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Sample records for ag peaks disappear

  1. Effect of dc field on ac-loss peak in a commercial Bi:2223/Ag tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Ali; Düzgün, İbrahim; Çelebi, Selahattin

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of the ac susceptibility in a commercial Bi:2223/Ag tape for some different ac magnetic field amplitudes, Hac, in the presence of bias magnetic field Hdc directed along Hac are reported. It is found that the peak values of the imaginary component of ac susceptibility χ″max versus Hac trace a valley for the orientation where applied field Ha perpendicular to wide face of the tape total. We note that the observation of the valley depends on various parameters such as field dependence parameter n in the critical current density, in the simple power law expression jc = α(T)/Bn, choice of the bias field Hdc together with selected ac field amplitudes Hac, and dimension and geometry of sample studied. Our calculations based on critical state model with jc = α(1 - T/Tcm)p/Bn using the fitting parameters of n = 0.25, p = 2.2, Tcm = 108 K gives quite good results to compare the experimental and calculated curves.

  2. Performance test of Spectran-F and Spectran-III computer programs for resolving the 137Cs-110Ag double peak in gamma-ray spectrometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, H.; Malinowski, J.; Blick, H.

    1981-09-01

    The performance of the computer programs (Spectran F and Spectran-III) in resolving the 137 Cs-sup(110m)Ag double peak at 661.6-657.7 keV in the gamma-ray spectrum was investigated. In the experiments, the intensity ratios of both lines in the double peak were varied from 0.1 to 60. The results obtained show, that both programs have almost the same performance in resolving the double peak investigated, with slight superiority of Spectran-F. If accuracy better than 5% is desired, the peak intensity ratio in the dublet must be kept below 10. (orig.)

  3. How do oocytes disappear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Musoles, F; Renau, J; Hernandez-Yago, J; Torres, J

    1975-07-29

    It has been study using transmission and scanner electron microscopy the mean procedures of dessaparence of the oocytes. On described three methods: 1. The necrosis of the oocytes. 2. The autolysis and fagocitosis by granulosa cells. 3. The migration of those to the superphicie and fall into the peritoneal cavity. Using the scanner electron microscopy in ovaries of fetus and newborn it seems the latest method to bee the most important during the intrauterine life. After the birth, this last phenomenon seems to disappear.

  4. Structure and stability of defective silicene on Ag(001) and Ag(111) substrates: A computer experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galashev, A. E.; Ivanichkina, K. A.; Vorob'ev, A. S.; Rakhmanova, O. R.

    2017-06-01

    The structure and stability of a two-layer defective silicene on Ag(001) and Ag(111) substrates have been investigated using the molecular dynamics method. The transformation of the radial distribution function of silicene due to the formation of monovacancies, divacancies, trivacancies, and hexavacancies is reduced primarily to a decrease in the intensity of the peaks and the disappearance of the "shoulder" in the second peak. With the passage of time, multivacancies can undergo coalescence with each other and the fragmentation into smaller vacancies, as well as form vacancy clusters. According to the geometric criterion, the Ag(001) substrate provides a higher stability of a perfect two-layer silicene. It has been found, however, that the defective silicene on this substrate has a lower energy only when it contains monovacancies and divacancies. A change in the size of defects leads to a change in the energy priority when choosing between the Ag(001) and Ag(111) substrates. The motion of a lithium ion inside an extended channel between two silicene sheets results in a further disordering of the defective structure of the silicene, during which the strongest stresses in the silicene are generated by forces directed perpendicular to the external electric field. These forces dominate in the silicene channel, the wall of which is supported by the Ag(001) or Ag(111) substrate.

  5. The disappearance of flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soff, S.; Hartnack, C.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the disappearance of collective flow in the reaction plane in heavy-ion collisions within a microscopic model (QMD). A systematic study of the impact parameter dependence is performed for the system Ca+Ca. The balance energy strongly increases with impact parameter. Momentum dependent interactions reduce the balance energies for intermediate impact parameters b∼4.5 fm. Dynamical negative flow is not visible in the laboratory frame but does exist in the contact frame for the heavy system Au+Au. For semi-peripheral collisions of Ca+Ca with b∼6.5 fm a new two-component flow is discussed. Azimuthal distributions exhibit strong collectiv flow signals, even at the balance energy. (orig.)

  6. Disappearance and disintegration of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation has the objective to provide a summary of the existing evidence on the disappearance of comets and to draw conclusions regarding the physical processes involved in the disappearance. Information concerning the classification of evidence and the causes of apparent disappearance of comets is presented in a table. Attention is given to the dissipating comets, the headless sungrazing comet 1887 I, and the physical behavior of the dissipating comets and the related phenomena. It is found that all comets confined to the planetary region of the solar system decay on astronomically short time scales. However, only some of them appear to perish catastrophically. Some of the observed phenomena could be successfully interpreted. But little insight has been obtained into the character of the processes which the dissipating comets experience.

  7. Emission of ZnO:Ag nanorods obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velázquez Lozada, E., E-mail: evlozada5@yahoo.com.mx [ESIME – Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Torchynska, T.V.; Casas Espinola, J.L. [ESFM – Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Pérez Millan, B. [UPIITA – Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and its temperature dependence have been studied in ZnO:Ag nanorods (NRs) prepared by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method. The time variation at the growth of ZnO:Ag films permits modifying the ZnO phase from the amorphous to crystalline, to change the size of ZnO:Ag NRs and to vary their emission spectra. PL spectra of ZnO:Ag NRs versus temperature has been investigated. This study reveals that the PL band related to the acceptor Ag{sub Zn} (LO phonon replicas of an acceptor bound exciton, ABE (2.877 eV)), and its second-order diffraction peak (1.44 eV) disappeared in the temperature range of 10–170 K with the formation of free exciton (FX). The PL intensity of defect related PL bands decreases monotonously in the range 10–300 K with the activation energy of 13 meV. The PL band (3.22 eV), related to the LO phonon replica of free exciton (FX-2LO) and its second-order diffraction peak (1.61 eV) increase monotonously in the range 10–300 K. FX related peak dominates in PL spectra at room temperature that testifies on the high quality of ZnO:Ag films prepared by the USP technology.

  8. Adsorption of atomic oxygen on PdAg/Pd(111) surface alloys and coadsorption of CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Arnold P. [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Reaction Kinetics Research Group, University of Szeged, Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Bansmann, Joachim; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R. Juergen [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The interaction of dissociated oxygen with structurally well-defined PdAg/Pd(111) surface alloys and the coadsorption of CO was studied by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). After oxygen saturation of the non-modified Pd(111) surface at RT, we observed the formation of a prominent peak in the HREEL spectra at 60 meV corresponding to the perpendicular vibration of oxygen atoms adsorbed in threefold hollow sites. Deposition of small Ag amounts does not change the signal intensity of this peak; it decreases only above 20% Ag. Beyond this Ag content, the peak intensity steeply declines and disappears at around 55-60% Ag. CO coadsorption on the oxygen pre-covered surfaces at 120 K leads to the formation of additional features in HREELS. For a surface alloy with 29% Ag, three loss features due to CO adsorption in on-top, bridge, and threefold-hollow sites can be discriminated already after the lowest CO exposure. Annealing of the co-adsorbed layer to 200 K triggers a decrease of the oxygen concentration due to CO{sub 2} formation. These findings are corroborated by TPD spectra of the CO desorption and CO{sub 2} production.

  9. The Disappearance of Music Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ægidius, Andreas Lenander

    This paper focuses on the distinct technologies that operate behind, beyond, and below the concept of media. I theorize that the intricate complex of platforms, channels and formats for the consumption of cultural content is better understood through the lens of format theory (Aegidius, 2017; Ste...... we elaborate on the post-media conditions of the music industry through the use of format theory......., experience, and workings of a medium. It also names a set of rules according to which a technology can operate´ (Sterne, 2012, 7). Music consumption in the East Asian countries and especially Japan provides a remarkable and unique case for the continued and global disappearance of music media. But formats...... persist and govern the music experience. Here I focus on the ways in which traditional and physical music formats (CD) intersect with new media formats, e.g. the micromaterial music file and the music stream, here conceptualised as the internet protocols plus music file (Aegidius, 2017). I suggest...

  10. Partial structures in molten AgBr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Hiroki [Department of Condensed Matter Chemistry and Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)], E-mail: ueno@gemini.rc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Tahara, Shuta [Faculty of Pharmacy, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Science, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Kawakita, Yukinobu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takeda, Shin' ichi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)

    2009-02-21

    The structure of molten AgBr has been studied by means of neutron and X-ray diffractions with the aid of structural modeling. It is confirmed that the Ag-Ag correlation has a small but well-defined first peak in the partial pair distribution function whose tail penetrates into the Ag-Br nearest neighbor distribution. This feature on the Ag-Ag correlation is intermediate between that of molten AgCl (non-superionic melt) and that of molten AgI (superionic melt). The analysis of Br-Ag-Br bond angle reveals that molten AgBr preserves a rocksalt type local ordering in the solid phase, suggesting that molten AgBr is clarified as non-superionic melt like molten AgCl.

  11. 'Peak oil' or 'peak demand'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Bruno; Moncomble, Jean-Eudes; Sigonney, Pierre; Vially, Rolland; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Chateau, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a workshop which addressed several energy issues like the objectives and constraints of energy mix scenarios, the differences between the approaches in different countries, the cost of new technologies implemented for this purposes, how these technologies will be developed and marketed, which will be the environmental and societal acceptability of these technical choices. Different aspects and issues have been more precisely presented and discussed: the peak oil, development of shale gases and their cost (will non conventional hydrocarbons modify the peak oil and be socially accepted?), energy efficiency (its benefits, its reality in France and other countries, its position in front of the challenge of energy transition), and strategies in the transport sector (challenges for mobility, evolution towards a model of sustainable mobility)

  12. Asymmetric interfaces in Fe/Ag and Ag/Fe bilayers prepared by molecular beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunyogi, A. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: tunyogi@rmki.kfki.hu; Paszti, F. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Osvath, Z. [MTA Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Tancziko, F. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Major, M. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2006-08-15

    Single layers of Fe and Ag, as well as Fe/Ag (iron deposited first) and Ag/Fe bilayers were prepared by molecular beam evaporation onto Si. The samples were investigated with backscattering spectrometry (BS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). BS spectra of Fe/Ag and Ag/Fe indicate a significant difference at the interface. In the case of Fe/Ag the Ag peak has a long tail at the interface, while for Ag/Fe the interface is abrupt. The tail in the Fe/Ag spectrum is too large to be caused by double or plural scattering. According to AFM, the effect of surface roughness is also negligible. In spite of the fact that Fe and Ag are completely immiscible in equilibrium, this tail, however, suggests that some Ag is located in the Fe layer. After annealing, both samples show mixing between the two layers; this is much larger again for Fe/Ag.

  13. Field determination of bacterial disappearance in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    1970-01-01

    The article presents two approaches to field determination of disappearance of viable, fecal bacteria after discharge with sewage into a marine environment. The first approach is based on simultaneous sampling for bacterial counting and monitoring of dilution using a conservative tracer, which is...

  14. Material for 258 atom bombs disappeared?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruemm, H.

    1988-01-01

    In a report published in the news magazine, 'Der Spiegel', it was said that IAEA safeguards obviously had failed, for large amounts of fissile material had disappeared, which could be turned into 258 atomic bombs. The article in this issue of atw by the former Deputy Director General with the IAEA Safeguards Division sketches the background to the assertions made by 'Der Spiegel' and presents an overview of the inspection and verification methods employed by IAEA. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Evaluation of colloidal Ag and Ag-alloys as anode electrocatalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwan, Mohammed H.; Northwood, Derek O. [Mechanical, Auto, and Materials Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Gyenge, Elod L. [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Colombia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    In this study, colloidal silver and silver-alloys (Ag-Pt, Ag-Au, Ag-Ir, and Ag-Pd) prepared by the Boenneman technique were evaluated as anode catalysts for sodium borohydride oxidation using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), chronopotentiometry (CP) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry. The CV results show that the colloidal Ag-alloys were electrochemically active towards borohydride oxidation with oxidation potentials ranging between -0.7 and 0.4 V vs. Hg/HgO (MOE). The most negative oxidation potential was recorded on Ag-Pt. CA results show that the steady state current density was highest on Ag-Pt, followed by Ag-Ir, Ag-Au, and Ag-Pd. The lowest overpotential was recorded on Ag-Ir for a current step change of 10mAcm{sup -2}. A significant temperature effect and a small rotation speed effect were found in the rotating disc voltammetry for all the investigated colloids. The highest peak current was recorded on Ag-Au, while the most negative peak potential was recorded on Ag-Ir. (author)

  16. The relation between crossover of the intergrain loss-peak temperature-field characteristics of the Ag-Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub x] screen-printed tapes and their J[sub C] values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noji, H [IRC in Superconductivity, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Glowacki, B A [IRC in Superconductivity, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom) Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Oota, A [Dept. of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi Univ. of Tech., (Japan)

    1993-05-10

    A study of the influence of the processing conditions of Ag-Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub x] screen-printed tapes on the temperature, field and frequency dependence of their a.c. susceptibility has been conducted. Samples have been prepared by melt-solidification and subsequent sintering on silver substrates under the same conditions but with different cooling procedures and reannealing. These procedures lead to different Tc values and field dependency of the loss peak temperature T[sub M], which cause the crossover in the T[sub M] versus applied field characteristics. It was established that the above crossover phenomenon is correlated to the crossover in the J[sub C] versus temperature characteristics. (orig.)

  17. Ag-related alloy formation and magnetic phases for Ag/Co/Ir(111) ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Jyh-Shen; Tsai, Du-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Hsun-Tony; Chen, Wei-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    The Kerr intensity versus the Ag thickness for Ag grown on the top of Co/Ir(111) exhibits an oscillating behavior with a period around one monolayer which should be due to the morphological change related electronic structure differences of the Ag layer. From systematical investigations of Ag/Co/Ir(111) films with the Co layer thinner than 4 monolayers at temperatures below 900 K, a magnetic phase diagram has been established. As the annealing temperature increases for Ag/Co/Ir(111) films, enhancements of the coercive force occur in both the polar and longitudinal configurations due to the intermixing of Ag and Co at the interface and the formation of Co–Ir alloy. The disappearance of ferromagnetism is mainly attributed to the reduced atomic percent of cobalt in Co–Ir alloy, the lowered Curie temperature by a reduction of the thickness of magnetic layers, and the intermixing of Ag and Co at the Ag/Co interface. - Highlights: • An oscillating behavior occurs due to the morphological change for Ag on Co/Ir(111). • A magnetic phase diagram has been established for Ag/Co/Ir(111). • Some Ag atoms intermix with the underlying Co layer at high temperatures. • Polar coercive force is enhanced due to the compositional change

  18. Disappearance of the in situ component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, B.; Le Pechoux, C.; Calais, G.; Reynaud-Bougnoux, A.; Bougnoux, P.; Le Floch, O.; Fetisoff, F.; Lemseffer, A.; Body, G.; Lansac, J.

    1992-01-01

    Local recurrence after conservative treatment of breast cancer is associated with a significant risk for metastasis. In order to identify criteria predictive of metastasis in this subset of women, a series of 35 patients with local relapse was analyzed among 512 consecutive patients treated with tumorectomy and radiotherapy. When relapse occurred within 2 years of initial treatment, overall 2-year survival from the time of local relapse was 39.5%. When local relapse occurred more than 2 years from initial therapy, 2-year survival was 80.5% (p<0.001). Pathological slides of both initial and recurrent tumors were reviewed and compared. In 17 patients, local relapse and initial tumor had the same morphological features, with an in-situ component either absent or present in the same proportion. Metastasis occurred in two of these patients. In contrast, 9 of 12 patients in whom the proportion of non-invasive carcinoma had decreased at the time of local recurrence developed metastasis. Overall 2-year survival from the time of relapse was significantly better in the former group of patients (93.3% versus 52.5%, p<0.05). It is concluded that early relapses have a poor prognostic significance and that disappearance of the in-situ component or increase of the invasive component at the time of relapse is a feature predictive of tumor-related death and that more intensive therapy might benefit to this subset of women. (author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  19. Plasma disappearance, urine excretion, and tissue distribution of ribavirin in rats and rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, E.A.; Oishi, J.S.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.; Stephen, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Ribavirin has been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral. To study its tissue distribution and disappearance rate, a single dose of 10 mg/kg which contained 10 microCi of [14C]ribavirin was injected intravenously into rhesus monkeys and intramuscularly into monkeys and rats. Except for peak plasma concentrations and the initial phases of the plasma disappearance and urine excretion curves, no significant difference was observed between plasma, tissue, or urine values for intramuscularly or intravenously injected monkeys. Plasma disappearance curves were triphasic; plasma concentrations of ribavirin were similar for both monkeys and rats. Rats excreted ribavirin in the urine more rapidly and to a greater extent (82% excreted in 24 h) than did monkeys (60% excreted in 72 h). In the rat, only 3% of the injected [14C]ribavirin was detected in expired CO2. Therefore, for both species, urine was the major route for the elimination of labeled ribavirin and its metabolites from the body. In monkeys, the amount of parent drug in blood cells increased through 48 h and remained stable for 72 h, whereas in rats, ribavirin decreased at a rate similar to the plasma disappearance curve. Concentrations of ribavirin at 8 h were consistently higher in monkeys than in rats for all tissues except the brain. Thus, these differences in blood cellular components and organ content and in urine excretion suggested that there was greater tissue retention of ribavirin in monkeys than in rats

  20. First-principles study of surface plasmons on Ag(111) and H/Ag(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Jun; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Linear-response time-dependent density functional theory is used to investigate the relation between molecular bonding and surface plasmons for the model system H/Ag(111). We employ an orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functional to obtain a correct description of the Ag 3d band, which...... is crucial to avoid overscreening the plasmon by the s-d interband transitions. For the clean surface, this approach reproduces the experimental plasmon energies and dispersion to within 0.15 eV. Adsorption of hydrogen shifts and damps the Ag(111) surface plasmon and induces a new peak in the loss function...... at 0.6 eV below the Ag(111) plasmon peak. This feature originates from interband transitions between states located on the hydrogen atoms and states on the Ag surface atoms....

  1. The Disappearing Forests. UNEP Environment Brief No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    Tropical forests cover 20 percent of the Earth's land surface, but they are rapidly disappearing, with some estimating the loss of 7.5 million hectares a year. This bulletin provides a set of key facts relating to this problem. It details: (1) factors involving the rate at which the forests are disappearing; (2) some of the effects of these losses…

  2. Activated T lymphocytes disappear from circulation during endotoxemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez Krabbe, Karen; Kemp, Helle Bruunsgaard; Qvist, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    of disappearance were characterized by an activated phenotype (CD45RA(-) CD45RO(+)) as well as a phenotype linked to apoptosis (CD95(+) CD28(-)). In conclusion, endotoxin-induced lymphopenia reflects the disappearance from the circulation of activated lymphocytes prone to undergo apoptosis....

  3. Peak Experience Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  4. The formation and disappearance of filament barbs observed by SDO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leping; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Employing six-day (August 16-21, 2010) SDO/AIA observations, we systematically investigate the formation and disappearance of 58 barbs of a northern (~N60) polar crown filament. Three different ways of barb formation are discovered, including (1) the convergence of surrounding moving materials (55.2%), (2) the flows of materials from the filament (37.9%), and (3) the material injections from neighboring brightening regions (6.9%). We also find three different types of barb disappearance, involving: (i) the bi-lateral movements (44.8%), and (ii) the outflowing (27.6%) of barb material resulting in the barb disappearance, as well as (iii) the barb disappearance associated with neighboring brightenings (27.6%). We propose that barbs exchange materials with the filament, surrounding atmosphere, and nearby brightening regions, causing the barb formation and disappearance.

  5. Large short-baseline νμ disappearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the LSND, KARMEN, and MiniBooNE data on short-baseline ν μ →ν e oscillations and the data on short-baseline ν e disappearance obtained in the Bugey-3 and CHOOZ reactor experiments in the framework of 3+1 antineutrino mixing, taking into account the MINOS observation of long-baseline ν μ disappearance and the KamLAND observation of very-long-baseline ν e disappearance. We show that the fit of the data implies that the short-baseline disappearance of ν μ is relatively large. We obtain a prediction of an effective amplitude sin 2 2θ μμ > or approx. 0.1 for short-baseline ν μ disappearance generated by 0.2 2 2 , which could be measured in future experiments.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of γ-AgI in Superionic Composite Glasses (AgIx(AgPO31-x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suminta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The γ-AgI phase was stabilized at room temperature in the composites glasses (AgIx(AgPO31-x with x = 0.6 and 0.7 via rapid quenching of their molten mixture. The measurement of the crystal structure has been carried out using an X-ray Difractometer at the Physics Departement of Ibaraki University, Japan. The micro strain and crystal size are derived from Hall’s equation. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows some Bragg peaks that correspond to the crystalline γ-AgI. By increasing the concentration of AgI, the peak width becomes more narrow and the position shifts to the higher angle. This indicates that the crystalline size and microstrain are increasing. The increase of micro strain (η, and particle size (D will increase the ionic mobility, thus increasing the ionic conductivity. It is concluded that solidification process on melt AgI into glass matrix AgPO3 not only decreases the micro strain and the particle size, but it also increases the ionic conductivity.

  7. Peak-interviewet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raalskov, Jesper; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    Peak-interviewet er en særlig effektiv metode til at gøre ubevidste menneskelige ressourcer bevidste. Fokuspersonen (den interviewede) interviewes om en selvvalgt, personlig succesoplevelse. Terapeuten/coachen (intervieweren) spørger ind til processen, som ledte hen til denne succes. Herved afdæk...... fokuspersonen ønsker at tage op (nye mål eller nye processer). Nærværende workingpaper beskriver, hvad der menes med et peak-interview, peakinterviwets teoretiske fundament samt metodikken til at foretage et tillidsfuldt og effektiv peak-interview....

  8. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  9. Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2009-05-01

    Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100. Resource limitation (in a geological sense) is a real possibility that needs more serious consideration. The concept of 'Peak Oil' has been discussed since M. King Hubbert proposed in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. His prediction was accurate. This concept is about production rate not reserves. For many oil producing countries (and all OPEC countries) reserves are closely guarded state secrets and appear to be overstated. Claims that the reserves are 'proven' cannot be independently verified. Hubbert's Linearization Model can be used to predict when half the ultimate oil will be produced and what the ultimate total cumulative production (Qt) will be. US oil production can be used as an example. This conceptual model shows that 90% of the ultimate US oil production (Qt = 225 billion barrels) will have occurred by 2011. This approach can then be used to suggest that total global production will be about 2200 billion barrels and that the half way point will be reached by about 2010. This amount is about 5 to 7 times less than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. The decline of Non-OPEC oil production appears to have started in 2004. Of the OPEC countries, only Saudi Arabia may have spare capacity, but even that is uncertain, because of lack of data transparency. The concept of 'Peak Coal' is more controversial, but even the US National Academy Report in 2007 concluded only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves in the US are actually minable reserves and that US reserves should be reassessed using modern methods. British coal production can be

  10. Radiation hardness of LuAG:Ce and LuAG:Pr scintillator crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Derdzyan, M V; Belsky, A; Dujardin, C; Lecoq, P; Lucchini, M; Ovanesyan, K L; Pauwels, K; Pedrini, C; Petrosyan, A G

    2012-01-01

    Single crystals of LuAG:Ce, LuAG:Pr and un-doped LuAG were grown by the vertical Bridgman method and studied for radiation hardness under gamma-rays with doses in the range 10-10(5) Gy (Co-60). A wide absorption band peaking at around 600 nm springs up in all three types of crystals after the irradiations. The second band peaking at around 375 nm appears in both LuAG:Pr and un-doped LuAG. Compositional variations have been done to reveal the spectral behavior of induced color centers in more detail and to understand their origin. Similarities in behavior of Yb2+ centers in as-grown garnets are found, indicating that radiation induced color centers can be associated with residual trace amounts of Yb present in the raw materials. Un-doped LuAG and LuAG:Ce demonstrate moderate radiation hardness (the induced absorption coefficients being equal to 0.05-0.08 cm(-1) for accumulated doses of 10(3)-10(4) Gy), while LuAG:Pr is less radiation hard. The ways to improve the radiation hardness are discussed.

  11. Seasonal ataxia: a case report of a disappearing disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal ataxia: a case report of a disappearing disease. Adebiyi Ayoade ... ological profiles of the disease. ... low serum albumin levels [8] act as a potentiating factor to trigger the ... 65% neutrophils, 25% lymphocytes,eosinophils 5% and.

  12. Peak regulation right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z. |; Ren, Z.; Li, Z.; Zhu, R.

    2005-01-01

    A peak regulation right concept and corresponding transaction mechanism for an electricity market was presented. The market was based on a power pool and independent system operator (ISO) model. Peak regulation right (PRR) was defined as a downward regulation capacity purchase option which allowed PRR owners to buy certain quantities of peak regulation capacity (PRC) at a specific price during a specified period from suppliers. The PRR owner also had the right to decide whether or not they would buy PRC from suppliers. It was the power pool's responsibility to provide competitive and fair peak regulation trading markets to participants. The introduction of PRR allowed for unit capacity regulation. The PRR and PRC were rated by the supplier, and transactions proceeded through a bidding process. PRR suppliers obtained profits by selling PRR and PRC, and obtained downward regulation fees regardless of whether purchases are made. It was concluded that the peak regulation mechanism reduced the total cost of the generating system and increased the social surplus. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  13. Make peak flow a habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma - make peak flow a habit; Reactive airway disease - peak flow; Bronchial asthma - peak flow ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  14. Diffusion processes in the relaxed cross sections for the reaction 107109Ag+20Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinet, R.; Moretto, L.G.; Galin, J.; Jared, R.; Moulton, J.; Thompson, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    The fragments emitted in the reaction 107 109 Ag+ 20 Ne at 175 and 252 MeV bombarding energy have been identified in charge up to Z=32. Kinetic energy distributions, cross sections and angular distributions have been measured for each Z. The kinetic energy spectra show the two usual components: the quasielastic component and the relaxed component. The Z-distribution of the latter is fairly flat, slowly decreasing up to Z approximately 15 and then rising again up to Z=30. The variations in the Z-distribution are more pronounced at the lower bombarding energy. The angular distributions associated with the relaxed component are forward peaked for Z-values close to that of the projectile and behave like 1/sintheta for larger Z-values. The forward peaking is very substantial for Z 10 the forward peaking in excess of 1/sintheta disappears around Z=15. These features are interpreted in terms of a diffusion process along the asymmetry coordinate of a short-lived intermediate complex. (Auth.)

  15. Automated asteroseismic peak detections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montellano, Andres Garcia Saravia Ortiz; Hekker, S.; Themessl, N.

    2018-01-01

    Space observatories such as Kepler have provided data that can potentially revolutionize our understanding of stars. Through detailed asteroseismic analyses we are capable of determining fundamental stellar parameters and reveal the stellar internal structure with unprecedented accuracy. However......, such detailed analyses, known as peak bagging, have so far been obtained for only a small percentage of the observed stars while most of the scientific potential of the available data remains unexplored. One of the major challenges in peak bagging is identifying how many solar-like oscillation modes are visible...... of detected oscillation modes. The algorithm presented here opens the possibility for detailed and automated peak bagging of the thousands of solar-like oscillators observed by Kepler....

  16. Automated asteroseismic peak detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Saravia Ortiz de Montellano, Andrés; Hekker, S.; Themeßl, N.

    2018-05-01

    Space observatories such as Kepler have provided data that can potentially revolutionize our understanding of stars. Through detailed asteroseismic analyses we are capable of determining fundamental stellar parameters and reveal the stellar internal structure with unprecedented accuracy. However, such detailed analyses, known as peak bagging, have so far been obtained for only a small percentage of the observed stars while most of the scientific potential of the available data remains unexplored. One of the major challenges in peak bagging is identifying how many solar-like oscillation modes are visible in a power density spectrum. Identification of oscillation modes is usually done by visual inspection that is time-consuming and has a degree of subjectivity. Here, we present a peak-detection algorithm especially suited for the detection of solar-like oscillations. It reliably characterizes the solar-like oscillations in a power density spectrum and estimates their parameters without human intervention. Furthermore, we provide a metric to characterize the false positive and false negative rates to provide further information about the reliability of a detected oscillation mode or the significance of a lack of detected oscillation modes. The algorithm presented here opens the possibility for detailed and automated peak bagging of the thousands of solar-like oscillators observed by Kepler.

  17. Disappearance of a detached vapor mass in subcooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Shigeaki; Miyasaka, Yoshiki; Izumi, Ryotaro.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments on pool transition boiling of water under atmospheric pressure on a heated surface 10 mm in diameter were conducted for subcooling 15 - 50 K. The mass flux of condensation of a detached coalescent vapor bubble was experimentally estimated by a mathematical model based on the mass transfer mechanism of condensation. As a result, it is clarified that the mass flux of condensation of the detached bubble was influenced by the initial growing velocity of a vapor bubble immediately following the detached bubble. The disappearance velocity of the detached bubble defined as a ratio of the bubble diameter at the departure to the time required until the disappearance, is in the range 0.2 to 2.0 m/sec. The disappearance velocity is proportional to the initial growing velocity of the bubble, to the square of the heat flux of the heated surface and to the cube of the wall superheat, separately. (author)

  18. Transport characteristics of a silicene nanoribbon on Ag(110

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichi Hiraoka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the transport characteristics of individual silicene nanoribbons (SiNRs grown on Ag(110. By lifting up a single SiNR with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope tip, a nanojunction consisting of tip, SiNR and Ag is fabricated. In the differential conductance spectra of the nanojunctions fabricated by this methodology, a peak appears at the Fermi level which is not observed in the spectra measured either for the SiNRs before being lifted up or the clean Ag substrate. We discuss the origin of the peak as it relates to the SiNR.

  19. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  20. Calcific shoulder joint periarthritis. Disappearance of calcifications after laser therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussetti, P; Moroso, P; Palazzo, C

    1986-01-01

    The authors report their results in the laser therapy of 30 calcific joint periarthritis. In two out of the ten radiographed cases, at the end of therapy, the complete disappearance of calcifications has been shown and in one case a decrease in calcification volume has been demonstrated. In the follow up after 6 months, 80% of clinically checked patients had no painful relapse.

  1. The disappearance of Sphagnum imbricatum from Butterburn Flow, UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McClymont, E.L.; Mauquoy, D.; Yeloff, D.; Broekens, P.; van Geel, B.; Charman, D.J.; Pancost, R.D.; Chambers, F.M.; Evershed, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    The disappearance of the previously abundant moss species Sphagnum imbricatum has been investigated at Butterburn Flow, northern England, using organic geochemical, elemental, macrofossil, pollen and testate amoebae analyses. Variations in the assemblage of peat-forming plants were tracked using the

  2. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here.

  3. AGS experiments - 1994, 1995, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the following information on the Brookhaven AGS Accelerator complex: FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; FY 1997 AGS schedule (working copy); AGS beams 1997; AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program (in progress); a listing of experiments by number; two-phage summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and listing of AGS experimenters begins here

  4. AGS experiments -- 1991, 1992, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains: (1) FY 1993 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1994--95 AGS schedule; (3) AGS experiments ≥ FY 1993 (as of 30 March 1994); (4) AGS beams 1993; (5) AGS experimental area FY 1991 physics program; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1992 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1993 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1994 physics program (planned); (9) a listing of experiments by number; (10) two-page summaries of each experiment; (11) listing of publications of AGS experiments; and (12) listing of AGS experiments

  5. Disappearance of neutron magic numbers and deformation coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    The disappearance of N=8, 20 and 28 magic numbers in the neutron excess nuclei is a representative example of the special features of the unstable nuclei. In this lecture of summer school, the problems of the magic number disappearance are presented. And the appearance of the deformation coexistence and the anomalous cluster structure come into the problem with them. At the begging the Antisymmetrized Molecular Dynamic (AMD) framework is explained with finite range two body central force and Gorgny DIS force composed of the zero range spin-orbit force and saturability. Island of inversion is explained in the nuclear chart shown in the figure and energy curves of the nuclei near 32 Mg and the excitation level schemes of 32 Mg are shown in the serial figures. As one of the extreme example of the nuclear structure the deformation of 19 F is picked up. The level schemes and structures of 21 F are shown as well. The molecule-like structure in the island of inversion is clear. The rotational band energy of fluorine isotopes are shown up to 29 F. As a new deformation area, disappearance of N=28 magic number is in the spotlight recently. In this case it is characteristic properties that the parities of the orbits to form the gap must be the same but the angular momenta should be different by 2. According to the AMD research, it is shown that deformations of prolate, three-axis asymmetric and oblate characters coexist in the very low excitation energy region accompanying the disappearance of N=28 gap. The concept of magic numbers has been very fundamental in nuclear physics since the success of shell model. At present its disappearance in the unstable nuclei is one of the most challenging problems in the understanding of the nuclear many body problems. (S. Funahashi)

  6. Set potential regulation reveals additional oxidation peaks of Geobacter sulfurreducens anodic biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping; Yates, Matthew D.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    larger range of set potentials was used to acclimate electroactive biofilms. The potentials of oxidation peaks obtained with G. sulfurreducens biofilms acclimated at 0.60 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) were different from those that developed at - 0.46 V, and both

  7. Reducing strength prevailing at root surface of plants promotes reduction of Ag+ and generation of Ag(0/Ag2O nanoparticles exogenously in aqueous phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddisetty Pardha-Saradhi

    Full Text Available Potential of root system of plants from wide range of families to effectively reduce membrane impermeable ferricyanide to ferrocyanide and blue coloured 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP to colourless DCPIPH2 both under non-sterile and sterile conditions, revealed prevalence of immense reducing strength at root surface. As generation of silver nanoparticles (NPs from Ag+ involves reduction, present investigations were carried to evaluate if reducing strength prevailing at surface of root system can be exploited for reduction of Ag+ and exogenous generation of silver-NPs. Root system of intact plants of 16 species from 11 diverse families of angiosperms turned clear colorless AgNO3 solutions, turbid brown. Absorption spectra of these turbid brown solutions showed silver-NPs specific surface plasmon resonance peak. Transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray confirmed the presence of distinct NPs in the range of 5-50 nm containing Ag. Selected area electron diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the silver NPs showed Bragg reflections, characteristic of crystalline face-centered cubic structure of Ag(0 and cubic structure of Ag2O. Root system of intact plants raised under sterile conditions also generated Ag(0/Ag2O-NPs under strict sterile conditions in a manner similar to that recorded under non-sterile conditions. This revealed the inbuilt potential of root system to generate Ag(0/Ag2O-NPs independent of any microorganism. Roots of intact plants reduced triphenyltetrazolium to triphenylformazon and impermeable ferricyanide to ferrocyanide, suggesting involvement of plasma membrane bound dehydrogenases in reduction of Ag+ and formation of Ag(0/Ag2O-NPs. Root enzyme extract reduced triphenyltetrazolium to triphenylformazon and Ag+ to Ag(0 in presence of NADH, clearly establishing potential of dehydrogenases to reduce Ag+ to Ag(0, which generate Ag(0/Ag2O-NPs. Findings presented in this manuscript put

  8. Study on antibacterial activity of chemically synthesized PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomi, Pandi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Prabu, Halliah Gurumallesh, E-mail: hgprabu2010@gmail.com [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Manisankar, Paramasivam [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravikumar, Sundaram [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Area Studies, School of Marine Sciences, Alagappa University, Thondi Campus 623 409, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New method of synthesizing PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite. • Surface Plasmon resonance and formation of composite at nano level were analyzed. • HR-TEM study revealed uniform distribution of nanoparticles. • PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited good antibacterial activity. - Abstract: Pristine polyaniline (PANI), PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method using aniline as monomer, ammonium persulphate as oxidant and metal (Ag, Au and Ag-Au) colloids. UV-Vis analysis exhibited surface Plasmon resonances of Ag, Au, Ag-Au nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra revealed the shift in peak position of N-H stretching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the presence of Ag, Au and Au-Ag nanoparticles. HR-TEM images show nanosizes of Ag, Au, Ag-Au and the incorporation of such nanoparticles into the PANI matrix. Pristine PANI, PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites were tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method. PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited higher antibacterial activity against both gram-positive [Streptococcus sp. (MTCC 890), Staphylococcus sp. (MTCC 96)] and gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli (MTCC 1671) and Klebsiella sp. (MTCC 7407)] when compared with PANI-Ag nanocomposite, PANI-Au nanocomposite and pristine PANI. The novelty of this study is the polymer-bimetal synthesis and its antibacterial potential.

  9. Gamma Radiolytic Formation of Alloyed Ag-Pt Nanocolloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Temgire

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal dispersions of Ag-Pt composite nanoparticles were prepared by gamma radiolysis technique in the presence of nonionic surfactant Brij'97. Simultaneous as well as sequential reduction methods were employed in order to study the structural formation of Ag-Pt bimetallic clusters. Similar shape and trend was observed in optical spectra for both methods. Radiolysis yielded nearly spherical Ag-Pt bimetallic clusters by use of AgNO3 instead of AgClO4. The disappearance of the silver resonance and the simultaneous growth of the 260 nm resonance are independent of cluster structure and degree of alloying. To understand formation of Ag-Pt aggregate, the optical studies were also done as a function of amount of dose absorbed, concentration of surfactant, that is, Brij'97. The shape of the absorption spectrum did not change with increase in gamma radiation dose. TEM analysis exhibited fine dispersions of Ag-Pt clusters surrounded by a mantle when capped with Brij'97. The particle size obtained was in the range of 5–9 nm. On the basis of optical, XRD, and TEM analysis, alloy formation is discussed.

  10. On the association of magnetic clouds with disappearing filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.M.; Hildner, E.

    1986-01-01

    We present evidence that an interplanetary magnetic cloud preceding an interaction region, observed at earth January 24, 1974, is associated with the eruptive filament or disparition brusque (DB) near central meridian on January 18. The DB also was associated with a long-decay soft X ray transient (LDE) and a long-duration gradual-rise-and-fall (GRF) radio burst. To assess whether magnetic clouds are generally associated with DBs, we present results from statistical testing of the relation of 33 magnetic clouds (and 33 control samples without magnetic clouds) to disappearing filaments near central meridian (approx. 99% confidence. There is a suggestion that clouds following shocks, probably launched at times of solar flares, are not as strongly associated with disappearing filaments as are clouds launched less violently

  11. Milk production and in sacco disappearance of pasture NDF in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of feeding low (2.4 kg/d), medium (4.8 kg/d) and high (7.2 kg/d) levels of a barley-based concentrate on milk production and in sacco ruminal disappearance of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in Jersey cows grazing a Westerwold ryegrass pasture.

  12. Pulmonary deposition and disappearance of aerosolised secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, J.; Camps, J.; Feitsma, H. I.; Hermans, J.; Dijkman, J. H.; Pauwels, E. K.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The neutrophil elastase inhibitor, secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), is a potential therapeutic tool in inflammatory lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and pulmonary emphysema. The distribution and disappearance in the lung of aerosolised recombinant SLPI (rSLPI) was investigated in healthy humans and in patients with cystic fibrosis or alpha 1-antitrypsin-associated emphysema. METHODS--To distinguish aerosolised rSLPI from endogenous SLPI the recombinant inhibitor was radiolabelled with 99m-technetium (99mTc) pertechnetate. Distribution and disappearance of aerosolised 99mTc-rSLPI in the lungs were studied by gamma radiation imaging. RESULTS--The deposition of 99mTc-rSLPI in normal volunteers was homogeneous in all lung lobes, while in patients with cystic fibrosis or emphysema only well ventilated areas showed deposition of the aerosol. The disappearance rate of 99mTc-rSLPI was biexponential. The half life of the rapid phase was 0.2-2.8 hours, while that of the slow phase was more than 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS--Future aerosol therapy with rSLPI will be most beneficial for well ventilated lung tissue that needs protection against neutrophil derived elastase. It may be more difficult to neutralise the burden of elastase in poorly ventilated, highly inflamed areas as are seen in cystic fibrosis. Images PMID:7638807

  13. The role of Ag precipitates in Cu-12 wt% Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, D.W.; Song, L.N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road No.38, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Dong, A.P.; Wang, L.T. [China Railway Construction Electrification Bureau Group Co.,Ltd., Beijing 100036 (China); Zhang, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Meng, L., E-mail: mengliang@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road No.38, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The Cu-12 wt% Ag was prepared to investigate the role of Ag precipitates on the properties of the alloy. Two kinds of heat treatment procedures were adopted to produce different amount of Ag precipitates in the Cu-12 wt% Ag. The microstructure of Ag precipitates was systematically observed by optical microscopy and electron microscopy. The Cu-12 wt% Ag with more Ag precipitates exhibits higher strength and lower electrical conductivity. More Ag precipitates results in more phase interface and less Ag atoms dissolved in Cu matrix. By comparing the strengthening effect and electron scattering effect of phase interface and dissolved Ag atoms, it is conclude that the interface between Cu matrix and Ag precipitates could significantly block dislocation movement and enhance electron scattering in Cu-Ag alloys.

  14. MIS-11 duration key to disappearance of the Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alexander; Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Calov, Reinhard; Ganopolski, Andrey; Montoya, Marisa

    2017-07-01

    Palaeo data suggest that Greenland must have been largely ice free during Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS-11). However, regional summer insolation anomalies were modest during this time compared to MIS-5e, when the Greenland ice sheet likely lost less volume. Thus it remains unclear how such conditions led to an almost complete disappearance of the ice sheet. Here we use transient climate-ice sheet simulations to simultaneously constrain estimates of regional temperature anomalies and Greenland's contribution to the MIS-11 sea-level highstand. We find that Greenland contributed 6.1 m (3.9-7.0 m, 95% credible interval) to sea level, ~7 kyr after the peak in regional summer temperature anomalies of 2.8 °C (2.1-3.4 °C). The moderate warming produced a mean rate of mass loss in sea-level equivalent of only around 0.4 m per kyr, which means the long duration of MIS-11 interglacial conditions around Greenland was a necessary condition for the ice sheet to disappear almost completely.

  15. Chronic oral lactate supplementation does not affect lactate disappearance from blood after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouns, F; Fogelholm, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    1995-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that a 3-week oral lactate supplementation affects postexercise blood lactate disappearance in untrained male subjects. Fifteen men were randomly assigned to either a lactate supplementation (n = 8) or a placebo (n = 7) treatment. During the treatment period...... they drank an oral lactate or a maltodextrin (placebo) supplement twice a day. The lactate drink contained 10 g of lactate as calcium, sodium, and potassium salts. Blood lactate concentrations were studied before, during, and immediately after three exercise tests, both pre- and posttreatment. Peak lactate...... values for placebo (PL) or lactate (L) treatment groups during different tests were as follows: Test 1 PL, 13.49 +/- 3.71; L, 13.70 +/- 1.90; Test 2 PL, 12.64 +/- 2.32; L, 12.00 +/- 2.23; Test 3 PL, 12.29 +/- 2.92; L, 11.35 +/- 1.38 and were reached 3 min postexercise. The decrease in blood lactate...

  16. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition

  17. AGS experiments: 1993 - 1994 - 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report contains: FY 1995 AGS Schedule as Run; FY 1996-97 AGE Schedule (working copy); AGS Beams 1995; AGS Experimental Area FY 1993 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1994 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1995 Physics Program; AGS Experimental Area FY 1996 Physics Program (In progress); A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Listing of publications of AGS experiments begins here; and Listing of AGS experimenters begins here. This is the twelfth edition.

  18. AGS intensity upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    After the successful completion of the AGS Booster and several upgrades of the AGS, a new intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 protons per pulse accelerated to 24 GeV was achieved. The high intensity slow-extracted beam program at the AGS typically serves about five production targets and about eight experiments including three rare Kaon decay experiments. Further intensity upgrades are being discussed that could increase the average delivered beam intensity by up to a factor of four

  19. The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Tom; Douka, Katerina; Wood, Rachel; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Brock, Fiona; Basell, Laura; Camps, Marta; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro; Baena, Javier; Barroso-Ruíz, Cecillio; Bergman, Christopher; Boitard, Coralie; Boscato, Paolo; Caparrós, Miguel; Conard, Nicholas J; Draily, Christelle; Froment, Alain; Galván, Bertila; Gambassini, Paolo; Garcia-Moreno, Alejandro; Grimaldi, Stefano; Haesaerts, Paul; Holt, Brigitte; Iriarte-Chiapusso, Maria-Jose; Jelinek, Arthur; Jordá Pardo, Jesús F; Maíllo-Fernández, José-Manuel; Marom, Anat; Maroto, Julià; Menéndez, Mario; Metz, Laure; Morin, Eugène; Moroni, Adriana; Negrino, Fabio; Panagopoulou, Eleni; Peresani, Marco; Pirson, Stéphane; de la Rasilla, Marco; Riel-Salvatore, Julien; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Santamaria, David; Semal, Patrick; Slimak, Ludovic; Soler, Joaquim; Soler, Narcís; Villaluenga, Aritza; Pinhasi, Ron; Jacobi, Roger

    2014-08-21

    The timing of Neanderthal disappearance and the extent to which they overlapped with the earliest incoming anatomically modern humans (AMHs) in Eurasia are key questions in palaeoanthropology. Determining the spatiotemporal relationship between the two populations is crucial if we are to understand the processes, timing and reasons leading to the disappearance of Neanderthals and the likelihood of cultural and genetic exchange. Serious technical challenges, however, have hindered reliable dating of the period, as the radiocarbon method reaches its limit at ∼50,000 years ago. Here we apply improved accelerator mass spectrometry (14)C techniques to construct robust chronologies from 40 key Mousterian and Neanderthal archaeological sites, ranging from Russia to Spain. Bayesian age modelling was used to generate probability distribution functions to determine the latest appearance date. We show that the Mousterian ended by 41,030-39,260 calibrated years bp (at 95.4% probability) across Europe. We also demonstrate that succeeding 'transitional' archaeological industries, one of which has been linked with Neanderthals (Châtelperronian), end at a similar time. Our data indicate that the disappearance of Neanderthals occurred at different times in different regions. Comparing the data with results obtained from the earliest dated AMH sites in Europe, associated with the Uluzzian technocomplex, allows us to quantify the temporal overlap between the two human groups. The results reveal a significant overlap of 2,600-5,400 years (at 95.4% probability). This has important implications for models seeking to explain the cultural, technological and biological elements involved in the replacement of Neanderthals by AMHs. A mosaic of populations in Europe during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition suggests that there was ample time for the transmission of cultural and symbolic behaviours, as well as possible genetic exchanges, between the two groups.

  20. Disappearance of superconductivity and critical resistance in thin indium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Satoshi; Nishida, Nobuhiko

    1991-01-01

    In thin granular films composed of two-dimensionally coupled indium particles, we have studied influences of average particle sizes anti d on the superconducting transition. For films with anti d=280A and 224A, superconducting transition temperature stays almost constant with increasing the sheet resistance R n in the normal state, while for a film with anti d=140A, it decreases linearly with R n . This means that the system changes to a dirty superconductor by reducing anti d. With further increasing R n , superconductivity disappears when R n exceeds the value R c of order h/4e 2 , which seems to correlate with anti d. (orig.)

  1. Measuring the Disappearance of Muon Neutrinos with the MINOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radovic, Alexander [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It measures the flux from the predominately muon neutrino NuMI beam first 1 km from beam start and then again 735 km later using a pair of steel scintillator tracking calorimeters. The comparison of measured neutrino energy spectra at our Far Detector with the prediction based on our Near Detector measurement allows for a measurement of the parameters which define neutrino oscillations. This thesis will describe the most recent measurement of muon neutrino disappearance in the NuMI muon neutrino beam using the MINOS experiment.

  2. Directed transverse flow and its disappearance for asymmetric reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejot; Gautam, S.

    2014-01-01

    We study the directed transverse flow for mass asymmetry reactions. This is done by keeping the target fixed and varying the projectile mass from 4 He to 131 Xe. We find that directed transverse flow is sensitive to the mass of the projectile. We also study the disappearance of flow at a particular impact parameter called Geometry of Vanishing Flow (GVF) for such mass asymmetry reactions. Our results indicate that GVF is sensitive to the beam energy as well as to the mass of the projectile.

  3. Unexpected disappearance of portal cavernoma on long-term anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Junior, Gilberto; Turon, Fanny; Hernandez-Gea, Virginia; Darnell, Anna; García-Criado, Ángeles; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Patients with idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension have an increased risk of developing portal vein thrombosis and this is especially prevalent when HIV is also present. We describe a unique case of a patient with idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension associated to HIV, who developed acute portal vein thrombosis that despite anticoagulation transformed in portal cavernoma and disappeared completely after five years of follow-up on continuous anticoagulation. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. AgSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    AgSTAR promotes biogas recovery projects, which generate renewable energy and other beneficial products from the anaerobic digestion of livestock manure and organic wastes while decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from the agriculture sector.

  5. AGS intensity record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1994-01-01

    As flashed in the September issue, this summer the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) reached a proton beam intensity of 4.05 x 10 13 protons per puise, claimed as the highest intensity ever achieved in a proton synchrotron. It is, however, only two-thirds of the way to its final goal of 6 x 10 13 . The achievement is the resuit of many years of effort. The Report of the AGS II Task Force, issued in February 1984, laid out a comprehensive programme largely based on a careful analysis of the PS experience at CERN. The AGS plan had two essential components: the construction of a new booster, and major upgrades to the AGS itself.

  6. Positron annihilation studies of vacancies in Ag-Zn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabik, S.

    1982-01-01

    The temperature dependence of annihilation rate, F(T), at the peak of angular correlation curve has been measured for Ag-29.2%at Zn and Ag-50%at Zn alloys. By applying the trapping model the vacancy formation energy for Ag-29.2%at Zn alloy has been found to be equal to 0.94+-0.06 eV. It has been found that the course of the F(T) curve for Ag-50%at Zn depends on the phase composition and thermal history of the investigated sample. For alloys containing not more than 50%at Zn, the concentration dependence of the vacancy formation energy for Ag-Zn alloys is very similar to that for Cu-Zn alloys. (Auth.)

  7. Rapid Formation and Disappearance of a Filament Barb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand D.; Srivastava, Nandita; Mathew, Shibu K.; Martin, Sara F.

    2013-11-01

    We present observations of an activated quiescent filament obtained in Hα from the high-resolution Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 20 August 2010. The filament developed a barb in 10 min, which disappeared within the next 35 min. A data set from the DOT spanning 2 h was used to analyse this event. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images, which reveal flows in filament spine during this period. Photospheric magnetograms were used from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The analysis shows flows in the filament spine towards the barb location preceding its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Magnetograms reveal patches of minority polarity flux close to the end of the barb at its greatest elongation. The flows in the spine and barbs are along numerous threads that compose these typical filament structures. The flows are consistent with field-aligned threads and demonstrate that the replacement time of the mass in barbs, and by inference, in the spine is very rapid.

  8. The case of the Disappearing House Sparrow (Passer domesticus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Dandapat

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The fluffy brown sparrows are 15cm in length and distributed all over India up to 4000m in the Himalayas. The disappearance of sparrows has been widely reported in India. The sparrow population in Andhra Pradesh alone had dropped by 80 per cent, and in other states like Kerala, Gujarat and Rajasthan, it had dipped by 20 per cent, while the decline in coastal areas was as sharp as 70 to 80 per cent. But reliable information on sparrow populations is not available. No one is actually counting and keeping a record of the sparrows. The spread of diseases due to decline in sparrow population is an alarming danger. Introduction of unleaded petrol, use of chemically treated seeds, flow of electromagnetic waves from cellphone towers, reducing areas of free growing weeds or reducing numbers of badly maintained buildings, competition for food by other species etc. are possible reasons for this disappearance. The BirdLife International, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB, a UK-based organisation and the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS have taken plan for the protection of sparrow population. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 97-100

  9. Genetic identification of children of the disappeared in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchaszadeh, V B

    1997-01-01

    During the military dictatorship that ruled Argentina between 1976 and 1983, the security forces engaged in well-planned repression that included the abduction, torture, and disappearance of thousands of dissidents. Repression spared neither children nor pregnant women. Approximately 220 babies and children of the disappeared victims were abducted and kept mostly by families with connections with the military. After the restoration of democracy, attempts to find and identify the missing children were made, with the goal of restoring their personal and familial identities and returning them to their surviving relatives. The Association of Grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo and a number of geneticists who developed and applied methods of genetic identification to this human rights cause were instrumental in this quest. Initial use of histocompatibility (HLA) typing for genetic identification was later followed by nuclear DNA typing and mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Of 56 children found and identified, 30 were returned to their legitimate families, 13 remained with the families who had adopted them in good faith, 6 are still the subject of custody litigation in the courts, and 7 were found dead. Psychological and ethical guidelines protecting the best interests of the children were followed in all proceedings.

  10. Mechanisms of TL for production of the 230 {sup o}C peak in natural sodalite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Nilo F., E-mail: nilocano@dfn.if.usp.b [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Professional School of Physics, University of San Agustin of Arequipa, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Blak, Ana R. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ayala-Arenas, Jorge S. [Professional School of Physics, University of San Agustin of Arequipa, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Watanabe, Shigueo [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    The thermoluminescence (TL) peak in natural sodalite near 230 {sup o}C, which appears only after submitted to thermal treatments and to gamma irradiation, has been studied in parallel with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum appearing under the same procedure. This study revealed a full correlation between the 230 {sup o}C TL peak and the eleven hyperfine lines from EPR spectrum. In both case, the centers disappear at the same temperature and are restored after gamma irradiation. A complete model for the 230 {sup o}C TL peak is presented and discussed. In addition to the correlation and TL model, specific characteristics of the TL peaks are described.

