the stress peak on stretching a high molar mass rubber and the phenomenon of anti-plasticization on molecular level has been put forward.

  19. Discriminate Modelling of Peak and Off-Peak Motorway Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Mohammed Alhassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic theory is concerned with the movement of discrete objects in real time over a finite network in 2 Dimensions. It is compatible with or dependent on fundamental diagram of traffic. Without question traffic flow is an essential quantitative parameter that is used in planning, designs and roadway improvements.  Road capacity is significant because it is an important indicator of road performance and can point road managers in the right road maintenance and traffic management direction. In this paper four direct empirical capacity measurement methods have been considered. To test the efficacy of each method, data for peak period, off-peak and transition to peak have been used. The headway and the volume methods lack predictive capability and are suitable only for current assessment of flow rates.  The product limit method is weak in its predictive capability in view of the arbitrariness in the selection of the capacity value. It is also an extreme value method; hence not all volume data can be used with this method. The fundamental diagram method has good predictive capability and furnishes capacity values consistent with the standard of the facility. Unlike other methods, it does not rely on bottleneck conditions to deliver the capacity value.  The paper concluded that each method is uniquely suited to prevailing conditions and can be so employed.

  20. Plasma appearance and disappearance of an oral dose of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kerry S.; Schoenmakers, Inez; Bluck, Les J. C.; Ding, Shujing; Prentice, Ann

    2012-01-01

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) half-life is a potential biomarker for investigating vitamin D metabolism and requirements. We performed a pilot study to assess the approach and practical feasibility of measuring 25(OH)D half-life after an oral dose. A total of twelve healthy Gambian men aged 18–23 years were divided into two groups to investigate the rate and timing of (1) absorption and (2) plasma disappearance after an 80 nmol oral dose of 25(OH)D2. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and, in the first group, every 2 h post-dose for 12 h, at 24 h, 48 h and on day 15. In the second group, fasting blood samples were collected on days 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21. Urine was collected for 2 h after the first morning void at baseline and on day 15. 25(OH)D2 plasma concentration was measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem MS/MS and corrected for baseline. Biomarkers of vitamin D, Ca and P metabolism were measured at baseline and on day 15. The peak plasma concentration of 25(OH)D2 was 9·6 (sd 0·9) nmol/l at 4·4 (sd 1·8) h. The terminal slope of 25(OH)D2 disappearance was identified to commence from day 6. The terminal half-life of plasma 25(OH)D2 was 13·4 (sd 2·7) d. There were no significant differences in plasma 25(OH)D3, total 1,25(OH)2D, parathyroid hormone, P, Ca and ionised Ca and urinary Ca and P between baseline and day 15 and between the two groups. The present study provides data on the plasma response to oral 25(OH)D2 that will underpin and contribute to the further development of studies to investigate 25(OH)D half-life. PMID:21896243

  1. Inbuilt Potential of YEM Medium and Its Constituents to Generate Ag/Ag2O Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    G Yamal; Sharmila, P.; K. S. Rao; P Pardha-Saradhi

    2013-01-01

    We discovered that Yeast Extract Mannitol (YEM) medium possessed immense potential to generate silver nanoparticles from AgNO3 upon autoclaving, which was evident from (i) alteration in color of the medium; (ii) peak at ∼410 nm in UV-Vis spectrum due to surface plasmon resonance specific to silver nanoparticles; and (iii) TEM investigations. TEM coupled with EDX confirmed that distinct nanoparticles were composed of silver. Yeast extract and mannitol were key components of YEM medium responsi...

  2. Measuring nonlocal Lagrangian peak bias

    CERN Document Server

    Biagetti, Matteo; Desjacques, Vincent; Paranjape, Aseem

    2013-01-01

    In the Lagrangian approach to halo clustering, nonlocal bias can be generated either in the initial conditions or by the subsequent gravitational motions. Here, we investigate nonlocal Lagrangian bias contributions involving gradients of the linear density field, for which we have predictions from the excursion set peak formalism. We reformulate this approach in order to explicitly take into account the variable describing the crossing of the collapse barrier. This enables us to write down a bias expansion which includes all the bias terms, including the nonlocal ones. Having checked that the model furnishes a reasonable fit to the halo mass function, we extend the 1-point cross-correlation technique of Musso, Paranjape & Sheth (2012) to bias contributions that are chi-squared distributed. We validate the method with numerical realizations of peaks of Gaussian random fields before applying it to N-body simulations. We focus on the lowest (quadratic) order nonlocal bias factors predicted by the excursion s...

  3. Causality and the Doppler Peaks

    OpenAIRE

    Turok, Neil

    1996-01-01

    Could cosmic structure have formed by the action of causal physics within the standard hot big bang, or was a prior period of inflation required? Recently there has been some discussion of whether causal sources could reproduce the pattern of Doppler peaks of the standard scale-invariant adiabatic theory. This paper gives a rigorous definition of causality, and a causal decomposition of a general source. I present an example of a simple causal source which mimics the standard adiabatic theory...

  4. Power peaking nuclear reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Calculational Nuclear Reliability Factor (CNRF) assigned to the limiting power density calculated in reactor design has been determined. The CNRF is presented as a function of the relative power density of the fuel assembly and its radial local. In addition, the Measurement Nuclear Reliability Factor (MNRF) for the measured peak hot pellet power in the core has been evaluated. This MNRF is also presented as a function of the relative power density and radial local within the fuel assembly

  5. Polypyrrole microspheroidals decorated with Ag nanostructure: Synthesis and their characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, polypyrrole (PPy) microspheroidals were synthesized by chronopotentiometry on conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. These prepared PPy microspheroidals were subjected to surface modification by Ag nanostructures using cyclic voltammetery (CV). The decoration of Ag nanostructures on PPy surface was characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images show nanostar like structures with slight aggregation of Ag nanostructures on the PPy surface. The average particle size of PPy was found to increase from 7.3 to 30 nm after decoration with Ag nanostructure. Further, the XRD patterns shows a decrease in interchain separation and inter planar distance after the impregnation of Ag nanostructures in the PPy film when compared with pure PPy film. FTIR and Raman spectra displayed main vibrational bands; including the characteristic peaks. Raman spectra also show the signature of polaron and bipolaron states. Electrical conductivity of the Ag nanostructure decorated PPy microspheroidals has been measured by the two probe method. A possible mechanism for the formation of Ag-PPy nanostructure has been proposed.

  6. AGS improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest of both particle and nuclear physicists are coverging on the AGS; this machine is almost ideally and uniquely suited to perform a new class of frontier experiments. Particle physicists would like to study the extremely heavy (multi-TeV) particles posited by new theories by searching for rare k-decays. Nuclear physicists want to create the extremely denser form of nuclear matter which exists within neutron stars by studying heavy ion collisions. The particle physicists require extremely intense proton beams in order to produce enough k's. The nuclear physicists require heavy ions accelerated in the top energies of the AGS. The AGS recently acquired a new capability of accelerating polarized protons to 16.5-GeV and will extend its energy to full energy of the machine. This new capability will open the way to extend the surprising lower energy result of spin-spin correlation at high momentum transfer collisions to much higher energy

  7. SEASONAL DISAPPEARANCE OF FAR-INFRARED HAZE IN TITAN'S STRATOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A far-infrared emission band attributed to volatile or refractory haze in Titan's stratosphere has been decreasing in intensity since Cassini's arrival in 2004. The 220 cm–1 feature, first seen by the Voyager Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer, has only been found in Titan's winter polar region. The emission peaks at about 140 km altitude near the winter stratospheric temperature minimum. Observations recorded over the period 2004-2012 by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer on Cassini show a decrease in the intensity of this feature by about a factor of four. Possible seasonal causes of this decline are an increase in photolytic destruction of source chemicals at high altitude, a lessening of condensation as solar heating increased, or a weakening of downwelling of vapors. As of early 2012, the 220 cm–1 haze has not yet been detected in the south. The haze composition is unknown, but its decrease is similar to that of HC3N gas in Titan's polar stratosphere, pointing to a nitrile origin.

  8. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  9. Preparation of AgBr Nanoparticles in Microemulsions Via Reaction of AgNO{sub 3} with CTAB Counterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husein, Maen M. [University of Calgary, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Canada)], E-mail: mhusein@ucalgary.ca; Rodil, Eva; Vera, Juan H. [McGill University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    Nanoparticles of AgBr were prepared by precipitating AgBr in the water pools of microemulsions consisting of CTAB, n-butanol, isooctane and water. An aqueous solution of AgNO{sub 3} added to the microemulsion was the source of Ag{sup +} ions. The formation of AgBr nanoparticles in microemulsions through direct reaction with the surfactant counterion is a novel approach aimed at decreasing the role of intermicellar nucleation on nanoparticle formation for rapid reactions. The availability of the surfactant counterion in every reverse micelle and the rapidity of the reaction with the counterion trigger nucleation within individual reverse micelles. The effect of the following variables on the particle size and size distribution was investigated: the surfactant and cosurfactant concentrations, moles of AgNO{sub 3} added, and water to surfactant mole ratio, R. High concentration of the surfactant or cosurfactant, or high water content of the microemulsion favored intermicellar nucleation and resulted in the formation of large particles with broad size distribution, while high amounts of AgNO{sub 3} favored nucleation within individual micelles and resulted in small nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. A blue shift in the UV absorption threshold corresponding to a decrease in the particle size was generally observed. Notably, the variation of the absorption peak size with the nanoparticle size was opposite to those reported by us in previous studies using different surfactants.

  10. Chronology of generation, variation, and disappearance of a second proton belt as determined by effects in electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stassinopoulos, E.G. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Brucker, G.J. [Brucker (G.J.), West Long Beach, NJ (United States); Stauffer, C.A. [SES, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Meulenberg, A. [COMSAT Labs., Clarksburg, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of SEU data obtained from memory devices on the CRRES (Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite) spacecraft. It provides a dynamic picture of the newly identified second peak of the trapped proton belt in the equatorial region between approximately 2.0--2.8 Earth radii. In previous work, it was stated that injection of solar flare protons from the major flare of March 1991 generated this secondary belt which appears to have survived at least up to the demise of CRRES (October 12, 1991). The results of this study show that the radiation responsible for the observed effects existed intermittently in that region of space from the very beginning of the mission, that is July 27, 1990, during a period when there was no significant high energy flare activity (about 4.5 months), and then disappeared for three months until it reappeared again with the March 1991 flare.

  11. Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of Ag Modified Ti-Doped-Bi2O3 Photocatalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Lilan Zhang; Junfeng Niu; Duo Li; Ding Gao; Jianghong Shi

    2014-01-01

    Ti doped Bi2O3 (TDB) and Ag ion modified Ti doped Bi2O3 (Ag@TDB) photocatalysts were prepared by framework replacement synthesis method with different Ag loadings (0.05, 0.3, 0.75, and 1.0 mol/L AgNO3). The structural properties of the prepared catalysts were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, and UV/Vis diffuse reflectance (DRS). The XRD spectra of the Ti doped Bi2O3 calcined at 650°C showed the diffraction peaks of a mixture of Bi12TiO2...

  12. The Sacramento Peak fast microphotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrambide, M. R.; Dunn, R. B.; Healy, A. W.; Porter, R.; Widener, A. L.; November, L. J.; Spence, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    The Sacramento Peak Observatory Fast Microphotometer translates an optical system that includes a laser and photodiode detector across the film to scan the Y direction. A stepping motor moves the film gate in the X direction. This arrangement affords high positional accuracy, low noise (0.002 RMS density units), modest speed (5000 points/second), large dynamic range (4.5 density units), high stability (0.005 density units), and low scattered light. The Fast Microphotometer is interfaced to the host computer by a 6502 microprocessor.

  13. Thermal properties of radiolytically synthesized PVA/Ag nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krklješ Aleksandra N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiolytic method was used to synthesize two types of nanocomposites with silver, PVA/Ag by film casting and PVA hydrogel/Ag nanocomposites. This method is particularly suitable for generating metal nanoparticles in solution. The radiolytic species (solvated electrons and secondary radicals exhibit strong reducing properties such that metal ions are reduced at each encounter. Metal atoms then tend to grow into larger clusters. It was found that solid or swollen polymers are able to stabilize small crystallites against spontaneous growth via aggregation. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the melting behavior and kinetics of the PVA/Ag nanocomposites were investigated and compared to those of pure PVA. The melting as well as crystallization behavior of polymers is crucial because it governs the thermal properties, impact resistance and stress strain properties. Understanding the melting behavior is significant not only to tailor the properties of nanocomposites but to investigate the interactions between the constituents. The DSC curves of pure PVA and prepared nanocomposites show only one melting peak between 175 and 230°C, indicating that the melting behavior of these two systems are analogous. In both cases, with increasing heating rate, the melting peak shifts to a higher temperature, but with increasing Ag content the peak melting temperature is lower. When specimens are heated at high heating rate, the motion of PVA molecular chains cannot follow the heating temperature on time due to the influence of heat hysteresis, which leads to a higher peak melting temperature. When Ag nanoparticles are added they increase the heat transfer among the PVA molecular chains decreasing the melting temperature. The Ag content is a major factor affecting the degree of crystallinity. It was observed that at low nanofiller content, up to the 0.5 wt%, the degree of crystallinity of the nanocomposites increased, while at a higher content the

  14. Spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis of multilayered TiO{sub 2}-Ag thin films for photochromic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, L. [Materials R and D Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Centre, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nengyuan Rd. Tianhe district, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jiang, T.; Tanemura, M. [Department of Environmental Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Tanemura, S. [Materials R and D Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Centre, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Nabatova-Gabain, N. [HORIBA Ltd., 1-7-8 Higashi-kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Xu, G. [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nengyuan Rd. Tianhe district, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2008-05-15

    By altering the surrounding media of metal particles, the wavelength of surface plasma resonance can be tailored, which offers the potential for utilizing of plasma resonance related phenomenon, such as photochromism. Both sandwiched (TiO{sub 2}/Ag/TiO{sub 2}) and overcoated (TiO{sub 2}/Ag) films with different thicknesses were deposited on quartz substrate by rf helicon magnetron sputtering method. The structure of multilayered TiO{sub 2}-Ag films and the concentration of loaded metal Ag in each layer were determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry in high accuracy. The spectral dependent dielectric functions of each layer were obtained, which exhibited typical semiconductor TiO{sub 2}, metal Ag and mixture TiO{sub 2}-Ag behaviors, respectively. The surface plasma resonance peak was observed for several extremely thin mixture layers. The apparent redshift of SPR peak from 700 nm to 780 nm was happened with increasing of Ag amount from 35% to 50%. The broadening of SPR peak was found for layer 3 in sample 1 with low concentration Ag embedded in TiO{sub 2} media. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Economic effects of peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming that global oil production peaked, this paper uses scenario analysis to show the economic effects of a possible supply shortage and corresponding rise in oil prices in the next decade on different sectors in Germany and other major economies such as the US, Japan, China, the OPEC or Russia. Due to the price-inelasticity of oil demand the supply shortage leads to a sharp increase in oil prices in the second scenario, with high effects on GDP comparable to the magnitude of the global financial crises in 2008/09. Oil exporting countries benefit from high oil prices, whereas oil importing countries are negatively affected. Generally, the effects in the third scenario are significantly smaller than in the second, showing that energy efficiency measures and the switch to renewable energy sources decreases the countries' dependence on oil imports and hence reduces their vulnerability to oil price shocks on the world market. - Highlights: ► National and sectoral economic effects of peak oil until 2020 are modelled. ► The price elasticity of oil demand is low resulting in high price fluctuations. ► Oil shortage strongly affects transport and indirectly all other sectors. ► Global macroeconomic effects are comparable to the 2008/2009 crisis. ► Country effects depend on oil imports and productivity, and economic structures.

  16. Fate of the Peak Effect in a Type-II Superconductor: Multicriticality in the Bragg-Glass Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Park, S R; S.M. CHOI; Dender, D. C.; Lynn, J. W.; Ling, X. S.

    2003-01-01

    We have used small-angle-neutron-scattering (SANS) and ac magnetic susceptibility to investigate the global magnetic field H vs temperature T phase diagram of a single crystal Nb in which a first-order transition of Bragg-glass melting (disordering), a peak effect, and surface superconductivity are all observable. It was found that the disappearance of the peak effect is directly related to a multicritical behavior in the Bragg-glass transition. Four characteristic phase boundary lines have b...

  17. Ag nanoparticles as multifunctional SERS substrate for the adsorption, degradation and detection of dye molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A simple method was used to synthesize the silver Ag NPs. ► Change the reaction condition to obtain the best plasmon peak of Ag NPs. ► The multifunction of Ag NPs was analyzed for using as SERS substrate, adsorbent, and photocatalyst. ► Endows a new value of the SERS technique of monitoring the photocatalytic processes. - Abstract: Ag NPs were obtained by isopropyl alcohol restore silver nitrate with silicotungstic acid as a stabilizer under the condition of UV irradiation. From changing the amount of isopropyl alcohol and silver nitrate, we obtained Ag NPs of which plasmon peak was similar to the excitation wavelength, and the enhancement effect will be greatly improved. Enriching, degrading, and detecting dye molecular can be achieved by the simple SERS substrate, and the photo-degradation process was monitored by SERS successfully for the first time, and the sensitivity was improved compare to traditional detection by UV–vis spectroscopy.

  18. Photoluminescence of Ag-doped ZnSe nanowires synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. T.; Ip, K. M.; Li, Quan; Hark, S. K.

    2005-05-01

    Photoluminescence of Ag-doped ZnSe nanowires synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is investigated in the temperature range from 10to300K. Ag impurities were introduced into the ZnSe nanowires during the growing process. Some dominating Ag-related centers are found. Especially, the strong zero-phonon bound exciton luminescence with energy near 2.747eV is attributed to a neutral AgZn acceptor complex. This is because the emission peak at the same energy is observed only in the photoluminescence spectrum of the Ag-doped bulk ZnSe. A new luminescence peak at 2.842eV is attributed to the recombination of excitons bound to ionized acceptors (I2h) in the hexagonal phase of ZnSe nanowires. The physical origins of the emissions are briefly discussed.

  19. AGS experiments: 1990, 1991, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a description of the following: AGS Experimental Area - High Energy Physics FY 1993 and Heavy Ion Physics FY 1993; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ''as run''; Proposed 1993 Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS Experiments; and List of AGS Experimenters

  20. Search for Muon Neutrino and Antineutrino Disappearance in MiniBooNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MiniBooNE Collaboration reports a search for νμ and νμ disappearance in the Δm2 region of 0.5-40 eV2. These measurements are important for constraining models with extra types of neutrinos, extra dimensions, and CPT violation. Fits to the shape of the νμ and νμ energy spectra reveal no evidence for disappearance at the 90% confidence level (C.L.) in either mode. The test of νμ disappearance probes a region below Δm2=40 eV2 never explored before.

  1. Enhanced formation of silver nanoparticles in Ag+-NOM-iron(II, III) systems and antibacterial activity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboyega, Nathaniel F; Sharma, Virender K; Siskova, Karolina M; Vecerova, Renata; Kolar, Milan; Zbořil, Radek; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-03-18

    This work reports the role of iron redox pair (Fe(3+)/Fe(2+)) in the formation of naturally occurring silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the aquatic environment. The results showed that Fe(3+) or Fe(2+) ions in the mixtures of Ag(+) and natural organic matter enhanced the formation of AgNPs. The formation of AgNPs depended on pH and types of organic matter. Increase in pH enhanced the formation of AgNPs, and humic acids as ligands showed higher formation of AgNPs compared to fulvic acids. The observed results were described by considering the potentials of redox pairs of silver and iron species and the possible species involved in reducing silver ions to AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy measurements of AgNPs revealed mostly bimodal size distribution with decrease in size of AgNPs due to iron species in the reaction mixture. Minimum inhibitory concentration of AgNPs needed to inhibit the growth of various bacterial species suggested the role of surfaces of tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Stability study of AgNPs, formed in Ag(+)-humic acid/fulvic acids-Fe(3+) mixtures over a period of several months showed high stability of the particles with significant increase in surface plasmon resonance peak. The environmental implications of the results in terms of fate, transport, and ecotoxicity of organic-coated AgNPs are briefly presented. PMID:24524189

  2. Biosynthesis and stabilization of Au and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles by fungus, Fusarium semitectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallized and spherical-shaped Au and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles have been synthesized and stabilized using a fungus, F . semitectum in an aqueous system. Aqueous solutions of chloroaurate ions for Au and chloroaurate and Ag+ ions (1 : 1 ratio) for Au-Ag alloy were treated with an extracellular filtrate of F . semitectum biomass for the formation of Au nanoparticles (AuNP) and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles (Au-AgNP). Analysis of the feasibility of the biosynthesized nanoparticles and core-shell alloy nanoparticles from fungal strains is particularly significant. The resultant colloidal suspensions are highly stable for many weeks. The obtained Au and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles were characterized by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks using a UV-vis spectrophotometer, and the structure, morphology and size were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Possible optoelectronics and medical applications of these nanoparticles are envisaged.

  3. Structure and magnetic properties of [FePt/Ag]10 multilayer films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaohong; WANG Fang; WU Haishun

    2004-01-01

    [FePt/Ag]10 multilayers were deposited on glass substrates by magnetron sputtering. After being annealed at 550℃ for 30 min, the coercivities of [FePt/Ag]10 multilayer films were observably improved. Magnetic properties of [FePt/Ag]10 multilayer films are influenced by the Ag content. The highest coercivity is obtained for those multilayer films that the Ag content is about 25%. The analysis for the remanence curves shows that the lower FePt layer thickness is favorable for decreasing the intergranular interaction. Result of XRD shows that a thick Ag layer can enhance the intensity of FePt(001) peak. A magnetic activation volume of the order of 10-24 m3 is obtained by the measurement of magnetic viscosity, showing that it is promising to be ultrahigh density recording media.

  4. A search for muon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance in the Booster Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, Kendall Brianna McConnel; /Columbia U.

    2009-04-01

    This dissertation presents a search for {mu}{sub {nu}} and {bar {mu}{sub {nu}}} disappearance with the MiniBooNE experiment in the {Delta}m{sup 2} region of a few eV{sup 2}. Disappearance measurements in this oscillation region constrain sterile neutrino models and CPT violation in the lepton sector. Fits to the shape of the {mu}{sub {nu}} and {bar {mu}{sub {nu}}} energy spectra reveal no evidence for disappearance in either mode. This is the first test of {bar {mu}{sub {nu}}} disappearance between {Delta}m{sup 2} = 0:1 -- 10 eV2. In addition, prospects for performing a joint analysis using the SciBooNE detector in conjunction with MiniBooNE are discussed.

  5. Disappearance and revival of squeezing in quantum communication with squeezed state over a noisy channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaowei; Hao, Shuhong; Tian, Caixing; Su, Xiaolong; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2016-02-01

    Squeezed state can increase the signal-to-noise ratio in quantum communication and quantum measurement. However, losses and noises existing in real communication channels will reduce or even totally destroy the squeezing. The phenomenon of disappearance of the squeezing will result in the failure of quantum communication. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstrations on the disappearance and revival of the squeezing in quantum communication with squeezed state. The experimental results show that the squeezed light is robust (squeezing never disappears) in a pure lossy but noiseless channel. While in a noisy channel, the excess noise will lead to the disappearance of the squeezing, and the squeezing can be revived by the use of a correlated noisy channel (non-Markovian environment). The channel capacity of quantum communication is increased after the squeezing is revived. The presented results provide useful technical references for quantum communication with squeezed light.

  6. Disappearing neutrinos at KamLAND suport the case for neutrino mass

    CERN Multimedia

    Johnson, G

    2002-01-01

    Measurements from KamLAND, show that anti-neutrinos emanating from nearby nuclear reactors are "disappearing," which indicates they have mass and can oscillate or change from one type to another (2 pages)

  7. Vacuum excitation by sudden (dis-)appearance of a Dirichlet wall in a cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Harada, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2016-01-01

    Vacuum excitation by time-varying boundary conditions is not only of fundamental importance but also has recently been confirmed in a laboratory experiment. In this paper, we study the vacuum excitation of a scalar field by the instantaneous appearance and disappearance of a both-sided Dirichlet wall in the middle of a 1D cavity, as toy models of bifurcating and merging spacetimes, respectively. It is shown that the energy flux emitted positively diverges on the null lines emanating from the (dis-)appearance event, which is analogous to the result of Anderson and DeWitt. This result suggests that the semiclassical effect prevents the spacetime both from bifurcating and merging. In addition, we argue that the diverging flux in the disappearance case plays an interesting role to compensate for the lowness of ambient energy density after the disappearance, which is lower than the zero-point level.

  8. Vacuum excitation by sudden appearance and disappearance of a Dirichlet wall in a cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomohiro; Kinoshita, Shunichiro; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2016-07-01

    Vacuum excitation by time-varying boundary conditions is not only of fundamental importance but also has recently been confirmed in a laboratory experiment. In this paper, we study the vacuum excitation of a scalar field by the instantaneous appearance and disappearance of a two-sided Dirichlet wall in the middle of a one-dimensional cavity, as toy models of bifurcating and merging spacetimes, respectively. It is shown that the energy flux emitted positively diverges on the null lines emanating from the appearance and disappearance events, which is analogous to the result of Anderson and DeWitt. This result suggests that the semiclassical effect prevents the spacetime both from bifurcating and merging. In addition, we argue that the diverging flux in the disappearance case plays an interesting role to compensate for the low ambient energy density after the disappearance, which is lower than the zero-point level.

  9. Formation and Optical Properties of Ag Nanoparticles in CaB4O7–Ag2O and CaB4O7–Gd2O3–Ag2O Tetraborate Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T. Adamiv

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of Ag nanoparticles (NPs in the near-surface layer of CaB4O7–Ag2O and CaB4O7 –Gd2O3–Ag2O glasses by annealing in vacuum or in air is reported. It is concluded that annealing in vacuum does not necessary require the presence of reducing ions. Intensive plasmon absorption bands peaked at 403, 406 and 413.3 nm were observed in the absorption spectra of glasses with Ag NPs. Average radius of nanoparticles was calculated from the plasmon band half width and falls within 1.3-3.3 nm. It is concluded that calculated from normalized transmission spectra and absorption spectra the non-linear refractive index n2 increases due to the plasmon resonance in Ag NPs.

  10. Nano-Ag complexes prepared by γ-radiolysis and their structures and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, nano-silver (nano-Ag) complexes showing different properties have been synthesized as follows. Polypyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized silver colloids (NAg), nano-Ag bound to silica (SiO2) (NSS), and nano-Ag bound to a complex of SiO2 and polyaniline (PANI) (NSSPAI) were prepared via γ-irradiation at room temperature. NAg and NSS used PVP as a colloidal stabilizer, while NSSPAI did not use PVP as a colloidal stabilizer. Interesting bonding properties occurred in the nano-Ag complex and anticipated structural changes were clearly shown through a surface analysis of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphologies by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis showed that nano-Ag complexes have various particle sizes ranging from 10 to 30 nm. NSS (average, 10 nm) and NSSPAI (average, 30 nm) showed a uniformly spherical shape and size, while NAg did not. From the reflection peaks in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, surface crystallinity of the nano-Ag complexes was indicated to be in the same degree as that of NSSPAI>NSS>NAg. Also, in the contact angle (CA) determination, surface hydrophobicity of NSSPAI was stronger than those of NSS and NAg, relatively. The different nano-Ag complexes prepared by γ-irradiation can be applicable in various industry fields due to the increase in specific property. - Highlights: ► Nano-Ag complexes showing different properties have been synthesized via γ-irradiation. ► Nano-Ag colloid (NAg), nano-Ag bound to SiO2 (NSS), nano-Ag bound to SiO2 and PANI complex (NSSPAI). ► Nano-Ag complexes were the same based on Ag metal. ► Results clearly showed fascinating/different physical properties. ► Different nano-Ag complexes can be applicable in various industry fields.

  11. AGS experiments - 1995, 1996 and 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments

  12. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993. Tenth edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments {ge} FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments.

  13. AGS experiments -- 1995, 1996 and 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments.

  14. Intermittent Disappearance of a Patent Ductus Arteriosus Murmur: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Cokkinos, Dennis V.; Leachman, Robert D.; Lufschanowski, Roberto

    1982-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl with a diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus from the time of birth was noted to have disappearance of her typical continuous murmur on two separate, well-documented occasions. Cardiac catheterization showed a small patent ductus arteriosus with a pulmonic/systemic flow ratio of 1.3:1. Conservative treatment was advised. Twelve other cases of intermittent disappearance of the murmur of a patent ductus arteriosus were found in the literature.

  15. Nanocomposite Ag-LSM solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal Z.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Radmilovic, Velimir [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2008-01-03

    Advances in infiltration technology have enabled the creation of innovative electrode architectures that are key to highly effective SOFC anodes and cathodes. In this work, an Ag-infiltrated electrode has been created using a pre-sintered porous scandia-stabilized zirconia (SSZ) electrode backbone. The well-sintered SSZ provides a highly connected ion-conducting pathway throughout the electrode, while the nanometer thickness of the Ag particle layer minimizes the oxygen transport resistance that otherwise limits reaction rates in typical Ag composite electrodes. The new Ag composite electrode had minimal activation polarization by 750 C. The infiltration technology has allowed for incorporation of additional nanoscale electrocatalysts. Here, an Ag-LSM (strontium-doped lanthanum manganate) composite was produced, that takes advantage of each component catalyst and demonstrates a further enhanced effectiveness of the cathode Ag metal catalyst, producing relatively stable cell power densities of 316 mW cm{sup -2} at 0.7 V (and 467 mW cm{sup -2} peak power at {proportional_to}0.4 V) for over 500 h. (author)

  16. Ag/Pd core-shell nanoparticles by a successive method: Pulsed laser ablation of Ag in water and reduction reaction of PdCl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study Ag/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) have been fabricated by a successive method; first, colloids of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared in water by pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) method. Then PdCl2 solution (up to 0.2 g/l) were added to the as-prepared or aged colloidal Ag NPs. Characterizations were done using UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmissions electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Spectroscopy data showed that surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks of as-prepared Ag NPs at about λ = 400 nm were completely extinguished after addition of PdCl2 solution while this effect was not observed when aged Ag NPs are used. XRD and XPS results revealed that by addition of the PdCl2 solution into the as-prepared Ag NPs, metallic palladium, and silver chloride composition products are generated. TEM images revealed that as a result of this reaction, single and core-shell nanoparticles are obtained and their average sizes are 2.4 nm (Ag) and 3.2 nm (Ag/Pd). The calculated d-spacing values form XRD data with observations on high magnification TEM images were able to explain the chemical nature of different parts of Ag/Pd NPs.

  17. Phase-dependent corrosion of titanium-to-stainless steel joints brazed by Ag–Cu eutectic alloy filler and Ag interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical corrosion properties of Ti–STS dissimilar joints brazed by a 72Ag–28Cu alloy filler and an Ag interlayer were studied in a 3.5% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy. For a joint with a layered structure of Ti(base)/TiAg/Ag solid solution/Ag–Cu eutectic/STS(base), galvanic corrosion mostly occurred in the TiAg phase with a severe material loss, indicating that the TiAg layer acted as an anode in the galvanic couple in the layered joint. The Ag-rich solid solution layer was also corroded to a certain extent, but the corrosion in this layer was dominated by the selective pitting corrosion of the eutectic Cu-rich phase. With an increase in the brazing temperature, the Cu-rich phases disappeared owing to the enhanced isothermal solidification effect, leading to an improvement of the corrosion resistance

  18. Phase-dependent corrosion of titanium-to-stainless steel joints brazed by Ag–Cu eutectic alloy filler and Ag interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K.; Park, J.J.; Lee, J.G., E-mail: jglee88@kaeri.re.kr; Rhee, C.K.

    2013-08-15

    The electrochemical corrosion properties of Ti–STS dissimilar joints brazed by a 72Ag–28Cu alloy filler and an Ag interlayer were studied in a 3.5% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy. For a joint with a layered structure of Ti(base)/TiAg/Ag solid solution/Ag–Cu eutectic/STS(base), galvanic corrosion mostly occurred in the TiAg phase with a severe material loss, indicating that the TiAg layer acted as an anode in the galvanic couple in the layered joint. The Ag-rich solid solution layer was also corroded to a certain extent, but the corrosion in this layer was dominated by the selective pitting corrosion of the eutectic Cu-rich phase. With an increase in the brazing temperature, the Cu-rich phases disappeared owing to the enhanced isothermal solidification effect, leading to an improvement of the corrosion resistance.

  19. Modification of polyamide-CdS-CdSe composite material films with Ag using a cation–cation exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We investigated deposition of a mixed CdSe-CdS-Ag2Se-Ag2S on polyamide. • A single chalcogen precursor – K2SeS2O6 – was used. • AAS showed five- to ten-fold excess of chalcogens diffused into PA. • Addition of AgNO3 resulted in subsurface Ag2Se–Ag2S formation. - Abstract: Thin mixed CdSe-CdS-Ag2Se-Ag2S films were deposited on a polyamide 6 (PA) surface by successfully using a cation-exchange reaction between Cd2+ and Ag+ to convert CdSe-CdS into Ag2Se-Ag2S. These were deposited using a K2SeS2O6 precursor solution at 60 °C followed by cadmium acetate (Cd(CH3COO)2). An aqueous AgNO3 solution was used as the Ag source. XRD patterns showed a complex PA-Cd-S-Se-Ag film crystalline composition with CdS, CdSe, Ag2S and Ag2Se peaks. Calculated dislocation density ranged within 5–15 × 1013 lines·m−2 indicating high quality atomic layers. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) showed five- to ten-fold excess of chalcogens to metals in the thin films formed. No chalcogenides were observed on the sample surface during XPS analysis after Ag exchange due to the desorption of CdS and CdSe layers, not diffused into the bulk of the polymer suggesting that silver chalcogenides were located subsurface, as opposed to the outermost layer, likely comprised of Ag2O

  20. Modification of polyamide-CdS-CdSe composite material films with Ag using a cation–cation exchange reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylova, V.; Žalenkienė, S.; Dukstienė, N. [Department of Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu st. 19, LT-50254, Kaunas (Lithuania); Baltrusaitis, J., E-mail: job314@lehigh.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Lehigh University, B336 Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • We investigated deposition of a mixed CdSe-CdS-Ag{sub 2}Se-Ag{sub 2}S on polyamide. • A single chalcogen precursor – K{sub 2}SeS{sub 2}O{sub 6} – was used. • AAS showed five- to ten-fold excess of chalcogens diffused into PA. • Addition of AgNO{sub 3} resulted in subsurface Ag{sub 2}Se–Ag{sub 2}S formation. - Abstract: Thin mixed CdSe-CdS-Ag{sub 2}Se-Ag{sub 2}S films were deposited on a polyamide 6 (PA) surface by successfully using a cation-exchange reaction between Cd{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +} to convert CdSe-CdS into Ag{sub 2}Se-Ag{sub 2}S. These were deposited using a K{sub 2}SeS{sub 2}O{sub 6} precursor solution at 60 °C followed by cadmium acetate (Cd(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}). An aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution was used as the Ag source. XRD patterns showed a complex PA-Cd-S-Se-Ag film crystalline composition with CdS, CdSe, Ag{sub 2}S and Ag{sub 2}Se peaks. Calculated dislocation density ranged within 5–15 × 10{sup 13} lines·m{sup −2} indicating high quality atomic layers. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) showed five- to ten-fold excess of chalcogens to metals in the thin films formed. No chalcogenides were observed on the sample surface during XPS analysis after Ag exchange due to the desorption of CdS and CdSe layers, not diffused into the bulk of the polymer suggesting that silver chalcogenides were located subsurface, as opposed to the outermost layer, likely comprised of Ag{sub 2}O.

  1. Antibacterial burst-release from minimal Ag-containing plasma polymer coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischer, Stefanie; Körner, Enrico; Balazs, Dawn J; Shen, Dakang; Wick, Peter; Grieder, Kathrin; Haas, Dieter; Heuberger, Manfred; Hegemann, Dirk

    2011-07-01

    Biomaterials releasing silver (Ag) are of interest because of their ability to inhibit pathogenic bacteria including antibiotic-resistant strains. In order to investigate the potential of nanometre-thick Ag polymer (Ag/amino-hydrocarbon) nanocomposite plasma coatings, we studied a comprehensive range of factors such as the plasma deposition process and Ag cation release as well as the antibacterial and cytocompatible properties. The nanocomposite coatings released most bound Ag within the first day of immersion in water yielding an antibacterial burst. The release kinetics correlated with the inhibitory effects on the pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus and on animal cells that were in contact with these coatings. We identified a unique range of Ag content that provided an effective antibacterial peak release, followed by cytocompatible conditions soon thereafter. The control of the in situ growth conditions for Ag nanoparticles in the polymer matrix offers the possibility to produce customized coatings that initially release sufficient quantities of Ag ions to produce a strong adjacent antibacterial effect, and at the same time exhibit a rapidly decaying Ag content to provide surface cytocompatibility within hours/days. This approach seems to be favourable with respect to implant surfaces and possible Ag-resistance/tolerance built-up. PMID:21247951

  2. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Graczyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs. [b]case study[/b]. The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. [b]conclusion[/b]. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  3. Peak Detection Using Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Daoud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new work based-wavelet transform is designed to o vercome one of the main drawbacks that found in the present new technologies. Orthogonal Frequency Divi sion Multiplexing (OFDMis proposed in the literature to enhance the multimedia resolution. Ho wever, the high peak power (PAPR values will obstr uct such achievements. Therefore, a new proposition is found in this work, making use of the wavelet transforms methods, and it is divided into three ma in stages; de-noising stage, thresholding stage and then the replacement stage. In order to check the system stages validity; a mat hematical model has been built and its checked afte r using a MATLAB simulation. A simulated bit error ra te (BER achievement will be compared with our previously published work, where an enhancement fro m 8×10 -1 to be 5×10 -1 is achieved. Moreover, these results will be compared to the work found in the l iterature, where we have accomplished around 27% PAPR extra reduction. As a result, the BER performance has been improved for the same bandwidth occupancy. Moreover and due to the de-noise stage, the verification rate ha s been improved to reach 81%. This is in addition t o the noise immunity enhancement.

  4. Voestalpine AG : equity valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Shamuradov, Rustam

    2014-01-01

    Voestalpine AG is a steel-based technology and capital goods group and a world leader in the manufacture, processing, and development of sophisticated steel products. The Group supplies technology-intensive sectors, such as the automotive, railway, aviation, and energy industries. The Group had adopted the development strategy for the decade, targeting 2 billion EUR in total revenue by 2020, which is 73% higher compared to the most recent result. The strategy also implies th...

  5. Equity valuation Siemens AG

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Bernardo Santos

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation presents an in-depth analysis and consequent equity valuation of Siemens AG. The main objective of this paper is to provide an alternative perspective of what might be the fair value of this company considering its prospects of growth, risk and position in the market. The idea that value is highly subjective is kept in mind during all this process although it is important to understand how crucial this information is to shareholders and potential investors and the necessity ...

  6. AG mod rovet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    2010-01-01

    Den nye storsatsning, AG København, ser ud til at give dansk herrehåndbold uforholdsmæssigt stor opmærksomhed. I en tid med pengenød og forhandlinger om en kommende tv-aftale, er det rent guf for håndboldens parter. Men den nyrige aktør øger også risikoen for, at ligaen brækker midt over såvel...

  7. Optical and thermal stability of Ag centers in RT X-irradiated KCl:Ag crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical absorption, thermoluminescence (TL), monochromatic TL, and TL spectra of potassium chloride crystals doped heavily with silver are measured after X-irradiation at RT. The effect of optical bleaching on X-irradiated crystals with light in the F, E, and B bands both, separately and together, as well as thermal annealing effects of the defect centres are studied. It is found that in the heavily doped crystals the role of holes in the form of doubly charged impurity ions (Ag++) is predominant compared to holes of the host lattice in the form of Cl2- etc. The Ag ions stabilised only at cation sites in different valence states are involved in the recombination-luminescence process. From the TL spectral data of the glow peaks preferential redistribution of the excess electron centres on optical bleaching is evident. The results support that tunnelling of electrons is responsible for the observed TL and TL spectral data. (author)

  8. Fuzzy peak hour for urban road traffic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Li-Min; Dong, Hong-Hui; Zhang, Zun-Dong; Ye, Yang-Dong

    2015-06-01

    Traffic congestion is now nearly ubiquitous in many urban areas and frequently occurs during rush hour periods. Rush hour avoidance is an effective way to ease traffic congestion. It is significant to calculate the rush hour for alleviating traffic congestion. This paper provides a method to calculate the fuzzy peak hour of the urban traffic network considering the flow, speed and occupancy. The process of calculation is based on betweenness centrality of network theory, optimal separation method, time period weighting, probability-possibility transformations and trapezoidal approximations of fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy peak hour of the urban road traffic network (URTN) is a trapezoidal fuzzy number [m1, m2, m3, m4]. It helps us (i) to confirm a more detailed traffic condition at each moment, (ii) to distinguish the five traffic states of the traffic network in one day, (iii) to analyze the characteristic of appearance and disappearance processes of the each traffic state and (iv) to find out the time pattern of residents travel in one city.