  11. Structure determination of AgPO3 and (AgPO3)0.5(AgI)0.5 glasses by neutron diffraction and small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachez, M.; Mercier, R.; Malugani, J.P.; Chieux, P.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron diffraction and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) were performed on AgPO 3 and (AgPO 3 ) 0.5 (AgI) 0.5 glasses. AgPO 3 glass is made up of long chains of PO 4 tetrahedra joined together by Ag atoms. When silver iodide is added, the radial distribution function shows a large peak at 2.83 A, due to Ag-I interactions. AgI does not modify the network forming unit. The existence of small clusters is confirmed by analysing the coordination number of Ag-I pairs obtained by subtracting the experimental structure function of the AgPO 3 glass from that of the corresponding AgI-doped glasses. A rough estimation of their size is given by SANS experiments. Not all the AgI pairs are involved in AgI cluster units. The compatibility of the results obtained with recent structural investigations by non diffractometric techniques is examined. 23 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  12. Transient Micromotors That Disappear When No Longer Needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanrui; Karshalev, Emil; Li, Jinxing; Soto, Fernando; Castillo, Roxanne; Campos, Isaac; Mou, Fangzhi; Guan, Jianguo; Wang, Joseph

    2016-11-22

    Transient self-destroyed micromotors that autonomously disappear in biological media at controlled rates upon completing their task, without leaving a toxic residue, are presented. The propulsion and degradation characteristics of the self-destroyed Mg/ZnO, Mg/Si, and Zn/Fe Janus micromotors and single-component Zn micromotors are described. The degradation of the Janus micromotors relies on the different corrosion rates of their core-shell components. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry measurements are used to probe the time-dependent degradation of the different constituents of the micromotors. The toxicity of the transient micromotors is discussed toward their potential use in biomedical applications. This concept of transient micromotors offers considerable potential for diverse practical applications in the near future.

  13. Nationalist Reconstructions in the Face of the Disappearance of Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Kentel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Together with the conflictive negotiation abouth the definition and the feeling of nation, on a strategic level, the repercussions of globalisation (and especially the negotiations with the European Union are complicating the border issue and, as a consequence, the issue of unity (which is “always in danger”, according to the nationalist-Kemalist elites. The nationalist discourse is consumed on a popular level but, rather than simple consumption or pure strategic production, it is constituted as the production of different nationalisms in the tactics of everyday life. In this way, this article tackles the subject of the new nationalist productions, examining more deeply the tactics that range from survival to subversion or new religious rites in a situation of uncertainties and ambivalences brought about by globalisation, by a new encounter with the West and by the disappearance of borders.

  14. Disappearance of nucleosome positioning in mitotic chromatin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Jun-ichiro; Ono, Tetsuya

    2005-04-15

    During mitosis, transcription is silenced and most transcription factors are displaced from their recognition sequences. By in vivo footprinting analysis, we have confirmed and extended previous studies showing loss of transcription factors from an RNA polymerase II promoter (c-FOS) and, for the first time, an RNA polymerase III promoter (U6) in HeLa cells. Because little was known about nucleosomal organization in mitotic chromosomes, we performed footprinting analysis for nucleosomes on these promoters in interphase and mitotic cells. During interphase, each of the promoters had a positioned nucleosome in the region intervening between proximal promoter elements and distal enhancer elements, but the strong nucleosome positioning disappeared during mitosis. Thus, the nucleosomal organization that appears to facilitate transcription in interphase cells may be lost in mitotic cells, and nucleosome positioning during mitosis does not seem to be a major component of the epigenetic mechanisms to mark genes for rapid reactivation after this phase.

  15. Simvastatin-induced nocturnal leg pain disappears with pravastatin substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojaković Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Statins have similar side effects that do not always occur at the same rate among the various statins. We present a case of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity that disappeared when pravastatin was substituted for the original drug. Case Outline. A 74-year-old male, a nonsmoker, complained of severe nocturnal leg cramps. The patient also complained that similar painful cramping occurred when he walked rapidly or jogged. Because some components of his lipid panel exceeded the ‘desirable’ range, and as he had a history of myocardial infarction, his family physician prescribed simvastatin (40 mg/day. The patient had taken this medication for the past eight years. The painful nocturnal episodes started two years ago and affected either one or the other leg. Four months ago we discontinued his simvastatin and prescribed pravastatin (80 mg/day. At a follow-up visit six weeks later, the patient reported that his leg pains at night and the pain experienced after brisk walking had disappeared. Four months after the substitution of pravastatin for simvastatin, the patient reported that his complete lack of symptoms had continued. Conclusion. These painful muscle cramps were probably caused by an inadequate vascular supply to the calf and foot muscles. Perhaps a combination of advanced age and atherosclerotic changes created a predisposition for the simvastatin-induced leg cramps. Pravastatin differs from simvastatin in several ways. It is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4 oxidases, and thus is not influenced by CYP 3A4 inhibitors like simvastatin. Also, simvastatin is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within the SLCO1B1 gene on the chromosome 12 and established myopathy, while pravastatin lacks this association. These differences may contribute to increased tolerance to pravastatin in this particular case.

  16. Simvastatin-lnduced nocturnal leg pain disappears with pravastatin substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojaković, Natasa; Igić, Rajko

    2013-01-01

    Statins have similar side effects that do not always occur at the same rate among the various statins. We present a case of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity that disappeared when pravastatin was substituted for the original drug. A 74-year-old male, a nonsmoker, complained of severe nocturnal leg cramps. The patient also complained that similar painful cramping occurred when he walked rapidly or jogged. Because some components of his lipid panel exceeded the'desirable' range, and as he had a history of myocardial infarction, his family physician prescribed simvastatin (40 mg/day). The patient had taken this medication for the past eight years. The painful nocturnal episodes started two years ago and affected either one or the other leg. Four months ago we discontinued his simvastatin and prescribed pravastatin (80 mg/day). At a follow-up visit six weeks later, the patient reported that his leg pains at night and the pain experienced after brisk walking had disappeared. Four months after the substitution of pravastatin for simvastatin, the patient reported that his complete lack of symptoms had continued. These painful muscle cramps were probably caused by an inadequate vascular supply to the calf and foot muscles. Perhaps a combination of advanced age and atherosclerotic changes created a predisposition for the simvastatin-induced leg cramps. Pravastatin differs from simvastatin in several ways.l It is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 oxidases, and thus is not influenced by CYP 3A4 inhibitors like simvastatin. Also, simvastatin is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within the SLCO1B1 gene on the chromosome 12 and established myopathy, while pravastatin lacks this association. These differences may contribute to increased tolerance to pravastatin in this particular case.

  17. Tunneling-recombination luminescence between Ag0 and Ag2+ in KCl:AgCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbecq, C.J.; Dexter, D.L.; Yuster, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Appropriate treatment of a KCl:AgCl crystal results in the trapping of electrons as silver atoms, Ag 0 , and positive holes as AgCl 4 2- , Ag 2+ , centers. Optical excitation of Ag 0 in such a crystal at T 0 and Ag 2+ pairs, similar to the Ag 0 -Cl 2 - tunneling-recombination studies we previously reported. We have shown that Ag 2+ centers are involved in the emission process by preferentially orienting the anisotropic Ag 2+ at 6 K by excitation with polarized light and observing that the afterglow is polarized. Upon warming to 50 K, where the preferentially oriented Ag 2+ can change orientation, a strong reversal in the degree of polarization occurs which finally decays to zero. The characteristics of this luminescence can be understood if we assume: (i) a tunneling-recombination mechanism in which the orientation of the electric vector of the emitted radiation depends on the position of the Ag 0 relative to the Ag 2+ and (ii) the tunneling is anisotropic and depends on the location of the Ag 0 relative to the anisotropic Ag 2+ . The latter assumption is based on the tetragonal (d-like) symmetry of the Ag 2+ complex. Good quantitative agreement between theory and experiment has been obtained on the decay kinetics, the degree of polarization, and the polarization reversal

  18. Atom beam sputtered Ag-TiO{sub 2} plasmonic nanocomposite thin films for photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jaspal; Sahu, Kavita [School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, NewDelhi 110078 (India); Pandey, A. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organization, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Kumar, Mohit [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751005 (India); Ghosh, Tapas; Satpati, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Som, T.; Varma, S. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751005 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Noida 201313, Uttar Pradesh (India); Mohapatra, Satyabrata, E-mail: smiuac@gmail.com [School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, NewDelhi 110078 (India)

    2017-07-31

    The development of nanocomposite coatings with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity is important for photocatalytic purification of water and air. We report on the synthesis of Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity by atom beam co-sputtering technique. The effects of Ag concentration on the structural, morphological, optical, plasmonic and photocatalytic properties of the nanocomposite thin films were investigated. UV–visible DRS studies revealed the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak characteristic of Ag nanoparticles together with the excitonic absorption peak originating from TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the nanocomposites. XRD studies showed that the nanocomposite thin films consist of Ag nanoparticles and rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The synthesized Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films with 5 at% Ag were found to exhibit highly enhanced photocatalytic activity for sun light driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in water, indicating their potential application in water purification.

  19. Sn-In-Ag phase equilibria and Sn-In-(Ag)/Ag interfacial reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sinnwen; Lee Wanyu; Hsu Chiaming; Yang Chingfeng; Hsu Hsinyun; Wu Hsinjay

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Thermodynamic models of Sn-In and Sn-In-Ag are developed using the CALPHAD approach. → Reaction layer in the Sn-In-(Ag)/Ag couples at 100 deg. C is thinner than those at 25 deg. C, 50 deg. C, and 75 deg. C. → Reactions in the Sn-20 wt%In-2.8 wt%Ag/Ag couples are faster than those in the Sn-20 wt%In/Ag couples. - Abstract: Experimental verifications of the Sn-In and Sn-In-Ag phase equilibria have been conducted. The experimental measurements of phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties are used for thermodynamic modeling by the CALPHAD approach. The calculated results are in good agreement with experimental results. Interfacial reactions in the Sn-In-(Ag)/Ag couples have been examined. Both Ag 2 In and AgIn 2 phases are formed in the Sn-51.0 wt%In/Ag couples reacted at 100 and 150 deg. C, and only the Ag 2 In phase is formed when reacted at 25, 50 and 75 deg. C. Due to the different growth rates of different reaction phases, the reaction layer at 100 deg. C is thinner than those at 25 deg. C, 50 deg. C, and 75 deg. C. In the Sn-20.0 wt%In/Ag couples, the ζ phase is formed at 250 deg. C and ζ/AgIn 2 phases are formed at 125 deg. C. Compared with the Sn-20 wt%In/Ag couples, faster interfacial reactions are observed in the Sn-20.0 wt%In-2.8 wt%Ag/Ag couples, and minor Ag addition to Sn-20 wt%In solder increases the growth rates of the reaction phases.

  20. Upper limit of peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.A.M.

    1982-08-01

    The determination of the upper limit of peak area in a multi-channel spectra, with a known significance level is discussed. This problem is specially important when the peak area is masked by the background statistical fluctuations. The problem is exactly solved and, thus, the results are valid in experiments with small number of events. The results are submitted to a Monte Carlo test and applied to the 92 Nb beta decay. (Author) [pt

  1. Barrier bucket experiment at the AGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fujieda

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A barrier bucket experiment with two dedicated barrier cavities was performed at the Brookhaven AGS. One of the barrier cavities was a magnetic alloy (MA–loaded cavity and the other was a ferrite-loaded cavity. They generated a single sine wave with a peak voltage of 40 kV at a repetition rate of 351 kHz. A barrier rf system was established with these cavities and five bunches from the AGS booster were accumulated. A total of 3×10^{13} protons were stored without beam loss, and were successfully rebunched and accelerated. The longitudinal emittance growth was observed during accumulation by the barrier bucket, the blowup factor of which was about 3. The longitudinal mismatch between the rf bucket and the beam bunch was the main reason for the emittance growth. The potential distortions by beam loading of the ferrite cavity and the overshooting voltage of the MA cavity disturbed the smooth debunching.

  2. AGS slow extraction improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, J.W.; Smith, G.A.; Sandberg, J.N.; Repeta, L.; Weisberg, H.

    1979-01-01

    Improvement of the straightness of the F5 copper septum increased the AGS slow extraction efficiency from approx. 80% to approx. 90%. Installation of an electrostatic septum at H2O, 24 betatron wavelengths upstream of F5, further improved the extraction efficiency to approx. 97%

  3. AGS Booster prototype magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Brodowski, J.; Jablonski, E.; Keohane, G.; McDowell, B.; Rodger, E.

    1987-03-19

    Prototype magnets have been designed and constructed for two half cells of the AGS Booster. The lattice requires 2.4m long dipoles, each curved by 10/sup 0/. The multi-use Booster injector requires several very different standard magnet cycles, capable of instantaneous interchange using computer control from dc up to 10 Hz.

  4. AGS booster prototype magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Brodowski, J.; Jablonski, E.; Keohane, G.; McDowell, B.; Rodger, E.

    1987-01-01

    Prototype magnets have been designed and constructed for two half cells of the AGS Booster. The lattice requires 2.4m long dipoles, each curved by 10 0 . The multi-use Booster injector requires several very different standard magnet cycles, capable of instantaneous interchange using computer control from dc up to 10 Hz

  5. Improved Measurement of Electron-antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    With 2.5× the previously reported exposure, the Daya Bay experiment has improved the measurement of the neutrino mixing parameter sin 2 2θ 13 =0.089±0.010(stat)±0.005(syst). Reactor anti-neutrinos were produced by six 2.9 GW th commercial power reactors, and measured by six 20-ton target-mass detectors of identical design. A total of 234,217 anti-neutrino candidates were detected in 127 days of exposure. An anti-neutrino rate of 0.944±0.007(stat)±0.003(syst) was measured by three detectors at a flux-weighted average distance of1648 m from the reactors, relative to two detectors at 470 m and one detector at 576 m. Detector design and depth underground limited the background to 5±0.3% (far detectors) and 2±0.2% (near detectors) of the candidate signals. The improved precision confirms the initial measurement of reactor anti-neutrino disappearance, and continues to be the most precise measurement of θ 13

  6. Disappearance of Helicobacter without Antibiotics in 12 Patients with Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Helicobacter pylori in endoscopic gastric biopsies has been associated with a variety of diseases, including ulcers and gastritis. Although the natural history of H pylori in the gastric mucosa is unknown, antibiotic regimens have been used for eradication. Gastric biopsies from 6050 endoscopic procedures done by a single gastroenterologist from 1981 to 1994 were evaluated. Of these, 2860 from April 1, 1991 to September 30, 1994 had silver-stained biopsies to facilitate H pylori detection, and at least two upper endoscopic procedures were done with gastric biopsies in 188 patients. Twelve of the 188 patients with an initially positive H pylori gastric biopsy became H pylori-negative without antibiotic treatment for H pylori or other infection; 10 received omeprazole and two received no drug treatment. In two of the 12 patients recurrent H pylori in the gastric mucosa was also documented. These findings indicate that H pylori may disappear and reappear in the gastric mucosa with no specific antibiotic eradication regimen, although omeprazole may eradicate H pylori in vivo in some patients. The natural history of H pylori in gastric biopsies is poorly understood. Improved understanding, especially regarding the pathogenesis of upper gastrointestinal ulcerative and inflammatory disease processes, is essential before recommendations for specific antibiotic eradication regimens can be made.

  7. Improved Measurement of Electron-antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, D.A. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    With 2.5× the previously reported exposure, the Daya Bay experiment has improved the measurement of the neutrino mixing parameter sin{sup 2}2θ{sub 13}=0.089±0.010(stat)±0.005(syst). Reactor anti-neutrinos were produced by six 2.9 GW{sub th} commercial power reactors, and measured by six 20-ton target-mass detectors of identical design. A total of 234,217 anti-neutrino candidates were detected in 127 days of exposure. An anti-neutrino rate of 0.944±0.007(stat)±0.003(syst) was measured by three detectors at a flux-weighted average distance of1648 m from the reactors, relative to two detectors at 470 m and one detector at 576 m. Detector design and depth underground limited the background to 5±0.3% (far detectors) and 2±0.2% (near detectors) of the candidate signals. The improved precision confirms the initial measurement of reactor anti-neutrino disappearance, and continues to be the most precise measurement of θ{sub 13}.

  8. Disappearance of statin following serum-stimulated cell cycle entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.; Lin, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Statin, a protein of 57,000 D, is present in the nuclei of quiescent of senescent fibroblasts, but is absent in their young replicating counterparts. Immunohistochemical survey of a variety of tissues demonstrates that the presence of statin is a marker for cells that are no longer involved in proliferation, i.e. those cells that are terminally differentiated. Statin expression was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy in serum-starved cultures whose replication had been reinitiated by raising the serum concentration from 0.5 to 10%. Prior to serum addition, more than 85% of the cells stained positively for statin. After stimulation with serum, the expression of statin disappeared rapidly within the first 12-14 h. On the other hand, and increase in the level of DNA synthesis, signifying entry into S phase, was observed initially at 18 h after serum stimulation, and reached maximal levels 6h later. Immunoprecipitation of statin derived from cells harvested at different intervals after serum stimulation revealed that the level of statin synthesis was reduced by 4 h and was hardly detectable at 8 h. These results demonstrate that (1) the synthesis of statin occurs primarily when cells are in a quiescent state, and declines rapidly when cells are induced to proliferate; (2) this decline precedes the transition from G1 to S phase

  9. Peak Oil and other threatening peaks-Chimeras without substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radetzki, Marian

    2010-01-01

    The Peak Oil movement has widely spread its message about an impending peak in global oil production, caused by an inadequate resource base. On closer scrutiny, the underlying analysis is inconsistent, void of a theoretical foundation and without support in empirical observations. Global oil resources are huge and expanding, and pose no threat to continuing output growth within an extended time horizon. In contrast, temporary or prolonged supply crunches are indeed plausible, even likely, on account of growing resource nationalism denying access to efficient exploitation of the existing resource wealth.

  10. Electricity Portfolio Management: Optimal Peak / Off-Peak Allocations

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Ronald; Mahieu, Ronald; Schlichter, Felix

    2007-01-01

    textabstractElectricity purchasers manage a portfolio of contracts in order to purchase the expected future electricity consumption profile of a company or a pool of clients. This paper proposes a mean-variance framework to address the concept of structuring the portfolio and focuses on how to allocate optimal positions in peak and off-peak forward contracts. It is shown that the optimal allocations are based on the difference in risk premiums per unit of day-ahead risk as a measure of relati...

  11. Ultrasonic Transducer Peak-to-Peak Optical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skarvada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible optical setups for measurement of the peak-to-peak value of an ultrasonic transducer are described in this work. The Michelson interferometer with the calibrated nanopositioner in reference path and laser Doppler vibrometer were used for the basic measurement of vibration displacement. Langevin type of ultrasonic transducer is used for the purposes of Electro-Ultrasonic Nonlinear Spectroscopy (EUNS. Parameters of produced mechanical vibration have to been well known for EUNS. Moreover, a monitoring of mechanical vibration frequency shift with a mass load and sample-transducer coupling is important for EUNS measurement.

  12. Peaking-factor of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Noboru; Kato, Yasuji; Yokoi, M.

    1975-01-01

    Output peaking factor often plays an important role in the safety and operation of nuclear reactors. The meaning of the peaking factor of PWRs is categorized into two features or the peaking factor in core (FQ-core) and the peaking factor on the basis of accident analysis (or FQ-limit). FQ-core is the actual peaking factor realized in nuclear core at the time of normal operation, and FQ-limit should be evaluated from loss of coolant accident and other abnormal conditions. If FQ-core is lower than FQ-limit, the reactor may be operated at full load, but if FQ-core is larger than FQ-limit, reactor output should be controlled lower than FQ-limit. FQ-core has two kinds of values, or the one on the basis of nuclear design, and the other actually measured in reactor operation. The first FQ-core should be named as FQ-core-design and the latter as FQ-core-measured. The numerical evaluation of FQ-core-design is as follows; FQ-core-design of three-dimensions is synthesized with FQ-core horizontal value (X-Y) and FQ-core vertical value, the former one is calculated with ASSY-CORE code, and the latter one with one dimensional diffusion code. For the evaluation of FQ-core-measured, on-site data observation from nuclear reactor instrumentation or off-site data observation is used. (Iwase, T.)

  13. Comparison of the two relaxation peaks in the Ti50Ni48Fe2 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Genlian; Zhou Yumei; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Ren Xiaobing; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Yin Fuxing

    2009-01-01

    The internal friction (tan δ) and storage modulus of Ti 50 Ni 48 Fe 2 alloy were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). On cooling, a broad relaxation peak with tan δ value as high as 0.2 was detected in R-phase. On heating, another relaxation peak with tan δ value of 0.06 was found in B19' martensite. Both relaxation peaks disappeared when the alloy was dehydrogenated in a dynamic vacuum furnace. Thus, the origin of both relaxation peaks was attributed to the interaction between twin boundaries and hydrogen atoms, as recently proved in Ti-Ni-Cu alloy. The direct comparison of these two relaxation peaks in the same sample indicates that the height of relaxation peaks increases with the decreasing of twinning shear.

  14. XPS and Ag L3-edge XANES characterization of silver and silver-gold sulfoselenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhlin, Yuri L.; Pal'yanova, Galina A.; Tomashevich, Yevgeny V.; Vishnyakova, Elena A.; Vorobyev, Sergey A.; Kokh, Konstantin A.

    2018-05-01

    Gold and silver sulfoselenides are of interest as materials with high ionic conductivity and promising magnetoresistive, thermoelectric, optical, and other physico-chemical properties, which are strongly dependent on composition and structure. Here, we applied X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Ag L3 X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) to study the electronic structures of low-temperature compounds and solid solutions Ag2SxSe1-x (0 compounds; in particular, the Ag L3-edge peak is about 35% lower for AgAuS relative to Ag2S. At the same time, the Au 4f binding energy and, therefore, charge at Au(I) sites increase with increasing S content due to the transfer of electron density from Au to Ag atoms. It was concluded that the effects mainly originate from shortening of the metal-chalcogen and especially the Ausbnd Ag interatomic distances in substances having similar coordination geometry.

  15. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  16. AGS experiments: 1990, 1991, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains a description of the following: AGS Experimental Area - High Energy Physics FY 1993 and Heavy Ion Physics FY 1993; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ''as run''; Proposed 1993 Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS Experiments; and List of AGS Experimenters

  17. Peak effect in twinned superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkin, A.I.; Marchetti, M.C.; Vinokur, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    A sharp maximum in the critical current J c as a function of temperature just below the melting point of the Abrikosov flux lattice has recently been observed in both low- and high-temperature superconductors. This peak effect is strongest in twinned crystals for fields aligned with the twin planes. We propose that this peak signals the breakdown of the collective pinning regime and the crossover to strong pinning of single vortices on the twin boundaries. This crossover is very sharp and can account for the steep drop of the differential resistivity observed in experiments. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  18. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from Ag-doped Li2B4O7 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kananen, B.E.; Maniego, E.S.; Golden, E.M.; Giles, N.C.; McClory, J.W.; Adamiv, V.T.; Burak, Ya.V.; Halliburton, L.E.

    2016-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (CW-OSL) is observed from Ag-doped lithium tetraborate (Li 2 B 4 O 7 ) crystals. Photoluminescence, optical absorption, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) are used to identify the defects participating in the OSL process. As-grown crystals have Ag + ions substituting for Li + ions. They also have Ag + ions occupying interstitial sites. During a room-temperature exposure to ionizing radiation, holes are trapped at the Ag + ions that replace Li + ions and electrons are trapped at the interstitial Ag + ions, i.e., the radiation forms Ag 2+ (4d 9 ) ions and Ag 0 (4d 10 5s 1 ) atoms. These Ag 2+ and Ag 0 centers have characteristic EPR spectra. The Ag 0 centers also have a broad optical absorption band peaking near 370 nm. An OSL response is observed when the stimulation wavelength overlaps this absorption band. Specifically, stimulation with 400 nm light produces an intense OSL response when emission is monitored near 270 nm. Electrons optically released from the Ag 0 centers recombine with holes trapped at Ag 2+ ions to produce the ultraviolet emission. The OSL response is progressively smaller as the stimulation light is moved to longer wavelengths (i.e., away from the 370 nm peak of the absorption band of the Ag 0 electron traps). Oxygen vacancies are also present in the Ag-doped Li 2 B 4 O 7 crystals, and their role in the OSL process as a secondary relatively short-lived electron trap is described.

  19. [Disappearance of essential neck tremor after pontine base infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushitani, M; Inoue, H; Kawamura, K; Kageyama, T; Fujisawa, M; Nishinaka, K; Udaka, F; Kameyama, M

    1996-08-01

    Mechanism of essential tremor remains unknown. Central oscillators, postulated in thalamus, inferior olive, and spinal cord are thought to be important to form rhythmicity, and finally to stimulate spinal or medullary motor cells, leading trembling muscle contraction, tremor. Among several subtypes of essential familial tremor, including hand tremor, neck tremor, and voice tremor, essential neck tremor is a common disorder, and its pathophysiology seems different from that of typical essential hand tremor, since patients with essential hand tremor are responsive to beta blocker, whereas those with neck tremor are usually not. We experienced a 41-year-old left handed woman with essential neck tremor in whom neck titubation disappeared shortly after pontine base infarct. She was our patient in the outpatient clinic with the diagnosis of essential neck tremor. The tremor developed when she was teenage, and has been localized in the neck muscles. Alcohol intake had apparently diminished it transiently. Her mother also had the tremor in her neck. She was admitted to our hospital with sudden onset of right-sided limb weakness and speech disturbance. Neurological examination showed right hemiparesis including the ipsilateral face, scanning speech, and cerebellar limb ataxia on the same side. In addition, there was no tremor in her neck. Brain MR imaging revealed a pontine base infarct at the level of middle pons, which was consistent with paramedian artery territory. The hemiparesis and speech disturbance improved almost completely after treatment, and her neck tremor has never occurred in one year follow-up. In our patient, efficacy of alcohol imply that essential neck tremor and hand tremor had same central nervous pathway including central oscillator in common, and descending cortical fibers is seemingly associated with diminishing patient's tremor. Pathophysiology of essential neck tremor was discussed with reviewing previous literature.

  20. thermal, electrical and structural characterization of fast ion conducting glasses (Ag Br)x(AgPO)1-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, E.; Yufus, S.; Priyanto, T; Indayaningsih, N; Collins, M F

    2001-01-01

    Fast ion conducting glasses are of considerable technological interest because of their possible application in batteries, sensors, and displays. One of the main scientific challenges is to explain how the disordered structure of the glass is related to the high ionic conductivity that can be achieved at ambient temperature. Fast ion conducting glasses (AgBr) x (AgPO3) 1- x with x=0.0; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7; and 0.85 were prepared by rapid quenching. The studies of structure, thermal property and electrical conductivity have been made. The X-ray diffraction patterns of this system show that the sample are glasses for x 0.5. The neutron diffraction data shows that all AgBr doped glasses exhibit a strong and relatively sharp diffraction peak at anomalously low momentum transfer value, Q∼ 0.7 Α - 1. The low Q-peak is not observed in AgPO 3 glass, and in the X-ray data. The results of electrical conductivity show that the conduction is essentially ionic and due to silver ions alone. The logarithm of the ionic conductivity increases with increasing AgBr mole fraction, and reaches maximum for x = 0.5. The thermal property results measured by differential scanning calorimetric show that the temperatures of the glass transition, the crystallization and the melt reach minimum for the glass with composition x 0.5. We conclude that there appears to be a relation between higher conductivity at ambient temperature, and the low Q-peak. Based on this investigation a better fast ion conducting glass proposed is (AgBr) 0 .5(AgPO 3 ) 0 .5 with the conductivity of 8 x 10 - 5 S/cm

  1. Huge residual resistivity in the quantum critical region of CeAgSb2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Miho; Kirita, Shingo; Asai, Rihito; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C; Okubo, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Mineko; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Inada, Yoshihiko; Settai, Rikio; Galatanu, Andre; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Ebihara, Takao; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the effect of pressure on the electrical resistivity of a high-quality single crystal CeAgSb 2 which has a small net ferromagnetic moment of 0.4μ B /Ce. The magnetic ordering temperature T ord = 9.7 K decreases with increasing pressure p and disappears at a critical pressure p c ≅ 3.3 GPa. The residual resistivity, which is close to zero up to 3 GPa, increases steeply above 3 GPa, reaching 55μΩ cm at p c . A huge residual resistivity is found to appear when the magnetic order disappears. (letter to the editor)

  2. Preparation of AgBr Nanoparticles in Microemulsions Via Reaction of AgNO3 with CTAB Counterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husein, Maen M.; Rodil, Eva; Vera, Juan H.

    2007-01-01

    Nanoparticles of AgBr were prepared by precipitating AgBr in the water pools of microemulsions consisting of CTAB, n-butanol, isooctane and water. An aqueous solution of AgNO 3 added to the microemulsion was the source of Ag + ions. The formation of AgBr nanoparticles in microemulsions through direct reaction with the surfactant counterion is a novel approach aimed at decreasing the role of intermicellar nucleation on nanoparticle formation for rapid reactions. The availability of the surfactant counterion in every reverse micelle and the rapidity of the reaction with the counterion trigger nucleation within individual reverse micelles. The effect of the following variables on the particle size and size distribution was investigated: the surfactant and cosurfactant concentrations, moles of AgNO 3 added, and water to surfactant mole ratio, R. High concentration of the surfactant or cosurfactant, or high water content of the microemulsion favored intermicellar nucleation and resulted in the formation of large particles with broad size distribution, while high amounts of AgNO 3 favored nucleation within individual micelles and resulted in small nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. A blue shift in the UV absorption threshold corresponding to a decrease in the particle size was generally observed. Notably, the variation of the absorption peak size with the nanoparticle size was opposite to those reported by us in previous studies using different surfactants

  3. Symbiotic star AG Dra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipatov, A.P.; Yudin, B.F.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1986-01-01

    The results obtained from photometric (in the UBVRJHKLM system) and spectrophotometric (in the range 0.33-0.75 μm) observations of symbiotic star AG Dra are presented. The cool component of this star is a red giant with approximately constant brightness (ΔJ ≤ 0 m .3) classified as K4-K5. This red giant fills it's Roche loble and probably is on the assymptotic giant branch of the HR diagramm. The presence of IR excess in 5 μm associated with radiation of the gaseous envelope with the mass of M≅ 10 -6 M sun have been detected. Observations of AG Dra indicate that growing of the bolometric flux of a hot component is accompanied with decreasing effective temperature. The hot component of the system is probably an accerting red dwarf with the mass M≅ 0.4 M sun and disk accretion of matter of cool star with the rate M >or ∼ 10 -4 M sun year in equatorial region. Increase of accretion rate during the outburst of AG Dra leads to the increase of stellar wind from the red dwarf surface and the decrease of it's effective temperature. The hot component of AG Dra may also be considered as a white Dwarf with luminosity L 3 L sun and R eff >or approx. 0.2 R sun . In this case gravitational energy of accreting matter M > or ∼ 10 -6 M sun / year would be the source of the hot component outbursts. The luminosity between outbursts is determined by energy generation from the burning hydrogen layer source

  4. Hubbert's Peak -- A Physicist's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Oil, as used in agriculture and transportation, is the lifeblood of modern society. It is finite in quantity and will someday be exhausted. In 1956, Hubbert proposed a theory of resource production and applied it successfully to predict peak U.S. oil production in 1970. Bartlett extended this work in publications and lectures on the finite nature of oil and its production peak and depletion. Both Hubbert and Bartlett place peak world oil production at a similar time, essentially now. Central to these analyses are estimates of total ``oil in place'' obtained from engineering studies of oil reservoirs as this quantity determines the area under the Hubbert's Peak. Knowing the production history and the total oil in place allows us to make estimates of reserves, and therefore future oil availability. We will then examine reserves data for various countries, in particular OPEC countries, and see if these data tell us anything about the future availability of oil. Finally, we will comment on synthetic oil and the possibility of carbon-neutral synthetic oil for a sustainable future.

  5. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE DISAPPEARANCE ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Anderson, S. F.; Gibson, R. R. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lundgren, B. F. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Myers, A. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Petitjean, P. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Universite Paris 6, F-75014, Paris (France); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 92420 (United States); Shen Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); York, D. G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bizyaev, D.; Brinkmann, J.; Malanushenko, E.; Oravetz, D. J.; Pan, K.; Simmons, A. E. [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Weaver, B. A., E-mail: nfilizak@astro.psu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We present 21 examples of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) trough disappearance in 19 quasars selected from systematic multi-epoch observations of 582 bright BAL quasars (1.9 < z < 4.5) by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS-I/II) and SDSS-III. The observations span 1.1-3.9 yr rest-frame timescales, longer than have been sampled in many previous BAL variability studies. On these timescales, Almost-Equal-To 2.3% of C IV BAL troughs disappear and Almost-Equal-To 3.3% of BAL quasars show a disappearing trough. These observed frequencies suggest that many C IV BAL absorbers spend on average at most a century along our line of sight to their quasar. Ten of the 19 BAL quasars showing C IV BAL disappearance have apparently transformed from BAL to non-BAL quasars; these are the first reported examples of such transformations. The BAL troughs that disappear tend to be those with small-to-moderate equivalent widths, relatively shallow depths, and high outflow velocities. Other non-disappearing C IV BALs in those nine objects having multiple troughs tend to weaken when one of them disappears, indicating a connection between the disappearing and non-disappearing troughs, even for velocity separations as large as 10,000-15,000 km s{sup -1}. We discuss possible origins of this connection including disk-wind rotation and changes in shielding gas.

  6. Anomalous growth of Ba on Ag(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodoro, O.M.N.D.; Los, J.; Moutinho, A.M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Electropositive elements are often adsorbed on metals to produce a well-known decrease in the surface work function. During deposition, the work function drops steeply and reaches a minimum at coverage lower than one monolayer. Then, it increases slightly and the work function converges to the value of the deposited element. In this work, we report anomalous behavior found during the deposition of barium on a Ag(111) surface. After a minimum of about 2.4 eV the work function did not increase up to 2.7 eV, the bulk barium work function, no matter what amount of barium was deposited. Auger electron spectroscopy corroborated these results in which we measured a permanent and constant intensity of the Ag MNN peak for high barium coverage. To explain this anomalous growth of barium on Ag(111) we propose an explanation based on the diffusion of silver atoms into the barium film. Further experiments showed that coadsorption of oxygen before a second deposition of barium blocked the diffusion thus allowing the work function to reach 2.7 eV

  7. Ag K- and L3-edge XAFS study on Ag species in Ag/Ga2O3 photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M; Yamamoto, N; Yoshida, T; Nomoto, T; Yamamoto, A; Yoshida, H; Yagi, S

    2016-01-01

    Ag loaded Ga 2 O 3 (Ag/Ga 2 O 3 ) shows photocatalytic activity for reduction of CO 2 with water. Ag L 3 -edge XANES and K-edge EXAFS spectra were measured for various Ag/Ga 2 O 3 samples, which suggested that structural and chemical states of Ag species varied with the loading amount of Ag and the preparation method. The Ag species were metallic Ag particles with an AgGaO 2 -like interface structure in the sample with high loading amount of Ag while predominantly Ag metal clusters in the sample with low loading amount of Ag. The XANES feature just above the edge represented the interaction between the Ag species and the Ga 2 O 3 surface, showing that the Ag metal clusters had more electrons in the d -orbitals by interacting with the Ga 2 O 3 surface, which would contribute the high photocatalytic activity. (paper)

  8. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  9. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Graczyk; Maria Pąchalska; Artur Ziółkowski; Grzegorz Mańko; Beata Łukaszewska; Kazimierz Kochanowicz; Andrzej Mirski; Iurii D. Kropotov

    2014-01-01

    [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneou...

  10. Power peaking nuclear reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.; Pegram, J.W.; Mays, C.W.; Romano, J.J.; Woods, J.J.; Warren, H.D.

    1977-11-01

    The Calculational Nuclear Reliability Factor (CNRF) assigned to the limiting power density calculated in reactor design has been determined. The CNRF is presented as a function of the relative power density of the fuel assembly and its radial local. In addition, the Measurement Nuclear Reliability Factor (MNRF) for the measured peak hot pellet power in the core has been evaluated. This MNRF is also presented as a function of the relative power density and radial local within the fuel assembly

  11. Evaluation of concurrent peak responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.C.; Curreri, J.; Reich, M.

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with the problem of combining two or more concurrent responses which are induced by dynamic loads acting on nuclear power plant structures. Specifically, the acceptability of using the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) value of peak values as the combined response is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the establishment of a simplified criterion that is convenient and relatively easy to use by design engineers

  12. Finding two-dimensional peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silagadze, Z.K.

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional generalization of the original peak finding algorithm suggested earlier is given. The ideology of the algorithm emerged from the well-known quantum mechanical tunneling property which enables small bodies to penetrate through narrow potential barriers. We merge this 'quantum' ideology with the philosophy of Particle Swarm Optimization to get the global optimization algorithm which can be called Quantum Swarm Optimization. The functionality of the newborn algorithm is tested on some benchmark optimization problems

  13. AGS experiments -- 1995, 1996 and 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments.

  14. AGS experiments - 1995, 1996 and 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.; Presti, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains (1) FY 1995 AGS schedule as run; (2) FY 1996 AGS schedule as run; (3) FY 1997 AGS schedule as run; (4) FY 1998--1999 AGS schedule (proposed); (5) AGS beams 1997; (6) AGS experimental area FY 1995 physics program; (7) AGS experimental area FY 1996 physics program; (8) AGS experimental area FY 1997 physics program; (9) AGS experimental area FY 1998--1999 physics program (proposed); (10) a listing of experiments by number; (11) two-page summaries of each experiment, in order by number; and (12) listing of publications of AGS experiments

  15. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  16. AGS polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.

    1985-01-01

    The AGS polarized H - source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 μA x 300 μs (approx. 3 x 10 10 protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H - yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H - current is now frequently 20 to 30 μA. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program

  17. AGS superconducting bending magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.; McInturff, A.D.; Dahl, P.F.; Abbatiello, F.; Aggus, J.; Bamberger, J.; Brown, D.; Damm, R.; Kassner, D.; Lasky, C.; Schlafke, A.

    1976-01-01

    Four large aperture superconducting bending magnets are being built for use in the experimental beams at the AGS. Each of these magnets is 2.5 m long and has a room temperature aperture of 20 cm. The magnets are similar in design to the dipoles being developed for ISABELLE and employ a low temperature iron core. Results are presented on the ''training'' behavior of the magnets and a comparison will be made with the smaller aperture versions of this design. The magnet field measurements include end fields and leakage fields as well as the harmonic components of the straight section of the magnet

  18. Visible light driven photocatalysis and antibacterial activity of AgVO3 and Ag/AgVO3 nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anamika; Dutta, Dimple P.; Ballal, A.; Tyagi, A.K.; Fulekar, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/AgVO 3 and pure AgVO 3 nanowires synthesized by sonochemical process. • Characterization done using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and BET analysis. • Visible light degradation of RhB by Ag/AgVO 3 within 45 min. • Antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO 3 demonstrated. - Abstract: Ag/AgVO 3 nanowires and AgVO 3 nanorods were synthesized in aqueous media via a facile sonochemical route. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy together with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrum analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results revealed that inert atmosphere promotes the formation of Ag/AgVO 3 nanowires. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the Ag/AgVO 3 nanowires exhibited complete photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B within 45 min under visible light irradiation. The antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO 3 nanowires was tested against Escherechia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum growth inhibitory concentration value was found to be 50 and 10 folds lower than for the antibiotic ciprofloxacin for E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. The antibacterial properties of the β-AgVO 3 nanorods prove that in case of the Ag dispersed Ag/AgVO 3 nanowires, the enhanced antibacterial action is also due to contribution from the AgVO 3 support

  19. Synthesis and Property of Ag(NP)/catechin/Gelatin Nanofiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Muhamad; Apriani, Dita

    2017-12-01

    Nanomaterial play important role future industry such as for the medical, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Ag (NP) and catechin exhibit antibacterial property. Ag(NP) with diameter around 15 nm was synthesis by microwaved method. We have successfully produce Ag(NP)/catechin/gelatin nanofiber composite by electrospinning process. Ag(NP)/catechin/gelatin nanofiber was synthesized by using gelatin from tuna fish, polyethylene oxide (PEO), acetic acid as solvent and silver nanoparticle(NP)/catechin as bioactive component, respectively. Morphology and structure of bioactive catechin-gelatin nanofiber were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. SEM analysis showed that morphology of nanofiber composite was smooth and had average diameter 398.97 nm. FTIR analysis results were used to confirm structure of catechin-gelatin nanofiber. It was confirmed by FTIR that specific vibration band peak amide A (N-H) at 3286,209 cm-1, amide B (N-H) 3069,396 cm-1, amide I (C=O) at 1643,813 cm-1, amide II (N-H and CN) at 1538,949 cm-1, amide III (C-N) at 1276,789 cm-1, C-O-C from polyethylene oxide at 1146,418 cm-1, respectively. When examined to S. Aureus bacteria, Ag/catechin/gelatin nanofiber show inhabitation performance around 40.44%. Ag(NP)/catechin/gelatin nanofiber has potential application antibacterial medical application.

  20. Structural characterization of Fe/Ag bilayers by RBS and AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunyogi, A.; Tancziko, F.; Osvath, Z.; Paszti, F.

    2008-01-01

    Fe/Ag thin films are intensively investigated due to their special magnetic properties. Recently a deposition-order dependent asymmetric interface has been found. When iron is grown on silver, the interface is sharp, while the growth of Ag on Fe results in a long, low-energy tail of the Ag peak in the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) spectra. The main purpose of this paper is to show that the low-energy Ag tail is caused by grain boundary diffusion, and that, when elevating the growing temperature of the Ag layer this effect becomes more significant. Two sets of polycrystalline and epitaxial Fe/Ag bilayers were prepared simultaneously onto Si(1 1 1) and MgO(1 0 0), respectively. The iron layers were grown at 250 deg. C and annealed at 450 deg. C in both sets, while the Ag layer was grown in the first set at room temperature (RT) and in the second set at 250 deg. C (HT). The sample composition, the interface sharpness and the quality of the epitaxy were studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) combined with channeling effect. The surface morphology was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). RBS spectra show that in the case of RT samples the epitaxial MgO/Fe/Ag bilayer has sharp, well-defined interface, while for the polycrystalline Si/Fe/Ag sample the silver peak has a low-energy tail. Both the Fe and Ag peaks smeared out in the case of HT samples. AFM-images show that the RT samples have a continuous Ag layer, while the HT samples have fragmented surfaces. The RBS spectra taken on the HT samples were successfully simulated by the RBS-MAST code taking into account their fragmented structures.

  1. Stress disorders of families of the disappeared: a controlled study in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, G J; Casco, L

    1994-12-01

    The effect of forced disappearance on the physical and psychological health of family members was assessed by interviews carried out in Honduras. Families of the disappeared were compared with two control groups: (1) families who lost a member due to accident or illness; and (2) families where no one had died within the past 10 years. Constellations of stress-related symptoms commonly seen in post-traumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders were approx. 2 times more prevalent in families of the disappeared as compared to the other two groups, indicating that families of the disappeared suffer over and above that due to normal grieving. It is suggested that the atmosphere of fear and isolation experienced by families of the disappeared is a causative factor in the prolongation of stress-related disorders years after the traumatic event.

  2. Forced disappearance in an era of globalization: biopolitics, shadow networks, and imagined worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the practice of forced disappearance of persons on the part of paramilitary groups has become linked to specific processes of globalization. Global flows related to biopolitics, global crime networks, and dehumanizing imaginations reproduced by mass media together constitute a driving force behind forced disappearances. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in the Colombian city of Medellín, I analyze how these global flows interact with local armed actors, helping create a climate conducive to forced disappearance. These mechanisms in Colombia show similarities to those in some African and Asian countries. Gaining insight into the mechanisms behind forced disappearance may help prevent it from occurring in the future. Enhancing social inclusion of residents, unraveling the transnational crime networks in which perpetrators are involved, and disseminating rehumanizing images of victims all contribute to curbing the practice of forced disappearance.

  3. Spatial peak-load pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, M. Soledad; Serra, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    This article extends the traditional electricity peak-load pricing model to include transmission costs. In the context of a two-node, two-technology electric power system, where suppliers face inelastic demand, we show that when the marginal plant is located at the energy-importing center, generators located away from that center should pay the marginal capacity transmission cost; otherwise, consumers should bear this cost through capacity payments. Since electric power transmission is a natural monopoly, marginal-cost pricing does not fully cover costs. We propose distributing the revenue deficit among users in proportion to the surplus they derive from the service priced at marginal cost. (Author)

  4. Sudden Disappearance of the First-Order Transition in β-Pyrochlore KOs2O6 under Low Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeo, Kazunori; Kubo, Hirokazu; Yamaura, Jun-ichi; Hiroi, Zenji; Takabatake, Toshiro

    2009-12-01

    We report the first observation of the pressure effect on the first-order transition at Tp = 7.5 K in the β-pyrochlore oxide superconductor KOs2O6 by specific-heat measurement. The peak in the specific heat at Tp disappeared at a low pressure of 0.02 GPa. With increasing pressure up to 0.02 GPa, the coefficient of the T5 dependence of the specific heat increases by 30%. This finding implies that low-energy excitations of phonons are enhanced by the suppression of the first-order transition. However, the specific-heat jump at Tc is unchanged with pressure up to 1 GPa, indicating that the strong coupling superconductivity is rather robust under pressure.

  5. The Effect of Cu:Ag Atomic Ratio on the Properties of Sputtered Cu–Ag Alloy Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janghsing Hsieh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cu–Ag thin films with various atomic ratios were prepared using a co-sputtering technique, followed by rapid thermal annealing at various temperatures. The films’ structural, mechanical, and electrical properties were then characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, FESEM, nano-indentation, and TEM as functions of compositions and annealing conditions. In the as-deposited condition, the structure of these films transformed from a one-phase to a dual-phase state, and the resistivity shows a twin-peak pattern, which can be explained in part by Nordheim’s Rule and the miscibility gap of Cu–Ag alloy. After being annealed, the films’ resistivity followed the mixture rule in general, mainly due to the formation of a dual-phase structure containing Ag-rich and Cu-rich phases. The surface morphology and structure also varied as compositions and annealing conditions changed. The recrystallization of these films varied depending on Ag–Cu compositions. The annealed films composed of 40 at % to 60 at % Cu had higher hardness and lower roughness than those with other compositions. Particularly, the Cu50Ag50 film had the highest hardness after being annealed. From the dissolution testing, it was found that the Cu-ion concentration was about 40 times higher than that of Ag. The galvanic effect and over-saturated state could be the cause of the accelerated Cu dissolution and the reduced dissolution of the Ag.

  6. Economic effects of peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Christian; Lehr, Ulrike; Wiebe, Kirsten S.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that global oil production peaked, this paper uses scenario analysis to show the economic effects of a possible supply shortage and corresponding rise in oil prices in the next decade on different sectors in Germany and other major economies such as the US, Japan, China, the OPEC or Russia. Due to the price-inelasticity of oil demand the supply shortage leads to a sharp increase in oil prices in the second scenario, with high effects on GDP comparable to the magnitude of the global financial crises in 2008/09. Oil exporting countries benefit from high oil prices, whereas oil importing countries are negatively affected. Generally, the effects in the third scenario are significantly smaller than in the second, showing that energy efficiency measures and the switch to renewable energy sources decreases the countries' dependence on oil imports and hence reduces their vulnerability to oil price shocks on the world market. - Highlights: ► National and sectoral economic effects of peak oil until 2020 are modelled. ► The price elasticity of oil demand is low resulting in high price fluctuations. ► Oil shortage strongly affects transport and indirectly all other sectors. ► Global macroeconomic effects are comparable to the 2008/2009 crisis. ► Country effects depend on oil imports and productivity, and economic structures.

  7. Understanding the growth mechanism of stabilizer-free Ag nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide: the role of CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weiyin; Ran Chenxin; Wang Minqiang; Yao Xi; He Delong; Bai Jinbo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, one-step approach to prepare stabilizer-free Ag–graphene nanocomposites using DMAc-assisted thermal reduction method with uniform distribution of “near spherical” Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in the range of 16–20 nm is reported. Interestingly, from the change of absorption spectrum as a function of reaction time, we observed that the characteristic absorption peak of Ag NPs shows no peak position shift in a quite long time without extra stabilizer while red-shift and broaden after continuous reaction. To explain this phenomenon, we further proposed a growth mechanism that CO, which is generated from reduction of functional groups on GO, adsorbed on the surface of Ag NPs and leaded to growth cease of Ag NPs into a narrow size distribution during the reduction of GO. Meanwhile, Ag NPs can catalyze the oxidation of adsorbed-CO to CO 2 in the presence of O 2 which can easily desorb from Ag surfaces. Hence, after fully removal of functional groups on GO, continuous supply of CO was cutoff while the desorption of adsorbed-CO was still happening continually, so Ag NPs start to gradually grow and resulting in aggregation. Moreover, the dosage of less DMAc or more AgNO 3 would cause the anisotropic growth and form multiply twinned structure of Ag NPs. Our study presents a useful understanding on the growth of Ag NPs on graphene.

  8. Ag/Pd core-shell nanoparticles by a successive method: Pulsed laser ablation of Ag in water and reduction reaction of PdCl{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottaghi, N. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranjbar, M., E-mail: ranjbar@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farrokhpour, H. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshouei, M. [Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Molecular Structural Biology, Am Klopferspitz 18, Martinsried 82152 (Germany); Khoshouei, A.; Kameli, P.; Salamati, H. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabrizchi, M. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalilian-Nosrati, M. [Physics department, Central Azad University, Tehran 14676-86831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    In this study Ag/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) have been fabricated by a successive method; first, colloids of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared in water by pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) method. Then PdCl{sub 2} solution (up to 0.2 g/l) were added to the as-prepared or aged colloidal Ag NPs. Characterizations were done using UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmissions electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Spectroscopy data showed that surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks of as-prepared Ag NPs at about λ = 400 nm were completely extinguished after addition of PdCl{sub 2} solution while this effect was not observed when aged Ag NPs are used. XRD and XPS results revealed that by addition of the PdCl{sub 2} solution into the as-prepared Ag NPs, metallic palladium, and silver chloride composition products are generated. TEM images revealed that as a result of this reaction, single and core-shell nanoparticles are obtained and their average sizes are 2.4 nm (Ag) and 3.2 nm (Ag/Pd). The calculated d-spacing values form XRD data with observations on high magnification TEM images were able to explain the chemical nature of different parts of Ag/Pd NPs.

  9. Nano-Ag complexes prepared by γ-radiolysis and their structures and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa-Jung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Park, Hae-Jun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, nano-silver (nano-Ag) complexes showing different properties have been synthesized as follows. Polypyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized silver colloids (NAg), nano-Ag bound to silica (SiO 2 ) (NSS), and nano-Ag bound to a complex of SiO 2 and polyaniline (PANI) (NSSPAI) were prepared via γ-irradiation at room temperature. NAg and NSS used PVP as a colloidal stabilizer, while NSSPAI did not use PVP as a colloidal stabilizer. Interesting bonding properties occurred in the nano-Ag complex and anticipated structural changes were clearly shown through a surface analysis of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphologies by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis showed that nano-Ag complexes have various particle sizes ranging from 10 to 30 nm. NSS (average, 10 nm) and NSSPAI (average, 30 nm) showed a uniformly spherical shape and size, while NAg did not. From the reflection peaks in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, surface crystallinity of the nano-Ag complexes was indicated to be in the same degree as that of NSSPAI>NSS>NAg. Also, in the contact angle (CA) determination, surface hydrophobicity of NSSPAI was stronger than those of NSS and NAg, relatively. The different nano-Ag complexes prepared by γ-irradiation can be applicable in various industry fields due to the increase in specific property. - Highlights: ► Nano-Ag complexes showing different properties have been synthesized via γ-irradiation. ► Nano-Ag colloid (NAg), nano-Ag bound to SiO 2 (NSS), nano-Ag bound to SiO 2 and PANI complex (NSSPAI). ► Nano-Ag complexes were the same based on Ag metal. ► Results clearly showed fascinating/different physical properties. ► Different nano-Ag complexes can be applicable in various industry fields.

  10. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Ren, Yan-yu; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang

    Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV-Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of sbnd NH2, sbnd OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism.

  11. BROOKHAVEN: AGS improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1994-01-01

    The new Booster - AGS Alternating Gradient Synchrotron complex is providing beam while machine development to enhance performance also progresses, so far on schedule. In 1991 the Booster turned on and performed as requested - attesting to a successful construction and quality control programme. In 1992 beam was provided to users while the Booster met most of its operational goals - falling slightly short of its proton intensity goal of 0.5 x 10 13 protons per pulse (ppp). This would have been inconsequential except that the Booster intensity seemed to be hitting a fairly solid brick wall of undetermined origin. Since the goal for 1993 called for a doubling of the intensity, the situation seemed serious enough to schedule three months (February - April 1993) for Booster development

  12. Structure and photoelectrochemistry of silver-copper-indium-diselenide ((AgCu)InSe2) thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin Rui; Li, Tong; Wang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Chen, Yi Chuan; Song, Xue Mei; Zhang, Yong Zhe; Yan, Hui

    2018-02-01

    In this work, silver (Ag) precursors with different thicknesses were sputtered on the surfaces of CuIn alloys, and (AgCu)InSe2 (ACIS) films were formed after selenization at 550 °C under nitrogen condition using a rapid thermal process furnace. The structure and electrical properties of the ACIS films were investigated. The result showed that the distribution of Ag+ ion was more uniform with increasing the thickness of Ag precursor, and the surface of the thin-film became more homogeneous and denser. When Ag/Cu ratio ≥0.249, the small grain particles disappeared. The band gap can be rationally controlled by adjusting Ag content. When (Ag + Cu)/In ratio ≥ 1.15, the surface of the ACIS thin-film mainly exhibited n-type semiconductor. Through the photoelectrochemistry measurement, it was observed that the incorporation of Ag+ ions could improve photocurrent by adjusting the band gap. With the Ag precursor thickness increased, the dark current decreased at the more negative potential.

  13. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  14. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  15. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ''as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here

  16. Plants for H- acceleration in the AGS Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, D.S.; Witkover, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Since its commissioning in 1970, the 200 MeV Linac at the Brookhaven AGS has been capable of producing peak proton beam current of greater than 100 mA with pulse lengths up to 300 μsec at a repetition rate of 10 pulses/second. The linac typically runs at 5 pulses per second, providing a 60 mA pulse of 120 μsec duration every 1.6 to 2.4 seconds for conventional multiturn injection into the AGS. The intervening pulses of length up to 300 μsec are used by the radio-isotope production, chemistry and medical facilities. Preparations are now being made to inject and accelerate H - ions in order to implement charge exchange injection into the AGS. This paper describes the aspects of this work leading to an H - beam at 200 MeV

  17. Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of nanostructures ZrO2:AG against staphylococcus aureus by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nova, C.V.; Reis, K.H.; Galico, D.A.; Venturini, J.; Pontes, F.M.L.; Pinheiro, A.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil); Longo, E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Nanostructures of zirconia (ZrO2) has shown great prominence in the area of advanced materials and shows excellent properties such as chemical stability, mechanical strength, electrical and optical properties. When certain metals are supported on the compound, such as Fe, Ag, Au and Al, a potentiation of some properties, such as bactericide and fungicide can occur. Thus, this work deals with the synthesis and characterization of ZrO2 and ZrO2:Ag (1% and 10 % of Ag) nanostructures and the study of the influence of the antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. X-ray powder diffractograms of the zirconia and silver with zirconia shown the formation of well defined peaks of tetragonal zirconia in all the samples. Although the ZrO2:Ag (10 % of Ag) shown the characteristics peaks of cubic silver, these peaks do not appear in ZrO2:Ag (1 % of Ag) due to the small amount of silver in comparison with zirconium. The crystal size was estimated by the Scherrer equation and the calculated values for zirconia were 12.84, 12.27 and 12.61 nm for ZrO2, ZrO2 : Ag (1%) and ZrO2 : Ag (10%) respectively and the silver crystal size was 8,09 nm. Diffuse reflectance of the silver particles shown a broad plasmon band at 405 and 424 nm for the ZrO2 : Ag (1%) and ZrO2 : Ag (10%). Antimicrobial assay demonstrated that ZrO2 showed a bacteriostatic effect (61 %) and the inclusion of the silver in the ZrO2 matrix enhanced this effect to 65-72 %. Both particles with different silver content shown similar effect {[ZrO2:Ag 1%] = [ZrO2:Ag 10%]>[ZrO2]}.(author)

  18. Construction of Ag/AgCl nanostructures from Ag nanoparticles as high-performance visible-light photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Dongzhi; Wang, Tianyang; Li, Wei [Tianjin University, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Hu, Wenping [Tianjin University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (China); Zhou, Xueqin, E-mail: zhouxueqin@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China)

    2016-11-15

    A combined strategy of in situ oxidation and assembly is developed to prepare Ag/AgCl nanospheres and nanocubes from Ag nanoparticles under room temperature. It is a new facile way to fabricate Ag/AgCl with small sizes and defined morphologies. Ag/AgCl nanospheres with an average size of 80 nm were achieved without any surfactants, while Ag/AgCl nanocubes with a mean edge length of 150 nm were obtained by introduction of N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-2-ammonio-acetate. The possible formation mechanism involves the self-assembly of AgCl nanoparticles, Ostwald ripening and photoreduction of Ag{sup +} into Ag{sup 0} by the room light. The as-prepared Ag/AgCl nanospheres and nanocubes exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity and stability toward degradation of organic pollutants under visible-light irradiation. It is demonstrated that Ag/AgCl nanocubes display enhanced photocatalytic activity in comparison with Ag/AgCl nanospheres due to the more efficient charge transfer. This work may pave an avenue to construct various functional materials via the assembly strategy using nanoparticles as versatile building blocks.

  19. Tuning the shell thickness-dependent plasmonic absorption of Ag coated Au nanocubes: The effect of synthesis temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jian, E-mail: jianzhusummer@163.com; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Bei-Bei; Li, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Jun-Wu, E-mail: nanoptzhao@163.com

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Ag coating leads to great enhancement of SPR absorbance of Au nanocubes, and the Ag coating-dependent non-monotonous SPR shift is greater at lower temperature. - Highlights: • Au nanocubes with more uniform shape can be obtained at lower growth temperature. • Ag coating leads to great enhancement of SPR absorption intensity. • The Ag coating dependent non-monotonous SPR shift is greater at lower temperature. - Abstract: The temperature dependent synthesis and plasmonic optical properties of Ag coated Au nanocubes have been investigated experimentally. It has been found that the Au nanocubes with more uniform morphology and higher yield could be obtained by decreasing the growth temperature. Because of the non-spherical symmetry of the particles shape and the plasmon coupling between Au–Ag interface and outer Ag surface, four absorption peaks at most have been observed. As the Ag coating thickness is increased, the absorbance intensity of these plasmon peaks gets intense greatly, and the absorption peak at longest wavelength blue shifts firstly and then red shifts. The non-monotonous plasmonic shift has been attributed to the competition between the increase of Ag composition and the enlargement of the particle size. What's more, the wavelength region of both blue shift and red shift could also be enhanced by decreasing the temperature.

  20. Tuning the shell thickness-dependent plasmonic absorption of Ag coated Au nanocubes: The effect of synthesis temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Bei-Bei; Li, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Jun-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ag coating leads to great enhancement of SPR absorbance of Au nanocubes, and the Ag coating-dependent non-monotonous SPR shift is greater at lower temperature. - Highlights: • Au nanocubes with more uniform shape can be obtained at lower growth temperature. • Ag coating leads to great enhancement of SPR absorption intensity. • The Ag coating dependent non-monotonous SPR shift is greater at lower temperature. - Abstract: The temperature dependent synthesis and plasmonic optical properties of Ag coated Au nanocubes have been investigated experimentally. It has been found that the Au nanocubes with more uniform morphology and higher yield could be obtained by decreasing the growth temperature. Because of the non-spherical symmetry of the particles shape and the plasmon coupling between Au–Ag interface and outer Ag surface, four absorption peaks at most have been observed. As the Ag coating thickness is increased, the absorbance intensity of these plasmon peaks gets intense greatly, and the absorption peak at longest wavelength blue shifts firstly and then red shifts. The non-monotonous plasmonic shift has been attributed to the competition between the increase of Ag composition and the enlargement of the particle size. What's more, the wavelength region of both blue shift and red shift could also be enhanced by decreasing the temperature

  1. A search for muon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance in the Booster Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, Kendall Brianna McConnel [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This dissertation presents a search for vμ and $\\bar{v}$μ disappearance with the MiniBooNE experiment in the Δm2 region of a few eV2. Disappearance measurements in this oscillation region constrain sterile neutrino models and CPT violation in the lepton sector. Fits to the shape of the vμ and $\\bar{v}$μ energy spectra reveal no evidence for disappearance in either mode. This is the first test of $\\bar{v}$μ disappearance between Δm2 = 0.1 - 10 eV2. In addition, prospects for performing a joint analysis using the SciBooNE detector in conjunction with MiniBooNE are discussed.

  2. Disappearing neutrinos at KamLAND suport the case for neutrino mass

    CERN Multimedia

    Johnson, G

    2002-01-01

    Measurements from KamLAND, show that anti-neutrinos emanating from nearby nuclear reactors are "disappearing," which indicates they have mass and can oscillate or change from one type to another (2 pages)

  3. On-the-fly green generation and dispersion of AgI nanoparticles for cloud seeding nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiuli; Zhou, Wenbo; Wang, Xizheng; Wu, Tao; Delisio, Jeffery B.; Zachariah, Michael R., E-mail: mrz@umd.edu [University of Maryland, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States)

    2016-07-15

    This study reports on an on-the-fly green synthesis/dispersion of silver iodide (AgI) nanoparticles from the combustion of AgIO{sub 3}/carbon black (CB)/nitrocellulose (NC) composites, which could be used as a candidate for a cloud-seeding pyrotechnic. Films were formed by direct electrospray deposition of a mixture of synthesized silver iodate with CB and NC. The decomposition pathways of AgIO{sub 3}/CB and AgIO{sub 3}/CB/NC were evaluated by temperature jump time of flight mass spectrometry (T-jump TOFMS) and XRD, showing that AgI particles and CO{sub 2} are released from the reaction between AgIO{sub 3} and CB without other toxic residuals. The flame propagation velocity of AgIO{sub 3}/CB/NC films increases with the increasing of particle mass loading of AgIO{sub 3} and CB and peaks at 40 wt%, which is much higher than that of an AgI/AP/NC film. The mean diameter of the resultant AgI nanoparticles is from 51 to 97 nm. The mass loading of AgIO{sub 3} and CB was found to play a major role in size control of the AgI nanoparticles.

  4. Establishment of peak bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Stefano; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2003-03-01

    Among the main areas of progress in osteoporosis research during the last decade or so are the general recognition that this condition, which is the cause of so much pain in the elderly population, has its antecedents in childhood and the identification of the structural basis accounting for much of the differences in bone strength among humans. Nevertheless, current understanding of the bone mineral accrual process is far from complete. The search for genes that regulate bone mass acquisition is ongoing, and current results are not sufficient to identify subjects at risk. However, there is solid evidence that BMD measurements can be helpful for the selection of subjects that presumably would benefit from preventive interventions. The questions regarding the type of preventive interventions, their magnitude, and duration remain unanswered. Carefully designed controlled trials are needed. Nevertheless, previous experience indicates that weight-bearing activity and possibly calcium supplements are beneficial if they are begun during childhood and preferably before the onset of puberty. Modification of unhealthy lifestyles and increments in exercise or calcium assumption are logical interventions that should be implemented to improve bone mass gains in all children and adolescents who are at risk of failing to achieve an optimal peak bone mass.

  5. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Graczyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs. [b]case study[/b]. The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. [b]conclusion[/b]. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  6. Reactor power peaking information display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, T.L.; Kochendarfer, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a system for monitoring operating conditions within a nuclear reactor. The system consists of a method for measuring the operating parameters within the nuclear reactor, including the position of axial power shaping rods and regulating control rod. It also includes a method for determining from the operating parameters the operating limits before a power peaking condition exists within the nuclear reactor, and a method for displaying the operating limits which consists of a visual display permitting the continuous monitoring of the operating conditions within the nuclear reactor as a graph of the shaping rod position vs the regulating rod position having a permissible area and a restricted area. The permissible area is further divided into a recommended operating area for steady state operation and a cursor located on the graph to indicate the present operating condition of the nuclear reactor to allow an operator to view any need for corrective action based on the movement of the cursor out of the recommended operating area and to take any corrective transient action within the permissible area

  7. Neurofeedback training for peak performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Marek; Pąchalska, Maria; Ziółkowski, Artur; Mańko, Grzegorz; Łukaszewska, Beata; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Mirski, Andrzej; Kropotov, Iurii D

    2014-01-01

    One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs). The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  8. Search for sterile neutrinos in muon neutrino disappearance mode at FNAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhina, A.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Morgunova, O.; Roganova, T.; Bagulya, A.; Chernyavskiy, M.; Dalkarov, O.; Mingazheva, R.; Shchedrina, T.; Starkov, N.; Vladymyrov, M.; Benettoni, M.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Lippi, I.; Longhin, A.; Bernardini, P.; Mancarella, G.; Marsella, G.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Roda, M.; Sirignano, C.; Calabrese, M.; Fiore, G.; Surdo, A.; Cecchetti, A.; Orecchini, D.; Paoloni, A.; Cecchini, S.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Guerzoni, M.; Laurenti, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Sahnoun, Z.; Sirri, G.; Togo, V.; Del Prete, A.; Papadia, G.; De Robertis, G.; Fini, R.A.; Loddo, F.; Pastore, A.; De Serio, M.; Paparella, L.; Simone, S.; Klicek, B.; Jakovcic, K.; Malenica, M.; Stipcevic, M.; Kose, U.; Nessi, M.; Margiotta, A.; Pasqualini, L.; Spurio, M.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Polukhina, N.; Rosa, G.; Stanco, L.; Tenti, M.

    2017-01-01

    The NESSiE Collaboration has been setup to undertake a conclusive experiment to clarify the muon-neutrino disappearance measurements at short baselines in order to put severe constraints to models with more than the three-standard neutrinos. To this aim the current FNAL-Booster neutrino beam for a Short-Baseline experiment was carefully evaluated by considering the use of magnetic spectrometers at two sites, near and far ones. The detector locations were studied, together with the achievable performances of two OPERA-like spectrometers. The study was constrained by the availability of existing hardware and a time-schedule compatible with the undergoing project of multi-site Liquid-Argon detectors at FNAL. The settled physics case and the kind of proposed experiment on the Booster neutrino beam would definitively clarify the existing tension between the ν μ disappearance and the ν e appearance/disappearance at the eV mass scale. In the context of neutrino oscillations the measurement of ν μ disappearance is a robust and fast approach to either reject or discover new neutrino states at the eV mass scale. We discuss an experimental program able to extend by more than one order of magnitude (for neutrino disappearance) and by almost one order of magnitude (for antineutrino disappearance) the present range of sensitivity for the mixing angle between standard and sterile neutrinos. These extensions are larger than those achieved in any other proposal presented so far. (orig.)

  9. Search for sterile neutrinos in muon neutrino disappearance mode at FNAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhina, A.; Bagulya, A.; Benettoni, M.; Bernardini, P.; Brugnera, R.; Calabrese, M.; Cecchetti, A.; Cecchini, S.; Chernyavskiy, M.; Dal Corso, F.; Dalkarov, O.; Del Prete, A.; De Robertis, G.; De Serio, M.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Fini, R. A.; Fiore, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Guerzoni, M.; Klicek, B.; Kose, U.; Jakovcic, K.; Laurenti, G.; Lippi, I.; Loddo, F.; Longhin, A.; Malenica, M.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Marsella, G.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Mingazheva, R.; Morgunova, O.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Nessi, M.; Orecchini, D.; Paoloni, A.; Papadia, G.; Paparella, L.; Pasqualini, L.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Roda, M.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Sahnoun, Z.; Shchedrina, T.; Simone, S.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Spurio, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Surdo, A.; Tenti, M.; Togo, V.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2017-01-01

    The NESSiE Collaboration has been setup to undertake a conclusive experiment to clarify the muon-neutrino disappearance measurements at short baselines in order to put severe constraints to models with more than the three-standard neutrinos. To this aim the current FNAL-Booster neutrino beam for a Short-Baseline experiment was carefully evaluated by considering the use of magnetic spectrometers at two sites, near and far ones. The detector locations were studied, together with the achievable performances of two OPERA-like spectrometers. The study was constrained by the availability of existing hardware and a time-schedule compatible with the undergoing project of multi-site Liquid-Argon detectors at FNAL. The settled physics case and the kind of proposed experiment on the Booster neutrino beam would definitively clarify the existing tension between the ν _{μ } disappearance and the ν e appearance/disappearance at the eV mass scale. In the context of neutrino oscillations the measurement of ν _{μ } disappearance is a robust and fast approach to either reject or discover new neutrino states at the eV mass scale. We discuss an experimental program able to extend by more than one order of magnitude (for neutrino disappearance) and by almost one order of magnitude (for antineutrino disappearance) the present range of sensitivity for the mixing angle between standard and sterile neutrinos. These extensions are larger than those achieved in any other proposal presented so far.

  10. Search for sterile neutrinos in muon neutrino disappearance mode at FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anokhina, A.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Morgunova, O.; Roganova, T. [Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU SINP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Bagulya, A.; Chernyavskiy, M.; Dalkarov, O.; Mingazheva, R.; Shchedrina, T.; Starkov, N.; Vladymyrov, M. [Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Benettoni, M.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Lippi, I.; Longhin, A. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bernardini, P.; Mancarella, G.; Marsella, G. [Universita del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Roda, M.; Sirignano, C. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); Calabrese, M.; Fiore, G.; Surdo, A. [INFN, Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Cecchetti, A.; Orecchini, D.; Paoloni, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Cecchini, S.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Guerzoni, M.; Laurenti, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Sahnoun, Z.; Sirri, G.; Togo, V. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Del Prete, A.; Papadia, G. [INFN, Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Universita del Salento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Lecce (Italy); De Robertis, G.; Fini, R.A.; Loddo, F.; Pastore, A. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); De Serio, M.; Paparella, L.; Simone, S. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Universita di Bari, Dipartimento di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Klicek, B.; Jakovcic, K.; Malenica, M.; Stipcevic, M. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Kose, U.; Nessi, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Margiotta, A.; Pasqualini, L.; Spurio, M. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); Muciaccia, M.T. [Universita di Bari, Dipartimento di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Polukhina, N. [Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rosa, G. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Stanco, L. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Tenti, M. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); NFN-CNAF, Bologna (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    The NESSiE Collaboration has been setup to undertake a conclusive experiment to clarify the muon-neutrino disappearance measurements at short baselines in order to put severe constraints to models with more than the three-standard neutrinos. To this aim the current FNAL-Booster neutrino beam for a Short-Baseline experiment was carefully evaluated by considering the use of magnetic spectrometers at two sites, near and far ones. The detector locations were studied, together with the achievable performances of two OPERA-like spectrometers. The study was constrained by the availability of existing hardware and a time-schedule compatible with the undergoing project of multi-site Liquid-Argon detectors at FNAL. The settled physics case and the kind of proposed experiment on the Booster neutrino beam would definitively clarify the existing tension between the ν{sub μ} disappearance and the ν{sub e} appearance/disappearance at the eV mass scale. In the context of neutrino oscillations the measurement of ν{sub μ} disappearance is a robust and fast approach to either reject or discover new neutrino states at the eV mass scale. We discuss an experimental program able to extend by more than one order of magnitude (for neutrino disappearance) and by almost one order of magnitude (for antineutrino disappearance) the present range of sensitivity for the mixing angle between standard and sterile neutrinos. These extensions are larger than those achieved in any other proposal presented so far. (orig.)

  11. Preparation and antibacterial activities of Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites made by pomegranate (Punica granatum rind extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yang

    Full Text Available Nano-silver and its composite materials are widely used in medicine, food and other industries due to their strong conductivity, size effect and other special performances. So far, more microbial researches have been applied, but a plant method is rarely reported. In order to open up a new way to prepare AgNP composites, pomegranate peel extract was used in this work to reduce Ag+ to prepare Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. UV–Vis was employed to detect and track the reduction of Ag+ and the forming process of AgNPs. The composition, structure and size of the crystal were analyzed by XRD and TEM. Results showed that, under mild conditions, pomegranate peel extract reacted with dilute AgNO3 solution to produce Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites. At pH = 8 and 10 mmol/L of AgNO3 concentration, the size of the achieved composites ranged between 15 and 35 nm with spherical shapes and good crystallinity. The bactericidal experiment indicated that the prepared Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles had strong antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. FTIR analysis revealed that biological macromolecules with groups of NH2, OH, and others were distributed on the surface of the newly synthesized Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticles. This provided a useful clue to further study the AgNP biosynthesis mechanism. Keywords: Pomegranate rind, Biosynthesis, Ag/Ag+/Ag3+ nanoparticle composites, Antibacterial activity

  12. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.

  13. Neutrino physics at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolsky, P.

    1978-01-01

    The AGS neutrino beam is the last low energy (1 to 2 GeV) neutrino beam left. As more work is done at higher energies and as the whole realm of new physics (whose threshold seems barely attainable at AGS ν energies) is explored in increasing detail, it is appropriate to ask what physics remains to be done here. To answer this question, current theory and experiment are confronted, not in an attempt to confirm or refute theoretical (or experimental) prejudices, but to ask if present experiments at low energies are good enough. In the process, the recent AGS neutrino experimental program are reviewed

  14. Ag-Coated Heterostructures of ZnO-TiO2/Delaminated Montmorillonite as Solar Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Belver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heterostructures based on ZnO-TiO2/delaminated montmorillonite coated with Ag have been prepared by sol–gel and photoreduction procedures, varying the Ag and ZnO contents. They have been thoroughly characterized by XRD, WDXRF, UV–Vis, and XPS spectroscopies, and N2 adsorption, SEM, and TEM. In all cases, the montmorillonite was effectively delaminated with the formation of TiO2 anatase particles anchored on the clay layer’s surface, yielding porous materials with high surface areas. The structural and textural properties of the heterostructures synthesized were unaffected by the ZnO incorporated. The photoreduction led to solids with Ag nanoparticles decorating the surface. These materials were tested as photocatalysts for the degradation of several emerging contaminants with different nitrogen-bearing chemical structures under solar light. The catalysts yielded high rates of disappearance of the starting pollutants and showed quite stable performance upon successive applications.

  15. Dependence of the organic nonvolatile memory performance on the location of ultra-thin Ag film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Bo; Wu Zhaoxin; He Qiang; Mao Guilin; Hou Xun; Tian Yuan

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated organic nonvolatile memory devices based on 4,4',4''-tris[N-(3-methylphenyl)-N-phenylamino] triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) inserted by an ultra-thin Ag film. The memory devices with different locations of ultra-thin Ag film in m-MTDATA were investigated, and it was found that the location of the Ag film could affect the performance of the organic memory, such as ON/OFF ratio, retention time and cycling endurance. When the Ag film was located at the ITO/m-MTDATA interface, the largest ON/OFF ratio (about 10 5 ) could be achieved, but the cycling endurance was poor. When the Ag film was located in the middle region of the m-MTDATA layer, the ON/OFF ratios came down by about 10 3 , but better performance of cycling endurance was exhibited. When the Ag film was located close to the Al electrode, the ON/OFF ratios and the retention time of this device decreased sharply and the bistable phenomenon almost disappeared. Our works show a simple approach to improve the performance of organic memory by adjusting the location of the metal film.

  16. Ti-GO-Ag nanocomposite: the effect of content level on the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jianfeng; Zhang, Li; Shi, Mengqi; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Qintao

    2017-01-01

    Surface modification of titanium (Ti) implants are extensively studied in order to obtain prominent biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity, especially preventing implant-associated infection. In this study, Ti substrates surface were modified by graphene oxide (GO) thin film and silver (Ag) nanoparticles via electroplating and ultraviolet reduction methods so as to achieve this purpose. Microstructures, distribution, quantities and spectral peaks of GO and Ag loading on the Ti sheets surface were characterized. GO-Ag-Ti multiphase nanocomposite exhibited excellent antimicrobial ability and anti-adherence performance. Subsequently, morphology, membrane integrity, apoptosis and relative genes expression of bacteria incubated on the Ti samples surface were monitored to reveal the bactericidal mechanism. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of Ti substrates incorporating GO thin film and Ag nanoparticles were investigated. GO-Ag-Ti composite configuration that have outstanding antibacterial properties will provide the foundation to study bone integration in vitro and in vivo in the future.

  17. Nanoscale coupling of photons to vibrational excitation of Ag nanoparticle 2D array studied by scanning tunneling microscope light emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Satoshi; Toma, Koji; Toma, Mana; Tamada, Kaoru; Uehara, Yoichi

    2010-11-28

    Scanning tunneling microscope light emission (STM-LE) spectroscopy has been utilized to elucidate the luminescence phenomena of Ag nanoparticles capped with myristate (myristate-capped AgNP) and 2-methyl-1-propanethiolate (C(4)S-capped AgNP) on the dodecanethiol-precovered Au substrate. The STM imaging revealed that myristate-capped AgNPs form an ordered hexagonal array whereas C(4)S-capped AgNPs show imperfect ordering, indicating that a shorter alkyl chain of C(4)S-capped AgNP is not sufficient to form rigid interdigitation. It should be noted that such a nanoparticle ordering affects the luminescence properties of the Ag nanoparticle. We found that the STM-LE is only detected from the Ag nanoparticles forming the two-dimensional superlattice. This indicates that the STM-LE of the Ag nanoparticle is radiated via the collective excitation of the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spread over the Ag nanoparticles. Note that the STM-LE spectra of the Ag nanoparticles exhibit spike-like peaks superimposed on the broad light emission peak. Using Raman spectroscopy, we concluded that the spike-like structure appearing in the STM-LE spectra is associated with the vibrational excitation of the molecule embedded between Ag nanoparticles.

  18. TL and OSL studies on lithium borate single crystals doped with Cu and Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, N.S.; Kulkarni, M.S.; Tyagi, M.; Ratna, P.; Mishra, D.R.; Singh, S.G.; Tiwari, B.; Soni, A.; Gadkari, S.C.; Gupta, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium borate (LBO) single crystals doped with Cu and Ag (0.25 mol% each) (Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag) are grown by the Czochralski method. The thermoluminescence readout on Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag crystals showed three glow peaks at∼375, 441 and 516 K for the heating rate of 1 K/s. The thermoluminescence sensitivity of the grown Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag single crystals is found to be 5 times TLD-100 and a linear dose response in the range 1 mGy to 1 kGy. The glow curve deconvolution reveals nearly first order kinetics for all the three peaks with trap depths 0.77, 1.25 and 1.34 eV respectively and corresponding frequency factors 1.6×10 9 , 1.3×10 13 and 6.8×10 11 s −1 . The continuous wave optically stimulated luminescence (CW-OSL) measurements were performed on the LBO:Cu,Ag single crystals using blue light stimulation. The traps responsible for the three thermoluminescence peaks in Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag are found to be OSL sensitive. The qualitative correlation between TL peaks and CW-OSL response is established. The photoluminescence studies show that in case of co-doping of Ag in LBO:Cu the emission at 370 nm in Cu states dominates over the transitions in Ag states implying doping of Ag plays a role as sensitizer when co-doped with Cu and increases overall emission. - Highlights: ► Growth of crack free single crystals of Li2B4O7 :Cu and Ag. ► Study of TL and OSL parameters for Li2B4O7 :Cu and Ag. ► Correlation of OSL with TL peaks. ► Optimization of OSL readout time with respect to residual TL.

  19. Effect of Ag Doping on the Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of ZnO(0001 Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Qian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using first-principle calculations, the geometrical structure, the electronic and optical properties of Ag-doped ZnO(0001 surface have been investigated. We found that Ag-doped ZnO(0001 surface is more easily formed on the first layer. On the other hand, the doped surface has gradually become an equipotential body, showing obvious metallic characteristics. We found that a new peak appeared in the low energy region after Ag doping, which was mainly due to the electron transition between the two orbital levels of Ag-4d and O-2p.

  20. Antibacterial properties of Ag-exchanged Philippine natural zeolite-chitosan composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taaca, Kathrina Lois M.; Olegario, Eleanor M.; Vasquez, Magdaleno R.

    2017-12-01

    Zeolites are microporous minerals composed of silicon, aluminum and oxygen. These aluminosilicates consist of tetrahedral units which produce open framework structures to generate a system of pores and cavities of molecular dimensions. Zeolites are naturally abundant and can be mined in most parts of the world. In this study, natural zeolites (NaZ) which are locally-sourced here in the Philippines were investigated to determine its properties. An ion-exchange process was utilized, using the zeolite to silver (Ag) solution ratio of 1:20 (w/v), to incorporate Ag into the zeolite framework. Characterizations such as XRD, AAS, and Agar diffusion assay were used to evaluate the properties of the synthesized Ag-exchanged zeolites (AgZ). X-ray diffraction revealed that both NaZ and AgZ have peaks mostly corresponding to the clinoptilolite structure, with some trace peaks of the mordenite and quartz. Absorption spectroscopy revealed that the ion exchange process added about 0.61188g of silver into the zeolite structure. This Ag content was seen to be enough to make the AgZ sample exhibit an antibacterial effect where clearing zones against E. coli and S. aureus were observed in the agar diffusion assay, respectively. The AgZ sample was also tested as ceramic filler to a polymer matrix-chitosan. The diffusion assay revealed presence of antibacterial activity to the polymer composite with AgZ fillers. These results indicate that the Philippine natural zeolite, incorporated with metals such as Ag, can be used as an antibacterial agent and can be developed as a ceramic filler to improve the antibacterial property of composite materials for biomedical application.

  1. Recombination luminescence of Cu and/or Ag doped lithium tetraborate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romet, I. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str. 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Aleksanyan, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str. 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); A. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory, 2 Br. Alikhanyan Str., 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Brik, M.G. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str. 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); College of Sciences, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 400065 Chongqing (China); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Armii Krajowej 13/15, PL-42200 Czestochowa (Poland); Corradi, G. [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Kotlov, A. [Photon Science at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Nagirnyi, V., E-mail: vitali.nagirnoi@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi Str. 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Polgár, K. [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-09-15

    Complex investigations of thermostimulated luminescence (TSL) and radioluminescence properties of Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} (LTB), LTB:Cu, LTB:Ag and LTB:Cu, Ag crystals suitable for tissue equivalent dosimeters were carried out in the temperature range 4.2–700 K. TSL, cathodoluminescence and X-ray excited luminescence spectra are compared to those measured under photoexcitation. The emission band at 4.6 eV in LTB:Ag is reliably related to Ag{sup +} ions based on the comparison of the results of optical spectroscopy studies and first principle calculations. Energy transfer from the relaxed exited state of the Ag{sup +} ion to the Cu{sup +} ion in double-doped LTB:Cu, Ag crystals is demonstrated. Thermostimulated recombination of charge carriers in irradiated crystals is seen to take place mainly at oxygen sites at low temperatures and at impurity sites at high temperatures. For the first time, the appearance of the low-temperature TSL peak at 90 K is assigned to ionic processes in LTB crystals. The appearance of pyroelectric flashes due to the lattice relaxation in the temperature region 90–240 K is demonstrated and their surface-related nature clarified. In accordance with EPR studies the dosimetric TSL peaks in copper and silver doped LTB crystals are attributed to thermally released electrons recombining with Cu{sup 2+} and Ag{sup 2+} centres.

  2. Evidence for a saturable mechanism of disappearance of standard heparin in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneu, B.; Caranobe, C.; Gabaig, A.M.; Dupouy, D.; Sie, P.; Buchanan, M.R.; Hirsh, J.

    1987-01-01

    This work demonstrates that after bolus intravenous injection standard heparin (SH) disappearance results from the combination of a saturable and a non saturable mechanism. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of SH were studied by measuring the disappearance of increasing doses (5 - 500 anti-factor Xa U/kg) of 125 I-heparin and of its biological effects. CPM curves allowed the determination of the half lives of heparin according to the dose injected. The half lives were clearly dose dependent and reached a plateau over 100 anti-factor Xa U/kg. The complex curve which describes the amount of heparin cleared per time unit after any given dose has been resolved into its two components reflecting a saturable and a non saturable mechanism of disappearance. For the doses less than 100 anti-factor Xa U/kg the saturable mechanism was preeminent and the anti-factor Xa activity disappearance followed an exponential pattern; for the doses less than 100 anti-factor Xa U/kg the contribution of the non saturable mechanism becomes more important and the anti-factor Xa activity disappearance followed a concave-convex pattern. Further experiments showed that the heparin half life shortened as the circulating anti-factor Xa activity decreased; this phenomenon may explain the concave-convex pattern of the curve of the anticoagulant effect observed after injection of large doses of SH

  3. Disappearance of a low molecular weight heparin fraction (CY 216) differs from standard heparin in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneu, B.; Buchanan, M.R.; Caranobe, C.; Gabaig, A.M.; Dupouy, D.; Sie, P.; Hirsh, J.

    1987-01-01

    In previous studies, we have reported that standard heparin (SH) was cleared by two mechanisms, a saturable mechanism which predominated at low doses (less than 100 anti-factor Xa U/kg) and a non-saturable mechanism which predominated at higher doses, when the first mechanism became saturated. In this study, we examined the importance of these two mechanisms in the disappearance of a low molecular weight heparin fraction (LMWH) (CY 216), by comparing the pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of a wide range of doses of SH and CY 216 (1.5 to 500 anti-factor Xa U/kg). Pharmacokinetics was measured as the disappearance of 125 I-radiolabelled SH or CY 216. Pharmacodynamics was measured as the disappearance of the anti-factor Xa activity of SH and CY 216. We found that the saturable mechanism contributed little to the disappearance of CY 216 and that it was cleared predominantly by the non-saturable mechanism at all doses tested. Thus, at low doses (less than 100 anti-factor Xa U/kg), SH was cleared more rapidly than CY 216, whereas at higher doses, CY 216 was cleared more rapidly than SH. We conclude that the mechanism of disappearance of LMWH's differ significantly from those of SH, and that this difference may explain the apparent prolonged anticoagulant activity of LMWH's within the therapeutic range doses

  4. Analysis and visualisation of lake disappearance process in Iława Lakeland Landscape Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marynowska Weronika Cecylia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lake disappearance as a natural stage of evolution of lakes is an extremely important issue in the landscape and ecosystem research context. Studies of the changes that occur in the lake landscape, characteristic in the northern part of Poland, are aimed at defining the cause and forecasting the results. The possibilities of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS were used in this paper to analyse and visualise the process of lake disappearance in the Iława Lakeland Landscape Park. GIS technologies which primarily are used for gathering, storing, processing and presenting spatial data have been used to interpret changes in lakes coverage over a period of 100 years. The analysis were based on data bases and cartographic former maps such as hydrographic maps, attribute data and bathymetric plans. The data was gathered by transfer from different geoportals, next vectorised, and then preprocessed. Former maps were rectified. The lake disappearance process was presented in several forms: lake cards, animations and interactive map. Basing on the GIS analysis about lake disappearance in Iława Lakeland Landscape Park it was possible to state that lakes are disappearing in rate of 3.99 ha a−1.

  5. Bioethics against disappearance of a man a prism of general and criminal-law theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethics, as a meeting point, engrossed with its fight against the disappearance of the man, both general and criminal-law theory. Actually, its 'care' for the man is an issue that comes before general and criminal-law theory. While the forms of disappearance of the man are very diverse and very often so refined that they cannon sometimes be recognized, the fight against the disappearance of the man must be open, clear and uncompromising. What is the role of law in this fight? The role imposed itself. Even if the law did not want to take part in the fight, it found itself in the middle of the battlefield because human life is protected from beginning to the end by legal norms that should emerge from the best writings of general and criminal-law theory. However, self-sufficiency of law and mere legal positivism are a true obstacle in this battle. This pressure and the lack of questionings are the first step on the road to disappearance of the man, because a man that asks questions is the man that exists. He and his boldness are a barrier to voluntarism. The lack of boldness of the man opens the gates to his disappearance. This boldness has not been taken away from him in the field of bioethics, which is neither secular nor religious, but rather unique as the man is unique.

  6. Development of a 3D muon disappearance algorithm for muon scattering tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, T. B.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.

    2015-05-01

    Upon passing through a material, muons lose energy, scatter off nuclei and atomic electrons, and can stop in the material. Muons will more readily lose energy in higher density materials. Therefore multiple muon disappearances within a localized volume may signal the presence of high-density materials. We have developed a new technique that improves the sensitivity of standard muon scattering tomography. This technique exploits these muon disappearances to perform non-destructive assay of an inspected volume. Muons that disappear have their track evaluated using a 3D line extrapolation algorithm, which is in turn used to construct a 3D tomographic image of the inspected volume. Results of Monte Carlo simulations that measure muon disappearance in different types of target materials are presented. The ability to differentiate between different density materials using the 3D line extrapolation algorithm is established. Finally the capability of this new muon disappearance technique to enhance muon scattering tomography techniques in detecting shielded HEU in cargo containers has been demonstrated.

  7. Interplay between Appearance and Disappearance Channels for Precision Measurements of θ₂₃ and δ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma, Pilar; Minakata, Hisakazu; Parke, Stephen J.

    2014-11-01

    We discuss how the CP violating phase δ and the mixing angle θ₂₃ can be measured precisely in an environment where there are strong correlations between them. This is achieved by paying special attention to the mutual roles and the interplay between the appearance and the disappearance channels in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We analyze and clarify the general structure of the θ₂₃ - θ₁₃ - δ degeneracy for both the appearance and disappearance channels in a more complete fashion than what has previously been discussed in the literature. A full understanding of this degeneracy is of vital importance if θ₂₃ is close to maximal mixing. The relative importance between the appearance and disappearance channels depends upon the particular setup and how close to maximal mixing Nature has chosen the value for θ₂₃. For facilities that operate with a narrow band beam or a wide band beam centered on the first oscillation extremum, the contribution of the disappearance channel depends critically on the systematic uncertainties assumed for this channel. Whereas for facilities that operate at energies above the first oscillation extremum or at the second oscillation extremum the appearance channels dominate. On the other hand, for δ we find that the disappearance channel usually improves the sensitivity, modestly for facilities around the first oscillation extremum and more significantly for facilities operating at an energy above the first oscillation extremum, especially near δ ~ ± π/2.

  8. Disappearing fluid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graney, K.; Chu, J.; Lin, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 78-year old male in end stage renal failure (ESRF) with a background of NIDDM retinopathy, nephropathy, and undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) presented with anorexia, clinically unwell, decreased mobility and right scrotal swelling. There was no difficulty during CAPD exchange except there was a positive fluid balance Peritoneal dialysates remained clear A CAPD peritoneal study was requested. 100Mbq 99mTc Sulphur Colloid was injected into a standard dialysate bag containing dialysate. Anterior dynamic images were acquired over the abdomen pelvis while the dialysate was infused Static images with anatomical markers were performed 20 mins post infusion, before and after patient ambulation and then after drainage. The study demonstrated communication between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac. Patient underwent right inguinal herniaplasty with a marlex mesh. A repeat CAPD flow study was performed as follow up and no abnormal connection between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac was demonstrated post operatively. This case study shows that CAPD flow studies can be undertaken as a simple, minimally invasive method to evaluate abnormal peritoneal fluid flow dynamics in patients undergoing CAPD, and have an impact on dialysis management. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  9. Photoreduction of Ag{sup +} in Ag/Ag{sub 2}S/Au memristor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, N.I.; Tabib-Azar, M., E-mail: azar.m@utah.edu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The effect of illumination on the operating voltages and switching speed of Ag/Ag{sub 2}S/Au memristors is studied • Illumination decreased the average switching time from high to low resistance states by ∼19% and decreased the turn-off voltages dramatically from −0.8 V to −0.25 V. • Photo-induced reduction of silver in Ag{sub 2}S may be used in three dimensional optical memories that can be electronically read and reset. • Illumination changed sulfur's valency and modified its oxidation/reduction potential. - Abstract: Silver halides and chalcogenides are excellent memristor materials that have been extensively used in the past as photosensitive layers in photography. Here we examine the effect of illumination on the operating voltages and switching speed of Ag/Ag{sub 2}S/Au memristors using a green laser (473–523 nm). Our results indicate that illumination decreases the average switching time from high to low resistance states by ∼19% and decreases the turn-off voltages dramatically from −0.8 V to −0.25 V that we attribute to the change in sulfur valency and a photo-induced change in its oxidation/reduction potential. Photo-induced reduction of silver in Ag{sub 2}S may be used in three dimensional optical memories that can be electronically read and reset.

  10. Long-term spectroscopic monitoring of the Luminous Blue Variable AG Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, O.; Jankovics, I.; Kovács, J.; Wolf, B.; Schmutz, W.; Kaufer, A.; Rivinius, Th.; Szeifert, Th.

    2001-08-01

    We have extensively monitored the Luminous Blue Variable AG Car (HD 94910) spectroscopically. Our data cover the years 1989 to 1999. In this period, the star underwent almost a full S Dor cycle from visual minimum to maximum and back. Over several seasons, up to four months of almost daily spectra are available. Our data cover most of the visual spectral range with a high spectral resolution (lambda /Delta lambda ~ 20 000). This allows us to investigate the variability in many lines on time scales from days to years. The strongest variability occurs on a time scale of years. Qualitatively, the variations can be understood as changes of the effective temperature and radius, which are in phase with the optical light curve. Quantitatively, there are several interesting deviations from this behaviour, however. The Balmer lines show P Cygni profiles and have their maximum strength (both in equivalent width and line flux) after the peak of the optical light curve, at the descending branch of the light curve. The line-width during maximum phase is smaller than during minimum, but it has a local maximum close to the peak of the visual light curve. We derive mass-loss rates over the cycle from the Hα line and find the highest mass loss rates (log dot {M}/({M}_sun yr-1) ~ -3.8, about a factor of five higher than in the minimum, where we find log dot {M}/({M}_sun yr-1) ~ -4.5) after the visual maximum. Line-splitting is very commonly observed, especially on the rise to maximum and on the descending branch from maximum. The components are very long-lived (years) and are probably unrelated to similar-looking line-splitting events in normal supergiants. Small apparent accelerations of the components are observed. The change in radial velocity could be due to successive narrowing of the components, with the absorption disappearing at small expansion velocities first. In general, the line-splitting is more likely the result of missing absorption at intermediate velocities than of

  11. Vibrational properties of epitaxial silicene layers on (1 1 1) Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalise, E.; Cinquanta, E.; Houssa, M.; Broek, B. van den; Chiappe, D.; Grazianetti, C.; Pourtois, G.; Ealet, B.; Molle, A.; Fanciulli, M.; Afanas’ev, V.V.; Stesmans, A.

    2014-01-01

    The electronic and vibrational properties of three different reconstructions of silicene on Ag(1 1 1) are calculated and compared to experimental results. The 2D epitaxial silicon layers, namely the (4 × 4), (√13 × √13) and (2√3 × 2√3) phases, exhibit different electronic and vibrational properties. Few peaks in the experimental Raman spectrum are identified and attributed to the vibrational modes of the silicene layers. The position and behavior of the Raman peaks with respect to the excitation energy are shown to be a fundamental tool to investigate and discern different phases of silicene on Ag(1 1 1).

  12. Vibrational properties of epitaxial silicene layers on (1 1 1) Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalise, E., E-mail: emilio.scalise@fys.kuleuven.be [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Cinquanta, E. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Houssa, M.; Broek, B. van den [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Chiappe, D. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Grazianetti, C. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Aix-Marseille University, CNRS-CINaM, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Pourtois, G. [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, Plasmant Research Group, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Ealet, B. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS-CINaM, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Molle, A. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, via R. Cozzi 53, I-20126 Milano (MI) (Italy); Afanas’ev, V.V.; Stesmans, A. [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-02-01

    The electronic and vibrational properties of three different reconstructions of silicene on Ag(1 1 1) are calculated and compared to experimental results. The 2D epitaxial silicon layers, namely the (4 × 4), (√13 × √13) and (2√3 × 2√3) phases, exhibit different electronic and vibrational properties. Few peaks in the experimental Raman spectrum are identified and attributed to the vibrational modes of the silicene layers. The position and behavior of the Raman peaks with respect to the excitation energy are shown to be a fundamental tool to investigate and discern different phases of silicene on Ag(1 1 1).

  13. Ruhrgas AG. Business report 2000; Ruhrgas AG. Geschaeftsbericht 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    A detailed account of the situation of the international gas market provides the basis of the status report of Ruhrgas AG and the group of affiliated companies. Emphasis is placed on gas procurement aspects, sales volumes, the construction and operation of natural gas distribution systems, and on development, utilization and application aspects. The activities and situation of major Ruhrgas AG holding companies are described, and the annual financial statements are documented. (orig.) [German] Ausgehend von einer eingehenden Beschreibung des internationalen Gasmarktes wird ein Lagebericht des Konzerns sowie der Ruhrgas AG gegeben. Dabei wird insbesondere auf Fragen der Gasbeschaffung, des Gasabsatzes, des Baus und Betriebs von Erdgasverteilungsnetzen, sowie der Entwicklung und der Anwendungstechnik eingegangen. Ferner wird ueber den Geschaeftsverlauf wesentlicher Ruhrgas-Beteiligungsgesellschaften berichtet. Abschliessend wird der Jahresabschluss dokumentiert. (orig.)

  14. Synthesis and disappearance of cholesterol and bile acids in miniature swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, J.; Butterfield, A.B.; Clow, D.J.; Lumb, W.V.; McClellan, M.A.; O'Deen, L.; Oh, S-Y.

    1986-01-01

    Minerature swine were fitted with indwelling cannulae at two sites in the gut and catheters in the aorta, portal vein and posterior vena cava. Radioactive acetate, alanine and glucose were administered via the duodenal cannula or the portal vein catheter and synthesis of cholesterol by gut or liver monitored via the aortic serum cholesterol specific activity. Ring labeled cholesterol was administered via jejunum and portal vein and various parameters of disappearance measured during 17 to 66 days. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and their subsequent disappearance from gut lumen were measured. Differences were observed in substrate preference of gut and liver and in fate of newly synthesized cholesterol. Cholesterol disappearance was found to follow a two component exponential in serum and a three component exponential in gut. Serum curves were similar to those reported for humans. Two hepatic pools of cholesterol, one accessible to lipoprotein synthesis (anabolic) and another accessible to enterohepatic circulation and 7-α-hydroxylase, were inducated

  15. Precision Search for Muon Antineutrino Disappearance Oscillations Using a Dual Baseline Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Gary Li [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A search for short baseline muon antineutrino disappearance with the SciBooNE and MiniBooNE experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois is presented. Short baseline muon antineutrino disappearance measurements help constrain sterile neutrino models. The two detectors observe muon antineutrinos from the same beam, therefore the combined analysis of their data sets serves to partially constrain some of the flux and cross section uncertainties. A likelihood ratio method was used to set a 90% confidence level upper limit on muon antineutrino disappearance that dramatically improves upon prior sterile neutrino oscillation limits in the Δm2=0.1-100 eV2 region.

  16. Disappearance of some autonomously functioning thyroid nodules following TSH stimulation: Pathogenetic hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vattimo, A.; Pisani, M.; Martini, G.

    1983-04-01

    The disappearance of a hot nodule following TSH stimulation has been observed in 6 subjects with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule, in the thyroid scan obtained using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate and /sup 131/I. These findings have been related by many workers to the hyperreactivity of the nodular tissue to TSH: the disappearance of the nodule is due to a more rapid turnover of the tracer. In this work a new pathogenetic hypothesis is proposed: the disappearance of hot thyroid nodules might be due to ischaemia induced by the reaction of the healthy tissue, which had previously been inhibited. This hypothesis is confirmed by the scans performed shortly after administration of the tracers.

  17. Disappearance of some autonomously functioning thyroid nodules following TSH stimulation: Pathogenetic hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vattimo, A.; Pisani, M.; Martini, G.

    1983-01-01

    The disappearance of a hot nodule following TSH stimulation has been observed in 6 subjects with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule, in the thyroid scan obtained using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate and 131 I. These findings have been related by many workers to the hyperreactivity of the nodular tissue to TSH: the disappearance of the nodule is due to a more rapid turnover of the tracer. In this work a new pathogenetic hypothesis is proposed: the disappearance of hot thyroid nodules might be due to ischaemia induced by the reaction of the healthy tissue, which had previously been inhibited. This hypothesis is confirmed by the scans performed shortly after administration of the tracers. (orig.) [de

  18. Influence of Ag doping on structural, optical, and photoluminescence properties of nanostructured AZO films by sol–gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Firoz; Baek, Seong-Ho; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The optical band gap of the Ag–AZO film first decreased to a value of ∼3.31 eV for a 1% Ag/Zn atomic ratio from a value of ∼3.69 for undoped AZO film. For higher values (beyond a 1% Ag/Zn atomic ratio) of Ag doping, the values of Eg started to increase and finally attained a value of ∼3.66 eV for an Ag/Zn 3% atomic ratio. The photoluminescence (PL) studies showed that the relative PL intensity of the Ag–AZO films in blue (IB) and green (IG) regions increased with Ag doping. The PL positions of these peaks were blue shifted with increased Ag content up to an Ag/Zn atomic ratio of 3%. The increase in IB and IG is due to the charge difference between Ag + and Zn 2+ , whereas shifting of the PL positions is due to the size of Ag + and Zn 2+ ions. -- Highlights: • The optical band gap of the Ag–AZO film is tuned with Ag doping. • The PL intensity of the Ag–AZO film in visible region is increased with Ag doping. • The PL positions of these peaks were blue shifted with increased Ag content. • The increase in I B and I G is due to the charge difference between Ag + and Zn 2+ . • The shifting of the PL positions is due to the size of Ag + and Zn 2+ ions. -- Abstract: The effects of Ag doping on the structural, electrical, optical, and photoluminescence properties of sol-gel derived Al rich zinc oxide (Ag–AZO) films are studied. The Al/Zn atomic ratio was constant (∼20%) in all the films, whereas the Ag/Zn atomic ratio varied from 0% to 3%. All the films were highly transparent in the 400–1200 nm wavelength range. The XRD results and surface morphologies of the films confirmed that the grain size increased with Ag doping. The optical band gap (E g ) of the Ag–AZO film first decreased to a value of ∼3.31 eV for a 1% Ag/Zn atomic ratio from a value of ∼3.69 for undoped AZO film. For higher values (beyond a 1% Ag/Zn atomic ratio) of Ag doping, the values of E g started to increase and finally attained a value of ∼3.66 e

  19. Cutting off Cardiologists: The Disappeared in “Puro corazón” by Luisa Valenzuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E. Marting

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Luisa Valenzuela’s neglected short story “Puro corazón” ('All Heart' uses surreal imagery and plot to write about the increasing violence in Buenos Aires during the time immediately prior to the Dirty War ( la Guerra Sucia . By mimicking a police report, Valenzuela’s story manages to reproduce the experience of censorship and repression that denied the fate of the disappeared. This article shows how the story forges ludic connections between the human body (especially hearts, blood, and cardiologists, the censorship and repression in the early 1970s in Argentina, and the discourse that marked the official response to los desaparecidos , the disappeared.

  20. Near-surface and bulk behavior of Ag in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, H.Y.; Zhang, Y.; Snead, L.L.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xue, H.Z.; Weber, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ag release from SiC poses problems in safe operation of nuclear reactors. ► Near-surface and bulk behavior of Ag are studied by ab initio and ion beam methods. ► Ag prefers to adsorb on the surface rather than in the bulk SiC. ► At high temperature Ag desorbs from the surface instead of diffusion into bulk SiC. ► Surface diffusion may be a dominating mechanism accounting for Ag release from SiC. - Abstract: The diffusive release of fission products, such as Ag, from TRISO particles at high temperatures has raised concerns regarding safe and economic operation of advanced nuclear reactors. Understanding the mechanisms of Ag diffusion is thus of crucial importance for effective retention of fission products. Two mechanisms, i.e., grain boundary diffusion and vapor or surface diffusion through macroscopic structures such as nano-pores or nano-cracks, remain in debate. In the present work, an integrated computational and experimental study of the near-surface and bulk behavior of Ag in silicon carbide (SiC) has been carried out. The ab initio calculations show that Ag prefers to adsorb on the SiC surface rather than in the bulk, and the mobility of Ag on the surface is high. The energy barrier for Ag desorption from the surface is calculated to be 0.85–1.68 eV, and Ag migration into bulk SiC through equilibrium diffusion process is not favorable. Experimentally, Ag ions are implanted into SiC to produce Ag profiles buried in the bulk and peaked at the surface. High-temperature annealing leads to Ag release from the surface region instead of diffusion into the interior of SiC. It is suggested that surface diffusion through mechanical structural imperfection, such as vapor transport through cracks in SiC coatings, may be a dominating mechanism accounting for Ag release from the SiC in the nuclear reactor.

  1. Facile synthesis of Ag nanocubes of 30 to 70 nm in edge length with CF(3)COOAg as a precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Weiyang; Wen, Long-Ping; Chen, Jingyi; Xia, Younan

    2010-09-03

    This paper describes a new protocol to synthesize Ag nanocubes of 30 to 70 nm in edge length with the use of CF(3)COOAg as a precursor to elemental silver. By adding a trace amount of NaSH and HCl to the polyol synthesis, Ag nanocubes were obtained with good quality, high reproducibility, and on a scale up to 0.19 g per batch for the 70 nm Ag nanocubes. The Ag nanocubes were found to grow in size at a controllable pace over the course of synthesis. The linear relationship between the edge length of the Ag nanocubes and the position of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak provides a simple method for finely tuning and controlling the size of the Ag nanocubes by monitoring the UV/Vis spectra of the reaction at different times.

  2. Facile Synthesis of Ag Nanocubes of 30 to 70 nm in Edge Length with CF3COOAg as a Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Weiyang; Wen, Long-Ping; Chen, Jingyi; Xia, Younan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for producing Ag nanocubes of 30 to 70 nm in edge length with the use of CF3COOAg as a precursor to elemental silver. By adding a trace amount of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) into the polyol synthesis, Ag nanocubes were obtained with good quality, high reproducibility, and on a scale up to 0.19 g per batch for the 70-nm Ag nanocubes. The Ag nanocubes were found to grow in size at a controllable pace over the course of synthesis. The linear relationship between the edge length of the Ag nanocubes and the position of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak provides a simple method for finely tuning and controlling the size of the Ag nanocubes by monitoring the UV-vis spectra of the reaction at different times. PMID:20593441

  3. Translocation, accumulation and distribution of 110mAg in carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuanzhao; Zhao Wenhu; Xu Shiming

    1995-01-01

    The experimental carp were raised in the water with 110m Ag specific activity of 3.7 x 10 2 Bq/L, 3.7 x 10 3 Bq/L, 3.7 x 10 4 Bq/L respectively. The carp were sampled after raising 1,2,3,5,7,9,12,15,18,21 and 23 days, and separated into scale, bone, muscle, gill, alimentary canal, heart and heptapancreas for measuring the radioactivity. The results showed that 110m Ag was absorbed rapidly by carp via gill and alimentary canal from water, and distributed into all parts of the body, mainly in soft tissue with blood circulation. 110m Ag accumulation of the body increased with the 110m Ag specific activity in the water in the same raising time. The accumulation of 110m Ag in gill, alimentary canal, heart, muscle and bone appeared mono-peak curves with raising time. There was a linear relationship between the specific activity of 110m Ag in heptapancreas and the carp's raising time in 110m Ag water. The concentration abilities for 110m Ag in all organs were in the order of heptapancreas>gill>alimentary>canal>heart>muscle>bone

  4. Fabrication of Ag/ZnO heterostructure and the role of surface coverage of ZnO microrods by Ag nanoparticles on the photophysical and photocatalytic properties of the metal-semiconductor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Bikash; Sarma, Bimal K., E-mail: sarmabimal@gmail.com

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Fabrication of Ag/ZnO heterostructure by facile chemical processes. • Decoration of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles on ZnO microrods through direct attachment. • Quenching of photoluminescence is observed in Ag/ZnO heterostructure. • Extent of surface coverage governs photophysical and photochemical properties. - Abstract: This report presents findings on microstructural, photophysical, and photocatalytic properties of Ag/ZnO heterostructure grown on flexible and silicon substrates. ZnO microrods are prepared by thermal decomposition method for different solute concentrations and Ag/ZnO heterostructure are fabricated by photo-deposition of Ag nanoparticles on ZnO microrods. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy studies confirm that ZnO microrods belong to the hexagonal wurtzite structure and grown along [001] direction with random alignment showing that majority microrods are aligned with (100) face parallel to the sample surface. Plasmonic Ag nanoparticles are attached to different faces of ZnO. In the optical reflection spectra of Ag/ZnO heterostructure, the surface plasmon resonance peak due to Ag nanoparticles appears at 445 nm. Due to the oxygen vacancies the band gaps of ZnO microrods turn out to be narrower compared to that of bulk ZnO. The presence of Ag nanoparticles decreases the photoluminescence intensity which might be attributed to the non-radiative energy and direct electron transfer in the plasmon–exciton system. The quenching of photoluminescence in Ag/ZnO heterostructure at different growth conditions depend on the extent of surface coverage of ZnO by plasmonic Ag nanoparticles. Photocatalytic degradation efficiency of Ag/ZnO heterostructure is higher than that of ZnO microrods. The extent of surface coverage of ZnO microrods by Ag nanoparticles is crucial for the observed changes in photophysical and photochemical properties.