  9. Prediction of size distribution of Ag nanoparticles synthesized via gamma-ray radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spherical shape Ag nanoparticles synthesized via gamma-ray radiolysis were observed with the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Diameters of Ag nanoparticles were measured from the TEM photographs. Statistical analysis showed that the particle diameter complied with a linear-converted Poisson distribution. The distribution parameter, which was the average of diameters, was related to the ultraviolet–visible spectrum peak position of the nanosilver collosol. An empirical equation was established to predicting size distribution of Ag nanoparticles with the peak position. Nanosilver of different sizes could be synthesized by adjusting the intensity of γ-irradiation, the kind and the addition amount of the stabilizing agent. Because particle size affects the physiochemical properties of nanosilver material, results of this paper would be of practical significance for the application of nanosilver. - Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were produced by reduction using 60Co gamma radiolysis. • Observed Ag nanoparticles by using the transmission electron microscope. • Deduced a quasi-Poisson size distribution for the Ag nanoparticles. • Empirical equation for measuring the size of Ag nanoparticles with UV–vis spectrum. • Size-controlled synthesis of spherical Ag nanoparticles

  10. Plants for H- acceleration in the AGS Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its commissioning in 1970, the 200 MeV Linac at the Brookhaven AGS has been capable of producing peak proton beam current of greater than 100 mA with pulse lengths up to 300 μsec at a repetition rate of 10 pulses/second. The linac typically runs at 5 pulses per second, providing a 60 mA pulse of 120 μsec duration every 1.6 to 2.4 seconds for conventional multiturn injection into the AGS. The intervening pulses of length up to 300 μsec are used by the radio-isotope production, chemistry and medical facilities. Preparations are now being made to inject and accelerate H- ions in order to implement charge exchange injection into the AGS. This paper describes the aspects of this work leading to an H- beam at 200 MeV

  11. Optical and magnetic properties of Cu-doped 13-atom Ag nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian 710072 (China); Lei, Yimin [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian 710072 (China); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Cui, Xiangyuan [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); School of Aerospace Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Liu, Zongwen, E-mail: fuyichen@nwpu.edu.cn [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Chen, Fuyi, E-mail: zongwen.liu@sydney.edu.au [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian 710072 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Cu atom tends to occupy the core position in the Ag–Cu nanoclusters. •Global minimum of Ag{sub 12}Cu{sub 1} cluster is predicted to be cuboctahedral shape. •High symmetry clusters have high magnetic moment. •Icosahedral core–shell Ag{sub 12}Cu{sub 1} cluster has ferromagnetic properties. -- Abstract: The structural, optical and magnetic properties of Ag{sub 13}, Ag{sub 12}Cu{sub 1} and Cu{sub 13} clusters have been investigated using density functional theory calculations. The global minimum of the Ag{sub 12}Cu{sub 1} cluster is predicted to be cuboctahedral (COh) core–shell structure with O{sub h} point group symmetry while the icosahedral (Ih) core–shell isomer has a higher HOMO–LUMO gap and higher magnetic moment. The optical absorption spectrum of the Ih Ag{sub 12}Cu{sub 1} has three absorption peaks at 2.17, 2.41 and 2.65 eV, compared with that the COh Ag{sub 12}Cu{sub 1} has one main absorption peak at 2.51 eV. The characteristics in electronic density of states (DOSs) show that Ih core–shell Ag{sub 12}Cu{sub 1} has ferromagnetic properties like pure Au{sub 13}, Ag{sub 13} nanoclusters. The sizable split between spin up and spin down DOS of d states in the inner Cu atom and sp states in the outer Ag atoms bring in large magnetic moment to Ih Ag{sub 12}Cu{sub 1} cluster.

  12. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Ren, Yan-yu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV-Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism.

  13. Development of a 3D muon disappearance algorithm for muon scattering tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon passing through a material, muons lose energy, scatter off nuclei and atomic electrons, and can stop in the material. Muons will more readily lose energy in higher density materials. Therefore multiple muon disappearances within a localized volume may signal the presence of high-density materials. We have developed a new technique that improves the sensitivity of standard muon scattering tomography. This technique exploits these muon disappearances to perform non-destructive assay of an inspected volume. Muons that disappear have their track evaluated using a 3D line extrapolation algorithm, which is in turn used to construct a 3D tomographic image of the inspected volume. Results of Monte Carlo simulations that measure muon disappearance in different types of target materials are presented. The ability to differentiate between different density materials using the 3D line extrapolation algorithm is established. Finally the capability of this new muon disappearance technique to enhance muon scattering tomography techniques in detecting shielded HEU in cargo containers has been demonstrated

  14. Constructing Meaning from Disappearance: Local Memorialisation of the Missing in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Robins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Disappearance in conflict creates challenges of identity and meaning for the families of those whose fate remains unknown: women, for example, who do not know if they are wives or widows and desperately seek to construct positive meanings from their experience. This empirical study of the families of those disappeared during Nepal’s Maoist insurgency focuses on processes of local memorialisation and post-conflict politics of memory in rural areas and on how and why victims seek certain forms of recognition and memorialisation, including their psychosocial motivations. The means of memorialisation chosen by families of the missing served to confirm in a highly social way that the disappeared are missing not dead, and sought to integrate stigmatised families into communities from which they had been alienated by violations. Memorialisation can strengthen the resilience of families of the missing; as a social process, it addresses both the emotional and the social impacts of disappearance. Remembering the disappeared in ways that can aid the well-being of the families left behind demands local approaches that are contextualised in the cultural and social worlds of impacted communities: this challenges memorialisation, and transitional justice processes more broadly, that emerge exclusively from institutional processes directed by elites.

  15. Interplay between Appearance and Disappearance Channels for Precision Measurements of θ₂₃ and δ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma, Pilar; Minakata, Hisakazu; Parke, Stephen J.

    2014-11-01

    We discuss how the CP violating phase δ and the mixing angle θ₂₃ can be measured precisely in an environment where there are strong correlations between them. This is achieved by paying special attention to the mutual roles and the interplay between the appearance and the disappearance channels in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We analyze and clarify the general structure of the θ₂₃ - θ₁₃ - δ degeneracy for both the appearance and disappearance channels in a more complete fashion than what has previously been discussed in the literature. A full understanding of this degeneracy is of vital importance if θ₂₃ is close to maximal mixing. The relative importance between the appearance and disappearance channels depends upon the particular setup and how close to maximal mixing Nature has chosen the value for θ₂₃. For facilities that operate with a narrow band beam or a wide band beam centered on the first oscillation extremum, the contribution of the disappearance channel depends critically on the systematic uncertainties assumed for this channel. Whereas for facilities that operate at energies above the first oscillation extremum or at the second oscillation extremum the appearance channels dominate. On the other hand, for δ we find that the disappearance channel usually improves the sensitivity, modestly for facilities around the first oscillation extremum and more significantly for facilities operating at an energy above the first oscillation extremum, especially near δ ~ ± π/2.

  16. Electrochemical behavior of Ag-Cu alloy in alkaline media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grekulović Vesna J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the investigation of electrochemical behaviour of Ag-Cu alloy containing 50 mass% Ag and 50 mass% Cu are presented in this paper. Pure silver and copper were investigated, too. Working electrodes were prepared by metallurgical process. 1 mol dm-3 and 0.5 mol dm-3 solutions of NaOH are chosen as the electrolyte. On the cyclic voltammograms, some current waves corresponding to number and quantity of phases present in the investigated electrodes appeared and they can be used for characterization of investigated alloy. On the voltammogram recorded for pure silver, two anodic and two cathodic peaks appeared. First peak consisted of two joined current waves which can be ascribed to the formation of the two different types of silver(I oxide, Ag2O. Second peak should correspond to the formation of silver(II oxide, AgO. Voltammogram obtained for pure copper exhibits one broad current wave corresponding to the formation of copper oxides, followed by a wide potential area in which copper is completely passive. At 0.4 V vs. SCE, current starts to increase again due to oxygen evolution and probably due to simultaneous dissolution of copper with formation of CuO22- as a product. In alkaline solutions copper has no significant influence on the shape and current values of the voltammograms recorded for Ag-Cu alloy; however, it has an influence only on the anodic and cathodic peak potentials, which are shifted to more negative values in comparison to Ag. It could mean an easier formation of oxides and their harder reduction. Comparing voltammograms recorded for Ag-Cu alloy in 0.5 moldm-3 NaOH and in 1 moldm-3 NaOH solutions, one can see that current waves appear at more positive potentials on the voltammograms obtained in the solution of lower concentration and with much higher current densities than those on the voltammograms obtained in the solution of higher concentration.

  17. Peak-flow characteristics of Virginia streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Wiegand, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Peak-flow annual exceedance probabilities, also called probability-percent chance flow estimates, and regional regression equations are provided describing the peak-flow characteristics of Virginia streams. Statistical methods are used to evaluate peak-flow data. Analysis of Virginia peak-flow data collected from 1895 through 2007 is summarized. Methods are provided for estimating unregulated peak flow of gaged and ungaged streams. Station peak-flow characteristics identified by fitting the logarithms of annual peak flows to a Log Pearson Type III frequency distribution yield annual exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.4292, 0.2, 0.1, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.002 for 476 streamgaging stations. Stream basin characteristics computed using spatial data and a geographic information system are used as explanatory variables in regional regression model equations for six physiographic regions to estimate regional annual exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites. Weighted peak-flow values that combine annual exceedance probabilities computed from gaging station data and from regional regression equations provide improved peak-flow estimates. Text, figures, and lists are provided summarizing selected peak-flow sites, delineated physiographic regions, peak-flow estimates, basin characteristics, regional regression model equations, error estimates, definitions, data sources, and candidate regression model equations. This study supersedes previous studies of peak flows in Virginia.

  18. The atomic Fe/Ag exchange on Ag(100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langelaar, MH; Boerma, DO; Moss, SC; Ila, D; Cammarata, RC; Chason, EH; Einstein, TL; Williams, ED

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present a low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) study of the site exchange of Fe adatoms with Ag atoms from the Ag(100) surface. The time-of-flight (TOF) spectra obtained at low temperatures have been interpreted with a newly developed LEIS simulation program MATCH. After low temperature

  19. Bio-inspired sustainable and green synthesis of plasmonic Ag/AgCl nanoparticles for enhanced degradation of organic compound from aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Th Babita; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2016-09-01

    In the current study, we report the utilization of the biogenic potential of Benincasa hispida (ash gourd) peel extract for the synthesis of Ag embedded AgCl nanoparticles nanoparticles (Ag/AgCl NPs) without the use of any external organic solvents. The appearance of dark brown color from the pale yellow color confirmed the formation of Ag/AgCl nanoparticles which was further validated by absorbance peak using UV-visible spectroscopy. The phytochemicals (flavones) present in the B. hispida peel extract acts as a reducing/stabilizing agents. The morphology and size of the synthesized NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), selected area electron microscope (SAED) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). FT-IR spectra of the B. hispida peel extract and after the development of nanoparticles are determined to identify the functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles showed an excellent photocatalytic property in the degradation of toxic dye like malachite green oxalate under sunlight irradiation. For the first time, malachite green oxalate dye was degraded by Ag/AgCl nanoparticles under sunlight irradiation. PMID:27246560

  20. Preparation of vanadium oxide thin films modified with Ag using a hybrid deposition configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Zavala, F.; Escobar-Alarcón, L.; Solís-Casados, D. A.; Rivera-Rodríguez, C.; Basurto, R.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.

    2016-04-01

    The application of a hybrid deposition configuration, formed by the interaction of a laser ablation plasma with a flux of atomic vapor, to deposit vanadium oxide thin films modified with different amounts of silver, is reported. The effect of the amount of Ag incorporated in the films on their structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties was studied. The obtained results reveal that films with variable Ag content from 11.7 to 24.6 at.% were obtained. Depending on the silver content, the samples show very different surface morphologies. Optical characterization indicates the presence of nanostructures of Ag. Thin films containing silver exhibit better photocatalytic performances than unmodified V2O5 films. Raman spectra reveal that as the silver content is increased, the signals associated with V2O5 disappear and new modes attributed mainly to silver vanadates appear suggesting the formation of ternary compounds.

  1. Evolution of secondary whirls in thermoconvective vortices: Strengthening, weakening, and disappearance in the route to chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, D.; Navarro, M. C.; Herrero, H.

    2016-01-01

    The appearance, evolution, and disappearance of periodic and quasiperiodic dynamics of fluid flows in a cylindrical annulus locally heated from below are analyzed using nonlinear simulations. The results reveal a route of the transition from a steady axisymmetric vertical vortex to a chaotic flow. The chaotic flow regime is reached after a sequence of successive supercritical Hopf bifurcations to periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic flow regimes. A scenario similar to the Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse scenario is verified in this convective flow. In the transition to chaos we find the appearance of subvortices embedded in the primary axisymmetric vortex, flows where the subvortical structure strengthens and weakens, that almost disappears before reforming again, leading to a more disorganized flow to a final chaotic regime. Results are remarkable as they connect to observations describing formation, weakening, and virtual disappearance before revival of subvortices in some atmospheric swirls such as dust devils.

  2. Formation and disappearance of thermal stratification in a small shallow lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In closed water bodies which the inflow and outflow are usually small, vertical transportation based on the formation of water temperature stratification, the problem of water quality pollution due to the inhibition of mixing easily occur, especially the problems become serious in shallow water bodies. The main reasons that drive the formation and disappearance of water temperature stratification are mechanical disturbance caused by the acting of wind, or solar radiation in daytime, thermal disturbance due to radiational cooling at night. Clarifying the processes of formation and disappearance of stratification response to these two kinds of disturbance is very important for management and improvement of the environment in the water bodies. So, in this research, a shallow closed water body with the overgrowth of aquatic plants was targeted for field observation and quantitative discussion on the processes of formation and disappearance of the thermal stratification

  3. Isospin effect of fragmentation reaction and its disappearance in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isospin effect of fragmentation reaction on isotopic distribution was investigated by a modified statistical abrasion-ablation model. It is shown that the isotopic distribution shifts toward the neutron rich side for neutron rich projectile, but this isospin effect will decrease and disappear at last when (Zproj-Z)/Zproj closes to 0.5 and becomes larger than 0.5 independent of the reaction systems, where Z and Zproj are the atomic numbers of the produced isotop and projectile, respectively. It is pointed out that the disappearance of isospin effect comes mainly from the geometry effect in abrasion stage and the evaporation process later

  4. Influencing factors for the disappearance of hemispatial neglect in patients during acute stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaobin Long

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some researches are proved that early sitting balance and body motor control performed on patients with stroke and hemiplegia is related to functional prognosis. For patients with hemispatial neglect (HSN) during acute stroke, whether HSN disappearance is related to those trainings or not should be further studied.OBJ ECTIVE: To analyze the correlation between HSN disappearance and related intervention of patients during acute stroke.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 21 patients with stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from May 2005 to March 2006. Diagnosis criteria: ① Stroke was diagnosed by CT and MRI; ② Diagnosis was coincidence with HSN evaluation criteria; ③ All cases were consent. Exclusion criteria: Patients who had poly-focus, conscious disturbance, severe amentia and hard communication combined with aphasia were excluded. A total of 12 males and 9 females were included, and the mean age was (68±10) years. Among them, 14 patients had cerebral infarction and 7 had cerebral hemorrhage.METHODS: Disappearance and existence of HSN were analyzed with HSN evaluation criteria: body agnosia, left and right agnosia, maintenance of supine position, place of things, sitting up straight, center of line measured by eyes, and cutting 30 lines with paring method. Items mentioned below belonged to HSN disappearance: ① without body agnosia; ② without left and right agnosia; ③ be able to maintain supine position; ④ knowing place of things; ⑤ sitting up straight by one's own; ⑥ be able to measure the center of line by eyes; ⑦ be able to cut 30 lines with paring method. However, only one item belonged to HSN remnant; but only one item belonged to HSN remnant. Numbers of patients who were of body agnosia, left and right agnosia and difficult maintenance of supine

  5. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn-Ag alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of Mg components currently in use in the automotive and electronic industries are produced by conventional casting processes. However, there is a strong need to develop new high strength wrought alloys for wide-spread application of Mg alloys in near future. In the present study, new Mg-Zn-Ag alloys were developed and characterized. In order to evaluate the effects of Ag addition on the mechanical properties of the extruded Mg-Zn alloys, the age hardening response and mechanical properties were examined with different amounts of alloying element. The microstructures of the specimens were examined with optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The grain sizes of the alloys in as-extruded condition were markedly reduced with the addition of Ag. The hardness was found to increase more rapidly in the alloys with double aging treatment compared to those with single aging treatment. The peak hardness was also found to be higher in the alloys with double aging treatment. In all heat treatment conditions, the hardnesses of the Mg-Zn-Ag alloys were found to be higher than those of the Mg-Zn alloys. Moreover, the addition of Ag to the Mg-Zn alloys increased the corrosion rate measured by immersion test

  6. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ''as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here

  7. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  8. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  9. About AgEcon Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>AgEcon Search is a free,open access repository of full-text scholarly literature in agricultural and applied economics,including working papers,conference papers,and journal articles. AgEcon Search is co-sponsored by the Department of Applied Economics and the University Libraries at University of Minnesota and the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. Research

  10. On the trail of double peak hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Hissler, Christophe; Gourdol, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; Juilleret, Jérôme; François Iffly, Jean; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Pfister, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    A double peak hydrograph features two peaks as a response to a unique rainfall pulse. The first peak occurs at the same time or shortly after the precipitation has started and it corresponds to a fast catchment response to precipitation. The delayed peak normally starts during the recession of the first peak, when the precipitation has already ceased. Double peak hydrographs may occur for various reasons. They can occur (i) in large catchments when lag times in tributary responses are large, (ii) in urban catchments where the first peak is often caused by direct surface runoff on impervious land cover, and the delayed peak to slower subsurface flow, and (iii) in non-urban catchments, where the first and the delayed discharge peaks are explained by different runoff mechanisms (e.g. overland flow, subsurface flow and/or deep groundwater flow) that have different response times. Here we focus on the third case, as a formal description of the different hydrological mechanisms explaining these complex hydrological dynamics across catchments with diverse physiographic characteristics is still needed. Based on a review of studies documenting double peak events we have established a formal classification of catchments presenting double peak events based on their regolith structure (geological substratum and/or its weathered products). We describe the different hydrological mechanisms that trigger these complex hydrological dynamics across each catchment type. We then use hydrometric time series of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture and groundwater levels collected in the Weierbach (0.46 km2) headwater catchment (Luxembourg) to better understand double peak hydrograph generation. Specifically, we aim to find out (1) if the generation of a double peak hydrograph is a threshold process, (2) if the hysteretic relationships between storage and discharge are consistent during single and double peak hydrographs, and (3) if different functional landscape units (the hillslopes

  11. AFM characterization and electrochemical property of Ag nanowires by modified AAO template method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ag nanowires as electrode materials were prepared from modified anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template method by using dextrose as reductive, and the process of Ag nanowires growth was monitored by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structure and electrochemical properties of Ag nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis absorption spectra and cyclic voltammograms (CV) measurements. The results show that Ag nanowires prepared from AAO possessed typical face centered cubic structure with average diameter of 60 nm. Furthermore, the CV characterization reveals that Ag nanowires featured a pair of asymmetrical redox peaks with the position near 0.5 V and the microstructure was maintained in electrochemical reaction

  12. YBa2Cu3O(7-x)-Ag composites prepared by the coprecipitation route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precursor powders to yield composites of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) and Ag (in variable amounts) were obtained by the oxalate coprecipitation technique to obtain a homogeneous dispersion of Ag in YBa2Cu3O(7-x) matrix. The Ag content was varied between one and 30 percent by weight of the nominal composition YBa2Cu3O(6.5). X-ray powder diffraction results indicate a progressive decrease in the intensities of characteristic peaks of the orthorhombic superconducting phase with increasing Ag amount. Bars pressed from these powders were evaluated with respect to transition temperature, current density, contact resistivity, bulk density, and microstructure. A maximum current density of 766 A/sq cm is measured on a sample containing 30 percent by weight of Ag. 9 refs

  13. Preparation and microstructure of nanocrystalline grain Ag-MgF2 cermet film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline grain Ag-MgF2 cermet films were prepared by using sintered-in-vacuum Ag-MgF2 mixture granules as evaporant. The microstructure and the electronic energy states of the films were examined by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that obtained Ag-MgF2 cermet films consist of mainly amorphous MgF2 matrix with embedded fcc-Ag nanocrystalline grains. The principal x-ray diffraction peaks at d = 3.4245, 2.6102, and 2.0503 Angstrom are probably related to Ag-MgF2 cermet composite structure

  14. Improving temperature-stable AZO-Ag-AZO multilayer transparent electrodes using thin Al layer modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal stability of AZO/Al/Ag/Al/AZO (5A) compared with AZO/Ag/AZO (3A) electrodes was significantly improved by introducing a thin Al layer at the interface between Ag and AZO layers. The rapidly deteriorated sheet resistance of 3A compared with 5A electrodes is roughly consistent with the XRD results of weaker intensity of the (111) Ag peak of 3A after annealing for 20 h at 300 or 500 °C for 10 min. The improved thermal stability of the 5A electrode is ascribed to the limitation function of Al atoms on Ag diffusion into the AZO layer. The polymer solar cells based on 5A compared with ITO electrodes showed a similar efficiency.

  15. Improved age-hardening behavior of Mg–Sn–Mn alloy by addition of Ag and Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Age-hardening response of Mg–Sn–Mn alloy is enhanced by Ag and Ag + Zn. ► Ag promotes the nucleation and growth of the major Mg2Sn precipitates. ► Zn refines the Mg2Sn, promotes the formation of the blocky Mg54Ag17 phase. ► Ag segregates in the Mg2Sn precipitates. ► A new orientation relationship between Mg54Ag17 with α-Mg is discovered. - Abstract: The effect of 0.5 at% Ag and its combination with 0.4 at% Zn on the precipitation hardening behavior of Mg–1.5Sn–0.5Mn (at%) alloy have been investigated using hardness measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that sole addition of Ag can remarkably improve the peak hardness from 58HV to 77HV after ageing at 200 °C, which is attributed to the increased number density, the size and so the volume fraction of the Mg2Sn lath precipitates. A combination addition of Ag and Zn further improves the peak-hardness to 83HV and the time to peak hardness has been reduced from 120 h to 100 h. The joint addition of Ag and Zn both increases the number density and refines the Mg2Sn precipitates. Zn also promotes the Mg2Sn precipitates lying on the non-basal plane of matrix, as well as the blocky Mg54Ag17 phase which has an orientation relationship with α-Mg matrix as (0 0 1)ε′//(0 0 0 1)α, [2 0 0]ε′//[ 1 −1 2 0]α, [0 −2 0]ε′//[1 −1 0 0]α. In the peak-aged Ag modified alloys, Ag atoms are segregated in the Mg2Sn precipitates. Nucleation, growth and coarsening of the Mg2Sn precipitates simultaneously occur as the ageing proceeds. The growth of Mg2Sn precipitates exhibits a significant anisotropic behavior. Addition of Ag can promote the precipitation process during the underage period and retarding the growth of Mg2Sn during the overage period, leading to a more thermal stable microstructure of the Ag and Ag + Zn modified alloys, from which only a small hardness decrease after 700 h ageing is detected.

  16. Thermo-exoemission of NaCl:Ag crystals, cleaved before and after X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorkin, B.; Kaeaembre, H. (AN Ehstonskoj SSR, Tartu. Inst. Fiziki)

    1984-06-16

    Thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) has been measured in Ag-doped NaCl crystal slices cleaved before and after X-irradiation. The TSEE peaks in the thermal spectra obtained for excitation at 100 and 295 K, respectively have been assigned to different volume traps and surface processes. It is concluded that TSEE of NaCl:Ag cannot be completely reduced to surface excitation processes.

  17. High Energy Pulsed Power System for AGS Super Neutrino Focusing Horn

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wu; Weng, Wu-Tsung

    2005-01-01

    This paper present a preliminary design of a 300 kA, 2.5 Hz pulsed power system. This system will drive the focusing horn of proposed Brookhaven AGS Neutrino Super Beam Facility for Very Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment. The peak output power of the horn pulsed power system will reach giga-watts, and the upgraded AGS will be capable of delivering 1 MW in beam power.

  18. Set potential regulation reveals additional oxidation peaks of Geobacter sulfurreducens anodic biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2012-08-01

    Higher current densities produced in microbial fuel cells and other bioelectrochemical systems are associated with the presence of various Geobacter species. A number of electron transfer components are involved in extracellular electron transfer by the model exoelectrogen, Geobacter sulfurreducens. It has previously been shown that 5 main oxidation peaks can be identified in cyclic voltammetry scans. It is shown here that 7 separate oxidation peaks emerged over relatively long periods of time when a larger range of set potentials was used to acclimate electroactive biofilms. The potentials of oxidation peaks obtained with G. sulfurreducens biofilms acclimated at 0.60 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) were different from those that developed at - 0.46 V, and both of their peaks were different from those obtained for biofilms incubated at - 0.30 V, 0 V, and 0.30 V. These results expand the known range of potentials for which G. sulfurreducens produces identifiable oxidation peaks that could be important for extracellular electron transfer. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Plasmon resonances of Ag capped Si nanopillars fabricated using mask-less lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kaiyu; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk;

    2015-01-01

    . The LSPR peak position of the particle mode can be tuned by changing the size of the Ag cap, and can be hybridized by leaning of pillars. The resonance position of the cavity resonance mode can be tuned primarily via the diameter of the Si pillar, and cannot be tuned via leaning of Ag NPs. The...... presence of a substrate dramatically changes the intensity of these two LSPR modes by introducing constructive and destructive interference patterns with incident and reflected fields. Experimental scattering spectra can be interpreted using theoretical simulations. The Ag NP substrate displays a broad...

  20. Reappraising the Disappearing Body and the Disembodied Eye Through Multisensory Art

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the mind/body dualism inherent in western culture, tracing some causes and consequences of the ‘disappearing body.’ It considers the complicity of the ‘disembodied eye’ in privileging the intellect over corporeality and proposes the more holistic approach of interactive and installation art as an antidote to this age-old mind/body split.

  1. Study of muon neutrino and muon antineutrino disappearance with the NOvA neutrino oscillation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, Gregory [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The primary goal of this working group is to study the disappearance rate of νμ charged current events in order to measure the mixing angle θ23 and the magnitude of the neutrino mass square splitting Δm 232.

  2. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE DISAPPEARANCE ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 21 examples of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) trough disappearance in 19 quasars selected from systematic multi-epoch observations of 582 bright BAL quasars (1.9 –1. We discuss possible origins of this connection including disk-wind rotation and changes in shielding gas.

  3. Rape embryogenesis. IV. Appearance and disappearance of starch during embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Starch appears first in the suspensor of the proembryo with two-cell apical part. It is observed in the embryo proper from the octant stage. At first it is visible in all the embryo cells in the form of minute transient grains which disappear during cell divisions. But the columella mother cells and their derivatives have persistent large grains. When the embryo turns green in the heart stage a gradual accumulation of storage starch begins and lasts to the end of embryogenesis. Storage starch grains appear first in the auter cortex layers of the hypocotyl where the largest grains are to be found later, and afterwards in all the other tissues. Starch is usually absent in the frequently dividing cells, but even there it appears in the form of minute grains after the end of cell divisions. Disappearance of starch starts when the intensive green colour of the seed coat begins to fade. The first to disappear are the smallest granules in the regions where they were noted latest. In the embryo axis the starch grains remain deposited longest in dermatogen and cortex cells in the lower hypocotyl part. They are visible there, still when the seed turns brown. In black seeds starch may be only found in the columella the cells of which throughout embryogenesis contain amyloplasts filled with starch. These grains disappear completely at the time when the seeds become dry.

  4. The (Dis)appearance of Ai Weiwei: Translations and (In)visibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Louise Nørgaard; Stenbøg, Anne Sofie Christensen; Albrechtslund, Anders

    This paper offers a study of surveillance themes relating to Ai Weiwei’s highly discussed disappearance and later reappearance in 2011. Our study is based on an Actor-Network Theory (ANT) approach and we focus on the manifold negotiations and (in)visibilities relating to the dramatic events as well...... as Ai’s artwork and life....

  5. The (Dis)appearance of Ai Weiwei: Translations and (In)visibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbøg, Sofie; Nørgaard Glud, Louise; Albrechtslund, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a study of surveillance themes relating to Ai Weiwei’s highly discussed disappearance and later reappearance in 2011. Our study is based on an Actor-Network Theory (ANT) approach and we focus on the manifold negotiations and (in)visibilities relating to the dramatic events as well...... as Ai’s artwork and life....

  6. Is the treatment effect of IFN-beta restored after the disappearance of neutralizing antibodies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, P S; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Bendtzen, K

    2008-01-01

    comparing the NAb-positive with the NAb-negative periods was 1.98 (95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.97). CONCLUSION: Under NAb-positive periods, the clinical effect of IFN-beta was abolished. When NAbs disappeared spontaneously under continued treatment, patients regained the full effect of INF-beta-1b...

  7. The Disappearance of the Red Supergiant Progenitor of Supernova 2008bk

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Seppo; Smartt, Stephen; Maund, Justyn; Benetti, Stefano; Ergon, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    Massive stars end their lives in spectacular supernova explosions. Identifying the progenitor star is a test of stellar evolution and explosion models. Here we show that the progenitor star of the supernova SN 2008bk has now disappeared, which provides conclusive evidence that this was the death of a red supergiant star.

  8. When Race Disappears: College Admissions Policy Discourse in the State of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle; Sulè, V. Thandi; Maramba, Dina C.

    2014-01-01

    What happens to race in public discussions about "race-neutral" college admissions policies? This article shows how race disappeared from elite political debate during hearings on Texas Senate Bill 175 (2009), the Top Ten Percent Plan (the Plan), which guaranteed college admissions to high school graduates from the top 10% of their…

  9. Complete disappearance of lung abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography: A case of histiocytosis X

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    A case of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, proved by both lung high-resolution computed tomography and lung biopsy, is described. Following smoking cessation, lung nodules and cysts gradually disappeared on serial computed tomography scans, with complete clearance of the lesions after 12 months. The role of tobacco smoking is discussed, in detail, against the background of the literature.

  10. Gender differences in educational outcomes are disappearing and yet there remains a gender gap in science

    OpenAIRE

    Breda, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Gender segregation persists across majors despite the amelioration or disappearance of gender differences for many educational outcomes. Thomas Breda explores the persistent gender gap in science, reporting on the findings of research into gender stereotypes and discrimination at the Ecole Normale Supérieure.

  11. The Case of the Disappearing E-Book: Academic Libraries and Subscription Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgas, Helen

    2015-01-01

    One of the standard models for e-book licensing in academic libraries is the subscription package. This study is a one-year analysis of "disappeared" titles from ebrary's Academic Complete™ collection. During 2013, 3462 titles were deleted. Deleted titles were mainly recent publications (published within the last ten years), with a high…

  12. Effects of silver ions (Ag+) on contractile ring function and microtubule dynamics during first cleavage in Ilyanassa obsoleta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, A. H.; Stephens, A. P.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Schwarting, S. S.; Conrad, G. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The terminal phase of cell division involves tight constriction of the cleavage furrow contractile ring, stabilization/elongation of the intercellular bridge, and final separation of the daughter cells. At first cleavage, the fertilized eggs of the mollusk, Ilyanassa obsoleta, form two contractile rings at right angles to each other in the same cytoplasm that constrict to tight necks and partition the egg into a trefoil shape. The cleavage furrow contractile ring (CF) normally constricts around many midbody microtubules (MTs) and results in cleavage; the polar lobe constriction contractile ring (PLC) normally constricts around very few MTs and subsequently relaxes without cleavage. In the presence of Ag+ ions, the PLC 1) begins MT-dependent rapid constriction sooner than controls, 2) encircles more MTs than control egg PLCs, 3) elongates much more than control PLCs, and 4) remains tightly constricted and effectively cleaves the polar lobe from the egg. If Ag(+)-incubated eggs are returned to normal seawater at trefoil, tubulin fluorescence disappears from the PLC neck and the neck relaxes. If nocodazole, a drug that depolymerizes MTs, is added to Ag(+)-incubated eggs during early PLC constriction, the PLC is not stabilized and eventually relaxes. However, if nocodazole is added to Ag(+)-incubated eggs at trefoil, tubulin fluorescence disappears from the PLC neck but the neck remains constricted. These results suggest that Ag+ accelerates and gradually stabilizes the PLC constriction by a mechanism that is initially MT-dependent, but that progressively becomes MT-independent.

  13. Formation and Optical Properties of Ag Nanoparticles in CaB4O7–Ag2O and CaB4O7–Gd2O3–Ag2O Tetraborate Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    V.T. Adamiv; Ya.V. Burak; R.V. Gamernyk; R.M. Dutka; I.M. Teslyuk

    2014-01-01

    Formation of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in the near-surface layer of CaB4O7–Ag2O and CaB4O7 –Gd2O3–Ag2O glasses by annealing in vacuum or in air is reported. It is concluded that annealing in vacuum does not necessary require the presence of reducing ions. Intensive plasmon absorption bands peaked at 403, 406 and 413.3 nm were observed in the absorption spectra of glasses with Ag NPs. Average radius of nanoparticles was calculated from the plasmon band half width and falls within 1.3-3.3 nm. It i...

  14. The Origin of Weak Lensing Convergence Peaks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jia; Haiman, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Weak lensing convergence peaks are a promising tool to probe nonlinear structure evolution at late times, providing additional cosmological information beyond second-order statistics. Previous theoretical and observational studies have shown that the cosmological constraints on $\\Omega_m$ and $\\sigma_8$ are improved by a factor of up to ~ 2 when peak counts and second-order statistics are combined, compared to using the latter alone. We study the origin of lensing peaks using observational da...

  15. Humic acid degradation by the synthesized flower-like Ag/ZnO nanostructure as an efficient photocatalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Morovati, Pouran; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Tabatabaee, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Nano-sized flower-like Ag/ZnO was synthesized by a simple method using zinc acetate and silver acetate under hydrothermal condition. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the synthesized powder. Nano flower-like Ag/ZnO was used as a photocatalyst for degradation of humic acid in aqueous solution. The disappearance of HA was analyzed by measuring the absorbance of sample at special wavelength (254 nm...

  16. The polar ionosphere at Zhongshan Station on May 11, 1999, the day the solar wind almost disappeared

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The solar wind almost disappeared on May 11,1999: the solar wind plasma density and dynamic pressure were less than 1cm-3 and 0.1 nPa respectively, while the interplanetary magnetic field was northward. The polar ionospheric data observed by the multi-instruments at Zhongshan Station in Antarctica on such special event day was compared with those of the control day (May 14). It was shown that geomagnetic activity was very quiet on May 11 at Zhongshan. The magnetic pulsation, which usually occurred at about magnetic noon, did not appear. The ionosphere was steady and stratified, and the F2 layer spread very little. The critical frequency of dayside F2 layer, foF2, was larger than that of control day, and the peak of foF2 appeared 2 hours earlier. The ionospheric drift velocity was less than usual. There were intensive auroral Es appearing at magnetic noon. All this indicates that the polar ionosphere was extremely quiet and geomagnetic field was much more dipolar on May 11. There were some signatures of auroral substorm before midnight, such as the negative deviation of the geomagnetic H component, accompanied with auroral Es and weak Pc3 pulsation.

  17. The geomorphic structure of the runoff peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rigon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework to investigate the core dependence of peak flows on the geomorphic properties of river basins. Based on the theory of transport by travel times, and simple hydrodynamic characterization of floods, this new framework invokes the linearity and invariance of the hydrologic response to provide analytical and semi-analytical expressions for peak flow, time to peak, and area contributing to the peak runoff. These results are obtained for the case of constant-intensity hyetograph using the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves to estimate extreme flow values as a function of the rainfall return period. Results show that, with constant-intensity hyetographs, the time-to-peak is greater than rainfall duration and usually shorter than the basin concentration time. Moreover, the critical storm duration is shown to be independent of rainfall return period as well as the area contributing to the flow peak. The same results are found when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are accounted for. Further, it is shown that, when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are negligible, the basin area contributing to the peak discharge does not depend on the channel velocity, but is a geomorphic propriety of the basin. As an example this framework is applied to three watersheds. In particular, the runoff peak, the critical rainfall durations and the time to peak are calculated for all links within a network to assess how they increase with basin area.

  18. Practical load management - Peak shaving using photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes a look at how photovoltaic (PV) power generation can be used in a practical way to meet peak demands for electricity. Advice is provided on how photovoltaics can provide peak load 'shaving' through the correlation between its production and the peak loads encountered during the day. The situation regarding feed-in tariffs in Italy is discussed, as are further examples of installations in Germany and Austria. Further, an initiative of the American Southern California Edison utility is discussed which foresees the installation of large PV plant on the roofs of commercial premises to provide local generation of peak energy and thus relieve demands on their power transportation network.

  19. EFFICACY OF FLUORESCEIN DYE DISAPPEARANCE TEST IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF LACRIMAL SYSTEM OUTFLOW OBSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraju

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of Fluorescein Dye Disappearance Test in the Diagnosis of Lacrimal System Outflow Obstruction in comparison to Lacrimal Syringing . SETTING AND DESIGN: Prospective Non - randomized Non - interventional Case Series of 1000 eyes of 500 patients at a Tertiary Eye Care Hospital in South India over 6 months from June 2013 to November 2013. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Out - patient and inpatients posted for cataract surge ry including those with complaints of epiphora were subjected to a Fluorescein Dye Disappearance Test (FDDT followed by a Regurgitation on Pressure over the Lacrimal Sac Area (ROPLAS Test and Lacrimal Syringing. The FDDT grade (Zappia and Milder Classifi cation and ROPLAS and lacrimal syringing results of each eye were recorded and tabulated and results compared to determine the efficacy of Fluorescein Dye Disappearance Test. RESULTS: Mean age of the patients included in our study was 59. 6 years (SD±14.3 years. History of e piphora was present in 272 (27. 2% of 1000 eyes in our study. ROPLAS was positive in 19(7% of the 272 eyes with epiphora. Lacrimal syringing demonstra ted a patent system in 904 (90. 4% of 1000 eyes. Sensitivity and Specificity of FDDT in the detection of lacrimal outflow system obstruction in our study was calculated to be 100% and 86. 62% (p value <0.0001, Fischer Test. KEY MESSAGE: Fluorescein Dye Disappearance Test is a simple, non - invasive highly sensitive method for evaluation of lacrimal system obstruction. Our study demonstrates a very high sensitivity indicating an abnormal FDDT is always suggestive of an outflow obstruction. Also, specificity of 86. 62% suggests that a severe anatomical obstruction of the lacrimal drainage sys tem is highly unlikely in the presence of a normal fluorescein dye disappearance test. It can hence be used as a highly sensitive routine screening tool in the detection of a lacrimal outflow block

  20. The AGS-Booster lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AGS Booster has three objectives. They are to increase the space charge limit of the AGS, to increase the intensity of the polarized proton beam by accumulating many linac pulses (since the intensity is limited by the polarized ion source), and to reaccelerate heavy ions from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff before injection into the AGS. The machine is capable of accelerating protons at 7.5 Hertz from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV or to lower final energies at faster repetition rates. The machine will also be able to accelerate heavy ions from as low as 1 MeV/nucleon to a magnetic rigidity as high as 17.6 Tesla-meters with a one second repetition rate. As an accumulator for polarized protons, the Booster should be able to store the protons at 200 MeV for several seconds. We expect that the Booster will increase the AGS proton intensity by a factor of four, polarized proton intensity by a factor of twenty to thirty, and will also enable the AGS to accelerate all species of heavy ions (at present the AGS heavy ion program is limited to the elements lighter than sulfur because it can only accelerate fully stripped ions). The construction project started in FY 1985 and is expected to be completed in 1989. The purpose of this paper is to provide a future reference for the AGS Booster lattice

  1. Influence of Ag doping on structural, optical, and photoluminescence properties of nanostructured AZO films by sol–gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The optical band gap of the Ag–AZO film first decreased to a value of ∼3.31 eV for a 1% Ag/Zn atomic ratio from a value of ∼3.69 for undoped AZO film. For higher values (beyond a 1% Ag/Zn atomic ratio) of Ag doping, the values of Eg started to increase and finally attained a value of ∼3.66 eV for an Ag/Zn 3% atomic ratio. The photoluminescence (PL) studies showed that the relative PL intensity of the Ag–AZO films in blue (IB) and green (IG) regions increased with Ag doping. The PL positions of these peaks were blue shifted with increased Ag content up to an Ag/Zn atomic ratio of 3%. The increase in IB and IG is due to the charge difference between Ag+ and Zn2+, whereas shifting of the PL positions is due to the size of Ag+ and Zn2+ ions. -- Highlights: • The optical band gap of the Ag–AZO film is tuned with Ag doping. • The PL intensity of the Ag–AZO film in visible region is increased with Ag doping. • The PL positions of these peaks were blue shifted with increased Ag content. • The increase in IB and IG is due to the charge difference between Ag+ and Zn2+. • The shifting of the PL positions is due to the size of Ag+ and Zn2+ ions. -- Abstract: The effects of Ag doping on the structural, electrical, optical, and photoluminescence properties of sol-gel derived Al rich zinc oxide (Ag–AZO) films are studied. The Al/Zn atomic ratio was constant (∼20%) in all the films, whereas the Ag/Zn atomic ratio varied from 0% to 3%. All the films were highly transparent in the 400–1200 nm wavelength range. The XRD results and surface morphologies of the films confirmed that the grain size increased with Ag doping. The optical band gap (Eg) of the Ag–AZO film first decreased to a value of ∼3.31 eV for a 1% Ag/Zn atomic ratio from a value of ∼3.69 for undoped AZO film. For higher values (beyond a 1% Ag/Zn atomic ratio) of Ag doping, the values of Eg started to increase and finally attained a value of ∼3.66 eV for an Ag/Zn 3

  2. Pressure Dependence of Crystal Structure and Ionic Conductivity on Composite Glass (AgI0.7(AgPO30.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suminta

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The superionic composite glass, (AgI0.7(AgPO30.3 has been succesfully synthesized by melt quenching method. The crystall structure of coin type composite glass at various pressure of 100, 300 and 700 kg/cm2 have been measured by using an X-ray Difractometer at PTBIN-BATAN. The X-ray difraction pattern shows some Bragg peaks correspond to the crystaline γ-AgI. The increasing of pressure result the peaks become broaden and shift to the lower angle. This indicates that the crystal size is decreasing and the microstrain is increasing. Three strong peaks at (111, (220 and (311 have been analyzed by using a Gaussian Fitting. Based on calculation, crystal size (D of (AgI0.7(AgPO30.3 at pressures of 100, 300 and 700 kg/cm2 are 1114 Å, 13165 Å and 7240 Å respectively, while microstrain values (η are 4 x 10-3 (1, 7.5 x 10-3 (4 and 8 x 10-3 (4. The composite glass (AgI0.7(AgPO30.3 crystal structures at pressures of 100, 300 and 700 kg/cm2 have been analyzed by using a Rietveld method. The refinement results show that the peaks correspond to γ-AgI phase with a symmetry space group F-4 3 m No. 216, FCC, with the lattice constant namely 6.518(3, 6.508(3 and 6.506Ǻ(2 at a pressure of 100, 300 and 700 kg/cm2 respectively. The increasing of microstrain (η, and crystal size (D and the decreasing of lattice constant (a will increase the ionic mobility, thus increasing the ionic conductivity. The function of pressure on melt γ-AgI phase into glass matrix AgPO3 decreases the lattice constant and the crystal size, cause the increasing of microstrain broadening and ionic conductivity.