  5. Tailoring the structural and optical properties of TiN thin films by Ag ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popović, M., E-mail: majap@vinca.rs; Novaković, M.; Rakočević, Z.; Bibić, N.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Changes in structural and optical properties of TiN films induced by Ag ions. • The formation of Ag metallic clusters inside of TiN layers was observed. • The SPR of Ag particles was confirmed by a broad band in the spectra. • As the Ag ions fluence increases the n also increase and k values decrease. • With increasing ion fluence the TiN film becomes more metallic. - Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) thin films thickness of ∼260 nm prepared by dc reactive sputtering were irradiated with 200 keV silver (Ag) ions to the fluences ranging from 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} to 20 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation TiN layers were annealed 2 h at 700 °C in a vacuum. Ion irradiation-induced microstructural changes were examined by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, while the surface topography was observed using atomic force microscopy. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to get insights on the optical and electronic properties of TiN films with respect to their microstructure. The results showed that the irradiations lead to deformation of the lattice, increasing disorder and formation of new Ag phase. The optical results demonstrate the contribution of surface plasmon resonace (SPR) of Ag particles. SPR position shifted in the range of 354.3–476.9 nm when Ag ion fluence varied from 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} to 20 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. Shift in peak wavelength shows dependence on Ag particles concentration, suggesting that interaction between Ag particles dominate the surface plasmon resonance effect. Presence of Ag as second metal in the layer leads to overall decrease of optical resistivity of TiN.

  6. Set potential regulation reveals additional oxidation peaks of Geobacter sulfurreducens anodic biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2012-08-01

    Higher current densities produced in microbial fuel cells and other bioelectrochemical systems are associated with the presence of various Geobacter species. A number of electron transfer components are involved in extracellular electron transfer by the model exoelectrogen, Geobacter sulfurreducens. It has previously been shown that 5 main oxidation peaks can be identified in cyclic voltammetry scans. It is shown here that 7 separate oxidation peaks emerged over relatively long periods of time when a larger range of set potentials was used to acclimate electroactive biofilms. The potentials of oxidation peaks obtained with G. sulfurreducens biofilms acclimated at 0.60 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) were different from those that developed at - 0.46 V, and both of their peaks were different from those obtained for biofilms incubated at - 0.30 V, 0 V, and 0.30 V. These results expand the known range of potentials for which G. sulfurreducens produces identifiable oxidation peaks that could be important for extracellular electron transfer. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Passive radio frequency peak power multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Zoltan D.; Wilson, Perry B.

    1977-01-01

    Peak power multiplication of a radio frequency source by simultaneous charging of two high-Q resonant microwave cavities by applying the source output through a directional coupler to the cavities and then reversing the phase of the source power to the coupler, thereby permitting the power in the cavities to simultaneously discharge through the coupler to the load in combination with power from the source to apply a peak power to the load that is a multiplication of the source peak power.

  8. Analysis of the residual strain change of Bi2212, Ag alloy and Ag during the heating and cooling process in Bi2212/Ag/Ag alloy composite wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J K; Ochiai, S; Okuda, H; Mukai, Y; Sugano, M; Sato, M; Oh, S S; Ha, D W; Kim, S C

    2008-01-01

    The residual strain change of Bi2212 and Ag during the cooling and heating process in the Bi2212/Ag/Ag alloy composite superconductor was studied. First, the residual strain of Bi2212 filaments at room temperature was measured by the x-ray diffraction method. Then, the Young's moduli of the constituents (Bi2212 filaments, Ag and Ag alloy) and yield strains of Ag and Ag alloy were estimated from the analysis of the measured stress-strain curve, based on the rule of mixtures. Also, the coefficient of thermal expansion of the Bi2212 filaments was estimated from the analysis of the measured thermal expansion curve of the composite wire. From the modeling analysis using the estimated property values and the residual strain of Bi2212 filaments, the changes of residual strain of Bi2212, Ag alloy and Ag with temperature during the cooling and heating process were revealed

  9. The AGS Booster main ring power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukas, A.; Hughes, K.; Sandberg, J.; Toldo, F.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The AGS Booster is being designed as a very versatile particle accelerator. Its primary function is to be a high quality injector to the currently operating Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The Booster/AGS combination will produce proton intensities greater than 5 x 10 13 protons per pulse (ppp), and accelerate heavy ions, with mass up to 200, to a maximum energy of 15 GeV per atomic mass unit (GeV/amu). The power supply for the Booster Main Ring (BMRPS) has to accommodate a wide range of cycles and a wide range of operating parameters. The cycles range from storage for several seconds to rapid cycling at 7.5 Hz. The peak output power is 18 MW. This paper will describe the AGS Booster machine powering requirements, the choice of power supply, the a.c. circuit tie-in and its associated problems and some of the details of the design of the BMRPS. 9 refs., 2 figs

  10. Practical load management - Peak shaving using photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, W.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how photovoltaic (PV) power generation can be used in a practical way to meet peak demands for electricity. Advice is provided on how photovoltaics can provide peak load 'shaving' through the correlation between its production and the peak loads encountered during the day. The situation regarding feed-in tariffs in Italy is discussed, as are further examples of installations in Germany and Austria. Further, an initiative of the American Southern California Edison utility is discussed which foresees the installation of large PV plant on the roofs of commercial premises to provide local generation of peak energy and thus relieve demands on their power transportation network.

  11. The geomorphic structure of the runoff peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rigon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework to investigate the core dependence of peak flows on the geomorphic properties of river basins. Based on the theory of transport by travel times, and simple hydrodynamic characterization of floods, this new framework invokes the linearity and invariance of the hydrologic response to provide analytical and semi-analytical expressions for peak flow, time to peak, and area contributing to the peak runoff. These results are obtained for the case of constant-intensity hyetograph using the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves to estimate extreme flow values as a function of the rainfall return period. Results show that, with constant-intensity hyetographs, the time-to-peak is greater than rainfall duration and usually shorter than the basin concentration time. Moreover, the critical storm duration is shown to be independent of rainfall return period as well as the area contributing to the flow peak. The same results are found when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are accounted for. Further, it is shown that, when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are negligible, the basin area contributing to the peak discharge does not depend on the channel velocity, but is a geomorphic propriety of the basin. As an example this framework is applied to three watersheds. In particular, the runoff peak, the critical rainfall durations and the time to peak are calculated for all links within a network to assess how they increase with basin area.

  12. Severity of exercise-induced ischemia with chest pain and recovery from ischemia after the disappearance of chest pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Shinozuka, Akira; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Yamanaka, Hideyuki; Katagiri, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    The severity of exercise-induced painful ischemia and its recovery after the disappearance of pain are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in severity of ischemia at both exercise and postexercise between painful ischemia and painless ischemia. After injections of technetium-99m tetrofosmin at peak ergometer exercise and thallium-201 at 3 minutes postexercise, dual-isotope single photon emission tomography was performed in 78 patients with angiographically proven ischemic heart disease. The extent of ischemic areas (the number of areas), the depth of ischemia in the ischemic area (the severity score of ischemia) and the extension of ischemia toward long axis of the left ventricle (the number of left ventricular levels with ischemic areas in apical, middle, and basal levels) at both exercise and postexercise were compared on the basis of the presence of pain and a history of diabetes mellitus (DM). The symptoms improved within 3 minutes postexercise in all painful ischemia patients. Of 59 patients with reversible ischemia, except for 4 painful ischemia patients with DM, the extent and depth of ischemia at postexercise were more severe in 14 painful ischemia patients without DM and 13 painless ischemia patients with DM than 28 painless ischemia patients without DM (extent; 2.9±1.7 areas, 3.5±2.8 areas versus 1.4±1.8 areas, P=0.005, depth; 3.8±3.1 scores, 5.8±5.4 scores versus 1.9±3.0 scores, P=0.0084, respectively) despite a comparable severity of ischemia at peak exercise (extent; 5.4±2.6 areas, 6.0±2.4 areas versus 4.3±3.3 areas, depth; 9.3±5.7 scores, 10.7±7.3 scores and 7.5±8.1 scores, all NS). The extension of ischemia toward long-axis of the left ventricle at both peak exercise and postexercise was more severe in the former 2 groups than the latter group (peak exercise; 2.4±0.6 levels, 2.5±0.7 levels versus 1.9 ±0.8 levels, P=0.0263, postexercise: 1.8±0.7 levels, 1.5±0.9 levels versus 0.8±0.8 levels, P=0

  13. [A peak recognition algorithm designed for chromatographic peaks of transformer oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Linjun; Cao, Jian

    2014-09-01

    In the field of the chromatographic peak identification of the transformer oil, the traditional first-order derivative requires slope threshold to achieve peak identification. In terms of its shortcomings of low automation and easy distortion, the first-order derivative method was improved by applying the moving average iterative method and the normalized analysis techniques to identify the peaks. Accurate identification of the chromatographic peaks was realized through using multiple iterations of the moving average of signal curves and square wave curves to determine the optimal value of the normalized peak identification parameters, combined with the absolute peak retention times and peak window. The experimental results show that this algorithm can accurately identify the peaks and is not sensitive to the noise, the chromatographic peak width or the peak shape changes. It has strong adaptability to meet the on-site requirements of online monitoring devices of dissolved gases in transformer oil.

  14. The AGS Booster control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, R.; Auerbach, E.; Culwick, B.; Clifford, T.; Mandell, S.; Mariotti, R.; Salwen, C.; Schumburg, N.

    1988-01-01

    Although moderate in size, the Booster construction project requires a comprehensive control system. There are three operational modes: as a high intensity proton injector for the AGS, as a heavy ion accelerator and injector supporting a wide range of ions and as a polarized proton storage injector. These requirements are met using a workstation based extension of the existing AGS control system. Since the Booster is joining a complex of existing accelerators, the new system will be capable of supporting multiuser operational scenarios. A short discussion of this system is discussed in this paper

  15. The optical and mechanical properties of PVA-Ag nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shamy, A.G.; Attia, W.; Abd El-Kader, K.M., E-mail: kamalmarei@yahoo.com

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • We prepared PVA -Ag composite films which used in different filed of applications. • The XRD results showed Ag nanoparticles entering the polymer PVA matrix. • Optical band gap as a result of doping has been found to be reduced significantly. • Young's modulus increases while the strain decreases due to increasing Ag content. -- Abstract: Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) loaded silver (Ag) nanoparticles were successfully prepared by chemical reduction methods. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using UV–visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM). The contents of the inorganic phase in the nanocomposites were determined by using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for silver, and were found to be 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.5 wt.%. Optical absorption studies in the wavelength range 190–900 nm showed additional peak at 420 nm for differently doped films, in addition to the peak at 200 nm for undoped PVA film. There is observable change in the absorbed intensity at 420 nm with filling levels. This is due to the link between the Ag metal ion and the polymer OH- groups. The indirect energy gaps were calculated. It was found that Young’s modulus and the strength at the break increase, while the energy gaps and the strain decrease as the concentration of Ag content is increased. The XRD results showed that the Ag nanoparticles entering the polymer PVA matrix and the crystallinity was strongly influenced by the amount of Ag nanoparticles. The electron diffraction image for the highest concentration sample shows the crystalline nature of the silver metal nanoparticles. TEM of the nanocomposite films revealed the presence of Ag particles with average diameter of 12 nm.

  16. Structure and photoluminescence properties of Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaozhu, E-mail: Lixiaozhu1019@21cn.com [Department of Physics, Shaoguan University, Shaoguan, Guangdong 512005 (China) and Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Acoustic and Photonic Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Wang Yongqian [Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education (China University of Geosciences), Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2011-05-12

    Highlights: > ZnO nano-needles were synthesized by thermal oxidation. > Their surfaces were coated with Ag by pulse electro-deposition technique. > The uncoated and coated ZnO nano-needles were characterized. > The results showed that the prepared ZnO nano-needles have been coated with Ag successfully. > The photoluminescence spectrums of ZnO nano-needles with Ag-coated and uncoated were analyzed, finding that the Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles can increase the absorption of UV light. - Abstract: A large number of zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-needles were synthesized by thermal oxidation of pure zinc. The surfaces of ZnO nano-needles were coated with a layer of Ag by pulse electro-deposition technique. The uncoated and coated ZnO nano-needles were characterized by using the X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the uncoated samples were close-packed hexagonal structure, which showed needle-like morphology. Their average diameter is about 40 nm, lengths up to 5 {mu}m. At the same time we observed that the prepared ZnO nano-needles have been coated with Ag successfully. The photoluminescence spectrums of ZnO nano-needles with Ag-coated and uncoated were analyzed, finding that the uncoated ZnO nano-needles have two fluorescence peaks at 388 nm and 470.8 nm, respectively, the relative intensity of 143.4 and 93.61; and the Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles showed a pair of strong peaks at 387.4 nm and 405.2 nm, the relative intensity of 1366 and 1305, respectively, indicating that the Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles can increase the absorption of UV light.

  17. Structure and photoluminescence properties of Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaozhu; Wang Yongqian

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → ZnO nano-needles were synthesized by thermal oxidation. → Their surfaces were coated with Ag by pulse electro-deposition technique. → The uncoated and coated ZnO nano-needles were characterized. → The results showed that the prepared ZnO nano-needles have been coated with Ag successfully. → The photoluminescence spectrums of ZnO nano-needles with Ag-coated and uncoated were analyzed, finding that the Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles can increase the absorption of UV light. - Abstract: A large number of zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-needles were synthesized by thermal oxidation of pure zinc. The surfaces of ZnO nano-needles were coated with a layer of Ag by pulse electro-deposition technique. The uncoated and coated ZnO nano-needles were characterized by using the X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the uncoated samples were close-packed hexagonal structure, which showed needle-like morphology. Their average diameter is about 40 nm, lengths up to 5 μm. At the same time we observed that the prepared ZnO nano-needles have been coated with Ag successfully. The photoluminescence spectrums of ZnO nano-needles with Ag-coated and uncoated were analyzed, finding that the uncoated ZnO nano-needles have two fluorescence peaks at 388 nm and 470.8 nm, respectively, the relative intensity of 143.4 and 93.61; and the Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles showed a pair of strong peaks at 387.4 nm and 405.2 nm, the relative intensity of 1366 and 1305, respectively, indicating that the Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles can increase the absorption of UV light.

  18. One-pot synthesis of Ag-SiO2-Ag sandwich nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaorong; Mei Jie; Li Shuwen; Lu Nianpeng; Wang Lina; Chen Benyong; Dong Wenjun

    2010-01-01

    Ag-SiO 2 -Ag sandwich nanostructures were prepared by a facile one-pot synthesis method. The Ag core, SiO 2 shell and Ag nanoparticle shell were all synthesized with polyvinylpyrrolidone, catalysed by ammonia, in the one-pot reaction. The polyvinylpyrrolidone, acting as a smart reducing agent, reduced the Ag + to Ag cores and Ag shells separately. Furthermore, the polyvinylpyrrolidone served as a protective agent to prevent the silver cores from aggregating. The SiO 2 shell and outer layer Ag nanoparticles were obtained when tetraethyl orthosilicate and ammonia were added to the silver core solution. Ammonia, acting as the catalyst, accelerated the hydrolysis of the tetraethyl orthosilicate to SiO 2 , which coated the silver cores. Furthermore, Ag(NH 3 ) 2 + ions were formed when aqueous ammonia was added to the solution, which increased the reduction capability. Then the polyvinylpyrrolidone reduced the Ag(NH 3 ) 2 + ions to small Ag nanoparticles on the surface of the Ag-SiO 2 and formed Ag-SiO 2 -Ag sandwich structures with a standard deviation of less than 4%. This structure effectively prevented the Ag nanoparticles on the silica surface from aggregating. Furthermore, the Ag-SiO 2 -Ag sandwich structures showed good catalysis properties due to the large surface area/volume value and activity of surface atoms of Ag particles.

  19. Disappearing dark matter in brane world cosmology: New limits on noncompact extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, K.; Garnavich, P.M.; Mathews, G.J.; Kajino, T.; Yahiro, M.

    2003-01-01

    We explore cosmological implications of dark matter as massive particles trapped on a brane embedded in a Randall-Sundrum noncompact higher dimension AdS 5 space. It is an unavoidable consequence of this cosmology that massive particles are metastable and can disappear into the bulk dimension. Here, we show that a massive dark matter particle (e.g. the lightest supersymmetric particle) is likely to have the shortest lifetime for disappearing into the bulk. We examine cosmological constraints on this new paradigm and show that disappearing dark matter is consistent (at the 95% confidence level) with all cosmological constraints, i.e., present observations of type Ia supernovae at the highest redshift, trends in the mass-to-light ratios of galaxy clusters with redshift, the fraction of x-ray emitting gas in rich clusters, and the spectrum of power fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background. A best 2σ concordance region is identified corresponding to a mean lifetime for dark matter disappearance of 15≤Γ -1 ≤80 Gyr. The implication of these results for brane-world physics is discussed

  20. Below the Disappearing Marshes of an Urban Estuary: Historic Nitrogen Trends and Soil Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshes in the urban Jamaica Bay Estuary, New York, USA are disappearing at an average rate of 13 ha/yr, and multiple stressors (e.g., wastewater inputs, dredging activities, groundwater removal, and global warming) may be contributing to marsh losses. Among these stressors, wa...

  1. The (Dis)appearance of Ai Weiwei: Translations and (In)visibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Louise Nørgaard; Stenbøg, Anne Sofie Christensen; Albrechtslund, Anders

    This paper offers a study of surveillance themes relating to Ai Weiwei’s highly discussed disappearance and later reappearance in 2011. Our study is based on an Actor-Network Theory (ANT) approach and we focus on the manifold negotiations and (in)visibilities relating to the dramatic events as well...... as Ai’s artwork and life....

  2. The (Dis)appearance of Ai Weiwei: Translations and (In)visibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbøg, Sofie; Nørgaard Glud, Louise; Albrechtslund, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a study of surveillance themes relating to Ai Weiwei’s highly discussed disappearance and later reappearance in 2011. Our study is based on an Actor-Network Theory (ANT) approach and we focus on the manifold negotiations and (in)visibilities relating to the dramatic events as well...... as Ai’s artwork and life....

  3. Disappearance of mesenteric lymphadenopathy with gluten-free diet in celiac sprue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, W. A.; Maas, M.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1993-01-01

    In an adult patient with untreated celiac sprue, mesenteric lymphadenopathy was detected by computerized tomography (CT). Although malignant lymphoma was suspected, the nodes disappeared after treatment with a gluten-free diet, as was documented by CT follow-up. This report demonstrates that

  4. Search for Muon Neutrino Disappearance in a Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrino Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Collaboration, for the SciBooNE

    2010-01-01

    We report a search for muon neutrino disappearance in the $\\Delta m^{2}$ region of 0.5-40 $eV^2$ using data from both SciBooNE and MiniBooNE experiments. SciBooNE data provides a constraint on the neutrino flux, so that the sensitivity to $\

  5. Rape embryogenesis. IV. Appearance and disappearance of starch during embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch appears first in the suspensor of the proembryo with two-cell apical part. It is observed in the embryo proper from the octant stage. At first it is visible in all the embryo cells in the form of minute transient grains which disappear during cell divisions. But the columella mother cells and their derivatives have persistent large grains. When the embryo turns green in the heart stage a gradual accumulation of storage starch begins and lasts to the end of embryogenesis. Storage starch grains appear first in the auter cortex layers of the hypocotyl where the largest grains are to be found later, and afterwards in all the other tissues. Starch is usually absent in the frequently dividing cells, but even there it appears in the form of minute grains after the end of cell divisions. Disappearance of starch starts when the intensive green colour of the seed coat begins to fade. The first to disappear are the smallest granules in the regions where they were noted latest. In the embryo axis the starch grains remain deposited longest in dermatogen and cortex cells in the lower hypocotyl part. They are visible there, still when the seed turns brown. In black seeds starch may be only found in the columella the cells of which throughout embryogenesis contain amyloplasts filled with starch. These grains disappear completely at the time when the seeds become dry.

  6. Fermentation in the small intestine contributes substantially to intestinal starch disappearance in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.; Pantophlet, A.J.; Berends, H.; Pluschke, A.M.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Hendriks, W.H.; Schols, H.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The proportion of starch disappearing from the small intestinal lumen is generally lower in ruminants than in monogastric animals, and there are indications that the starch digestion capacity in ruminants is limited. Objectives: Milk-fed calves were used to study the rate-limiting enzyme

  7. Fermentation in the Small Intestine Contributes Substantially to Intestinal Starch Disappearance in Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Myrthe S.; Pantophlet, Andre J.; Berends, Harma; Pluschke, Anton M.; van den Borne, Joost J. G. C.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Schols, Henk A.; Gerrits, Walter J. J.

    Background: The proportion of starch disappearing from the small intestinal lumen is generally lower in ruminants than in monogastric animals, and there are indications that the starch digestion capacity in ruminants is limited. Objectives: Milk-fed calves were used to study the rate-limiting enzyme

  8. "Snapchat," Youth Subjectivities and Sexuality: Disappearing Media and the Discourse of Youth Innocence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charteris, Jennifer; Gregory, Sue; Masters, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Research on youth subjectivities and disappearing media is still in its infancy. Ephemeral technologies such as Snapchat, Frankly and Wickr offer young people opportunities for discursive agency, harnessing teenage discourses of social positioning. These media facilitate social mobility in teen peer contexts by providing a medium for dynamic and…

  9. Parental Involvement and Public Schools: Disappearing Mothers in Labor and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the material and rhetorical connection between "parental involvement" and motherhood has the effect of making two important features of parental involvement disappear. Both of these features need to be taken into account to think through the positive and negative effects of parental involvement in public…

  10. 3D Evolution of a Filament Disappearance Event Observed by STEREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, S.; Schmieder, B.; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Chandra, R.; Artzner, G.

    2009-10-01

    A filament disappearance event was observed on 22 May 2008 during our recent campaign JOP 178. The filament, situated in the Southern Hemisphere, showed sinistral chirality consistent with the hemispheric rule. The event was well observed by several observatories, in particular by THEMIS. One day, before the disappearance, Hα observations showed up- and down-flows in adjacent locations along the filament, which suggest plasma motions along twisted flux rope. THEMIS and GONG observations show shearing photospheric motions leading to magnetic flux canceling around barbs. STEREO A, B spacecraft with separation angle 52.4°, showed quite different views of this untwisting flux rope in He ii 304 Å images. Here, we reconstruct the three-dimensional geometry of the filament during its eruption phase using STEREO EUV He ii 304 Å images and find that the filament was highly inclined to the solar normal. The He ii 304 Å movies show individual threads, which oscillate and rise to an altitude of about 120 Mm with apparent velocities of about 100 km s-1 during the rapid evolution phase. Finally, as the flux rope expands into the corona, the filament disappears by becoming optically thin to undetectable levels. No CME was detected by STEREO, only a faint CME was recorded by LASCO at the beginning of the disappearance phase at 02:00 UT, which could be due to partial filament eruption. Further, STEREO Fe xii 195 Å images showed bright loops beneath the filament prior to the disappearance phase, suggesting magnetic reconnection below the flux rope.

  11. Disappearance of enlarged nuchal translucency before 14 weeks' gestation: relationship with chromosomal abnormalities and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M A; Pajkrt, E; Bleker, O P; Bonsel, G J; Bilardo, C M

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the natural course of enlarged nuchal translucency (NT) and to determine if its disappearance before 14 weeks' gestation is a favorable prognostic sign in relation to fetal karyotype and pregnancy outcome. A total of 147 women with increased NT (> 95th centile) at first measurement were included in this study. A second measurement was performed in all cases, at an interval of at least 2 days. Both measurements were taken between 10 + 3 and 14 + 0 weeks. All women underwent chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis for subsequent karyotyping. In those women with a normal karyotype, a fetal anomaly scan was performed at 20 weeks' gestation. Pregnancy outcome was recorded in all cases. The finding of persistent or disappearing NT enlargement was analyzed in relation to fetal karyotype and pregnancy outcome. Of the 147 paired measurements, NT remained enlarged at the second measurement in 121 (82%) cases. An abnormal karyotype was found in 35% of these cases. In 26 (18%) fetuses the NT measurement was found to be below the 95th percentile at the second measurement and in only two of them an abnormal karyotype was found (8%). In the 103 chromosomally normal fetuses an adverse outcome (i.e. fetal loss or structural defects) was recorded in 22 fetuses with persistent enlargement (28%) and in four fetuses with disappearing enlargement (17%). Disappearance of an enlarged NT before 14 weeks' gestation is not a rare phenomenon and seems to be a favorable prognostic sign with respect to fetal karyotype. Overall, no significant difference in pregnancy outcome was found between chromosomally normal fetuses with persisting or disappearing NT enlargement. Copyright 2004 ISUOG

  12. Experimental results on spin physics at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makdisi, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The AGS ran with polarized protons towards the end of 1985 and through the first two months of 1986. This comprised commissioning periods interleaved with two runs for physics at 13.5 GeV/c with beam polarization of 50 to 60%, and 18.5 GeV/c with an average beam polarization of 40%. Later, the AGS polarized beam reached peak energy of 22 GeV/c and polarization of 46%. This article describes the various spin related experimental efforts since the VI Symposium at Marseille. These will be grouped into those using unpolarized beams and the rest are the polarized proton beam users. Afterwards the future of the program is described as extensions of current experiments in addition to other measurements that are yet to be proposed

  13. Synthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo Gloria, E.; Ederley, Vélez; Gladis, Morales; César, Hincapié; Jaime, Osorio; Oscar, Arnache; Uribe José, Ignacio; Franklin, Jaramillo

    2017-06-01

    The synthesis of nanomaterials is currently one of the most active in nanoscience branches; especially those help improve the human quality life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an example of this as it is known to have inhibitory and bactericidal effects. In this work, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction method of silver nitrate (AgNO3) from aqueous solution, using a mix of polivinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) - Aloe Vera as reducing agent and for stabilization and control of particle size. Silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy and measurements using Zetasizer Nano ZS were applied to size estimation. The existence of surface plasmon resonance peak at λmax ~ 420 nm is evidence of silver nanoparticles formation. It was possible to standardize an appropriate protocol for the evaluation of bactericidal activity of the nanoparticles, for mesophilic microorganisms. Bactericidal activity above 90% against these kinds of bacteria was demonstrated.

  14. Synthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with Antibacterial Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloria, E. Campillo; Ederley, Vélez; César, Hincapié; Gladis, Morales; Jaime, Osorio; Oscar, Arnache; José, Ignacio Uribe; Franklin, Jaramillo

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of nanomaterials is currently one of the most active in nanoscience branches; especially those help improve the human quality life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an example of this as it is known to have inhibitory and bactericidal effects. In this work, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction method of silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) from aqueous solution, using a mix of polivinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) – Aloe Vera as reducing agent and for stabilization and control of particle size. Silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV–visible spectroscopy and measurements using Zetasizer Nano ZS were applied to size estimation. The existence of surface plasmon resonance peak at λ max ∼ 420 nm is evidence of silver nanoparticles formation. It was possible to standardize an appropriate protocol for the evaluation of bactericidal activity of the nanoparticles, for mesophilic microorganisms. Bactericidal activity above 90% against these kinds of bacteria was demonstrated. (paper)

  15. Employer Attitudes towards Peak Hour Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  16. Employer attitudes towards peak hour avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, D.M.V.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  17. Peak load pricing lowers generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lande, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Before a utility implements peak load pricing for different classes of consumers, the costs and the benefits should be compared. The methodology described enables a utility to determine whether peak load pricing should be introduced for specific users. Cost-benefit analyses for domestic consumers and commercial/industrial consumers, showing break-even points are presented. (author)

  18. Peak Shaving Considering Streamflow Uncertainties | Iwuagwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main thrust of this paper is peak shaving with a Stochastic hydro model. In peak sharing, the amount of hydro energy scheduled may be a minimum but it serves to replace less efficient thermal units. The sample system is die Kainji hydro plant and the thermal units of the National Electric Power Authority. The random ...

  19. Polarized protons at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Various aspects of the project of modifying the Brookhaven AGS for the production of polarized proton beams are discussed. It is observed that pure spin state cross sections are of great importance in many investigations since differences between spin states are frequently significant. Financial and technical aspects of the modification of the Brookhaven accelerator are also discussed

  20. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume

  1. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggett, N.V. (ed.)

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  2. AGS experiments---1987, 1988, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report contains: Experimental Areas Layout; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ''as run''; Experiment Long Range Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS experiments; and List of experimenters

  3. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987

  4. AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ''as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters

  5. The peak in neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laar, B. van; Yelon, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    For the application of Rietveld profile analysis to neutron powder diffraction data a precise knowledge of the peak profile, in both shape and position, is required. The method now in use employs a Gaussian shaped profile with a semi-empirical asymmetry correction for low-angle peaks. The integrated intensity is taken to be proportional to the classical Lorentz factor calculated for the X-ray case. In this paper an exact expression is given for the peak profile based upon the geometrical dimensions of the diffractometer. It is shown that the asymmetry of observed peaks is well reproduced by this expression. The angular displacement of the experimental profile with respect to the nominal Bragg angle value is larger than expected. Values for the correction to the classical Lorentz factor for the integrated intensity are given. The exact peak profile expression has been incorporated into a Rietveld profile analysis refinement program. (Auth.)

  6. Peak tree: a new tool for multiscale hierarchical representation and peak detection of mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Houqiang; Wang, Honghui; Wong, Stephen T C; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    Peak detection is one of the most important steps in mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. However, the detection result is greatly affected by severe spectrum variations. Unfortunately, most current peak detection methods are neither flexible enough to revise false detection results nor robust enough to resist spectrum variations. To improve flexibility, we introduce peak tree to represent the peak information in MS spectra. Each tree node is a peak judgment on a range of scales, and each tree decomposition, as a set of nodes, is a candidate peak detection result. To improve robustness, we combine peak detection and common peak alignment into a closed-loop framework, which finds the optimal decomposition via both peak intensity and common peak information. The common peak information is derived and loopily refined from the density clustering of the latest peak detection result. Finally, we present an improved ant colony optimization biomarker selection method to build a whole MS analysis system. Experiment shows that our peak detection method can better resist spectrum variations and provide higher sensitivity and lower false detection rates than conventional methods. The benefits from our peak-tree-based system for MS disease analysis are also proved on real SELDI data.

  7. Multiscale peak detection in wavelet space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Tong, Xia; Peng, Ying; Ma, Pan; Zhang, Ming-Jin; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-12-07

    Accurate peak detection is essential for analyzing high-throughput datasets generated by analytical instruments. Derivatives with noise reduction and matched filtration are frequently used, but they are sensitive to baseline variations, random noise and deviations in the peak shape. A continuous wavelet transform (CWT)-based method is more practical and popular in this situation, which can increase the accuracy and reliability by identifying peaks across scales in wavelet space and implicitly removing noise as well as the baseline. However, its computational load is relatively high and the estimated features of peaks may not be accurate in the case of peaks that are overlapping, dense or weak. In this study, we present multi-scale peak detection (MSPD) by taking full advantage of additional information in wavelet space including ridges, valleys, and zero-crossings. It can achieve a high accuracy by thresholding each detected peak with the maximum of its ridge. It has been comprehensively evaluated with MALDI-TOF spectra in proteomics, the CAMDA 2006 SELDI dataset as well as the Romanian database of Raman spectra, which is particularly suitable for detecting peaks in high-throughput analytical signals. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that MSPD can detect more true peaks while keeping the false discovery rate lower than MassSpecWavelet and MALDIquant methods. Superior results in Raman spectra suggest that MSPD seems to be a more universal method for peak detection. MSPD has been designed and implemented efficiently in Python and Cython. It is available as an open source package at .

  8. Defining the Crime of Enforced Disappearance in Conformity with International Criminal Law: a New Frontier for Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Raisul Islam Sourav

    2015-01-01

    Enforced disappearance is regarded as a state-sponsored heinous international crime and has recently emerged as a wide-spread issue in Bangladesh. The political opposition is currently the main target of forced disappearances, though apolitical citizens have also been targeted. Most of the incidents are unsolved and law enforcement agencies have repeatedly denied their involvement. Internationally, the UN Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance was opened for ...

  9. Synthesis, morphological control, and antibacterial properties of hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin

    2010-08-11

    Ag2S and Ag are important functional materials that have received considerable research interest in recent years. In this work, we develop a solution-based synthetic method to combine these two materials into hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers at room temperature. Starting from monodisperse Cu2O solid spheres, CuS hollow spheres can be converted from Cu2O through a modified Kirkendall process, and the obtained CuS can then be used as a solid precursor for preparation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers through ion exchange and photo-assisted reduction. We have found that formation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers is instantaneous, and the size of Ag nanocrystals on the hollow spheres of Ag2S can be controlled by changing the concentration and power of reducing agents in the synthesis. The growth of Ag nanoparticles on hollow spheres of Ag2S in the dimers is along the [111] direction of the silver crystal; the light absorption properties have also been investigated. Furthermore, coupling or tripling of Ag2S/Ag heterodimers into dumbbell-like trimers ((Ag 2S)2/Ag, linear) and triangular tetramers ((Ag 2S)3/Ag, coplanar) can also be attained at 60°C by adding the bidentate ligand ethylenediamine as a cross-linking agent. To test the applicability of this highly asymmetric dipolar composite, photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in the presence of the as-prepared Ag 2S/Ag heterodimers has been carried out under UV irradiation. The added Ag2S/Ag heterodimers show good chemical stability under prolonged UV irradiation, and no appreciable solid dissolution is found. Possible mechanisms regarding the enhanced antibacterial activity have also been addressed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Tunable fluorescence emission of ternary nonstoichiometric Ag-In-S alloyed nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jian, E-mail: dhjfeng@ciac.jl.cn; Yang Xiurong, E-mail: xryang@ciac.jl.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2012-08-15

    Low toxic, nonstoichiometric colloidal Ag-In-S ternary quantum dots with different Ag content were synthesized by a one-pot hot-injection method based on the reaction of metal acetylacetonates with sulfur dissolved in octadecene. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to characterize the size, structure, and morphology of these samples. ICP-MS was employed to analyze the compositions of Ag-In-S nanocrystals. The optical properties were characterized by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence. Varying the fraction of cationic and capping agents, the compositions of Ag-In-S nanocrystals were precisely controlled. XRD and HRTEM results indicate the compositional homogeneity of Ag-In-S. The emission spectra across the different compositions exhibiting a single bandgap feature further confirm the formation of Ag-In-S alloy NCs, rather than phase separated Ag{sub 2}S and In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Composition-dependent tunable PL emissions have been observed. The relative PL quantum yield is up to 16 %, which exhibited substantially enhanced comparing with the stoichiometric AgInS{sub 2} semiconductor core QDs reported in previous literature. The PL decay curve of Ag-In-S has a biexponential characteristic, which indicates that the recombination of an electron and a hole is dominated by the surface defect and the recombination process associated with internal traps is reduced significantly. The large Stokes shift between the absorption peaks and their emissions should inhibit the reabsorption and Foerster energy transfer between Ag-In-S nanocrystals, which provides the alternative in the further applications where high-concentrations of nanocrystals are needed.

  11. Disruption of crystalline structure of Sn3.5Ag induced by electric current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Han-Chie; Lin, Kwang-Lung, E-mail: matkllin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wu, Albert T. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2016-03-21

    This study presented the disruption of the Sn and Ag{sub 3}Sn lattice structures of Sn3.5Ag solder induced by electric current at 5–7 × 10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2} with a high resolution transmission electron microscope investigation and electron diffraction analysis. The electric current stressing induced a high degree of strain on the alloy, as estimated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak shift of the current stressed specimen. The XRD peak intensity of the Sn matrix and the Ag{sub 3}Sn intermetallic compound diminished to nearly undetectable after 2 h of current stressing. The electric current stressing gave rise to a high dislocation density of up to 10{sup 17}/m{sup 2}. The grain morphology of the Sn matrix became invisible after prolonged current stressing as a result of the coalescence of dislocations.

  12. Disruption of crystalline structure of Sn3.5Ag induced by electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Han-Chie; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Wu, Albert T.

    2016-01-01

    This study presented the disruption of the Sn and Ag_3Sn lattice structures of Sn3.5Ag solder induced by electric current at 5–7 × 10"3 A/cm"2 with a high resolution transmission electron microscope investigation and electron diffraction analysis. The electric current stressing induced a high degree of strain on the alloy, as estimated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak shift of the current stressed specimen. The XRD peak intensity of the Sn matrix and the Ag_3Sn intermetallic compound diminished to nearly undetectable after 2 h of current stressing. The electric current stressing gave rise to a high dislocation density of up to 10"1"7/m"2. The grain morphology of the Sn matrix became invisible after prolonged current stressing as a result of the coalescence of dislocations.

  13. UV-Vis spectroscopy and solvatochromism of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG-1478

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Muhammad; Wang, Feng; Clayton, Andrew H. A.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of twenty-one solvents on the UV-Vis spectrum of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG-1478 was investigated. The absorption spectrum in the range 300-360 nm consisted of two partially overlapping bands at approximately 340 nm and 330 nm. The higher energy absorption band was more sensitive to solvent and exhibited a peak position that varied from 327 nm to 336 nm, while the lower energy absorption band demonstrated a change in peak position from 340 nm to 346 nm in non-chlorinated solvents. The fluorescence spectrum of AG-1478 was particularly sensitive to solvent. The wavelength of peak intensity varied from 409 nm to 495 nm with the corresponding Stokes shift in the range of 64 nm to 155 nm (4536 cm- 1 to 9210 cm- 1). We used a number of methods to assess the relationship between spectroscopic properties and solvent properties. The detailed analysis revealed that for aprotic solvents, the peak position of the emission spectrum in wavenumber scale correlated with the polarity (dielectric constant or ET(30)) of the solvent. In protic solvents, a better correlation was observed between the hydrogen bonding power of the solvent and the position of the emission spectrum. Moreover, the fluorescence quantum yields were larger in aprotic solvents as compared to protic solvents. This analysis underscores the importance of polarity and hydrogen-bonding environment on the spectroscopic properties of AG-1478. These studies will assume relevance in understanding the interaction of AG-1478 in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Effect of different treatments on 110m Ag plant uptake in various soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szerbin, P.; Koblinger-Bokori, E.

    1996-01-01

    110m Ag contamination may occur as a result of atmospheric release either during normal operation of nuclear power plants or in accidental circumstances. The gamma peaks of 110m Ag and radiocaesium are very close, and not every laboratory could make distinction between them. Therefore very few references are available on 110m Ag environmental behaviour and plant uptake. In the present study plant uptake of 110m Ag from four different types of soil was investigated, and the results are presented in relation to major soil characteristics. In addition, effects of two different treatments (phosphate and organic matter fertilizations) are determined in each type of soil. Our study clearly demonstrates that a carefully selected post-accident treatment can significantly reduce the environmental consequences of radioactive releases. Methods to be developed on bases of such studies could be used for remedial actions of agricultural lands polluted with radioactive substances

  15. 105Ag and 107Ag with the (p, t) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Vecchio, R.M.; Oelrich, I.C.; Naumann, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    The 107 , 109 Ag(p, t) 105 , 107 Ag reactions have been studied at 30 MeV bombarding energy. Tritons were detected with a 60 cm position-sensitive wire proportional counter backed by a plastic scintillator in the focal plane of a quadrupole-dipole-dipole-dipole (QDDD) spectrograph. Multiplet structure, interpretable as the coupling of a 2p 1 / 2 proton to vibrational core states, was observed in both nuclei. In addition, some 50 levels in each nucleus were seen below about 3 MeV of excitation with a resolution of 10 keV. DWBA calculations with simple two particle configurations worked rather well and permitted the determination of L transfers. A considerable amount of (p, t) strength in the region from 2-3 MeV of excitation in each nucleus was observed, not all of which could be associated with expected weak coupling to the 3 - core state

  16. [AgBr colloids prepared by electrolysis and their SERS activity research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Min-Zhen; Fang, Yan; Dong, Gang; Zhang, Peng-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Ivory-white AgBr colloids were prepared by means of electrolysis. Two silver rods 1.0 cm in diameter and 10.0 cm long were respectively used as the negative and positive electrodes, the aqueous solution of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide was used as the electrolyte, and a 7 V direct current was applied on the silver rods for three hours. The obtained AgBr colloids were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and SERS using a 514. 5 nm laser line on Renishaw 2000 Raman spectrometer. These particles are about nanometer size and their shapes are as spherical or elliptic, with a slight degree of particle aggregation. The UV-Vis spectra exhibit a large plasmon resonance band at about 292.5 nm, similar to that reported in the literature. The AgBr colloids were very stable at room temperature for months. In order to test if these AgBr colloids can be used for SERS research, methyl orange, Sudan red and pyridine were used. It was found that AgBr colloids have SERS activity to these three molicules. For methyl orange, the intense Raman peaks are at 1 123, 1 146, 1 392, 1 448 and 1 594 cm(-1); for Sudan red, the intense Raman peaks are at 1 141, 1 179, 1 433 and 1 590 cm(-1); and for pyridine, the intense Raman peaks are at 1 003, 1 034 and 1 121 cm(-1). It is noticeable that SERS of methyl orange was observed on AgBr colloids, but not on the gray and yellow silver colloids prepared by traditional means. The possible reason was explained. One major advantage of this means is the absence of the spectral interference such as citrate, BH4- arising from reaction products of the colloids formation process. On AgBr colloids, one can get some molecular SERS impossible to get on the gray and yellow silver colloids.

  17. AGS experiments: 1990, 1991, 1992. Ninth edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains a description of the following: AGS Experimental Area - High Energy Physics FY 1993 and Heavy Ion Physics FY 1993; Table of Beam Parameters and Fluxes; Experiment Schedule ``as run``; Proposed 1993 Schedule; A listing of experiments by number; Two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; Publications of AGS Experiments; and List of AGS Experimenters.

  18. Isotope resolution of the iron peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, R.P.; Benton, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    A stack of Lexan detectors from the Apollo 17 mission has been analyzed to obtain Z measurements of sufficient accuracy to resolve the iron peak into its isotopic components. Within this distribution several peaks are present. With the centrally located, most populated peak assumed to be 56 Fe, the measurements imply that the abundances of 54 Fe and 58 Fe are appreciable fractions of the 56 Fe abundance. This result is in agreement with those of Webber et al. and Siegman et al. but in disagreement with the predictions of Tsao et al. (Auth.)

  19. Bimetallic Ag-Pt and Au-Pt aggregates synthesized by radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remita, S.; Mostafavi, M.; Delcourt, M.O.

    1996-01-01

    Irradiating aqueous solutions containing both Ag 2 So 4 and K 2 PtCl 4 leads to intermetallic aggregates of various sizes according to the stabilizing agent: polyvinylalcohol, polyacrylic acid or polyacrylate. In the last case, the particle diameter is 1.5 nm. The bimetallic character is evidenced in all cases by the spectral changes of such sols compared to pure silver sols which display a characteristic surface plasmon absorption band. This plasmon band disappears when 10 to 20 at.% or more Pr is present. Observation by TEM gives an estimation of the particle sizes. Comparable results have been obtained for Au-Pt particles. (author)

  20. The negative temperature coefficient resistivities of Ag2S-Ag core–shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Mingming; Liu, Dongzhi; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xueqin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the conductivity of silver nanoparticle films protected by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (Ag/MPA) has been investigated. When the nanoparticles were annealed in air at 200 °C, they converted to stable Ag 2 S-Ag core–shell structures. The mechanism for the formation of the Ag 2 S-Ag core–shell structures along with the compositional changes and the microstructural evolution of the Ag/MPA nanoparticles during the annealing process are discussed. It is proposed that the Ag 2 S-Ag core–shell structure was formed through a solid-state reduction reaction, in which the Ag + ions coming from Ag 2 S were reduced by sulfonate species and sulfur ions. The final Ag 2 S-Ag films display an exponentially decreased resistivity with increasing temperature from 25 to 170 °C. The negative temperature coefficient resistivity of Ag 2 S-Ag films can be adjusted by changing the S/Ag molar ratio used for the synthesis of the Ag/MPA nanoparticles, paving the way for the preparation of negative temperature-coefficient thermistors via printing technology for use in the electronics.

  1. Synthesis, morphological control, and antibacterial properties of hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin; Hu, Jiangyong; Zeng, Huachun

    2010-01-01

    of this highly asymmetric dipolar composite, photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in the presence of the as-prepared Ag 2S/Ag heterodimers has been carried out under UV irradiation. The added Ag2S/Ag heterodimers show good chemical stability under

  2. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be

  3. Automated Peak Picking and Peak Integration in Macromolecular NMR Spectra Using AUTOPSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koradi, Reto; Billeter, Martin; Engeli, Max; Güntert, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt

    1998-12-01

    A new approach for automated peak picking of multidimensional protein NMR spectra with strong overlap is introduced, which makes use of the program AUTOPSY (automatedpeak picking for NMRspectroscopy). The main elements of this program are a novel function for local noise level calculation, the use of symmetry considerations, and the use of lineshapes extracted from well-separated peaks for resolving groups of strongly overlapping peaks. The algorithm generates peak lists with precise chemical shift and integral intensities, and a reliability measure for the recognition of each peak. The results of automated peak picking of NOESY spectra with AUTOPSY were tested in combination with the combined automated NOESY cross peak assignment and structure calculation routine NOAH implemented in the program DYANA. The quality of the resulting structures was found to be comparable with those from corresponding data obtained with manual peak picking.

  4. Diffusion and aggrigation of implanted Ag and Au in a lithia-alumina-silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.W.; Borders, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Optical extinction and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) techniques have been employed to obtain information on the size and spatial distribution of Au and Ag colloids in implanted (Au + ,Ag + )lithia-alumina-silica glass. The formation of metallic aggregates (colloids), necessary for preparation of a glass-ceramic surface layer, proceeds readily with annealing temperature for Au-implanted samples but not for Ag-implanted material. The optical and RBS spectra show that the particle size and spatial distribution in Ag-implanted samples are sensitive to sample temperature and ion-beam heating effects, while these parameters for Au-implanted samples are relatively insensitive to temperature and beam current. It is suggested that this behaviour is related to differences in the dissolution energies of Ag and Au aggregates. A two-peaked spatial distribution for Ag implanted at room temperature at a dose rate of approximately 1 μA cm -2 is observed which may result from the trappings of Ag in the ion displacement damage region of the glass during implantation. (author)

  5. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, S.; Kawakita, Y.; Shimakura, H.; Ohara, K.; Fukami, T.; Takeda, S.

    2015-01-01

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag–Cl and ionic Rb–Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag–Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb–Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag–Ag and Rb–Rb correlations, S AgAg (Q) and S RbRb (Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while S AgRb (Q) for the Ag–Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM

  6. Optical properties of silver sulphide thin films formed on evaporated Ag by a simple sulphurization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Calva, E., E-mail: ebc@xanum.uam.m [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Av. Purisima Esq. Michoacan, Col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Ortega-Lopez, M.; Avila-Garcia, A.; Matsumoto-Kwabara, Y. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF 07360 (Mexico)

    2010-01-31

    Silver sulphide (Ag{sub 2}S) thin films were grown on the surface of silver films (Ag) deposited on glass substrate by using a simple chemical sulphurization method. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the Ag{sub 2}S thin films display low intensity peaks at 34.48{sup o}, 36.56{sup o}, and 44.28{sup o}, corresponding to diffraction from (100), (112) and (103) planes of the acanthite phase (monoclinic). A model of the type Ag{sub 2}S/Ag/glass was deduced from spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements. Also, the optical constants (n, k) of the system were determined. Furthermore, the optical properties as solar selective absorber for collector applications were assessed. The optical reflectance of the Ag{sub 2}S/Ag thin film systems exhibits the expected behavior for an ideal selective absorber, showing a low reflectance in the wavelength range below 2 {mu}m and a high reflectance for wavelengths higher than that value. An absorptance about 70% and an emittance about 3% or less were calculated for several samples.

  7. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, S. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kawakita, Y. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shimakura, H. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Ohara, K. [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Fukami, T. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Takeda, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2015-07-28

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag–Cl and ionic Rb–Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag–Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb–Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag–Ag and Rb–Rb correlations, S{sub AgAg}(Q) and S{sub RbRb}(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while S{sub AgRb}(Q) for the Ag–Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  8. Synthesis and antibacterial evaluation of calcinated Ag-doped nano-hydroxyapatite with dispersibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuzono, Tsutomu; Motaharul, Mazumder; Kogai, Yasumichi; Azuma, Yoshinao; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2015-05-01

    Dispersible hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles are very useful for applying a monolayer to implantable medical devices using the nano-coating technique. To improve tolerance to infection on implanted medical devices, silver-doped HAp (Ag-HAp) nanoparticles with dispersiblity and crystallinity were synthesized, avoiding calcination-induced sintering, and evaluated for antibacterial activity. The Ca10-xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2 with x = 0 and 0.2 were prepared by wet chemical processing at 100°C. Before calcination at 700°C for 2 h, two kinds of anti-sintering agents, namely a Ca(NO3)2 (Ca salt) and a polyacrylic acid/Ca salt mixture (PAA-Ca), were used. Escherichia coli was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the nanopowder. When PAA-Ca was used as an anti-sintering agent in calcination to prepare the dispersible nanoparticles, strong metallic Ag peaks were observed at 38.1° and 44.3° (2θ) in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile. However, the Ag peak was barely observed when Ca salt was used alone as the anti-sintering agent. Thus, using Ca salt alone was more effective for preparation of dispersible Ag-HAp than PAA-Ca. The particle average size of Ag-HAp with 0.5 mol% of Ag content was found to be 325 ± 70 nm when the formation of large particleaggregations was prevented, as determined by dynamic light scattering instrument. The antibacterial activity of the Ag-HAp nanoparticles possessing 0.5 mol% against E. coli was greater than 90.0%. Dispersible and crystalline nano Ag-HAp can be obtained by using Ca salt alone as an anti-sintering agent. The nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity.

  9. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from Ag-doped Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kananen, B.E.; Maniego, E.S.; Golden, E.M.; Giles, N.C.; McClory, J.W. [Department of Engineering Physics, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Adamiv, V.T.; Burak, Ya.V. [Vlokh Institute of Physical Optics, Dragomanov 23, L’viv 79005 (Ukraine); Halliburton, L.E., E-mail: Larry.Halliburton@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Optically stimulated luminescence (CW-OSL) is observed from Ag-doped lithium tetraborate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) crystals. Photoluminescence, optical absorption, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) are used to identify the defects participating in the OSL process. As-grown crystals have Ag{sup +} ions substituting for Li{sup +} ions. They also have Ag{sup +} ions occupying interstitial sites. During a room-temperature exposure to ionizing radiation, holes are trapped at the Ag{sup +} ions that replace Li{sup +} ions and electrons are trapped at the interstitial Ag{sup +} ions, i.e., the radiation forms Ag{sup 2+} (4d{sup 9}) ions and Ag{sup 0} (4d{sup 10}5s{sup 1}) atoms. These Ag{sup 2+} and Ag{sup 0} centers have characteristic EPR spectra. The Ag{sup 0} centers also have a broad optical absorption band peaking near 370 nm. An OSL response is observed when the stimulation wavelength overlaps this absorption band. Specifically, stimulation with 400 nm light produces an intense OSL response when emission is monitored near 270 nm. Electrons optically released from the Ag{sup 0} centers recombine with holes trapped at Ag{sup 2+} ions to produce the ultraviolet emission. The OSL response is progressively smaller as the stimulation light is moved to longer wavelengths (i.e., away from the 370 nm peak of the absorption band of the Ag{sup 0} electron traps). Oxygen vacancies are also present in the Ag-doped Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} crystals, and their role in the OSL process as a secondary relatively short-lived electron trap is described.

  10. A simple approach for facile synthesis of Ag, anisotropic Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles using cruciferous vegetable extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Jasmine; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Kapoor, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and straightforward approach for the synthesis and stabilization of relatively monodisperse Ag, Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles by using cruciferous vegetable (green/red) extracts by simply adjusting the pH environment in the aqueous medium. The vegetable extracts act both as reducing and capping agents. The monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag and Au so obtained were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that red cabbage extract can be used for the preparation of anisotropic Au nanoparticles. The formation of Au anisotropic nanoparticles was found to depend on a number of environmental factors, such as the pH of the reaction medium, reaction time, and initial reactant concentrations. Additionally, it is shown that these extract-stabilized Au and Ag nanoparticles can be used as a seed for preparation of bimetallic Au/Ag nanoparticles. For bimetallic alloy nanoparticles the absorption peak was observed between the two maxima of the corresponding metallic particles. The surface plasmon absorption maxima for bimetallic nanoparticles changed linearly with increasing Au mole ratio content in various alloy compositions. It has been shown that the formation of hollow Au spheres depends on the experimental conditions. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of gold nanoparticles at pH 3.27 formed by red cabbage extract. Highlights: ► First report on the reactivity of the extracts toward metal ions using a spectrophotometric technique. ► Red cabbage extract has better reducing properties than green cabbage extract. ► Red cabbage extract can reduce metal ions at any pH. ► Reduction of metal ions can have important consequences in the study of soil chemistry.

  11. A simple approach for facile synthesis of Ag, anisotropic Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles using cruciferous vegetable extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Jasmine; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Kapoor, Sudhir, E-mail: sudhirk@barc.gov.in

    2012-10-01

    We present a simple and straightforward approach for the synthesis and stabilization of relatively monodisperse Ag, Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles by using cruciferous vegetable (green/red) extracts by simply adjusting the pH environment in the aqueous medium. The vegetable extracts act both as reducing and capping agents. The monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag and Au so obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that red cabbage extract can be used for the preparation of anisotropic Au nanoparticles. The formation of Au anisotropic nanoparticles was found to depend on a number of environmental factors, such as the pH of the reaction medium, reaction time, and initial reactant concentrations. Additionally, it is shown that these extract-stabilized Au and Ag nanoparticles can be used as a seed for preparation of bimetallic Au/Ag nanoparticles. For bimetallic alloy nanoparticles the absorption peak was observed between the two maxima of the corresponding metallic particles. The surface plasmon absorption maxima for bimetallic nanoparticles changed linearly with increasing Au mole ratio content in various alloy compositions. It has been shown that the formation of hollow Au spheres depends on the experimental conditions. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of gold nanoparticles at pH 3.27 formed by red cabbage extract. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report on the reactivity of the extracts toward metal ions using a spectrophotometric technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red cabbage extract has better reducing properties than green cabbage extract. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red cabbage extract can reduce metal ions at any pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction of metal ions can have important consequences in the study of soil chemistry.

  12. Photoinduced formation of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of As2S3/Ag thin bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binu, S; Khan, Pritam; Barik, A R; Sharma, Rituraj; Adarsh, K V; Golovchak, R; Jain, H

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate the combined effect of photodoping and photoinduced-surface deposition in a bilayer of chalcogenide glass (ChG) and Ag as an alternative method to optically synthesize Ag nanoparticles (AgNP) on the surface of ChG. In our experiment, AgNP formation occurs through two distinct stages: In the first stage, Ag is transported through the As 2 S 3 layer as Ag + ions, and in the second stage Ag + ions are photo-deposited as AgNP. The ex situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and AFM observations show photoinduced Ag mass transport and the formation of AgNP. (paper)

  13. Bayesian Peak Picking for NMR Spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yichen

    2014-02-01

    Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method.

  14. Peak-Seeking Control for Trim Optimization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovators have developed a peak-seeking algorithm that can reduce drag and improve performance and fuel efficiency by optimizing aircraft trim in real time. The...

  15. Green synthesis of graphene/Ag nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wenhui; Gu Yejian; Li Li

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A facile and green approach to synthesis of GNS/AgNPs is reported by employing sodium citrate as reductant, and this study represents the use of biocompounds for nontoxic and scalable production of GNS/AgNPs under a suitable concentration of silver ions and the prepared GNS/AgNPs can be used in the field of disinfection. Highlights: ► Graphene/Ag nanocomposites were prepared by a green and facile strategy based on sodium citrate. ► The influence of AgNO 3 amount on particle size and size range of AgNPs was studied. ► The surface plasmon resonance properties of AgNPs on graphene was investigated. ► The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was retained in the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Graphene/Ag nanocomposites (GNS/AgNPs) were fabricated via a green and facile method, employing graphite oxide (GO) as a precursor of graphene, AgNO 3 as a precursor of Ag nanoparticles, and sodium citrate as an environmentally friendly reducing and stabilizing agent. The synthesized GNS/AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectra (RS), respectively. The results indicated that graphite oxide was completely reduced to graphene, and the silver ion was reduced by sodium citrate simultaneously. Under a suitable dosage of silver ions, well-dispersed AgNPs on the graphene sheets mostly centralized at 20–25 nm. The surface plasmon resonance property of AgNPs on graphene showed that there was a interaction between AgNPs and graphene supports. In addition, antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was retained in the nanocomposites, suggesting that they can be potentially used as a graphene-based biomaterial.

  16. Studies on the disappearance of palmitate-1-14C from the plasma of pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, L.; Zimmermann, T.; Schelhorn, P.; Volk, A.; Wagner, H.

    1980-01-01

    Intravenously injected radioactive fatty acids disappear from the circulation at an ever decreasing rate; about 1% of the injected label remains in the plasma for hours. This slow elimination of the label can be explained by an extensive recycling of the label or by a slow turnover of a portion of the injected label. The results show that a recycling of the label can not be responsible for the slow elimination of the label, because of the specific activities of the tissue fatty acids being much lower than the specific activity of the plasma free fatty acids, and the reinjection of the remaining label of 1% into control animals showing the same slow elimination of the label. An interpretation of the experiments could be that some fatty acids (about 1%) have a dissociation rate from albumin that is much lower than others, and thus they might be responsible for the late portion of the disappearance curve. (author)

  17. Biotelemetric detection of the disappearance of subcutaneously injected /sup 125/I-NPH insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolendorf, K; Bojsen, J

    1982-02-01

    A biotelemetric method with Geiger-Mueller (GM) detectors fixed to the skin surface was used for continuous registration of the disappearance rate of subcutaneously injected /sup 125/I-NPH insulin. Methodological problems concerning counting geometry were investigated by comparing the disappearance of radioactivity, measured the GM- and NaI-detectors, respectively, and by scanning of the radioactive source. The size and position of the subcutaneous depot was unchanged throughout the study. Movement artifacts could be avoided. The coefficient of variation for distribution of ratios between count rates for GM- and NaI-detectors was 3.0% +/- 1.1 (SD) (range 0.9-4.0%) over periods of 24 h. It is concluded that the biotelemetry technique proved to be a clinically useful procedure for insulin absorption studies.

  18. Bones and humanity. On Forensic Anthropology and its constitutive power facing forced disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Huffschmid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forensic anthropologists seek to decipher traces of anonymous dead, to restitute identities of human remains and to provide their families with the possibility to conclude mourning and even of justice. The article explores the contributions and meanings of forensic anthropology as state-independent practice beyond a mereley criminalistic approach, as it was conceptualized by the Argentine pioneers after the last dictatorship in this nation. I conceive this practice as a sort of arqueology of contemporary terror that seeks to confront a specific violence as the forced disappearance of persons and the deshumanization of their dead bodies. The article proposes reading forensic anthropology as a 'situated cience', with its complexities and ambigueties, that operates between nameless bones (the human remains and names without bodies (the so-called disappeared in settings of violent pasts such as Argentina or Guatemala, and especially in Mexico, where mass graves became the new symbol of a horrified present.

  19. Collisional drag may lead to disappearance of wave-breaking phenomenon of lower hybrid oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    The inhomogeneity in the magnetic field in a cold electron-ion non-dissipative homogeneous plasma leads to the breaking of lower hybrid modes via phase mixing phenomenon [Maity et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 102302 (2012)]. In this work, we show that an inclusion of collisional drag force in fluid equations may lead to the disappearance of the wave-breaking phenomenon of lower hybrid oscillations. The nonlinear analysis in Lagrangian variables provides an expression for a critical value of damping rate, above which spikes in the plasma density profile may disappear. The critical damping rate depends on the perturbation and magnetic field inhomogeneity amplitudes as well as the ratio of the magnetic field inhomogeneity and perturbation scale lengths.

  20. High-temperature peaks of thermostimulated luminescence in the ammonium halogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, L.M.; Musenova, Eh.K.; Mukhamedrakhimov, K.U.

    2003-01-01

    The ammonium halogen crystals (AHC) are the close analogs of the alkali halogen crystals by the type of chemical bonds and crystal lattice structure. The ammonium halogen after irradiation by X-rays within 80-300 K range have two peaks of thermo-stimulation luminescence. Its maximums in dependence of anions type are in the 110-120 K and 170-180 K ranges. The first range is related with activation of auto-localized holes migration, and the second one - with the NH 3 + defects decay. Experimentally is established, that the pure ammonium halogens have memory about the previous irradiation at heating up to 300 K. After repeat irradiation the recombination luminescence high-temperature peak's shoulder is appearing. The second luminescence peak's shoulder revealing does not depend on the impurity center nature. It is known, that in the AHC there is the next thermo-stimulation luminescence peak within 340-360 K. The thermal annealing of this peak leads to the memory effect disappearance. So, the observing phenomenon is related with own defect of the matrix in the cation sublattice. Experimentally is established, that at a room temperature the AHC memorizing about previous irradiation during 20 h

  1. Truth at Any Cost? Law’s Power to Name Argentina’s Disappeared Grandchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rae

    2017-01-01

    During Argentina’s military dictatorship (1976-1983) more than 30,000 people disappeared including 500 babies who were stolen from detainees and given to military supporters. The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo have been successful in lobbying for laws to reclaim these babies and make perpetrators accountable. This article explores one such law that made DNA testing on these now adult children compulsory. In drawing on Bourdieu’s notion of law as a symbolic discourse of power it...

  2. Initial plasma disappearance and tissue uptake of 131I-albumin in normal rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent-Hansen, L.

    1991-01-01

    The simultaneous plasma disappearance curves of 131I-albumin and 125I-fibrinogen were recorded in normal rabbits for 1 hr. Using fibrinogen as a plasma reference, the disappearance curves of albumin were shown to contain two separate phases of efflux: one fast from zero to 10 min. comprising 8% of the total tracer; and one slow appearing in the interval of 10 to 60 min. containing another 9% of the tracer. Total albumin escape was analyzed to yield an initial slope of 0.024 ± 0.004 min-1, corresponding to a wholebody unidirectional albumin clearance (Cl(0)) of 0.090 ± 0.009 ml(min*100 g)-1. The distribution of efflux was assessed by biopsy uptakes using the same tracers in spleen, kidney, heart, lung, liver, intestine, skin, muscle, and brain. The disappearance curve generally reflects a biphasic pattern of uptake in peripheral tissue, predominantly by muscle and lung. The rapid phase has contributions from the fast near equilibration of liver, and intestine and skin are significant codeterminants of the slow phase. Due to their low body masses highly perfused organs such as kidney, spleen, and heart have little influence on the plasma disappearance. In accordance, the Cl(0) determined for the wholebody was higher than initial clearances found in skin (0.053 ml(min*100 g)-1) and muscle (0.054 ml(min*100 g)-1), but much lower than those found in the highly perfused organs. The initial (unidirectional) rates of peripheral albumin transfer demonstrated, ranged from 10 to 30 times higher than estimates of lymphatic return, suggesting that transcapillary albumin exchange is mediated by high-rate bidirectional diffusion. The rapid decrease of net albumin exchange rates suggests a second, highly significant barrier located within the interstitial matrix, which restricts plasma escape and reduces plasma to lymph albumin transport

  3. 96/5000 Other literature Bureaucratic records and traces of disappearances in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Crenzel

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine a series of bureaucratic records produced during the military dictatorship by workers in two state agencies, a morgue and a public hospital, located in two different provinces of Argentina, Córdoba and Buenos Aires. In these public documents, these workers left evidence, for several and different reasons, on the existence of practices that integrated phases or moments of the system of forced disappearance of persons, a crime which distinguished the last military dict...

  4. The Detained-Disappeared: Civilizational Catastrophe, the Collapse of Identity and Language*

    OpenAIRE

    Gatti, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of catastrophe as a starting point for the construction of appropriate representation strategies for phenomena of extreme social violence, exploring the case of the forced disappearance of individuals in Argentina and Uruguay. The analysis begins with a paradox: this process represents the culmination of policies for the construction and management of the population in post-colonial America, and is simultaneously applicable to the most completely formed produ...

  5. [Acute transformation of chronic myeloid leukemia: disappearance of the Philadelphia chromosome after autograft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiffers, J; David, B; Bernard, P; Vezon, G; Marit, G; Moulinier, J; Broustet, A

    1984-04-12

    Two patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia (C.G.L.) undergoing transformation were treated by high dose chemotherapy and total body irradiation followed by autografting of hematopoietic stem cells collected and cryo-preserved at the time of diagnosis. Recovery of hematopoiesis was characterized by disappearance of the Philadelphia chromosome in most metaphases. A new approach of the management of C.G.L. is discussed.

  6. Spectroscopic observations of AG Dra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Chun, H.

    1982-01-01

    During summer 1981, spectroscopic observations of AG Dra were performed at the Haute-Provence Observatory using the Marly spectrograph with a dispersion of 80 A mm -1 at the 120 cm telescope and using the Coude spectrograph of the 193 cm telescope with a dispersion of 40 A mm -1 . The actual outlook of the spectrum of AG Dra is very different from what it was in 1966 in the sense that only a few intense absorption lines remain, the heavy emission continuum masking the absorption spectrum, while on the 1966 plate, about 140 absorption lines have been measured. Numerous emission lines have been measured, most of them, present in 1981, could also be detected in 1966. They are due to H, HeI and HeII. (Auth.)

  7. Instream flow needs below peaking hydroelectric projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhous, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a method developed to assist in the determination of instream flow needs below hydroelectric projects operated in a peaking mode. Peaking hydroelectric projects significantly change streamflow over a short period of time; consequently, any instream flow methodology must consider the dual flows associated with peaking projects. The dual flows are the lowest flow and the maximum generation flow of a peaking cycle. The methodology is based on elements of the Physical Habitat Simulation System of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and uses habitat, rather than fish numbers or biomas, as at basic response variable. All aquatic animals are subject to the rapid changes in streamflow which cause rapid swings in habitat quality. Some aquatic organisms are relatively fixed in location in the stream while others can move when flows change. The habitat available from a project operated in peaking mode is considered to be the minimum habitat occurring during a cycle of habitat change. The methodology takes in to consideration that some aquatic animals can move and others cannot move during a peaking cycle

  8. Band structure in 104Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, A.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Banerjee, P.; Basu, P.; Bhattacharya, P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, M.L.; Sen, S.; Dasmahapatra, B.

    1995-01-01

    The level structure of 104 Ag has been studied through the 103 Rh(α,3nγ) reaction at E α =40 and 45 MeV. The principal features of the proposed level scheme are in agreement with those obtained earlier through heavy ion reaction. A two-quasiparticle-plus-rotor model calculation has been performed, and the results are compared with experimental data. (orig.)

  9. The distribution of the prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection in communities where trachoma is disappearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Lietman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models predict that the prevalence of infection in different communities where an infectious disease is disappearing should approach a geometric distribution. Trachoma programs offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis, as the World Health Organization (WHO has targeted trachoma to be eliminated as a public health concern by the year 2020. We assess the distribution of the community prevalence of childhood ocular chlamydia infection from periodic, cross-sectional surveys in two areas of Ethiopia. These surveys were taken in a controlled setting, where infection was documented to be disappearing over time. For both sets of surveys, the geometric distribution had the most parsimonious fit of the distributions tested, and goodness-of-fit testing was consistent with the prevalence of each community being drawn from a geometric distribution. When infection is disappearing, the single sufficient parameter describing a geometric distribution captures much of the distributional information found from examining every community. The relatively heavy tail of the geometric suggests that the presence of an occasional high-prevalence community is to be expected, and does not necessarily reflect a transmission hot spot or program failure. A single cross-sectional survey can reveal which direction a program is heading. A geometric distribution of the prevalence of infection across communities may be an encouraging sign, consistent with a disease on its way to eradication.

  10. [Disappearance of Philadelphia chromosomes after remission induction in lymphoid crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagafuji, K; Iwakiri, R; Miyamoto, T; Okamura, H; Yokota, E; Matsumoto, I

    1992-09-01

    The authors report a rare case of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in which the Ph1 clone disappeared after remission induction of lymphoid crisis. A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of fever in July 1988. The white cell count was elevated. Bone marrow aspirate showed hypercellularity with myeloid hyperplasia. In the chromosomal analysis, Ph1 chromosomes were detected in 100% of bone marrow cells analysed. Diagnosis of CML was made and treatment was initiated with recombinant interferon-alpha 2a. Hematological remission without cytogenetic improvement was achieved. In March 1990 he developed lymphoid crisis with proliferation of CD10-positive cells. The chromosomal analysis revealed additional abnormalities including, 45, X, -Y, t(9;22) (q34;q11), +1, -8. With vincristine 0.6 mgX4, pirarubicin 15 mgX4, dexamethasone 40 mgX4 therapy complete remission was obtained. In December 1990 the Ph1 positive clone completely disappeared judging from normal karyotypes in the chromosomal analysis and the disappearance of M-bcr gene rearrangement.

  11. Commissioning of the new AGS MMPS transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajon, E.; Badea, V. S.; Bannon, M.; Bonati, R.; Marneris, I. M.; Porqueddu, R.; Roser, T.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps. +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. During rectify and invert operation the P Bank power supplies are used. During the flattops the F Bank power supplies are used. The P Bank power supplies are fed from two 23 MVA transformers and the F Bank power supplies are fed from two 5.3 MYA transformers. The fundamental frequency of the F Bank power supplies is 1440 Hz, however the fundamental frequency of the P banks was 720 Hz. It was very important to reduce the ripple during rectify to improve polarized proton operations. For this reason and also because the original transformers were 45 years old we replaced these transformers with new ones and we made the fundamental frequency of both P and F banks 1440 Hz. This paper will highlight the major hurdles that were involved during the installation of the new transformers. It will present waveforms while running at different power levels up to 6MW full load. It will show the transition from the F-Bank power supplies to the P-Banks and also show the improvements in ripple made on the P-Bank power supplies

  12. Commissioning of the new AGS MMPS transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajon,E.; Badea, V. S.; Bannon, M.; Bonati, R.; Marneris, I. M.; Porqueddu, r.; Roser, T.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2009-05-04

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps. +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. During rectify and invert operation the P Bank power supplies are used. During the flattops the F Bank power supplies are used. The P Bank power supplies are fed from two 23 MVA transformers and the F Bank power supplies are fed from two 5.3 MYA transformers. The fundamental frequency of the F Bank power supplies is 1440 Hz, however the fundamental frequency of the P banks was 720 Hz. It was very important to reduce the ripple during rectify to improve polarized proton operations. For this reason and also because the original transformers were 45 years old we replaced these transformers with new ones and we made the fundamental frequency of both P and F banks 1440 Hz. This paper will highlight the major hurdles that were involved during the installation of the new transformers. It will present waveforms while running at different power levels up to 6MW full load. It will show the transition from the F-Bank power supplies to the P-Banks and also show the improvements in ripple made on the P-Bank power supplies.

  13. Object Permanence After a 24-Hr Delay and Leaving the Locale of Disappearance: The Role of Memory, Space, and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M. Keith; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen-month-old infants saw an object hidden inside a container and were removed from the disappearance locale for 24 hr. Upon their return, they searched correctly for the hidden object, demonstrating object permanence and long-term memory. Control infants who saw no disappearance did not search. In Experiment 2, infants returned to see the…

  14. Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Activity of AgBr and Ag Nanoparticles (NPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Petr; Kvitek, Libor; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Hrbac, Jan; Vecerova, Renata; Zboril, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC) influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60–70 nm) were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120–130 nm). The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends – the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains. PMID:25781988

  15. Fabrication of Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film and its tunable energetics and tailorable optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijin Hong; Jialin Ji; Chunxian Tao; Daohua Zhang; Dawei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film was fabricated. The effects of graphene oxide (GO) and bimetal on the structure and optical properties of metal silver films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, and Raman intensity measurements, respectively. Compared to silver thin film, Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure composite thin films were observed with wider optical absorption peak and enhanced absorption intensity. The Raman signal for Rhodamine B ...

  16. In situ solid-state fabrication of hybrid AgCl/AgI/AgIO3 with improved UV-to-visible photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Cao, Yali; Jia, Dianzeng; Li, Yizhao; Wang, Kun; Xu, Hui

    2017-09-28

    The AgCl/AgI/AgIO 3 composites were synthesized through a one-pot room-temperature in situ solid-state approach with the feature of convenient and eco-friendly. The as-prepared composites exhibit superior photocatalytic performance than pure AgIO 3 for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under both UV and visible light irradiation. The photodegradation rate toward MO of the AgCl/AgI/AgIO 3 photocatalyst can reach 100% after 12 min irradiation under UV light, or 85.4% after 50 min irradiation under visible light, being significantly higher than AgCl, AgI, AgIO 3 and AgI/AgIO 3 . In addition, the AgCl/AgI/AgIO 3 photocatalyst possesses strong photooxidation ability for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue (MB), phenol, bisphenol A (BPA) and tetracycline hydrochloride under visible light irradiation. The reactive species capture experiments confirmed that the h + and •O 2- play an essential role during the photocatalytic process under UV light or visible light irradiation. The enhanced effect may be beneficial from the enhanced light adsorption in full spectrum and increased separation efficiency of photogenerated hole-electron pairs, which can be ascribed to the synergistic effect among AgCl, AgI and AgIO 3 nanoplates in AgCl/AgI/AgIO 3 composites.

  17. Limitation of peak fitting and peak shape methods for determination of activation energy of thermoluminescence glow peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Sunta, C M; Piters, T M; Watanabe, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the limitation of general order peak fitting and peak shape methods for determining the activation energy of the thermoluminescence glow peaks in the cases in which retrapping probability is much higher than the recombination probability and the traps are filled up to near saturation level. Right values can be obtained when the trap occupancy is reduced by using small doses or by post-irradiation partial bleaching. This limitation in the application of these methods has not been indicated earlier. In view of the unknown nature of kinetics in the experimental samples, it is recommended that these methods of activation energy determination should be applied only at doses well below the saturation dose.

  18. In situ Raman scattering study on a controllable plasmon-driven surface catalysis reaction on Ag nanoparticle arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Z G; Xiao, X H; Zhang, Y P; Ren, F; Wu, W; Zhang, S F; Zhou, J; Jiang, C Z; Mei, F

    2012-01-01

    Control of the plasmon-driven chemical reaction for the transformation of 4-nitrobenzenethiol to p,p′-dimercaptoazobenzene by Ag nanoparticle arrays was studied. The Ag nanoparticle arrays were fabricated by means of nanosphere lithography. By changing the PS particle size, the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks of the Ag nanoparticle arrays can be tailored from 460 to 560 nm. The controlled reaction process was monitored by in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The reaction can be dramatically influenced by varying the duration of laser exposure, Ag nanoparticle size, laser power and laser excitation wavelength. The maximum reaction speed was achieved when the LSPR wavelength of the Ag nanoparticle arrays matched the laser excitation wavelength. The experimental results reveal that the strong LSPR can effectively drive the transfer of the ‘hot’ electrons that decay from the plasmon to the reactants. The experimental results were confirmed by theoretical calculations. (paper)

  19. Photocatalytic performance of graphene/TiO_2-Ag composites on amaranth dye degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roşu, Marcela-Corina; Socaci, Crina; Floare-Avram, Veronica; Borodi, Gheorghe; Pogăcean, Florina; Coroş, Maria; Măgeruşan, Lidia; Pruneanu, Stela

    2016-01-01

    Ternary nanocomposites containing TiO_2, silver and graphene with different reduction levels were prepared and used as photocatalysts for amaranth azo dye degradation, under UV and natural light exposure. The obtained materials were characterized by TEM, XRD, FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy, confirming the successful formation of the nanocomposites. HPLC analysis along with UV-Vis spectroscopy were employed to quantify the concentration of non-degraded dye in solution. The graphene/TiO_2-Ag nanocomposites proved to have remarkable photocatalytic activities for amaranth degradation under UV and solar irradiation (85.3–98% of dye has disappeared in the first 2 h). Also, significant removal efficiencies (between 40.5 and 71.8%) of photocatalysts, in day light conditions, were demonstrated. The best result for amaranth dye degradation was obtained with the reduced graphene/TiO_2-Ag catalyst (up to 99.9%). Based on the degradation products analysis, a photodegradation pathway of amaranth dye was also proposed. - Highlights: • Graphene/TiO_2-Ag composites were prepared by a combined chemical-thermal method. • The composites showed improved light-absorption characteristics. • A significant degradation performance of amaranth was obtained with these composites under UV and natural light exposure. • Graphene/TiO_2-Ag composites offer a high potential for various photocatalytic applications in pollutant removal processes.

  20. Photocatalytic performance of graphene/TiO{sub 2}-Ag composites on amaranth dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roşu, Marcela-Corina, E-mail: marcela.rosu@itim-cj.ro; Socaci, Crina; Floare-Avram, Veronica; Borodi, Gheorghe; Pogăcean, Florina; Coroş, Maria; Măgeruşan, Lidia; Pruneanu, Stela

    2016-08-15

    Ternary nanocomposites containing TiO{sub 2}, silver and graphene with different reduction levels were prepared and used as photocatalysts for amaranth azo dye degradation, under UV and natural light exposure. The obtained materials were characterized by TEM, XRD, FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy, confirming the successful formation of the nanocomposites. HPLC analysis along with UV-Vis spectroscopy were employed to quantify the concentration of non-degraded dye in solution. The graphene/TiO{sub 2}-Ag nanocomposites proved to have remarkable photocatalytic activities for amaranth degradation under UV and solar irradiation (85.3–98% of dye has disappeared in the first 2 h). Also, significant removal efficiencies (between 40.5 and 71.8%) of photocatalysts, in day light conditions, were demonstrated. The best result for amaranth dye degradation was obtained with the reduced graphene/TiO{sub 2}-Ag catalyst (up to 99.9%). Based on the degradation products analysis, a photodegradation pathway of amaranth dye was also proposed. - Highlights: • Graphene/TiO{sub 2}-Ag composites were prepared by a combined chemical-thermal method. • The composites showed improved light-absorption characteristics. • A significant degradation performance of amaranth was obtained with these composites under UV and natural light exposure. • Graphene/TiO{sub 2}-Ag composites offer a high potential for various photocatalytic applications in pollutant removal processes.

  1. Thermochemical properties of silver tellurides including empressite (AgTe) and phase diagrams for Ag-Te and Ag-Te-O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Mikhail V.; Osadchii, Evgeniy G.; Brichkina, Ekaterina A.

    2017-10-01

    This study compiles original experimental and literature data on the thermodynamic properties (ΔfG°, S°, ΔfH°) of silver tellurides (α-Ag2Te, β-Ag2Te, Ag1.9Te, Ag5Te3, AgTe) obtained by the method of solid-state galvanic cell with the RbAg4I5 and AgI solid electrolytes. The thermodynamic data for empressite (AgTe, pure fraction from Empress Josephine Mine, Colorado USA) have been obtained for the first time by the electrochemical experiment with the virtual reaction Ag + Te = AgTe. The Ag-Te phase diagrams in the T - x and log fTe2 (gas) - 1/ T coordinates have been refined, and the ternary Ag-Te-O diagrams with Ag-Te-TeO2 (paratellurite) composition range have been calculated.

  2. Statistics of peaks of Gaussian random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.; Bond, J.R.; Kaiser, N.; Szalay, A.S.; Stanford Univ., CA; California Univ., Berkeley; Cambridge Univ., England; Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A set of new mathematical results on the theory of Gaussian random fields is presented, and the application of such calculations in cosmology to treat questions of structure formation from small-amplitude initial density fluctuations is addressed. The point process equation is discussed, giving the general formula for the average number density of peaks. The problem of the proper conditional probability constraints appropriate to maxima are examined using a one-dimensional illustration. The average density of maxima of a general three-dimensional Gaussian field is calculated as a function of heights of the maxima, and the average density of upcrossing points on density contour surfaces is computed. The number density of peaks subject to the constraint that the large-scale density field be fixed is determined and used to discuss the segregation of high peaks from the underlying mass distribution. The machinery to calculate n-point peak-peak correlation functions is determined, as are the shapes of the profiles about maxima. 67 references

  3. Peak Oil, threat or energy worlds' phantasm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Peak Oil is based on the work of King Hubbert, a petroleum geologist who worked for Shell in the USA in the 1960's. Based on the fact that discoveries in America reached a maximum in the 1930's, he announced that American production would reach a maximum in 1969, which did actually occur. Geologists members of the Association for the Study of Peak Oil have extrapolated this result to a worldwide scale and, since oil discoveries reached a peak in the 1960's, argued that production will peak in the very near future. It is clear that hydrocarbon reserves are finite and therefore exhaustible. But little is known regarding the level of ultimate (i.e. total existing) reserves. There are probably very large reserves of non conventional oil in addition to the reserves of conventional oil. An increasing number of specialists put maximum production at less than 100 Mb/d more for geopolitical than physical reasons. Attainable peak production will probably vary from year to year and will depend on how crude oil prices develop

  4. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsayegh, O.A.; Al-Matar, O.A.; Fairouz, F.A.; Al-Mulla Ali, A.

    2005-01-01

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsayegh, O.A.; Al-Matar, O.A.; Fairouz, F.A.; Al-Mulla Ali, A. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Kuwait City (Kuwait). Div. of Environment and Urban Development

    2005-07-01

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Fabrication of Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film and its tunable energetics and tailorable optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijin Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film was fabricated. The effects of graphene oxide (GO and bimetal on the structure and optical properties of metal silver films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical absorption, and Raman intensity measurements, respectively. Compared to silver thin film, Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure composite thin films were observed with wider optical absorption peak and enhanced absorption intensity. The Raman signal for Rhodamine B molecules based on the Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich nanostructure substrate were obviously enhanced due to the bimetal layer and GO layer with tunable absorption intensity and fluorescence quenching effects.

  7. Thermodynamic assessments of the Ag-Gd and Ag-Nd systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.; Wang, C.P.; Liu, X.J.; Ishida, K.

    2009-01-01

    The phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties in the Ag-Re (Re: Gd, Nd) binary systems have been assessed by using the CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) method on the basis of the experimental data including the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. The Gibbs free energies of the liquid, bcc, fcc, dhcp and hcp phases were described by the subregular solution model with the Redlich-Kister equation, and those of the intermetallic compounds (Ag 51 Gd 14 , Ag 2 Gd, AgGd, Ag 51 Nd 14 , αAg 2 Nd, βAg 2 Nd and AgNd phases) in these two binary systems were described by the sublattice model. The thermodynamic parameters of each phase in the Ag-Re (Re: Gd, Nd) binary systems were obtained, and an agreement between the calculated results and experimental data was obtained in each binary system.

  8. Sensitive electrochemical sensor of tryptophan based on Ag-C core–shell nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Shuxian; Li Weifeng; Long Yumei; Tu Yifeng; Deng, Anping

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ag-C and Colloidal carbon sphere modified glassy carbon electrodes were prepared. It was clear that the Ag-C/GCE exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards Trp, which could result from the synergistic effect between Ag core and carbon shell. The Ag-C/GCE showed excellent analytical properties in the determination of Trp. Highlights: ► The electrochemical behavior of Ag-C core–shell nanocomposite was firstly proposed. ► Ag-C/GC electrode exhibited favorable electrocatalytic properties towards Trp. ► The good electrocatalysis was due to the synergistic effect of Ag-core and C-shell. ► The Ag-C/GC electrode displayed excellent analytical properties in determining Trp. - Abstract: We here reported a simple electrochemical method for the detection of tryptophan (Trp) based on the Ag-C modified glassy carbon (Ag-C/GC) electrode. The Ag-C core–shell structured nanoparticles were synthesized using one-pot hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The electrochemical behaviors of Trp on Ag-C/GC electrode were investigated and exhibited a direct electrochemical process. The favorable electrochemical properties of Ag-C/GC electrode were attributed to the synergistic effect of the Ag core and carbon shell. The carbon shell cannot only protect Ag core but also contribute to the enhanced substrate accessibility and Trp-substrate interactions, while nano-Ag core can display good electrocatalytic activity to Trp at the same time. Under the optimum experimental conditions the oxidation peak current was linearly dependent on the Trp concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10 −7 to 1.0 × 10 −4 M with a detection limit of 4.0 × 10 −8 M (S/N = 3). In addition, the proposed electrode was applied for the determination of Trp concentration in real samples and satisfactory results were obtained. The technique offers

  9. Sensitive electrochemical sensor of tryptophan based on Ag-C core-shell nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Shuxian [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Li Weifeng, E-mail: liweifeng@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Long Yumei, E-mail: yumeilong@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Tu Yifeng; Deng, Anping [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2012-08-13

    Graphical abstract: Ag-C and Colloidal carbon sphere modified glassy carbon electrodes were prepared. It was clear that the Ag-C/GCE exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards Trp, which could result from the synergistic effect between Ag core and carbon shell. The Ag-C/GCE showed excellent analytical properties in the determination of Trp. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrochemical behavior of Ag-C core-shell nanocomposite was firstly proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-C/GC electrode exhibited favorable electrocatalytic properties towards Trp. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The good electrocatalysis was due to the synergistic effect of Ag-core and C-shell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ag-C/GC electrode displayed excellent analytical properties in determining Trp. - Abstract: We here reported a simple electrochemical method for the detection of tryptophan (Trp) based on the Ag-C modified glassy carbon (Ag-C/GC) electrode. The Ag-C core-shell structured nanoparticles were synthesized using one-pot hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The electrochemical behaviors of Trp on Ag-C/GC electrode were investigated and exhibited a direct electrochemical process. The favorable electrochemical properties of Ag-C/GC electrode were attributed to the synergistic effect of the Ag core and carbon shell. The carbon shell cannot only protect Ag core but also contribute to the enhanced substrate accessibility and Trp-substrate interactions, while nano-Ag core can display good electrocatalytic activity to Trp at the same time. Under the optimum experimental conditions the oxidation peak current was linearly dependent on the Trp concentration in the range of 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} to 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M with a detection limit of 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} M (S/N = 3). In addition

  10. Work function tuning and fluorescence enhancement of hydrogen annealed Ag-doped Al-rich zinc oxide nanostructures using a sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Firoz; Baek, Seong-Ho [Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology (DGIST), 50-1 Sang-Ri, Hyeonpung-Myeon, Dalseong-Gun, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young [School of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Handong Global University, 558 Handong-Ro, Heunghae-Eub, Buk-Ku, Pohang, Gyung-Buk 791-708 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Hyun, E-mail: jaehyun@dgist.ac.kr [Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology (DGIST), 50-1 Sang-Ri, Hyeonpung-Myeon, Dalseong-Gun, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-25

    Effect of incorporation of Ag on the structural, optical, electrical, and fluorescence properties of sol–gel derived Al-rich zinc oxide (ZnO:Al:Ag) nanostructured films was studied. The E{sub g} of the film slightly decreased to a minimal value with Ag doping, and was found to be about 3.65 eV for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1% from its initial value of 3.72 eV (R{sub Ag/Zn} = 0%). The WF sudden increased to a maximal value of 5.12 eV with Ag doping (for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1%) from its initial value of 4.73 eV for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 0% due to substitution of Ag into Zn sites until saturation was achieved (R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1%). After more Ag doping, WF started to decrease and finally, reached a value of 4.81 eV for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 3% because of the formation of an impurity-defect energy level below the intrinsic Fermi level of ZnO. With Ag-doping, the current increased up to R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1% due to the increase in carrier density. For R{sub Ag/Zn} = 3% doping, the current density started to increase due to the influence of metallic Ag. The defective peak position was blue shifted, with increased Ag-doping, from 536 nm (R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1%) to 527 nm for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 2% due to the sizes of the Ag{sup +} and Zn{sup 2+} ions. The FL defective peak intensity (I{sub D}) in the green region increased with the concentration of Ag used for doping, up to R{sub Ag/Zn} = 2%. The enhancement in the I{sub D} may be due to charge difference between the Zn{sup 2+} ions, caused by Ag{sup +} ions. - Graphical abstract: The effect of incorporation of Ag doping on the structural, optical, electrical, and fluorescence properties of sol–gel derived Al-rich zinc oxide (ZnO:Al:Ag) nanostructured films was studied. By Ag-doping, the lowest R{sub λ} is blue shifted to R{sub Ag/Zn} = 2% and finally red shifted for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 3% due to variation of optical thickness of the film. The E{sub g} of the film slightly decreased to a minimal value with Ag doping, and was found to be about 3.65 eV for R{sub Ag

  11. Plasmonic Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag composite: Excellent photocatalytic performance and possible photocatalytic mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhongliao [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Zhang, Jinfeng, E-mail: zjf_y2004@126.com [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Lv, Jiali [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Dai, Kai, E-mail: daikai940@chnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Liang, Changhao [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Anhui Key Laboratory of Energetic Materials, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Physics and Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Novel Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag photocatalyst was prepared. • Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag showed high photocatalytic activity. • Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag showed long reusable life. - Abstract: Plasmonic Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag composite is fabricated by in-situ ion exchange and reduction methods at room temperature. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance (DRS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The results show that butterfly-like Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} nanosheets served as the precursor, and Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag is formed in phase transformation with MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} displaced by Br{sup −}. The ternary Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag composite photocatalysts show greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity in photodegrading methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation compared with AgBr and Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}. The pseudo-first-order rate constant k{sub app} of Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}/AgBr/Ag is 0.602 min{sup −1}, which is 11.6 and 18.3 times as high as that of AgBr and Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}, respectively. Meanwhile, the efficiency of degradation still kept 90% after ten times cyclic experiments. Eventually, possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed.

  12. Survey of elemental specificity in positron annihilation peak shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myler, U.; Simpson, P. J.

    1997-12-01

    Recently the detailed interpretation of positron-annihilation γ-ray peak shapes has proven to be of interest with respect to their chemical specificity. In this contribution, we show highly resolved spectra for a number of different elements. To this purpose, annihilation spectra with strongly reduced background intensities were recorded in the two detector geometry, using a variable-energy positron beam. Division of the subsequently normalized spectra by a standard spectrum (in our case the spectrum of pure silicon) yields quotient spectra, which display features characteristic of the sample material. First we ascertain that the specific spectrum of an element is conserved in different chemical compounds, demonstrated here by identical oxygen spectra obtained from both SiO2/Si and MgO/Mg. Second, we show highly resolved spectra for a number of different elements (Fe...Zn, Ag, Ir...Au). We show that the characteristic features in these spectra vary in a systematic fashion with the atomic number of the element and can be tentatively identified with particular orbitals. Finally, for 26 different elements we compare the maximum intensity in the quotient spectra with the relative atomic density in the corresponding element. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive survey of such data made to date.

  13. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  14. Analysis of fuel end-temperature peaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Jiang, Q.; Lai, L.; Shams, M. [CANDU Energy Inc., Fuel Engineering Dept., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    During normal operation and refuelling of CANDU® fuel, fuel temperatures near bundle ends will increase due to a phenomenon called end flux peaking. Similar phenomenon would also be expected to occur during a postulated large break LOCA event. The end flux peaking in a CANDU fuel element is due to the fact that neutron flux is higher near a bundle end, in contact with a neighbouring bundle or close to heavy water coolant, than in the bundle mid-plane, because of less absorption of thermal neutrons by Zircaloy or heavy water than by the UO{sub 2} material. This paper describes Candu Energy experience in analysing behaviour of bundle due to end flux peaking using fuel codes FEAT, ELESTRES and ELOCA. (author)

  15. Ag diffusion in cubic silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader, David; Khalil, Sarah M.; Gerczak, Tyler; Allen, Todd R.; Heim, Andrew J.; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion of Ag impurities in bulk 3C-SiC is studied using ab initio methods based on density functional theory. This work is motivated by the desire to reduce transport of radioactive Ag isotopes through the SiC boundary layer in the Tristructural-Isotropic (TRISO) fuel pellet, which is a significant concern for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) nuclear reactor concept. The structure and stability of charged Ag and Ag-vacancy clusters in SiC are calculated. Relevant intrinsic SiC defect energies are also determined. The most stable state for the Ag impurity in SiC is found to be a Ag atom substituting on the Si sub-lattice and bound to a C vacancy. Bulk diffusion coefficients are estimated for different impurity states and values are all found to have very high activation energy. The impurity state with the lowest activation energy for diffusion is found to be the Ag interstitial, with an activation energy of approximately 7.9 eV. The high activation energies for Ag diffusion in bulk 3C-SiC cause Ag transport to be very slow in the bulk and suggests that observed Ag transport in this material is due to an alternative mechanism (e.g., grain boundary diffusion).

  16. Surface characterization of Ag/Titania adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samokhvalov, Alexander; Nair, Sachin; Duin, Evert C.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    The Ag/Titania adsorbent for selective removal of the desulfurization-refractive polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) from liquid hydrocarbon fuels was prepared, its total and the Ag specific surface area were determined and the surface reaction sites in the sorbent that may be active in the adsorptive selective desulfurization were characterized by several spectroscopic and surface science techniques. The sorbent contains Ag, Ti, O and spurious C on its surface, as by the XPS measurements. Silver is present as an oxide, as judged by the XPS Auger parameter (AP). The complementary electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy confirms that the majority of Ag is present in the diamagnetic Ag 1+ form, with the minor concentration (∼0.1% of total Ag) present as Ag 2+ . The findings by XPS and ESR are confirmed by the XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy and thermodynamic considerations. The supported Ag is highly dispersed on the surface of the titania support, with the particle size of ∼30-60 A depending on Ag content, with an Ag specific surface area of ∼7-14 m 2 /g, vs. the total surface area of ∼114-58 m 2 /g.

  17. SIMULATIONS OF THE AGS MMPS STORING ENERGY IN CAPACITOR BANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARNERIS,I.; BADEA, V.S.; BONATI, R.; ROSER, T.; SANDBERG, J.

    2007-06-25

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps, +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. The generator is 3 phase 7500 Volts rated at 50 MVA. The peak power requirements come from the stored energy in the rotor of the motor/generator. The motor generator is about 45 years old, made by Siemens and it is not clear if companies will be manufacturing similar machines in the future. We are therefore investigating different ways of storing energy for future AGS MMPS operations. This paper will present simulations of a power supply where energy is stored in capacitor banks. Two dc to dc converters will be presented along with the control system of the power section. The switching elements will be IGCT's made by ABB. The simulation program used is called PSIM version 6.1. The average power from the local power authority into the power supply will be kept constant during the pulsing of the magnets at +/-50 MW. The reactive power will also be kept constant below 1.5 MVAR. Waveforms will be presented.

  18. SIMULATIONS OF THE AGS MMPS STORING ENERGY IN CAPACITOR BANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARNERIS, I.; BADEA, V.S.; BONATI, R.; ROSER, T.; SANDBERG, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps, +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. The generator is 3 phase 7500 Volts rated at 50 MVA. The peak power requirements come from the stored energy in the rotor of the motor/generator. The motor generator is about 45 years old, made by Siemens and it is not clear if companies will be manufacturing similar machines in the future. We are therefore investigating different ways of storing energy for future AGS MMPS operations. This paper will present simulations of a power supply where energy is stored in capacitor banks. Two dc to dc converters will be presented along with the control system of the power section. The switching elements will be IGCT's made by ABB. The simulation program used is called PSIM version 6.1. The average power from the local power authority into the power supply will be kept constant during the pulsing of the magnets at +/-50 MW. The reactive power will also be kept constant below 1.5 MVAR. Waveforms will be presented

  19. Study of Ag+/PAA (polyacrylic acid) and Ag0/PAA aqueous system at equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keghouche, N.; Mostafavi, M.; Delcourt, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    When submitted to gamma radiation the system Ag + -PAA-water leads to clusters Ag 0 n /PAA (3 420 nm) interacting with the clusters. Potentiometric measurements carried out on Ag + solutions in the presence of PAA at various pH show that the deprotonated form (polyacrylate anion) is strongly bonded to Ag + , on the opposite of the protonated form of PAA. One of the oligomer clusters can be stabilized for more than one year. Studying it by infra-red spectrometry reveals important modifications in the vibration bands of the COO - group circa 1400 and 1600 cm -1 according to the bonding of PAA with Ag + or Ag 0 [fr

  20. Polarization preservation in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    The successful operation of a high energy polarized beam at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) with the concommitant development of depolarizing resonance correction techniques has led to the present project of commissioning such a beam at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). A description of the project was presented at the 1981 National Accelerator Conference. I would like to now present a more detailed description of how we plan to preserve the polarization during acceleration, and to present our game plan for tuning through some 50 resonances and reaching our goal of a 26 GeV polarized proton beam with greater than 60% polarization

  1. The disappearing Mammy Water myth and the crisis of values in Oguta, South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence N. Okwuosa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Igbo value system is in crisis with an increase in crime rate, kidnapping, stealing, sexual immorality and divorce. Though several reasons have been given for this malaise, the influence of myths on value system has not been explored. To do this, we chose Oguta town in South-Eastern Nigeria, known for its belief and worship of Mammy Water. The intent is to verify if the disappearing myth has any adverse socio-cultural implications on the town. As the disappearing myth deals principally with the people’s life, the research methodology used historical as well as the descriptive phenomenological methods. These methods explain the phenomenon as it appeared in Oguta objectively from the historical point of view. One-on-one interviews and focus group discussion with the natives were carried out, thus making oral literature an important element of this research. It comprises three groups: the first group has the age bracket of 70 years and above; the second group has 40–69 years as age bracket and the last group has 20–39 years as age bracket. Efforts were made to distinguish meaningful facts from fictitious or emotional ideas expressed by the participants. Information was also gathered from published works. The research was able to identify the myth’s disappearance as a major contributing factor to the town’s crisis of values.

  2. No association between gender inequality and peak HIV prevalence in developing countries - an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Buyze, Jozefien

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of both gender inequality and HIV prevalence vary considerably both within all developing countries and within those in sub-Saharan Africa. We test the hypothesis that the extent of gender inequality is associated with national peak HIV prevalence. Linear regression was used to test the association between national peak HIV prevalence and three markers of gender equality - the gender-related development index (GDI), the gender empowerment measure (GEM), and the gender inequality index (GII). No evidence was found of a positive relationship between gender inequality and HIV prevalence, either in the analyses of all developing countries or those limited to Africa. In the bivariate analyses limited to Africa, there was a positive association between the two measures of gender "equality" and peak HIV prevalence (GDI: coefficient 28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.1-46.8; GEM: coefficient 54.8, 95% CI 20.5-89.1). There was also a negative association between the marker of gender "inequality" and peak HIV prevalence (GII: coefficient -66.9, 95% CI -112.8 to -21.0). These associations all disappeared on multivariate analyses. We could not find any evidence to support the hypothesis that variations in the extent of gender inequality explain variations in HIV prevalence in developing countries.

  3. Life on Mars: How it disappeared (if it was ever there)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E. Imre; Koriem, Ali M.

    The cryptoendolithic microbial community in the Ross Desert (McMurdo Dry Valleys) of Antarctica exists at temperatures significantly below the temperature optima of the primary producers. Surviving near the limit of their physiological adaptability, the organisms are under severe environmental stress, so further deterioration in the environment results in cell damage and death. The sequence of events leading to extinction is considered to be a terrestrial analog for disappearance of possible life on early Mars. Progressive stages of cell damage and death in the Ross Desert material are documented with transmission electron microscopy. Present address: Division of Rice Diseases, Plant Pathology Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

  4. Disappearance and Compressibility of Buried Pine Wood in a Warm Temperate Soil Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholz, H L; Krazynski, L M; Volk, B G

    1991-02-01

    The rate of disappearance of buried pine wood in Florida was found to be 15%/yr.As consumption by microorganisms and termites proceeded, the wood also became more compressible. After only 5 yr, consumption and compression could account for 60-70% loss of original volume of wood under pavement near the surface of an embankment. This large volume loss occurring in a relatively short time period may be responsible for many surface deformations in pavements and weaknesses in other embankments where wood may occur as a contaminant. © 1991 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Appearance and Disappearance of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) in Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payandeh, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Edris; Khodarahmi, Reza; Sadeghi, Masoud

    2014-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are the most common leukemias of the elderly (>43 year). However, the sequential occurrence of CML followed by CLL in the same patient is extremely rare. In our report, a 52-year-old female was diagnosed with CLL (type of bone marrow (BM) infiltration was nodular and interstitial) and was treated with chlorambucil. 64 months after the diagnosis of CLL, she developed CML. She was treated with imatinib (400mg/day). After a few months, signs of CML were disappeared and CLL became dominant. This is first reported case.

  6. Clinical and neuropsychological changes after the disappearance of seizures in a case of transient epileptic amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Sekimoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We encountered a female patient with late-onset temporal lobe epilepsy who presented with transient amnesia as the sole ictal manifestation, an accelerated rate of forgetting daily life events, and a retrograde memory deficit. We describe the memory function of the patient both before and after the administration of antiseizure medication. After the patient's seizures were controlled with antiseizure drugs, her neuropsychological memory performance scores showed improvement. We presumed that the disappearance of seizures was associated with a decrease in the accelerated rate of forgetting medication. However, her lost memories were not recovered after the seizures were controlled by antiseizure medication.

  7. RELAP5 analysis of subcooled boiling appearance and disappearance in downward flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristevski, R.; Parzer, I.; Spasojevic, D.

    1999-01-01

    The presented paper will mainly consider heat and mass transfer phenomenology in the subcooled boiling regime of downward liquid flow at low velocities. More specifically, it will focus on the effects of appearance and disappearance of two-phase flow at low liquid velocities, in the area where gravity force has significant influence. Two among a series of tests performed on a high-pressure circulation loop, installed in Vinca, will be analyzed. The experimental findings and theoretical consideration of these processes and phenomena will be compared with RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 predictions.(author)

  8. Disappearance of diffuse calcinosis following autologous stem cell transplantation in a child with autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhasid, R; Rowe, J M; Berkowitz, D; Ben-Arush, M; Bar-Shalom, R; Brik, R

    2004-06-01

    A 12-year-old girl presented with arthritis, myalgia, anemia and positive ANA. Subsequently, she developed recurrent episodes of pulmonary hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia, CNS abnormalities, skin ulcers and diffuse calcinosis. This was followed by secondary antiphospholipid syndrome. Despite vigorous immunosuppression, the patient became bedridden. A peripheral blood stem cell autograft was offered when she developed pulmonary hypertension and digital ischemia at the age of 16 years. The post-transplantation course was uneventful. Liquefaction of calcinosis nodules with improvement of mobility occurred gradually. She is now 24 months post-transplant with no sign of disease activity and total disappearance of calcinosis nodules.

  9. New Technologies of the Observer: #BringBack, Visualisation and Disappearance

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Sophie E.; Lury, Celia

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores two examples of non-visibility as a way of describing the specificity of contemporary surfaces of visualization. The two cases are the disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, the scheduled passenger flight from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, which lost contact with air traffic control on 8 March 2014 at 01:20 MYT, and the 276 Nigerian girls who went ‘missing’ at about the same time. The analysis is developed through an exploration of these examples in terms of the pattern...

  10. Initialization effects via the nuclear radius on transverse in-plane flow and its disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Rajni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence of collective transverse flow and its disappearance on initialization effects via the nuclear radius within the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD model. We calculate the balance energy using different parametrizations of the radius available in the literature for the reaction of 12C+12C to explain its measured balance energy. A mass-dependent analysis of the balance energy through out the periodic table is also carried out by changing the default liquid drop IQMD radius.

  11. Victims’ language: (noisy silences and (grave parodies to talk (unknowingly about individuals’ forced disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gatti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of research carried out between 2005 and 2008 about social universes constructed in Argentina and Uruguay around the figure of the disappeared detainee, this piece aims to systematize several answer to one the more complex problems this repression figure bears: that of representation of facts and their consequences. This work focuses no on all possible answers, but on several of the more innovative and creative: those betting on talking about the impossibility to talk (the noisy silences, and those betting on forcing language up to its limit (grave parodies.

  12. The Dynamics of the Creation, Evolution, and Disappearance of Terrorist Internet Forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ricardo Torres-Soriano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An examination of the organizational nature of the threat posed by jihadi terrorism, supplying quantitative and qualitative data on the dynamics behind the creation, evolution, and disappearance of the main jihadi Internet forums during the period 2008–2012. An analysis of the origins and functions of the forums, their links with terrorist organizations, their internal structures, and the processes accounting for their stability in cyberspace shows that far from representinga horizontal structure where the main actors are a network of followers, the terrorist presence on the Internet is in fact a hierarchical organization in which intervention by formal terrorist organizations plays a crucial role.

  13. The Disappearance of a Hepatic Mass in Anti-Synthetase Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Mesa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Synthetase Syndrome (ASyS is a rare chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by myositis, interstitial lung disease (ILD, polyarthralgia, “mechanic’s hands” and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Liver lesions are quite rare in ASyS. In our ASyS case, we will discuss a 58-year-old man presenting with muscle weakness, arthralgia, and interstitial lung disease (ILD. He was positive for anti-Jo-1 antibodies, substantiating the diagnosis, and was started on treatment. This was followed by the appearance of a liver mass that disappeared when the patient achieved remission.

  14. The disappearing momentum of the supercurrent in the superconductor-to-normal phase transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    A superconductor in a magnetic field has surface currents that prevent the magnetic field from penetrating its interior. These currents carry kinetic energy and mechanical momentum. When the temperature is raised and the system becomes normal the currents disappear. Where do the kinetic energy and mechanical momentum of the currents go, and how? Here we propose that the answer to this question reveals a key necessary condition for materials to be superconductors, that is not part of conventional BCS-London theory: superconducting materials need to have hole carriers.

  15. Initialization effects via the nuclear radius on transverse in-plane flow and its disappearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Rajni; Gautam, Sakshi

    2014-01-01

    We study the dependence of collective transverse flow and its disappearance on initialization effects via the nuclear radius within the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model. We calculate the balance energy using different parametrizations of the radius available in the literature for the reaction of 12 C + 12 C to explain its measured balance energy. A mass-dependent analysis of the balance energy through out the periodic table is also carried out by changing the default liquid drop IQMD radius. (author)

  16. Ag nanoprisms with Ag₂S attachment.

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Shenglin; Xi, Baojuan; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Yifei; Jiang, Jianwen; Hu, Jiangyong; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2013-01-01

    Triangular Ag nanoprisms are a type of most-studied noble-metal nanostructures over the past decade owing to their special structural architecture and outstanding optical and catalytic properties for a wide range of applications. Nevertheless, in contrast to active research for the synthesis of phase-pure Ag nanoprisms, no asymmetric heterodimers containing Ag prisms have been developed so far, probably due to lack of suitable synthetic methods. Herein, we devise a simple ion-exchange method to synthesize Ag2S/Ag heterodimers at room temperature, through which Ag nanoprisms with controllable size and thickness can be fabricated. Formation chemistry and optical properties of the heterodimers have been investigated. These semiconductor/metal heterodimers have exhibited remarkable bactericidal activity to E. coli cells under visible light illumination.

  17. Flower-like Ag/AgCl microcrystals: Synthesis and photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daupor, Hasan; Wongnawa, Sumpun

    2015-01-01

    Silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) composites with a novel flower-like morphology were prepared via a hot precipitation assisted by the vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) route. An aqueous solution of AlCl 3 was mixed with the vinyl acetate monomer and acetic acid before adding a AgNO 3 solution at a temperature of 100 °C. The octapod shaped flower-like Ag/AgCl particles (or “flower-like Ag/AgCl” hereinafter) has eight petals each of which was about 7–11 μm in length. The flower-like octapods were formed by preferential overgrowth along the <111> directions of the cubic seeds. Detailed studies of the growth process at different AlCl 3 concentrations revealed that the concave cube developed into a Rubik's cube where eight corners grew further into the flower-like structures. The VAM and acetic acid concentration strongly affected the growth of the Ag/AgCl to the flower-like structure and their optimum concentrations were determined. The morphologies of these particles were carefully examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystal structures and orientation relationship were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The flower-like Ag/AgCl microcrystals were tested for their photocatalytic degradation of orange G dye (OG) catalyzed by visible light. From comparative test runs, the flower-like Ag/AgCl exhibited better photocatalytic activity than simple and commercial Ag/AgCl particles. - Highlights: • Interesting transformation of microcrystals Ag/AgCl from concave cube via Rubik's cube to flower-like shape. • The first to use VAM as morphology control reagent. • High photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

  18. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone density are seen even during childhood and adolescence. Hormonal factors. The hormone estrogen has an effect on peak bone mass. For example, women who had their first menstrual cycle at an early age and those who use oral contraceptives, which contain estrogen, often have high bone mineral ...