  3. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.

  4. NMR investigation of Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kwanghyo; Jang, Zeehoon

    2013-01-01

    109Ag nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and relaxation measurements have been performed on two powder samples of Ag nanoparticles with average sizes of 20 nm and 80 nm. The measurements have been done in an external field of 9.4 T and in the temperature range 10 K Knight shift ( K) and the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/ T 1) are observed to be almost identical to the values reported for the bulk Ag metal, whereby the Korringa ratio R(= K 2 T 1 T/S) is found to be 2.0 for both samples in the investigated temperature range.

  5. Studying of the photoluminescence characteristics of AgInS2 quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical properties of AgInS2 quantum dots (QDs), with the average size being 5 nm, are studied in detail. The photoluminescence (PL) of AgInS2 QDs in solution and aggregation state exhibits an unusual temperature-dependent peak shift behaviour. Therefore, the relaxation process of excited QDs is detected using transient absorption technique, which shows that two kinds of emission states (involving the exciton state and trapping state) participate in the PL process of QDs. The emission of trapping state is expected to play an important role in the temperature-dependent evolution of PL peak

  6. Translocation, accumulation and distribution of 110mAg in carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental carp were raised in the water with 110mAg specific activity of 3.7 x 102 Bq/L, 3.7 x 103 Bq/L, 3.7 x 104 Bq/L respectively. The carp were sampled after raising 1,2,3,5,7,9,12,15,18,21 and 23 days, and separated into scale, bone, muscle, gill, alimentary canal, heart and heptapancreas for measuring the radioactivity. The results showed that 110mAg was absorbed rapidly by carp via gill and alimentary canal from water, and distributed into all parts of the body, mainly in soft tissue with blood circulation. 110mAg accumulation of the body increased with the 110mAg specific activity in the water in the same raising time. The accumulation of 110mAg in gill, alimentary canal, heart, muscle and bone appeared mono-peak curves with raising time. There was a linear relationship between the specific activity of 110mAg in heptapancreas and the carp's raising time in 110mAg water. The concentration abilities for 110mAg in all organs were in the order of heptapancreas>gill>alimentary>canal>heart>muscle>bone

  7. The maximal forward peak in elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maximal sharpness of the forward peak in elastic scattering is constrained by unitarity. This is done by minimizing the average of (t). The data are within 15% o/ the maximal sharpness. Our bound and an earlier lower bound on the forward slope constitute a severe restriction on the shape of forward peak. (author)

  8. Self-Depolarization Studies on Some Fast Ag+ Ion Conducting Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R. C.; Verma, M. L.; Bhatt, A.

    2002-12-01

    A novel technique based on the dc polarization method is being reported to study polarization/self-depolarization phenomenon in some fast Ag+ ion conducting glass systems viz.: 0.8[0.75AgI: 0.25AgCl]: 0.2[Ag2O: MoO3] & 0.7[0.75AgI: 0.25AgCl]: 0.3[Ag2O: WO3]. These superionic glasses were prepared recently in the present laboratory using an alternate host: "a quenched [0.75AgI: 0.25AgCl] mixed system/solid solution" in place of the traditional host AgI. An extensive investigation on ion transport behavior of these systems has been done which appeared elsewhere in the literature. In the present study, the sample pallet, placed in between two blocking (graphite) electrodes, was initially polarized with the help of an external d. c. potential (~ 0.5 V) for sufficient long time ensuring that the system attained the state of complete polarization. This resulted into a build up of a potential gradient across the two faces of the sample pallet, which can be measured instantly on removal of the external dc potential. This has been be referred to as an 'Instant Peak Potential (Vp)'. The magnitude of 'Vp' gives the quantitative information regarding the number of mobile Ag+ ions present in the system at a given temperature. 'Vp' measurements were carried out extensively on the sample pallets of different thickness as a function of time and temperature. The log Vp - 1/T variations for these systems were found to be almost analogous to log n - 1/T plots, reported earlier.

  9. The Boson peak in supercooled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Wikfeldt, K Thor; Schlesinger, Daniel; Pettersson, Lars G M; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-01

    We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the TIP4P/2005 model of water to investigate the origin of the Boson peak reported in experiments on supercooled water in nanoconfined pores, and in hydration water around proteins. We find that the onset of the Boson peak in supercooled bulk water coincides with the crossover to a predominantly low-density-like liquid below the Widom line TW. The frequency and onset temperature of the Boson peak in our simulations of bulk water agree well with the results from experiments on nanoconfined water. Our results suggest that the Boson peak in water is not an exclusive effect of confinement. We further find that, similar to other glass-forming liquids, the vibrational modes corresponding to the Boson peak are spatially extended and are related to transverse phonons found in the parent crystal, here ice Ih. PMID:23771033

  10. Multiscale peak alignment for chromatographic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Lu, Hong-Mei; Tan, Bin-Bin; Xu, Xiao-Na; Ferro, Miguel

    2012-02-01

    Chromatography has been extensively applied in many fields, such as metabolomics and quality control of herbal medicines. Preprocessing, especially peak alignment, is a time-consuming task prior to the extraction of useful information from the datasets by chemometrics and statistics. To accurately and rapidly align shift peaks among one-dimensional chromatograms, multiscale peak alignment (MSPA) is presented in this research. Peaks of each chromatogram were detected based on continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and aligned against a reference chromatogram from large to small scale gradually, and the aligning procedure is accelerated by fast Fourier transform cross correlation. The presented method was compared with two widely used alignment methods on chromatographic dataset, which demonstrates that MSPA can preserve the shapes of peaks and has an excellent speed during alignment. Furthermore, MSPA method is robust and not sensitive to noise and baseline. MSPA was implemented and is available at http://code.google.com/p/mspa. PMID:22222564

  11. Multiscale peak detection in wavelet space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Tong, Xia; Peng, Ying; Ma, Pan; Zhang, Ming-Jin; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-12-01

    Accurate peak detection is essential for analyzing high-throughput datasets generated by analytical instruments. Derivatives with noise reduction and matched filtration are frequently used, but they are sensitive to baseline variations, random noise and deviations in the peak shape. A continuous wavelet transform (CWT)-based method is more practical and popular in this situation, which can increase the accuracy and reliability by identifying peaks across scales in wavelet space and implicitly removing noise as well as the baseline. However, its computational load is relatively high and the estimated features of peaks may not be accurate in the case of peaks that are overlapping, dense or weak. In this study, we present multi-scale peak detection (MSPD) by taking full advantage of additional information in wavelet space including ridges, valleys, and zero-crossings. It can achieve a high accuracy by thresholding each detected peak with the maximum of its ridge. It has been comprehensively evaluated with MALDI-TOF spectra in proteomics, the CAMDA 2006 SELDI dataset as well as the Romanian database of Raman spectra, which is particularly suitable for detecting peaks in high-throughput analytical signals. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that MSPD can detect more true peaks while keeping the false discovery rate lower than MassSpecWavelet and MALDIquant methods. Superior results in Raman spectra suggest that MSPD seems to be a more universal method for peak detection. MSPD has been designed and implemented efficiently in Python and Cython. It is available as an open source package at . PMID:26514234

  12. Spin dynamics simulations at AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.

    2010-05-23

    To preserve proton polarization through acceleration, it is important to have a correct model of the process. It has been known that with the insertion of the two helical partial Siberian snakes in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), the MAD model of AGS can not deal with a field map with offset orbit. The stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi provides a tool to represent the real electromagnetic fields in the modeling of the optics and spin dynamics for the AGS. Numerical experiments of resonance crossing, including spin dynamics in presence of the snakes and Q-jump, have been performed in AGS lattice models, using Zgoubi. This contribution reports on various results so obtained.

  13. Borohydride electro-oxidation by Ag-doped lanthanum chromites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Suresh Balaji; A Usha; V V Giridhar

    2014-05-01

    The electrocatalytic activity of Ag-doped lanthanum chromites electrode materials viz., LaCr0.4Ag0.6O3 and LaCr0.7Ag0.3O3 prepared by decomposing the precursor complex is studied. Pure LaCrO3 is synthesized by combustion route using oxalic acid as a fuel. The decomposition behaviour of the assynthesized powder obtained in the latter method is characterized by TGA-DTA and XRD. Both the precursor complex and the as-synthesized powder are calcined at 900°C for 7 and 10 h, respectively. XRD of the final product after calcinations indicated the formation of perovskite phase with minor amounts of impurity phases of component oxides in the Ag-doped lanthanum chromites and pure perovskite phase in the undoped one. The surface morphology of the perovskites is studied by SEM. The electrocatalytic activity of the perovskite powders for borohydride oxidation is studied by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) at a catalyst loading of 0.7 mgcm−2 for both Ag-doped and undoped LaCrO3 coated on glassy carbon substrate. Calibration plots are obtained by plotting the anodic peak current versus concentration of borohydride in the range of 20-100 mM. The sensitivities of the three perovskites towards borohydride oxidation indicated that LaCr0.4Ag0.6O3 is the best among all the perovskites studied giving a value of 1.395 A/mM.

  14. About AgEcon Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>AgEcon Search is a free,open access repository of full-text scholarly literature in agricultural and applied economics,including working papers,conference papers,and journal articles. AgEcon Search is co-sponsored by the Department of Applied Economics and the University Libraries at University of Minnesota and the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. Research in Agricultural

  15. Detection and size determination of Ag nanoclusters in ion-exchanged soda-lime glasses by waveguided Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, M.; Gonella, F.; Montagna, M.; Tosello, C.

    1996-02-01

    Waveguided Raman measurements have been performed in order to detect the presence of Ag nanoclusters in soda-lime glass waveguides obtained by ion exchange. By subtracting a strong broadband luminescence and the Raman contribution of the glass matrix, a low frequency Raman peak is resolved. The peak is ascribed to surface acoustic vibrations of silver clusters. The involved modes are the quadrupolar spheroidal ones. The size distribution of the Ag clusters is deduced from the energy and the linewidth of the peak. Silver particles have small dimensions with an upper size limit of about 1.5 nm. This result is in good agreement with recent transmission electron microscopy measurements.

  16. The optical and mechanical properties of PVA-Ag nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We prepared PVA -Ag composite films which used in different filed of applications. • The XRD results showed Ag nanoparticles entering the polymer PVA matrix. • Optical band gap as a result of doping has been found to be reduced significantly. • Young's modulus increases while the strain decreases due to increasing Ag content. -- Abstract: Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) loaded silver (Ag) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by chemical reduction methods. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using UV–visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM). The contents of the inorganic phase in the nanocomposites were determined by using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for silver, and were found to be 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.5 wt.%. Optical absorption studies in the wavelength range 190–900 nm showed additional peak at 420 nm for differently doped films, in addition to the peak at 200 nm for undoped PVA film. There is observable change in the absorbed intensity at 420 nm with filling levels. This is due to the link between the Ag metal ion and the polymer OH- groups. The indirect energy gaps were calculated. It was found that Young’s modulus and the strength at the break increase, while the energy gaps and the strain decrease as the concentration of Ag content is increased. The XRD results showed that the Ag nanoparticles entering the polymer PVA matrix and the crystallinity was strongly influenced by the amount of Ag nanoparticles. The electron diffraction image for the highest concentration sample shows the crystalline nature of the silver metal nanoparticles. TEM of the nanocomposite films revealed the presence of Ag particles with average diameter of 12 nm

  17. Reserve, peak and new load capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensuring reserve, peak and new load capacity in a deregulated market was the subject of this discussion paper. The problem arises from the fact that both reserve (capacity for outages) and peak capacities (capacity for maximum load demand on the system) are dictated by the most severe contingency considerations that can befall the system. As reserve or peak capacity may only be minimally used, the cost of electricity generated is extremely expensive, and the marketplace may resist investment in peak capacity without adequate financial incentives. The preferred approach would be to implement a competitive bidding system for the provision of reserve and peak power. Issues that require consideration to efficiently providing adequate reserve, peak and new load capacity, and to ensure system reliability were reviewed. Among these were greater transparency of information, timely and accurate forecasting of load, and sufficient lead time with respect to the provision of additional capacity. Pricing signals to consumers to motivate them to change their demand profiles and consumption patterns may also be important to increase market liquidity. As far as the provision of new capacity is concerned, the system must send early pricing signals to create investment interest. There is also a need to promote reserve and peak power sources that do not strain emission limits

  18. The Origin of Weak Lensing Convergence Peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Weak lensing convergence peaks are a promising tool to probe nonlinear structure evolution at late times, providing additional cosmological information beyond second-order statistics. Previous theoretical and observational studies have shown that the cosmological constraints on $\\Omega_m$ and $\\sigma_8$ are improved by a factor of up to ~ 2 when peak counts and second-order statistics are combined, compared to using the latter alone. We study the origin of lensing peaks using observational data from the 154 deg$^2$ Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey. We found that while high peaks (with height $\\kappa$ >3.5 $\\sigma_\\kappa$, where $\\sigma_\\kappa$ is the r.m.s. of the convergence $\\kappa$) are typically due to one single massive halo of ~$10^{15}M_\\odot$, low peaks ($\\kappa$ ~ their virial radii), compared with ~0.25 virial radii for halos linked with high peaks, hinting that low peaks are more immune to baryonic processes whose impact is confined to the inner regions of the dark matter halos. Our fi...

  19. Bones and humanity. On Forensic Anthropology and its constitutive power facing forced disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Huffschmid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forensic anthropologists seek to decipher traces of anonymous dead, to restitute identities of human remains and to provide their families with the possibility to conclude mourning and even of justice. The article explores the contributions and meanings of forensic anthropology as state-independent practice beyond a mereley criminalistic approach, as it was conceptualized by the Argentine pioneers after the last dictatorship in this nation. I conceive this practice as a sort of arqueology of contemporary terror that seeks to confront a specific violence as the forced disappearance of persons and the deshumanization of their dead bodies. The article proposes reading forensic anthropology as a 'situated cience', with its complexities and ambigueties, that operates between nameless bones (the human remains and names without bodies (the so-called disappeared in settings of violent pasts such as Argentina or Guatemala, and especially in Mexico, where mass graves became the new symbol of a horrified present.

  20. Gone without a bang: An archival HST survey for disappearing massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Thomas; Gilmore, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that a substantial fraction of massive stars may end their lives without an optically bright supernova (SN), but rather collapse to form a black hole. Such an event would not be detected by current SN surveys, which are focused on finding bright transients. Kochanek et al. (2008) proposed a novel survey for such events, using repeated observations of nearby galaxies to search for the disappearance of a massive star. We present such a survey, using the first systematic analysis of archival Hubble Space Telescope images of nearby galaxies with the aim of identifying evolved massive stars which have disappeared, without an accompanying optically bright supernova. We consider a sample of 15 galaxies, with at least three epochs of Hubble Space Telescope imaging taken between 1994 and 2013. Within this data, we find one candidate which is consistent with a 25-30 solar mass yellow supergiant which has undergone an optically dark core-collapse.

  1. Charged current disappearance measurements in the NuMI off-axis beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. H. Bernstein

    2003-09-25

    This article studies the potential of combining charged-current disappearance measurements of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} from MINOS and an off-axis beam. The author finds that the error on {Delta}m{sup 2} from a 100 kt-yr off-axis measurement is a few percent of itself. Further, the author found little improvement to an off-axis measurement by combining it with MINOS.

  2. The Disappearing Middle Ages: Medieval History in National Socialist Volksschulen Textbooks 1933 - 1945

    OpenAIRE

    De Caprio, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    My research points out, on the one hand: the “disappering” of the Middle Ages from the Volksschulen textbooks of the National Socialist Germany; on the other hand, the failure of the Nazi Regime policies to reform the German school and education system. Firstly, in the Volksschulen textbooks the German pre-history and not the Medieval history was described as the “golden Age” of the Aryan-Germanic populations. Thereby, the Middle Ages disappeared from many Volksschulen textbooks. Seco...

  3. A (German) Lady Vanishes. : The Silent and Somewhat Restless Disappearance of the GDR Police after 1989

    OpenAIRE

    Jobard, Fabien

    2004-01-01

    A (German) lady vanishes: The silent and somewhat restless disappearance of the GDR Police after 1989 Introduction What was at stake in the German process of reforming its socialist police after 1989? Of course, some of the problems of the German transformation are common to other former socialist countries, i.e., the integration of former agents, reform of former organisations and bureaucracies, the formulation and implementation of new legislation, etc.. Yet, many factors separate Germany f...

  4. Holographically emulating sequential versus instantaneous disappearance of vector mesons in a hot environment

    CERN Document Server

    Zöllner, Rico

    2016-01-01

    Descent extensions of the soft-wall model are used to accommodate two variants of Regge trajectories of vector meson excitations. At non-zero temperatures, various options for either sequential or instantaneous disappearance of vector mesons as normalisable modes are found, thus emulating deconfinement at a certain temperature in the order of the (pseudo-) critical temperature of QCD. The crucial role of the blackness function, which steers the thermodynamic properties of the considered system, is highlighted.

  5. Against Enforced Disappearance : The Political Detainees' Case Before the Nepal Supreme Court

    OpenAIRE

    Uprety, K.

    2008-01-01

    Enforced disappearances, for political reasons, are still a common practice in many countries. In many instances, courts have taken bold steps to deter State agencies from orchestrating and encouraging such acts through orders and decisions. In that vein, Nepal's Supreme Court, in 2007, breaking the long tradition of a conservative and passive approach to justice, issued a verdict of significant proportion which could have a long-lasting effect on the country's political governance, both from...

  6. Initialization effects via the nuclear radius on transverse in-plane flow and its disappearance

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal Rajni; Gautam Sakshi

    2014-01-01

    We study the dependence of collective transverse flow and its disappearance on initialization effects via the nuclear radius within the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model. We calculate the balance energy using different parametrizations of the radius available in the literature for the reaction of 12C+12C to explain its measured balance energy. A mass-dependent analysis of the balance energy through out the periodic table is also carried out by changing...

  7. Disappearance of chorion proteins from Bombyx mori eggs treated with HCl solution to prevent diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumaru, Shuichiro; Kawamori, Akihito; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Niimi, Teruyuki; Imai, Kunio; Yamashita, Okitsugu; Yaginuma, Toshinobu

    2010-12-01

    Bombyx mori eggs enter diapause immediately after completion of mesoderm segregation. HCl treatment of approximately 24-hour-old eggs (germband formation stage) is well known to be the most effective procedure to prevent entry into diapause, although the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the protein composition of diapausing and nondiapausing eggs after various HCl treatments known to prevent or break diapause and found that proteins of approximately 11 and 8 kDa disappeared immediately after HCl treatment. Partial amino acid sequences of these proteins indicated that they were members of the chorion class A protein L12 family synthesized in follicle cells. Under the hypothesis that the chorion provides a barrier to oxygen, dechorionation of diapausing eggs induces resumption of embryonic development. Hence, to test this and other hypotheses about the function of these proteins, we used 20% SDS-PAGE with Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining to trace their disappearance from embryos and eggshells after treatment with HCl under different conditions and on polyvoltine, univoltine, and bivoltine silkworm races. Even when 10-day-old diapausing eggs were treated with HCl, which did not break diapause, the 11 and 8 kDa proteins disappeared. Our results suggest that disappearance of these proteins is not directly associated with preventing entry into or breaking a diapause state. Nevertheless, our results cannot completely rule out the possibility that the 11 and 8 kDa proteins function to block permeability of O(2) during the period when HCl treatment is physiologically effective to prevent diapause so that after the diapause system is established within the egg, even removing the 11 and 8 kDa proteins may not affect to prevent diapause. We also discuss the role of these proteins in choriogenesis. PMID:20637776

  8. Mitochondrial electron transport is inhibited by disappearance of metallothionein in human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to silver nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ag is immediately sequestered by metallothionein (MT). ► Ag bound MT was destabilized by ROS. ► The mechanism explains inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport. - Abstract: Silver (Ag) possesses antibacterial activity and has been used in wound dressings and deodorant powders worldwide. However, the metabolic behavior and biological roles of Ag in mammals have not been well characterized. In the present study, we exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to AgNO3 and investigated uptake and intracellular distribution of Ag, expression of metallothionein (MT), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and changes in mitochondrial respiration. The culture medium concentration of Ag decreased with time and stabilized at 12 h. The concentration of both Ag and MT in the soluble cellular fraction increased up to 3 h and then decreased, indicating that cytosolic Ag relocated to the insoluble fraction of the cells. The levels of mRNAs for the major human MT isoforms MT-I and MT-II paralleled with the protein levels of Ag-MT. The intensity of fluorescence derived from ROS was elevated in the mitochondrial region at 24 h. Ag decreased mitochondrial oxygen consumption in a dose-dependent manner and the activity of mitochondrial complex I-IV enzymes was significantly inhibited following exposure to Ag. In a separate experiment, we found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at concentrations as low as 0.001% (equivalent to the concentration of H2O2 in Ag-exposed cells) removed Ag from MT. These results suggest MT was decomposed by cytosolic H2O2, and then Ag released from MT relocated to insoluble cellular fractions and inhibited electron chain transfer of mitochondrial complexes, which eventually led to cell damage

  9. Looking for High Energy Peaked Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Costamante, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Celotti, A.; Giommi, P.; Padovani, P.; Tagliaferri, G.; Wolter, A.; Chiaberge, M.; Fossati, G; Pian, E.; L. Maraschi(INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy); Tavecchio, F.; Treves, A.

    2000-01-01

    Blazars can be classified on the basis of their overall Spectral Energy Distribution (SED). BL Lac objects are usually divided in LBL or HBL (Low or High energy peaked BL Lacs), according to the peak frequency of the synchrotron emission, if in the optical or UV-soft-X band respectively. FSRQs instead are characterized by synchrotron peaks mainly at IR-optical frequencies, similarly to LBLs. Here we report on recent BeppoSAX observations which are unveiling the high energy branch of the range...

  10. Strong magnetization damping induced by Ag nanostructures in Ag/NiFe/Ag trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley Domínguez, D.; da Silva, G. L.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.

    2013-07-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance has been used to investigate the magnetization relaxation in trilayers of Ag(t)/NiFe(10 nm)/Ag(t), sputter deposited on Si(001) where the thickness of the Ag layer varied from 0 nm to 24 nm. In the first stages of formation, the Ag layers form islands that work as mold to imprint defects or inhomogeneities on the NiFe film surface. The magnetic inhomogeneities and defects imprinted on the surface of the NiFe film act as extrinsic sources of magnetization relaxation in addition to the intrinsic Gilbert damping mechanism. Weak inhomogeneities are associated to the two-magnon scattering source and the strong inhomogeneities are associated to the fluctuations of the local magnetization. By adding the three different sources of magnetization damping, we were able to explain the azimuthal dependence of the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth.

  11. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be

  12. Optical explanation of the gradual disappearance of flying dots in posterior vitreous detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpetopoulos, C

    1997-01-01

    It is well-known that flying dots (muscae volitantes) in posterior vitreous detachment gradually disappear. An analogy for this phenomenon is the optical effect of planets casting conic shadows as they are lighted by the sun (in this case the pupil serves as the light source) and these shadows shrink as the planets near the sun. When the opacities move forward in the vitreous cavity, their shadows are not long enough to reach the retina, so the flying dots disappear. They can also disappear when their shadows fall on the optic disk or when they are mixed with the random pattern of bright and dark areas of the retinal image in ordinary conditions. Pupil dilatation makes the conoid shadow shorter; thus, the flying dots became fainter. In advanced cataract, stray light makes the retinal image less sharp, reducing the perception of dots. Replacement of the opacified lens by an intraocular lens restores the sharpness of the retinal image, because the light entering the eye becomes less diffuse, making the flying dots more obvious. The same reasoning explains similar phenomena in aphakia and large ametropias with and without corrective spectacles, as well as opacities of any etiology in the vitreous. PMID:9265706

  13. The distribution of the prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection in communities where trachoma is disappearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Lietman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models predict that the prevalence of infection in different communities where an infectious disease is disappearing should approach a geometric distribution. Trachoma programs offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis, as the World Health Organization (WHO has targeted trachoma to be eliminated as a public health concern by the year 2020. We assess the distribution of the community prevalence of childhood ocular chlamydia infection from periodic, cross-sectional surveys in two areas of Ethiopia. These surveys were taken in a controlled setting, where infection was documented to be disappearing over time. For both sets of surveys, the geometric distribution had the most parsimonious fit of the distributions tested, and goodness-of-fit testing was consistent with the prevalence of each community being drawn from a geometric distribution. When infection is disappearing, the single sufficient parameter describing a geometric distribution captures much of the distributional information found from examining every community. The relatively heavy tail of the geometric suggests that the presence of an occasional high-prevalence community is to be expected, and does not necessarily reflect a transmission hot spot or program failure. A single cross-sectional survey can reveal which direction a program is heading. A geometric distribution of the prevalence of infection across communities may be an encouraging sign, consistent with a disease on its way to eradication.

  14. Photoreduction of Ag{sup +} in Ag/Ag{sub 2}S/Au memristor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, N.I.; Tabib-Azar, M., E-mail: azar.m@utah.edu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The effect of illumination on the operating voltages and switching speed of Ag/Ag{sub 2}S/Au memristors is studied • Illumination decreased the average switching time from high to low resistance states by ∼19% and decreased the turn-off voltages dramatically from −0.8 V to −0.25 V. • Photo-induced reduction of silver in Ag{sub 2}S may be used in three dimensional optical memories that can be electronically read and reset. • Illumination changed sulfur's valency and modified its oxidation/reduction potential. - Abstract: Silver halides and chalcogenides are excellent memristor materials that have been extensively used in the past as photosensitive layers in photography. Here we examine the effect of illumination on the operating voltages and switching speed of Ag/Ag{sub 2}S/Au memristors using a green laser (473–523 nm). Our results indicate that illumination decreases the average switching time from high to low resistance states by ∼19% and decreases the turn-off voltages dramatically from −0.8 V to −0.25 V that we attribute to the change in sulfur valency and a photo-induced change in its oxidation/reduction potential. Photo-induced reduction of silver in Ag{sub 2}S may be used in three dimensional optical memories that can be electronically read and reset.

  15. Peak Vegetation Growth 1996 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1996 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  16. Peak Vegetation Growth 2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2004 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  17. Peak Vegetation Growth 1994 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1994 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  18. Peak Vegetation Growth 1995 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1995 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  19. Peak Vegetation Growth 1990 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1990 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  20. Peak Vegetation Growth 1993 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1993 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  1. Peak Vegetation Growth 2002 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2002 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  2. Peak Vegetation Growth 1997 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1997 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  3. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health for Lupus Patients Bone Health and Anorexia Nervosa Partner Resources Screening Tests and Immunizations Guidelines for ... calcium. Physical Activity. Girls and boys and young adults who exercise regularly generally achieve greater peak bone ...

  4. Peak Vegetation Growth 1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1992 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  5. Cosmic Microwave Background Acoustic Peak Locations

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Zhen; Mulroe, Brigid; Narimani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Planck collaboration has measured the temperature and polarization of the cosmic microwave background well enough to determine the locations of eight peaks in the temperature (TT) power spectrum, five peaks in the polarization (EE) power spectrum and twelve extrema in the cross (TE) power spectrum. The relative locations of these extrema give a striking, and beautiful, demonstration of what we expect from acoustic oscillations in the plasma; e.g., that EE peaks fall half way between TT peaks. We expect this because the temperature map is predominantly sourced by temperature variations in the last scattering surface, while the polarization map is predominantly sourced by gradients in the velocity field, and the harmonic oscillations have temperature and velocity 90 degrees out of phase. However, there are large differences in expectations for extrema locations from simple analytic models vs. numerical calculations. Here we quantitatively explore the origin of these differences in gravitational potential tr...

  6. Peak Vegetation Growth 1999 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1999 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  7. Tectonics, Climate and Earth's highest peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Prominent peaks characterized by high relief and steep slopes are among the most spectacular morphological features on Earth. In collisional orogens they result from the interplay of tectonically driven crustal thickening and climatically induced destruction of overthickened crust by erosional surface processes. The glacial buzz-saw hypothesis proposes a superior status of climate in limiting mountain relief and peak altitude due to glacial erosion. It implies that peak altitude declines with duration of glacial occupation, i.e., towards high latitudes. This is in strong contrast with high peaks existing in high latitude mountain ranges (e.g. Mt. St. Elias range) and the idea of peak uplift due to isostatic compensation of spatially variable erosional unloading an over-thickened orogenic crust. In this study we investigate landscape dissection, crustal thickness and vertical strain rates in tectonically active mountain ranges to evaluate the influence of erosion on (latitudinal) variations in peak altitude. We analyze the spatial distribution of serval thousand prominent peaks on Earth extracted from the global ETOPO1 digital elevation model with a novel numerical tool. We compare this dataset to crustal thickness, thickening rate (vertical strain rate) and mean elevation. We use the ratios of mean elevation to peak elevation (landscape dissection) and peak elevation to crustal thickness (long-term impact of erosion on crustal thickness) as indicators for the influence of erosional surface processes on peak uplift and the vertical strain rate as a proxy for the mechanical state of the orogen. Our analysis reveals that crustal thickness and peak elevation correlate well in orogens that have reached a mechanically limited state (vertical strain rate near zero) where plate convergence is already balanced by lateral extrusion and gravitational collapse and plateaus are formed. On the Tibetan Plateau crustal thickness serves to predict peak elevation up to an altitude

  8. Bayesian Peak Picking for NMR Spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yichen

    2014-02-01

    Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method.

  9. Helping System Engineers Bridge the Peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha; Tkachuk, Oksana; Person, Suzette; Biatek, Jason; Whalen, Michael W.; Castle, Joseph; Castle, JosephGundy-Burlet, Karen

    2014-01-01

    In our experience at NASA, system engineers generally follow the Twin Peaks approach when developing safety-critical systems. However, iterations between the peaks require considerable manual, and in some cases duplicate, effort. A significant part of the manual effort stems from the fact that requirements are written in English natural language rather than a formal notation. In this work, we propose an approach that enables system engineers to leverage formal requirements and automated test generation to streamline iterations, effectively "bridging the peaks". The key to the approach is a formal language notation that a) system engineers are comfortable with, b) is supported by a family of automated V&V tools, and c) is semantically rich enough to describe the requirements of interest. We believe the combination of formalizing requirements and providing tool support to automate the iterations will lead to a more efficient Twin Peaks implementation at NASA.

  10. Peaking Capacity in Restructured Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Doorman, Gerard

    2000-01-01

    The theme of this thesis is the supply of capacity during peak demand in restructured power systems. There are a number of reasons why there is uncertainty about whether an enegyonly electricity market (where generators are only paid for the energy produced) is able to ensure uninterrupted supply during peak load conditions.Much of the public debate in Europe has been about the present surplus generation capacity. However, in a truly competitive environment, it is hard to believe that seldom ...

  11. Forward-peaked scattering of polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julia P; Kim, Arnold D

    2014-11-15

    Polarized light propagation in a multiple scattering medium is governed by the vector radiative transfer equation. We analyze the vector radiative transfer equation in asymptotic limit of forward-peaked scattering and derive an approximate system of equations for the Stokes parameters, which we call the vector Fokker-Planck approximation. The vector Fokker-Planck approximation provides valuable insight into several outstanding issues regarding the forward-peaked scattering of polarized light such as the polarization memory phenomenon. PMID:25490484

  12. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    OpenAIRE

    Glaucia Nency Takara; Gualberto Ruas; Bruna Varanda Pessoa; Luciana Kawakami Jamami; Valéria Amorim Pires Di Lorenzo; Mauricio Jamami

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value record...

  13. Effects of aging treatment on the intergranular corrosion behavior of Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiao Yan, E-mail: x918y@126.com; Li, Meng Jie; Gao, Fei; Liang, Shun Xing; Zhang, Xi Liang; Cui, Hao Xuan

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • Corrosion resistance of Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy follows: under-aged > peak-aged > over-aged. • The simulated matrix, θ (Al{sub 2}Cu), and the precipitations free zones (PFZ) were prepared. • The self-corrosion potentials satisfy E{sub Matrix} > E{sub θ} > E{sub PFZ}. • The wider PFZ is adverse to the corrosion resistance of Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy. - Abstract: The effects of aging treatment on the corrosion behavior of Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy were studied by means of intergranular corrosion (IGC) testing, potentiodynamic polarization combined with optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Corrosion testing results suggest that, the intergranular corrosion resistance properties of Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy decreased with increasing aging time, which is also corroborated by the potentiodynamic polarization test results for under-aged, peak-aged and the over-aged Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloys. TEM results reveal that precipitations on the grain boundary became coarsened and distributed discontinuously with increasing aging time; widening of precipitation free zones (PFZ) is also observed. The PFZ with the lowest self-corrosion potential is preferentially attacked, and corrosion progresses along the PFZ. The corrosion resistance of over-aged Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy decreased because of its wider PFZ in comparison with those in other samples.

  14. Effects of aging treatment on the intergranular corrosion behavior of Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Corrosion resistance of Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy follows: under-aged > peak-aged > over-aged. • The simulated matrix, θ (Al2Cu), and the precipitations free zones (PFZ) were prepared. • The self-corrosion potentials satisfy EMatrix > Eθ > EPFZ. • The wider PFZ is adverse to the corrosion resistance of Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy. - Abstract: The effects of aging treatment on the corrosion behavior of Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy were studied by means of intergranular corrosion (IGC) testing, potentiodynamic polarization combined with optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Corrosion testing results suggest that, the intergranular corrosion resistance properties of Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy decreased with increasing aging time, which is also corroborated by the potentiodynamic polarization test results for under-aged, peak-aged and the over-aged Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloys. TEM results reveal that precipitations on the grain boundary became coarsened and distributed discontinuously with increasing aging time; widening of precipitation free zones (PFZ) is also observed. The PFZ with the lowest self-corrosion potential is preferentially attacked, and corrosion progresses along the PFZ. The corrosion resistance of over-aged Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloy decreased because of its wider PFZ in comparison with those in other samples

  15. High-temperature peaks of thermostimulated luminescence in the ammonium halogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ammonium halogen crystals (AHC) are the close analogs of the alkali halogen crystals by the type of chemical bonds and crystal lattice structure. The ammonium halogen after irradiation by X-rays within 80-300 K range have two peaks of thermo-stimulation luminescence. Its maximums in dependence of anions type are in the 110-120 K and 170-180 K ranges. The first range is related with activation of auto-localized holes migration, and the second one - with the NH3+ defects decay. Experimentally is established, that the pure ammonium halogens have memory about the previous irradiation at heating up to 300 K. After repeat irradiation the recombination luminescence high-temperature peak's shoulder is appearing. The second luminescence peak's shoulder revealing does not depend on the impurity center nature. It is known, that in the AHC there is the next thermo-stimulation luminescence peak within 340-360 K. The thermal annealing of this peak leads to the memory effect disappearance. So, the observing phenomenon is related with own defect of the matrix in the cation sublattice. Experimentally is established, that at a room temperature the AHC memorizing about previous irradiation during 20 h

  16. Cosmic microwave background acoustic peak locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z.; Knox, L.; Mulroe, B.; Narimani, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Planck collaboration has measured the temperature and polarization of the cosmic microwave background well enough to determine the locations of eight peaks in the temperature (TT) power spectrum, five peaks in the polarization (EE) power spectrum and 12 extrema in the cross (TE) power spectrum. The relative locations of these extrema give a striking, and beautiful, demonstration of what we expect from acoustic oscillations in the plasma; e.g. that EE peaks fall half way between TT peaks. We expect this because the temperature map is predominantly sourced by temperature variations in the last scattering surface, while the polarization map is predominantly sourced by gradients in the velocity field, and the harmonic oscillations have temperature and velocity 90 deg out of phase. However, there are large differences in expectations for extrema locations from simple analytic models versus numerical calculations. Here, we quantitatively explore the origin of these differences in gravitational potential transients, neutrino free-streaming, the breakdown of tight coupling, the shape of the primordial power spectrum, details of the geometric projection from three to two dimensions, and the thickness of the last scattering surface. We also compare the peak locations determined from Planck measurements to expectations under the Λ cold dark matter model. Taking into account how the peak locations were determined, we find them to be in agreement.

  17. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks?

    CERN Document Server

    Matilla, José Manuel Zorrilla; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with $\\mathcal{S/N}>1$ (where $\\mathcal{S/N}$ is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find $\\approx 50\\%$ fewer counts for peaks near $\\mathcal{S/N}=0$ and significantly higher counts in the negative $\\mathcal{S/N}$ tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within $20\\%$ for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the $\\{\\Omega_m, \\sigma_8\\}$ are $\\approx 30\\%$ larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with $23)$. Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14\\% improveme...

  18. Effect of Synthesis Techniques on Crystallization and Optical Properties of Ag-Cu Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ziye; Qin, Fen; Huang, Po-Shun; Nettleship, Ian; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2016-04-01

    Silver (Ag)-copper (Cu) bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the reduction of silver nitrate and copper (II) acetate monohydrate using ethylene glycol in a microwave (MW) heating system with controlled reaction times ranging from 5 min to 30 min. The molar ratio Ag/Cu was varied from 1:1 to 1:3. The effect of reaction conditions on the bimetallic NPs structures and compositions were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The average particle size was approximately 150 nm. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag-Cu bimetallic NPs was investigated by monitoring the SPR band peak behavior via UV/Vis spectrophotometry. The resonance peak positions and peak widths varied due to the different structures of the bimetallic NPs created under the synthesis conditions. In the MW heating method, the reduction of Cu was increased and Cu was inhomogeneously deposited over the Ag cores. As the composition of Cu becoming higher in the Ag-Cu bimetallic NPs, the absorption between 400 nm to 600 nm was greatly enhanced.

  19. Ruhrgas AG. Business report 2000; Ruhrgas AG. Geschaeftsbericht 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    A detailed account of the situation of the international gas market provides the basis of the status report of Ruhrgas AG and the group of affiliated companies. Emphasis is placed on gas procurement aspects, sales volumes, the construction and operation of natural gas distribution systems, and on development, utilization and application aspects. The activities and situation of major Ruhrgas AG holding companies are described, and the annual financial statements are documented. (orig.) [German] Ausgehend von einer eingehenden Beschreibung des internationalen Gasmarktes wird ein Lagebericht des Konzerns sowie der Ruhrgas AG gegeben. Dabei wird insbesondere auf Fragen der Gasbeschaffung, des Gasabsatzes, des Baus und Betriebs von Erdgasverteilungsnetzen, sowie der Entwicklung und der Anwendungstechnik eingegangen. Ferner wird ueber den Geschaeftsverlauf wesentlicher Ruhrgas-Beteiligungsgesellschaften berichtet. Abschliessend wird der Jahresabschluss dokumentiert. (orig.)

  20. Limitation of peak fitting and peak shape methods for determination of activation energy of thermoluminescence glow peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Sunta, C M; Piters, T M; Watanabe, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the limitation of general order peak fitting and peak shape methods for determining the activation energy of the thermoluminescence glow peaks in the cases in which retrapping probability is much higher than the recombination probability and the traps are filled up to near saturation level. Right values can be obtained when the trap occupancy is reduced by using small doses or by post-irradiation partial bleaching. This limitation in the application of these methods has not been indicated earlier. In view of the unknown nature of kinetics in the experimental samples, it is recommended that these methods of activation energy determination should be applied only at doses well below the saturation dose.

  1. Experimental results on spin physics at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AGS ran with polarized protons towards the end of 1985 and through the first two months of 1986. This comprised commissioning periods interleaved with two runs for physics at 13.5 GeV/c with beam polarization of 50 to 60%, and 18.5 GeV/c with an average beam polarization of 40%. Later, the AGS polarized beam reached peak energy of 22 GeV/c and polarization of 46%. This article describes the various spin related experimental efforts since the VI Symposium at Marseille. These will be grouped into those using unpolarized beams and the rest are the polarized proton beam users. Afterwards the future of the program is described as extensions of current experiments in addition to other measurements that are yet to be proposed

  2. Lattice Instability in β1-AgZn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morii, Yukio; Nagasawa, Akira; Matsuo, Yoshie; Funahashi, Satoru; Child, Harry R.; Nicklow, Robert M.