  19. Facility Location with Double-peaked Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Li, Minming; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    ; this makes the problem essentially more challenging. As our main contribution, we present a simple truthful-in-expectation mechanism that achieves an approximation ratio of 1+b=c for both the social and the maximum, cost, where b is the distance of the agent from the peak and c is the minimum cost...

  20. Robust Peak Recognition in Intracranial Pressure Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergsneider Marvin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The waveform morphology of intracranial pressure pulses (ICP is an essential indicator for monitoring, and forecasting critical intracranial and cerebrovascular pathophysiological variations. While current ICP pulse analysis frameworks offer satisfying results on most of the pulses, we observed that the performance of several of them deteriorates significantly on abnormal, or simply more challenging pulses. Methods This paper provides two contributions to this problem. First, it introduces MOCAIP++, a generic ICP pulse processing framework that generalizes MOCAIP (Morphological Clustering and Analysis of ICP Pulse. Its strength is to integrate several peak recognition methods to describe ICP morphology, and to exploit different ICP features to improve peak recognition. Second, it investigates the effect of incorporating, automatically identified, challenging pulses into the training set of peak recognition models. Results Experiments on a large dataset of ICP signals, as well as on a representative collection of sampled challenging ICP pulses, demonstrate that both contributions are complementary and significantly improve peak recognition performance in clinical conditions. Conclusion The proposed framework allows to extract more reliable statistics about the ICP waveform morphology on challenging pulses to investigate the predictive power of these pulses on the condition of the patient.

  1. Liquid waste processing at Comanche Peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes-Edwards, L.M.; Edwards, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the radioactive waste processing at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. Topics covered are the following: Reduction of liquid radioactive discharges (system leakage, outage planning); reduction of waste resin generation (waste stream segregation, processing methodology); reduction of activity released and off-site dose. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwal, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions

  3. Hubbert's Peak: the Impending World oil Shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffeyes, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    Global oil production will probably reach a peak sometime during this decade. After the peak, the world's production of crude oil will fall, never to rise again. The world will not run out of energy, but developing alternative energy sources on a large scale will take at least 10 years. The slowdown in oil production may already be beginning; the current price fluctuations for crude oil and natural gas may be the preamble to a major crisis. In 1956, the geologist M. King Hubbert predicted that U.S. oil production would peak in the early 1970s.1 Almost everyone, inside and outside the oil industry, rejected Hubbert's analysis. The controversy raged until 1970, when the U.S. production of crude oil started to fall. Hubbert was right. Around 1995, several analysts began applying Hubbert's method to world oil production, and most of them estimate that the peak year for world oil will be between 2004 and 2008. These analyses were reported in some of the most widely circulated sources: Nature, Science, and Scientific American.2 None of our political leaders seem to be paying attention. If the predictions are correct, there will be enormous effects on the world economy. Even the poorest nations need fuel to run irrigation pumps. The industrialized nations will be bidding against one another for the dwindling oil supply. The good news is that we will put less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The bad news is that my pickup truck has a 25-gallon tank.

  4. Diffusion and aggregation of implanted Ag and Au in a lithia--alumina--silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.W.; Borders, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Optical extinction and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) techniques were employed to obtain information on the size and spatial distribution of Au- and Ag-colloids in implanted (Au + , Ag + ) lithia-alumina-silica glass. The formation of metallic aggregates (colloids), necessary for preparation of a glass-ceramic surface layer, proceeds readily with annealing temperature for Au-implanted samples but not for Ag-implanted material. The optical and RBS spectra show that the particle size and spatial distribution in as-implanted samples are sensitive to sample temperature and ion-beam heating effects, while these parameters for Au-implanted samples are relatively insensitive to temperature and beam current. It is suggested that this behavior is related to differences in the dissolution energies of Ag and Au aggregates. A two-peaked spatial distribution for Ag implanted at room temperature at a dose rate of approximately 1 μA/cm 2 is observed which may result from the trapping of Ag in the compacted damage region of the glass during implantation. (auth)

  5. Photocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin film with Ag additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-C.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.; Hsu, C.-S.; Chen, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, nanocrystalline TiO 2 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin coating technique. While, by introducing polystyrene (PS) microspheres, porous TiO 2 /Ag films were obtained after calcining at a temperature of 500 o C. The as-prepared TiO 2 and TiO 2 /Ag thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy to reveal the structural and morphological differences. In addition, the photocatalytic properties of these films were investigated by degrading methylene blue under UV irradiation. After 500 o C calcination, the microstructure of PS-TiO 2 film without Ag addition exhibited a sponge-like microstructure while significant sintering effect was noticed with Ag additions and the films exhibited a porous microstructure. Meanwhile, coalescence of nanocrystalline anatase-phase TiO 2 can be observed with respect to the sharpening of XRD diffraction peaks. The photodegradation of porous TiO 2 doped with 1 mol% Ag exhibited the best photocatalytic efficiency where 72% methylene blue can be decomposed after UV exposure for 12 h

  6. An approach for scalable production of silver (Ag) decorated WS2 nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumesh, C. K.; Kapatel, Sanni; Chaudhari, Arti

    2018-05-01

    In the Present study we report the synthesis of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) decorated WS2 nanosheets by sonochemical exfoliation followed by simple chemical reduction process at room temperature. The morphology and microstructure of the as-synthesized Ag-WS2 nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical absorption (UV-Vis.) spectroscopy. X-ray and TEM analysis shows the presence of Ag with significant peak over 38.08°, 44.22°, 64.37° and 77.33° at 2θ angle for (111), (200), (220) and (311) respectively. The Ag nanoparticles are randomly distributed throughout the surface of the WS2 nanosheets without undergoing further oxidation during the formation of composites. The formation of Ag-WS2 nanocomposites shows a clear blue shift in the absorption as we obtained the characteristics absorption valleys at 456, 536 and 631 nm from the UV Vis spectroscopy analysis compared to pure WS2 nanosheets. Henceforth a facile method for the Ag decoration on WS2 nanosheets was put forward and briefly discussed. The proposed synthesis method is very promising for the low cost and large-scale synthesis of other noble metal incorporation TMDC compounds.

  7. Sensitive and selective detection of Hg2+ and Cu2+ ions by fluorescent Ag nanoclusters synthesized via a hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Ren, Xiangling; Meng, Xianwei; Fang, Zheng; Tang, Fangqiong

    2013-09-01

    An easily prepared fluorescent Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) probe for the sensitive and selective detection of Hg2+ and Cu2+ ions was developed here. The Ag NCs were synthesized by using polymethacrylic acid sodium salt as a template via a convenient hydrothermal process. The as-prepared fluorescent Ag NCs were monodispersed, uniform and less than 2 nm in diameter, and can be quenched in the presence of mercury (Hg2+) or copper (Cu2+) ions. Excellent linear relationships existed between the quenching degree of the Ag NCs and the concentrations of Hg2+ or Cu2+ ions in the range of 10 nM to 20 μM or 10 nM to 30 μM, respectively. By using ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) as the masking agent of Cu2+, Hg2+ was exclusively detected in coexistence with Cu2+ with high sensitivity (LOD = 10 nM), which also provided a reusable detection method for Cu2+. Furthermore, the different quenching phenomena caused by the two metals ions such as changes in visible colour, shifts of UV absorbance peaks and changes in size of Ag NCs make it easy to distinguish between them. Therefore the easily synthesized fluorescent Ag NCs may have great potential as Hg2+ and Cu2+ ions sensors.An easily prepared fluorescent Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) probe for the sensitive and selective detection of Hg2+ and Cu2+ ions was developed here. The Ag NCs were synthesized by using polymethacrylic acid sodium salt as a template via a convenient hydrothermal process. The as-prepared fluorescent Ag NCs were monodispersed, uniform and less than 2 nm in diameter, and can be quenched in the presence of mercury (Hg2+) or copper (Cu2+) ions. Excellent linear relationships existed between the quenching degree of the Ag NCs and the concentrations of Hg2+ or Cu2+ ions in the range of 10 nM to 20 μM or 10 nM to 30 μM, respectively. By using ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) as the masking agent of Cu2+, Hg2+ was exclusively detected in coexistence with Cu2+ with high sensitivity (LOD = 10 nM), which also provided a

  8. Mitochondrial electron transport is inhibited by disappearance of metallothionein in human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to silver nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Arai, Yuta; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Hirano, Seishiro

    2013-03-08

    Silver (Ag) possesses antibacterial activity and has been used in wound dressings and deodorant powders worldwide. However, the metabolic behavior and biological roles of Ag in mammals have not been well characterized. In the present study, we exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to AgNO3 and investigated uptake and intracellular distribution of Ag, expression of metallothionein (MT), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and changes in mitochondrial respiration. The culture medium concentration of Ag decreased with time and stabilized at 12h. The concentration of both Ag and MT in the soluble cellular fraction increased up to 3h and then decreased, indicating that cytosolic Ag relocated to the insoluble fraction of the cells. The levels of mRNAs for the major human MT isoforms MT-I and MT-II paralleled with the protein levels of Ag-MT. The intensity of fluorescence derived from ROS was elevated in the mitochondrial region at 24h. Ag decreased mitochondrial oxygen consumption in a dose-dependent manner and the activity of mitochondrial complex I-IV enzymes was significantly inhibited following exposure to Ag. In a separate experiment, we found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at concentrations as low as 0.001% (equivalent to the concentration of H2O2 in Ag-exposed cells) removed Ag from MT. These results suggest MT was decomposed by cytosolic H2O2, and then Ag released from MT relocated to insoluble cellular fractions and inhibited electron chain transfer of mitochondrial complexes, which eventually led to cell damage. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prediction of peak overlap in NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefke, Frederik; Schmucki, Roland; Güntert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peak overlap is one of the major factors complicating the analysis of biomolecular NMR spectra. We present a general method for predicting the extent of peak overlap in multidimensional NMR spectra and its validation using both, experimental data sets and Monte Carlo simulation. The method is based on knowledge of the magnetization transfer pathways of the NMR experiments and chemical shift statistics from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. Assuming a normal distribution with characteristic mean value and standard deviation for the chemical shift of each observable atom, an analytic expression was derived for the expected overlap probability of the cross peaks. The analytical approach was verified to agree with the average peak overlap in a large number of individual peak lists simulated using the same chemical shift statistics. The method was applied to eight proteins, including an intrinsically disordered one, for which the prediction results could be compared with the actual overlap based on the experimentally measured chemical shifts. The extent of overlap predicted using only statistical chemical shift information was in good agreement with the overlap that was observed when the measured shifts were used in the virtual spectrum, except for the intrinsically disordered protein. Since the spectral complexity of a protein NMR spectrum is a crucial factor for protein structure determination, analytical overlap prediction can be used to identify potentially difficult proteins before conducting NMR experiments. Overlap predictions can be tailored to particular classes of proteins by preparing statistics from corresponding protein databases. The method is also suitable for optimizing recording parameters and labeling schemes for NMR experiments and improving the reliability of automated spectra analysis and protein structure determination.

  10. The peak in anomalous magnetic viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collocott, S.J.; Watterson, P.A.; Tan, X.H.; Xu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous magnetic viscosity, where the magnetization as a function of time exhibits non-monotonic behaviour, being seen to increase, reach a peak, and then decrease, is observed on recoil lines in bulk amorphous ferromagnets, for certain magnetic prehistories. A simple geometrical approach based on the motion of the state line on the Preisach plane gives a theoretical framework for interpreting non-monotonic behaviour and explains the origin of the peak. This approach gives an expression for the time taken to reach the peak as a function of the applied (or holding) field. The theory is applied to experimental data for bulk amorphous ferromagnet alloys of composition Nd 60−x Fe 30 Al 10 Dy x , x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, and it gives a reasonable description of the observed behaviour. The role played by other key magnetic parameters, such as the intrinsic coercivity and fluctuation field, is also discussed. When the non-monotonic behaviour of the magnetization of a number of alloys is viewed in the context of the model, features of universal behaviour emerge, that are independent of alloy composition. - Highlights: • Development of a simple geometrical model based on the Preisach model which gives a complete explanation of the peak in the magnetic viscosity. • Geometrical approach is extended by considering equations that govern the motion of the state line. • The model is used to deduce the relationship between the holding field and the time it takes to reach the peak. • The model is tested with experimental results for a range of Nd–Fe–Al–Dy bulk amorphous ferromagnets. • There is good agreement between the model and the experimental data

  11. The spatial resolution of epidemic peaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet L Mills

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel respiratory pathogens can challenge the capacity of key health care resources, such as intensive care units, that are constrained to serve only specific geographical populations. An ability to predict the magnitude and timing of peak incidence at the scale of a single large population would help to accurately assess the value of interventions designed to reduce that peak. However, current disease-dynamic theory does not provide a clear understanding of the relationship between: epidemic trajectories at the scale of interest (e.g. city; population mobility; and higher resolution spatial effects (e.g. transmission within small neighbourhoods. Here, we used a spatially-explicit stochastic meta-population model of arbitrary spatial resolution to determine the effect of resolution on model-derived epidemic trajectories. We simulated an influenza-like pathogen spreading across theoretical and actual population densities and varied our assumptions about mobility using Latin-Hypercube sampling. Even though, by design, cumulative attack rates were the same for all resolutions and mobilities, peak incidences were different. Clear thresholds existed for all tested populations, such that models with resolutions lower than the threshold substantially overestimated population-wide peak incidence. The effect of resolution was most important in populations which were of lower density and lower mobility. With the expectation of accurate spatial incidence datasets in the near future, our objective was to provide a framework for how to use these data correctly in a spatial meta-population model. Our results suggest that there is a fundamental spatial resolution for any pathogen-population pair. If underlying interactions between pathogens and spatially heterogeneous populations are represented at this resolution or higher, accurate predictions of peak incidence for city-scale epidemics are feasible.

  12. Facile biosynthesis of Ag-NPs using Otostegia limbata plant extract: Physical characterization and auspicious biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Kausar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs synthesized through reduction by Otostegia limbata green extract are, hereby, reported for the first time. It is very interesting to observe that in this case, O. limbata plant extract acts as a strong chelating agent in Ag-NPs formation through AgNO3. Scanning electron microscope (SEM studies expose that Ag-NPs formation is highly homogenous and spherical with mean particle size of 32±0.8 nm. A typical Ag absorption peak has been observed at 419 nm by ultra violet (UV-visible spectroscopy which have endorsed the successful formation of single phase Ag-NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR examination further validates the crystalline pure phase structure of Ag-NPs. Promising results have been recorded against protein kinase inhibition assay and antibacterial assay having prominent pathogenic strains. Our present study explores that biosynthesized eco-friendly Ag-NPs have great potential, in the future, for anticancer drug development with wide range pharmaceutical applications.

  13. Disappearance rate of praziquantel-containing bait around villages and small towns in southern Bavaria, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janko, Christof; König, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has increasingly occupied urban areas in central Europe. Meanwhile, prevalence of infection in foxes with the small fox tapeworm (Echinococcus multilocularis) has increased, thereby increasing the human risk of infection with the parasite, which causes alveolar echinococcosis. Baiting strategies to counteract E. multilocularis have been implemented in cities and the open countryside, but there are few data on the situation in villages and small towns (edges for 7 days after distribution. Disappearance rates were 89.2% in villages, 88.8% in small towns, and 91.8% in settlement edges. More than 75% of the bait was consistently taken within the first three nights. There were no significant differences in disappearance rates between years or among seasons (Cox proportional hazard model). The survival time of the bait in small towns (P=0.021) and villages (P=0.026) depended on the zone (zone 1, first row of houses bordering on open countryside; zone 2, second to fourth rows, zone 3; beyond the fifth row) in which bait was distributed. In villages, the probability of bait being eaten in zone 1 was 119% higher than it was in zone 3 (P=0.007). In small towns, the probability was 60% higher (P=0.006).

  14. Determining neutrino mass hierarchy from electron disappearance at a low energy neutrino factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, Sushant K.

    2013-01-01

    Reactor neutrino experiments have recently measured the value of θ 13 , to be non-zero and moderately large. This makes the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy possible. However, our lack of knowledge of δ CP results in a parameter degeneracy, which makes this task difficult. The electron neutrino disappearance probability does not depend on δ CP . Therefore, in principle, it is possible to determine the hierarchy independently of δ CP using this channel. Previous studies of neutrino factories have not considered this channel, because the effect of systematics in electron disappearance is substantial. However, we show that for the moderately large value of θ 13 measured, hierarchy determination is possible in spite of systematic effects. We consider a low energy neutrino factory (LENF) setup with a totally active scintillator detector (TASD) with charge-identification. We optimize the setup in muon energy and baseline, for different allowed values of θ 13 and runtime. We find that a LENF with baseline of around 1300 km and muon energy around 3-4 GeV is well suited for hierarchy determination. For the RENO best-fit value of θ 13 , this setup can determine the hierarchy at 5ω, for all values of δ CP and for both hierarchies. (author)

  15. The Jacobin detectives and the poetics of the children of disappeared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paula Badagnani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The poetry collection Los detectives salvajes, belonging to the publishing house Libros de la talita dorada, in La Plata, appears as an explicit attempt to establish a counterpoint between militant poetry of the '70s and that one made by the children of disappeared activists. The poetry of the disappeared stands as an artefact of the memory of the past, one of the vestiges or scattered fragments which children have to reconstruct their parents' past. In this way children become detectives. It would have been arduous for children of missing parents to make their own voices audible in a scenario marked by the presence of the absent. The development of a poetic voice with a profound collective and generational imprint appears in the form of the problematization of the paternal legacy. In this context we notice that the authors play with the language of militancy as a parodic form of reconstruction of the link. Poetry of the children stands in the intersection of the fields of human rights, politics and literature; the differential logic operations of these spaces generate tensions that poets seem to want to overcome with polemic public gestures as a way of achieving their own place. In this case, the classical figures of literature, parricide and revenge, appear as polemic exaggerations which poets work with on the field of memory as a form of struggle for meaning.

  16. Disappearance of female genital mutilation from the Bedouin population of Southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halila, Suhil; Belmaker, R H; Abu Rabia, Yunis; Froimovici, Miron; Applebaum, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Recently, clinicians in Southern Israel perceived that the practice of female genital mutilation had disappeared entirely in the Bedouin population. We previously studied the prevalence of this practice in 1995. We decided to survey again the Bedouin population focusing on those tribes previously reported to perform this practice. Eighty percent of the interviews were done by an Arabic-speaking psychiatrist and 20% were done by an Arabic speaking nurse in the gynecologic clinic of a large Bedouin township or the gynecologic clinic of a smaller Bedouin township. Women were asked if they would be willing to answer a few questions about their past and if they were willing to have the gynecologist, with no additional procedure, note whether any operation had been performed on their genitalia. Physical examination by gynecologist and an oral questionnaire. One hundred and thirty two women were examined. No cases of any scarring of the kind reported in the previous study were found on physical examination. FGM has apparently disappeared over 15 years in a population in which it was once prevalent.

  17. Observation of Energy and Baseline Dependent Reactor Antineutrino Disappearance in the RENO Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J H; Choi, W Q; Choi, Y; Jang, H I; Jang, J S; Jeon, E J; Joo, K K; Kim, B R; Kim, H S; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kim, S Y; Kim, W; Kim, Y D; Ko, Y; Lee, D H; Lim, I T; Pac, M Y; Park, I G; Park, J S; Park, R G; Seo, H; Seo, S H; Seon, Y G; Shin, C D; Siyeon, K; Yang, J H; Yeo, I S; Yu, I

    2016-05-27

    The RENO experiment has analyzed about 500 live days of data to observe an energy dependent disappearance of reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} by comparing their prompt signal spectra measured in two identical near and far detectors. In the period between August of 2011 and January of 2013, the far (near) detector observed 31 541 (290 775) electron antineutrino candidate events with a background fraction of 4.9% (2.8%). The measured prompt spectra show an excess of reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} around 5 MeV relative to the prediction from a most commonly used model. A clear energy and baseline dependent disappearance of reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} is observed in the deficit of the observed number of ν[over ¯]_{e}. Based on the measured far-to-near ratio of prompt spectra, we obtain sin^{2}2θ_{13}=0.082±0.009(stat)±0.006(syst) and |Δm_{ee}^{2}|=[2.62_{-0.23}^{+0.21}(stat)_{-0.13}^{+0.12}(syst)]×10^{-3}  eV^{2}.

  18. 96/5000 Other literature Bureaucratic records and traces of disappearances in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Crenzel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine a series of bureaucratic records produced during the military dictatorship by workers in two state agencies, a morgue and a public hospital, located in two different provinces of Argentina, Córdoba and Buenos Aires. In these public documents, these workers left evidence, for several and different reasons, on the existence of practices that integrated phases or moments of the system of forced disappearance of persons, a crime which distinguished the last military dictatorship (1976-1983 of their predecessors. The analysis of these administrative records is an exploratory approach that aims to contribute to the understanding of the logic / s operation of state bureaucracies during the last military dictatorship, try to establish and understand the variety of relationships that a portion of its members established with the practice of forced disappearance of persons and other repressive practices unwrapped during this period and try to document the variety of ideas and emotions that, contemporary to the facts, were put into play in relation to the perpetrators of these crimes and their victims.

  19. AG, TL, and IRSL dosimetric properties in X-ray irradiated HPHT diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Tolano, M.I. [Programa de Posgrado, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A. P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190, Mexico (Mexico); Melendrez, R.; Lancheros-Olmos, J.C.; Soto-Puebla, D.; Chernov, V.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Barboza-Flores, M. [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A. P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190, Mexico (Mexico); Castaneda, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales S/N, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000, Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    HPHT diamonds have been studied for several years for their potential in different applications. In previous studies it has been found that the thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of ''as-grown'' HPHT diamonds are non-reproducible. In this work, we study the afterglow (AG), thermoluminescent (TL), and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) response of commercial samples of synthetic HPHT type-Ib diamond crystals exposed to X-ray irradiation (0.75 mA, 35 kV) at a dose rate of 0.624 Gy/s, after a high gamma ({sup 60}Co) dose irradiation of 500 kGy followed by a thermal treatment at 1073 K for 1 h in nitrogen atmosphere. Deconvolution of the TL glow curves shows four peaks, located around 379, 509, 561, and 609 K. The crystals exhibit evident AG recorded for 300 s immediately after X-ray irradiation, due to the thermal emptying of the traps responsible for the low-temperature TL peaks (below 400 K). The stimulation of irradiated crystals with 870-nm light, creates pronounced OSL and destroys all TL peaks with the exception of the high-temperature peak at 609 K. The dose responses of the integrated AG, TL, and OSL are linear in the range of 0.6-5 Gy and saturated at higher doses. The reproducibility of AG, TL, and OSL measurements is about 5%. The fading in the first hour of storage in dark conditions at RT of TL signal of HPHT diamond is mainly associated to the emptying of the traps responsible for the 379-K TL peaks. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Facile synthesis, structure, and properties of Ag{sub 2}S/Ag heteronanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadovnikov, S. I., E-mail: sadovnikov@ihim.uran.ru; Gusev, A. I. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Chemistry (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Ag{sub 2}S/Ag heteronanostructure has been produced by a simple one-stage chemical deposition from aqueous solutions of silver nitrate, sodium sulfide, and sodium citrate with the use of monochromatic light irradiation. For simultaneous synthesis of Ag{sub 2}S and Ag nanoparticles, deposition has been performed from reaction mixtures with reduced sodium sulfide concentration. The size of Ag{sub 2}S and Ag nanoparticles is 45–50 and 15–20 nm, respectively. It is established that in the contact layer between silver sulfide and silver, nonconducting α-Ag{sub 2}S acanthite transforms into superionic β-Ag{sub 2}S argentite under the action of external electric field. The scheme of the operation of a resistive switch based on an Ag{sub 2}S/Ag heteronanostructure is proposed. The UV–Vis optical absorption spectra of colloidal solutions of Ag{sub 2}S/Ag heteronanostructures have been studied.Graphical Abstract.

  1. A Study on the Significance of the Colloidal Radiogold Disappearance Rate as a Simple Clinical Liver Function Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chang Gi

    1969-01-01

    Liver function in diffuse parenchymal liver such as cirrhosis of the liver depend largely on the effective hepatic blood flow rather than on the individual cell functions. Clinical methods of measuring the hepatic blood flow were developed recently by the application of colloidal disappearance rate. In order to correlate the radiogold disappearance rate to conventional biochemical liver function tests, 21 normal subjects and 80 cases of cirrhosis of the liver were studied with both methods. The results are summarized as following: 1) The validity of external counting method to measure the blood disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold was confirmed by in vitro counting of the serial blood samples. 2) The blood disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold was essentially the same as the liver uptake rate of colloidal radiogold in normal and cirrhotic subjects with various degrees of functional disturbance. And it seemed there was no serious extrahepatic removal of the colloidal radiogold. 3) The disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold was not significant changed by the posture change, but was enhanced by ingestion of 500 ml of water. 4) The disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold was not influenced y single dose of Telepaque, while BSP retention was increased after Telepaque. 5) The mean disappearance half time of colloidal radiogold in normal subjects was 2.49±0.391 (S.D.) minutes. The mean normal disappearance rate constant (K value) was 0.285±0.0428 (S.D.)/minute. 6) The colloidal radiogold disappearance half time was abnormally prolonged (over 3.2 mm) in 87.7±3.68 (S.D.) % of cirrhotic subjects. 7) In patients of liver cirrhosis the blood disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold correlated well to serum albumin and globulin levels and BSP retention which were considered to reflect functions of hepatic parenchymal cells. There was, however, no correlation between colloidal disappearance rate and thymol turbidity test, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase

  2. Stereotactic Bragg peak proton radiosurgery method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellberg, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the technical aspects of a stereotactic Bragg peak proton radiosurgical method for the head is presented. The preparatory radiographic studies are outlined and the stereotactic instrument and positioning of the patient are described. The instrument is so calibrated that after corrections for soft tissue and bone thickness, the Bragg peak superimposes upon the intracranial target. The head is rotated at specific intervals to allow predetermined portals of access for the beam path, all of which converge on the intracranial target. Normally, portals are arranged to oppose and overlap from both sides of the head. Using a number of beams (in sequence) on both sides of the head, the target dose is far greater than the path dose. The procedure normally takes 3/2-2 hours, following which the patient can walk away. (Auth./C.F.)

  3. Central peaking of magnetized gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Francis F.; Curreli, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Partially ionized gas discharges used in industry are often driven by radiofrequency (rf) power applied at the periphery of a cylinder. It is found that the plasma density n is usually flat or peaked on axis even if the skin depth of the rf field is thin compared with the chamber radius a. Previous attempts at explaining this did not account for the finite length of the discharge and the boundary conditions at the endplates. A simple 1D model is used to focus on the basic mechanism: the short-circuit effect. It is found that a strong electric field (E-field) scaled to electron temperature T e , drives the ions inward. The resulting density profile is peaked on axis and has a shape independent of pressure or discharge radius. This “universal” profile is not affected by a dc magnetic field (B-field) as long as the ion Larmor radius is larger than a

  4. Peak Oil, Food Systems, and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492

  5. Object Permanence After a 24-Hr Delay and Leaving the Locale of Disappearance: The Role of Memory, Space, and Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, M. Keith; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen-month-old infants saw an object hidden inside a container and were removed from the disappearance locale for 24 hr. Upon their return, they searched correctly for the hidden object, demonstrating object permanence and long-term memory. Control infants who saw no disappearance did not search. In Experiment 2, infants returned to see the container either in the same or a different room. Performance by room-change infants dropped to baseline levels, suggesting that infant search for hid...

  6. Hanford Site peak gust wind speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    Peak gust wind data collected at the Hanford Site since 1945 are analyzed to estimate maximum wind speeds for use in structural design. The results are compared with design wind speeds proposed for the Hanford Site. These comparisons indicate that design wind speeds contained in a January 1998 advisory changing DOE-STD-1020-94 are excessive for the Hanford Site and that the design wind speeds in effect prior to the changes are still appropriate for the Hanford Site

  7. Commodity hydrogen from off-peak electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, K.; Biederman, N.; Konopka, A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the use of off-peak electrical power as an energy source for the electrolytic production of hydrogen. The present industrial uses for hydrogen are examined to determine if hydrogen produced in this fashion would be competitive with the industry's onsite production or existing hydrogen prices. The paper presents a technical and economic feasibility analysis of the various components required and of the operation of the system as a whole including production, transmission, storage, and markets.

  8. Some practical aspects of peak kilovoltage measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfan, A.Y.; Pugh, V.I.; Jeffery, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The peak kilovoltage (kVsub(p)) across the X-ray tube electrodes in diagnostic X-ray machines is a most important parameter, affecting both radiation output and beam quality. Four commercially available non-invasive devices used for kVsub(p) measurement were tested using a selection of generator waveforms. The majority of the devices provided satisfactory measurements of the kVsub(p) to within approximately +- kV provided certain operating conditions are observed. (U.K.)

  9. AgI/Ag3PO4 hybrids with highly efficient visible-light driven photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Masanao; Suzuki, Tohru; Kaneco, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 hybrid was prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method. • AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 displays the excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light. • AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 readily transforms to be Ag@AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 system. • h + and O 2 ·− play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization over AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 . • The activity enhancement is ascribed to a Z-scheme system composed of Ag 3 PO 4 , Ag and AgI. - Abstract: Highly efficient visible-light-driven AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 hybrid photocatalysts with different mole ratios of AgI were prepared via an in situ anion-exchange method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) technique. Under visible light irradiation (>420 nm), the AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 photocatalysts displayed the higher photocatalytic activity than pure Ag 3 PO 4 and AgI for the decolorization of acid orange 7 (AO 7). Among the hybrid photocatalysts, AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 with 80% of AgI exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for the decolorization of AO 7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 readily transformed to be Ag@AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 system while the photocatalytic activity of AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 remained after 5 recycling runs. In addition, the quenching effects of different scavengers displayed that the reactive h + and O 2 ·− play the major role in the AO 7 decolorization. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of AgI/Ag 3 PO 4 hybrids can be ascribed to the efficient separation of electron–hole pairs through a Z-scheme system composed of Ag 3 PO 4 , Ag and AgI, in which Ag nanoparticles act as the charge separation center

  10. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Vives, O. [Universitat de Valencia, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot (Spain); Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain); Mitsou, V.A.; Romero, E. [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, E{sub T}{sup miss} > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m{sub g} or similar 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out. (orig.)

  11. Acquisition of peak responding: what is learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Fuat; Gallistel, Charles R; Allen, Brian D; Frank, Krystal M; Gibson, Jacqueline M; Brunner, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how the common measures of timing performance behaved in the course of training on the peak procedure in C3H mice. Following fixed interval (FI) pre-training, mice received 16 days of training in the peak procedure. The peak time and spread were derived from the average response rates while the start and stop times and their relative variability were derived from a single-trial analysis. Temporal precision (response spread) appeared to improve in the course of training. This apparent improvement in precision was, however, an averaging artifact; it was mediated by the staggered appearance of timed stops, rather than by the delayed occurrence of start times. Trial-by-trial analysis of the stop times for individual subjects revealed that stops appeared abruptly after three to five sessions and their timing did not change as training was prolonged. Start times and the precision of start and stop times were generally stable throughout training. Our results show that subjects do not gradually learn to time their start or stop of responding. Instead, they learn the duration of the FI, with robust temporal control over the start of the response; the control over the stop of response appears abruptly later.

  12. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Vives, O.; Mitsou, V.A.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, E T miss > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m g or similar 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out. (orig.)

  13. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To determine and monitor the local power peaking coefficients by a method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Constitution: Representative values for the local power distribution can be obtained by determining corresponding burn-up degrees based on the burn-up degree of each of fuel assembly segments obtained in a power distribution monitor and by the interpolation and extrapolation of void coefficients. The typical values are multiplied with compensation coefficients for the control rod effect and coefficients for compensating the effect of adjacent fuel assemblies in a calculation device to obtain typical values for the present local power distribution compensated with all of the effects. Further, the calculation device compares them with typical values of the present local power distribution to obtain an aimed local power peaking coefficient as the maximum value thereof. According to the present invention, since the local power peaking coefficients can be determined not depending on the combination of the kind of fuels, if the combination of fuel assemblies is increased upon fuel change, the amount of operation therefor is not increased. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Defining the Crime of Enforced Disappearance in Conformity with International Criminal Law: a New Frontier for Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Raisul Islam Sourav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enforced disappearance is regarded as a state-sponsored heinous international crime and has recently emerged as a wide-spread issue in Bangladesh. The political opposition is currently the main target of forced disappearances, though apolitical citizens have also been targeted. Most of the incidents are unsolved and law enforcement agencies have repeatedly denied their involvement. Internationally, the UN Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance was opened for signature in 2007 and entered into force in 2010. The convention’s purpose is to criminalise enforced disappearances across the world and state parties are under an obligation to take necessary actions to stop their occurrence. Despite the cruel reality of forced disappearances in Bangladesh, no law has of yet been adopted to bring national criminal law in line with the convention. The right to life is nevertheless one of the key fundamental rights guaranteed under the Bangladeshi constitution which may be relevant in this context.  Forced disappearances have a disastrous impact on victim’s family as well as important societal implications. Bangladesh should, in this author’s opinion, ratify the convention and must reform national legislation to bring to an end state-sponsored crime. The scope of the issue may otherwise have tremendous consequences for the whole nation.

  15. The AGS Booster vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hseuh, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. The design pressure of low 10 -11 mbar is required to minimize beam loss of the partially stripped heavy ions. To remove contaminants and to reduce outgassing, the vacuum chambers and the components located in them will be chemically cleaned, vacuum fired, baked then treated with nitric oxide. The vacuum sector will be insitu baked to a minimum of 200 degree C and pumped by the combination of sputter ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. This paper describes the design and the processing of this ultra high vacuum system, and the performance of some half-cell vacuum chambers. 9 refs., 7 figs

  16. Chinese emissions peak: Not when, but how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Colombier, Michel; Wang, Xin; Sartor, Oliver; Waisman, Henri

    2016-07-01

    It seems highly likely that China will overachieve its 2020 and 2030 targets, and peak its emissions before 2030 and possibly at a lower level than often assumed. This paper argues that the debate on the timing of the peak is misplaced: what matters is not when by why. For the peak to be seen as a harbinger of deep transformation, it needs to be based on significant macro-economic reform and restructuring, with attendant improvement in energy intensity. The Chinese economic model has been extraordinarily investment and resource intensive, and has driven the growth in GHG emissions. That model is no longer economically or environmentally sustainable. Therefore Chinese policy-makers are faced with a trade-off between slower short-term growth and economic reform, versus supporting short-term growth but slowing economic reform. The outcome will be crucial for the transition to a low-carbon economy. Overall, the 13. FYP (2016-2020) gives the impression of a cautious reflection of the new normal paradigm on the economic front, and a somewhat conservative translation of this shift into the energy and climate targets. Nonetheless, the 13. FYP targets set China well on the way to overachieving its 2020 pledge undertaken at COP15 in Copenhagen, and to potentially overachieving its INDC. It thus seems likely that China will achieve its emissions peak before 2030. However, the crucial question is not when China peaks, but whether the underlying transformation of the Chinese economy and energy system lays the basis for deep decarbonization thereafter. Thorough assessments of the implications of the 'new normal' for Chinese emissions and energy system trajectories, taking into account the link with the Chinese macro-economy, are needed. Scenarios provide a useful framework and should focus on a number of short-term uncertainties. Most energy system and emissions scenarios published today assume a continuity of trends between 2010-2015 and 2015-2020, which is at odds with clear

  17. Recent hypernuclear research at the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent AGS experiments contributing to our knowledge of hypernuclei are reviewed. These experiments have suggested new areas of research on hypernuclei. With the proper beam line facilities, the AGS will be able to perform experiments in these areas and provide a transition to the future era of ''kaon factories''. 20 refs., 14 figs

  18. AGS Spallation Target Experiment (ASTE) Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio

    1999-01-01

    An experiment on mercury spallation target with high energy proton beam, called as the AGS Spallation Target Experiment (ASTE) Collaboration, has been performed at Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in USA, in cooperation among the laboratories in Japan, Europe and USA. The experimental setup, scope and preliminary results are presented in the paper. (author)

  19. AgBioData | National Agricultural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    . The GDV is being developed to house and integrate genomic, genetic and breeding data for blueberry collaborative effort to safeguard the genetic diversity of agriculturally important plants. Ag Data Commons html Data Commons Beta Toggle navigation Datasets About About the Ag Data Commons Data Submission Manual

  20. Effect of Ag additions on the lengthening rate of Ω plates and formation of σ phase in Al-Cu-Mg alloys during thermal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yaru; Liu, Zhiyi, E-mail: liuzhiyi@csu.edu.cn; Bai, Song; Ying, Puyou; Lin, Lianghua

    2017-01-15

    Effect of Ag additions on the mechanical properties and microstructures of the peak-aged Al-Cu-Mg alloys during prolonged thermal exposure at 150 °C, was investigated by tensile testing, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The results showed that after exposure for 500 h, > 85% of the peak strength remained. Microstructure observations indicated that increasing the Ag content from 0.14 to 0.57% promoted the precipitation of a fine and uniform Ω phase and suppressed the formation of the θ′ phase, leading to a notable improvement of the strength properties and thermal stability of the studied alloys. Quantitative TEM analysis showed that the coarsening of Ω phase was predominated by plate lengthening rather than thickening, while its lengthening rate was independent of various Ag additions during exposure at 150 °C. In addition, an increase of Ag also facilitated the formation of a cubic σ phase, which was further supported by STEM results. - Highlights: •Increasing Ag improved strength properties and thermal stability of the alloys. •After exposure for 500 h, > 85% of the peak strength remained. •The lengthening rate of Ω plates remained constant as Ag increased at 150 °C. •Increasing Ag content facilitated the formation of σ phase.

  1. Photocatalytic oxidation removal of Hg"0 using ternary Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 hybrids in wet scrubbing process under fluorescent light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Anchao; Zhang, Lixiang; Chen, Xiaozhuan; Zhu, Qifeng; Liu, Zhichao; Xiang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 hybrids were employed for Hg"0 removal under fluorescent light. • Superoxide radical (·O_2"−) played a key role in Hg"0 removal. • NO exhibited a significant effect on Hg"0 removal in comparison to SO_2. • The mechanism for enhanced Hg"0 removal over Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 was proposed. - Abstract: A series of ternary Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 photocatalysts synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method were employed to investigate their performances of Hg"0 removal in a wet scrubbing reactor. The hybrids were characterized by N_2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM-EDS, HRTEM, XPS, DRS and ESR. The photocatalytic activities of Hg"0 removal were evaluated under fluorescent light. The results showed that AgI content, fluorescent light irradiation, reaction temperature all showed significant influences on Hg"0 removal. NO exhibited significant effect on Hg"0 removal in comparison to SO_2. Among these ternary Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 hybrids, Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag_2CO_3 showed the highest Hg"0 removal efficiency, which could be ascribed to the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs between AgI and Ag_2CO_3 and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in the visible region by metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag"0 NPs). The trapping studies of reactive radicals showed that the superoxide radicals (·O_2"−) may play a key role in Hg"0 removal under fluorescent light. According to the experimental and characterization results, a possible photocatalytic oxidation mechanism for enhanced Hg"0 removal over Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag_2CO_3 hybrid under fluorescent light was proposed.

  2. Measurement of Muon Neutrino Disappearance with the NOvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinton, Luke [Sussex U.

    2018-01-01

    The NOvA experiment consists of two functionally identical tracking calorimeter detectors which measure the neutrino energy and flavour composition of the NuMI beam at baselines of 1~km and 810~km. Measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters are extracted by comparing the neutrino energy spectrum in the far detector with predictions of the oscillated neutrino energy spectra that are made using information extracted from the near detector. Observation of muon neutrino disappearance allows NOvA to make measurements of the mass squared splitting $\\Delta m^2_{32}$ and the mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$. The measurement of $\\theta_{23}$ will provide insight into the make-up of the third mass eigenstate and probe the muon-tau symmetry hypothesis that requires $\\theta_{23} = \\pi/4$. This thesis introduces three methods to improve the sensitivity of NOvA's muon neutrino disappearance analysis. First, neutrino events are separated according to an estimate of their energy resolution to distinguish well resolved events from events that are not so well resolved. Second, an optimised neutrino energy binning is implemented that uses finer binning in the region of maximum muon neutrino disappearance. Third, a hybrid selection is introduced that selects muon neutrino events with greater efficiency and purity. The combination of these improvements produces an increase in the sensitivity of the analysis equivalent to collecting 40-100\\% more data across the range of possible values of $\\Delta m^2_{32}$ and $\\sin^2\\theta_{23}$. This thesis presents new results using a 14~ktonne detector equivalent exposure of $6.05\\times 10^{20}$~protons~on~target. A fit to the far detector data, assuming normal hierarchy, produces $\\Delta m^2_{32}=2.45^{+0.087}_{-0.079}\\times10^{-3}~\\text{eV}^2$ and $\\sin^2\\theta_{23}$ in the range 0.429~-~0.593 with two statistically degenerate best fit points at 0.481 and 0.547. This measurement is consistent with maximal mixing where $\\theta

  3. Linking objects in the process of mourning for sons disappeared in war: Croatia 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcević, Slavica; Urlić, Ivan

    2002-04-01

    Mothers use linking object to externalize the complex aspects of their relationship to the loss of their child. We analyzed the linking objects that mothers kept in memory of their sons who disappeared in the 1991-1995 war in Croatia or whose remains were uncovered and identified long time after they had gone missing. The case study of disturbed mourning included 26 mothers of Croatian soldiers from Croatian Osijek-Baranja County who went missing in war or whose remains were recovered and identified long after they had gone missing. The mothers were selected independently by the president of the Association of Families of Missing and Detained Croatian Soldiers and agreed to participate in the study in 2001. They were interviewed in their homes, their testimonies were recorded, and photographs of the linking objects taken. Linking objects were classified according to the Volkan's four-group classification. Out of four Volkan's groups of linking objects, we identified the objects belonging to the first three. Those were 1) objects that had been worn by the deceased (clothes, wrist-watch, ring, or glasses), (6/26); 2) objects that could be viewed in the psychoanalytic sense as an extension of the body of the disappeared or dead person, such as a camera (4/26); and 3) objects with realistic or symbolic resemblance to the deceased, usually a photograph (8/26). None of the examined objects belonged to the fourth Volkan's group (objects at hand when the news of the death came or objects present at the funeral, things that could be considered last-minute objects, ie, related to the moment when the deceased was last seen alive). However, 8/26 objects formed a new hitherto undescribed group. Mothers used such objects to create a memorial shrine to their sons. A photograph of the missing person or person whose remains were identified long after he had gone missing occupied a central place at the shrine, and was surrounded by other symbols of the Catholic iconography (Virgin

  4. Optical absorption properties of Ag/SiO sub 2 composite films induced by gamma irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, A L; Yang, Z P; Liu, F X; Ding, Z J; Qian, Y T

    2003-01-01

    Mesoporous SiO sub 2 composite films with small Ag particles or clusters dispersed in them were prepared by a new method: first the matrix SiO sub 2 films were prepared by the sol-gel process combined with the dip-coating technique; then they were soaked in AgNO sub 3 solutions; this was followed by irradiation with gamma-rays at room temperature and ambient pressure. The structure of these films was examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and their optical absorption spectra were examined. It has been shown that the Ag particles grown within the porous SiO sub 2 films are very small and are highly dispersed. On increasing the soaking concentration and subjecting the samples to an additional annealing, a different peak-shift effect for the surface plasmon resonance was observed in the optical absorption measurement. Possible mechanisms of this behaviour are discussed in this paper.

  5. Curve thermoluminescent analysis of ZrO2 doped with nanoparticles and Ag nano fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza A, D.; Villa S, G.; Gutierrez W, C.; Perez H, R.; Gonzalez M, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of the high temperature thermoluminescence response induced by UV radiation in pure zirconium (ZrO 2 ) and doped with Ag nanoparticles and Ag nano fibers. The zirconium samples were obtained by the sol-gel method and irradiated with a UV lamp for different times. The results showed that the presence of the dopants change the characteristics of the traps associated with the high temperature peak which is located at 230 C for pure zirconium, and that the greater influence is due the presence of Ag nano fibers, inducing a shift to lower temperatures. It also presents the thermoluminescence response as a function of irradiation time. (Author)

  6. Machinability of experimental Ti-Ag alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Okuno, Osamu

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the machinability of experimental Ti-Ag alloys (5, 10, 20, and 30 mass% Ag) as a new dental titanium alloy candidate for CAD/CAM use. The alloys were slotted with a vertical milling machine and carbide square end mills under two cutting conditions. Machinability was evaluated through cutting force using a three-component force transducer fixed on the table of the milling machine. The horizontal cutting force of the Ti-Ag alloys tended to decrease as the concentration of silver increased. Values of the component of the horizontal cutting force perpendicular to the feed direction for Ti-20% Ag and Ti-30% Ag were more than 20% lower than those for titanium under both cutting conditions. Alloying with silver significantly improved the machinability of titanium in terms of cutting force under the present cutting conditions.

  7. 111Ag in the Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.

    1989-01-01

    In the course of a re-evalution of the gamma-ray spectra of air filter samples collected immediately after Chernobyl accident at Munich-Neuherberg 111 Ag has been found to contribute significantly to the total activity within the first days of the Chernobyl fallout. The maximum air concentration was measured on 1 May 1986 to be 5.4 Bq/m 3 compared with 9.7 Bq 137 Cs per m 3 . Referred to this date the total activity deposition to ground was 12±3 kBq 111 Ag per m 2 . Referred to 26 April 1986 the 111 Ag to 110m Ag ratio was found to be 53±3 and the 111 Ag to 137 Cs ratio was 1.0±0.1. It is estimated that the cesium isotopes were depleted during release and atmospheric transport by a factor of about 2 compared with the silver isotopes. (orig.)

  8. Thermodynamic properties of solid solutions in the system Ag2S–Ag2Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal’yanova, G.A.; Chudnenko, K.V.; Zhuravkova, T.V.

    2014-01-01

    We have summarized experimental data on the phase diagram of the system Ag 2 S–Ag 2 Se. Standard thermodynamic functions of four solid solutions in this system have been calculated using the model of regular and subregular solutions: a restricted fcc solid solution γ-Ag 2 S-Ag 2 S 1−x Se x (x 2 S–Ag 2 Se, monoclinic solid solution (α) from Ag 2 S to Ag 2 S 0.4 Se 0.6 , and orthorhombic solid solution (α) from Ag 2 S 0.3 Se 0.7 to the Ag 2 Se. G mix and S mix have been evaluated using the subregular model for asymmetric solution for the region Ag 2 S 0.4 Se 0.6 –Ag 2 S 0.3 Se 0.7 . The thermodynamic data can be used for modeling in complex natural systems and in matters of semiconductor materials

  9. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4 and aging (T6 heat treatment.The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant β phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH2 and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7, revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269, and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials.

  10. Sensors based on Ag-loaded hematite (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles for methyl mercaptan detection at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensors based on Ag/α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been prepared by the coprecipitation method for sensing methyl mercaptan at room temperature. X-ray diffraction patterns of samples matched perfectly with characteristic peaks of hematite with no peaks assigned to Ag even at the highest concentration. STEM images and EDX analysis revealed the presence of Ag nanoparticles (from 2 to 5 nm which were highly dispersed onto α-Fe2O3 surface with an Ag/Fe ratio from 0.014 to 0.099. The Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the hematite surface. Sensing tests of Ag-loaded hematite nanoparticles showed much higher response signal than the unmodified sensor. Hematite loaded with 3%(Wt Ag showed the highest response with a linear dependence from 20 to 80 ppm. The sensor also depicted a good selectivity and stability during 4 days with short recovery time. The high dispersion of reduced Ag evaluated by XPS analysis played an important chemical role in the sensing mechanism that favored the contact of CH3SH with oxygen.

  11. Cell wall content and rumen dry matter disappearance of γ-irradiated wood by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachowsky, G.; Baer, M.; Zuber, S.; Tiroke, K.

    1990-01-01

    Spruce sawdust and barks of spruce, pine and larch were irradiated with various doses of γ-rays (0; 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 MGy). Cell wall constituents and rumen dry-matter disappearance (incubation time: 48 h) were determined. γ-Irradiation significantly reduced neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre content of all by-products. The crude lignin of the wood by-products was not significantly influenced by γ-irradiation. Rumen dry-matter loss of untreated sawdust was 5.6%, that of barks between 18.2 (pine) and 64.6% (spruce). γ-Irradiation significantly increased rumen dry-matter loss. Increased washout due to solubilization and particle breakdown was mainly responsible for the higher dry-matter losses in the rumen after irradiation. The results do not justify practical use because of the high dose of irradiation required. (author)

  12. First measurement of muon-neutrino disappearance in NOvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P.; Ader, C.; Andrews, M.; Anfimov, N.; Anghel, I.; Arms, K.; Arrieta-Diaz, E.; Aurisano, A.; Ayres, D. S.; Backhouse, C.; Baird, M.; Bambah, B. A.; Bays, K.; Bernstein, R.; Betancourt, M.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bian, J.; Biery, K.; Blackburn, T.; Bocean, V.; Bogert, D.; Bolshakova, A.; Bowden, M.; Bower, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bromberg, C.; Brunetti, G.; Bu, X.; Butkevich, A.; Capista, D.; Catano-Mur, E.; Chase, T. R.; Childress, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Chowdhury, B.; Coan, T. E.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Colo, M.; Cooper, J.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Cunningham, A.; Davies, G. S.; Davies, J. P.; Del Tutto, M.; Derwent, P. F.; Deepthi, K. N.; Demuth, D.; Desai, S.; Deuerling, G.; Devan, A.; Dey, J.; Dharmapalan, R.; Ding, P.; Dixon, S.; Djurcic, Z.; Dukes, E. C.; Duyang, H.; Ehrlich, R.; Feldman, G. J.; Felt, N.; Fenyves, E. J.; Flumerfelt, E.; Foulkes, S.; Frank, M. J.; Freeman, W.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Gebhard, M.; Ghosh, T.; Gilbert, W.; Giri, A.; Goadhouse, S.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodenough, L.; Goodman, M. C.; Grichine, V.; Grossman, N.; Group, R.; Grudzinski, J.; Guarino, V.; Guo, B.; Habig, A.; Handler, T.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Heller, K.; Howcroft, C.; Huang, J.; Huang, X.; Hylen, J.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jediny, F.; Jensen, C.; Jensen, D.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kafka, G. K.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Kasetti, S.; Kephart, K.; Koizumi, G.; Kotelnikov, S.; Kourbanis, I.; Krahn, Z.; Kravtsov, V.; Kreymer, A.; Kulenberg, Ch.; Kumar, A.; Kutnink, T.; Kwarciancy, R.; Kwong, J.; Lang, K.; Lee, A.; Lee, W. M.; Lee, K.; Lein, S.; Liu, J.; Lokajicek, M.; Lozier, J.; Lu, Q.; Lucas, P.; Luchuk, S.; Lukens, P.; Lukhanin, G.; Magill, S.; Maan, K.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Martens, M.; Martincik, J.; Mason, P.; Matera, K.; Mathis, M.; Matveev, V.; Mayer, N.; McCluskey, E.; Mehdiyev, R.; Merritt, H.; Messier, M. D.; Meyer, H.; Miao, T.; Michael, D.; Mikheyev, S. P.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Mohanta, R.; Moren, A.; Mualem, L.; Muether, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Newman, H. B.; Nelson, J. K.; Niner, E.; Norman, A.; Nowak, J.; Oksuzian, Y.; Olshevskiy, A.; Oliver, J.; Olson, T.; Paley, J.; Pandey, P.; Para, A.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Pearson, N.; Perevalov, D.; Pershey, D.; Peterson, E.; Petti, R.; Phan-Budd, S.; Piccoli, L.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poling, R.; Potukuchi, B.; Psihas, F.; Pushka, D.; Qiu, X.; Raddatz, N.; Radovic, A.; Rameika, R. A.; Ray, R.; Rebel, B.; Rechenmacher, R.; Reed, B.; Reilly, R.; Rocco, D.; Rodkin, D.; Ruddick, K.; Rusack, R.; Ryabov, V.; Sachdev, K.; Sahijpal, S.; Sahoo, H.; Samoylov, O.; Sanchez, M. C.; Saoulidou, N.; Schlabach, P.; Schneps, J.; Schroeter, R.; Sepulveda-Quiroz, J.; Shanahan, P.; Sherwood, B.; Sheshukov, A.; Singh, J.; Singh, V.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Smolik, J.; Solomey, N.; Sotnikov, A.; Sousa, A.; Soustruznik, K.; Stenkin, Y.; Strait, M.; Suter, L.; Talaga, R. L.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tariq, S.; Tas, P.; Tesarek, R. J.; Thayyullathil, R. B.; Thomsen, K.; Tian, X.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Trevor, J.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Valerio, L.; Vinton, L.; Vrba, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Wang, B.; Wang, Z.; Weber, A.; Wehmann, A.; Whittington, D.; Wilcer, N.; Wildberger, R.; Wildman, D.; Williams, K.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Wood, K.; Xiao, M.; Xin, T.; Yadav, N.; Yang, S.; Zadorozhnyy, S.; Zalesak, J.; Zamorano, B.; Zhao, A.; Zirnstein, J.; Zwaska, R.; NOvA Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the first measurement using the NOvA detectors of νμ disappearance in a νμ beam. The analysis uses a 14 kton-equivalent exposure of 2.74 ×1020 protons-on-target from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Assuming the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, we measure Δ m322=(2.52-0.18+0.20)×10-3 eV2 and sin2θ23 in the range 0.38-0.65, both at the 68% confidence level, with two statistically degenerate best-fit points at sin2θ23=0.43 and 0.60. Results for the inverted mass hierarchy are also presented.

  13. Effect of irradiation and storage on patulin disappearance and some chemical constituents of apple juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegota, H; Zegota, A; Bachmann, S

    1988-10-01

    The effect of irradiation on the patulin content and on the chemical composition of apple juice concentrate during storage at 4 degrees C over a period of several weeks was investigated. The radiation-induced disappearance of the mycotoxin in relation to the absorbed dose followed an exponential relationship. The radiation dose (D50), i.e., the dose which reduced the patulin content to 50% of its initial value was equal to 0.35 kGy. Storage of the irradiated concentrate had no effect on the patulin content; however, storage did lead to a slight increase in the titratable acidity and a decrease in the amounts of the carbonyl compounds and the ascorbic acid concentration. The development of non-enzymatic browning during storage of the irradiated samples followed the same kinetics as that of the non-irradiated samples.

  14. Immunological measurements on the disappearance of creatine kinase MM from the circulation. [Immunoradiometric assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wevers, R A; van Landeghem, A A.J.; Mul-Steinbusch, M W.F.J.; Bijdendijk, J G; Weerts, P; Kloeg, P; Soons, J B.J. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1983-07-15

    Both a two-site immunoradiometric assay and a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for creatine kinase MM are described. Linearity, reproducibility and cross-reactivity of the assays are satisfactory. Creatine kinase MM incubated in a pH-controlled serum matrix loses its activity, but has its antigenic determinants affected as well. Of all the techniques used, only the immunoradiometric assay is capable of measuring part of the inactivated enzyme. Measurements with this assay on the sera of patients after a myocardial infarction show identical results for enzyme activity and creatine kinase protein quantity. The in vitro disappearance rate of creatine kinase activity is slow compared with the in vivo half-life of the enzyme. These two observations lead to the conclusion that creatine kinase is removed from the circulation long before it is inactivated in the blood stream.

  15. Search for Sterile Neutrinos in the Muon Neutrino Disappearance Mode at FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Anokhina, A.; Benettoni, M.; Bernardini, P.; Brugnera, R.; Calabrese, M.; Cecchetti, A.; Cecchini, S.; Chernyavskiy, M.; Dal Corso, F.; Dalkarov, O.; Prete, A.; De Robertis, G.; De Serio, M.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Fini, R.A.; Fiore, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Guerzoni, M.; Klicek, B.; Kose, U.; Jakovcic, K.; Laurenti, G.; Lippi, I.; Loddo, F.; Longhin, A.; Malenica, M.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Marsella, G.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Mingazheva, R.; Morgunova, O.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Nessi, M.; Orecchini, D.; Paoloni, A.; Papadia, G.; Paparella, L.; Pasqualini, L.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Roda, M.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Sahnoun, Z.; Shchedrina, T.; Simone, S.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Spurio, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Surdo, A.; Tenti, M.; Togo, V.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2017-01-01

    The NESSiE Collaboration has been setup to undertake a conclusive experiment to clarify the {\\em muon--neutrino disappearance} measurements at short baselines in order to put severe constraints to models with more than the three--standard neutrinos, or even to robustly establish the presence of a new kind of neutrino oscillation for the first time. To this aim the use of the current FNAL--Booster neutrino beam for a Short--Baseline experiment was carefully evaluated by considering the use of magnetic spectrometers at two sites, near and far ones. The detector locations were extensively studied, together with the achievable performances of two OPERA--like spectrometers. The study was constrained by the availability of existing hardware and a time--schedule compatible with the undergoing project of multi--site Liquid--Argon detectors at FNAL. \

  16. Life on Mars - How it disappeared (if it was ever there)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E. Imre; Koriem, Ali M.

    1989-01-01

    Information available on Mars chemistry suggest that conditions on early Mars may have been suitable for life. This paper examines the possible events that led to the disappearance of life, assuming it existed, from the surface of Mars. The sequence of events leading to life extinction on early Mars assumes the following steps: (1) a decrease of temperature and humidity levels, leading to a selection of microorganisms for tolerance of low temperatures and arid conditions; (2) further deterioration of environment leading to withdrawal of cold-adapted organisms to protected niches under the surface; (3) further cooling producing heavy stresses in these organisms; and (4) further deterioration of the environment resulting in extinction. This sequence of events is considered parallel events documented for the microbial community in the Ross Desert of Antarctica, where TEM examinations of the material detected progressive stages of cell damage and death.

  17. A measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and NuMI beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospanov, Rustem [Texas U.

    2008-08-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline two-detector neutrino oscillation experiment that uses a high intensity muon neutrino beam to investigate the phenomena of neutrino oscillations. The neutrino beam is produced by the NuMI facility at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, and is observed at near and far detectors placed 734 km apart. The neutrino interactions in the near detector are used to measure the initial muon neutrino fl The vast majority of neutrinos travel through the near detector and Earth matter without interactions. A fraction of muon neutrinos oscillate into other fl vors resulting in the disappearance of muon neutrinos at the far detector. This thesis presents a measurement of the muon neutrino oscillation parameters in the framework of the two-neutrino oscillation hypothesis.

  18. Immunological measurements on the disappearance of creatine kinase MM from the circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wevers, R.A.; Landeghem, A.A.J. van; Mul-Steinbusch, M.W.F.J.; Bijdendijk, J.G.; Weerts, P.; Kloeg, P.; Soons, J.B.J.

    1983-01-01

    Both a two-site immunoradiometric assay and a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for creatine kinase MM are described. Linearity, reproducibility and cross-reactivity of the assays are satisfactory. Creatine kinase MM incubated in a pH-controlled serum matrix loses its activity, but has its antigenic determinants affected as well. Of all the techniques used, only the immunoradiometric assay is capable of measuring part of the inactivated enzyme. Measurements with this assay on the sera of patients after a myocardial infarction show identical results for enzyme activity and creatine kinase protein quantity. The in vitro disappearance rate of creatine kinase activity is slow compared with the in vivo half-life of the enzyme. These two observations lead to the conclusion that creatine kinase is removed from the circulation long before it is inactivated in the blood stream. (Auth.)

  19. Fiction and Philosophy in Novel Without a Name and the Disappeared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Jabarouti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While Duong Thu Hung’s Novel Without a Name (1995 describes the bloodshed in the jungles of central Vietnam towards the end of Vietnam War (1959-1975, Kim Echlin embarks her narrations in The Disappeared (2009, about a decade after the collapse of Pol Pot’s genocide (1975-1979  in Cambodia. Philosophy however, is waved into fiction in order to add layers of depth and meaning to their narrations. Role of ideology and its effect on human life are among the major themes discussed by the authors. This study employs a close study of the above texts to discover the philosophical phrases used by the authors. It also illustrates how philosophy enhances meaning in fiction and contributes to its authenticity.

  20. Compulsory declaration of the disappearance, loss or theft of property and of serious events

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    Change The rules governing internal and external declarations have been modified as follows. Incidents concerning CERN access cards and CERN vehicle stickers must be reported as follows: in the case of theft, to the competent authorities of the country in which the theft was committed; in the case of loss or disappearance, to the Reception and Access Control Service. The Services responsible for issuing replacement documents will henceforth require the presentation of proof of declaration to the competent authorities (in the case of theft) or a declaration by the holder of the card or sticker, signed on his/her honour (in the case of loss). In both cases specific reference to the card or sticker concerned must be made. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch

  1. The Pill and Men’s Disappearance from the Teaching Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis

    In this paper I look at the relationship between increased access to reliable fertility controls and men’s disappearance from teaching. As the pill has been found to have a substantial effect on women’s family responsibilities, career investments and labor market outcomes, men’s bargaining position...... and 1980, the ratio of male college freshmen planning to become a teacher fell from 12.4% to 2.4% and the share of males among those who aspired to teach dropped from 30.6% to 19.7%. Using nationally representative data on the career plans of college freshmen I find that unrestricted access to the birth...... control pill bears a negative relation to the likelihood that men plan to teach, while changes in the strength of teacher unions and relative wages of teachers have limited effect on their career plans. Men’s aspirations shift away from teaching towards occupations that are associated with higher average...

  2. Studies on electronic structure of interfaces between Ag and gelatin for stabilization of Ag nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Tadaaki; Uchida, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Extremely high stability of Ag nanoparticles in photographic materials has forced us to study the electronic structures of the interfaces between thin layers of Ag, Au, and Pt and their surface membranes in ambient atmosphere by photoelectron yield spectroscopy in air and Kelvin probe method. Owing to the Fermi level equalization between a metal layer and a membrane coming from air, the electron transfer took place from the membrane to Pt and Au layers and from an Ag layer to the membrane, giving the reason for poor stability of Ag nanoparticles in air. The control of the Fermi level of an Ag layer with respect to that of a gelatin membrane in air could be widely made according to Nernst's equation by changing the pH and pAg values of an aqueous gelatin solution used to form the membrane, and thus available to stabilize Ag nanoparticles in a gelatin matrix. (author)

  3. Synthesis and characterizations of AgSCN nanospheres using AgCl as the precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming; Ma Jing

    2009-01-01

    Nanospheres of AgSCN with an average radius of 30-80 nm have been prepared by a simple reaction between AgCl suspension and KSCN in the presence of gelatin. Gelatin played a decisive role as an inhibitor of the direct attack of SCN - ions to AgCl surfaces and coagulation of the growing AgSCN in producing the spherical AgSCN nanoparticles. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectra techniques. The electrical conductivity of thin films of as-prepared AgSCN nanoparticles and polyethylene oxide (PEO) at room temperature was measured. The maximum value of electrical conductivity of as-prepared AgSCN-PEO was 1.53 x 10 -5 S cm -1 .

  4. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vinod

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  5. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au N Rs d ) is made by focused ion beam. •Au N Rs d coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs/Au N Rs d ) is competent to sense target molecules in a solution. •Ag NPs/Au N Rs d SERS active substrate can detect a single molecule of crystal violet. •Ag NPs/Au N Rs d as a SERS-active substrate can distinguish melamine contaminants at low concentrations (e.g., 10 −12 M). -- Abstract: A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au N Rs d ) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. Au N Rs d was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Au N Rs d and Ag NPs/Au N Rs d was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on Au N Rs d was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈10 7 in magnitude, which increased ≈10 12 in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/Au N Rs d . A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/Au N Rs d was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10 −3 to 10 −12 M) in water or milk solution upon Au N Rs d or Ag NPs/Au N Rs d were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm −1 for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm −1 was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., Au N Rs d ) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/Au N Rs d ) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/Au N Rs d and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and competent to sense low-concentration MEL molecules interacting with Ag and Au surfaces. Accordingly, Ag NPs/Au N Rs d is very promising to be used as a fast and sensitive tool for

  6. Multiple testing issues in discriminating compound-related peaks and chromatograms from high frequency noise, spikes and solvent-based nois in LC-MS data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyangoma, S.O.; Van Kampen, A.A.; Reijmers, T.H.; Govorukhina, N.I; van der Zee, A.G.; Billingham, I.J; Bischoff, Rainer; Jansen, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple testing issues in discriminating compound-related peaks and chromatograms from high frequency noise, spikes and solvent-based noise in LC-MS data sets.Nyangoma SO, van Kampen AA, Reijmers TH, Govorukhina NI, van der Zee AG, Billingham LJ, Bischoff R, Jansen RC. University of Birmingham.

  7. Higgsino dark matter or not: Role of disappearing track searches at the LHC and future colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hajime; Nagata, Natsumi; Otono, Hidetoshi; Shirai, Satoshi

    2018-06-01

    Higgsino in supersymmetric standard models is known to be a promising candidate for dark matter in the Universe. Its phenomenological property is strongly affected by the gaugino fraction in the Higgsino-like state. If this is sizable, in other words, if gaugino masses are less than O (10) TeV, we may probe the Higgsino dark matter in future non-accelerator experiments such as dark matter direct searches and measurements of electric dipole moments. On the other hand, if gauginos are much heavier, then it is hard to search for Higgsino in these experiments. In this case, due to a lack of gaugino components, the mass difference between the neutral and charged Higgsinos is uniquely determined by electroweak interactions to be around 350 MeV, which makes the heavier charged state rather long-lived, with a decay length of about 1 cm. In this letter, we argue that a charged particle with a flight length of O (1) cm can be probed in disappearing-track searches if we require only two hits in the pixel detector. Even in this case, we can reduce background events with the help of the displaced-vertex reconstruction technique. We study the prospects of this search strategy at the LHC and future colliders for the Higgsino dark matter scenario. It is found that an almost pure Higgsino is indeed within the reach of the future 33 TeV collider experiments. We then discuss that the interplay among collider and non-accelerator experiments plays a crucial role in testing the Higgsino dark matter scenarios. Our strategy for disappearing-track searches can also enlarge the discovery potential of pure wino dark matter as well as other electroweak-charged dark matter candidates.

  8. Spontaneous carotid-cavernous sinus fistula disappeared following cobalt 60 irradiation. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Toru; Yamamoto, Yuji; Asari, Syoji (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital, Ehime (Japan))

    1983-12-01

    The authors reported a case of spontaneous carotid-cavernous sinus fistula fed by meningohypophyseal trunk of the internal carotid artery, that completely disappeared following cobalt 60 irradiation to the region of fistula (27 days; total dose, 4,100 rad). A 65-year-old man was admitted to our hospital on May 25, 1982, with a two-week history of progressive prominence of the left eye, diplopia on left lateral gaze, and continuous intracranial bruit. He first noted redness of the left eye without apparent cause such as head trauma. On admission, slight nonpulsative exophthalmos, periorbital edema, chemosis, and venous congestion of the conjunctiva of the left eye were noted. The pupils were reactive and equal in size, and the left abducent nerve palsy was observed. Fundoscopic examination disclosed to be normal. No bruit was heard over the left orbital region. Left carotid angiography on May 28 demonstrated dural internal carotid-cavernous sinus fistula fed by meningohypophyseal trunk, and drained into superior and inferior ophthalmic veins and basilar venous plexus. Though the patient was treated only conservatively, symptoms became worse to decrease visual acuity. On July 14, we started cobalt 60 irradiation to the region of fistula (27 days; total dose 4,100 rad). Symptoms gradually improved about halfway through irradiation. After completion of irradiation, almost complete improvement of visual and ocular symptoms was observed except the left abducent nerve palsy. Repeated angiography on Aug. 20 revealed complete disappearance of fistula. Three months after treatment, no recurrence of symptoms was observed and the abducent nerve palsy persisted without improvement.

  9. Disappearance of Intracranial Extradural Hematomas: Role of Diastatic Cranial Fracture and Intracranial Pressure - An Institutional Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Abdul Rashid; Kirmani, Altaf Rehman; Wani, Mohammed Afzal

    2018-01-01

    Context: The intracranial extradural hematoma (EDH) occupies space and creates a mass effect on the brain but the tenacious-adhesions of dura to the inner table of skull counters this effect. The intracranial pressure also pushes the hematoma back while it is held by dural tensile-force. Aims: The exploitation of a diastatic fracture, overlying an EDH, by the intracranial pressures to decompress a hematoma out of extradural space into subgaleal/subperiosteal space without surgical intervention. Settings and Design: In a period of 15 years, a group of 11 patients among 729 EDHs were managed conservatively. Materials and Methods: The retrospective study of 11 EDH patients was conducted in the Department of Neurosurgery from January 2000 to December 2014 in 15 years. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical law of variance was used as applicable. Results: Analysis of spontaneous disappearance of intracranial EDH among 11 patients revealed that only 1.5% (11/729) EDHs resolved conservatively. The most cases (63.6%) were children and the youngest being 9 months old. All the patients had a diastatic fracture overlying-EDH and were fully conscious. The cause of head injury in most was the fall from height. The hospital stay ranged from 2 to 4 days. All the patients had a good recovery at the time of discharging. Conclusion: The trial of the conservative or spontaneous disappearance of an EDH through a diastatic fracture into the subgaleal space is similar to burr-hole drainage without surgical intervention but depends upon the neurological status, the intracranial pressure of the patient, and the availability of all the modern neurosurgical gadgets. PMID:29682037

  10. Disappearance of the glacier on Mama Cotacachi: ethnoecological research and climate change in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoades, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A first documented case study of a disappearing glacier in the snow capped volcano Cotacahi in Ecuador is presented with the studies belonging to the social sciences in relation to climate change and its impact on the population of the Equatorial Andes. With the use of multiple source methodology, including ethnographic analyzes, visual representations, repetitive photography, critical mapping by the local communities, longitudinal surveys, even archival research, as well as interviews to social actors and utilization of spatial data in a geographical information system (GIS. It is concluded that the documented disappearance of the glacier on the Cotacahi serves as an urgent call for action to the important dearth of social research related to global change from the ethnoecological perspective, with a cultural, local approach.

    Se presenta el primer estudio documentado de la desaparición del glaciar del nevado Cotacachi en el Ecuador, con los estudios que corresponden a las ciencias sociales en relación con el cambio climático y su impacto en la población de los Andes ecuatoriales. Mediante el uso de una metodología que incluye análisis etnográficos, representaciones visuales, fotografía repetitiva, mapeo crítico por parte de las comunidades locales, encuestas longitudinales e incluso investigación de archivos, así como también entrevistas a actores sociales, y utilización de los datos espaciales en un sistema de información geográfica (SIG. Se concluye que la desaparición documentada del glaciar del Cotacachi sirve como una llamada de atención urgente a la importante falta de investigaciones sociales relacionadas con el cambio global desde el punto de vista etnoecológico, con un enfoque cultural local.

  11. Visible light driven photocatalysis and antibacterial activity of AgVO{sub 3} and Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anamika [Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400 098 (India); Dutta, Dimple P., E-mail: dimpled@barc.gov.in [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Ballal, A. [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Fulekar, M.H. [School of Environment and Sustainable Development, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar 382 030, Gujarat (India)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/AgVO{sub 3} and pure AgVO{sub 3} nanowires synthesized by sonochemical process. • Characterization done using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and BET analysis. • Visible light degradation of RhB by Ag/AgVO{sub 3} within 45 min. • Antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} demonstrated. - Abstract: Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires and AgVO{sub 3} nanorods were synthesized in aqueous media via a facile sonochemical route. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy together with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrum analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results revealed that inert atmosphere promotes the formation of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires exhibited complete photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B within 45 min under visible light irradiation. The antibacterial activity of Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires was tested against Escherechia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum growth inhibitory concentration value was found to be 50 and 10 folds lower than for the antibiotic ciprofloxacin for E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. The antibacterial properties of the β-AgVO{sub 3} nanorods prove that in case of the Ag dispersed Ag/AgVO{sub 3} nanowires, the enhanced antibacterial action is also due to contribution from the AgVO{sub 3} support.

  12. Particle creation by peak electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, S.P. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Department of General and Experimental Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, CP 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    The particle creation by the so-called peak electric field is considered. The latter field is a combination of two exponential parts, one exponentially increasing and another exponentially decreasing. We find exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the field under consideration with appropriate asymptotic conditions and calculate all the characteristics of particle creation effect, in particular, differential mean numbers of created particle, total number of created particles, and the probability for a vacuum to remain a vacuum. Characteristic asymptotic regimes are discussed in detail and a comparison with the pure asymptotically decaying field is considered. (orig.)

  13. Octant vectorcardiography - the evaluation by peaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufberger, V

    1982-01-01

    From the Frank lead potentials a computer prints out an elementary table. Therein, the electrical space of left ventricle depolarization is divided into eight spatial parts labelled by numbers 1-8 and called octants. Within these octants six peaks are determined labelled with letters ALPR-IS. Their localization is described by six-digit topograms characteristic for each patient. From 300 cases of patients after myocardial infarction, three data bases were compiled enabling every case to be classified into classes, subclasses and types. The follow up of patients according to these principles gives an objective and detailed image about the progress of coronary artery disease.

  14. Energy peaks: A high energy physics outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Energy distributions of decay products carry information on the kinematics of the decay in ways that are at the same time straightforward and quite hidden. I will review these properties and discuss their early historical applications, as well as more recent ones in the context of (i) methods for the measurement of masses of new physics particle with semi-invisible decays, (ii) the characterization of Dark Matter particles produced at colliders, (iii) precision mass measurements of Standard Model particles, in particular of the top quark. Finally, I will give an outlook of further developments and applications of energy peak method for high energy physics at colliders and beyond.

  15. Rapid Biosynthesis of AgNPs Using Soil Bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii With Promising Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Jagathambal, Matheswaran; Gusev, Alexander; Torres, Juan Antonio Lopez; Kolesnikov, Evgeny; Kuznetsov, Denis

    2017-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are applied in various fields from electronics to biomedical applications as a result of their high surface-to-volume ratio. Even though different approaches are available for synthesis of AgNPs, a nontoxic method for the synthesis has not yet been developed. Thus, this study focused on developing an easy and ecofriendly approach to synthesize AgNPs using Azotobacter vinelandii culture extracts. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were further characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive spectrum, particle size distribution (PSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV absorption noticed at 435 nm showed formation of AgNPs. The XRD pattern showed a face-centered cubic structure with broad peaks of 28.2°, 32.6°, 46.6°, 55.2°, 57.9°, and 67.8°. The FTIR confirmed the involvement of various functional groups in the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The PSD and TEM analyses showed spherical, well-distributed nanoparticles with an average size of 20-70 nm. The elemental studies confirmed the existence of pure AgNPs. The bacterial extract containing extracellular enzyme nitrate reductase converted silver nitrate into AgNPs. AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Streptomyces fradiae (National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM) 2419), Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2127), Escherichia coli (NCIM 2065), and Serratia marcescens (NCIM 2919). In addition, biosynthesized AgNPs were found to possess strong antioxidant activity. Thus, the results of this study revealed that biosynthesized AgNPs could serve as a lead in the development of nanomedicine.

  16. Method and apparatus for current-output peak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2017-01-24

    A method and apparatus for a current-output peak detector. A current-output peak detector circuit is disclosed and works in two phases. The peak detector circuit includes switches to switch the peak detector circuit from the first phase to the second phase upon detection of the peak voltage of an input voltage signal. The peak detector generates a current output with a high degree of accuracy in the second phase.

  17. Effect of Ag doping on the properties of ZnO thin films for UV stimulated emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeen, Ahmed S.; Gadallah, A.-S.; El-Nahass, M. M.

    2018-06-01

    Ag doped ZnO thin films have been prepared using sol-gel spin coating method, with different doping concentrations. Structural and morphological properties of the films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Thin films have been optically pumped and stimulated emission has been observed with strong peaks in the UV region. The UV stimulated emission is found to be due to exciton-exciton scattering, and Ag doping promoted this process by increasing the excitons concentrations in the ZnO lattice. Output-input intensity relation and peak emission, FWHM, and quantum efficiency relations with pump intensity have been reported. The threshold for which stimulated emission started has been evaluated to be about 18 MW/cm2 with quantum efficiency of about 58.7%. Mechanisms explaining the role of Ag in enhancement of stimulated emission from ZnO thin films have been proposed.

  18. VO(2peak), myocardial hypertrophy, and myocardial blood flow in endurance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Marko S; Heinonen, Ilkka; Luotolahti, Matti; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2014-08-01

    Endurance training induces cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, leading to enhanced endurance capacity and exercise performance. Previous human studies have shown contradictory results in functional myocardial vascular adaptations to exercise training, and we hypothesized that this may be related to different degrees of hypertrophy in the trained heart. We studied the interrelationships between peak aerobic power (V˙O2peak), myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest and during adenosine-induced vasodilation, and parameters of myocardial hypertrophy in endurance-trained (ET, n = 31) and untrained (n = 17) subjects. MBF and myocardial hypertrophy were studied using positron emission tomography and echocardiography, respectively. Both V˙O2peak (P negatively with adenosine-stimulated MBF, but when LV mass was taken into account as a partial correlate, this correlation disappeared. The present results show that increased LV mass in ET subjects explains the reduced hyperemic myocardial perfusion in this subject population and suggests that excessive LV hypertrophy has negative effect on cardiac blood flow capacity.

  19. Thermal design studies in superconducting rf cavities: Phonon peak and Kapitza conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aizaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal design studies of superconducting radio frequency (SRF cavities involve two thermal parameters, namely the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of Nb at low temperatures and the heat transfer coefficient at the Nb-He II interface, commonly known as the Kapitza conductance. During the fabrication process of the SRF cavities, Nb sheet is plastically deformed through a deep drawing process to obtain the desired shape. The effect of plastic deformation on low temperature thermal conductivity as well as Kapitza conductance has been studied experimentally. Strain induced during the plastic deformation process reduces the thermal conductivity in its phonon transmission regime (disappearance of phonon peak by 80%, which may explain the performance limitations of the defect-free SRF cavities during their high field operations. Low temperature annealing of the deformed Nb sample could not recover the phonon peak. However, moderate temperature annealing during the titanification process recovered the phonon peak in the thermal conductivity curve. Kapitza conductance measurements for the Nb-He II interface for various surface topologies have also been carried out before and after the annealing. These measurements reveal consistently increased Kapitza conductance after the annealing process was carried out in the two temperature regimes.

  20. Optical nonlinearities in Ag/BaTiO{sub 3} multi-layer nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Guang [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)], E-mail: gyang@hust.edu.cn; Zhou Youhua [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics and Information Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China); Long Hua; Li Yuhua; Yang Yifa [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2007-07-31

    The multi-layer structure of barium titanate composite thin films containing Ag nanoparticles were grown on MgO (100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition technique under the nitrogen pressure of 7.4 Pa. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the samples were composed of metal Ag embedded in the BaTiO{sub 3} matrices. The optical absorption properties were measured from 300 nm to 800 nm, and the absorption peaks due to the surface plasmon resonance of Ag particles were observed. With the increasing of Ag concentration in composite films, the peak absorption increased and shifted to longer wavelength (red-shift). Furthermore, the third-order optical nonlinearities of the films were determined by z-scan method and the nonlinear refractive index, n{sub 2}, and nonlinear absorption coefficient, {beta}, were determined to be about - 1.91 x 10{sup -13} m{sup 2}/W and - 5.80 x 10{sup -7} m/W, respectively.

  1. Gamma-irradiation assisted seeded growth of Ag nanoparticles within PVA matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisa, Wael H.; Abdel-Moneam, Yasser K.; Shaaban, Yasser; Abdel-Fattah, Atef A.; Abou Zeid, Amira M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nucleation and growth must be two completely separated steps. → The amount of zerovalent nuclei can be controlled by varying the irradiation dose. → PVA act as physical barrier to inhibit aggregation or the growth of Ag nanoparticles. - Abstract: Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Ag hybrid nanocomposites have been prepared from polymeric film of PVA and silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ). The silver nanoparticles were generated in PVA matrix by the reduction of silver ions with gamma-irradiation. UV-visible spectra showed a single peak at 422 nm, arising from the surface plasmon absorption of silver nanoparticles. The shifting of surface plasmon resonance peak after irradiation reveals that the gamma irradiation can be used as a size controlling agent for the preparation of silver nanoparticles embedded in PVA film. This result was in good agreement with the result obtained from TEM images. The TEM images showed the narrow size distribution of the obtained Ag nanoparticles with average particle size of 30 nm, which decreased to 17 nm with increasing irradiation dose. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that silver metal was present in face centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. These results clearly indicate that monodispersed silver nanoparticles are embedded homogenously in PVA matrix.

  2. Ag/α-Fe2O3 hollow microspheres: Preparation and application for hydrogen peroxide detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Xinyuan; Wu, Zhiping; Liao, Fang; Zhang, Tingting; Guo, Tingting

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a simple approach for preparing α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow spheres by mixing ferric nitrate aqueous and glucose in 180 °C. The glucose was found to act as a soft template in the process of α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow spheres formation. Ag/α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow nanocomposite was obtained under UV irradiation without additional reducing agents or initiators. Synthesized Ag/α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow composites exhibited remarkable catalytic performance toward H 2 O 2 reduction. The electrocatalytic activity mechanism of Ag/α-Fe 2 O 3 /GCE were discussed toward the reduction of H 2 O 2 in this paper. - Graphical abstract: Glucose is carbonized as carbon balls in the 180 °C hydrothermal carbonization process, which plays a role of a soft template. Carbon spherical shell is rich in many hydroxyls, which have good hydrophilicity and surface reactivity. When Fe(NO 3 ) 3 is added to the aqueous solution of Glucose, the hydrophilic -OH will adsorb Fe 3+ to form coordination compound by coordination bond. α-FeOOH is formed on the surface of carbon balls by hydrothermal reaction. After calcination at 500 °C, carbon spheres react with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, which disappears in the air. Meanwhile α-FeOOH is calcined to form α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow spheres.

  3. [Ag67(SPhMe2)32(PPh3)8]3+: Synthesis, Total Structure, and Optical Properties of a Large Box-Shaped Silver Nanocluster

    KAUST Repository

    Alhilaly, Mohammad J.; Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa; Joshi, Chakra Prasad; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Juarez-Mosqueda, Rosalba; Kaappa, Sami; Malola, Sami; Adil, Karim; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Hakkinen, Hannu; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Engineering the surface ligands of metal nanoparticles is critical in designing unique arrangements of metal atoms. Here, we report the synthesis and total structure determination of a large box-shaped Ag-67 nanocluster (NC) protected by a mixed shell of thiolate (2,4-dimethylbenzenethiolate, SPhMe2) and phosphine (triphenylphosphine, PPh3) ligands. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) revealed the cluster formula to be [Ag-67(SPhMe2)(32)(PPh3)(8)](3+). The crystal structure shows an Ag-23 metal core covered by a layer of Ag44S32P8 arranged in the shape of a box. The Ag-13, core was formed through an unprecedented centered cuboctahedron, i.e., Ag-13, unlike the common centered Ag-13 icosahedron geometry. Two types of ligand motifs, eight AgS3P and eight bridging thiols, were found to stabilize the whole cluster. The optical spectrum of this NC displayed highly structured multiple absorption peaks. The electronic structure and optical spectrum of Ag-67 were computed using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for both the full cluster [Ag-67(SPhMe2)(32)(PPh3)(8)](3+) and a reduced model [Ag-67(SH)(32)(PH3)(8)](3+). The lowest metal-to-metal transitions in the range 500-800 nm could be explained by considering the reduced model that shows almost identical electronic states to 32 free electrons in a jellium box. The successful synthesis of the large box-shaped Ag-67 NC facilitated by the combined use of phosphine and thiol paves the way for synthesizing other metal clusters with unprecedented shapes by judicious choice of thiols and phosphines.

  4. [Ag67(SPhMe2)32(PPh3)8]3+: Synthesis, Total Structure, and Optical Properties of a Large Box-Shaped Silver Nanocluster

    KAUST Repository

    Alhilaly, Mohammad J.

    2016-10-13

    Engineering the surface ligands of metal nanoparticles is critical in designing unique arrangements of metal atoms. Here, we report the synthesis and total structure determination of a large box-shaped Ag-67 nanocluster (NC) protected by a mixed shell of thiolate (2,4-dimethylbenzenethiolate, SPhMe2) and phosphine (triphenylphosphine, PPh3) ligands. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) revealed the cluster formula to be [Ag-67(SPhMe2)(32)(PPh3)(8)](3+). The crystal structure shows an Ag-23 metal core covered by a layer of Ag44S32P8 arranged in the shape of a box. The Ag-13, core was formed through an unprecedented centered cuboctahedron, i.e., Ag-13, unlike the common centered Ag-13 icosahedron geometry. Two types of ligand motifs, eight AgS3P and eight bridging thiols, were found to stabilize the whole cluster. The optical spectrum of this NC displayed highly structured multiple absorption peaks. The electronic structure and optical spectrum of Ag-67 were computed using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for both the full cluster [Ag-67(SPhMe2)(32)(PPh3)(8)](3+) and a reduced model [Ag-67(SH)(32)(PH3)(8)](3+). The lowest metal-to-metal transitions in the range 500-800 nm could be explained by considering the reduced model that shows almost identical electronic states to 32 free electrons in a jellium box. The successful synthesis of the large box-shaped Ag-67 NC facilitated by the combined use of phosphine and thiol paves the way for synthesizing other metal clusters with unprecedented shapes by judicious choice of thiols and phosphines.

  5. Nano-silver mediated polymerization of pyrrole: synthesis and gas sensing properties of polypyrrole (PPy)/Ag nano-composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Kunal H; Damkale, Shubhangi R; Khanna, P K; Jain, G H

    2011-09-01

    Thermal polymerization of pyrrole was performed using silver nitrate as source of silver ions followed by its conversion to Polypyrrole (PPy)/Ag nano-comoposites without using any external oxidizing agent or solvent. The formation of PPy was monitored by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy showing a band at approximately 464 nm. XRD measurement confirmed characteristic peaks for face centered cubic (fcc) silver and presence of PPy at 2 theta of approximately 23 degrees suggesting the formation of PPy/Ag nanocomposite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed non-aggregated spherical Ag nano-particles of about 5-10 nm. PPy/Ag thick film acts as a NH3 sensor at 100 degrees C, a H2S sensor at 250 degrees C and CO2 sensor at 350 degrees C. The thick films showed capability to recognize various gases at different operating temperature.

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mg-Mn-Zr alloy with trace amounts of Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoyan; Pan Qinglin; Lu Congge; He Yunbin; Li Wenbin; Liang Wenjie

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mg-(Ag)-Mn-Zr alloys were studied by means of tensile testing, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that small additions of Ag to Al-Cu-Mg-Mn-Zr alloy can accelerate the hardening effect of the aged alloy and reduce the time to peak-aged. The mechanical properties can be improved both at room temperature and at elevated temperatures, which is attributed to the fine and uniform plate-like Ω precipitates. Meanwhile the ductility of the studied alloys remains at relatively high level. The major strengthening phases of the Ag-free alloy are θ' and less S', while that of Al-Cu-Mg-Mn-Zr alloy containing trace amounts of Ag are Ω and less θ'.

  7. Occurrence, characterisation and fate of (nano)particulate Ti and Ag in two Norwegian wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Farkas, Julia; Kjos, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    was conducted in two full-scale WWTPs in Trondheim (Norway) employing only primary treatment. We assessed the occurrence and elimination of Ti and Ag, and conducted size-based fractionation using sequential filtration of influent samples to separate particulate, colloidal and dissolved fractions. Eight......-hour composite influent samples were collected to assess diurnal variations in total Ti and Ag influx. Measured influent Ti concentrations (up to 290 μg L−1) were significantly higher than Ag (solids (>0.7 μm). Removal efficiencies ≥70% were observed....... Diurnal profiles of influent Ti were correlated to flow and pollutant concentration patterns (especially total suspended solids), with peaks during the morning and/or evening and minima at night, indicating household discharges as predominant source. Irregular profiles were exhibited by influent Ag...

  8. Tem Observation Of Precipitate Structures In Al-Zn-Mg Alloys With Additions Of Cu/Ag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Al-Zn-Mg alloy has been known as one of the aluminum alloys with the good age-hardening ability and the high strength among commercial aluminum alloys. The mechanical property of the limited ductility, however, is required to further improvement. In this work, three alloys, which were added Cu or Ag into the Al-Zn-Mg alloy, were prepared to compare the effect of the additional elements on the aging behavior. The content of Ag and Cu were 0.2at.% and the same as, respectively. Ag or Cu added alloy showed higher maximum hardness than base alloy. The particle shape and rod shape precipitates were observed in all alloys peak-aged at 423K. According to addition of Ag or Cu, the number density of the precipitates increased higher than that of base alloy.

  9. Investigation on the morphological and optical evolution of bimetallic Pd-Ag nanoparticles on sapphire (0001) by the systematic control of composition, annealing temperature and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Puran; Kunwar, Sundar; Sui, Mao; Bastola, Sushil; Lee, Jihoon

    2017-01-01

    Multi-metallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) can offer additional opportunities for modifying the electronic, optical and catalytic properties by the control of composition, configuration and size of individual nanostructures that are consisted of more than single element. In this paper, the fabrication of bimetallic Pd-Ag NPs is systematically demonstrated via the solid state dewetting of bilayer thin films on c-plane sapphire by governing the temperature, time as well as composition. The composition of Pd-Ag bilayer remarkably affects the morphology of alloy nanostructures, in which the higher Ag composition, i.e. Pd0.25Ag0.75, leads to the enhanced dewetting of bilayers whereas the higher Pd composition (Pd0.75Ag0.25) hinders the dewetting. Depending on the annealing temperature, Pd-Ag alloy nanostructures evolve with a series of configurations, i.e. nucleation of voids, porous network, elongated nanoclusters and round alloy NPs. In addition, with the annealing time set, the gradual configuration transformation from the elongated to round alloy NPs as well as size reduction is demonstrated due to the enhanced diffusion and sublimation of Ag atoms. The evolution of various morphology of Pd-Ag nanostructures is described based on the surface diffusion and inter-diffusion of Pd and Ag adatoms along with the Ag sublimation, Rayleigh instability and energy minimization mechanism. The reflectance spectra of bimetallic Pd-Ag nanostructures exhibit various quadrupolar and dipolar resonance peaks, peak shifts and absorption dips owing to the surface plasmon resonance of nanostructures depending on the surface morphology. The intensity of reflectance spectra is gradually decreased along with the surface coverage and NP size evolution. The absorption dips are red-shifted towards the longer wavelength for the larger alloy NPs and vice-versa.

  10. Investigation on the morphological and optical evolution of bimetallic Pd-Ag nanoparticles on sapphire (0001 by the systematic control of composition, annealing temperature and time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puran Pandey

    Full Text Available Multi-metallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs can offer additional opportunities for modifying the electronic, optical and catalytic properties by the control of composition, configuration and size of individual nanostructures that are consisted of more than single element. In this paper, the fabrication of bimetallic Pd-Ag NPs is systematically demonstrated via the solid state dewetting of bilayer thin films on c-plane sapphire by governing the temperature, time as well as composition. The composition of Pd-Ag bilayer remarkably affects the morphology of alloy nanostructures, in which the higher Ag composition, i.e. Pd0.25Ag0.75, leads to the enhanced dewetting of bilayers whereas the higher Pd composition (Pd0.75Ag0.25 hinders the dewetting. Depending on the annealing temperature, Pd-Ag alloy nanostructures evolve with a series of configurations, i.e. nucleation of voids, porous network, elongated nanoclusters and round alloy NPs. In addition, with the annealing time set, the gradual configuration transformation from the elongated to round alloy NPs as well as size reduction is demonstrated due to the enhanced diffusion and sublimation of Ag atoms. The evolution of various morphology of Pd-Ag nanostructures is described based on the surface diffusion and inter-diffusion of Pd and Ag adatoms along with the Ag sublimation, Rayleigh instability and energy minimization mechanism. The reflectance spectra of bimetallic Pd-Ag nanostructures exhibit various quadrupolar and dipolar resonance peaks, peak shifts and absorption dips owing to the surface plasmon resonance of nanostructures depending on the surface morphology. The intensity of reflectance spectra is gradually decreased along with the surface coverage and NP size evolution. The absorption dips are red-shifted towards the longer wavelength for the larger alloy NPs and vice-versa.

  11. Computation of peak discharge at culverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rolland William

    1957-01-01

    Methods for computing peak flood flow through culverts on the basis of a field survey of highwater marks and culvert geometry are presented. These methods are derived from investigations of culvert flow as reported in the literature and on extensive laboratory studies of culvert flow. For convenience in computation, culvert flow has been classified into six types, according to the location of the control section and the relative heights of the head-water and tail-water levels. The type of flow which occurred at any site can be determined from the field data and the criteria given in this report. A discharge equation has been developed for each flow type by combining the energy and continuity equations for the distance between an approach section upstream from the culvert and a terminal section within the culvert barrel. The discharge coefficient applicable to each flow type is listed for the more common entrance geometries. Procedures for computing peak discharge through culverts are outlined in detail for each of the six flow types.

  12. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Glaucia Nency; Ruas, Gualberto; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; Jamami, Luciana Kawakami; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Jamami, Mauricio

    2010-05-01

    To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (pmeters were 428 (263-688 L/min), 450 (350-800 L/min), 420 (310-720 L/min), 380 (300-735 L/min), 400 (310-685 L/min) and 415 (335-610 L/min), respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone(R) (pmeters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  13. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To monitor the local power peaking coefficients obtained by the method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Method: A plurality of representative values for the local power distribution determined by the nuclear constant calculation for one fuel assembly are memorized regarding each of the burn-up degree and the void coefficient on every positions and fuel types in fuel rod assemblies. While on the other hand, the representative values for the local power distribution as described above are compensated by a compensation coefficient considering the effect of adjacent segments and a control rod compensation coefficient considering the effect due to the control rod insertion relative to the just-mentioned compensation coefficient. Then, the maximum value among them is selected to determine the local power peaking coefficient at each of the times and each of the segments, which is monitored. According to this system, the calculation and the working required for the fitting work depending on the combination of fuel types are no more required at all to facilitate the maintenance as well. (Horiuchi, T.)

  14. Peak capacity and peak capacity per unit time in capillary and microchip zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Joe P; Blackney, Donna M; Ennis, Erin J

    2017-11-10

    The origins of the peak capacity concept are described and the important contributions to the development of that concept in chromatography and electrophoresis are reviewed. Whereas numerous quantitative expressions have been reported for one- and two-dimensional separations, most are focused on chromatographic separations and few, if any, quantitative unbiased expressions have been developed for capillary or microchip zone electrophoresis. Making the common assumption that longitudinal diffusion is the predominant source of zone broadening in capillary electrophoresis, analytical expressions for the peak capacity are derived, first in terms of migration time, diffusion coefficient, migration distance, and desired resolution, and then in terms of the remaining underlying fundamental parameters (electric field, electroosmotic and electrophoretic mobilities) that determine the migration time. The latter expressions clearly illustrate the direct square root dependence of peak capacity on electric field and migration distance and the inverse square root dependence on solute diffusion coefficient. Conditions that result in a high peak capacity will result in a low peak capacity per unit time and vice-versa. For a given symmetrical range of relative electrophoretic mobilities for co- and counter-electroosmotic species (cations and anions), the peak capacity increases with the square root of the electric field even as the temporal window narrows considerably, resulting in a significant reduction in analysis time. Over a broad relative electrophoretic mobility interval [-0.9, 0.9], an approximately two-fold greater amount of peak capacity can be generated for counter-electroosmotic species although it takes about five-fold longer to do so, consistent with the well-known bias in migration time and resolving power for co- and counter-electroosmotic species. The optimum lower bound of the relative electrophoretic mobility interval [μ r,Z , μ r,A ] that provides the maximum

  15. UV-Vis spectroscopy and solvatochromism of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG-1478.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Muhammad; Wang, Feng; Clayton, Andrew H A

    2016-07-05

    The effect of twenty-one solvents on the UV-Vis spectrum of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG-1478 was investigated. The absorption spectrum in the range 300-360nm consisted of two partially overlapping bands at approximately 340nm and 330nm. The higher energy absorption band was more sensitive to solvent and exhibited a peak position that varied from 327nm to 336nm, while the lower energy absorption band demonstrated a change in peak position from 340nm to 346nm in non-chlorinated solvents. The fluorescence spectrum of AG-1478 was particularly sensitive to solvent. The wavelength of peak intensity varied from 409nm to 495nm with the corresponding Stokes shift in the range of 64nm to 155nm (4536cm(-1) to 9210cm(-1)). We used a number of methods to assess the relationship between spectroscopic properties and solvent properties. The detailed analysis revealed that for aprotic solvents, the peak position of the emission spectrum in wavenumber scale correlated with the polarity (dielectric constant or ET(30)) of the solvent. In protic solvents, a better correlation was observed between the hydrogen bonding power of the solvent and the position of the emission spectrum. Moreover, the fluorescence quantum yields were larger in aprotic solvents as compared to protic solvents. This analysis underscores the importance of polarity and hydrogen-bonding environment on the spectroscopic properties of AG-1478. These studies will assume relevance in understanding the interaction of AG-1478 in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of catalytic protein and stabilising agents in the transformation of Ag ions to nanoparticles by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jafar; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia; Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Zainab, Shama; Ali, Naeem

    2016-10-01

    Biological routes of synthesising metal nanoparticles (NPs) using microbes have been gaining much attention due to their low toxicity and eco-friendly nature. Pseudomonas aeruginosa JP2 isolated from metal contaminated soil was evaluated towards extracellular synthesis of silver NPs (AgNPs). Cell-free extract (24 h) of the bacterial isolate was reacted with AgNO 3 for 24 h in order to fabricate AgNPs. Preliminary observations were recorded in terms of colour change of the reaction mixture from yellow to greyish black. UV-visible spectroscopy of the reaction mixture has shown a progressive increase in optical densities that correspond to peaks near 430 nm, depicting reduction of ionic silver (Ag + ) to atomic silver (Ag 0 ) thereby synthesising NPs. X-ray diffraction spectra exhibited the 2θ values to be 38.4577° confirming the crystalline and spherical nature of NPs [9.6 - 26.7 (Ave. = 17.2 nm)]. Transmission electron microscopy finally confirmed the size of the particles varying from 5 to 60 nm. Moreover, rhamnolipids and proteins were identified as stabilising molecules for the AgNPs through Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. Characterisation of bacterial crude and purified protein fractions confirmed the involvement of nitrate reductase (molecular weight 66 kDa and specific activity = 3.8 U/mg) in the Synthesis of AgNPs.

  17. The effect of Ni pre-implantation on surface morphology and optical absorption properties of Ag nanoparticles embedded in SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yanyan; Qi, Ting; Qiao, Yu; Yu, Shengwang; Hei, Hongjun; He, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag concentration increased significantly due to the Ni pre-implantation. • Deposition and accumulation process of Ag atoms depends on Ni fluences. • The incorporation of Ni elements in Ag NPs can damp SPR absorption intensity. • AgNi alloy NPs embedded in SiO 2 have been created by sequentially implantation. • Unique SPR absorption with dual peaks centered at 406 nm and 563 nm was observed. - Abstract: The effect of Ni ion fluence on Ag nucleation and particle growth was investigated by sequentially implantation of 60 keV Ni ions at fluences of 1 × 10 16 , 5 × 10 16 , 1 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 and 70 keV Ag ions at a fluence of 5 × 10 16 ions/cm 2 . Due to the modification of the deposition and accumulation process of Ag implants caused by Ni pre-implantation, the surface morphology, structures, and optical absorption properties of the Ag nanoparticles (NPs) depends strongly on the Ni fluences. UV–vis absorption spectroscopy study showed that the introducing of Ni atoms lead to intensity decrease in the Ag SPR band. Remarkable local concentration increase of Ag profiles appeared for the sample pre-implanted by Ni ions of 5.0 × 10 16 ions/cm 2 . In particular, the AgNi alloy NPs with dual absorption peaks centered at 406 nm and 563 nm have been formed after 600 °C annealing in Ar atmosphere. However, at a low fluence of 1.0 × 10 16 ions/cm 2 , only small increase of the local Ag concentration than the Ag ions singly implanted sample can be observed. At a high fluence of 1.0 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 , lots Ag atoms are trapped close to the surface, which result in heavy sputtering loss of Ag atoms and the sublimation of Ag atoms after 600 °C annealing.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Ag nanowires: Improved performance in dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia A. Kazmi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs with good photovoltaic parameters is an active research area of current global interest. Recently, one dimensional nanomaterial, such as nanorods and nanotubes has replaced the nanoparticles used in DSSCs anode because of their ability to improve the electron transport leading to enhanced electron collection efficiency. In the present work, rapid synthesis of silver nanowires (AgNWs was done. The XRD characterization was performed to confirm the formation and size of synthesized AgNWs. It was observed that FWHM of the diffraction peaks was increased with AgNWs concentration in TiO2. The synthesized TiO2AgNWs nanocomposite was used as the photo anode of Dye sensitized solar cell. The I–V characteristics of the solar cell were drawn using standard conditions. It was observed that TiO2AgNWs based solar cells have significantly increased photocurrent density resulting in improved conversion efficiency as compared to pure TiO2 based DSSC.

  19. Fabrication of fine spongy nanoporous Ag-Au alloys with improved catalysis properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiting Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fine NP-AgAu (nanoporous AgAu alloys with spongy structure was fabricated by chemical dealloying from rapidly solidified amorphous precursors Ag38.75−xCu38.75Si22.5Aux (x=0, 0.5, 1 and 5. The results indicate that the addition of small content Au in precursor can refine both the ligaments and pores obviously. Among the present components of the precursors, NP-AgAu alloys dealloying from Ag37.75Cu38.75Si22.5Au1 had the finest spongy structure. The size of pores was 5–10 nm and the grain size of ligaments was 10–20 nm. It also had the highest surface area of 106.83 m2g−1 and the best catalytic activity towards electro-oxidation of formaldehyde with the peak current of 665 mA mg−1.

  20. Ag supported on carbon fiber cloth as the catalyst for hydrazine oxidation in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ran; Ye, Ke; Gao, Yinyi; Zhang, Wenping; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CFC supported microspherical Ag is obtained by square-wave potential method. • Ag/CFC electrode has high catalytic activity toward hydrazine oxidation. • Hydrazine oxidation on the electrode proceeds by a near 4-electron pathway. - Abstract: Silver particles with microspheric structure are directly electrodeposited on carbon fiber cloth (CFC) substrate by square-wave potential electrodeposition method. The electrocatalytic behaviors of the Ag/CFC electrode toward hydrazine oxidation in alkaline solution are examined by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. An onset oxidation potential of -0.5 V and a peak current density of 30 mA cm −2 are achieved in the solution containing 1.0 mol L −1 KOH and 20.0 mmol L −1 hydrazine. The microspheric structure of the Ag/CFC electrode provides large electroactive surface area, hence, abundant active sites are vacant for hydrazine oxidation. The calculated apparent activation energies at different potentials show that hydrazine electro-oxidation at higher potential has faster kinetics than that at lower potential. In addition, the transfer electron number of hydrazine oxidation reaction on the Ag/CFC electrode is close to four, suggesting hydrazine is almost completely electrooxidized on the electrode and the full use of hydrazine fuel is basically achieved.

  1. Thin silica shell coated Ag assembled nanostructures for expanding generality of SERS analytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Geun Cha

    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS provides a unique non-destructive spectroscopic fingerprint for chemical detection. However, intrinsic differences in affinity of analyte molecules to metal surface hinder SERS as a universal quantitative detection tool for various analyte molecules simultaneously. This must be overcome while keeping close proximity of analyte molecules to the metal surface. Moreover, assembled metal nanoparticles (NPs structures might be beneficial for sensitive and reliable detection of chemicals than single NP structures. For this purpose, here we introduce thin silica-coated and assembled Ag NPs (SiO2@Ag@SiO2 NPs for simultaneous and quantitative detection of chemicals that have different intrinsic affinities to silver metal. These SiO2@Ag@SiO2 NPs could detect each SERS peak of aniline or 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP from the mixture with limits of detection (LOD of 93 ppm and 54 ppb, respectively. E-field distribution based on interparticle distance was simulated using discrete dipole approximation (DDA calculation to gain insight into enhanced scattering of these thin silica coated Ag NP assemblies. These NPs were successfully applied to detect aniline in river water and tap water. Results suggest that SiO2@Ag@SiO2 NP-based SERS detection systems can be used as a simple and universal detection tool for environment pollutants and food safety.

  2. Thermal expansion properties of Bi-2212 in Ag or an Ag-alloy matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenbrink, J.; Krauth, H.

    1994-01-01

    The thermal expansion properties of polycrystalline Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x melt-processed bulk specimens, and Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x monocore as well as multifilamentary round wires in Ag or Ag-alloy matrix have been investigated over the temperature range from -150 to 800 degrees C. Although the thermal expansion of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x is distinctly lower compared with Ag, the thermal expansion properties of the Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x -Ag or AgNiMg-alloy composite conductors are essentially governed by the matrix material. The thermal expansion of the encountered oxide-dispersion-strengthened AgNiMg alloys is only slightly lower compared with that of pure Ag. Therefore the thermal expansion of all investigated Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x -Ag or Ag-alloy composite wires was found to be close to that of pure Ag. The reason for this striking behaviour is shown to be related to a surprisingly low elastic modulus of the polycrystalline Bi-2212 wire cores of the order of 10 to a maximum 40 GPa. (author)

  3. Short-Term Biliary Stent Placement Contributing Common Bile Duct Stone Disappearance with Preservation of Duodenal Papilla Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Ueda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the effect of biliary stent placement without endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST on common bile duct stones (CBDS disappearance and the contribution of preserving the duodenal papilla function to reduce recurrence of CBDS. Methods. Sixty-six patients admitted for acute obstructive cholangitis due to CBDS who underwent biliary stent placement without EST for 2 years from March 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. The second endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP was performed for treatment of CBDS 3 to 4 months after the first ERCP. We estimated the rate of stone disappearance at the time of second ERCP. Results. CBDS disappearance was observed in 32 (48.5% of 66 patients. The diameter of the bile ducts and the diameter of CBDS in patients with CBDS disappearance were significantly smaller than in those with CBDS requiring extraction (p=0.007 and p<0.001, resp.. Stone disappearance was evident when the diameter of bile ducts and that of CBDS were <10 and 7 mm, respectively (p=0.002. Conclusions. Short-term stent placement without EST eliminates CBDS while preserving duodenal papilla function and may be suitable for treating CBDS in patients with nondilated bile ducts and small CBDS.

  4. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed of the day is an important forecast element in the 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts. The forecasts are used for ground and space launch operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45 WS also issues wind advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect wind gusts to meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated peak wind speeds are challenging to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October - April. In Phase I of this task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool to help the 45 WS forecast non-convective winds at KSC/CCAFS for the 24-hour period of 0800 to 0800 local time. The tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI displayed the forecast of peak wind speed, 5-minute average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, timing of the peak wind and probability the peak speed would meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. For the current task (Phase II ), the 45 WS requested additional observations be used for the creation of the forecast equations by expanding the period of record (POR). Additional parameters were evaluated as predictors, including wind speeds between 500 ft and 3000 ft, static stability classification, Bulk Richardson Number, mixing depth, vertical wind shear, temperature inversion strength and depth and wind direction. Using a verification data set, the AMU compared the performance of the Phase I and II prediction methods. Just as in Phase I, the tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel GUI. The 45 WS requested the tool also be available in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS). The AMU first expanded the POR by two years by adding tower observations, surface observations and CCAFS (XMR) soundings for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The POR was expanded

  5. Agent planning in AgScala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Saša; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2013-10-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

  6. A Flying Wire System in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Buxton, W.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Roser, T.; Smith, G.; Syphers, M.; Williams, N.; Witkover, R.

    1999-01-01

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less dependent on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system

  7. Operation of the AGS polarized beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    A polarized proton physics run took place during January, 1988, at the Brookhaven AGS. It is the purpose of this paper to review the tune-up period preceding that run. This was the third such run at the AGS; the others occurred in June of 1984 and February of 1986. Some comparisons will be drawn among these. A thorough review of the history and hardware associated with the acceleration of polarized protons at the AGS can be found in the proceedings of the last meeting of this group at Protvino and will not be repeated here. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  8. Emissions Scenarios and Fossil-fuel Peaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecha, R.