    1991-12-01

    Phase transition of β1-AgZn alloy was studied by means of neutron inelastic and diffuse scattering techniques. Acoustic phonon dispersion relation along the main crystal axes of the alloy was obtained. No [\\zeta\\zeta\\zeta]LA phonon anomalies related to the \\zeta-phase was observed, although previous sound experiment followed by elastic constant analysis predicts that possibility. The observed anomalies in phonon energy of both [\\zeta\\zeta 0]TA1 and [\\zeta\\zeta-2\\zeta]TA modes associated with the diffuse scattering peaks indicate that a strong lattice instability is involved in the phonon modes. It is pointed out that the lattice instability plays important roles in the structure transition from β1-phase to \\zeta-phase or to the martensitic phase in the AgZn alloy.

  3. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, S. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kawakita, Y. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shimakura, H. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Ohara, K. [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Fukami, T. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Takeda, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2015-07-28

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag–Cl and ionic Rb–Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag–Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb–Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag–Ag and Rb–Rb correlations, S{sub AgAg}(Q) and S{sub RbRb}(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while S{sub AgRb}(Q) for the Ag–Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  4. Charge-transfer optical absorption mechanism of DNA:Ag-nanocluster complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuinhos, R.; Lúcio, A. D.; Chacham, H.; Alexandre, S. S.

    2016-05-01

    Optical properties of DNA:Ag-nanoclusters complexes have been successfully applied experimentally in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind their optical activity remain unresolved. In this work, we present a time-dependent density functional study of optical absorption in DNA:Ag4. In all 23 different complexes investigated, we obtain new absorption peaks in the visible region that are not found in either the isolated Ag4 or isolated DNA base pairs. Absorption from red to green are predominantly of charge-transfer character, from the Ag4 to the DNA fragment, while absorption in the blue-violet range are mostly associated to electronic transitions of a mixed character, involving either DNA-Ag4 hybrid orbitals or intracluster orbitals. We also investigate the role of exchange-correlation functionals in the calculated optical spectra. Significant differences are observed between the calculations using the PBE functional (without exact exchange) and the CAM-B3LYP functional (which partly includes exact exchange). Specifically, we observe a tendency of charge-transfer excitations to involve purines bases, and the PBE spectra error is more pronounced in the complexes where the Ag cluster is bound to the purines. Finally, our results also highlight the importance of adding both the complementary base pair and the sugar-phosphate backbone in order to properly characterize the absorption spectrum of DNA:Ag complexes.

  5. Large range localized surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles films dependent of surface morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lijuan; Yan, Yaning; Xu, Leilei; Ma, Rongrong; Jiang, Fengxian; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-03-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) have received enormous attention since it displays uniquely optical and electronic properties. In this work, we study localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) at different thicknesses and substrate temperatures of Ag NPs films grown by Laser Molecule Beam Epitaxy (LMBE). The LSPR wavelength can be largely tuned in the visible light range of 470 nm to 770 nm. The surface morphology is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average size of Ag NPs increased with the thickness increased which leading to the LSPR band broaden and wavelength red-shift. As the substrate temperature is increased from RT to 200 °C, the Ag NPs size distribution becomes homogeneous and particle shape changes from oblate spheroid to sphere, the LSPR band displays sharp, blue-shift and significantly symmetric. Obviously, the morphology of Ag NPs films is important for tuning absorption position. We obtain the cubic crystal structure of Ag NPs with a (1 1 1) main diffraction peak from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The high resolution TEM (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) prove that Ag NPs is polycrystal structure. The Ag NPs films with large range absorption in visible light region can composite with semiconductor to apply in various optical or photoelectric devices.

  6. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  7. In situ study of equilibrium phenomena and kinetics in a BiSCCO Ag tape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H.F.; Andersen, L.G.; Frello, T.;

    1999-01-01

    Structural changes during the annealing of a mono-filament BiSCCO/Ag tape in air are monitored in situ by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Starting at 750 degrees C, a very slow ramp rate is used, followed by high temperature cycling to study equilibrium phenomena and kinetics. For the first time...... disappeared-reveals fast, nearly reversible changes, indicative of several eutectics involving the 2212, 2223, (Ca,Sr)(2)CuO3 and liquid phases. By cycling, the incorporated Ca and/or Pb is lost irreversibly. Cooling data are consistent with precipitation of 2212 and 2223 by layer-on-layer growth on the...

  8. Probing the rupture of a Ag atomic junction in a Ag-Au mixed electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taekyeong

    2015-09-01

    We probed that the atomic junction in Ag part ruptures during stretching of atomic sized contacts of Ag-Au mixed electrodes, resulting in Ag-Ag electrodes through a scanning tunneling microscope breaking junction (STM-BJ) technique. We observed that the conductance and tunneling decay constant for a series of amine-terminated oligophenyl molecular junctions are essentially the same for the Ag-Au mixed and the Ag-Ag electrodes. We also found the molecular plateau length and the evolution patterns with the Ag-Au mixed electrodes are similar to those with Ag-Ag electrodes rather than the Au-Au electrodes in the molecular junction elongation. This result is attributed to the smaller binding energy of Ag atoms compared to that of Au atoms, so the Ag junction part is more easily broken than that of Au part in stretching of Ag-Au mixed electrodes. Furthermore, we successfully observed that the rupture force of the atomic junction for the Ag-Au mixed electrodes was identical to that for the Ag-Ag electrodes and smaller than that for the Au-Au electrodes. This study may advance the understanding of the electrical and the mechanical properties in molecular devices with Ag and Au electrodes in future.

  9. Synthesis, morphological control, and antibacterial properties of hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin

    2010-08-11

    Ag2S and Ag are important functional materials that have received considerable research interest in recent years. In this work, we develop a solution-based synthetic method to combine these two materials into hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers at room temperature. Starting from monodisperse Cu2O solid spheres, CuS hollow spheres can be converted from Cu2O through a modified Kirkendall process, and the obtained CuS can then be used as a solid precursor for preparation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers through ion exchange and photo-assisted reduction. We have found that formation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers is instantaneous, and the size of Ag nanocrystals on the hollow spheres of Ag2S can be controlled by changing the concentration and power of reducing agents in the synthesis. The growth of Ag nanoparticles on hollow spheres of Ag2S in the dimers is along the [111] direction of the silver crystal; the light absorption properties have also been investigated. Furthermore, coupling or tripling of Ag2S/Ag heterodimers into dumbbell-like trimers ((Ag 2S)2/Ag, linear) and triangular tetramers ((Ag 2S)3/Ag, coplanar) can also be attained at 60°C by adding the bidentate ligand ethylenediamine as a cross-linking agent. To test the applicability of this highly asymmetric dipolar composite, photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in the presence of the as-prepared Ag 2S/Ag heterodimers has been carried out under UV irradiation. The added Ag2S/Ag heterodimers show good chemical stability under prolonged UV irradiation, and no appreciable solid dissolution is found. Possible mechanisms regarding the enhanced antibacterial activity have also been addressed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. About AgEcon Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>AgEcon Search is a free,open access repository of full-text scholarly literature in agricultural and applied economics,including working papers,conference papers,and journal articles.AgEcon Search is co-sponsored by the Department of Applied Economics and the University Libraries at University of Minnesota and the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.Research in Agricultural and Applied Economics collects,indexes,and electronically distributes full text copies of scholarly research in the broadly defined field of agricultural economics including sub disciplines such as agribusiness,food supply,natural resource economics,environmental eco-

  11. About AgEcon Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>AgEcon Search is a free,open access repository of full-text scholarly literature in agricultural and applied economics,inclu-ding working papers,conference papers,and journal articles. AgEcon Search is co-sponsored by the Department of Applied Eco-nomics and the University Libraries at University of Minnesota and the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. Researchin Agricultural and Applied Economics collects,indexes,and electronically distributes full text copies of scholarly research in the

  12. About AgEcon Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>AgEcon Search is a free,open access repository of full-text scholarly literature in agricultural and applied economics,inclu-ding working papers,conference papers,and journal articles. AgEcon Search is co-sponsored by the Department of Applied Eco-nomics and the University Libraries at University of Minnesota and the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. Research in Agricultural and Applied Economics collects,indexes,and electronically distributes full text copies of scholarly research in the

  13. Paleomagnetism of the Becker Peak stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B. A.; Housen, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of plutonic rocks, although subject to uncertainty due to lack of paleohorizontal control, can provide important constrains of patterns of regional deformation, and can play a role in evaluation of tectonic models and reconstructions. Many plutonic rocks of the Cascades have been well-studied via paleomagnetism, but there are many that lack robust data sets. One such pluton, the Beckler Peak stock, is a late Cretaceous tonalitic stock, with biotite and amphibole K-Ar ages of 93 to 82 Ma (Engels and Crowder, 1971, Yeats and Engels, 1971). The Beckler Peak stock is considered to be a companion body to the larger Mt. Stuart Batholith, but is separated from the Mt. Stuart Batholith by the Evergreen Fault. For this study five paleomagnetic sites were sampled from the Beckler Peak stock near Skykomish, Washington. After low temperature and thermal demagnetization site means were calculated for the four sites where at least two samples survived demagnetization. Unblocking temperatures were indicative of magnetite and hematite as the carriers of remanence. Two of the site means were disregarded due to anomalous directions likely due to sites being from very large slump blocks. The two acceptable site means, along with a Beckler Peak stock site mean from Beck and Noson (1972) and another from Housen et al. (2003) give a stock-wide mean of D = 3.8°, I = 41.9°, k = 32.9, and α95 = 16.2°. This direction is consistent with mean directions for the Mount Stuart batholith determined by Beck and Noson (1972), Beck et al. (1981), and Housen et al. (2003). This directional consistency supports an association between the Beckler Peak stock and the Mt. Stuart Batholith, or at least that these two plutonic bodies were emplaced in the same structural block, and that any post-magnetization deformation (such as rotation and/or tilt associated with the Evergreen Fault) between the Beckler Peak stock and the Mt. Stuart Batholith was minor.

  14. Reactor (nu)over-bar(e) disappearance in the Double Chooz experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Y; Aberle, C.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Barriere, J.C.; Bergevin, M.; Bernstein, A; Bezerra, T. J. C.; Bezrukhov, L.; Blucher, E.; Bowden, N. S.; Buck, C.; Busenitz, J.; Cabrera, A.; Caden, E; Camilleri, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Double Chooz experiment has observed 8249 candidate electron antineutrino events in 227.93 live days with 33.71 GW-ton-years (reactor power X detector mass X live time) exposure using a 10.3 m(3) fiducial volume detector located at 1050 m from the reactor cores of the Chooz nuclear power plant in France. The expectation in case of theta(13) = 0 is 8937 events. The deficit is interpreted as evidence of electron antineutrino disappearance. From a rate plus spectral shape analysis we find si...

  15. Globalization, Open Access Publishing, and the Disappearance of Print: Threat or Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, J. J.

    Academic publishing is changing rapidly as a result of mutually dependent developments. Electronic publishing was born through the emergence of the Internet. The Internet has accelerated globalization, which in turn has enhanced the consolidation of commercial publishing houses and the collaboration between libraries. Old business models are being replaced by new business models, such as open access publishing. The familiar print format is disappearing for journals and perhaps for books. This chapter presents an overview of these developments and addresses potential threats and opportunities to the parties involved in publishing.

  16. Initialization effects via the nuclear radius on transverse in-plane flow and its disappearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dependence of collective transverse flow and its disappearance on initialization effects via the nuclear radius within the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model. We calculate the balance energy using different parametrizations of the radius available in the literature for the reaction of 12C + 12C to explain its measured balance energy. A mass-dependent analysis of the balance energy through out the periodic table is also carried out by changing the default liquid drop IQMD radius. (author)

  17. Life on Mars: How it disappeared (if it was ever there)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E. Imre; Koriem, Ali M.

    The cryptoendolithic microbial community in the Ross Desert (McMurdo Dry Valleys) of Antarctica exists at temperatures significantly below the temperature optima of the primary producers. Surviving near the limit of their physiological adaptability, the organisms are under severe environmental stress, so further deterioration in the environment results in cell damage and death. The sequence of events leading to extinction is considered to be a terrestrial analog for disappearance of possible life on early Mars. Progressive stages of cell damage and death in the Ross Desert material are documented with transmission electron microscopy. Present address: Division of Rice Diseases, Plant Pathology Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

  18. Initialization effects via the nuclear radius on transverse in-plane flow and its disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Rajni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence of collective transverse flow and its disappearance on initialization effects via the nuclear radius within the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD model. We calculate the balance energy using different parametrizations of the radius available in the literature for the reaction of 12C+12C to explain its measured balance energy. A mass-dependent analysis of the balance energy through out the periodic table is also carried out by changing the default liquid drop IQMD radius.

  19. News of a country that disappears: the Puerto Rican «raros» of today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan DUCHESNE WINTER

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Puerto Rican culture articulates itself as an anti-colonial resistance characterized by strategies of simulation, opacity and invisibility (disappearance that enact an «out-of-place» in which an autonomous national and social subject is constantly reformulated. Recent expressions of «escrituras raras» (weird, strange, eccentric, difficult writing assume difficulty of comprehension, fragmentation, and challenges to conventional modes of representation as so many out-of-places that allow a long anti-systemic and anti-colonial tradition to survive to this day.

  20. Ion irradiation induced disappearance of dislocations in a nickel-based alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. C.; Li, D. H.; Lui, R. D.; Huang, H. F.; Li, J. J.; Lei, G. H.; Huang, Q.; Bao, L. M.; Yan, L.; Zhou, X. T.; Zhu, Z. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Under Xe ion irradiation, the microstructural evolution of a nickel based alloy, Hastelloy N (US N10003), was studied. The intrinsic dislocations are decorated with irradiation induced interstitial loops and/or clusters. Moreover, the intrinsic dislocations density reduces as the irradiation damage increases. The disappearance of the intrinsic dislocations is ascribed to the dislocations climb to the free surface by the absorption of interstitials under the ion irradiation. Moreover, the in situ annealing experiment reveals that the small interstitial loops and/or clusters induced by the ion irradiation are stable below 600 °C.

  1. AgHY分子筛的吸附脱硫性能%Performance of Adsorptive Desulfurization over Modified AgHY Zeolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥伦; 邹文芳; 张培青

    2011-01-01

    The AgHY zeolite absorbents with different Ag loadings are prepared by incipient-wetness impregna tion. The physical adsorption analyzer and the X-ray diffraction are employed to characterize these absorbents. The BET results show that the surface areas and pore volumes of AgHY zeolites decrease with an increase in Ag loading. The introduction of Ag lowers the intensities of the XRD peaks of HY zeolite without changing bas ic framework. None of Ag2O peaks appears in the XRD patterns of AgHY zeolites. The removal capability of Ag-modified HY zeolites to dibenzothiophene is investigated by static adsorption. Good performance in dibenzothiophene removal and regeneration is found. 90% DBT can be removed by the Ag10HY ( Ag loading : 10 wt % ) at 60℃ in 2 h. The sulfur content decrease from 330 μg· g-1 to 33 μg· g-1 . Removal Of 89.4 % DBT still can be reached by the used Ag10HY after being calcined at 400℃ in air.%以等体积浸渍法制备不同负载量的AgHY分子筛,利用物理吸附仪和X射线衍射(XRD)技术对分子筛吸附剂进行表征.BET结果表明改性分子筛的比表面积和孔容随Ag的负载量的增加而降低,XRD图谱的变化表明,银的负载仅降低了衍射峰强度,而对HY的骨架结构没有影响,并且也没有Ag2O的特征峰出现.在静态吸附条件下考察了改性AgHY分子筛吸附剂对二苯并噻吩(DBT)的脱除性能.结果表明,Ag改性的HY分子筛具有较好的吸附脱硫性能和再生性能.应用Ag负载量为10%的Ag10HY吸附剂,在吸附时间2h、吸附温度60℃的条件下,二苯并噻吩的脱除率可达90%,硫含量由最初的330μg·g-1降至33 μg·g-1.吸附后的Ag10HY吸附剂在温度400℃、空气介质中再生后,吸附脱除效果仍可达到89.4%.

  2. MOSES AND DENNISON PEAK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Lipton, David A.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was conducted in the Moses and Dennison Peak Roadless Areas, southeastern Sierra Nevada, California. One area within the Moses Roadless Area is classified as having substantiated mineral-resource potential for small base-metal skarn deposits. Additionally, geochemical data indicate probable potential for small base-metal skarn deposits from one locality within Dennison Peak Roadless Area and for small tungsten skarn deposits from a region within Moses Roadless Area. The geologic setting precludes the presence of energy resources.

  3. Disappearance of Elliptic Flow A New Probe for the Nuclear Equation of State

    CERN Document Server

    Danielewicz, P; Gossiaux, P B; Pinkenburg, C H; Chung, P; Alexander, J M; McGrath, R L; Lacey, Roy A.

    1998-01-01

    Using a relativistic hadron transport model, we investigate the utility of the elliptic flow excitation function as a probe for the stiffness of nuclear matter and for the onset of a possible quark-gluon-plasma (QGP) phase-transition at AGS energies 1 < E_Beam < 11 AGeV. The excitation function shows a strong dependence on the nuclear equation of state, and exhibits characteristic signatures which could signal the onset of a phase transition to the QGP.

  4. State of the art Ag50-xSbxSe50-yTey alloys: Their high zT values, microstructures and related phase equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turning waste heat into electricity using thermoelectric materials supports the crucial goals of the sustainable development. Two ternary chalcogenide compounds, the AgSbTe2 and AgSbSe2, are viewed as prospective candidates for mid-temperature waste heat recovery (600–800 K). Alloying between the cubic AgSbTe2 and AgSbSe2 yields to the very high zT peak value of 1.4 in Ag25Sb25Se10Te40 and Ag25Sb25Se5Te45 at 680 K, which are nearly 40% and 250% higher than those of undoped AgSbTe2 (zT ∼ 1) and AgSbSe2 (zT ∼ 0.4). The relations between the phase stability, the carrier concentration and the electronic/thermal transport property are understood by conducting comprehensive study along the pseudo-binary AgSbSe2–AgSbTe2 system with varying values of x and y in Ag50-xSbxSe50-yTey (25 ⩽ x ⩽ 30, y ⩽ 50)

  5. Work function tuning and fluorescence enhancement of hydrogen annealed Ag-doped Al-rich zinc oxide nanostructures using a sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Firoz; Baek, Seong-Ho [Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology (DGIST), 50-1 Sang-Ri, Hyeonpung-Myeon, Dalseong-Gun, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young [School of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Handong Global University, 558 Handong-Ro, Heunghae-Eub, Buk-Ku, Pohang, Gyung-Buk 791-708 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Hyun, E-mail: jaehyun@dgist.ac.kr [Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology (DGIST), 50-1 Sang-Ri, Hyeonpung-Myeon, Dalseong-Gun, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-25

    Effect of incorporation of Ag on the structural, optical, electrical, and fluorescence properties of sol–gel derived Al-rich zinc oxide (ZnO:Al:Ag) nanostructured films was studied. The E{sub g} of the film slightly decreased to a minimal value with Ag doping, and was found to be about 3.65 eV for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1% from its initial value of 3.72 eV (R{sub Ag/Zn} = 0%). The WF sudden increased to a maximal value of 5.12 eV with Ag doping (for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1%) from its initial value of 4.73 eV for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 0% due to substitution of Ag into Zn sites until saturation was achieved (R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1%). After more Ag doping, WF started to decrease and finally, reached a value of 4.81 eV for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 3% because of the formation of an impurity-defect energy level below the intrinsic Fermi level of ZnO. With Ag-doping, the current increased up to R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1% due to the increase in carrier density. For R{sub Ag/Zn} = 3% doping, the current density started to increase due to the influence of metallic Ag. The defective peak position was blue shifted, with increased Ag-doping, from 536 nm (R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1%) to 527 nm for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 2% due to the sizes of the Ag{sup +} and Zn{sup 2+} ions. The FL defective peak intensity (I{sub D}) in the green region increased with the concentration of Ag used for doping, up to R{sub Ag/Zn} = 2%. The enhancement in the I{sub D} may be due to charge difference between the Zn{sup 2+} ions, caused by Ag{sup +} ions. - Graphical abstract: The effect of incorporation of Ag doping on the structural, optical, electrical, and fluorescence properties of sol–gel derived Al-rich zinc oxide (ZnO:Al:Ag) nanostructured films was studied. By Ag-doping, the lowest R{sub λ} is blue shifted to R{sub Ag/Zn} = 2% and finally red shifted for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 3% due to variation of optical thickness of the film. The E{sub g} of the film slightly decreased to a minimal value with Ag doping, and was found to be about 3.65 eV for R{sub Ag

  6. Photoreduction of Ag+ in Ag/Ag2S/Au memristor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, N. I.; Tabib-Azar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Silver halides and chalcogenides are excellent memristor materials that have been extensively used in the past as photosensitive layers in photography. Here we examine the effect of illumination on the operating voltages and switching speed of Ag/Ag2S/Au memristors using a green laser (473-523 nm). Our results indicate that illumination decreases the average switching time from high to low resistance states by ∼19% and decreases the turn-off voltages dramatically from -0.8 V to -0.25 V that we attribute to the change in sulfur valency and a photo-induced change in its oxidation/reduction potential. Photo-induced reduction of silver in Ag2S may be used in three dimensional optical memories that can be electronically read and reset.

  7. Ag nanotubes and Ag/AgCl electrodes in nanoporous membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, Matthew; Healy, Ken; Siwy, Zuzanna S, E-mail: zsiwy@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Miniaturization of the entire experimental setup is a key requirement for widespread application of nanodevices. For nanopore biosensing, integrating electrodes onto the nanopore membrane and controlling the pore length is important for reducing the complexity and improving the sensitivity of the system. Here we present a method to achieve these goals, which relies on electroless plating to produce Ag nanotubes in track-etched polymer nanopore templates. By plating from one side only, we create a conductive nanotube that does not span the full length of the pore, and thus can act as a nanoelectrode located inside the nanopore. To give optimal electrochemical behavior for sensing, we coat the Ag nanotube with a layer of AgCl. We characterize the behavior of this nanoelectrode by measuring its current-voltage response and find that, in most cases, the response is asymmetric. The plated nanopores have initial diameters between 100 and 300 nm, thus a range suitable for detection of viruses.

  8. Ag nanotubes and Ag/AgCl electrodes in nanoporous membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniaturization of the entire experimental setup is a key requirement for widespread application of nanodevices. For nanopore biosensing, integrating electrodes onto the nanopore membrane and controlling the pore length is important for reducing the complexity and improving the sensitivity of the system. Here we present a method to achieve these goals, which relies on electroless plating to produce Ag nanotubes in track-etched polymer nanopore templates. By plating from one side only, we create a conductive nanotube that does not span the full length of the pore, and thus can act as a nanoelectrode located inside the nanopore. To give optimal electrochemical behavior for sensing, we coat the Ag nanotube with a layer of AgCl. We characterize the behavior of this nanoelectrode by measuring its current-voltage response and find that, in most cases, the response is asymmetric. The plated nanopores have initial diameters between 100 and 300 nm, thus a range suitable for detection of viruses.

  9. A straightforward and effective strategy for controllable synthesis of Ag/Ag{sub 2}S and Ag/CdS heterojunction nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Xuandi [Southern Medical University, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Disease, Nanfang Hospital (China); Feng, Xiumei; Hu, Jianqiang, E-mail: jqhusc@scut.edu.cn [South China University of Technology, Key Lab of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Tan, Lishan [Southern Medical University, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Disease, Nanfang Hospital (China); Liu, Jianyu, E-mail: jyliu@scut.edu.cn; Chen, Yuyu; Deng, Xiulong [South China University of Technology, Key Lab of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Li, Aiqing, E-mail: liaiqing@smu.edu.cn [Southern Medical University, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Disease, Nanfang Hospital (China)

    2015-02-15

    Ag/Ag{sub 2}S heterojunction nanowires (HJNWs) have been successfully fabricated through one-pot solution-phase method, which were transferred into Ag/CdS HJNWs by cation exchange. The synthesis involved a template-less, non-seed, and one-pot solution-phase process to high-quality Ag/Ag{sub 2}S HJNWs. The sizes, positions, and spacing distances between the Ag{sub 2}S or CdS NPs of the growing Ag{sub 2}S and CdS NPs in the Ag/Ag{sub 2}S and Ag/CdS HJNWs could be finely tailored by reaction temperatures and PVP concentrations. By varying reaction temperature, the sizes and positions (tip or surface) of the growing Ag{sub 2}S and CdS NPs in the Ag/Ag{sub 2}S and Ag/CdS HJNWs could be effectively controlled while PVP concentration could tailor the sizes and spacing distances between the Ag{sub 2}S or CdS NPs of the growing Ag{sub 2}S and CdS NPs in the Ag/Ag{sub 2}S and Ag/CdS HJNWs. We also proposed a primary experimental model to illustrate the growth mechanism of the Ag/Ag{sub 2}S and Ag/CdS HJNWs.

  10. A straightforward and effective strategy for controllable synthesis of Ag/Ag2S and Ag/CdS heterojunction nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ag/Ag2S heterojunction nanowires (HJNWs) have been successfully fabricated through one-pot solution-phase method, which were transferred into Ag/CdS HJNWs by cation exchange. The synthesis involved a template-less, non-seed, and one-pot solution-phase process to high-quality Ag/Ag2S HJNWs. The sizes, positions, and spacing distances between the Ag2S or CdS NPs of the growing Ag2S and CdS NPs in the Ag/Ag2S and Ag/CdS HJNWs could be finely tailored by reaction temperatures and PVP concentrations. By varying reaction temperature, the sizes and positions (tip or surface) of the growing Ag2S and CdS NPs in the Ag/Ag2S and Ag/CdS HJNWs could be effectively controlled while PVP concentration could tailor the sizes and spacing distances between the Ag2S or CdS NPs of the growing Ag2S and CdS NPs in the Ag/Ag2S and Ag/CdS HJNWs. We also proposed a primary experimental model to illustrate the growth mechanism of the Ag/Ag2S and Ag/CdS HJNWs

  11. Ag-Ag2S Hybrid Nanoprisms: Structural versus Plasmonic Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjamali, Mohammad M; Zhou, Yong; Zaraee, Negin; Xue, Can; Wu, Jinsong; Large, Nicolas; McGuirk, C Michael; Boey, Freddy; Dravid, Vinayak; Cui, Zhifeng; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-05-24

    Recently, Ag-Ag2S hybrid nanostructures have attracted a great deal of attention due to their enhanced chemical and thermal stability, in addition to their morphology- and composition-dependent tunable local surface plasmon resonances. Although Ag-Ag2S nanostructures can be synthesized via sulfidation of as-prepared anisotropic Ag nanoparticles, this process is poorly understood, often leading to materials with anomalous compositions, sizes, and shapes and, consequently, optical properties. In this work, we use theory and experiment to investigate the structural and plasmonic evolution of Ag-Ag2S nanoprisms during the sulfidation of Ag precursors. The previously observed red-shifted extinction of the Ag-Ag2S hybrid nanoprism as sulfidation occurs contradicts theoretical predictions, indicating that the reaction does not just occur at the prism tips as previously speculated. Our experiments show that sulfidation can induce either blue or red shifts in the extinction of the dipole plasmon mode, depending on reaction conditions. By elucidating the correlation with the final structure and morphology of the synthesized Ag-Ag2S nanoprisms, we find that, depending on the reaction conditions, sulfidation occurs on the prism tips and/or the (111) surfaces, leading to a core(Ag)-anisotropic shell(Ag2S) prism nanostructure. Additionally, we demonstrate that the direction of the shift in the dipole plasmon is a function of the relative amounts of Ag2S at the prism tips and Ag2S shell thickness around the prism. PMID:27148792

  12. A simple approach for facile synthesis of Ag, anisotropic Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles using cruciferous vegetable extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple and straightforward approach for the synthesis and stabilization of relatively monodisperse Ag, Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles by using cruciferous vegetable (green/red) extracts by simply adjusting the pH environment in the aqueous medium. The vegetable extracts act both as reducing and capping agents. The monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag and Au so obtained were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that red cabbage extract can be used for the preparation of anisotropic Au nanoparticles. The formation of Au anisotropic nanoparticles was found to depend on a number of environmental factors, such as the pH of the reaction medium, reaction time, and initial reactant concentrations. Additionally, it is shown that these extract-stabilized Au and Ag nanoparticles can be used as a seed for preparation of bimetallic Au/Ag nanoparticles. For bimetallic alloy nanoparticles the absorption peak was observed between the two maxima of the corresponding metallic particles. The surface plasmon absorption maxima for bimetallic nanoparticles changed linearly with increasing Au mole ratio content in various alloy compositions. It has been shown that the formation of hollow Au spheres depends on the experimental conditions. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of gold nanoparticles at pH 3.27 formed by red cabbage extract. Highlights: ► First report on the reactivity of the extracts toward metal ions using a spectrophotometric technique. ► Red cabbage extract has better reducing properties than green cabbage extract. ► Red cabbage extract can reduce metal ions at any pH. ► Reduction of metal ions can have important consequences in the study of soil chemistry.

  13. A simple approach for facile synthesis of Ag, anisotropic Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles using cruciferous vegetable extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Jasmine; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Kapoor, Sudhir, E-mail: sudhirk@barc.gov.in

    2012-10-01

    We present a simple and straightforward approach for the synthesis and stabilization of relatively monodisperse Ag, Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles by using cruciferous vegetable (green/red) extracts by simply adjusting the pH environment in the aqueous medium. The vegetable extracts act both as reducing and capping agents. The monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag and Au so obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that red cabbage extract can be used for the preparation of anisotropic Au nanoparticles. The formation of Au anisotropic nanoparticles was found to depend on a number of environmental factors, such as the pH of the reaction medium, reaction time, and initial reactant concentrations. Additionally, it is shown that these extract-stabilized Au and Ag nanoparticles can be used as a seed for preparation of bimetallic Au/Ag nanoparticles. For bimetallic alloy nanoparticles the absorption peak was observed between the two maxima of the corresponding metallic particles. The surface plasmon absorption maxima for bimetallic nanoparticles changed linearly with increasing Au mole ratio content in various alloy compositions. It has been shown that the formation of hollow Au spheres depends on the experimental conditions. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of gold nanoparticles at pH 3.27 formed by red cabbage extract. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report on the reactivity of the extracts toward metal ions using a spectrophotometric technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red cabbage extract has better reducing properties than green cabbage extract. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red cabbage extract can reduce metal ions at any pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction of metal ions can have important consequences in the study of soil chemistry.

  14. Real estate price peaks: a comparative overview

    CERN Document Server

    Röhner, B M

    2006-01-01

    First, we emphasize that the real estate price peaks which are currently under way in many industrialized countries (one important exception is Japan) share many of the characteristics of previous historical price peaks. In particular, we show that: (i) In the present episode real price increases are, at least for now, of the same order of magnitude as in previous episodes, typically of the order of 80 percent to 100 percent. (ii) Historically, price peaks turned out to be symmetrical with respect to the peak; soft landing, i.e. an upgoing phase followed by a plateau, has rarely (if ever) been observed. (iii) The inflated demand is mainly boosted by investors and high-income buyers. (iv) In the present as well as in previous episodes, the main engines in the upgoing phase have been the hot markets which developed in major cities such as London, Los Angeles, New York, Paris, San Francisco or Sydney. In our conclusion, we propose a prediction for real estate prices in the West of the United States over the peri...

  15. Facility Location with Double-peaked Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Li, Minming; Zhang, Jie;

    2015-01-01

    ; this makes the problem essentially more challenging. As our main contribution, we present a simple truthful-in-expectation mechanism that achieves an approximation ratio of 1+b=c for both the social and the maximum, cost, where b is the distance of the agent from the peak and c is the minimum cost of...

  16. Observation of Energy and Baseline Dependent Reactor Antineutrino Disappearance in the RENO Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J. H.; Choi, W. Q.; Choi, Y.; Jang, H. I.; Jang, J. S.; Jeon, E. J.; Joo, K. K.; Kim, B. R.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y. D.; Ko, Y.; Lee, D. H.; Lim, I. T.; Pac, M. Y.; Park, I. G.; Park, J. S.; Park, R. G.; Seo, H.; Seo, S. H.; Seon, Y. G.; Shin, C. D.; Siyeon, K.; Yang, J. H.; Yeo, I. S.; Yu, I.; RENO Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The RENO experiment has analyzed about 500 live days of data to observe an energy dependent disappearance of reactor ν¯e by comparing their prompt signal spectra measured in two identical near and far detectors. In the period between August of 2011 and January of 2013, the far (near) detector observed 31 541 (290 775) electron antineutrino candidate events with a background fraction of 4.9% (2.8%). The measured prompt spectra show an excess of reactor ν¯e around 5 MeV relative to the prediction from a most commonly used model. A clear energy and baseline dependent disappearance of reactor ν¯e is observed in the deficit of the observed number of ν¯e. Based on the measured far-to-near ratio of prompt spectra, we obtain sin22 θ13=0.082 ±0.009 (stat)±0.006 (syst) and |Δ mee 2|=[2.6 2-0.23+0.21(stat)-0.13+0.12(syst)]×10-3 eV2 .

  17. AGS experiments: 1990, 1991, 1992. Ninth edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains a description of the following: AGS Experimental Area - High Energy Physics FY 1993 and Heavy Ion Physics FY 1993; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ``as run``; Proposed 1993 Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS Experiments; and List of AGS Experimenters.

  18. Dependence of Quantum Yields on Size of Ag Nano-particle Embedded in BaO Thin Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical dependence of the quantum yields on the size of Ag nano-particle distribution from 0.8nm to 37nm embedded in BaO semiconductor is discussed. The calculation results show that the increase in Ag nano-particle diameter leads to the increase of the quantum yield threshold and the emergence of the rough Gaussian form, the results also show that the greater increase in Ag nano-particle diameter causes the emergence of the exact Gaussian form and makes the peaks rise up.

  19. AGS experiments---1987, 1988, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains: Experimental Areas Layout; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ''as run''; Experiment Long Range Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS experiments; and List of experimenters

  20. AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters.

  1. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987.

  2. AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ''as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters

  3. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume

  4. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggett, N.V. (ed.)

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  5. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987

  6. Spectral investigation of nonlinear local field effects in Ag nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability of Ag nanoparticles to modulate their optical resonance condition, by optical nonlinearity, without an external feedback system was experimentally demonstrated. These optical nonlinearities were studied in the vicinity of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), using femtosecond pump-and-probe spectroscopy with a white-light continuum probe. Transient transmission changes ΔT/T exhibited strong photon energy and particle size dependence and showed a complex and non-monotonic change with increasing pump light intensity. Peak position and change of sign redshift with increasing pump light intensity demonstrate the modulation of the LSPR. These features are discussed in terms of the intrinsic feedback via local field enhancement

  7. Modeling and analysis of AGS thermal shock experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is provided on modeling and analysis of thermal shock experiments conducted with high-energy, short-pulse energy deposition in a mercury filled container in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The simulation framework utilized along with results of simulations for pressure and strain profiles are presented. While the magnitude of peak strain predictions versus data are in reasonable agreement, the temporal variations were found to differ significantly in selected cases, indicating lack of modeling of certain physical phenomena or due to uncertainties in the experimental data gathering techniques. Key thermal-shock related issues and uncertainties are highlighted

  8. Determining peak stress history using acoustic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the test program at the Nevada Test Site, there is a need for determining the peak stress induced by explosions in tuff. Standard techniques make use of various gages grouted into the tuff prior to the test. These are difficulties in interpreting the output of these gages and there is always the chance that the gage will not survive long enough to allow a stress determination to be made. As an alternative, we have been testing a passive technique for determining peak stress as a function of distance from a test. Using core samples retrieved from the vicinity of an explosion, we have tested for the existence of a threshold stress for the onset of acoustic emissions, the Kaiser effect (Kaiser 1950). From laboratory results it is known that for many rock types, the previously applied peak stress can be detected by restressing a sample while monitoring acoustic emissions. An abrupt onset for acoustic emission activity typically occurs at a stress state close to the previous peak. The point of this work was to determine if the Kaiser effect occurred in tuff and, if so, whether it could be used to determine the peak stresses induced by an explosion. On the basis of four tests it is only possible to draw tentative conclusions. There does seem to be enough evidence of the existence and stress dependence of the Kaiser effect in the tuff to allow hope for the use of this technique in studying past stress states. In future tests the saturation state of the samples should be carefully controlled. Tests should be done on variously oriented subcores from a main core to determine the other components of the in situ stress tensor. If the components are indeed decoupled, as these few tests indicate, then a complete stress determination can be made this way. It would be interesting to use the same technique to try and determine in situ stresses in tuff. 7 refs., 6 figs

  9. The peak in anomalous magnetic viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous magnetic viscosity, where the magnetization as a function of time exhibits non-monotonic behaviour, being seen to increase, reach a peak, and then decrease, is observed on recoil lines in bulk amorphous ferromagnets, for certain magnetic prehistories. A simple geometrical approach based on the motion of the state line on the Preisach plane gives a theoretical framework for interpreting non-monotonic behaviour and explains the origin of the peak. This approach gives an expression for the time taken to reach the peak as a function of the applied (or holding) field. The theory is applied to experimental data for bulk amorphous ferromagnet alloys of composition Nd60−xFe30Al10Dyx, x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, and it gives a reasonable description of the observed behaviour. The role played by other key magnetic parameters, such as the intrinsic coercivity and fluctuation field, is also discussed. When the non-monotonic behaviour of the magnetization of a number of alloys is viewed in the context of the model, features of universal behaviour emerge, that are independent of alloy composition. - Highlights: • Development of a simple geometrical model based on the Preisach model which gives a complete explanation of the peak in the magnetic viscosity. • Geometrical approach is extended by considering equations that govern the motion of the state line. • The model is used to deduce the relationship between the holding field and the time it takes to reach the peak. • The model is tested with experimental results for a range of Nd–Fe–Al–Dy bulk amorphous ferromagnets. • There is good agreement between the model and the experimental data

  10. PULSING A 4.1 MW MOTOR GENERATOR SYSTEM TO 34 MW PEAK POWER UNDER CONSTANT INPUT POWER OPERATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARNERIS,I.; BADEA,V.; BANNON,M.; BONATI,R.; DANOWAKI,G.; SANDBERG,J.; SOUKAS,A.

    1999-03-29

    Brookhaven operates a 9 MW motor generator, made by Siemens, as part of the main magnet power supply of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) accelerator. A cycloconverter power supply system is utilized to ensure that during pulsing the main magnets of the AGS up to 50 MW peak power, the input power of the motor generator remains constant. There is also another motor generator (MG set) at Brookhaven, a 40 year old system manufactured by Westinghouse. This MG set could be pulsed up to 34 MW peak power while the input average power should not exceed. 4.1 M&V. A project is underway to upgrade this MG system and it's controls, so it could be used as a spare while doing maintenance on the Siemens MG and thus not interrupting the RHIC physics program. The purpose of this paper is to show that it is possible to pulse the AGS magnets using the Westinghouse MG system without utilizing a cycloconverter power supply, and still be able to maintain the input power to the motor generator constant. Calculations will be provided to show that we can pulse the position of the liquid rheostat in the motor rotor circuit to support the above, while taking out the power necessary to pulse the AGS magnets. This solution is being implemented due to budget constraints and overall simplicity. The hydraulic system to accomplish this task will also be described.

  11. Pulsing a 4.1 MW Motor Generator System to 34 MW Peak Power Under Constant Input Power Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookhaven operates a 9 MW motor generator, made by Siemens, as part of the main magnet power supply of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) accelerator. A cycloconverter power supply system is utilized to ensure that during pulsing the main magnets of the AGS up to 50 MW peak power, the input power of the motor generator remains constant. There is also another motor generator (MG set) at Brookhaven, a 40 year old system manufactured by Westinghouse. This MG set could be pulsed up to 34 MW peak power while the input average power should not exceed 4.1 MW. A project is underway to upgrade this MG system and it's controls, so it could be used as a spare while doing maintenance on the Siemens MG and thus not interrupting the RHIC physics program. The purpose of this paper is to show that it is possible to pulse the AGS magnets using the Westinghouse MG system without utilizing a cycloconverter power supply, and still be able to maintain the input power to the motor generator constant. Calculations will be provided to show that they can pulse the position of the liquid rheostat in the motor rotor circuit to support the above, while taking out the power necessary to pulse the AGS magnets. This solution is being implemented due to budget constraints and overall simplicity. The hydraulic system to accomplish this task will also be described

  12. An efficient photocatalyst for degradation of various organic dyes: Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu-Yang; Lu, Yi; Liu, Jin-Ku

    2016-04-15

    The Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite was prepared by a facile in-situ anion-exchange method, then the Ag nanoparticles were coated on this composite through photodeposition route to form a novel Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite. The in-situ Br(-) replacement in a crystal lattice node position of Ag2MoO4 crystal allows for overcoming the resistance of electron transition effectively. Meanwhile silver nano-particles on the surface of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite could act as electron traps to intensify the photogeneration electron-hole separation and the subsequent transfer of the trapped electron to the adsorbed O2 as an electron acceptor. As an efficient visible light catalyst, the Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic dyes. The experimental results demonstrated superior photocatalytic rate of Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite compared to pure AgBr and Ag2MoO4 crystals (37.6% and 348.4% enhancement respectively). The Ag@Ag2MoO4-AgBr composite cloud degraded Rhodamin B, bromophenol blue, and amino black 10b completed in 7min. PMID:26775100

  13. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai

    2013-10-24

    A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au_NRsd) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. Au_NRsd was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Au_NRsd and Ag NPs/Au_NRsd was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on Au_NRsd was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈10(7) in magnitude, which increased ≈10(12) in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/Au_NRsd. A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/Au_NRsd was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10(-3) to 10(-12)M) in water or milk solution upon Au_NRsd or Ag NPs/Au_NRsd were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm(-1) for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm(-1) was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., Au_NRsd) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/Au_NRsd) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/Au_NRsd and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and competent to sense low-concentration MEL molecules interacting with Ag and Au surfaces. Accordingly, Ag NPs/Au_NRsd is very promising to be used as a fast and sensitive tool for screening MEL in complex matrices such as adulteration in e.g., food and pharmaceutical products. PMID:24120168

  14. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys

    OpenAIRE

    D Tie; F Feyerabend; W-D Müller; Schade, R; Liefeith, K; KU Kainer; Willumeit, R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solut...

  15. Antibacterial Mg-Ag biodegradable alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Tie, Di

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is topic of ongoing research. As a further aspect, the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the wellknown antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag which contain 1.87%, 3.82% and 6.00% silver by weight respectively were casted and processed with solution and ...

  16. Direct electrospinning of Ag/polyvinylpyrrolidone nanocables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Menglin; Havelund, Rasmus; Li, Qiang;

    2011-01-01

    Core-sheath silver nanowire/polyvinylpyrrolidone (AgNW/PVP) nanocables have been fabricated via an efficient single-spinneret electrospinning method. The core-sheath structure is revealed by combining several characterization methods. A possible formation mechanism of the AgNW/PVP nanocable...... involving a strong stretching during the electrospinning process is proposed. Further, electrical measurements were performed on AgNW/PVP nanocables as well as bare AgNWs, which indicated the nanocables became insulating due to the isolation of highly conductive AgNWs by insulating PVP sheath. Therefore...

  17. Transparent and conductive PEDOT:PSS/Ag NW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films prepared by spin-coating at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingqing, Yue; Jinliang, Yan; Delan, Meng

    2015-12-01

    PEDOT:PSS/Ag NW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were deposited on PET substrates by the spin coating technique at room temperature. The optical transmittance, sheet resistance, crystallization and surface morphology were characterized by using the double beam spectrophotometer, Hall effect system, X-ray diffractometer and field emission scanning electron microscopy. XRD patterns of the hybrid films display characteristic diffraction peaks of Ag (111) and Ag (200), and the Ag NW networks have a polycrystalline structure with a Ag (111) preferred orientation. A high transmittance of 83.95% at the 550 nm wavelength and a low sheet resistance of 21.98 Ω/□ are achieved for 3-PEDOT:PSS/5-Ag NW/3-PEDOT:PSS hybrid films. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 10974077), and the Innovation Project of Shandong Graduate Education, China (No. SDYY13093).

  18. The Doppler peaks from a generic defect

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J

    1996-01-01

    We investigate which of the exotic Doppler peak features found for textures and cosmic strings are generic novelties pertaining to defects. We find that the ``out of phase'' texture signature is an accident. Generic defects, when they generate a secondary peak structure similar to inflation, apply to it an additive shift. It is not necessary for this shift to be ``out of phase''. We also show which factors are responsible for the absence of secondary oscillations found for cosmic strings. Within this general analysis we finally consider the conditions under which topological defects and inflation can be confused. It is argued that only \\Omega=1 inflation and a defect with a horizon size coherence length have a chance to be confused. Any other inflationary or defect model always differ distinctly. (To appear in the proceedings of the XXXIth Moriond meeting, ``Microwave Background Anisotropies'')

  19. After Acoustic Peaks What's Next in CMB?

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, A R

    2002-01-01

    The advent of high signal-to-noise cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments has allowed detailed studies on the power spectrum of temperature fluctuations. The existence of acoustic oscillations in the anisotropy power spectrum is now established with the detection of the first two, and possibly the third, peaks. Beyond the acoustic peak structure, we consider cosmological and astrophysical information that can be extracted by pushing anisotropy observations to fine angular scales with higher resolution instruments. At small scales, a variety of contributions allow the use of CMB photons as a probe of the large scale structure: we outline possible studies related to understanding detailed physical properties such as the distribution of dark matter, baryons and pressure, and ways to measure the peculiar, transverse and rotational velocities of virialized halos such as galaxy clusters. Beyond the temperature, we consider several useful aspects of the CMB polarization and comment on an ultimate g...

  20. Peak effect at microwave frequencies in swift heavy ion irradiated YBa2Cu3O7- thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tamalika Banerjee; Avinash Bhangale; D Kanjilal; S P Pai; R Pinto

    2002-05-01

    The vortex dynamics at microwave frequencies in YBa2Cu3O7- (YBCO) films have been studied. We observe a peak in the microwave (4.88 and 9.55 GHz) surface resistance in some films in magnetic fields up to 0.8 T. This is associated with the `peak-effect’ phenomenon and reflects the order–disorder transformation of the flux line lattice near the transition temperature. Introduction of artificial pinning centers like columnar defects created as a result of irradiation with 200 MeV Ag ion (at a fluence of 4 × 1010 ions/cm2) leads to the suppression of the peak in films previously exhibiting `peak effect’.

  1. The accuracy of portable peak flow meters.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M. R.; Dickinson, S A; Hitchings, D J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The variability of peak expiratory flow (PEF) is now commonly used in the diagnosis and management of asthma. It is essential for PEF meters to have a linear response in order to obtain an unbiased measurement of PEF variability. As the accuracy and linearity of portable PEF meters have not been rigorously tested in recent years this aspect of their performance has been investigated. METHODS: The response of several portable PEF meters was tested with absolute standards of flow ge...

  2. EVALUATING CONGESTION PRICING IMPACTS UNDER PEAK SPREADING

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Carolyn; Vilain, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The paper involves an econometric analysis of congestion pricing at the bridges and tunnels operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). Using a fixed effects model, we pool all facilities to evaluate the impacts of the congestion pricing structure in effect since March 2001. We find significant impacts for autos, but need to confront a counter-intuitive finding: cash paying vehicles, who do not benefits from off-peak discounts, are also estimated to be impacted. Using ...

  3. Peak reduction technique in commutative algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Shpilrain, Vladimir; Yu, Jie-Tai

    1999-01-01

    The "peak reduction" method is a powerful combinatorial technique with applications in many different areas of mathematics as well as theoretical computer science. It was introduced by Whitehead, a famous topologist and group theorist, who used it to solve an important algorithmic problem concerning automorphisms of a free group. Since then, this method was used to solve numerous problems in group theory, topology, combinatorics, and probably in some other areas as well. In this paper, we giv...

  4. Sensitive and selective detection of Hg2+ and Cu2+ ions by fluorescent Ag nanoclusters synthesized via a hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Ren, Xiangling; Meng, Xianwei; Fang, Zheng; Tang, Fangqiong

    2013-09-01

    An easily prepared fluorescent Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) probe for the sensitive and selective detection of Hg2+ and Cu2+ ions was developed here. The Ag NCs were synthesized by using polymethacrylic acid sodium salt as a template via a convenient hydrothermal process. The as-prepared fluorescent Ag NCs were monodispersed, uniform and less than 2 nm in diameter, and can be quenched in the presence of mercury (Hg2+) or copper (Cu2+) ions. Excellent linear relationships existed between the quenching degree of the Ag NCs and the concentrations of Hg2+ or Cu2+ ions in the range of 10 nM to 20 μM or 10 nM to 30 μM, respectively. By using ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) as the masking agent of Cu2+, Hg2+ was exclusively detected in coexistence with Cu2+ with high sensitivity (LOD = 10 nM), which also provided a reusable detection method for Cu2+. Furthermore, the different quenching phenomena caused by the two metals ions such as changes in visible colour, shifts of UV absorbance peaks and changes in size of Ag NCs make it easy to distinguish between them. Therefore the easily synthesized fluorescent Ag NCs may have great potential as Hg2+ and Cu2+ ions sensors.An easily prepared fluorescent Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) probe for the sensitive and selective detection of Hg2+ and Cu2+ ions was developed here. The Ag NCs were synthesized by using polymethacrylic acid sodium salt as a template via a convenient hydrothermal process. The as-prepared fluorescent Ag NCs were monodispersed, uniform and less than 2 nm in diameter, and can be quenched in the presence of mercury (Hg2+) or copper (Cu2+) ions. Excellent linear relationships existed between the quenching degree of the Ag NCs and the concentrations of Hg2+ or Cu2+ ions in the range of 10 nM to 20 μM or 10 nM to 30 μM, respectively. By using ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) as the masking agent of Cu2+, Hg2+ was exclusively detected in coexistence with Cu2+ with high sensitivity (LOD = 10 nM), which also provided a

  5. Probing Cosmology with Weak Lensing Peak Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Kratochvil, Jan M; May, Morgan

    2009-01-01

    We propose counting peaks in weak lensing (WL) maps, as a function of their height, to probe models of dark energy and to constrain cosmological parameters. Because peaks can be identified in two-dimensional WL maps directly, they can provide constraints that are free from potential selection effects and biases involved in identifying and determining the masses of galaxy clusters. We have run cosmological N-body simulations to produce WL convergence maps in three models with different constant values of the dark energy equation of state parameter, w=-0.8, -1, and -1.2, with a fixed normalization of the primordial power spectrum (corresponding to present-day normalizations of sigma8=0.742, 0.798, and 0.839, respectively). By comparing the number of WL peaks in 8 convergence bins in the range of -0.1 < kappa < 0.2, in multiple realizations of a single simulated 3x3 degree field, we show that the first (last) pair of models can be distinguished at the 95% (85%) confidence level. A survey with depth and are...

  6. Revisiting Twomey's approximation for peak supersaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Shipway

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Twomey's seminal 1959 paper provided lower and upper bound approximations to the estimation of peak supersaturation within an updraft and thus provides the first closed expression for the number of nucleated cloud droplets. The form of this approximation is simple, but provides a surprisingly good estimate and has subsequently been employed in more sophisticated treatments of nucleation parametrization. In the current paper, we revisit the lower bound approximation of Twomey and make a small adjustment that can be used to obtain a more accurate calculation of peak supersaturation under all potential aerosol loadings and thermodynamic conditions. In order to make full use of this improved approximation, the underlying integro-differential equation for supersaturation evolution and the condition for calculating peak supersaturation are examined. A simple rearrangement of the algebra allows for an expression to be written down that can then be solved with a single lookup table with only one independent variable for an underlying lognormal aerosol population. While multimodal aerosol with N different dispersion characteristics requires 2N+1 inputs to calculate the activation fraction, only N of these one-dimensional lookup tables are needed. No additional information is required in the lookup table to deal with additional chemical, physical or thermodynamic properties. The resulting implementation provides a relatively simple, yet computationally cheap, physically based parametrization of droplet nucleation for use in climate and Numerical Weather Prediction models.

  7. Uncertainty in peak cooling load calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez-Munoz, Fernando; Cejudo-Lopez, Jose M.; Carrillo-Andres, Antonio [Grupo de Energetica, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Malaga, Calle Dr. Ortiz Ramos, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Peak cooling loads are usually calculated at early stages of the building project, when large uncertainties affect the input data. Uncertainties arise from a variety of sources like the lack of information, random components and the approximate nature of the building mathematical model. Unfortunately, these uncertainties are normally large enough to make the result of the calculation very dependent on starting assumptions about the value of input data. HVAC engineers deal with uncertainties through worst-case scenarios and/or safety factors. In this paper, a new approach is proposed based on stochastic simulation methods. Uncertainty bands are applied to the input data and propagated through the building model in order to determine their impact on the peak cooling load. The result of this calculation is a probability distribution that quantifies the whole range of possible peak loads and the probability of each interval. The stochastic solution is compared with the conventional one, and a global sensitivity analysis is undertaken to identify the most important uncertainties. (author)

  8. Revisiting Twomey's approximation for peak supersaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Shipway

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Twomey's seminal 1959 paper provided lower and upper bound approximations to the estimation of peak supersaturation within an updraft and thus provides the first closed expression for the number of nucleated cloud droplets. The form of this approximation is simple, but provides a surprisingly good estimate and has subsequently been employed in more sophisticated treatments of nucleation parametrization. In the current paper, we revisit the lower bound approximation of Twomey and make a small adjustment which can be used to obtain a more accurate calculation of peak supersaturation under all potential aerosol loadings and thermodynamic conditions. In order to make full use of this improved approximation, the underlying integro-differential equation for supersaturation evolution and the condition for calculating peak supersaturation are examined. A simple rearrangement of the algebra allows for an expression to be written down which can then be solved with a single lookup table with only one independent variable for an underlying lognormal aerosol population. Multimode aerosol with only N different dispersion characteristics require only N of these one-dimensional lookup tables. No additional information is required in the lookup table to deal with additional chemical, physical or thermodynamic properties. The resulting implementation provides a relatively simple, yet computationally cheap and very accurate physically-based parametrization of droplet nucleation for use in climate and NWP models.

  9. [Fast spectral modeling based on Voigt peaks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-rong; Dai, Lian-kui

    2012-03-01

    Indirect hard modeling (IHM) is a recently introduced method for quantitative spectral analysis, which was applied to the analysis of nonlinear relation between mixture spectrum and component concentration. In addition, IHM is an effectual technology for the analysis of components of mixture with molecular interactions and strongly overlapping bands. Before the establishment of regression model, IHM needs to model the measured spectrum as a sum of Voigt peaks. The precision of the spectral model has immediate impact on the accuracy of the regression model. A spectrum often includes dozens or even hundreds of Voigt peaks, which mean that spectral modeling is a optimization problem with high dimensionality in fact. So, large operation overhead is needed and the solution would not be numerically unique due to the ill-condition of the optimization problem. An improved spectral modeling method is presented in the present paper, which reduces the dimensionality of optimization problem by determining the overlapped peaks in spectrum. Experimental results show that the spectral modeling based on the new method is more accurate and needs much shorter running time than conventional method. PMID:22582612

  10. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Vives, O. [Universitat de Valencia, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot (Spain); Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain); Mitsou, V.A.; Romero, E. [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, E{sub T}{sup miss} > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m{sub g} or similar 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out. (orig.)

  11. An alternative interpretation for cosmic ray peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Doojin

    2015-01-01

    We propose an alternative mechanism based upon dark matter (DM) interpretation for anomalous peak signatures in cosmic ray measurements, assuming an extended dark sector with two DM species. This is contrasted with previous effort to explain various line-like cosmic-ray excesses in the context of DM models where the relevant DM candidate directly annihilates into Standard Model (SM) particles. The heavier DM is assumed to annihilate to an on-shell intermediate state. As the simplest choice, it decays directly into the lighter DM along with an unstable particle which in turn decays to a pair of SM states corresponding to the interesting cosmic anomaly. We show that a sharp continuum energy peak can be readily generated under the proposed DM scenario, depending on dark sector particle mass spectra. Remarkably, such a peak is robustly identified as half the mass of the unstable particle. Furthermore, other underlying mass parameters are analytically related to the shape of energy spectrum. We apply this idea to ...

  12. Ten Reasons to Take Peak Oil Seriously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Brecha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Forty years ago, the results of modeling, as presented in The Limits to Growth, reinvigorated a discussion about exponentially growing consumption of natural resources, ranging from metals to fossil fuels to atmospheric capacity, and how such consumption could not continue far into the future. Fifteen years earlier, M. King Hubbert had made the projection that petroleum production in the continental United States would likely reach a maximum around 1970, followed by a world production maximum a few decades later. The debate about “peak oil”, as it has come to be called, is accompanied by some of the same vociferous denials, myths and ideological polemicizing that have surrounded later representations of The Limits to Growth. In this review, we present several lines of evidence as to why arguments for a near-term peak in world conventional oil production should be taken seriously—both in the sense that there is strong evidence for peak oil and in the sense that being societally unprepared for declining oil production will have serious consequences.

  13. Determination of Surface excitation correction in elastic peak electron spectroscopy for selected conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesiak, B. [Institute of Physical Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa, Kasprzaka 44/52 (Poland)]. E-mail: blo@ichf.edu.pl; Gergely, G. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Toth, J. [Nuclear Research Institute ATOMKI, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Menyhard, M. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Varga, D. [Nuclear Research Institute ATOMKI, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Gurban, S. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Sulyok, A. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Kosinski, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa, Kasprzaka 44/52 (Poland)

    2006-12-15

    Inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) determined by elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) have been frequently evaluated neglecting surface excitations that affect the elastic peak intensity for a sample and a reference material. Surface excitation correction is defined by Surface excitation parameter, P {sub s}, denoted by SEP. SEPs for eight selected conducting polymers (polythiophenes, polyaniline and polyethylene) undoped and doped with Pd were determined by EPES using Ag, Ni and Si reference materials for electron energies between 0.2 and 2.0 keV. The mean percentage deviations between IMFPs uncorrected for surface excitations and those calculated with the predictive formulae of Gries and Tanuma et al. were 4.32 and 27.32%, respectively. Relevant deviations for IMFPs corrected for surface excitations were 2.97 and 22.90%, respectively.

  14. Optimizing the event rate in a ν/sub μ/ disappearance oscillation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrino oscillation experiments at medium energy have been considered, e.g., BNL E704 and P764 using the AGS at 800 MeV, and many proposals at LAMPF. One reason for this is that since existing neutrino detectors are at a fixed L, one should go to lower neutrino energies to gain increased geometric sensitivity to delta m2. Another reason for doing oscillations at lower energy is that the available proton current can be very high, e.g., LAMPF produces 1 mA at 800 MeV

  15. Synthesis of highly efficient antibacterial agent Ag doped ZnO nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed, E-mail: javed.saggu@iiu.edu.pk [Laboratory of Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Physics, International Islamic University Islamabad (Pakistan); Ismail, Muhammad [Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), Islamabad (Pakistan); Mahmood, Arshad [Nano Devices Labs, National Institute of Lasers and Optronics, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-04-21

    Here, synthesis, structural, morphological, Raman, optical properties and antibacterial activity of undoped and Ag doped ZnO nanorods by chemical co-precipitation technique have been reported. Structural analysis has revealed that Ag doping cannot deteriorate the structure of ZnO and wurtzite phase is maintained. Lattice constants are found to be decreased with the Ag doping. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy also confirm the X-ray diffraction results. Scanning electron microscopy results have demonstrated the formation of ZnO nanorods with average diameter and length of 96 nm and 700 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the Ag doping enhances the number of defects in ZnO crystal. It has been found from optical study that Ag doping results in positional shift of band edge absorption peak. This is attributed to the successful incorporation of Ag dopant into ZnO host matrix. The antibacterial activity of prepared nanorods has been determined by two different methods and compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. Ag doped ZnO nanorods exhibit excellent antibacterial activity as compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. This excellent antibacterial activity may be attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies and Zn{sup 2+} interstitial defects. Our preliminary findings suggest that Ag doped ZnO nanorods can be used externally to control the spreading of infections related with tested bacterial strains.

  16. Search for Sterile Neutrinos in the Muon Neutrino Disappearance Mode at FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Anokhina, A; Benettoni, M; Bernardini, P; Brugnera, R; Calabrese, M; Cecchetti, A; Cecchini, S; Chernyavskiy, M; Corso, F Dal; Dalkarov, O; Del Prete, A; De Robertis, G; De Serio, M; Di Ferdinando, D; Dusini, S; Dzhatdoev, T; Fini, R A; Fiore, G; Garfagnini, A; Guerzoni, M; Klicek, B; Kose, U; Jakovcic, K; Laurenti, G; Lippi, I; Loddo, F; Longhin, A; Malenica, M; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marsell, G; Mauri, N; Medinaceli, E; Mingazheva, R; Morgunova, O; Muciaccia, M T; Nessi, M; Orecchini, D; Paoloni, A; Papadia, G; Paparella, L; Pasqualini, L; Pastore, A; Patrizii, L; Polukhina, N; Pozzato, M; Roda, M; Roganova, T; Rosa, G; Sahnoun, Z; Shchedrina, T; Simone, S; Sirignano, C; Sirri, G; Spurio, M; Stanco, L; Starkov, N; Stipcevic, M; Surdo, A; Tenti, M; Togo, V; Vladymyrov, M

    2015-01-01

    The NESSiE Collaboration has been setup to undertake a conclusive experiment to clarify the {\\em muon--neutrino disappearance} measurements at short baselines in order to put severe constraints to models with more than the three--standard neutrinos, or even to robustly establish the presence of a new kind of neutrino oscillation for the first time. To this aim the use of the current FNAL--Booster neutrino beam for a Short--Baseline experiment was carefully evaluated by considering the use of magnetic spectrometers at two sites, near and far ones. The detector locations were extensively studied, together with the achievable performances of two OPERA--like spectrometers. The study was constrained by the availability of existing hardware and a time--schedule compatible with the undergoing project of multi--site Liquid--Argon detectors at FNAL. \

  17. The disappearance of the sick-man from medical cosmology, 1770-1870.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewson, N D

    2009-06-01

    The sick-man may be said to have disappeared from medical cosmology in two related senses during the period 1770-1870. Firstly, as control over the means of production of medical knowledge shifted away from the sick towards medical investigators the universe of discourse of medical theory changed from that of an integrated conception of the whole person to that of a network of bonds between microscopical particles. Secondly, as control over the occupational group of medical investigators was centralized in the hands of its senior members the plethora of theories and therapies, which had previously afforded the sick-man the opportunity to negotiate his own treatment, were replaced by a monolithic consensus of opinion imposed from within the community of medical investigators. PMID:19433521

  18. An Appraisal of Muon Neutrino Disappearance at Short Baseline Neutrino Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Stanco, Luca; Longhin, Andrea; Bertolin, Alessandro; Laveder, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino physics is nowadays receiving more and more attention as a possible source of information for the long standing problem of new Physics beyond the Standard Model. The recent measurements of the third mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ in the standard mixing oscillation scenario encourage to pursue the still missing results on the leptonic CP violation and the absolute neutrino masses. However, several puzzling and incomplete measurements are in place which deserve an exhaustive evaluation and study. We will report about the present situation of the muon disappearance measurements at small $L/E$ in the context of the current CERN project to revitalize the neutrino field in Europe and the search for sterile neutrinos. We will then illustrate the achievements that a double muon spectrometer can attain in terms of discovery of new neutrino states, performing a newly developed analysis.

  19. First measurement of muon-neutrino disappearance in NOvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P.; Ader, C.; Andrews, M.; Anfimov, N.; Anghel, I.; Arms, K.; Arrieta-Diaz, E.; Aurisano, A.; Ayres, D. S.; Backhouse, C.; Baird, M.; Bambah, B. A.; Bays, K.; Bernstein, R.; Betancourt, M.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bian, J.; Biery, K.; Blackburn, T.; Bocean, V.; Bogert, D.; Bolshakova, A.; Bowden, M.; Bower, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bromberg, C.; Brunetti, G.; Bu, X.; Butkevich, A.; Capista, D.; Catano-Mur, E.; Chase, T. R.; Childress, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Chowdhury, B.; Coan, T. E.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Colo, M.; Cooper, J.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Cunningham, A.; Davies, G. S.; Davies, J. P.; Del Tutto, M.; Derwent, P. F.; Deepthi, K. N.; Demuth, D.; Desai, S.; Deuerling, G.; Devan, A.; Dey, J.; Dharmapalan, R.; Ding, P.; Dixon, S.; Djurcic, Z.; Dukes, E. C.; Duyang, H.; Ehrlich, R.; Feldman, G. J.; Felt, N.; Fenyves, E. J.; Flumerfelt, E.; Foulkes, S.; Frank, M. J.; Freeman, W.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Gebhard, M.; Ghosh, T.; Gilbert, W.; Giri, A.; Goadhouse, S.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodenough, L.; Goodman, M. C.; Grichine, V.; Grossman, N.; Group, R.; Grudzinski, J.; Guarino, V.; Guo, B.; Habig, A.; Handler, T.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Heller, K.; Howcroft, C.; Huang, J.; Huang, X.; Hylen, J.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jediny, F.; Jensen, C.; Jensen, D.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kafka, G. K.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Kasetti, S.; Kephart, K.; Koizumi, G.; Kotelnikov, S.; Kourbanis, I.; Krahn, Z.; Kravtsov, V.; Kreymer, A.; Kulenberg, Ch.; Kumar, A.; Kutnink, T.; Kwarciancy, R.; Kwong, J.; Lang, K.; Lee, A.; Lee, W. M.; Lee, K.; Lein, S.; Liu, J.; Lokajicek, M.; Lozier, J.; Lu, Q.; Lucas, P.; Luchuk, S.; Lukens, P.; Lukhanin, G.; Magill, S.; Maan, K.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Martens, M.; Martincik, J.; Mason, P.; Matera, K.; Mathis, M.; Matveev, V.; Mayer, N.; McCluskey, E.; Mehdiyev, R.; Merritt, H.; Messier, M. D.; Meyer, H.; Miao, T.; Michael, D.; Mikheyev, S. P.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Mohanta, R.; Moren, A.; Mualem, L.; Muether, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Newman, H. B.; Nelson, J. K.; Niner, E.; Norman, A.; Nowak, J.; Oksuzian, Y.; Olshevskiy, A.; Oliver, J.; Olson, T.; Paley, J.; Pandey, P.; Para, A.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Pearson, N.; Perevalov, D.; Pershey, D.; Peterson, E.; Petti, R.; Phan-Budd, S.; Piccoli, L.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poling, R.; Potukuchi, B.; Psihas, F.; Pushka, D.; Qiu, X.; Raddatz, N.; Radovic, A.; Rameika, R. A.; Ray, R.; Rebel, B.; Rechenmacher, R.; Reed, B.; Reilly, R.; Rocco, D.; Rodkin, D.; Ruddick, K.; Rusack, R.; Ryabov, V.; Sachdev, K.; Sahijpal, S.; Sahoo, H.; Samoylov, O.; Sanchez, M. C.; Saoulidou, N.; Schlabach, P.; Schneps, J.; Schroeter, R.; Sepulveda-Quiroz, J.; Shanahan, P.; Sherwood, B.; Sheshukov, A.; Singh, J.; Singh, V.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Smolik, J.; Solomey, N.; Sotnikov, A.; Sousa, A.; Soustruznik, K.; Stenkin, Y.; Strait, M.; Suter, L.; Talaga, R. L.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tariq, S.; Tas, P.; Tesarek, R. J.; Thayyullathil, R. B.; Thomsen, K.; Tian, X.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Trevor, J.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Valerio, L.; Vinton, L.; Vrba, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Wang, B.; Wang, Z.; Weber, A.; Wehmann, A.; Whittington, D.; Wilcer, N.; Wildberger, R.; Wildman, D.; Williams, K.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Wood, K.; Xiao, M.; Xin, T.; Yadav, N.; Yang, S.; Zadorozhnyy, S.; Zalesak, J.; Zamorano, B.; Zhao, A.; Zirnstein, J.; Zwaska, R.; NOvA Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the first measurement using the NOvA detectors of νμ disappearance in a νμ beam. The analysis uses a 14 kton-equivalent exposure of 2.74 ×1020 protons-on-target from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Assuming the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, we measure Δ m322=(2.52-0.18+0.20)×10-3 eV2 and sin2θ23 in the range 0.38-0.65, both at the 68% confidence level, with two statistically degenerate best-fit points at sin2θ23=0.43 and 0.60. Results for the inverted mass hierarchy are also presented.

  20. Disappearance of enhancement of brain tumor in contrast CT scan after excessively high dosage of dexamethasone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of steroid administration was studied as suggested by CT findings in 5 cases of brain tumor. In the CT image 72 hours after administration of dexamethasone 96 mg/d, contrast enhancement (CE) disappeared nearly completely in 3 cases of malignant glioma, and the indentification of tumor image on CT became difficult. Two cases of pinealoblastoma and low grade astrocytoma, respectively, showed only a little decrease of CE. From the CT images of 201 cases, the correlation between peritumoral edema and CE was that both were strong in glioblastoma, the former stronger in metastatic brain tumor, the latter stronger in meningioma, and both weak in low grade glioma and medulloblastoma. Steroid administration is indicated in tumors supposed to have little vascular pooling and strong extravascular accumulation of a contrast medium from the mechanism of CE in CT, and marked suppression of permeability with excessively high dosage seems to be noted as the change of CT findings. (J.P.N.)

  1. Observation of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and the NuMI neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, D G; Alexopoulos, T; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arms, K E; Armstrong, R; Arroyo, C; Auty, D J; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Bungau, C; Byon-Wagner, A; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Cherdack, D; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; De Jong, J K; De Muth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Drakoulakos, D; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Fackler, O D; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Giurgiu, G A; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Gran, R; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Holin, A; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M A; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; Ishitsuka, M; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Kim, M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Kotelnikov, S K; Krakauer, D A; Kreymer, A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Ling, J; Liu, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; Mayer, N; McDonald, J; McGowan, A M; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mislivec, A; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, C D; Morf, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F A; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovich, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pittam, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reichenbacher, J; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, A V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Tinti, G; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G S; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Weber, A; Webb, R C; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R

    2006-01-01

    This letter reports results from the MINOS experiment based on its initial exposure to neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. The rate and energy spectra of charged current muon neutrino interactions are compared in two detectors located along the beam axis at distances of 1 km and 735 km. With 1.27 x 10^{20} 120 GeV protons incident on the NuMI target, 215 events with energies below 30 GeV are observed at the Far Detector, compared to an expectation of 336 \\pm 14.4 events. The data are consistent with muon neutrino disappearance via oscillation with |\\Delta m^2_{23}| = 2.74^{+0.44}_{-0.26} x 10^{-3} eV^2/c^4 and sin^2(2\\theta_{23}) > 0.87 (at 60% C.L.).

  2. Disappearance of Acropora from the Marquesas (French Polynesia) during the last deglacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabioch, G.; Wallace, C. C.; McCulloch, M. T.; Zibrowius, H.; Laboute, P.; de Forges, B. Richer

    2011-12-01

    The major reef-building coral genus Acropora has never been recorded, living or fossil, from the Marquesas Islands in the central Pacific Ocean, which are characterized by limited modern reef formations. During the "Musorstom 9" cruise in 1997, investigations of marine platforms representing drowned reef systems revealed for the first time the presence of two Acropora species as fossils at seven Marquesas islands. The predominant species was Acropora valida, which was widespread in the archipelago and dated between 7.4 and 48.6 ka, providing evidence of an earlier Pacific distribution pattern broader than previously observed. It is proposed that disappearance of Acropora after 7.4 ka was linked to climatic events probably ENSO events controlling the distribution of corals and coral reefs in the eastern Pacific without excluding alternatively the effects of an increase in sea-level rise.

  3. The Pill and Men’s Disappearance from the Teaching Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis

    In this paper I look at the relationship between increased access to reliable fertility controls and men’s disappearance from teaching. As the pill has been found to have a substantial effect on women’s family responsibilities, career investments and labor market outcomes, men’s bargaining position...... in the marriage market is likely to have changed considerably. Teaching stands out among the career choices of male college freshmen in terms of average income and prestige. The effect of the shift in bargaining power on men’s career choices is hence likely to be prominent in the teaching sector...... to the birth control pill bears a negative relation to the likelihood that men plan to teach, while changes in the strength of teacher unions and relative wages of teachers have limited effect on their career plans. Men’s aspirations shift away from teaching towards occupations that are associated...

  4. Observation of Disappearance of Muon Neutrinos in the NuMI Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, Zarko; /Texas U.

    2008-05-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a two detector long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to study the disappearance of muon neutrinos. MINOS will test the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation hypothesis and measure precisely {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} oscillation parameters. The source of neutrinos for MINOS experiment is Fermilab's Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline. The energy spectrum and the composition of the beam is measured at two locations, one close to the source and the other 735 km down-stream in the Soudan Mine Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The precision measurement of the oscillation parameters requires an accurate prediction of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector. This thesis discusses the calculation of the neutrino flux at the Far Detector and its uncertainties. A technique that uses the Near Detector data to constrain the uncertainties in the calculation of the flux is described. The data corresponding to an exposure of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} protons on the NuMI target is presented and an energy dependent disappearance pattern predicted by neutrino oscillation hypotheses is observed in the Far Detector data. The fit to MINOS data, for given exposure, yields the best fit values for {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 23} to be (2.38{sub -0.16}{sup +0.20}) x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} and 1.00{sub -0.08}, respectively.

  5. Disappearance of the glacier on Mama Cotacachi: ethnoecological research and climate change in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoades, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A first documented case study of a disappearing glacier in the snow capped volcano Cotacahi in Ecuador is presented with the studies belonging to the social sciences in relation to climate change and its impact on the population of the Equatorial Andes. With the use of multiple source methodology, including ethnographic analyzes, visual representations, repetitive photography, critical mapping by the local communities, longitudinal surveys, even archival research, as well as interviews to social actors and utilization of spatial data in a geographical information system (GIS. It is concluded that the documented disappearance of the glacier on the Cotacahi serves as an urgent call for action to the important dearth of social research related to global change from the ethnoecological perspective, with a cultural, local approach.

    Se presenta el primer estudio documentado de la desaparición del glaciar del nevado Cotacachi en el Ecuador, con los estudios que corresponden a las ciencias sociales en relación con el cambio climático y su impacto en la población de los Andes ecuatoriales. Mediante el uso de una metodología que incluye análisis etnográficos, representaciones visuales, fotografía repetitiva, mapeo crítico por parte de las comunidades locales, encuestas longitudinales e incluso investigación de archivos, así como también entrevistas a actores sociales, y utilización de los datos espaciales en un sistema de información geográfica (SIG. Se concluye que la desaparición documentada del glaciar del Cotacachi sirve como una llamada de atención urgente a la importante falta de investigaciones sociales relacionadas con el cambio global desde el punto de vista etnoecológico, con un enfoque cultural local.

  6. Core-size-dependent catalytic properties of bimetallic Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Krishna Kanta; Kundu, Simanta; Patra, Amitava

    2014-12-24

    Bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles have recently emerged as a new class of functional materials because of their potential applications in catalysis, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate and photonics etc. Here, we have synthesized Au/Ag bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles with varying the core diameter. The red-shifting of the both plasmonic peaks of Ag and Au confirms the core-shell structure of the nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, line scan EDS measurement and UV-vis study confirm the formation of core-shell nanoparticles. We have examined the catalytic activity of these core-shell nanostructures in the reaction between 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and NaBH4 to form 4-aminophenol (4-AP) and the efficiency of the catalytic reaction is found to be increased with increasing the core size of Au/Ag core-shell nanocrystals. The catalytic efficiency varies from 41.8 to 96.5% with varying core size from 10 to 100 nm of Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles, and the Au100/Ag bimetallic core-shell nanoparticle is found to be 12-fold more active than that of the pure Au nanoparticles with 100 nm diameter. Thus, the catalytic properties of the metal nanoparticles are significantly enhanced because of the Au/Ag core-shell structure, and the rate is dependent on the size of the core of the nanoparticles. PMID:25456348

  7. Biosynthesis and stabilization of Au and Au–Ag alloy nanoparticles by fungus, Fusarium semitectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Dasaratrao Sawle, Basavaraja Salimath, Raghunandan Deshpande, Mahesh Dhondojirao Bedre, Belawadi Krishnamurthy Prabhakar and Abbaraju Venkataraman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystallized and spherical-shaped Au and Au–Ag alloy nanoparticles have been synthesized and stabilized using a fungus, F . semitectum in an aqueous system. Aqueous solutions of chloroaurate ions for Au and chloroaurate and Ag+ ions (1 : 1 ratio for Au–Ag alloy were treated with an extracellular filtrate of F . semitectum biomass for the formation of Au nanoparticles (AuNP and Au–Ag alloy nanoparticles (Au–AgNP. Analysis of the feasibility of the biosynthesized nanoparticles and core–shell alloy nanoparticles from fungal strains is particularly significant. The resultant colloidal suspensions are highly stable for many weeks. The obtained Au and Au–Ag alloy nanoparticles were characterized by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR peaks using a UV-vis spectrophotometer, and the structure, morphology and size were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, x-ray diffraction (XRD, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Possible optoelectronics and medical applications of these nanoparticles are envisaged.

  8. Effects of Ag nanoshape and AgGa phase in Ag-Si nanostructure using 2-step etching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → In order to connect biotechnology and semiconductor fabrication, the two step DWE (dry-wet etching, DWE) of Si nanohollow structure needs a development. Because the DWE is a new material process, its mechanism has still not been examined, and in particular the redox reaction and the effect of sidewalls. The present nanostructures and results have been obtained by an advanced method, and 15-30 nm Ag nano-particles were able to enhance the DWE mechanism in the Ag/Si nanostructures. - Abstract: The etching scale was controled by the layball process and a focus ion beam (FIB) was used to investige the dry-wet etching (DWE) mechanism. Increasing the beam current of dry-etching raised the height of nano prominent structures, but deteriorated the interface of Ag/Si film, and even damaged the Ag film because of Ga+ bombardment. Regardless of the Ag nanoshape deposition, the residual Ag films were doped with Ga+ and were sensitive to DWE. After wet-etching, the nano hollow formed and the Ag films sunk. However, AgGa sidewall films formed by the concentration gradient and the oxidative potential and this increased the volume of microporous phases, resulting in a reduction in the depth. Also, 15-30 nm Ag nano-particles were able to enhance the DWE mechanism in the Ag/Si nanostructures.

  9. Accounting for peak shifting in traditional cost-benefit analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Snarr, Hal W.; Axelsen, Dan

    2007-01-01

    When cost-benefit analysis fails to account for peak-shifting the benefits of road improvement options are miscalculated. Using theory from transportation economics, we derive a simple model that disaggregates the average daily equilibrium into peak, counter-peak, and off-peak equilibria. This paper demonstrates how accounting for peak-shifting improves the performance of cost-benefit analysis.

  10. Intrinsic up-regulation of 2-AG favors an area specific neuronal survival in different in vitro models of neuronal damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Kallendrusch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG acts as a retrograde messenger and modulates synaptic signaling e. g. in the hippocampus. 2-AG also exerts neuroprotective effects under pathological situations. To better understand the mechanism beyond physiological signaling we used Organotypic Entorhino-Hippocampal Slice Cultures (OHSC and investigated the temporal regulation of 2-AG in different cell subsets during excitotoxic lesion and dendritic lesion of long range projections in the enthorhinal cortex (EC, dentate gyrus (DG and the cornu ammonis region 1 (CA1. RESULTS: 2-AG levels were elevated 24 h after excitotoxic lesion in CA1 and DG (but not EC and 24 h after perforant pathway transection (PPT in the DG only. After PPT diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGL protein, the synthesizing enzyme of 2-AG was decreased when Dagl mRNA expression and 2-AG levels were enhanced. In contrast to DAGL, the 2-AG hydrolyzing enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL showed no alterations in total protein and mRNA expression after PPT in OHSC. MAGL immunoreaction underwent a redistribution after PPT and excitotoxic lesion since MAGL IR disappeared in astrocytes of lesioned OHSC. DAGL and MAGL immunoreactions were not detectable in microglia at all investigated time points. Thus, induction of the neuroprotective endocannabinoid 2-AG might be generally accomplished by down-regulation of MAGL in astrocytes after neuronal lesions. CONCLUSION: Increase in 2-AG levels during secondary neuronal damage reflects a general neuroprotective mechanism since it occurred independently in both different lesion models. This intrinsic up-regulation of 2-AG is synergistically controlled by DAGL and MAGL in neurons and astrocytes and thus represents a protective system for neurons that is involved in dendritic reorganisation.

  11. Crystal structure, electrical resistivity, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of BaAg2As2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ternary arsenide BaAg2As2 has been prepared by reaction of the elements at 850 °C. Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that it adopts the ThCr2Si2-type structure (Pearson symbol tI10, space group I4/mmm, Z=2, a=4.6025(3) Å, c=10.8672(6) Å at 295 K) featuring [Ag2As2] layers interconnected by homoatomic As–As bonds along the c-direction. Band structure calculations indicate no gap at the Fermi level, and support the occurrence of strong As–As and weak Ag–Ag bonding. The asymmetric lineshape and the absence of a BE shift in the Ag 3d5/2 core-line peak relative to the element suggest delocalization of the Ag valence electrons. A significant negative BE shift (1.0 eV) in the As 3d5/2 core-line peak relative to the element confirms the presence of anionic As atoms. A reversible transition is observed at 175 K in the electrical resistivity, and is probably related to a structural phase transition. - Graphical abstract: BaAg2As2 adopts a ThCr2Si2-type structure with As–As pairs and undergoes a transition at 175 K in its electrical resistivity. Highlights: ► BaAg2As2 fills the gap within the BaM2As2 series containing 4d metals. ► [Ag2As2] layers are linked by As–As pairs. ► XPS studies support the assignment of monovalent Ag and anionic As atoms. ► An anomaly is observed at 175 K in the electrical resistivity.

  12. Effects of soil and dietary exposures to Ag nanoparticles and AgNO3 in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of Ag-NPs and AgNO3 on the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus were determined upon soil and dietary exposures. Isopods avoided Ag in soil, with EC50 values of ∼16.0 and 14.0 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. Feeding inhibition tests in soil showed EC50s for effects on consumption ratio of 127 and 56.7 mg Ag/kg, respectively. Although similar EC50s for effects on biomass were observed for nanoparticulate and ionic Ag (114 and 120 mg Ag/kg dry soil, respectively), at higher concentrations greater biomass loss was found for AgNO3. Upon dietary exposure, AgNO3 was more toxic, with EC50 for effects on biomass change being >1500 and 233 mg Ag/kg for Ag-NPs and AgNO3, respectively. The difference in toxicity between Ag-NPs and AgNO3 could not be explained from Ag body concentrations. This suggests that the relation between toxicity and bioavailability of Ag-NPs differs from that of ionic Ag in soils. - Highlights: • Avoidance response of isopods exposed to Ag-NPs and AgNO3 via soil was similar. • Soil exposure to both Ag forms affected food consumption and isopod biomass. • Isopod feeding activity was also affected upon dietary exposure to both Ag forms. • Overall, AgNO3 was more toxic than Ag-NPs for both soil and dietary exposures. • Avoidance response was the most sensitive endpoint for both Ag forms. - Ag-NPs and AgNO3 equally affected isopod avoidance behavior, while AgNO3 generally caused greater toxicity in the feeding inhibition tests

  13. SIMULATIONS OF THE AGS MMPS STORING ENERGY IN CAPACITOR BANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps, +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. The generator is 3 phase 7500 Volts rated at 50 MVA. The peak power requirements come from the stored energy in the rotor of the motor/generator. The motor generator is about 45 years old, made by Siemens and it is not clear if companies will be manufacturing similar machines in the future. We are therefore investigating different ways of storing energy for future AGS MMPS operations. This paper will present simulations of a power supply where energy is stored in capacitor banks. Two dc to dc converters will be presented along with the control system of the power section. The switching elements will be IGCT's made by ABB. The simulation program used is called PSIM version 6.1. The average power from the local power authority into the power supply will be kept constant during the pulsing of the magnets at +/-50 MW. The reactive power will also be kept constant below 1.5 MVAR. Waveforms will be presented

  14. SIMULATIONS OF THE AGS MMPS STORING ENERGY IN CAPACITOR BANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARNERIS,I.; BADEA, V.S.; BONATI, R.; ROSER, T.; SANDBERG, J.

    2007-06-25

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps, +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. The generator is 3 phase 7500 Volts rated at 50 MVA. The peak power requirements come from the stored energy in the rotor of the motor/generator. The motor generator is about 45 years old, made by Siemens and it is not clear if companies will be manufacturing similar machines in the future. We are therefore investigating different ways of storing energy for future AGS MMPS operations. This paper will present simulations of a power supply where energy is stored in capacitor banks. Two dc to dc converters will be presented along with the control system of the power section. The switching elements will be IGCT's made by ABB. The simulation program used is called PSIM version 6.1. The average power from the local power authority into the power supply will be kept constant during the pulsing of the magnets at +/-50 MW. The reactive power will also be kept constant below 1.5 MVAR. Waveforms will be presented.

  15. Particle creation by peak electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Gitman, D M

    2016-01-01

    The particle creation by the so-called peak electric field is considered. The latter field is a combination of two exponential parts, one exponentially-increasing and another exponentially-decreasing. We find exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the field under consideration with appropriate asymptotic conditions and calculate all the characteristics of particle creation effect, in particular, differential mean numbers of created particle, total number of created particles, and the probability for a vacuum to remain a vacuum. Characteristic asymptotic regimes are discussed in detail and a comparison with the pure asymptotically decaying field is considered.

  16. Probable Values of Current Solar Cycle Peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Silbergleit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of multiple linear regression method applied to solar cycles 4 to 23 using lagged values of smoothed monthly mean sunspot numbers as independent variables is presented. According to that, the amplitude of current solar cycle 24 is estimated providing a quantitative prediction result. Our adjustment shows that the current cycle would have a sunspot peak less than the biggest one observed during the cycle 19 giving an additional support to the declination in solar activity which is currently happening.

  17. Peak oil, economic growth, and wildlife conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, J Edward; Czech, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The proposed book focuses on one of the most important issues affecting humankind in this century - Peak Oil or the declining availability of abundant, cheap energy-and its effects on our industrialized economy and wildlife conservation. Energy will be one of the defining issues of the 21st Century directly affecting wildlife conservation wherever energy extraction is a primary economic activity and indirectly through deepening economic recessions. Since cheap, abundant energy has been at the core of our industrial society, and has resulted in the technological advancements we enjoy today, the

  18. Surface characterization of Ag/Titania adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, Alexander; Nair, Sachin; Duin, Evert C.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2010-03-01

    The Ag/Titania adsorbent for selective removal of the desulfurization-refractive polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) from liquid hydrocarbon fuels was prepared, its total and the Ag specific surface area were determined and the surface reaction sites in the sorbent that may be active in the adsorptive selective desulfurization were characterized by several spectroscopic and surface science techniques. The sorbent contains Ag, Ti, O and spurious C on its surface, as by the XPS measurements. Silver is present as an oxide, as judged by the XPS Auger parameter (AP). The complementary electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy confirms that the majority of Ag is present in the diamagnetic Ag 1+ form, with the minor concentration (˜0.1% of total Ag) present as Ag 2+. The findings by XPS and ESR are confirmed by the XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy and thermodynamic considerations. The supported Ag is highly dispersed on the surface of the titania support, with the particle size of ˜30-60 Å depending on Ag content, with an Ag specific surface area of ˜7-14 m 2/g, vs. the total surface area of ˜114-58 m 2/g.

  19. Derivative polynomials and permutations by numbers of interior peaks and left peaks

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shi-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Derivative polynomials in two variables are defined by repeated differentiation of the tangent and secant functions. We establish the connections between the coefficients of these derivative polynomials and the numbers of interior and left peaks over the symmetric group. Properties of the generating functions for the numbers of interior and left peaks over the symmetric group, including recurrence relations, generating functions and real-rootedness, are studied.

  20. Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of Ag Modified Ti-Doped-Bi2O3 Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti doped Bi2O3 (TDB and Ag ion modified Ti doped Bi2O3 (Ag@TDB photocatalysts were prepared by framework replacement synthesis method with different Ag loadings (0.05, 0.3, 0.75, and 1.0 mol/L AgNO3. The structural properties of the prepared catalysts were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, BET surface area, and UV/Vis diffuse reflectance (DRS. The XRD spectra of the Ti doped Bi2O3 calcined at 650°C showed the diffraction peaks of a mixture of Bi12TiO20 and Bi4Ti3O12, with bits of mixed crystallite consisting of TiO2 and B2O3. A high blue shift in the range 650–550 nm was detected in the DRS band. This blue shift increased with the decreasing Ag content. The photocatalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated for the degradation of crystal violet (CV under UV light irradiation. The results indicated that the degradation rate of CV by using 1.0 mol/L AgNO3 doped bismuth titanate composite photocatalyst (1.0 Ag@TDB was 1.9 times higher than that by using the bare Ti doped Bi2O3 photocatalyst. The higher activity of Ag@TDB is due to the enhancement of electron-hole pair separation by the electron trapping of silver particles.

  1. Documented and potential extreme peak discharges and relation between potential extreme peak discharges and probable maximum flood peak discharges in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, W.H.; Slade, R.M., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation, conducted a study of extreme flood potential for Texas. Potential extreme peak discharges, derived from the relation between documented extreme peak discharges and their contributing drainage areas, can provide valuable information concerning the maximum expected peak discharge that could occur at a stream site. Documented extreme peak discharges and associated data were aggregated for 832 sites with and without streamflow-gaging stations in natural basins in Texas. A potential extreme peak discharge curve was developed for each of 11 hydrologic regions in Texas and for the State as a whole, based on documented extreme peak discharges and associated contributing drainage areas. The curve envelops, for a large range of drainage areas, the largest documented extreme peak discharges. Potential extreme peak discharges estimated from the curves were compared to probable maximum flood peak discharges estimated from various simulation models.

  2. Bi-SERS sensing and enhancement by Au-Ag bimetallic non-alloyed nanoparticles on amorphous and crystalline silicon substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Leong; Lee, Soo Kyung; Lee, Yong Tak

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated Au-Ag bimetallic non-alloy nanoparticles (BNNPs) on thin a-Si film and c-Si substrate for high SERS enhancement, low cost, high sensitivity and reproducible SERS substrate with bi-SERS sensing properties where two different SERS peak for Au NPs and Ag NPs are observed on single SERS substrate. The isolated Au-Ag bimetallic NPs, with uniform size and spacing distribution, are suitable for uniform high density hotspot SERS enhancement. The SERS enhancement factor of Au-Ag BNNPs is 2.9 times higher compared to Ag NPs on similar substrates due to the increase of the localized surface plasmon resonance effect. However there is a decrement of SERS peak intensity at specific wavenumbers when the surrounding refractive index increases due to out-phase hybridization of Au NPs. The distinct changes of the two different SERS peaks on single Au-Ag BNNPs SERS substrate due to Au and Ag NPs independently show possible application for bi-molecular sensing. PMID:25836846

  3. Peak Load Electricity Production with Cryogenic Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Zumbo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Natural Gas is often liquefied (LNG for its transport by ships over long distances. In order to prepare it for further transport by pipelines it has to be reduced again to a gaseous state, normally by heating it with sea water. A similar technology is envisaged for long-distance transport of Hydrogen as an energy carrier. The scope of this article is the thermodynamic investigation of two power plants for peak load energy production. These two power plants use as fuel the fluids obtained by the re-gasification of the cryogenic fluids. The first proposal is a Hydrogen-fired steam power plant, while the second considers the use of LNG in an oxy-combustion arrangement with subsequent CO2 separation, which is obtained by a three-stage intercooled compression train. The power cycle performance was verified in both cases by exergy analysis. Since the size of these power plants is relatively small (10 MWe, they can be easily built inside the area of LNG gasifiers, or inside the area of the plant producing liquid Hydrogen; the cryogenic fuel and oxidizer are thus considered available, and the purpose of the power plant is peak load energy production rather than obtaining high values of conversion efficiency.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings. 

  4. Peak heart rates at extreme altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    We have measured maximal heart rate during a graded maximal bicycle exercise test to exhaustion in five healthy climbers before and during an expedition to Mt. Everest. Maximal heart rates at sea level were 186 (177-204) beats/min(-1) at sea level and 170 (169-182) beats/min(-1) with acute hypoxia....... After 1, 4 and 6 weeks of acclimatization to 5400 m, maximal heart rates were 155 (135-182), 158 (144-182), and 155 (140-183) beats/min(-1), respectively. Heart rates of two of the climbers were measured during their attempt to reach the summit of Mt. Everest without the use of supplemental oxygen. The...... peak heart rates at 8,750 m for the two climbers were 142 and 144 beats/min(-1), which were similar to their maximal heart rates during exhaustive bicycle exercise at 5,400 m, the values being 144 and 148 beats/min(-1), respectively. The peak heart rates at 8,750 m are in agreement with other field...

  5. Outreach Plans for Storm Peak Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation 10,500 ft. SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. We plan to create a unique summer undergraduate education experiences for students of diversity at Storm Peak Laboratory. As stressed by the College Pathways to Science Education Standards [Siebert and McIntosh, 2001], to support changes in K-12 science education transformations must first be made at the college level, including inquiry-oriented opportunities to engage in meaningful research. These workshops will be designed to allow students to experience the excitement of science, increasing their likelihood of pursing careers within the fields of scientific education or research.

  6. Flower-like Ag/AgCl microcrystals: Synthesis and photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daupor, Hasan; Wongnawa, Sumpun, E-mail: sumpun.w@psu.ac.th

    2015-06-01

    Silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) composites with a novel flower-like morphology were prepared via a hot precipitation assisted by the vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) route. An aqueous solution of AlCl{sub 3} was mixed with the vinyl acetate monomer and acetic acid before adding a AgNO{sub 3} solution at a temperature of 100 °C. The octapod shaped flower-like Ag/AgCl particles (or “flower-like Ag/AgCl” hereinafter) has eight petals each of which was about 7–11 μm in length. The flower-like octapods were formed by preferential overgrowth along the <111> directions of the cubic seeds. Detailed studies of the growth process at different AlCl{sub 3} concentrations revealed that the concave cube developed into a Rubik's cube where eight corners grew further into the flower-like structures. The VAM and acetic acid concentration strongly affected the growth of the Ag/AgCl to the flower-like structure and their optimum concentrations were determined. The morphologies of these particles were carefully examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystal structures and orientation relationship were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The flower-like Ag/AgCl microcrystals were tested for their photocatalytic degradation of orange G dye (OG) catalyzed by visible light. From comparative test runs, the flower-like Ag/AgCl exhibited better photocatalytic activity than simple and commercial Ag/AgCl particles. - Highlights: • Interesting transformation of microcrystals Ag/AgCl from concave cube via Rubik's cube to flower-like shape. • The first to use VAM as morphology control reagent. • High photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

  7. Deteksi HBsAg dan HBeAg dalam Saliva Pengidap Virus Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riemawati A. Lesmana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV via blood or its product has been well established. However, body fluids like urine and saliva may also contain HBV. A complete HBV consists of HBsAg, HBeAg, HBcAg dan partikel DNA. Hepatitis B carrier is detected by the presence of serologic marker HBsAg while the ongoing viral replication or infectivity is diagnosed by the presence of HBeAg or DNA particle. Meanwhile dentists will often contact with the saliva of their patients in daily practice. This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the infectivity of the saliva of HBV carriers. During a 10 month period (August 1994 - May 1995 detection of HBsAg and HBeAg in blood and saliva were done in 97 HBV carriers using the ELISA method (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Of 97 HBV carriers both positive gor HBsAG in blood were found 56 (Group I and positive HBsAg and negativa HBeAg in the other 41 (Group II. Examination of the saliva of HBV carriers in Group I showed positive HBsAg as well as HBeAg in 48 (85,7%, only positive for HBsAg in 5 (10,7% and both negative for HBsAg and HBeAg in the other 2 (3,6% where as in Group II positive for both HBsAg and HBeAG in the remaining 10 (24,4%. In conclusion, the majority of highly infectious hepatitis B carriers do also have infectious saliva which could be an important source of infection and transmission of the virus in the field of dentistry.

  8. Capacitive deionization of seawater effected by nano Ag and Ag@C on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, P-F; Su, C-J; Chang, W-T; Chang, F-C; Peng, C-Y; Sun, I-W; Wei, Y-L; Jou, C-J; Wang, H Paul

    2014-08-30

    Drinking water shortage has become worse in recent decades. A new capacitive deionization (CDI) method for increasing water supplies through the effective desalination of seawater has been developed. Silver as nano Ag and Ag@C which was prepared by carbonization of the Ag(+)-β-cyclodextrin complex at 573 K for 30 min can add the antimicrobial function into the CDI process. The Ag@C and Ag nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (Ag@C/rGO and nano Ag/rGO) were used as the CDI electrodes. The nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can reduce the charging resistant, and enhance the electrosorption capability. Better CDI efficiencies with the nano Ag/rGO and Ag@C/rGO electrodes can therefore be obtained. When reversed the voltage, the electrodes can be recovered up to 90% within 5 min. This work presents the feasibility for the nano Ag and Ag@C on rGO electrodes applied in CDI process to produce drinking water from seawater or saline water. PMID:24928455

  9. Occupied and unoccupied band structure of Ag(100) determined by photoemission from Ag quantum wells and bulk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectra taken from atomically uniform films of Ag on Fe(100) show layer-resolved quantum-well peaks. The measured peak positions as a function of film thickness permit a unique determination of the initial band dispersion via the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule. This information, combined with normal-emission data taken from a single crystal Ag(100), leads to a unique determination of the final band dispersion. In this study, we employ a two-band model with four adjustable parameters for a simultaneous fit to these experimental results. The initial and final band dispersions deduced from the fit are accurate to better than 0.03 eV at any wave vector k within the range of measurement. The analytic formula for the band dispersions and the parameters for the best fit are given for future reference. The Fermi wave vector along [100], normalized to the Brillouin-zone size, is determined to be kF/kΓX=0.828±0.001, which is more accurate than the de Haas-van Alphen result. The corresponding Fermi velocity is νF=1.06 in units of the free-electron value. The combined reflection phase for the electron wave at the two boundaries is also deduced and compared with a semiempirical formula. This comparison allows us to deduce the edges of the hybridization gap in the Fe substrate. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  10. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (AuNRsd) is made by focused ion beam. •AuNRsd coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs/AuNRsd) is competent to sense target molecules in a solution. •Ag NPs/AuNRsd SERS active substrate can detect a single molecule of crystal violet. •Ag NPs/AuNRsd as a SERS-active substrate can distinguish melamine contaminants at low concentrations (e.g., 10−12 M). -- Abstract: A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (AuNRsd) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. AuNRsd was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on AuNRsd and Ag NPs/AuNRsd was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on AuNRsd was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈107 in magnitude, which increased ≈1012 in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/AuNRsd. A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/AuNRsd was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10−3 to 10−12 M) in water or milk solution upon AuNRsd or Ag NPs/AuNRsd were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm−1 for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm−1 was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., AuNRsd) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/AuNRsd) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/AuNRsd and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and competent to sense low-concentration MEL molecules interacting with Ag and Au surfaces. Accordingly, Ag NPs/AuNRsd is very promising to be used as a fast and sensitive tool for screening MEL in complex matrices such as adulteration in e.g., food

  11. Coexistent compressive and tensile strain in Ag thin films on Si(1 1 1)-(7×7) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, D. K.; Bhattacharjee, K.; Satpati, B.; Roy, S.; Kuri, G.; Satyam, P. V.; Dev, B. N.

    2007-09-01

    Growth and strain behavior of thin Ag films on Si substrates have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction studies. Ag islands formed on Si at room temperature growth show strongly preferred heights and flat top. At low coverage [ ≳1 monolayer (ML)], Ag islands with (1 1 1) orientation containing two atomic layers of Ag are overwhelmingly formed [D.K. Goswami, K. Bhattacharjee, B. Satpati, S. Roy, P.V. Satyam, B.N. Dev, Surf. Sci. 601 (2007) 603]. A thicker (40 ML) annealed film shows two closely spaced Ag(1 1 1) diffraction peaks—one weak and broad and the other narrow and more intense. The broad peak corresponds to an average expansion (0.21%) and the narrow intense peak corresponds to a contraction (0.17%) of the Ag(1 1 1) planar spacing compared to the bulk value. This coexistence of compressive and tensile strain can be explained in terms of changes in the Ag lattice during the heating-cooling cycle due to thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between Ag and Si.

  12. AG, TL, and IRSL dosimetric properties in X-ray irradiated HPHT diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Tolano, M.I. [Programa de Posgrado, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A. P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190, Mexico (Mexico); Melendrez, R.; Lancheros-Olmos, J.C.; Soto-Puebla, D.; Chernov, V.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Barboza-Flores, M. [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A. P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190, Mexico (Mexico); Castaneda, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales S/N, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000, Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    HPHT diamonds have been studied for several years for their potential in different applications. In previous studies it has been found that the thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of ''as-grown'' HPHT diamonds are non-reproducible. In this work, we study the afterglow (AG), thermoluminescent (TL), and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) response of commercial samples of synthetic HPHT type-Ib diamond crystals exposed to X-ray irradiation (0.75 mA, 35 kV) at a dose rate of 0.624 Gy/s, after a high gamma ({sup 60}Co) dose irradiation of 500 kGy followed by a thermal treatment at 1073 K for 1 h in nitrogen atmosphere. Deconvolution of the TL glow curves shows four peaks, located around 379, 509, 561, and 609 K. The crystals exhibit evident AG recorded for 300 s immediately after X-ray irradiation, due to the thermal emptying of the traps responsible for the low-temperature TL peaks (below 400 K). The stimulation of irradiated crystals with 870-nm light, creates pronounced OSL and destroys all TL peaks with the exception of the high-temperature peak at 609 K. The dose responses of the integrated AG, TL, and OSL are linear in the range of 0.6-5 Gy and saturated at higher doses. The reproducibility of AG, TL, and OSL measurements is about 5%. The fading in the first hour of storage in dark conditions at RT of TL signal of HPHT diamond is mainly associated to the emptying of the traps responsible for the 379-K TL peaks. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Ag nanoprisms with Ag₂S attachment.

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Shenglin

    2013-01-01

    Triangular Ag nanoprisms are a type of most-studied noble-metal nanostructures over the past decade owing to their special structural architecture and outstanding optical and catalytic properties for a wide range of applications. Nevertheless, in contrast to active research for the synthesis of phase-pure Ag nanoprisms, no asymmetric heterodimers containing Ag prisms have been developed so far, probably due to lack of suitable synthetic methods. Herein, we devise a simple ion-exchange method to synthesize Ag2S/Ag heterodimers at room temperature, through which Ag nanoprisms with controllable size and thickness can be fabricated. Formation chemistry and optical properties of the heterodimers have been investigated. These semiconductor/metal heterodimers have exhibited remarkable bactericidal activity to E. coli cells under visible light illumination.

  14. Effects of thermal annealing on the magnetic interactions in nanogranular Fe-Ag thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.; Fdez-Gubieda, M.L.; Svalov, A. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Campus de Leioa, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Meneghini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' , Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, 00146 Roma (Italy); Orue, I. [SGIker, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Campus de Leioa, 48940 Leioa (Spain)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sub x}Ag{sub 100-x} granular thin films with competing interactions (25 {<=} x{<=} 35). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Annealing up to 200 Degree-Sign C mainly modifies the interface of Fe nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Annealing reduces RKKY interactions in Fe{sub 25}Ag{sub 75}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Annealing favors exchange interactions and ferromagnetic order in Fe{sub 35}Ag{sub 65}. - Abstract: In this paper we have studied, by analysing the evolution of the magnetic behaviour during thermal treatment, the role of the interparticle magnetic interactions in Fe{sub x}Ag{sub 100-x} granular thin films prepared by sputtering deposition technique. Two compositions have been selected: x = 25 and 35, below and around the magnetic percolation of the system, respectively, according to our previous works. The structure of these thin films has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. To analyse the magnetic behaviour, DC magnetic measurements have been carried out after progressively annealing the samples at different temperatures (0 {<=} T{sub ann} {<=} 200 Degree-Sign C). These measurements have revealed that, upon thermal treatment, the frustrated state at low temperatures (T < 80 K) for the x = 25 sample tends to disappear, probably due to the weakening of RKKY interactions after the segregation of soluted Fe atoms in the Ag matrix. However, dipolar interactions are not affected by the annealing. On the contrary, at x = 35, around the magnetic percolation, the annealing gives rise to an increasingly ordered interface, thereby enhancing the transfer of the direct exchange interactions.

  15. Nutritive value, fermentation characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of sorghum silage treated with inoculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M E; Foster, J L; McCuistion, K C; Redmon, L A; Jessup, R W

    2013-01-01

    Fibrolytic enzymes and microbial inoculants have the potential to improve the value of sorghum feedstuff and feedstock. An experiment was conducted to determine nutritive value, ensiling characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of 4 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) silage varieties: Dairy Master BMR (DBMR; brown midrib; Richardson Seed, Vega, TX), PS 747 (PS; photoperiod sensitive; Pogue Seed, Kenedy, TX), Silo 700D (S700D; conventional forage type; Richardson Seed), and MMR 381/73 (MMR; conventional forage type; Richardson Seed) pretreated with fibrolytic enzyme (xylanase plus cellulase, XC; 50:50 mixture of Cellulase Plus and Xylanase Plus; Dyadic, Juniper, FL) or microbial [Promote ASB (Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum); Cargill Animal Nutrition, Indianapolis, IN; PRO] inoculants. The greatest yield was for cultivar PS and the least for MMR. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration was least for XC-treated silage, and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentration was least for XC- and PRO-treated silage. When silage was treated with XC, concentrations of NDF concentrations decreased, on average, 4.81% across all cultivars and ADF concentrations decreased, on average, 3.23% in all cultivars except MMR. Inoculant PRO reduced the NDF concentration of DBMR by 6.47%. The ADF concentrations of DBMR and PS treated with PRO were decreased by 3.25%. Treating sorghum silage with XC or PRO reduced the NDF and ADF fractions, which increased cell wall degradability. In vitro true digestibility was greatest for PRO-treated DBMR, whereas acid detergent lignin was least for PRO-treated DBMR. Aerobic stability was not improved by PRO; however, aerobic stability of XC-treated MMR was 63 h greater than that of the control. Acetate concentrations were greatest for XC-treated MMR, which explains the 63-h improvement in aerobic stability due to the inhibition of fungi. However, inoculant PRO did not improve yeast and mold counts or aerobic stability of sorghum

  16. The Case of the Disappearing Altar: Mysteries and Consequences of Revitalizing Chinese Muslims in Yunnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Caffrey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article takes the example of a disappeared altar in a Himalayan valley as revelatory of contradictions within the mechanics of a Hui Muslim revitalization project. The community example—a group of historically identifiable Muslims in China—centers on the disappearance of a gifted propitiation altar that once stood as an instantiation of community cohesion among ethnically varied populations in the valley. The investigation examines transformations of modernity and the erosion of the “social glue” that held valley communities together as the disappearance of this gift is revealed to be a telling instance of the large-scale productivities and corrosions effected by China’s contemporary renaissance of reemerging religious movements and community identifications, processes in which Chinese Muslims serve as a potential indicator for a long view of reform contemporary social transformation.

  17. Observation of a Ag protrusion on a Ag2S island using a scanning tunneling microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Takeo Ohno; Tsuyoshi Hasegawa

    2015-01-01

    A silver sulfide (Ag2S) island as an ionic conductor in resistive switching memories was formed and a protrusion of silver from the Ag2S formed by an electrochemical reaction was observed using a scanning tunneling microscope.

  18. Conductance of Ag atoms and clusters on Ag(111): Spectroscopic and time-resolved data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperl, A.; Kroeger, J.; Berndt, R. [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The evolution of the electronic structure of linear atomic Ag chains on Ag(111) has been explored atom by atom using low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy. Electronic states confined to the linear chains are well described within a particle-in-a-box model. The evolution of an unoccupied Ag monomer resonance during the synthesis of an Ag dimer reveals that the Ag-Ag interaction is predominantly direct owing to the large spatial extension of p wave functions of the adsorbed atoms. The hopping dynamics of a single Ag atom adsorbed on Ag(111) have been monitored by time-resolved two-level conductance fluctuations of the tunnel junctions. Effective temperatures of the junction and diffusion barrier heights in the presence of the tip were extracted from a voltage-dependent analysis of the fluctuation rate. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Reserves, resources and eve of bell-shaped curve peak of discovered reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the whole 20. century modern world was marked by accelerated development, and its progress was based, among other things, on sufficient and reliable energy supply. As fossil fuels have represented a large share in total energy sources with ever growing share of oil and natural gas consumption, in the 1990s serious concerns were raised about limited availability of these fuels. In line with the oil reserves life cycle theory presented by bell-shaped curve, M. King Hubbert predicted in 1956 that the U.S.A. would reach the peak of the curve in 1970 (which really happened). Other experts predicted that global oil reserves would reach their peak in the period 1990-2000, and now the new peaks are projected for 2006, 2009, 2013, 2020 and even 2030. Despite the fact that some predictions turned to be false, and despite our inclination to take a more optimistic view, we should face the fact that even the most optimistic 2030 is not far away. The term peak oil, denoting the period when the known reserves would reach their production peaks, has been increasingly present in the literature and in the media. It does not implicate that oil reserves will disappear in one of the predicted years. Intense oil production will continue, but total reserves will decline. According to predictions, natural gas reserves are not expected to reach their peak before the end of the 21st century. Methane hydrates reserves could protrude throughout the 22nd century. Nevertheless, the peak oil phenomenon has serious implications for the mankind and for oil companies. The changes that will affect oil companies will not be equal for super-majors or majors and medium-sized and small-sized oil companies. Different are the ways that the changes will affect the countries with strong economies and those with weaker ones. Modern economies rely on fuel consumption. Moving people and goods from one place to another is not only the matter of transport and leisure. Availability and accessibility of

  20. Investigation of superionic AgCuSe conductor by inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lattice dynamics of the ternary superionic compound AgCuSe was studied for both superionic α-phase and the non-superionic β-phase. Inelastic neutron scattering in polycrystalline β-AgCuSe indicates the presence of low-energy peaks in the dynamic structure factor at energy 3-4 meV. Most probably, these low-energy modes are caused by acoustic phonons. The main difference between the neutron weighted generalized function of phonon states density of the non-superionic and superionic silver-copper selenide consists in a smearing of the strongly pronounced maxima at 10 and 20 meV in α-AgCuSe

  1. Curve thermoluminescent analysis of ZrO2 doped with nanoparticles and Ag nano fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of the high temperature thermoluminescence response induced by UV radiation in pure zirconium (ZrO2) and doped with Ag nanoparticles and Ag nano fibers. The zirconium samples were obtained by the sol-gel method and irradiated with a UV lamp for different times. The results showed that the presence of the dopants change the characteristics of the traps associated with the high temperature peak which is located at 230 C for pure zirconium, and that the greater influence is due the presence of Ag nano fibers, inducing a shift to lower temperatures. It also presents the thermoluminescence response as a function of irradiation time. (Author)

  2. Optical absorption properties of Ag/SiO sub 2 composite films induced by gamma irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, A L; Yang, Z P; Liu, F X; Ding, Z J; Qian, Y T

    2003-01-01

    Mesoporous SiO sub 2 composite films with small Ag particles or clusters dispersed in them were prepared by a new method: first the matrix SiO sub 2 films were prepared by the sol-gel process combined with the dip-coating technique; then they were soaked in AgNO sub 3 solutions; this was followed by irradiation with gamma-rays at room temperature and ambient pressure. The structure of these films was examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and their optical absorption spectra were examined. It has been shown that the Ag particles grown within the porous SiO sub 2 films are very small and are highly dispersed. On increasing the soaking concentration and subjecting the samples to an additional annealing, a different peak-shift effect for the surface plasmon resonance was observed in the optical absorption measurement. Possible mechanisms of this behaviour are discussed in this paper.

  3. BUFFALO PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, D.C.; Wood, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Colorado. On the basis of this study there is a probable mineral-resource potential for silver vein and bedding replacement deposits along the Weston Pass fault zone, for hydrothermal vein-type uranium deposits in the vicinity of the Parkdale iron pit, and for gold vein deposits in the parts of the Granite and Four Mile districts that are within the wilderness study area. A probable barite resource potential occurs at Rough and Tumbling Creek and near Spring Creek on the east side of the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  4. Power peakings in mixed TRIGA cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoj, Luka; Ravnik, Matjaz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Division F-8, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: luka.snoj@ijs.si

    2006-07-01

    Power distribution in the reactor core is normally calculated by the diffusion codes (e.g. TRIGLAV package) in 2-D approximation. Diffusion codes normally treat the fuel rods and surrounding water as homogeneous regions called unit cells. Modern Monte-Carlo codes (e.g. MCNP) allow calculation of the power density distribution in 3-D geometry assuming detailed geometry without unit-cell homogenization. The power density distribution (and its maximum value - the peaking) can be calculated 'point-wise' with the resolution of approximately 1 mm. Results of the detailed power density distribution calculated by MCNP are presented for 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor, assuming various realistic and hypothetical core loading patterns with focus on the mixed cores. Combinations of 8.5 w/o, 12 w/o and 20 w/o low enriched (20 %) TRIGA fuel elements are systematically treated in the mixed cores. (author)

  5. Deuterium treatment of low water peak fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinwei QIAN; Deming LIU; Feng TU

    2009-01-01

    The deuterium (D2) treatment of low water peak single-mode fiber (LWP-SMF) after drawing has been investigated. The D2 treatment time and concentra-tion have important effect on fiber's properties after D2 treatment. The insufficient treatment of D2 cannot ensure fiber resistant to hydrogen aging, whereas excessive treatment of D2 will result in excess loss on fiber at 13 83 nm. The optimization on viscosity match between the core and the cladding is helpful on problem solving of excess loss after the D2 treatment. However, by designing proper time and D2 concentration in the D2 treatment process, it can produce fiber with good hydrogen aging resistance and low excess loss and lower the cost of the D2 treatment process.

  6. Ag/AgCl电极自噪声的测定%Measurement of Ag/AgCl electrode's self-noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡鹏; 谭浩; 龚沈光

    2011-01-01

    In order to validate whether the Ag/AgCl electrode can be used to detect weak ocean electric signals, a measurement experiment of Ag/AgCl electrode's self-noise was designed based on the analysis of the reason for Ag/AgCl electrode's self-noise. A pair of Ag/AgCl electrode's self-noises in different seawater conductivities was measured in the laboratory. The results show that the electrode can be used to measure the ship's near electric field and its self-noise variation with seawater conductivity. In addition, when the seawater conductivity increases to a certain value, the fluctuation of the electrode's self-noise is small or approximately considered to be zero. The conclusion drawn is significant for the design of an underwater electric field sensor with low self-noise and the analysis of the measured data of the underwater electric field.%为了验证固态Ag/AgCl电极能否满足对微弱海洋电场信号的探测,在对Ag/AgCl电极自噪声产生机理分析的基础上,设计了Ag/AgCl电极自噪声的测量实验.通过实验,测量了不同海水电导率下一对Ag/AgCl电极的自噪声.测量结果表明:该电极能满足船舶电场的近场测量,且其自噪声随海水电导率的增大而减小,当海水电导率增大到一定程度时,该电极的自噪声变化起伏很小,可近似认为没有变化.所得结论对低噪声水下电场传感器的研制和实测水下电场数据的分析具有一定的借鉴意义.

  7. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  8. Dynamics of accumulation and disappearance of cobalt-60 in wheat-soil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of transportation, accumulation, disappearance and distribution of 60Co in the wheat-soil system was studied by using isotope-tracer techniques for simulated pollutants, and the mathematical model of the behavior was established. Rescilts showed that (1) 60Co was transported rapidly in the system after the application on soil surface layer. The uptake of 60Co by wheat was mainly via root, and redistribution in all parts of wheat occurred consequently. The concentration in root was much higher than that in other parts of wheat plant. The specific activity of 60Co in wheat plant rapidly increased to a maximum value, then decreased. The specific activity of 60Co in each part of wheat plant was found in the order of root > straw > husk > seed. (2) 60Co is mainly detained with in 6cm of soil surface, and specific activity of 60Co in soil present a simple exponential declining with depth of soil. (3) The dynamic law can be described as multinomial exponential function of concentration in the wheat-soil system. (4) The wheat plant has certain ability to accumulate 60Co from soil. (authors)

  9. A study of muon neutrino disappearance in the MINOS detectors and the NuMI beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Jiajie [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2010-01-01

    There is now substantial evidence that the proper description of neutrino involves two representations related by the 3 x 3 PMNS matrix characterized by either distinct mass or flavor. The parameters of this mixing matrix, three angles and a phase, as well as the mass differences between the three mass eigenstates must be determined experimentally. The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search experiment is designed to study the flavor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as it travels between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory at 1 km from the target, and the Far Detector in the Soudan iron mine in Minnesota at 735 km from the target. From the comparison of reconstructed neutrino energy spectra at the near and far location, precise measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters from muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance are expected. It is very important to know the neutrino flux coming from the source in order to achieve the main goal of the MINOS experiment: precise measurements of the atmospheric mass splitting |Δm232|, sin2 θ23. The goal of my thesis is to accurately predict the neutrino flux for the MINOS experiment and measure the neutrino mixing angle and atmospheric mass splitting.

  10. The Improved Measurement of Electron-antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Dwyer, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    With 2.5x the previously reported exposure, the Daya Bay experiment has improved the measurement of the neutrino mixing parameter sin^2(2theta_13) = 0.089+-0.010(stat)+-0.005(syst). Reactor anti-neutrinos were produced by six 2.9 GW(th) commercial power reactors, and measured by six 20-ton target-mass detectors of identical design. A total of 234,217 anti-neutrino candidates were detected in 127 days of exposure. An anti-neutrino rate of 0.944+-0.007(stat)+-0.003(syst) was measured by three detectors at a flux-weighted average distance of 1648 m from the reactors, relative to two detectors at 470 m and one detector at 576 m. Detector design and depth underground limited the background to 5+-0.3% (far detectors) and 2+-0.2% (near detectors) of the candidate signals. The improved precision confirms the initial measurement of reactor anti-neutrino disappearance, and continues to be the most precise measurement of theta_13.

  11. Disappearance of ferroelectric critical thickness in epitaxial ultrathin BaZr O3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yajun; Li, Gui-Ping; Shimada, Takahiro; Wang, Jie; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2014-11-01

    The intrinsic critical ferroelectric thickness of epitaxial ultrathin capacitors of incipient ferroelectric BaZr O3 (BZO) films with realistic SrRu O3 (SRO) electrodes is investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. We reveal that polarization can stably exist even in one-unit-cell thick BZO films, i.e., absence of critical thickness, whereas the widely investigated proper ferroelectrics like BaTi O3 and SrTi O3 films have no polarization. The influences of realistic ferroelectric-electrode interface and misfit strain on the ionic and electronic structures of the BZO-SRO thin film system have been examined under the short-circuited boundary condition. It is found that the ionic polarization of conductive SRO electrodes can effectively strengthen the screening of bound charges at the interface, which greatly reduces the depolarization field in the BZO films. Furthermore, the epitaxial misfit strain remarkably enhances the polarization through the enhancement of hybridization of Zr and O electron orbitals, resulting in the disappearance of ferroelectric critical thickness. Our findings are beyond the critical thickness of proper ferroelectrics and are thus promising for future nanometer-scale ferroelectric device such as high-density ferroelectric memory.

  12. Effectiveness of the cyclic administration of dienogest in a case of pathological disappearance of intestinal endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamura R

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ryo Tamura, Ikunosuke Tsuneki, Toru Yanase Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Niigata City General Hospital, Niigata, Japan Abstract: We have reported good control of atypical genital bleeding when using a cyclic administration of dienogest (repeated 4-week cycles, each consisting of the administration of 2 mg/day of dienogest for 3 weeks, followed by 1 week of drug withdrawal in patients with endometriosis. Herein, we report the effectiveness of the long-term cyclic administration (22 months of dienogest in a case of pathological disappearance of intestinal endometriosis diagnosed by endoscopy and histology of the lower gastrointestinal tract. There is no recurrent sign after 16 months of the treatment being stopped. Atypical genital bleeding during treatment was 3–5 days a month in each cycle. Compliance was good, so we could continue the therapy. The long-term cyclic administration of dienogest in patients with intestinal endometriosis may have significant merit. Keyword: atypical genital bleeding, dysmenorrhea, drug compliance, endoscopy, histology

  13. When the author pretends to disappear: auctorial figurations and mystifications during Romanticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoire Feuillebois

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at illustrating how one theoretical model, that of authorial figurations, recently contributed to the renewal of the studies on   the author and the authorship in French literature studies. With this model, scholars have sought to go beyond the depreciation which the structuralism and the theory of the deconstruction had cast on the manifestations of the author in the text and on the direct representations of his voice. This paper tries to reread this authorial presence in the light of cultural history and to show that these authorial figurations aim neither to give a faithful representation of the true author, nor to mimic the real narrative authorities at work in the text. The romantic forgery is an exemplary illustration of this model: the author seems to disappear behind a misleading figure, only to better assert his narrative power. The forgery establishes a hybrid strategy :  writers attract their readers with the promise of a direct contact with the author, but they develop a narrative manipulation in which the reader is left with only the text itself.

  14. The search for failed supernovae with the Large Binocular Telescope: confirmation of a disappearing star

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, S M; Gerke, J R; Stanek, K Z; Dai, X

    2016-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging confirming the optical disappearance of the failed supernova candidate identified by Gerke et al. (2015). This $\\sim 25~M_{\\odot}$ red supergiant experienced a weak $\\sim 10^{6}~L_{\\odot}$ optical outburst in 2009 and is now at least 5 magnitudes fainter than the progenitor in the optical. The mid-IR flux has slowly decreased to the lowest levels since the first measurements in 2004. There is faint ($2000-3000~L_{\\odot}$) near-IR emission likely associated with the source. We find the late-time evolution of the source to be inconsistent with obscuration from an ejected, dusty shell. Models of the spectral energy distribution indicate that the remaining bolometric luminosity is $>6$ times fainter than that of the progenitor and is decreasing as $\\sim t^{-4/3}$. We conclude that the transient is unlikely to be a SN impostor or stellar merger. The event is consistent with the ejection of the envelope of a red supergiant in a failed supernova and the late-time emission co...

  15. Local Interstellar Hydrogen's Disappearance at 1 Au: Four Years of IBEX in the Rising Solar Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Saul, Lukas; Fuselier, Stephen; Kubiak, Marzena; McComas, Dave; Möbius, Eberhard; Sokół, Justina; Rodríguez, Diego; Scheer, Juergen; Wurz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission has recently opened a new window on the interstellar medium (ISM) by imaging neutral atoms. One "bright" feature in the sky is the interstellar wind flowing into the solar system. Composed of remnants of stellar explosions as well as primordial gas and plasma, the ISM is by no means uniform. The interaction of the local ISM with the solar wind shapes our heliospheric environment with hydrogen being the dominant component of the very local ISM. In this paper, we report on direct sampling of the neutral hydrogen of the local ISM over four years of IBEX observations. The hydrogen wind observed at 1 AU has decreased and nearly disappeared as the solar activity has increased over the last four years; the signal at 1 AU has dropped off in 2012 by a factor of ~8 to near background levels. The longitudinal offset has also increased with time presumably due to greater radiation pressure deflecting the interstellar wind. We present longitudinal and latitudinal arriva...

  16. Study of muon neutrino disappearance using the Fermilab Main Injector neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of a search for νμ disappearance by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search [D. G. Michael et al. (MINOS), Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 191801 (2006).]. The experiment uses two detectors separated by 734 km to observe a beam of neutrinos created by the Neutrinos at the Main Injector facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data were collected in the first 282 days of beam operations and correspond to an exposure of 1.27x1020 protons on target. Based on measurements in the Near Detector, in the absence of neutrino oscillations we expected 336±14 νμ charged-current interactions at the Far Detector but observed 215. This deficit of events corresponds to a significance of 5.2 standard deviations. The deficit is energy dependent and is consistent with two-flavor neutrino oscillations according to |Δm2|=2.74-0.26+0.44x10-3 eV2/c4 and sin22θ>0.87 at 68% confidence level.

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Two-Phase Two-Component Flow with Disappearing Nonwetting Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Rebecca; Ippisch, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a recently discussed new technology, aimed at allowing an ongoing use of fossil fuels while preventing the produced CO2 to be released to the atmosphere. CSS can be modeled with two components (water and CO2) in two phases (liquid and CO2). To simulate the process, a multiphase flow equation with equilibrium phase exchange is used. One of the big problems arising in two-phase two-component flow simulations is the disappearance of the nonwetting phase, which leads to a degeneration of the equations satisfied by the saturation. A standard choice of primary variables, which is the pressure of one phase and the saturation of the other phase, cannot be applied here. We developed a new approach using the pressure of the nonwetting phase and the capillary pressure as primary variables. One important advantage of this approach is the fact that we have only one set of primary variables that can be used for the biphasic as well as the monophasic case. We implemented this new choice o...

  18. Geneva University: Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Université de Genève

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 19 March 2012 COLLOQUE DE PHYSIQUE 5 p.m. - École de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay  Professor Yifang Wang Institute of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, a multinational collaboration operating in the south of China, today reported the first results of its search for the last, most elusive piece of a long-standing puzzle: how is it that neutrinos can appear to vanish as they travel? The surprising answer opens a gateway to a new understanding of fundamental physics and may eventually solve the riddle of why there is far more ordinary matter than antimatter in the Universe today....

  19. The Disappearing Solar Filament of 2003 June 11: A Three-body Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Cliver, E. W.; Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O.

    2011-12-01

    The eruption of a large quiescent filament on 2003 June 11 was preceded by the birth of a nearby active region—a common scenario. In this case, however, the filament lay near a pre-existing active region and the new active region did not destabilize the filament by direct magnetic connection. Instead it appears to have done so indirectly via magnetic coupling with the established region. Restructuring between the perturbed fields of the old region and the filament then weakened the arcade overlying the midpoint of filament, where the eruption originated. The inferred rate (~11° day-1) at which the magnetic disturbance propagates from the mature region to destabilize the filament is larger than the mean speed (~5º-6° day-1) but still within the scatter obtained for Bruzek's empirical relationship between the distance from a newly formed active region to a quiescent filament and the time from active region appearance to filament disappearance. The higher propagation speed in the 2003 June 11 case may be due to the "broadside" (versus ''end-on") angle of attack of the (effective) new flux to the coronal magnetic fields overlying a central section of the axis of the filament.

  20. First Muon-Neutrino Disappearance Study with an Off-Axis Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Ajima, Y; Aihara, H; Albert, J B; Andreopoulos, C; Andrieu, B; Anerella, M D; Aoki, S; Araoka, O; Argyriades, J; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Badertscher, A; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Bertram, I; Besnier, M; Beucher, J; Beznosko, D; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S B; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Brook-Roberge, D G; Buchanan, N; Budd, H; Calland, R; Calvet, D; Rodriguez, J Caravaca; Cartwright, S L; Carver, A; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cazes, A; Cervera, A; Chavez, C; Choi, S; Christodoulou, G; Coleman, J; Collazuol, G; Coleman, W; Connolly, K; Curioni, A; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davies, G S; Davis, S; Day, M; De Rosa, G; de André, J P A M; de Perio, P; Dealtry, T; Delbart, A; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Tran, P Dinh; Dobson, J; Dore, U; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Dziomba, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escallier, J E; Escudero, L; Esposito, L S; Fechner, M; Ferrero, A; Finch, A J; Frank, E; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Galymov, V; Ganetis, G L; Gannaway, F C; Gaudin, A; Gendotti, A; George, M A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Ghosh, A K; Golan, T; Goldhaber, M; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gomi, S; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Grant, A; Gumplinger, P; Guzowski, P; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamano, K; Hansen, C; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Harrison, P F; Hartfiel, B; Hartz, M; Haruyama, T; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hayashi, K; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Henderson, R; Higashi, N; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Hiraki, T; Hirose, E; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Hyndman, A; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Iida, M; Ikeda, M; Ilic, J; Imber, J; Ishida, T; Ishihara, C; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iwasaki, M; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Joo, K K; Jover-Manas, G V; Jung, C K; Kaji, H; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Karlen, D; Kasami, K; Kato, I; Kawamuko, H; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khanam, F; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kim, J; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kimura, N; Kirby, B; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Kogan, G; Koike, S; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kouzuma, Y; Kowalik, K; Kravtsov, V; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kubota, J; Kudenko, Y; Kulkarni, N; Kurimoto, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Laing, A; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lee, K P; Le, P T; Levy, J M; Licciardi, C; Lim, I T; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Litos, M; Longhin, A; Lopez, G D; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Lux, T; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Makida, Y; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marone, A J; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Maryon, T; Marzec, J; Masliah, P; Mathie, E L; Matsumura, C; Matsuoka, K; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; McLachlan, T; Messina, M; Metcalf, W; Metelko, C; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A D; Mituka, G; Miura, M; Mizouchi, K; Monfregola, L; Moreau, F; Morgan, B; Moriyama, S; Muir, A; Murakami, A; Muratore, J F; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagai, N; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakajima, K; Nakamoto, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Naples, D; Navin, M L; Nicholls, T C; Nielsen, B; Nielsen, C; Nishikawa, K; Nishino, H; Nitta, K; Nobuhara, T; Nowak, J A; Obayashi, Y; Ogitsu, T; Ohhata, H; Okamura, T; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oser, S M; Otani, M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Ozaki, T; Pac, M Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Paul, P; Payne, D; Pearce, G F; Perkin, J D; Pettinacci, V; Pierre, F; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Qian, W; Raaf, J L; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Raufer, T M; Ravonel, M; Raymond, M; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rondio, E; Roney, J M; Rossi, B; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sabouri, S; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sarrat, A; Sasaki, K; Scholberg, K; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Scully, D I; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Shibata, M; Shimizu, Y; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Sinclair, P D; Siyad, M; Smith, B M; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Stahl, A; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Stone, J; Stodulski, M; Strabel, C; Sulej, R; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, Y; Swierblewski, J; Szeglowski, T; Szeptycka, M; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Taguchi, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takenaga, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, M M; Tanimoto, N; Tashiro, K; Taylor, I; Terashima, A; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Toki, W; Tobayama, S; Tomaru, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Veledar, O; Wachala, T; Walding, J J; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wanderer, P J; Wang, J; Ward, M A; Ward, G P; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; West, N; Whitehead, L H; Wikström, G; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, S; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamanoi, Y; Yamaoka, H; Yamauchi, T; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J

    2012-01-01

    We report a measurement of muon-neutrino disappearance in the T2K experiment. The 295-km muon-neutrino beam from Tokai to Kamioka is the first implementation of the off-axis technique in a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. With data corresponding to 1.43 10**20 protons on target, we observe 31 fully-contained single muon-like ring events in Super-Kamiokande, compared with an expectation of 104 +- 14 (syst) events without neutrino oscillations. The best-fit point for two-flavor nu_mu -> nu_tau oscillations is sin**2(2 theta_23) = 0.98 and |\\Delta m**2_32| = 2.65 10**-3 eV**2. The boundary of the 90 % confidence region includes the points (sin**2(2 theta_23),|\\Delta m**2_32|) = (1.0, 3.1 10**-3 eV**2), (0.84, 2.65 10**-3 eV**2) and (1.0, 2.2 10**-3 eV**2).

  1. Prospects for the measurement of muon-neutrino disappearance at the FNAL-Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Anokhina, A; Benettoni, M; Bernardini, P; Brugnera, R; Calabrese, M; Cecchetti, A; Cecchini, S; Chernyavskiy, M; Creti, P; Corso, F Dal; Dalkarov, O; Del Prete, A; De Robertis, G; De Serio, M; Esposti, L Degli; Di Ferdinando, D; Dusini, S; Dzhatdoev, T; Fanin, C; Fini, R A; Fiore, G; Garfagnini, A; Golovanov, S; Guerzoni, M; Klicek, B; Kose, U; Jakovcic, K; Laurent, G; Lippi, I; Loddo, F; Longhin, A; Malenica, M; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marsella, G; Mauri, N; Medinaceli, E; Mengucci, A; Mingazheva, R; Morgunova, O; Muciaccia, M T; Nessi, M; Orecchini, D; Paoloni, A; Papadia, G; Paparella, L; Pasqualini, L; Pastore, A; Patrizii, L; Polukhina, N; Pozzato, M; Roda, M; Roganova, T; Rosa, G; Sahnoun, Z; Simone, S; Sirignano, C; Sirri, G; Spurio, M; Stanco, L; Starkov, N; Stipcevic, M; Surdo, A; Tenti, M; Togo, V; Ventura, M; Vladymyrov, M

    2014-01-01

    Neutrino physics is nowadays receiving more and more attention as a possible source of information for the long-standing problem of new physics beyond the Standard Model. The recent measurement of the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ in the standard mixing oscillation scenario encourages us to pursue the still missing results on leptonic CP violation and absolute neutrino masses. However, puzzling measurements exist that deserve an exhaustive evaluation. The NESSiE Collaboration has been setup to undertake conclusive experiments to clarify the muon-neutrino disappearance measurements at small $L/E$, which will be able to put severe constraints to models with more than the three-standard neutrinos, or even to robustly measure the presence of a new kind of neutrino oscillation for the first time. To this aim the use of the current FNAL-Booster neutrino beam for a Short-Baseline experiment has been carefully evaluated. This proposal refers to the use of magnetic spectrometers at two different sites, Near and Far. Thei...

  2. Rapid Disappearance of Penumbra-Like Features near a Flaring Polarity Inversion Line: The Hinode Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the observations of penumbra-like features (PLFs near a polarity inversion line (PIL of flaring region. The PIL is located at the moat boundary of active region (NOAA 10960. The PLFs appear similar to sunspot penumbrae in morphology but occupy small area, about 6×107 km2, and are not associated with sunspot or pore. We observed a rapid disappearance of the PLFs after a C1.7 class flare, which occurred close to the PIL. The local correlation tracking (LCT of these features shows presence of horizontal flows directed away from the end-points of the PLFs, similar to the radial outward flow found around regular sunspots, which is also known as the moat flow. Hard X-ray emission, coincident with the location of the PLFs, is found in RHESSI observations, suggesting a spatial correlation between the occurrence of the flare and decay of the PLFs. Vector magnetic field derived from the observations obtained by Hinode spectropolarimeter SOT/SP instrument, before and after the flare, shows a significant change in the horizontal as well as the vertical component of the field, after the flare. The weakening of both the components of the magnetic field in the flare interval suggests that rapid cancellation and/or submergence of the magnetic field in PLFs occurred during the flare interval.

  3. Compulsory declaration of the disappearance, loss or theft of property and of serious incidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2006-01-01

    New rules and reminder The rules governing internal and external declarations have been modified as follows: internal declarations concerning CERN mobile phones must now be made to the Telecom Lab instead of the Fire Brigade in order to minimise call-outs, declarations concerning valid CERN access cards and CERN vehicle stickers must be made to the competent external authorities in order to make their holders more aware of their responsibilities and to prevent abuse. This notification replaces the notifications published in Bulletin Nos. 38/1999 and 13/2001 (ref. DSU-DO/RH/9198 and 10315 respectively). 1. What has to be declared? The disappearance, loss or theft of property and serious incidents must be declared if they occur: within the fenced part of the CERN site, irrespective of the person and item concerned, outside the fenced part of the CERN site if CERN is the owner or custodian of the item concerned. Definitions: 'fenced part of the CERN site'means all the different fenced areas used by...

  4. A study of muon neutrino disappearance in the MINOS detectors and the NuMI beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Jiajie; /South Carolina U.

    2010-07-01

    There is now substantial evidence that the proper description of neutrino involves two representations related by the 3 x 3 PMNS matrix characterized by either distinct mass or flavor. The parameters of this mixing matrix, three angles and a phase, as well as the mass differences between the three mass eigenstates must be determined experimentally. The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search experiment is designed to study the flavor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as it travels between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory at 1 km from the target, and the Far Detector in the Soudan iron mine in Minnesota at 735 km from the target. From the comparison of reconstructed neutrino energy spectra at the near and far location, precise measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters from muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance are expected. It is very important to know the neutrino flux coming from the source in order to achieve the main goal of the MINOS experiment: precise measurements of the atmospheric mass splitting |{Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2}|, sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub 23}. The goal of my thesis is to accurately predict the neutrino flux for the MINOS experiment and measure the neutrino mixing angle and atmospheric mass splitting.

  5. Disappearance of Mott oscillations in sub-barrier elastic scattering of identical nuclei and atomic ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, M S; Donangelo, R; Mittig, W

    2015-01-01

    The scattering of identical nuclei at low energies exhibits conspicuous Mott oscillations which can be used to investigate the presence of components in the predominantly Coulomb interaction arising from several physical effects. It is found that at a certain critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter the Mott oscillations disappear and the cross section becomes quite flat. We call this effect Transverse Isotropy (TI). The critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter at which TI sets in is found to be $\\eta_{c} = \\sqrt{3s +2}$, where $s$ is the spin of the nuclei participating in the scattering. No TI is found in the Mott scattering of identical Fermionic nuclei. The critical center of mass energy corresponding to $\\eta_c$ is found to be $E_c$ = 0.40 MeV for $\\alpha + \\alpha$ (s = 0) , 1.2 MeV for $^{6}$Li + $^{6}$LI (s = 1) and 7.1 MeV for $^{10}$B + $^{10}$B (s = 3). We further found that the inclusion of the nuclear interaction induces a significant modification in the TI. We suggest measurements at these su...

  6. Radio disappearance of the magnetar XTE J1810-197 and continued X-ray timing

    CERN Document Server

    Camilo, F; Halpern, J P; Alford, J A J; Cognard, I; Reynolds, J E; Johnston, S; Sarkissian, J; van Straten, W

    2016-01-01

    We report on timing, flux density, and polarimetric observations of the transient magnetar and 5.54 s radio pulsar XTE J1810-197 using the GBT, Nancay, and Parkes radio telescopes beginning in early 2006, until its sudden disappearance as a radio source in late 2008. Repeated observations through 2016 have not detected radio pulsations again. The torque on the neutron star, as inferred from its rotation frequency derivative f-dot, decreased in an unsteady manner by a factor of 3 in the first year of radio monitoring. In contrast, during its final year as a detectable radio source, the torque decreased steadily by only 9%. The period-averaged flux density, after decreasing by a factor of 20 during the first 10 months of radio monitoring, remained steady in the next 22 months, at an average of 0.7+/-0.3 mJy at 1.4 GHz, while still showing day-to-day fluctuations by factors of a few. There is evidence that during this last phase of radio activity the magnetar had a steep radio spectrum, in contrast to earlier be...

  7. Progress with the AGS Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare K-decay, neutrino and heavy ion physics demands that a rapid- cycling high vacuum and high intensity Booster be built for the AGS at Brookhaven. For each mode of operation there are corresponding accelerator physics and design issues needing special attention. Problems pertinent to any single mode of operation have been encountered and solved before, but putting high intensity proton requirements and high vacuum heavy ion requirements into one machine demands careful design considerations and decisions. The lattice design and magnet characteristics will be briefly reviewed. Major design issues will be discussed and design choices explained. Finally, the construction status and schedule will be presented. 6 refs., 6 figs

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mg-Mn-Zr alloy with trace amounts of Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaoyan, E-mail: x918y@126.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Pan Qinglin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lu Congge [The 13th Research Institute, China Electronics Technology Company, Shijiazhuang 050000 (China); He Yunbin; Li Wenbin; Liang Wenjie [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2009-11-15

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mg-(Ag)-Mn-Zr alloys were studied by means of tensile testing, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that small additions of Ag to Al-Cu-Mg-Mn-Zr alloy can accelerate the hardening effect of the aged alloy and reduce the time to peak-aged. The mechanical properties can be improved both at room temperature and at elevated temperatures, which is attributed to the fine and uniform plate-like {Omega} precipitates. Meanwhile the ductility of the studied alloys remains at relatively high level. The major strengthening phases of the Ag-free alloy are {theta}' and less S', while that of Al-Cu-Mg-Mn-Zr alloy containing trace amounts of Ag are {Omega} and less {theta}'.

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mg-Mn-Zr alloy with trace amounts of Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mg-(Ag)-Mn-Zr alloys were studied by means of tensile testing, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that small additions of Ag to Al-Cu-Mg-Mn-Zr alloy can accelerate the hardening effect of the aged alloy and reduce the time to peak-aged. The mechanical properties can be improved both at room temperature and at elevated temperatures, which is attributed to the fine and uniform plate-like Ω precipitates. Meanwhile the ductility of the studied alloys remains at relatively high level. The major strengthening phases of the Ag-free alloy are θ' and less S', while that of Al-Cu-Mg-Mn-Zr alloy containing trace amounts of Ag are Ω and less θ'.

  10. Ag/α-Fe2O3 hollow microspheres: Preparation and application for hydrogen peroxide detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we demonstrated a simple approach for preparing α-Fe2O3 hollow spheres by mixing ferric nitrate aqueous and glucose in 180 °C. The glucose was found to act as a soft template in the process of α-Fe2O3 hollow spheres formation. Ag/α-Fe2O3 hollow nanocomposite was obtained under UV irradiation without additional reducing agents or initiators. Synthesized Ag/α-Fe2O3 hollow composites exhibited remarkable catalytic performance toward H2O2 reduction. The electrocatalytic activity mechanism of Ag/α-Fe2O3/GCE were discussed toward the reduction of H2O2 in this paper. - Graphical abstract: Glucose is carbonized as carbon balls in the 180 °C hydrothermal carbonization process, which plays a role of a soft template. Carbon spherical shell is rich in many hydroxyls, which have good hydrophilicity and surface reactivity. When Fe(NO3)3 is added to the aqueous solution of Glucose, the hydrophilic -OH will adsorb Fe3+ to form coordination compound by coordination bond. α-FeOOH is formed on the surface of carbon balls by hydrothermal reaction. After calcination at 500 °C, carbon spheres react with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, which disappears in the air. Meanwhile α-FeOOH is calcined to form α-Fe2O3 hollow spheres.

  11. Template-directed synthesis of Ag nanowire arrays by a simple paired cell method for SERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jia-qing; Hou, Jun-wei; Lü, Xiao-yi

    2015-11-01

    The silver (Ag) nanowire arrays with regular and uniform size were successfully fabricated inside the nanochannels of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by a simple paired cell method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicate that the as-synthesized samples are composed of face-centered cubic structure, and the average diameter is about 60-70 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the corresponding fast Fourier transformation (FFT) results show that Ag nanowires have a preferred single-crystal structure. Ultraviolet- visible (UV-vis) spectrum of Ag nanowire arrays exhibits UV emission band at 383 nm which can be attributed to the transverse dipole resonance of Ag nanowire arrays. A good surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum is observed by excitation with a 514.5 nm laser, and the intensity of the SERS peak is about 23 times higher than that of the normal Raman peak measured from an empty AAO template. The high enhancement factor suggests that this method can be used to fabricate SERS sensor with high efficiency.

  12. Gamma-irradiation assisted seeded growth of Ag nanoparticles within PVA matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Nucleation and growth must be two completely separated steps. → The amount of zerovalent nuclei can be controlled by varying the irradiation dose. → PVA act as physical barrier to inhibit aggregation or the growth of Ag nanoparticles. - Abstract: Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Ag hybrid nanocomposites have been prepared from polymeric film of PVA and silver nitrate (AgNO3). The silver nanoparticles were generated in PVA matrix by the reduction of silver ions with gamma-irradiation. UV-visible spectra showed a single peak at 422 nm, arising from the surface plasmon absorption of silver nanoparticles. The shifting of surface plasmon resonance peak after irradiation reveals that the gamma irradiation can be used as a size controlling agent for the preparation of silver nanoparticles embedded in PVA film. This result was in good agreement with the result obtained from TEM images. The TEM images showed the narrow size distribution of the obtained Ag nanoparticles with average particle size of 30 nm, which decreased to 17 nm with increasing irradiation dose. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that silver metal was present in face centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. These results clearly indicate that monodispersed silver nanoparticles are embedded homogenously in PVA matrix.

  13. Evolution of the quantum well states in Ag layers on Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuber, Andreas; Bendounan, Azzedine [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik II, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Huang, Li [Surface Physics Laboratory, Dept. of Physics, Fudan Univ (China); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.; Gong, Xingao [Surface Physics Laboratory, Dept. of Physics, Fudan Univ (China); Zhang, Zhenyu [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    2007-07-01

    Electronic quantum well states (QWS) confined in ultrathin films are of great scientific interest. Outside the substrate energy gap the confinement is supressed. They can couple with substrate states and form quantum well resonances (QWR). We present systematic studies on epitaxial layer-by-layer growing Ag films up to 45 ML on Au(111) using angular resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARUPS) ({delta}E=3 meV,{delta}{theta}=0.3 ). Our data in combination with density functional theory show the transition from QWR to QWS. We investigated the localization of the states in terms of their center-of-charge, peak position and lineshape. In contrast to comparable systems like Ag/W(110) QWS in Ag/Au(111) are formed not before a thickness of {approx}8 ML. The center-of-charge and the peak position are localized within the Ag overlayer and Au energy gap, respectively, at the same film thickness and hence can be used as criteria for the formation of QWS. Further investigations on their lineshape close to the substrate gap edge allow access to further many-body characteristics of the QWS.

  14. Cu-Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles incorporated silica films using a new three-layer deposition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sudipto; Bysakh, Sandip; De, Goutam

    2010-02-01

    Formation of Au-Ag-Cu ternary alloy nanoparticles (NPs) is difficult mainly because the system Cu/Ag is immiscible. We present a new synthetic technique to generate such ternary alloy NPs in silica film matrix employing a three-layer (3L) coating design. In this methodology three successive coating layers were deposited on silica glass substrates from separately prepared Cu-, Au- and Ag-ion incorporated inorganic-organic hybrid silica sols by dipping method. The Au layer is kept in the middle because it is miscible with both the Ag and Cu. The 3L film assembly was subjected to UV- and heat-treatment at 450-750 degrees C in H2-N2 atmosphere. UV-treatment generates small Au and Ag NPs in the respective layers and Cu remains as Cu2+; subsequent heat-treatment in H2-N2 induces the formation of ternary alloy NPs by the interlayer diffusion of nanometals. The final heat-treated film (750 degrees C/H2-N2) shows single and sharp plasmon band centered at 480 nm in the UV-visible spectrum indicating the formation of alloy (solid solution) NPs. GIXRD study shows one set of diffraction peaks which are shifted towards higher angle with respect to the Au or Ag diffraction peaks. FESEM, GIXRD, HRTEM, and SAED analyses reveal that the alloy has a composition close to (Au + Ag)0.88Cu0.12. The EDS analyses using the nano probe attached with TEM confirm the presence of Au, Ag and Cu in all the alloy NPs. PMID:20352717

  15. SPR sensitivity of silver nanorods in CsBr-Ag nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovkush; Ravikant, Chhaya; Arun, P.; Kumar, Kuldeep

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the optical and morphological properties of CsBr-Ag complex thin films deposited by thermal evaporation on glass substrate. By varying the thickness of the film with fixed mass ratio of cesium bromide and silver, we observed a broad absorption peak in the visible region from 350 to 450 nm corresponding to the transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (SPR) mode. Red shift is observed, with varying film thickness, in SPR peak position corresponding to longitudinal mode with no significant change in transverse mode due to variation in the aspect ratio of the silver nano crystalline grains. Scanning electron microscope and EDX revealed the formation of silver nanorods in film samples. Such, stable and tunable CsBr-Ag films can be used in optical filters.

  16. Role of model ingredients on the directed flow and its disappearance using isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effect of different equations of state, momentum dependence of nuclear forces and in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross-sections on the directed flow and its disappearance. Our findings reveal that soft momentum-dependent equation of state along with reduced cross-section shows good agreement with the experimentally observed mass dependence of balance energy. (authors)

  17. Role of model ingredients on the directed flow and its disappearance using isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Rajni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of different equations of state, momentum dependence of nuclear forces and in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross-sections on the directed flow and its disappearance. Our findings reveal that soft momentum-dependent equation of state along with reduced cross-section shows good agreement with the experimentally observed mass dependence of balance energy.

  18. Three Gorges Project Withstanding 2010 Peak Floods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Rushu

    2010-01-01

    The Three Gorges Project(TGP)on the Yangtze River(YR)is the largest hydro-power project in the world;it is now attracting the world wide attention.Possessing comprehensive utilization benefits mainly for flood control,power generation and navigation improvement,TGP is a vital and important project in harnessing and developing the YR.The Project primarily aims at flood control whose reservoir has a total storage capacity of 39.3 billion m3,22.15 billion m3 of which can be set for flood control.Construction of the project has greatly improved the flood control capacity in the middle and lower sections of the YR.In 2010 TGP has successfully withstood 3 peak floods,especially the one on July 20 with a frequency of once in 20-year,the largest since the construction of TGP.TGP as an eco-environmental project will be beneficial to ecological and environmental protection and low carbon economy and it will accelerate coordination of the economy,society,resources and environment and sustainable development along the valley,as well as the rapid development of Chinese economy.

  19. Visible light driven photocatalysis and antibacterial activity of AgVO{sub 3} and Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anamika [Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400 098 (India); Dutta, Dimple P., E-mail: dimpled@barc.gov.in [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Ballal, A. [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Fulekar, M.H. [School of Environment and Sustainable Development, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar 382 030, Gujarat (India)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/AgVO{sub 3} and pure AgVO{sub 3} nanowires synthesized by sonochemical process. • Characterization done using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and BET analysis. • Visible light degradation of RhB by Ag/AgVO{sub 3} within 45 min. • Antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} demonstrated. - Abstract: Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires and AgVO{sub 3} nanorods were synthesized in aqueous media via a facile sonochemical route. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy together with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrum analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results revealed that inert atmosphere promotes the formation of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires exhibited complete photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B within 45 min under visible light irradiation. The antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires was tested against Escherechia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum growth inhibitory concentration value was found to be 50 and 10 folds lower than for the antibiotic ciprofloxacin for E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. The antibacterial properties of the β-AgVO{sub 3} nanorods prove that in case of the Ag dispersed Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires, the enhanced antibacterial action is also due to contribution from the AgVO{sub 3} support.

  20. Excretion pathways and ruminal disappearance of glyphosate and its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Hüther, L; Dänicke, S; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, M; Schafft, H; Spolders, M; Breves, G

    2016-07-01

    From 6 balance experiments with total collection of feces and urine, samples were obtained to investigate the excretion pathways of glyphosate (GLY) in lactating dairy cows. Each experiment lasted for 26d. The first 21d served for adaptation to the diet, and during the remaining 5d collection of total feces and urine was conducted. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk and feed samples were taken during the sampling periods. In 2 of the 6 experiments, at the sampling period for feces and urine, duodenal contents were collected for 5d. Cows were equipped with cannulas at the dorsal sac of the rumen and the proximal duodenum. Duodenal contents were collected every 2h over 5 consecutive days. The daily duodenal dry matter flow was measured by using chromium oxide as a volume marker. All samples (feed, feces, urine, milk and duodenal contents were analyzed for GLY and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). Overall, across the 6 experiments (n=32) the range of GLY intake was 0.08 to 6.67mg/d. The main proportion (61±11%; ±SD) of consumed GLY was excreted with feces; whereas excretion by urine was 8±3% of GLY intake. Elimination via milk was negligible. The GLY concentrations above the limit of quantification were not detected in any of the milk samples. A potential ruminal degradation of GLY to AMPA was derived from daily duodenal GLY flow. The apparent ruminal disappearance of GLY intake was 36 and 6%. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the gastrointestinal absorption of GLY is of minor importance and fecal excretion represents the major excretion pathway. A degradation of GLY to AMPA by rumen microbes or a possible retention in the body has to be taken into account. PMID:27108173

  1. Gone or just out of sight? The apparent disappearance of aromatic litter components in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbücher, Thimo; Kalbitz, Karsten; Cerli, Chiara; Hernes, Peter; Kaiser, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainties concerning stabilization of organic compounds in soil limit our basic understanding on soil organic matter (SOM) formation and our ability to model and manage effects of global change on SOM stocks. One controversially debated aspect is the contribution of aromatic litter components, such as lignin and tannins, to stable SOM forms. Here we summarize and discuss the inconsistencies and propose research options to clear them. Lignin degradation takes place step-wise, starting with (i) depolymerisation, followed by (ii) transformation of the water-soluble depolymerization products. The long-term fate of the depolymerization products and other soluble aromatics, e.g., tannins, in the mineral soils is still a mystery. Research on dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition and fluxes indicates dissolved aromatics are important precursors of stable SOM attached to mineral surfaces and persist in soils for centuries to millennia. Evidence comes from flux analyses in soil profiles, biodegradation assays, and sorption experiments. In contrast, studies on composition of mineral-associated SOM indicate the prevalence of non-aromatic microbial-derived compounds. Other studies suggest the turnover of lignin in soil can be faster than the turnover of bulk SOM. Mechanisms that can explain the apparent fast disappearance of lignin in mineral soils are, however, not yet identified. The contradictions might be explained by analytical problems. Commonly used methods probably detect only a fraction of the aromatics stored in the mineral soil. Careful data interpretation, critical assessment of analytical limitations, and combined studies on DOM and solid-phase SOM could thus be ways to unveil the issues.

  2. Gone or just out of sight? The apparent disappearance of aromatic litter components in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbücher, Thimo; Kalbitz, Karsten; Cerli, Chiara; Hernes, Peter J.; Kaiser, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    Uncertainties concerning stabilization of organic compounds in soil limit our basic understanding on soil organic matter (SOM) formation and our ability to model and manage effects of global change on SOM stocks. One controversially debated aspect is the contribution of aromatic litter components, such as lignin and tannins, to stable SOM forms. In the present opinion paper, we summarize and discuss the inconsistencies and propose research options to clear them. Lignin degradation takes place stepwise, starting with (i) depolymerization and followed by (ii) transformation of the water-soluble depolymerization products. The long-term fate of the depolymerization products and other soluble aromatics, e.g., tannins, in the mineral soils is still a mystery. Research on dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition and fluxes indicates dissolved aromatics are important precursors of stable SOM attached to mineral surfaces and persist in soils for centuries to millennia. Evidence comes from flux analyses in soil profiles, biodegradation assays, and sorption experiments. In contrast, studies on composition of mineral-associated SOM indicate the prevalence of non-aromatic microbial-derived compounds. Other studies suggest the turnover of lignin in soil can be faster than the turnover of bulk SOM. Mechanisms that can explain the apparent fast disappearance of lignin in mineral soils are, however, not yet identified. The contradictions might be explained by analytical problems. Commonly used methods probably detect only a fraction of the aromatics stored in the mineral soil. Careful data interpretation, critical assessment of analytical limitations, and combined studies on DOM and solid-phase SOM could thus be ways to unveil the issues.

  3. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag–Cl and ionic Rb–Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag–Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb–Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag–Ag and Rb–Rb correlations, SAgAg(Q) and SRbRb(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while SAgRb(Q) for the Ag–Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM

  4. Third-order optical nonlinearity studies of bilayer Au/Ag metallic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, M. H.; Chong, W. Y.; Zakaria, R.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents nonlinear optical studies of bilayer metallic films of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) on glass substrate prepared using electron beam evaporation. The preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the substrate involved the use of electron beam deposition, then thermal annealing at 600 °C and 270 °C, respectively, to produce a randomly distributed layer of Au and a layer of Ag NPs. Observation of field-effect scanning electron microscope images indicated the size of the NPs. Details of the optical properties related to peak absorption of surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle were revealed by use of UV-Vis spectroscopy. The Z-scan technique was used to measure the nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of the fabricated NP layers. The third-order nonlinear refractive index coefficients for Au and Ag are (-9.34 and  -1.61)  ×  10-11 cm2 W-1 given lower n 2, in comparison with bilayer (Au and Ag) NPs at  -1.24  ×  10-10 cm2 W-1. The results show bilayer NPs have higher refractive index coefficients thus enhance the nonlinearity effects.

  5. Frequency-dependent cannabinoid receptor-independent modulation of glycine receptors by endocannabinoid 2-AG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eLozovaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids are known as retrograde messengers, being released from the postsynaptic neuron and acting on specific presynaptic G-protein-coupled cannabinoid (CB receptors to decrease neurotransmitter release. Also, at physiologically relevant concentrations cannabinoids can directly modulate the function of voltage-gated and receptor-operated ion channels. Using patch-clamp recording we analyzed the consequences of the direct action of an endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, on the functional properties of glycine receptor channels (GlyRs and ionic currents in glycinergic synapses. At physiologically relevant concentrations (0.1-1 µM, 2-AG directly affected the functions of recombinant homomeric alpha1H GlyR: it inhibited peak amplitude and dramatically enhanced desensitization. The action of 2-AG on GlyR-mediated currents developed rapidly, within ~300 milliseconds. Addition of 1 µM 2-AG strongly facilitated the depression of glycine-induced currents during repetitive (4-10 Hz application of short (2-ms duration pulses of glycine to outside-out patches. In brainstem slices from CB1 receptor-knockout mice, 2-AG significantly decreased the extent of facilitation of synaptic currents in hypoglossal motoneurons during repetitive (10-20 Hz stimulation. These observations suggest that endocannabinoids can modulate postsynaptic metaplasticity of glycinergic synaptic currents in a CB1 receptor-independent manner.

  6. Preparation of graphene–Ag composites and their application for electrochemical detection of chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Graphene–Ag composites were prepared in situ using ascorbic acid as green reducing agent. ► The morphology of Ag particles was irregular sheet and Ag particles homogeneously distributed on the graphene matrix. ► The surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement factor of D band is 5.85 for composites. ► The composites exhibited good sensitivity for the detection of chloride ions. -- Abstract: Graphene–Ag composites were prepared in situ using ascorbic acid as green reducing agent. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected-area electronic diffraction (SAED), and Raman spectrometer. It was showed that Ag particles homogeneously distributed on the graphene matrix. The morphology of Ag particles was irregular sheet with (1 1 1) basal plane. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement factor of D band is 5.85 for composites. The application of the composites for electrochemical detection of chloride was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The composites exhibited good sensitivity for the detection of chloride ions. The maximum peak current of cyclic voltammetry curve in 5 mM KCl was 0.80 mA. In the range of 500 μM to 50 mM for Cl−, the current response was proportional and linear to the Cl− concentration. The sensitivity to the detection for Cl− was 0.059 (mA/mM) and the detection limit was 61 μM for Cl−. It indicates graphene–Ag composites would be a competitive material for detection of halide.

  7. Ag/Ag2S heterodimers: tailoring the metal–semiconductor interface in a single nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterodimers are conjoined particles of two inorganic materials, and they are generally synthesised in multiple steps. But, the multi-step syntheses are less effective because of the low yield, long reaction time, labour intensive process and complexity in the synthesis and thus not ideal for scale up. Herein, we have demonstrated single-step, one-pot syntheses for two different types of Ag/Ag2S heterodimers. Two types of heterodimers were obtained while varying stoichiometry in the reaction of AgNO3 with sulphur in the presence of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) at 140 °C. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first demonstration of single-step process to synthesise Ag/Ag2S heterodimers. Heterodimers had dumbbell shape with both metal and semiconductor domains in single particle which were constructed by spherical Ag and Ag2S nanoparticles. Ag (2 0 0) and Ag2S (0 2 2) planes associated to form heterodimers. The presence of metal–semiconductor interfaces was confirmed by HRTEM and UV analysis. Thus, we have demonstrated the HMDS-assisted synthesis as a promising method for direct synthesis of Ag/Ag2S heterodimers.

  8. Growth of Ag nanocrystals on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Ag-carbon nanotube interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZhenXia; LI XinNian; REN CuiLan; YONG ZhenZhong; ZHU JianKang; LUO WenYun; FANG XiaoMing

    2009-01-01

    The experimental investigations on the interaction between Ag-nanocrystal particles (Ag-NCPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in Ag-nanocrystal particles/carbon nanotubes (Ag-NCPs/CNTs) hybrid structures were reported.The growth of Ag-NCPs on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was carried out by thermal evaporation deposition.High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that Ag-NCPs had the crystal lattice feature of face-centered cube (fcc).The growth of Ag-NCPs on MWCNTs induced the cross-section deformation of MWCNT.The ex-perimental results also showed that the synthesized Ag-NCPs/CNTs hybrid structure appeared as quasi-one dimensional nanowires containing the Ag-NCP/CNT hetero-junction.There was local cross-section deformation on MWCNTs at the interface of hetero-junction.These results involve the Important topic about fundamental and practical studies for structure of MNCPs on CNTs and also find clues to further research of Ag nanocrystal growing on MWCNTs and related Ag-CNT interaction.

  9. Strain distributions of confined Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红华; 章英; 刘晓山; 骆兴芳; 袁彩雷; 叶双莉

    2015-01-01

    The strain distributions of Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles confined in the Al2O3 matrix with different core sizes are investigated by using the finite element method, respectively. The simulation results clearly indicate that the compressive strains exerted on the Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles can be induced by the Al2O3 matrix. Moreover, it can be found that the strain gradient existing in a Au/Ag nanoparticle is much larger than that in a Ag/Au nanoparticle, which could be due to the larger Young’s modulus of Au than that of Ag. With the core size increasing, the strain gradient existing in the Au/Ag nanoparticle becomes larger, while the strain gradient existing in the Ag/Au nanoparticle keeps constant. These different strain distributions may have significant infl uences on the structures and morphologies of the Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles, leading to the different physical properties for potential applications.

  10. Growth of Ag nanocrystals on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Ag-carbon nanotube interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The experimental investigations on the interaction between Ag-nanocrystal particles (Ag-NCPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in Ag-nanocrystal particles/carbon nanotubes (Ag-NCPs/CNTs) hybrid structures were reported. The growth of Ag-NCPs on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was carried out by thermal evaporation deposition. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that Ag-NCPs had the crystal lattice feature of face-centered cube (fcc). The growth of Ag-NCPs on MWCNTs induced the cross-section deformation of MWCNT. The experimental results also showed that the synthesized Ag-NCPs/CNTs hybrid structure appeared as quasi-one dimensional nanowires containing the Ag-NCP/CNT hetero-junction. There was local cross-section deformation on MWCNTs at the interface of hetero-junction. These results involve the important topic about fundamental and practical studies for structure of MNCPs on CNTs and also find clues to further research of Ag nanocrystal growing on MWCNTs and related Ag-CNT interaction.

  11. UV-Vis spectroscopy and solvatochromism of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG-1478.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Muhammad; Wang, Feng; Clayton, Andrew H A

    2016-07-01

    The effect of twenty-one solvents on the UV-Vis spectrum of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG-1478 was investigated. The absorption spectrum in the range 300-360nm consisted of two partially overlapping bands at approximately 340nm and 330nm. The higher energy absorption band was more sensitive to solvent and exhibited a peak position that varied from 327nm to 336nm, while the lower energy absorption band demonstrated a change in peak position from 340nm to 346nm in non-chlorinated solvents. The fluorescence spectrum of AG-1478 was particularly sensitive to solvent. The wavelength of peak intensity varied from 409nm to 495nm with the corresponding Stokes shift in the range of 64nm to 155nm (4536cm(-1) to 9210cm(-1)). We used a number of methods to assess the relationship between spectroscopic properties and solvent properties. The detailed analysis revealed that for aprotic solvents, the peak position of the emission spectrum in wavenumber scale correlated with the polarity (dielectric constant or ET(30)) of the solvent. In protic solvents, a better correlation was observed between the hydrogen bonding power of the solvent and the position of the emission spectrum. Moreover, the fluorescence quantum yields were larger in aprotic solvents as compared to protic solvents. This analysis underscores the importance of polarity and hydrogen-bonding environment on the spectroscopic properties of AG-1478. These studies will assume relevance in understanding the interaction of AG-1478 in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27092736

  12. Brazing of SiC Ceramics Using Ag-Cu-In-Ti Filler Metal

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Yan,HUANG Zheng-Ren,LIU Xue-Jian,YUAN Ming

    2009-01-01

    Sintered silicon carbide was jointed with itself using Ag-Cu-In-Ti filler metal successfully. Interfacial microstructure was investigated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Joining strength of SiC/SiC joints was measured by four-point flexural strength. The experimental results indicate that joining strength has a peak value with the joining temperature increasing, and the max flexural strength reaches 234MPa, however joining strength decreases ...

  13. Production hall of YMOS AG; Produktionshalle YMOS AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    In early 1996 YMOS AG opted for the construction of a high-tech injection moulding factory. The building complex consists of a production hall bordered by a high-shelved warehouse. The factory concept underscores the the significance and technical prowness of the YMOS company as well the continuously growing quality demands it is having to meet. The buildings have been constructed in steel using grey metallic trapezoidal corrugated sheet (sandwich design). The overall concept for this industrial object was guided solely by economic considerations. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Anfang des Jahres 1996 entschied man sich fuer den Neubau einer hochmodernen Kunststoffspritzerei. Der Gebaeudekomplex besteht aus der Produktionhalle mit angrenzendem Hochregallager. Das Konzept unterstreicht sowohl die Bedeutung und technische Leistungsfaehigkeit des Unternehmens YMOS als auch die immer staerker werdenden Qualitaetsanforderungen. Die Gebaeude wurden in Stahlkonstruktion mit metallisch grauem Trapezblech (Sandwichbauweise) errichtet. Massstab fuer die Gesamtkonzeption dieses Industrieobjektes waren rein wirtschaftliche Gesichtspunkte. (orig./HW)

  14. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Vinod; K.G.Gopchandran

    2014-01-01

    Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  15. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vinod

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  16. Studies on electronic structure of interfaces between Ag and gelatin for stabilization of Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Tadaaki; Uchida, Takayuki

    2015-06-01

    Extremely high stability of Ag nanoparticles in photographic materials has forced us to study the electronic structures of the interfaces between thin layers of Ag, Au, and Pt and their surface membranes in ambient atmosphere by photoelectron yield spectroscopy in air and Kelvin probe method. Owing to the Fermi level equalization between a metal layer and a membrane coming from air, the electron transfer took place from the membrane to Pt and Au layers and from an Ag layer to the membrane, giving the reason for poor stability of Ag nanoparticles in air. The control of the Fermi level of an Ag layer with respect to that of a gelatin membrane in air could be widely made according to Nernst’s equation by changing the pH and pAg values of an aqueous gelatin solution used to form the membrane, and thus available to stabilize Ag nanoparticles in a gelatin matrix.

  17. Studies on electronic structure of interfaces between Ag and gelatin for stabilization of Ag nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extremely high stability of Ag nanoparticles in photographic materials has forced us to study the electronic structures of the interfaces between thin layers of Ag, Au, and Pt and their surface membranes in ambient atmosphere by photoelectron yield spectroscopy in air and Kelvin probe method. Owing to the Fermi level equalization between a metal layer and a membrane coming from air, the electron transfer took place from the membrane to Pt and Au layers and from an Ag layer to the membrane, giving the reason for poor stability of Ag nanoparticles in air. The control of the Fermi level of an Ag layer with respect to that of a gelatin membrane in air could be widely made according to Nernst's equation by changing the pH and pAg values of an aqueous gelatin solution used to form the membrane, and thus available to stabilize Ag nanoparticles in a gelatin matrix. (author)

  18. Raman scattering enhanced within the plasmonic gap between an isolated Ag triangular nanoplate and Ag film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuanguo; Jiang, Kang; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Yong; Mao, Lei; Zeng, Jie; Lu, Yonghua; Wang, Pei

    2016-04-22

    Enhanced electromagnetic field in the tiny gaps between metallic nanostructures holds great promise in optical applications. Herein, we report novel out-of-plane nanogaps composed of micrometer-sized Ag triangular nanoplates (AgTN) on Ag films. Notably, the new coupled plasmonic structure can dramatically enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by visible laser excitation, although the micrometer-sized AgTN has localized plasmon resonance at infrared wavelength. This enhancement is derived from the gap plasmon polariton between the AgTN and Ag film, which is excited via the antenna effect of the corner and edge of the AgTN. Systematic SERS studies indicated that the plasmon enhancement was on the order of corner > edge > face. These results were further verified by theoretical simulations. Our device paves the way for rational design of sensitive SERS substrates by judiciously choosing appropriate nanoparticles and optimizing the gap distance. PMID:26939539

  19. THE AGS HIGH POWER UPGRADE PLAN.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WENG,W.T.; ROSER,T.

    2002-04-08

    BNL could provide a Megawatt class neutrino beam from the AGS for very long baseline neutrino experiments. We have studied two possible approaches to upgrade the AGS to 1.0 MW beam power. The first is the linac option, comprising a new superconducting linac injector of 1.2 GeV, accelerating 9 x 10{sup 3} proton per pulse in the AGS to 28 GeV at 2.5 Hz. The second option is to extend the existing 200 MeV linac to 400 MeV. ramp the Booster to 2.5 GeV at 6 Hz. add a new 2.5 GeV accumulator ring in the AGS tunnel. and finally ramp the AGS to 28 GeV at 2.5 Hz. Due to the simplicity of the linac approach and minimum interference with the on going research program. the linac option is the preferred one.

  20. Rapid chromatographic separation of dissoluble Ag(I) and silver-containing nanoparticles of 1-100 nanometer in antibacterial products and environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2014-12-16

    Sensitive and rapid methods for speciation analysis of nanoparticulate Ag (NAg) and Ag(I) in complex matrices are urgently needed for understanding the environmental effects and biological toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Herein we report the development of a universal liquid chromatography (LC) method for rapid and high resolution separation of dissoluble Ag(I) from nanoparticles covering the entire range of 1-100 nm in 5 min. By using a 500 Å poresize amino column, and an aqueous mobile phase containing 0.1% (v/v) FL-70 (a surfactant) and 2 mM Na2S2O3 at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min, all the nanoparticles of various species such as Ag and Ag2S were eluted in one fraction, while dissoluble Ag(I) was eluted as a baseline separated peak. The dissoluble Ag(I) was quantified by the online coupled ICP-MS with a detection limit of 0.019 μg/L. The NAg was quantified by subtracting the dissoluble Ag(I) from the total Ag content, which was determined by ICP-MS after digestion of the sample without LC separation. While the addition of FL-70 and Na2S2O3 into the mobile phase is essential to elute NAg and Ag(I) from the column, the use of 500 Å poresize column is the key to baseline separation of Ag(I) from ∼ 1 nm AgNPs. The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated in speciation analysis of dissoluble Ag(I) and NAg in antibacterial products and environmental waters, with very good chromatographic repeatability (relative standard deviations) in both peak area (<2%) and retention time (<0.6%), excellent spiked recoveries in the range of 84.7-102.7% for Ag(I) and 81.3-106.3% for NAg. Our work offers a novel approach to rapid and baseline separation of dissoluble metal ions from their nanoparticulate counterparts covering the whole range of 1-100 nm. PMID:25417798

  1. Influence of fibrolytic enzymes on ruminal disappearance and fermentation in steers fed diets with short and long particle length of forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Mendoza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme mixture on in sacco ruminal disappearance and fermentation of growing (380 kg body weight and finishing (440 kg body weight steers fed with diets to short (10 mm and long (50 mm particle length (PL were evaluated. Four Holstein steers fitted with ruminal cannulas were randomly assigned to: (1 diet with short PL forage; (2 diet with short PL forage + enzyme; (3 diet with long PL forage; (4 diet with long PL forage + enzyme. Fibrolytic enzymes did not affect dry matter intake. In growing steers, potentially disappearance fraction and total disappearance of DM, starch, NDF and ADF were increased by enzymes. In finishing steers, enzymes increased potentially disappearance fractions and total disappearance of DM, starch, NDF and ADF. In both growing and finishing steers, enzymes increased ruminal ammonia concentrations. Enzymes increased ruminal disappearance of diets for steers, but it had scarce effects on ruminal fermentation and intake.

  2. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4 and aging (T6 heat treatment.The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant β phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH2 and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7, revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269, and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials.

  3. Research Opportunities at Storm Peak Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation of 3210 m MSL (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. The ridge-top location produces almost daily transition from free tropospheric to boundary layer air which occurs near midday in both summer and winter seasons. Long-term observations at SPL document the role of orographically induced mixing and convection on vertical pollutant transport and dispersion. During winter, SPL is above cloud base 25% of the time, providing a unique capability for studying aerosol-cloud interactions (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). A comprehensive set of continuous aerosol measurements was initiated at SPL in 2002. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a cold room for precipitation and cloud rime ice sample handling and ice crystal microphotography, a 150 m2 roof deck area for outside sampling equipment, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. The laboratory is currently well equipped for aerosol and cloud measurements. Particles are sampled from an insulated, 15 cm diameter manifold within approximately 1 m of its horizontal entry point through an outside wall. The 4 m high vertical section outside the building is capped with an inverted can to exclude large particles.

  4. The α and γ peaks in pure iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specimens annealed in vacuum or a pressure of pure hydrogen at 4000 or 8000C have subsequently been deformed in tension at ambient temperatures. Careful measurement of the α-peak produced by this procedure has shown that the broadening of the low temperature side of the peak is probably due to a separate α'-peak. Subsequent deformation in torsion at 4 K leaves the α-peak practically unchanged in magnitude but enhances the γ-peak at 300 K. Amplitude dependent damping in the region of the α-peak is described and the results are discussed in terms of the model recently proposed by Hivert, Groh and Moser

  5. Phytosynthesis of stable Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles using J. Sambac leaves extract, and their enhanced antimicrobial activity in presence of organic antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallappa, S.; Manjanna, J.; Dhananjaya, B. L.

    2015-02-01

    A green chemistry approach for the synthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles (NPs) using the corresponding metal precursors and Jasminum sambac leaves extract as both reducing and capping media, under microwave irradiation, is reported. During the formation, as expected, the reaction mixture shows marginal decrease in pH and an increase in solution potential. The formation of NPs is evident from their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak observed at ∼555 nm for Au, ∼435 nm for Ag and ∼510 nm for Au-Ag alloy. The XRD pattern shows fcc structure while the FTIR spectra indicate the presence of plant residues adsorbed on these NPs. Such a bio-capping of NPs is characterized by their weight loss, ∼35% due to thermal degradation of biomass, as observed in TG analysis. The colloidal dispersion of NPs is stable for about 6 weeks. The near spherical shape of NPs (ϕ20-50 nm) is observed by FE-SEM/TEM images and EDAX gives the expected elemental composition. Furthermore, these NPs showed enhanced antimicrobial activity (∼1-4-fold increase in zone of inhibition) in combination with antimicrobials against test strains. Thus, the phytosynthesized NPs could be used as effective growth inhibitors for various microorganisms.

  6. The AGS Booster vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hseuh, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. The design pressure of low 10{sup {minus}11} mbar is required to minimize beam loss of the partially stripped heavy ions. To remove contaminants and to reduce outgassing, the vacuum chambers and the components located in them will be chemically cleaned, vacuum fired, baked then treated with nitric oxide. The vacuum sector will be insitu baked to a minimum of 200{degree}C and pumped by the combination of sputter ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. This paper describes the design and the processing of this ultra high vacuum system, and the performance of some half-cell vacuum chambers. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  7. The AGS Booster vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. The design pressure of low 10-11 mbar is required to minimize beam loss of the partially stripped heavy ions. To remove contaminants and to reduce outgassing, the vacuum chambers and the components located in them will be chemically cleaned, vacuum fired, baked then treated with nitric oxide. The vacuum sector will be insitu baked to a minimum of 200 degree C and pumped by the combination of sputter ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. This paper describes the design and the processing of this ultra high vacuum system, and the performance of some half-cell vacuum chambers. 9 refs., 7 figs

  8. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik O; Lauridsen, Felicia K B; Rapin, Nicolas; Porse, Bo T

    2016-01-01

    from four ENCODE cell lines and four hematopoietic differentiation stages, we identified several enhancers whose regulatory activity is stage specific and correlates positively with the expression of proximal genes in a particular stage. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PVP patterns......Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak...... that NFRs predicted by H3K4me1 and me3 patterns are associated with active enhancers and promoters, respectively. Furthermore, asymmetry in the height of peaks flanking the central valley can predict the directionality of stable transcription at promoters. Using PARE on ChIP-seq histone modifications...

  9. Disappearance of Comet C/2010 X1 (Elenin): Gone with a Whimper, not a Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    We examine the rise and sudden demise of comet C/2010 X1 (Elenin) on its approach to perihelion. Discovered inbound at 4.2 AU, this long-period comet was predicted to become very bright when near perihelion, at 0.48 AU on 2011 September 10. Observations starting 2011 February (heliocentric distance $\\sim$3.5 AU) indeed show the comet to brighten by about 11 magnitudes, with most of the increase occurring inside 1 AU from the Sun. The peak brightness reached $m_R$ = 6 on UT 2011 August 12.95$\\pm$0.50, when at $\\sim$0.83 AU from the Sun. We find that most of the surge in brightness in mid-August resulted from dust particle forward-scattering, not from a sudden increase in the activity. A much smaller ($\\sim$3 magnitudes) brightening reached a maximum on UT 2011 August 30$\\pm$1 (at 0.56 AU), and reflects the true break-up of the nucleus. This second peak was matched by a change in the morphology from centrally condensed to diffuse. The estimated cross-section of the nucleus when at 1 AU inbound was $\\sim$1 km$^2...

  10. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik O; Lauridsen, Felicia B; Rapin, Nicolas; Porse, Bo T

    2016-05-19

    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak-valley-peak (PVP) pattern. However, different features of PVP patterns and their robustness in predicting active regulatory elements have never been systematically analyzed. Here, we present PARE, a novel computational method that systematically analyzes the H3K4me1 or H3K4me3 PVP patterns to predict NFRs. We show that NFRs predicted by H3K4me1 and me3 patterns are associated with active enhancers and promoters, respectively. Furthermore, asymmetry in the height of peaks flanking the central valley can predict the directionality of stable transcription at promoters. Using PARE on ChIP-seq histone modifications from four ENCODE cell lines and four hematopoietic differentiation stages, we identified several enhancers whose regulatory activity is stage specific and correlates positively with the expression of proximal genes in a particular stage. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PVP patterns delineate both the histone modification landscape and the transcriptional activities governed by active enhancers and promoters, and therefore can be used for their prediction. PARE is freely available at http://servers.binf.ku.dk/pare. PMID:27095194

  11. Long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at the AGS. Physics design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a design for a multi-detector long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at the BNL AGS. It has been approved by the BNL-HENP-PAC as AGS Experiment 889. The experiment will search for oscillations in the νμ, disappearance channel and the νμ ↔ νe appearance channel by means of four identical neutrino detectors located 1, 3, 24, and 68km from the AGS neutrino source. Observed depletion of the νμ flux (via quasi-elastic muon neutrino events, νμn → μ-p) in the far detectors not attended by an observed proportional increase of the νe flux (via quasi-elastic electron neutrino events, νen → e-p) in those detectors will be prima facie evidence for the oscillation channel νμ ↔ ντ. The experiment is directed toward exploration of the region of the neutrino oscillation parameters Δm2 and sin22θ, suggested by the Kamiokande and IMB deep underground detectors but it will also explore a region more than two orders of magnitude larger than that of previous accelerator experiments. The experiment will run in a mode new to BNL. It will receive the fast extracted proton beam on the neutrino target approximately 20 hours per day when the AGS is not filling RHIC. A key aspect of the experimental design involves placing the detectors 1.5 degrees off the center line of the neutrino beam, which has the important advantage that the central value of the neutrino energy (∼ 1 GeV) and the beam spectral shape are, to a good approximation, the same in all four detectors. The proposed detectors are massive, imaging, water Cherenkov detectors similar in large part to the Kamiokande and IMB detectors. The design has profited from their decade-long experience, and from the detector designs of the forthcoming SNO and SuperKamiokande detectors

  12. Enhancement of the visible light activity and stability of Ag2CO3 by formation of AgI/Ag2CO3 heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changlin; Wei, Longfu; Zhou, Wanqin; Chen, Jianchai; Fan, Qizhe; Liu, Hong

    2014-11-01

    An insurmountable problem for silver-based semiconductor photocatalysts is their poor stability. Here, at room temperature, AgI with different concentrations (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%) were coupled into Ag2CO3, producing a series of novel AgI/Ag2CO3 composite photocatalysts. The effects of AgI addition on the Ag2CO3 catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation have been investigated. Some physicochemical technologies like N2 physical adsorption/desorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) were applied to characterize these products. Results show that the photocatalytic degradation activity of AgI/Ag2CO3 photocatalyst is much higher than that of pure AgI and Ag2CO3. With the optimal content of AgI (20 wt%), the AgI/Ag2CO3 exhibits the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Its first order reaction rate constant (0.54 h-1) is 20 times of that of AgI (0.026 h-1) and 3.6 times of that of Ag2CO3 (0.15 h-1). The characterizations and theory calculation show that AgI and Ag2CO3 have suitably matched band gap structures. The formation of AgI/Ag2CO3 heterojunction with intimate interface could effectively increase the separation efficiency of the e-/h+ pairs and promote the production of •OH and O2•- radicals, which brings about the fast degradation rate of the dye and an increase in photocatalytic stability.

  13. Evaluation of AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress and DNA mutation in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Farrokh; Dabbagh, Somayyeh; Alizadeh, Sina; Rostamnia, Sadegh

    2016-08-01

    The bactericidal effects of silver nanoparticles have been demonstrated in the past years. Recently, the new antimicrobial compounds of silver nanoparticles with different formulations have been developed. In this work, AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL as a new compound of Ag nanoparticles, was synthesized and characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, FTIR, and EDX. The antibacterial activity and the molecular mechanism effects of AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles (SNPs) on Escherichia coli DH5α cells were investigated by analyzing the growth inhibitory, H2O2 level, catalase activity, DNA mutation, and plasmid copy number following treatment with AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles. In experimental results, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed in 75 μg/ml and the antibacterial efficacy (ABE) in CFU analysis was estimated 95.3 %. In bacterial cells treated with 75 and 100 μg/ml, H2O2 level significantly increased and catalase activity decreased compared with control. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to evaluate the effect of AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles in DNA damages and mutation in E. coli genome. RADP-PCR results indicated different banding patterns including appearance or disappearance of bands and differences in their intensity. Cluster analysis of the RAPD-PCR results based on genetic similarity showed genetic difference between E. coli cells treated with AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles, and control and phylogenetic tree were divided to two clusters. Plasmid copy number analysis indicated that after 8 h incubation of E. coli cells with 50, 75, and 100 μg/ml AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles, copy number of pET21a (+) significantly decreased compared with control which indicating DNA replication inhibition by Ag nanoparticles. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles can be used as an effective bactericidal agent against bacterial cells. PMID:27209037

  14. Supreme Court Position Regarding the Implementation of International Law Crimes of the Past in Spain: a Legal Analysis after Reports of the un Working Group on Enforced Disappearance, the Committee on Enforced Disappearances and the un Special Rapporteur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Chinchón Álvarez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Along with the undeniable importance of the case, the judgment of the Spanish Supreme Court in the trial against Judge Baltasar Garzón accused of prevarication, having declared itself competent to investigate complaints for crimes committed during the Civil War and the Franco’s regime, it has had a determining significance: from then to now, the doctrine of the High Court has been almost literally followed by the remaining Spanish courts against any complaint concerning to crimes com- mitted before the last transition to democracy in Spain. This state of affairs has been repeatedly criticized by various bodies of the United Nations, expressly by the three that have visited Spain more recently: The UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, the Committee on Enforced Disappearances and the UN Special Rapporteur on the Promotion of Truth, Justice, Reparation and Guarantees of Non-Repetition. In this contribution will be presented and analysed transcendent positions defended by the Supreme Court regarding the application of international law to the past crimes in Spain and especially its configuration as crimes against humanity, the legal assessment about the enforced disappearance, and the validity and application of the 1977 Amnesty Law.

  15. Agent planning in AgScala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Saša; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2013-10-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

  16. Facile synthesis of novel Ag/AgI/BiOI composites with highly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel Ag/AgI/BiOI composites were controllably synthesized via a facile ion-exchange followed by photoreduction strategy by using hierarchical BiOI microflower as substrate. The as-prepared Ag/AgI/BiOI composites were studied by X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analyzer and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Under visible light (λ>420 nm), Ag/AgI/BiOI displayed highly enhanced photocatalytic activities for degradation of methyl orange (MO) compared to the pure hierarchical BiOI, which was mainly ascribed to the highly efficient separation of electrons and holes through the closely contacted interfaces in the Ag/AgI/BiOI ternary system. - Graphical abstract: Ag/AgI/BiOI displayed excellent photocatalytic activities for methyl orange degradation under visible light, which was mainly ascribed to the highly efficient separation of electrons and holes through Z-scheme pathway. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Novel Ag/AgI/BiOI composites were successfully synthesized. • Ag/AgI/BiOI displayed higher visible light activities than those of pure BiOI and AgI. • ·O2− and h+, especially ·O2−, dominated the photodegradation process of MO. • A Z-scheme pattern was adopted for Ag/AgI/BiOI activity enhancement

  17. Disappearance of the southeast U.S. "warming hole" with the late 1990s transition of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Chung, Christine T. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Observed surface air temperatures over the contiguous U.S. for the second half of the twentieth century showed a slight cooling over the southeastern part of the country, the so-called "warming hole," while temperatures over the rest of the country warmed. This pattern reversed after 2000. Climate model simulations show that the disappearance of the warming hole in the early 2000s is likely associated with the transition of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) phase from positive to negative in the tropical Pacific in the late 1990s, coincident with the early 2000s slowdown of the warming trend in globally averaged surface air temperature. Analysis of a specified convective heating anomaly sensitivity experiment in an atmosphere-only model traces the disappearance of the warming hole to negative sea surface temperature anomalies and consequent negative precipitation and convective heating anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean associated with the negative phase of the IPO after 2000.

  18. Studies on transfer, bioaccumulation and disappearance of glyphosate in the aquatic ecosystem by utilizing 14C tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on transfer, bioaccumulation and disappearance of glyphosate in the aquatic environment were conducted with methods of model tests and outdoor trials in the aquatic ecosystem. The result showed that glyphosate transferred rapidly into sediment and hormwort (Ceratopyllum demersum L.) after applied; and then, it was taken up faster and accumulated more by topmouth gudgeon (Psudorasobora parva) 5-10 days after application. The partitioning coefficient (sediment-water) and bioconcentration factors of glyphosate were 8.59, 27.96 and 45.79, respectively, in day 20. The concentration of glyphosate residue in the aquatic ecosystem followed the order of topmouth gudgeon > hormwort > sediment > water. And it was also indicated that glyphosate transferred and disappeared extremely fast in both pond and river after application

  19. Search for disappearing tracks in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Molina, Jorge; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Rurua, Lali; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fantinel, Sergio; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Ryu, Min Sang; Kim, Jae Yool; Moon, Dong Ho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; 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Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; 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Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; 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Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Zablocki, Jakub; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Korjenevski, Sergey; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    A search is presented for long-lived charged particles that decay within the CMS detector and produce the signature of a disappearing track. Disappearing tracks are identified as those with little or no associated calorimeter energy deposits and with missing hits in the outer layers of the tracker. The search uses proton-proton collision data recorded at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV that corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $19.5~\\mathrm{fb^{-1} }$. The results of the search are interpreted in the context of the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model. The number of observed events is in agreement with the background expectation, and limits are set on the cross section of direct electroweak chargino production in terms of the chargino mass and mean proper lifetime. At 95% confidence level, AMSB models with a chargino mass less than 260 GeV, corresponding to a mean proper lifetime of 0.2 ns, are excluded.

  20. Nucleation and growth mechanism of Ag precipitates in a CuAgZr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CuAgZr alloy is a variant of the CuAg alloy that is developed for high strength and high conductivity applications. Its strengthening is accomplished mainly by the precipitation of Ag precipitates, which tend to align on {111} planes in the Cu matrix. This alignment has been reported to be caused by stacking faults on {111} planes. Contrary to these reports, this research presents evidence for Ag precipitates formation on {111} planes due to the minimization of elastic energy. The Ag precipitates were formed by clustering of Ag atoms while maintaining the fcc crystal structure of the matrix. They have faceted {111} interfaces with the matrix. The thickening of precipitates appears to be by the ledge growth mechanism, which is resulted in by misfit dislocation networks on the interface

  1. Theoretical Investigation on the Adsorption of Ag+ and Hydrated Ag+ Cations on Clean Si(111)Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Yong-Li; LI Meng-Hua; WANG Zhi-Guo; LIU Yong-Jun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the adsorption of Ag+ and hydrated Ag+ cations on clean Si(111)surface were investigated by using cluster(Gaussian 03)and periodic(DMol3)ab initio calculations.Si(111)surface was described with cluster models(Si14H17 and Si22H21)and a four-silicon layer slab with periodic boundary conditions.The effect of basis set superposition error(BSSE)was taken into account by applying the counterpoise correction.The calculated results indicated that the binding energies between hydrated Ag+ cations and clean Si(111)surface are large,suggesting a strong interaction between hydrated Ag+ cations and the semiconductor surface.With the increase of number,water molecules form hydrogen bond network with one another and only one water molecule binds directly to the Ag+ cation.The Ag+ cation in aqueous solution will safely attach to the clean Si(111)surface.

  2. Ag-rich precipitates formation in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cu-rich nanoprecipitates are formed in the presence of Ag. • Bainite precipitation is shifted to higher temperatures in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy. • The eutectoid α phase and bainite α1 phase compete by the Cu atoms during precipitation process. - Abstract: The formation of Ag-rich precipitates in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy initially quenched from 1123 K was analyzed. The results showed that nanoprecipitates of a Cu-rich phase are produced at about 523 K. In higher temperatures these nanoparticles grow and the relative fraction of Ag dissolved in it is increased, thus forming the Ag-rich phase

  3. Ag induced electromagnetic interference shielding of Ag-graphite/PVDF flexible nanocomposites thinfilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, R.; Alagar, M.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Subramanian, V.; Dinakaran, K.

    2015-09-01

    We report Ag nanoparticle induced Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding in a flexible composite films of Ag nanoparticles incorporated graphite/poly-vinylidene difluoride (PVDF). PVDF nanocomposite thin-films were synthesized by intercalating Ag in Graphite (GIC) followed by dispersing GIC in PVDF. The X-ray diffraction analysis and the high-resolution transmission electron microscope clearly dictate the microstructure of silver nanoparticles in graphite intercalated composite of PVDF matrix. The conductivity values of nanocomposites are increased upto 2.5 times when compared to neat PVDF having a value of 2.70 S/cm at 1 MHz. The presence of Ag broadly enhanced the dielectric constant and lowers the dielectric loss of PVDF matrix proportional to Ag content. The EMI shielding effectiveness of the composites is 29.1 dB at 12.4 GHz for the sample having 5 wt. % Ag and 10 wt. % graphite in PVDF.

  4. THE AGS-BASED SUPER NEUTRINO BEAM FACILITY CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WENG,W.T.; DIWAN,M.; RAPARIA,D.

    2004-10-08

    be upgraded to 0.2 s to reach the required repetition rate of 2.5 Hz. The required upgrade of the AGS power supply, the rf system, and other rate dependent accelerator issues is discussed. The design of the target/horn configuration is shown. The material selected for the proton target is a Carbon-Carbon composite. It is a 3-dimensional woven material that exhibits extremely low thermal expansion for temperatures up to 1000 C; for higher temperatures it responds like graphite. This property is important for greatly reducing the thermo-elastic stresses induced by the beam, thereby extending the life of the target. The target consists of a 80 cm long cylindrical rod of 12 mm diameter. The target intercepts a 2 mm rms proton beam of 10{sup 14} protons/pulse. The total energy deposited as heat in the target is 7.3 kJ with peak temperature rise of about 280 C. Heat will be removed from the target through forced convection of helium gas across its outside surface. The extracted proton beam uses an existing beamline at the AGS, but is then directed to a target station atop a constructed earthen hill. The target is followed by a downward slopping pion decay channel. This vertical arrangement keeps the target and decay pipe well above the water table in this area. The 11.3 degrees slope aims the neutrino beam at a water Cerenkov neutrino detector to be located in the Homestake mine at Lead, South Dakota. A 3-dimensional view of the beam transport line, target station, and decay tunnel is provided.

  5. Facile synthesis of near-monodisperse Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles and their application for catalytic generation of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Huizhang; Chen Yuanzhi; Chen Xiaozhen; Wen Ruitao; Yue Guanghui; Peng Dongliang, E-mail: yuanzhi@xmu.edu.cn, E-mail: dlpeng@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2011-05-13

    Magnetically recyclable Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles have been fabricated via a simple one-pot synthetic route using oleylamine both as solvent and reducing agent and triphenylphosphine as a surfactant. As characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the as-synthesized Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles exhibit a very narrow size distribution with a typical size of 14.9 {+-} 1.2 nm and a tunable shell thickness. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy study shows that the formation of a Ni shell on Ag core can damp the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the Ag core and lead to a red-shifted SPR absorption peak. Magnetic measurement indicates that all the as-synthesized Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature, and their blocking temperatures can be controlled by modulating the shell thickness. The as-synthesized Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles exhibit excellent catalytic properties for the generation of H{sub 2} from dehydrogenation of sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions. The hydrogen generation rate of Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles is found to be much higher than that of Ag and Ni nanoparticles of a similar size, and the calculated activation energy for hydrogen generation is lower than that of many bimetallic catalysts. The strategy employed here can also be extended to other noble-magnetic metal systems.

  6. Facile synthesis of near-monodisperse Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles and their application for catalytic generation of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetically recyclable Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles have been fabricated via a simple one-pot synthetic route using oleylamine both as solvent and reducing agent and triphenylphosphine as a surfactant. As characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the as-synthesized Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles exhibit a very narrow size distribution with a typical size of 14.9 ± 1.2 nm and a tunable shell thickness. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy study shows that the formation of a Ni shell on Ag core can damp the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the Ag core and lead to a red-shifted SPR absorption peak. Magnetic measurement indicates that all the as-synthesized Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature, and their blocking temperatures can be controlled by modulating the shell thickness. The as-synthesized Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles exhibit excellent catalytic properties for the generation of H2 from dehydrogenation of sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions. The hydrogen generation rate of Ag-Ni core-shell nanoparticles is found to be much higher than that of Ag and Ni nanoparticles of a similar size, and the calculated activation energy for hydrogen generation is lower than that of many bimetallic catalysts. The strategy employed here can also be extended to other noble-magnetic metal systems.

  7. Brief Report: High Peak Level of Plasma Raltegravir Concentration in Patients With ABCB1 and ABCG2 Genetic Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kiyoto; Hayashida, Tsunefusa; Hamada, Akinobu; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Raltegravir was recently identified to be a substrate of ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1) and G2 (ABCG2), which are efflux transporters and expressed in the intestines. We analyzed the relations between plasma raltegravir concentrations and single nucleotide polymorphism of ABCB1 and ABCG2 genes. The peak plasma concentration of raltegravir was significantly higher in the patients with ABCB1 4036 AG/GG and ABCG2 421 CA/AA than in other genotype holders (P = 0.0052), though no difference was identified in trough raltegravir concentrations, which may be explained by reduced expression of efflux transporters in intestine by these genetic variants. PMID:27097364

  8. Great tits growing old: selective disappearance and the partitioning of senescence to stages within the breeding cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwhuis, S.; Sheldon, B C; Verhulst, S.; Charmantier, A

    2009-01-01

    Deterioration of reproductive traits with age is observed in an increasing number of species. Although such deterioration is often attributed to reproductive senescence, a within-individual decline in reproductive success with age, few studies on wild animals have focused on direct fitness measures while accounting for selective disappearance and terminal effects, and to our knowledge none have determined how senescence effects arise from underlying reproductive traits. We show for female gre...

  9. Disappearance of Mott oscillations in sub-barrier elastic scattering of identical heavy ions and the nuclear interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Canto, L F; Mittig, W

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the possible disappearance of Mott oscillations in the scattering of bosonic nuclei at sub-barrier energies. This effect is universal and happens at a critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter. It is also found that the inclusion of the short-range nuclear interaction has a profound influence on this phenomenon. Thus we suggest that the study of this lack of Mott oscillation, which we call, ``transverse isotropy" is a potentially useful mean to study the nuclear interaction.

  10. Limits on Active to Sterile Neutrino Oscillations from Disappearance Searches in the MINOS, Daya Bay, and Bugey-3 Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Bay, Daya; Collaborations, MINOS+; :; Adamson, P.; An, F. P.; Anghel, I.(University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), Chicago, U.S.A); Aurisano, A.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H R.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, S. Blyth G. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, D.

    2016-01-01

    Searches for a light sterile neutrino have been independently performed by the MINOS and the Daya Bay experiments using the muon (anti)neutrino and electron antineutrino disappearance channels, respectively. In this Letter, results from both experiments are combined with those from the Bugey-3 reactor neutrino experiment to constrain oscillations into light sterile neutrinos. The three experiments are sensitive to complementary regions of parameter space, enabling the combined analysis to pro...

  11. Facile synthesis of S-Ag nanocomposites and Ag2S short nanorods by the interaction of sulfur with AgNO3 in PEG400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Li; Xie, Xin-Yuan; Liang, Ming; Xie, Shu-Ming; Chen, Jie-Mei; Zheng, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    A facile, eco-friendly and inexpensive method to prepare Ag2S short nanorods and S-Ag nanocomposites using sublimed sulfur, AgNO3, PVP and PEG400 was studied. According to x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy of the Ag2S, the products are highly crystalline and pure Ag2S nanorods with diameters of 70-160 nm and lengths of 200-360 nm. X-ray diffraction of the S-Ag nanocomposites shows that we obtained cubic Ag and S nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the molar ratio of PVP to Ag(+) plays an important role in controlling the size and morphology of the S-Ag nanocomposites. When the molar ratio of PVP to Ag(+) was 10:1, smaller sizes, better dispersibility and narrower distribution of S-Ag nanocomposites with diameters of 10-40 nm were obtained. The formation mechanism of the S-Ag nanocomposites was studied by designing a series of experiments using ultraviolet-visible measurement, and it was found that S nanoparticles are produced first and act as seed crystals; then Ag(+) becomes Ag nanocrystals on the surfaces of the S nanoparticles by the reduction of PVP. PEG400 acts as a catalyzer, accelerating the reaction rate, and protects the S-Ag nanocomposites from reacting to produce Ag2S. The antimicrobial experiments show that the S-Ag nanocomposites have greater antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and blue mold than Ag nanoparticles. PMID:27109417

  12. Tailoring the size and distribution of Ag nanoparticles in silica glass by defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yitao, E-mail: yangyt@impcas.ac.cn [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Chonghong; Song, Yin; Gou, Jie; Zhang, Liqing [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Hengqing; Liu, Juan; Xian, Yongqiang [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma, Yizhun [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-02-15

    The composites embedded with metallic nanoparticles show large nonlinear optical susceptibility and strong surface plasmon resonance absorption, which enable potential application in opto-electronics. Ion implantation has been proven to be a powerful technique of synthesis of metallic nanoparticles due to its versatility and compatibility. However, the synthesis of nanoparticles by ion implantation inevitably leads to a broad size distribution due to Ostwald ripening process. The broad size distribution has a negative effect on improving the figure of merits for nonlinear optics. In this paper, we tried to introduce defects in silica glass to act as pre-nucleation centers to mediate the size and distribution of Ag nanoparticles. In experiment, the silica glass samples were pre-irradiated by 200 keV Ar ions to fluences of 0.8, 2.0 and 5.0 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, and then 200 keV Ag ions were implanted into the pre-irradiated samples to fluence of 2.0 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. UV–VIS results show that the absorbance intensity of Ag SPR peak initially increases and then decreases with pre-irradiation fluence, which implies the change in size and density of Ag nanoparticles in samples. TEM results verify that Ag nanoparticles in the sample pre-irradiated to the fluence of 0.8 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} grow bigger and distribute in a relatively narrow region comparing with that without pre-irradiation. With further increase of pre-irradiation fluence, the size of Ag nanoparticles shows a depth dependent distribution. A boundary can be clear seen at the depth of 110 nm, larger Ag nanoparticles disperse in region shallower than 110 nm, and smaller Ag nanoparticles disperse in the region deeper than 110 nm. The average size of Ag nanoparticles initially increases and then decreases with pre-irradiation fluence. Therefore, the introduction of defects by pre-irradiation could be an effective way to tailor the size and distribution of metallic nanoparticles in

  13. New data for AG haplotype frequencies in Caucasoid populations and selective neutrality of the AG polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Bütler-Brunner, E.; Excoffier, Laurent Georges Louis; Ghanem, N; Ben Salem, M.; BREGUET, Georges; Dard, Patricia Nathalie; Pellegrini, Béatrice; Tikkanen, M J; Langaney, André; Lefranc, Gérard; Bütler, René

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of AG antigen typings of three Caucasoid population samples: Lebanese, Tunisians, and Finns. AG haplotype frequencies estimated by maximum-likelihood methods are compared with the frequencies observed in 13 world populations previously tested for AG specificities by computing a genetic distance matrix used in a multivariate analysis. A high degree of polymorphism characterizes the three samples, with 10 haplotypes detected in the Lebanese and 11 haplotypes detected in t...

  14. Control and performance of the AGS and AGS Booster Main Magnet Power Supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, R.K.; Casella, R.; Culwick, B.; Geller, J.; Marneris, I.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques for precision control of the main magnet power supplies for the AGS and AGS Booster synchrotron will be discussed. Both synchrotrons are designed to operate in a Pulse-to-Pulse Modulation (PPM) environment with a Supercycle Generator defining and distributing global timing events for the AGS Facility. Details of modelling, real-time feedback and feedforward systems, generation and distribution of real time field data, operational parameters and an overview of performance for both machines are included.

  15. Control and performance of the AGS and AGS Booster Main Magnet Power Supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, R.K.; Casella, R.; Culwick, B.; Geller, J.; Marneris, I.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1993-06-01

    Techniques for precision control of the main magnet power supplies for the AGS and AGS Booster synchrotron will be discussed. Both synchrotrons are designed to operate in a Pulse-to-Pulse Modulation (PPM) environment with a Supercycle Generator defining and distributing global timing events for the AGS Facility. Details of modelling, real-time feedback and feedforward systems, generation and distribution of real time field data, operational parameters and an overview of performance for both machines are included.

  16. ENFORCED DISAPPEARANCE OF PERSONS UNDER INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW: THE CASE “GUERRILHA DO ARAGUAIA” IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pires Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The case “Guerrilha do Araguaia” is well known in Brazil in the view of the disappearances of opponents to the military regime occurred between 1972 and 1974, in the region known as Araguaia. Despite the efforts made by the families of the victims to seek responsibility and redress, few progress has been done. In 1995, Brazil recognized its responsibilities for the deaths and established a Commission to provide compensation to the families of the victims. The Amnesty Law prevented the State to initiate the criminal proceedings related to the responsibilities of those involved in the disappearances, torture and killings. On December 2010, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights decided that Brazil is responsible for the enforced disappearances in the Araguaia's region and, following its previous jurisprudence, determined that the State initiate adequate investigation and criminal proceedings related to the facts that amount to crimes against the humanity. In the view of the determination of criminal responsibilities on the “Guerrilha do Araguaia”'s case, this article will examine the grounds of criminal liability of the alleged offenders under the international criminal law as well as under the Brazilian domestic law, analysing the limitations that arise from both jurisdictions.

  17. A search for disappearing tracks in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Brinson, Jessica Danielle

    This thesis presents a search for evidence of new supersymmetric particles in proton-proton collision data collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid at the Large Hadron Collider located in Geneva, Switzerland. The data was collected in 2012 at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 inverse femtobarns. The search examines events that produce the experimental signature of a disappearing track. Disappearing tracks are identifed as those with little or no associated calorimeter energy deposits and with several missing hits in the outer layers of the tracker. This search is motived by anomaly-mediated supersymmetry which postulates that a long-lived chargino decaying to a neutralino and pion with low momentum could give rise to a disappearing track. The sources of background in this search arise from leptons which fail to be reconstructed and false trajectories determined by the track reconstruction algorithm. The number of observed events is in agreement with the backgr...

  18. Fuzzy Cosets and Quotient Fuzzy AG-subgroups

    OpenAIRE

    Amanullah,; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Shah, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we extend the concept of fuzzy AG-subgroups. We introduce some results in normal fuzzy AG-subgroups. We define fuzzy cosets and quotient fuzzy AG-subgroups, and prove that the sets of their collection form an AG-subgroup and fuzzy AG-subgroup respectively. We also introduce the fuzzy Lagrange's Theorem of AG-subgroup. It is known that the condition $\\mu(xy)=\\mu(yx)$ holds for all $x,y$ in fuzzy subgroups if $\\mu$ is normal, but in fuzzy AG-subgroup we show that it holds without ...

  19. Direct electrochemical oxidation of S-captopril using gold electrodes modified with graphene-AuAg nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogacean F

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Florina Pogacean,1 Alexandru R Biris,2 Maria Coros,1 Mihaela Diana Lazar,1 Fumiya Watanabe,3 Ganesh K Kannarpady,3 Said A Farha Al Said,4 Alexandru S Biris,3 Stela Pruneanu1 1Department of Isotopic Physics and Technology, 2Department of Mass Spectrometry, Chromatography, and Applied Physics, National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 3Center for Integrative Nanotechnology Sciences, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA; 4Department of Physics, College of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel approach for the electrochemical detection of S-captopril based on graphene AuAg nanostructures used to modify an Au electrode. Multi-layer graphene (Gr sheets decorated with embedded bimetallic AuAg nanoparticles were successfully synthesized catalytically with methane as the carbon source. The two catalytic systems contained 1.0 wt% Ag and 1.0 wt% Au, while the second had a larger concentration of metals (1.5 wt% Ag and 1.5 wt% Au and was used for the synthesis of the Gr-AuAg-1 and Gr-AuAg-1.5 multicomponent samples. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated the presence of graphene flakes that had regular shapes (square or rectangular and dimensions in the tens to hundreds of nanometers. We found that the size of the embedded AuAg nanoparticles varied between 5 and 100 nm, with the majority being smaller than 20 nm. Advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy studies indicated a bimetallic characteristic of the metallic clusters. The resulting Gr-AuAg-1 and Gr-AuAg-1.5 samples were used to modify the surface of commonly used Au substrates and subsequently employed for the direct electrochemical oxidation of S-captopril. By comparing the differential pulse voltammograms recorded with the two modified electrodes at various concentrations of captopril, the peak current

  20. Temperature stability of AgCu nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopoušek, Jiří, E-mail: sopousek@mail.muni.cz; Zobač, Ondřej; Vykoukal, Vít [Masaryk University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Czech Republic); Buršík, Jiří; Roupcová, Pavla [Institute of Physics of Materials ASCR (Czech Republic); Brož, Pavel; Pinkas, Jiří [Masaryk University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Czech Republic); Vřešťál, Jan [Masaryk University, Central European Institute of Technology, CEITEC (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    The colloidal solutions of the Ag–Cu nanoparticles (NPs, 10–32 nm) were prepared by solvothermal reactions. The samples of dried AgCu NPs and the resulting microstructures after heat treatment in air were investigated by various methods including electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) and high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction (HTXRD). The AgCu randomly mixed, Cu-rich, and Ag-rich face centred cubic crystal lattices were detected during the experiments. The temperature induced sintering was observed experimentally by HTXRD at 250 °C. The phase transformations at high temperatures were monitored by differential scanning calorimetry. The formation of the Ag-rich grains during heating in air and evolution of copper oxide microstructure were detected.Graphical abstract.