    2008-12-01

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions scenarios are based on detailed energy system models in which demographics, technology and economics are used to generate projections of future world energy consumption, and therefore, of greenhouse gas emissions. Built into the assumptions for these scenarios are estimates for ultimately recoverable resources of various fossil fuels. There is a growing chorus of critics who believe that the true extent of recoverable fossil resources is much smaller than the amounts taken as a baseline for the IPCC scenarios. In a climate optimist camp are those who contend that "peak oil" will lead to a switch to renewable energy sources, while others point out that high prices for oil caused by supply limitations could very well lead to a transition to liquid fuels that actually increase total carbon emissions. We examine a third scenario in which high energy prices, which are correlated with increasing infrastructure, exploration and development costs, conspire to limit the potential for making a switch to coal or natural gas for liquid fuels. In addition, the same increasing costs limit the potential for expansion of tar sand and shale oil recovery. In our qualitative model of the energy system, backed by data from short- and medium-term trends, we have a useful way to gain a sense of potential carbon emission bounds. A bound for 21st century emissions is investigated based on two assumptions: first, that extractable fossil-fuel resources follow the trends assumed by "peak oil" adherents, and second, that little is done in the way of climate mitigation policies. If resources, and perhaps more importantly, extraction rates, of fossil fuels are limited compared to assumptions in the emissions scenarios, a situation can arise in which emissions are supply-driven. However, we show that even in this "peak fossil-fuel" limit, carbon emissions are high enough to surpass 550 ppm or 2°C climate protection guardrails. Some

  9. Preparation and thermomechanical properties of Ag-PVA nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Anurag; Ram, S.

    2010-01-01

    Metal-polymer hybrid nanocomposites have been prepared from an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ). The silver nanoparticles were generated in PVA matrix by the reduction of silver ions with PVA molecule at 60-70 deg. C over magnetic stirrer. UV-vis analysis, X-ray diffraction studies, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and current-voltage analysis were used to characterize the nanocomposite films prepared. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that silver metal is present in face centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. Average crystallite size of silver nanocrystal is 19 nm, which increases to 22 nm on annealing the film at 150 deg. C in air. This result is in good agreement with the result obtained from TEM. The UV-vis spectrum shows a single peak at 433 nm, arising from the surface plasmon absorption of silver nanocolloids. This result clearly indicates that silver nanoparticles are embedded in PVA. An improvement of mechanical properties (storage modulus) was also noticed due to a modification of PVA up to 0.5 wt% of silver content. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of nanocomposite films shows increase in current drawn with increasing Ag-content in the films.

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigation on photocatalytic activities of 1D Ag/Ag2WO4 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danqing; Huang, Weicheng; Li, Long; Liu, Lu; Sun, Xiaojun; Liu, Bo; Yang, Bin; Guo, Chongshen

    2017-09-01

    Ag2WO4 is a significant photocatalyst that responds to UV light irradiation only, which greatly hinders it for further practical application for solar light. To address this problem, herein, 1D plasmonic Ag/Ag2WO4 photocatalysts have been fabricated by a successive process including hydrothermal synthesis to obtain Ag2WO4 followed by an additional in situ chemical-reduction process for Ag decoration. Then, the structural features, optical properties, and electronic structures of Ag2WO4 and Ag/Ag2WO4 nanowires were systematically investigated via a combination of theoretical calculations and experimental evidence. The plasmon-enhanced Ag/Ag2WO4 nanowires exhibited higher visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity, which performed a desired photodestruction ratio of 91.2% on methylene blue within 60 min and good stability in five cycles. The Ag decoration greatly facilitates visible-light harvesting and thus promotes photogenerated radical oxidation to dye, which is evidenced by the higher hydroxyl radical level of Ag/Ag2WO4 detected in the ESR test during the photocatalytic process. The theoretical calculation based on density functional theory indicates that Ag nanoparticles formed on the surface of Ag2WO4 could narrow the band gap of Ag2WO4. In addition, the surface plasmon resonance absorption effect and fast charge transfer effect in the metal-semiconductor system contribute to the photocatalytic performance of Ag/Ag2WO4.

  11. Peak Electric Load Relief in Northern Manhattan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegaard D. Link

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aphorism “Think globally, act locally,” attributed to René Dubos, reflects the vision that the solution to global environmental problems must begin with efforts within our communities. PlaNYC 2030, the New York City sustainability plan, is the starting point for this study. Results include (a a case study based on the City College of New York (CCNY energy audit, in which we model the impacts of green roofs on campus energy demand and (b a case study of energy use at the neighborhood scale. We find that reducing the urban heat island effect can reduce building cooling requirements, peak electricity loads stress on the local electricity grid and improve urban livability.

  12. Tim Peake and Britain's road to space

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This book puts the reader in the flight suit of Britain’s first male astronaut, Tim Peake. It chronicles his life, along with the Principia mission and the down-to-the-last-bolt descriptions of life aboard the ISS, by way of the hurdles placed by the British government and the rigors of training at Russia’s Star City military base. In addition, this book discusses the learning curves required in astronaut and mission training and the complexity of the technologies required to launch an astronaut and keep them alive for months on end. This book underscores the fact that technology and training, unlike space, do not exist in a vacuum; complex technical systems, like the ISS, interact with the variables of human personality, and the cultural background of the astronauts. .

  13. Complex behavior of elevators in peak traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2003-08-01

    We study the dynamical behavior of elevators in the morning peak traffic. We present a stochastic model of the elevators to take into account the interactions between elevators through passengers. The dynamics of the elevators is expressed in terms of a coupled nonlinear map with noises. The number of passengers carried by an elevator and the time-headway between elevators exhibit the complex behavior with varying elevator trips. It is found that the behavior of elevators exhibits a deterministic chaos even if there are no noises. The chaotic motion depends on the loading parameter, the maximum capacity of an elevator, and the number of elevators. When the loading parameter is superior to the threshold, each elevator carries a full load of passengers throughout its trip. The dependence of the threshold (transition point) on the elevator capacity is clarified.

  14. Equivalence principle and the baryon acoustic peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Simonović, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-08-01

    We study the dominant effect of a long wavelength density perturbation δ (λL) on short distance physics. In the nonrelativistic limit, the result is a uniform acceleration, fixed by the equivalence principle, and typically has no effect on statistical averages due to translational invariance. This same reasoning has been formalized to obtain a "consistency condition" on the cosmological correlation functions. In the presence of a feature, such as the acoustic peak at ℓBAO, this naive expectation breaks down for λLexplicitly applied to the one-loop calculation of the power spectrum. Finally, the success of baryon acoustic oscillation reconstruction schemes is argued to be another empirical evidence for the validity of the results.

  15. Synthesis and visible-light photocatalytic property of Ag/GO/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} ternary composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanxiang [Rural Environmental Engineering Center of Qingdao, College of Resource and Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Wu, Juan; Deng, Yangyang; Xin, Yanjun [Rural Environmental Engineering Center of Qingdao, College of Resource and Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Liu, Huiling [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Ma, Dong, E-mail: madong8088@126.com [Rural Environmental Engineering Center of Qingdao, College of Resource and Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Bao, Nan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • The Ag/GO/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalyst was obtained. • The GO acts as the electron mediator in the composite photocatalyst. • The composite has much higher photocatalytic activity than that of pure one. • The matched Fermi level provides the favorable charge transfer in the composite. - Abstract: Ag/GO/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites were successfully synthesized by a sonochemical method. The structure and properties of the composites at various Ag loadings were characterized, and the Ag nanoparticles were confirmed by XRD, TEM and XPS measurements. UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra showed the presence of surface plasmon peak for Ag at 550 nm. The Ag/GO/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites demonstrated excellent activity in photocatalytic degradation of Rh B under visible light irradiation, and 5% of Ag nanoparticle was found to be the most suitable loading. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the role of GO nanosheets and Ag nanoparticles. The GO nanosheets acted as electrons transporter and acceptor in the composite and inhibited the charge recombination. The Ag nanoparticles acted as an electron traps to facilitate the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and promoted interfacial electrons transfer. The {sup ·}OH{sub ads} and h{sup +} were the major radicals to be involved in the photocatalytic process.

  16. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  17. A solid-state thin-film Ag/AgCl reference electrode coated with graphene oxide and its use in a pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Yong; Hong, Sung A; Yang, Sung

    2015-03-17

    In this study, we describe a novel solid-state thin-film Ag/AgCl reference electrode (SSRE) that was coated with a protective layer of graphene oxide (GO). This layer was prepared by drop casting a solution of GO on the Ag/AgCl thin film. The potential differences exhibited by the SSRE were less than 2 mV for 26 days. The cyclic voltammograms of the SSRE were almost similar to those of a commercial reference electrode, while the diffusion coefficient of Fe(CN)63- as calculated from the cathodic peaks of the SSRE was 6.48 × 10-6 cm2/s. The SSRE was used in conjunction with a laboratory-made working electrode to determine its suitability for practical use. The average pH sensitivity of this combined sensor was 58.5 mV/pH in the acid-to-base direction; the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99. In addition, an integrated pH sensor that included the SSRE was packaged in a secure digital (SD) card and tested. The average sensitivity of the chip was 56.8 mV/pH, with the correlation coefficient being greater than 0.99. In addition, a pH sensing test was also performed by using a laboratory-made potentiometer, which showed a sensitivity of 55.4 mV/pH, with the correlation coefficient being greater than 0.99.

  18. Measuring neutrino oscillation parameters using νμ disappearance in MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backhouse, Christopher James

    2011-01-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It consists of two large steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. The near detector is situated at Fermilab, close to the production point of the NuMI muon-neutrino beam. The far detector is 735 km away, 716m underground in the Soudan mine, Northern Minnesota. The primary purpose of the MINOS experiment is to make precise measurements of the 'atmospheric' neutrino oscillation parameters (Δm atm 2 and sin 2 2θ atm ). The oscillation signal consists of an energy-dependent deficit of ν μ interactions in the far detector. The near detector is used to characterize the properties of the beam before oscillations develop. The two-detector design allows many potential sources of systematic error in the far detector to be mitigated by the near detector observations. This thesis describes the details of the ν μ -disappearance analysis, and presents a new technique to estimate the hadronic energy of neutrino interactions. This estimator achieves a significant improvement in the energy resolution of the neutrino spectrum, and in the sensitivity of the neutrino oscillation fit. The systematic uncertainty on the hadronic energy scale was re-evaluated and found to be comparable to that of the energy estimator previously in use. The best-fit oscillation parameters of the ν μ -disappearance analysis, incorporating this new estimator were: Δm 2 = 2.32 -0.08 +0.12 x 10 -3 eV 2 , sin 2 2θ > 0.90 (90% C.L.). A similar analysis, using data from a period of running where the NuMI beam was operated in a configuration producing a predominantly (bar ν) μ beam, yielded somewhat different best-fit parameters Δ(bar m) 2 = (3.36 -0.40 +0.46 (stat.) ± 0.06(syst.)) x 10 -3 eV 2 , sin 2 2(bar θ) = 0.86 -0.12 0 .11 (stat.) ± 0.01(syst.). The tension between these results is intriguing, and additional antineutrino data is currently being taken in order to further investigate this apparent discrepancy.

  19. Below the disappearing marshes of an urban estuary: historic nitrogen trends and soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigand, Cathleen; Roman, Charles T.; Davey, Earl; Stolt, Mark; Johnson, Roxanne; Hanson, Alana; Watson, Elizabeth B.; Moran, S. Bradley; Cahoon, Donald R.; Lynch, James C.; Rafferty, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Marshes in the urban Jamaica Bay Estuary, New York, USA are disappearing at an average rate of 13 ha/yr, and multiple stressors (e.g., wastewater inputs, dredging activities, groundwater removal, and global warming) may be contributing to marsh losses. Among these stressors, wastewater nutrients are suspected to be an important contributing cause of marsh deterioration. We used census data, radiometric dating, stable nitrogen isotopes, and soil surveys to examine the temporal relationships between human population growth and soil nitrogen; and we evaluated soil structure with computer-aided tomography, surface elevation and sediment accretion trends, carbon dioxide emissions, and soil shear strength to examine differences among disappearing (Black Bank and Big Egg) and stable marshes (JoCo). Radiometric dating and nitrogen isotope analyses suggested a rapid increase in human wastewater nutrients beginning in the late 1840s, and a tapering off beginning in the 1930s when wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were first installed. Current WWTPs nutrient loads to Jamaica Bay are approximately 13 995 kg N/d and 2767 kg P/d. At Black Bank, the biomass and abundance of roots and rhizomes and percentage of organic matter on soil were significantly lower, rhizomes larger in diameter, carbon dioxide emission rates and peat particle density significantly greater, and soil strength significantly lower compared to the stable JoCo Marsh, suggesting Black Bank has elevated decomposition rates, more decomposed peat, and highly waterlogged peat. Despite these differences, the rates of accretion and surface elevation change were similar for both marshes, and the rates of elevation change approximated the long term relative rate of sea level rise estimated from tide gauge data at nearby Sandy Hook, New Jersey. We hypothesize that Black Bank marsh kept pace with sea level rise by the accretion of material on the marsh surface, and the maintenance of soil volume through production of

  20. Context effects on smooth pursuit and manual interception of a disappearing target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyenmeier, Philipp; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam

    2017-07-01

    In our natural environment, we interact with moving objects that are surrounded by richly textured, dynamic visual contexts. Yet most laboratory studies on vision and movement show visual objects in front of uniform gray backgrounds. Context effects on eye movements have been widely studied, but it is less well known how visual contexts affect hand movements. Here we ask whether eye and hand movements integrate motion signals from target and context similarly or differently, and whether context effects on eye and hand change over time. We developed a track-intercept task requiring participants to track the initial launch of a moving object ("ball") with smooth pursuit eye movements. The ball disappeared after a brief presentation, and participants had to intercept it in a designated "hit zone." In two experiments ( n = 18 human observers each), the ball was shown in front of a uniform or a textured background that either was stationary or moved along with the target. Eye and hand movement latencies and speeds were similarly affected by the visual context, but eye and hand interception (eye position at time of interception, and hand interception timing error) did not differ significantly between context conditions. Eye and hand interception timing errors were strongly correlated on a trial-by-trial basis across all context conditions, highlighting the close relation between these responses in manual interception tasks. Our results indicate that visual contexts similarly affect eye and hand movements but that these effects may be short-lasting, affecting movement trajectories more than movement end points. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In a novel track-intercept paradigm, human observers tracked a briefly shown object moving across a textured, dynamic context and intercepted it with their finger after it had disappeared. Context motion significantly affected eye and hand movement latency and speed, but not interception accuracy; eye and hand position at interception were

  1. The Case of the Disappearing Altar: Mysteries and Consequences of Revitalizing Chinese Muslims in Yunnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Caffrey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article takes the example of a disappeared altar in a Himalayan valley as revelatory of contradictions within the mechanics of a Hui Muslim revitalization project. The community example—a group of historically identifiable Muslims in China—centers on the disappearance of a gifted propitiation altar that once stood as an instantiation of community cohesion among ethnically varied populations in the valley. The investigation examines transformations of modernity and the erosion of the “social glue” that held valley communities together as the disappearance of this gift is revealed to be a telling instance of the large-scale productivities and corrosions effected by China’s contemporary renaissance of reemerging religious movements and community identifications, processes in which Chinese Muslims serve as a potential indicator for a long view of reform contemporary social transformation.

  2. Forced Disappearance of Persons Forty Years after the Coup in Chile: an Approach to the Family Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Ligia Faúndez Abarca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the recollections of detained and disappeared relatives of 19 women from the Association for Relatives of the Detained-Disappeared. Testimony was collected using group reflective interviews, with an analysis of the verbal data. The main results indicate that the family memories transmitted trans-generationally are of high intensity and affectivity, constituting a post-memory (Hirsch, 1998. The recollections of the victim’s relatives also work against negation and impunity of the disappearance of the detained relative. This study contributes to the development of policies for memory which permit the social recognition of the family history of the victims of State terrorism. Both the theoretical-methodological proposal and the results obtained in this study indicate pathways to new lines of research oriented to the understanding of inter-generational transmission of traumatic experiences.

  3. Ozone decomposition on Ag/SiO2 and Ag/clinoptilolite catalysts at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Penko; Genov, Krassimir; Konova, Petya; Milenova, Katya; Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir; Kumar, Narendra; Sarker, Dipak K.; Pishev, Dimitar; Rakovsky, Slavcho

    2010-01-01

    Silver modified zeolite (Bulgarian natural clinoptilolite) and Ag/silica catalysts were synthesized by ion exchange and incipient wet impregnation method respectively and characterized by different techniques. DC arc-AES was used for Ag detection. XRD spectra show that Ag is loaded over the surface of the SiO 2 sample and that after the ion-exchange process the HEU type structure of clinoptilolite is retained. UV-VIS (specific reflection at 310 nm) and IR (band at 695 cm -1 ) spectroscopy analysis proved that silver is loaded as a T-atom into zeolite channels as Ag + , instead of Na + , Ca 2+ , or K + ions, existing in the natural clinoptilolite form. The samples Ag/SiO 2 and Ag-clinoptilolite were tested as catalysts for decomposition of gas phase ozone. Very high catalytic activity (up to 99%) was observed and at the same time the catalysts remained active over time at room temperature.

  4. Ag induced electromagnetic interference shielding of Ag-graphite/PVDF flexible nanocomposites thinfilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, R.; Alagar, M.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Subramanian, V.; Dinakaran, K.

    2015-09-01

    We report Ag nanoparticle induced Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding in a flexible composite films of Ag nanoparticles incorporated graphite/poly-vinylidene difluoride (PVDF). PVDF nanocomposite thin-films were synthesized by intercalating Ag in Graphite (GIC) followed by dispersing GIC in PVDF. The X-ray diffraction analysis and the high-resolution transmission electron microscope clearly dictate the microstructure of silver nanoparticles in graphite intercalated composite of PVDF matrix. The conductivity values of nanocomposites are increased upto 2.5 times when compared to neat PVDF having a value of 2.70 S/cm at 1 MHz. The presence of Ag broadly enhanced the dielectric constant and lowers the dielectric loss of PVDF matrix proportional to Ag content. The EMI shielding effectiveness of the composites is 29.1 dB at 12.4 GHz for the sample having 5 wt. % Ag and 10 wt. % graphite in PVDF.

  5. Ag-rich precipitates formation in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.A.G., E-mail: galdino.ricardo@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Paganotti, A.; Jabase, L. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Adorno, A.T.; Carvalho, T.M.; Santos, C.M.A. [Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Cu-rich nanoprecipitates are formed in the presence of Ag. • Bainite precipitation is shifted to higher temperatures in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy. • The eutectoid α phase and bainite α{sub 1} phase compete by the Cu atoms during precipitation process. - Abstract: The formation of Ag-rich precipitates in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy initially quenched from 1123 K was analyzed. The results showed that nanoprecipitates of a Cu-rich phase are produced at about 523 K. In higher temperatures these nanoparticles grow and the relative fraction of Ag dissolved in it is increased, thus forming the Ag-rich phase.

  6. AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints map shows the imagery footprints which have been collected under the USDA satellite blanket purchase agreement. Click on a...

  7. Barrier Cavities in the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Roser, T.; Smith, K.; Spitz, R.; Zaltsman, A.; Fujieda, M.; Iwashita, Y.; Noda, A.; Yoshii, M.; Mori, Y.; Ohmori, C.; Sato, Y.

    1999-01-01

    In collaboration with KEK two barrier cavities, each generating 40 kV per turn have been installed in the Brookhaven AGS. Machine studies are described and their implications for high intensity operations are discussed

  8. AgSat Areas of Interest

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Areas of Interest map contains area polygons where satellite imagery will be collected for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) to provide imagery coverage for...

  9. Lesson 3: Attorney General (AG) Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The AG Certification is a letter confirming legal authority to implement the electronic reporting covered by the application and enforce the affected programs using the electronic documents received under those programs.

  10. Temperature stability of AgCu nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopoušek, Jiří, E-mail: sopousek@mail.muni.cz; Zobač, Ondřej; Vykoukal, Vít [Masaryk University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Czech Republic); Buršík, Jiří; Roupcová, Pavla [Institute of Physics of Materials ASCR (Czech Republic); Brož, Pavel; Pinkas, Jiří [Masaryk University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Czech Republic); Vřešťál, Jan [Masaryk University, Central European Institute of Technology, CEITEC (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    The colloidal solutions of the Ag–Cu nanoparticles (NPs, 10–32 nm) were prepared by solvothermal reactions. The samples of dried AgCu NPs and the resulting microstructures after heat treatment in air were investigated by various methods including electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) and high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction (HTXRD). The AgCu randomly mixed, Cu-rich, and Ag-rich face centred cubic crystal lattices were detected during the experiments. The temperature induced sintering was observed experimentally by HTXRD at 250 °C. The phase transformations at high temperatures were monitored by differential scanning calorimetry. The formation of the Ag-rich grains during heating in air and evolution of copper oxide microstructure were detected.Graphical abstract.

  11. Physical properties of glasses in the Ag2GeS3-AgBr system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, M. V.; Demchenko, P. Yu.; Prokhorenko, S. V.; Moroz, V. M.

    2013-08-01

    Glasses have been prepared by quenching melts in the Ag2GeS3-AgBr system in a range of 0-53 mol % AgBr. The concentration dependences of density, microhardness, glass transition temperatures, and crystallization of alloys have been established. The conductivity of glasses has been investigated by the dc probe method in a range of 240-420 K. The models of the drift motion of silver and halogen ions have been proposed.

  12. BNL AGS - a context for kaon factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littenberg, L.S.

    1983-05-01

    Figure 1 shows the Brookhaven site with the AGS-CBA complex highlighted. In this photograph the AGS is dwarfed by CBA and indeed during the past few years future plans for particle physics at BNL have been dominated by this enormous project. However, very recently interest in future physics use of the AGS has undergone a strong revival. Indeed, since the beginning of this year, two projects for augmenting the AGS have been proposed. Such projects could keep the AGS viable as a research machine for many years to come. In general such schemes will also improve the performance and increase the versatility of the CBA, and so are doubly valuable. It should be kept in mind that in spite of the fact the AGS has been perhaps the most fruitful machine in the history of high energy physics, its full capacities have never been exploited. Even without improvements at least one generation of rare K decay experiments beyond those currently launched seems feasible. Beyond that a major effort at any of the experiments discussed above could take it to the point where it would be limited by intrinsic physics background. To pursue a full program of physics at this level one would want to increase the intensity of the AGS as described. A ten-fold increase in K flux would remove such experiments from the category of all-out technological assaults and render them manageable by reasonably small groups of physicists. In addition, certain other, cleaner experiments, e.g., K/sub L/ 0 → e + e - or e + e - π 0 , could be pushed to limits unobtainable at the present AGS. The increased flux would also be welcomed by the neutrino and hypernuclear physics programs. Even experiments which do not at present require higher fluxes would benefit through the availability of purer beams and cleaner conditions

  13. Sonochemical synthesis of Ag/AgCl nanocubes and their efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Deliang; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Huang, Qingsong; Ali, Ghafar; Cho, Sung Oh

    2012-04-23

    A novel one-step sonochemical approach to synthesize a plasmonic photocatalyst of AgCl nanocubes (ca. 115 nm in edge length) with a small amount of Ag metal species is presented. The nanoscale Ag/AgCl hybrid photocatalysts with cubic morphology are readily formed under ambient ultrasonic conditions and neither external heat treatment nor reducing agents are required. The size of the Ag/AgCl photocatalysts could be controlled by changing the concentrations of Ag(+) ions and polyvinylpyrrolidone molecules in precursor solutions. The compositions, microstructures, influencing factors, and possible growth mechanism of the Ag/AgCl hybrid nanocubes were systematically investigated. The Ag/AgCl photocatalysts show excellent photocatalytic performance for degradation of various dye molecules under visible light. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Kinetics of the disappearance of Cr/sup 51/-labelled endotoxin from the circulation in domestic hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malwinska, K

    1974-01-01

    The clearance rate of Cr/sup 51/-labelled S. gallinarum endotoxin from the circulation of the hen was investigated. The relationship between the dose of endotoxin and the disappearance rate or radioactivity from the blood was observed. It was noted that radioactivity in the blood decreased faster after injection of 5 mg of endotoxin than after administration of 10 mg. These differences were most pronounced during the first hour of observation and diminished later. Blood radioactivity of Cr/sup 51/Cl/sub 3/ was disappearing slower than that of labelled endotoxin. 17 references, 1 figure.

  15. Transformation of Ag nanocubes into Ag-Au hollow nanostructures with enriched Ag contents to improve SERS activity and chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yin; Zhang, Qiang; Fu, Zheng-Wen; Qin, Dong

    2014-03-12

    We report a strategy to complement the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl4 with co-reduction by ascorbic acid (AA) for the formation of Ag-Au hollow nanostructures with greatly enhanced SERS activity. Specifically, in the early stage of synthesis, the Ag nanocubes are sharpened at corners and edges because of the selective deposition of Au and Ag atoms at these sites. In the following steps, the pure Ag in the nanocubes is constantly converted into Ag(+) ions to generate voids owing to the galvanic reaction with HAuCl4, but these released Ag(+) ions are immediately reduced back to Ag atoms and are co-deposited with Au atoms onto the nanocube templates. We observe distinctive SERS properties for the Ag-Au hollow nanostructures at visible and near-infrared excitation wavelengths. When plasmon damping is eliminated by using an excitation wavelength of 785 nm, the SERS activity of the Ag-Au hollow nanostructures is 15- and 33-fold stronger than those of the original Ag nanocubes and the Ag-Au nanocages prepared by galvanic replacement without co-reduction, respectively. Additionally, Ag-Au hollow nanostructures embrace considerably improved stability in an oxidizing environment such as aqueous H2O2 solution. Collectively, our work suggests that the Ag-Au hollow nanostructures will find applications in SERS detection and imaging.

  16. [Temporary disappearance of EEG activity during reversible respiratory failure in rabbits and cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurco, M; Tomori, Z; Tkácová, R; Calfa, J

    1989-02-01

    The dynamics of changes of EEG activity was studied on the model of reversible respiratory failure in rabbits and cats in pentobarbital anesthesia. During N2 inhalation, apnea of 60 second duration, and subsequent resuscitation the electrocorticogram in bifrontal and bioccipital connection was recorded. Evaluation of 19 episodes of apnea in 7 rabbits and of 25 episodes in 8 cats yielded the following results: 1. During hyperventilation induced by N2 inhalation a certain activation of the EEG was observed (spindles more pronounced, increased occurrence rate of discharges of the reticular activation system). 2. At the onset of apnea the EEG was still distinct, suggesting that primary apnea is presumably not caused by anoxia and the accompanying electric silence of the structures that control respiration. 3. Disappearance of EEG occurred within 50 seconds from the onset of apnea in rabbits and within 30 seconds in cats. 4. After repeated episodes of apnea lasting for 60 sec., artificial ventilation mostly resulted in normalization of EEG.

  17. When the author pretends to disappear: auctorial figurations and mystifications during Romanticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoire Feuillebois

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at illustrating how one theoretical model, that of authorial figurations, recently contributed to the renewal of the studies on   the author and the authorship in French literature studies. With this model, scholars have sought to go beyond the depreciation which the structuralism and the theory of the deconstruction had cast on the manifestations of the author in the text and on the direct representations of his voice. This paper tries to reread this authorial presence in the light of cultural history and to show that these authorial figurations aim neither to give a faithful representation of the true author, nor to mimic the real narrative authorities at work in the text. The romantic forgery is an exemplary illustration of this model: the author seems to disappear behind a misleading figure, only to better assert his narrative power. The forgery establishes a hybrid strategy :  writers attract their readers with the promise of a direct contact with the author, but they develop a narrative manipulation in which the reader is left with only the text itself.

  18. The dynamics of accumulation and disappearance of {sup 89}Sr in tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuanqun, Chen; Shouxiang, Wang; Yongxi, Zhang; Zhiming, Sun [Zhejiang Agricultural Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences

    1994-06-01

    The {sup 89}Sr was put into a tea tree-soil system by different ways. The results showed that for {sup 89}Sr put into the system through the above-ground 1 part of tea tree, its concentration in tea was much higher than that through soil. The concentration of {sup 89}Sr in older tea was higher than that in shoot for the same treatment. The accumulation and disappearance of {sup 89}Sr in tea varied with the treatments. For the treatment through the above-ground part, the concentrations of {sup 89}Sr in older tea and shoot were monotonously decreasing with time. For the treatment through soil the concentration of {sup 89}Sr in shoot increased initially to a maximum value, then decreased slowly; while the concentration of {sup 89}Sr in older tea increased quickly in a definite period, then increased slowly to gain a saturated value. In addition, the values of concentration factor of {sup 89}Sr in the older tea and shoot were determined, too.

  19. The dynamics of accumulation and disappearance of 89Sr in tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chuanqun; Wang Shouxiang; Zhang Yongxi; Sun Zhiming

    1994-06-01

    The 89 Sr was put into a tea tree-soil system by different ways. The results showed that for 89 Sr put into the system through the above-ground 1 part of tea tree, its concentration in tea was much higher than that through soil. The concentration of 89 Sr in older tea was higher than that in shoot for the same treatment. The accumulation and disappearance of 89 Sr in tea varied with the treatments. For the treatment through the above-ground part, the concentrations of 89 Sr in older tea and shoot were monotonously decreasing with time. For the treatment through soil the concentration of 89 Sr in shoot increased initially to a maximum value, then decreased slowly; while the concentration of 89 Sr in older tea increased quickly in a definite period, then increased slowly to gain a saturated value. In addition, the values of concentration factor of 89 Sr in the older tea and shoot were determined, too

  20. THE DISAPPEARING SOLAR FILAMENT OF 2003 JUNE 11: A THREE-BODY PROBLEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S. [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States); Pevtsov, A. A. [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Cliver, E. W. [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O. [Helio Research, La Crescenta, CA 91214 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    The eruption of a large quiescent filament on 2003 June 11 was preceded by the birth of a nearby active region-a common scenario. In this case, however, the filament lay near a pre-existing active region and the new active region did not destabilize the filament by direct magnetic connection. Instead it appears to have done so indirectly via magnetic coupling with the established region. Restructuring between the perturbed fields of the old region and the filament then weakened the arcade overlying the midpoint of filament, where the eruption originated. The inferred rate ({approx}11 Degree-Sign day{sup -1}) at which the magnetic disturbance propagates from the mature region to destabilize the filament is larger than the mean speed ({approx}5 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator -6 Degree-Sign day{sup -1}) but still within the scatter obtained for Bruzek's empirical relationship between the distance from a newly formed active region to a quiescent filament and the time from active region appearance to filament disappearance. The higher propagation speed in the 2003 June 11 case may be due to the 'broadside' (versus 'end-on') angle of attack of the (effective) new flux to the coronal magnetic fields overlying a central section of the axis of the filament.

  1. A study of muon neutrino disappearance in the MINOS detectors and the NuMI beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Jiajie [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2010-01-01

    There is now substantial evidence that the proper description of neutrino involves two representations related by the 3 x 3 PMNS matrix characterized by either distinct mass or flavor. The parameters of this mixing matrix, three angles and a phase, as well as the mass differences between the three mass eigenstates must be determined experimentally. The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search experiment is designed to study the flavor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as it travels between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory at 1 km from the target, and the Far Detector in the Soudan iron mine in Minnesota at 735 km from the target. From the comparison of reconstructed neutrino energy spectra at the near and far location, precise measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters from muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance are expected. It is very important to know the neutrino flux coming from the source in order to achieve the main goal of the MINOS experiment: precise measurements of the atmospheric mass splitting |Δm232|, sin2 θ23. The goal of my thesis is to accurately predict the neutrino flux for the MINOS experiment and measure the neutrino mixing angle and atmospheric mass splitting.

  2. LOCAL INTERSTELLAR HYDROGEN'S DISAPPEARANCE AT 1 AU: FOUR YEARS OF IBEX IN THE RISING SOLAR CYCLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saul, Lukas; Rodríguez, Diego; Scheer, Juergen; Wurz, Peter; Bzowski, Maciej; Kubiak, Marzena; Sokół, Justina; Fuselier, Stephen; McComas, Dave; Möbius, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission has recently opened a new window on the interstellar medium (ISM) by imaging neutral atoms. One ''bright'' feature in the sky is the interstellar wind flowing into the solar system. Composed of remnants of stellar explosions as well as primordial gas and plasma, the ISM is by no means uniform. The interaction of the local ISM with the solar wind shapes our heliospheric environment with hydrogen being the dominant component of the very local ISM. In this paper, we report on direct sampling of the neutral hydrogen of the local ISM over four years of IBEX observations. The hydrogen wind observed at 1 AU has decreased and nearly disappeared as the solar activity has increased over the last four years; the signal at 1 AU has dropped off in 2012 by a factor of ∼8 to near background levels. The longitudinal offset has also increased with time presumably due to greater radiation pressure deflecting the interstellar wind. We present longitudinal and latitudinal arrival direction measurements of the bulk flow as measured over four years beginning at near solar minimum conditions. The H distribution we observe at 1 AU is expected to be different from that outside the heliopause due to ionization, photon pressure, gravity, and filtration by interactions with heliospheric plasma populations. These observations provide an important benchmark for modeling of the global heliospheric interaction. Based on these observations we suggest a further course of scientific action to observe neutral hydrogen over a full solar cycle with IBEX.

  3. Geneva University: Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 19 March 2012 COLLOQUE DE PHYSIQUE 5 p.m. - École de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay  Professor Yifang Wang Institute of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, a multinational collaboration operating in the south of China, today reported the first results of its search for the last, most elusive piece of a long-standing puzzle: how is it that neutrinos can appear to vanish as they travel? The surprising answer opens a gateway to a new understanding of fundamental physics and may eventually solve the riddle of why there is far more ordinary matter than antimatter in the Universe today....

  4. Mourning the dead, mourning the disappeared: the enigma of the absent-presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiana, Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    Freud's interest in the impact of death on the living goes back further than Mourning and Melancholia (1917e, [1915]). In Totem and Taboo (1912-13) Freud noted the ambivalence of the emotions we experience in relation to the dead. In this paper, I focus on Mourning and Melancholia as a landmark in the understanding of both the normal and psychopathological aspects of mourning and depressive processes in human beings. Mourning and Melancholia bridges Freud's first and second topographic theories of the psychic apparatus and constitutes for many authors the foundation of his theory of internal object relations. With this psychoanalytic understanding of mourning as a framework, I discuss 'special mourning processes,' such as the those confronted by psychoanalysts in Argentina when treating the relatives of thousands of people who were 'disappeared' by the military dictatorship in the 1970s; they are 'special' in the sense that the external reality [which] constitutes the starting point of the psychic mourning process, as described by Freud, is absent. I argue that the 'absent-presence' of the body as an enigmatic message initiates a special mourning process that bears certain characteristics of, and is isomorphic to, Laplanche's seduction theory. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  5. Prospects for the measurement of muon-neutrino disappearance at the FNAL-Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Anokhina, A; Benettoni, M; Bernardini, P; Brugnera, R; Calabrese, M; Cecchetti, A; Cecchini, S; Chernyavskiy, M; Creti, P; Corso, F Dal; Dalkarov, O; Del Prete, A; De Robertis, G; De Serio, M; Esposti, L Degli; Di Ferdinando, D; Dusini, S; Dzhatdoev, T; Fanin, C; Fini, R A; Fiore, G; Garfagnini, A; Golovanov, S; Guerzoni, M; Klicek, B; Kose, U; Jakovcic, K; Laurent, G; Lippi, I; Loddo, F; Longhin, A; Malenica, M; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marsella, G; Mauri, N; Medinaceli, E; Mengucci, A; Mingazheva, R; Morgunova, O; Muciaccia, M T; Nessi, M; Orecchini, D; Paoloni, A; Papadia, G; Paparella, L; Pasqualini, L; Pastore, A; Patrizii, L; Polukhina, N; Pozzato, M; Roda, M; Roganova, T; Rosa, G; Sahnoun, Z; Simone, S; Sirignano, C; Sirri, G; Spurio, M; Stanco, L; Starkov, N; Stipcevic, M; Surdo, A; Tenti, M; Togo, V; Ventura, M; Vladymyrov, M

    2014-01-01

    Neutrino physics is nowadays receiving more and more attention as a possible source of information for the long-standing problem of new physics beyond the Standard Model. The recent measurement of the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ in the standard mixing oscillation scenario encourages us to pursue the still missing results on leptonic CP violation and absolute neutrino masses. However, puzzling measurements exist that deserve an exhaustive evaluation. The NESSiE Collaboration has been setup to undertake conclusive experiments to clarify the muon-neutrino disappearance measurements at small $L/E$, which will be able to put severe constraints to models with more than the three-standard neutrinos, or even to robustly measure the presence of a new kind of neutrino oscillation for the first time. To this aim the use of the current FNAL-Booster neutrino beam for a Short-Baseline experiment has been carefully evaluated. This proposal refers to the use of magnetic spectrometers at two different sites, Near and Far. Thei...

  6. Indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate during the anhepatic phase of orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruegger, Lukas; Studer, Peter; Schmid, Stefan W; Pestel, Gunther; Reichen, Juerg; Seiler, Christian; Candinas, Daniel; Inderbitzin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Non-invasive pulse spectrophotometry to measure indocyanine green (ICG) elimination correlates well with the conventional invasive ICG clearance test. Nevertheless, the precision of this method remains unclear for any application, including small-for-size liver remnants. We therefore measured ICG plasma disappearance rate (PDR) during the anhepatic phase of orthotopic liver transplantation using pulse spectrophotometry. Measurements were done in 24 patients. The median PDR after exclusion of two outliers and two patients with inconstant signal was 1.55%/min (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.8-2.2). No correlation with patient age, gender, body mass, blood loss, administration of fresh frozen plasma, norepinephrine dose, postoperative albumin (serum), or difference in pre and post transplant body weight was detected. In conclusion, we found an ICG-PDR different from zero in the anhepatic phase, an overestimation that may arise in particular from a redistribution into the interstitial space. If ICG pulse spectrophotometry is used to measure functional hepatic reserve, the verified average difference from zero (1.55%/min) determined in our study needs to be taken into account.

  7. Disappearance of the inversion effect during memory-guided tracking of scrambled biological motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changhao; Yue, Guang H; Chen, Tingting; Ding, Jinhong

    2016-08-01

    The human visual system is highly sensitive to biological motion. Even when a point-light walker is temporarily occluded from view by other objects, our eyes are still able to maintain tracking continuity. To investigate how the visual system establishes a correspondence between the biological-motion stimuli visible before and after the disruption, we used the occlusion paradigm with biological-motion stimuli that were intact or scrambled. The results showed that during visually guided tracking, both the observers' predicted times and predictive smooth pursuit were more accurate for upright biological motion (intact and scrambled) than for inverted biological motion. During memory-guided tracking, however, the processing advantage for upright as compared with inverted biological motion was not found in the scrambled condition, but in the intact condition only. This suggests that spatial location information alone is not sufficient to build and maintain the representational continuity of the biological motion across the occlusion, and that the object identity may act as an important information source in visual tracking. The inversion effect disappeared when the scrambled biological motion was occluded, which indicates that when biological motion is temporarily occluded and there is a complete absence of visual feedback signals, an oculomotor prediction is executed to maintain the tracking continuity, which is established not only by updating the target's spatial location, but also by the retrieval of identity information stored in long-term memory.

  8. Compulsory declaration of the disappearance, loss or theft of property and of serious incidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2006-01-01

    New rules and reminder The rules governing internal and external declarations have been modified as follows: internal declarations concerning CERN mobile phones must now be made to the Telecom Lab instead of the Fire Brigade in order to minimise call-outs, declarations concerning valid CERN access cards and CERN vehicle stickers must be made to the competent external authorities in order to make their holders more aware of their responsibilities and to prevent abuse. This notification replaces the notifications published in Bulletin Nos. 38/1999 and 13/2001 (ref. DSU-DO/RH/9198 and 10315 respectively). 1. What has to be declared? The disappearance, loss or theft of property and serious incidents must be declared if they occur: within the fenced part of the CERN site, irrespective of the person and item concerned, outside the fenced part of the CERN site if CERN is the owner or custodian of the item concerned. Definitions: 'fenced part of the CERN site'means all the different fenced areas used by...

  9. Common cortical responses evoked by appearance, disappearance and change of the human face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kida Tetsuo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To segregate luminance-related, face-related and non-specific components involved in spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical activations to a face stimulus, we recorded cortical responses to face appearance (Onset, disappearance (Offset, and change (Change using magnetoencephalography. Results Activity in and around the primary visual cortex (V1/V2 showed luminance-dependent behavior. Any of the three events evoked activity in the middle occipital gyrus (MOG at 150 ms and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ at 250 ms after the onset of each event. Onset and Change activated the fusiform gyrus (FG, while Offset did not. This FG activation showed a triphasic waveform, consistent with results of intracranial recordings in humans. Conclusion Analysis employed in this study successfully segregated four different elements involved in the spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical activations in response to a face stimulus. The results show the responses of MOG and TPJ to be associated with non-specific processes, such as the detection of abrupt changes or exogenous attention. Activity in FG corresponds to a face-specific response recorded by intracranial studies, and that in V1/V2 is related to a change in luminance.

  10. Spontaneous disappearance of two asymptomatic arachnoid cysts in two different locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokluk, C; Senel, A; Celik, F; Ergür, H

    2003-04-01

    We report two children with asymptomatic arachnoid cysts which resolved spontaneously without any surgical intervention and history of major head and body trauma. The first child was a 10-year-old boy with an arachnoid cyst in the right sylvian fissure. The second child was a 1-year-old girl with a right cerebral convexity arachnoid cyst. Both of them were asymptomatic. Arachnoid cysts spontaneously disappeared within 2 years following initial diagnosing. There was no major head and body trauma except usual home, school and sports activity. We speculated that the cysts ruptured into cerebrospinal fluid circulation by the mechanical effects of some forced activities to the brain tissue and cyst, such as excessive breathing, coughing and sport activities. These factors may change the balance between intracystic and pericystic pressure and facilitate the rupturing of the cyst into subdural, subarachnoid and intraventricular spaces. These cases demonstrate that neurosurgical intervention of asymptomatic arachnoid cysts is not absolutely indicated in the paediatric age group. Close follow up with computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a treatment option in the patient with arachnoid cysts located in the middle cranial fossa and cerebral convexity.

  11. THE DISAPPEARING SOLAR FILAMENT OF 2003 JUNE 11: A THREE-BODY PROBLEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Cliver, E. W.; Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O.

    2011-01-01

    The eruption of a large quiescent filament on 2003 June 11 was preceded by the birth of a nearby active region—a common scenario. In this case, however, the filament lay near a pre-existing active region and the new active region did not destabilize the filament by direct magnetic connection. Instead it appears to have done so indirectly via magnetic coupling with the established region. Restructuring between the perturbed fields of the old region and the filament then weakened the arcade overlying the midpoint of filament, where the eruption originated. The inferred rate (∼11° day –1 ) at which the magnetic disturbance propagates from the mature region to destabilize the filament is larger than the mean speed (∼5º-6° day –1 ) but still within the scatter obtained for Bruzek's empirical relationship between the distance from a newly formed active region to a quiescent filament and the time from active region appearance to filament disappearance. The higher propagation speed in the 2003 June 11 case may be due to the 'broadside' (versus 'end-on') angle of attack of the (effective) new flux to the coronal magnetic fields overlying a central section of the axis of the filament.

  12. Disappearance of the telomere dysfunction-induced stress response in fully senescent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkenist, Christopher J; Drissi, Rachid; Wu, Jing; Kastan, Michael B; Dome, Jeffrey S

    2004-06-01

    Replicative senescence is a natural barrier to cellular proliferation that is triggered by telomere erosion and dysfunction. Here, we demonstrate that ATM activation and H2AX-gamma nuclear focus formation are sensitive markers of telomere dysfunction in primary human fibroblasts. Whereas the activated form of ATM and H2AX-gamma foci were rarely observed in early-passage cells, they were readily detected in late-passage cells. The ectopic expression of telomerase in late-passage cells abrogated ATM activation and H2AX-gamma focus formation, suggesting that these stress responses were the consequence of telomere dysfunction. ATM activation was induced in quiescent fibroblasts by inhibition of TRF2 binding to telomeres, indicating that telomere uncapping is sufficient to initiate the telomere signaling response; breakage of chromosomes with telomeric associations is not required for this activation. Although ATM activation and H2AX-gamma foci were readily observed in late-passage cells, they disappeared once cells became fully senescent, indicating that constitutive signaling from dysfunctional telomeres is not required for the maintenance of senescence.

  13. Karyotype Reorganization in the Hokou Gecko (Gekko hokouensis, Gekkonidae: The Process of Microchromosome Disappearance in Gekkota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornsorn Srikulnath

    Full Text Available The Hokou gecko (Gekko hokouensis: Gekkonidae, Gekkota, Squamata has the chromosome number 2n = 38, with no microchromosomes. For molecular cytogenetic characterization of the gekkotan karyotype, we constructed a cytogenetic map for G. hokouensis, which retains the ancestral karyotype of Gekkota, with 86 functional genes, and compared it with cytogenetic maps for four Toxicofera species that have many microchromosomes (Elaphe quadrivirgata, Varanus salvator macromaculatus, Leiolepis reevesii rubritaeniata, and Anolis carolinensis and that for a lacertid species (Lacerta agilis with only one pair of autosomal microchromosomes. Ten pairs of G. hokouensis chromosomes [GHO1, 2, 3, Z(4, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, and 15] showed highly conserved linkage homology with macrochromosomes and/or macrochromosome arms of the four Toxicofera species and corresponded to eight L. agilis macrochromosomes (LAG. However, GHO5, GHO9, GHO10, GHO11, and LAG6 were composed of chromosome segments that have a homology with Toxicofera microchromosomes, and no homology was found in the chromosomes between G. hokouensis and L. agilis. These results suggest that repeated fusions of microchromosomes may have occurred independently in each lineage of Gekkota and Lacertidae, leading to the disappearance of microchromosomes and appearance of small-sized macrochromosomes.

  14. Karyotype Reorganization in the Hokou Gecko (Gekko hokouensis, Gekkonidae): The Process of Microchromosome Disappearance in Gekkota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Uno, Yoshinobu; Nishida, Chizuko; Ota, Hidetoshi; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    The Hokou gecko (Gekko hokouensis: Gekkonidae, Gekkota, Squamata) has the chromosome number 2n = 38, with no microchromosomes. For molecular cytogenetic characterization of the gekkotan karyotype, we constructed a cytogenetic map for G. hokouensis, which retains the ancestral karyotype of Gekkota, with 86 functional genes, and compared it with cytogenetic maps for four Toxicofera species that have many microchromosomes (Elaphe quadrivirgata, Varanus salvator macromaculatus, Leiolepis reevesii rubritaeniata, and Anolis carolinensis) and that for a lacertid species (Lacerta agilis) with only one pair of autosomal microchromosomes. Ten pairs of G. hokouensis chromosomes [GHO1, 2, 3, Z(4), 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, and 15] showed highly conserved linkage homology with macrochromosomes and/or macrochromosome arms of the four Toxicofera species and corresponded to eight L. agilis macrochromosomes (LAG). However, GHO5, GHO9, GHO10, GHO11, and LAG6 were composed of chromosome segments that have a homology with Toxicofera microchromosomes, and no homology was found in the chromosomes between G. hokouensis and L. agilis. These results suggest that repeated fusions of microchromosomes may have occurred independently in each lineage of Gekkota and Lacertidae, leading to the disappearance of microchromosomes and appearance of small-sized macrochromosomes.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} photocatalyst with high photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Limin, E-mail: songlmnk@sohu.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering & State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Li, Tongtong [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering & State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Zhang, Shujuan [College of Science, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin, 300457 (China)

    2016-10-01

    A new Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} photocatalyst was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of AgNO{sub 3} and NaBrO{sub 3}. The catalyst’s structure and performance were investigated with X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The UV–vis absorption spectrum of Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} exhibits a band gap of 3.97 eV. The results show that the Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} semiconductor can be excited by ultraviolet–visible light. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B displayed much higher photocatalytic activity than that of N-doped TiO{sub 2} under the same experimental conditions. Moreover, ·OH and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} generated in the photocatalysis played a key role of the photodegradation of Rhodamine B. - Highlights: • Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} with higher photodegradation ability was synthesized. • ·OH and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} radicals were the main active species in the oxidation of RhB. • The possible reaction mechanism was discussed in details.

  16. Rapid chromatographic separation of dissoluble Ag(I) and silver-containing nanoparticles of 1-100 nanometer in antibacterial products and environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2014-12-16

    Sensitive and rapid methods for speciation analysis of nanoparticulate Ag (NAg) and Ag(I) in complex matrices are urgently needed for understanding the environmental effects and biological toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Herein we report the development of a universal liquid chromatography (LC) method for rapid and high resolution separation of dissoluble Ag(I) from nanoparticles covering the entire range of 1-100 nm in 5 min. By using a 500 Å poresize amino column, and an aqueous mobile phase containing 0.1% (v/v) FL-70 (a surfactant) and 2 mM Na2S2O3 at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min, all the nanoparticles of various species such as Ag and Ag2S were eluted in one fraction, while dissoluble Ag(I) was eluted as a baseline separated peak. The dissoluble Ag(I) was quantified by the online coupled ICP-MS with a detection limit of 0.019 μg/L. The NAg was quantified by subtracting the dissoluble Ag(I) from the total Ag content, which was determined by ICP-MS after digestion of the sample without LC separation. While the addition of FL-70 and Na2S2O3 into the mobile phase is essential to elute NAg and Ag(I) from the column, the use of 500 Å poresize column is the key to baseline separation of Ag(I) from ∼ 1 nm AgNPs. The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated in speciation analysis of dissoluble Ag(I) and NAg in antibacterial products and environmental waters, with very good chromatographic repeatability (relative standard deviations) in both peak area (<2%) and retention time (<0.6%), excellent spiked recoveries in the range of 84.7-102.7% for Ag(I) and 81.3-106.3% for NAg. Our work offers a novel approach to rapid and baseline separation of dissoluble metal ions from their nanoparticulate counterparts covering the whole range of 1-100 nm.

  17. The preparation of Ag-BiVO4 metal composite oxides and its application in efficient photocatalytic oxidative thiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Ming; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Li, Wen-Hong

    2013-06-01

    A series of Ag-BiVO4 photocatalysts was synthesized by the hydrothemal synthesis method for different pH values. A strong correlation was found among the prepared processing, structure and property of the samples. With increasing pH value from 5 to 9, the crystallinity increases and the as-prepared Ag-BiVO4 sample gradually disappeared from the nanostructures. The light absorption became higher in the UV and visible range, accompanied by a bathochromic shift of the absorption edge. The competitive relations between crystallinity and surface area affecting photocatalytic activity were also discussed. Photocatalytic desulfurization on the as-prepared Ag-BiVO4 samples using thiophene dissolved in n-octane as a model organosulfur compound was performed. It showed that the photocatalytic desulfurization on the as-prepared Ag-BiVO4 sample at pH=7 can be up to 95%, which existed as various size particles and had significant high surface area of 13.768 m2 g-1.

  18. Long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at the AGS. Physics design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavis, D.; Carroll, A.; Chiang, I.

    1995-04-01

    The authors present a design for a multi-detector long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at the BNL AGS. It has been approved by the BNL-HENP-PAC as AGS Experiment 889. The experiment will search for oscillations in the ν μ , disappearance channel and the ν μ ↔ ν e appearance channel by means of four identical neutrino detectors located 1, 3, 24, and 68km from the AGS neutrino source. Observed depletion of the ν μ flux (via quasi-elastic muon neutrino events, ν μ n → μ - p) in the far detectors not attended by an observed proportional increase of the ν e flux (via quasi-elastic electron neutrino events, ν e n → e - p) in those detectors will be prima facie evidence for the oscillation channel ν μ ↔ ν τ . The experiment is directed toward exploration of the region of the neutrino oscillation parameters Δm 2 and sin 2 2θ, suggested by the Kamiokande and IMB deep underground detectors but it will also explore a region more than two orders of magnitude larger than that of previous accelerator experiments. The experiment will run in a mode new to BNL. It will receive the fast extracted proton beam on the neutrino target approximately 20 hours per day when the AGS is not filling RHIC. A key aspect of the experimental design involves placing the detectors 1.5 degrees off the center line of the neutrino beam, which has the important advantage that the central value of the neutrino energy (∼ 1 GeV) and the beam spectral shape are, to a good approximation, the same in all four detectors. The proposed detectors are massive, imaging, water Cherenkov detectors similar in large part to the Kamiokande and IMB detectors. The design has profited from their decade-long experience, and from the detector designs of the forthcoming SNO and SuperKamiokande detectors

  19. Norwegian hydropower a valuable peak power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Hermod

    2010-07-01

    given on a possible increase of the Norwegian hydropower peak power production to meet the growing the European demand for peak power caused by the growing non stationary production from wind mills and ocean energy from waves and sea current. Also building of reversible pump turbine power plants will be discussed even if approximately 10% power will be consumed by loss in the pumping phase compared to direct use of the water from reservoirs. (Author)

  20. Can You Hear That Peak? Utilization of Auditory and Visual Feedback at Peak Limb Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Tristan; de Grosbois, John; Tremblay, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: At rest, the central nervous system combines and integrates multisensory cues to yield an optimal percept. When engaging in action, the relative weighing of sensory modalities has been shown to be altered. Because the timing of peak velocity is the critical moment in some goal-directed movements (e.g., overarm throwing), the current study…

  1. OccuPeak: ChIP-Seq peak calling based on internal background modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Bouke A.; van Duijvenboden, Karel; van den Boogaard, Malou; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Barnett, Phil; Ruijter, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    ChIP-seq has become a major tool for the genome-wide identification of transcription factor binding or histone modification sites. Most peak-calling algorithms require input control datasets to model the occurrence of background reads to account for local sequencing and GC bias. However, the

  2. Dependence of nonlinear optical properties of Ag2S@ZnS core-shells on Zinc precursor and capping agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghanipour, M.; Khanzadeh, M.; Karimipour, M.; Molaei, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, four different types of Ag2S@ZnS core-shells were synthesized and their nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were investigated using a Z-scan technique by a 532 nm laser diode. Here, Ag2S and ZnS nanoparticles were also synthesized and their NLO properties were compared with Ag2S@ZnS core-shells. It was observed that the NLO properties of Ag2S@ZnS quantum dots significantly increased by increasing the values of Zn(NO3)2 and thioglycolic acid (TGA). It was also observed that the NLO properties of Ag2S@ZnS core-shells for 0.1 g of Zn(NO3)2 and 7000 μl TGA is higher than sole Ag2S and ZnS nanoparticles. In open aperture Z-scan curve of ZnS sample, a saturable absorption peak was observed and this peak was seen also in type of Ag2S@ZnS nanoparticles which the value of Zn(NO3)2 much more.

  3. Prediction of iodine activity peak during refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Z.; Vajda, N.

    2001-01-01

    The increase of fission product activities in the primary circuit of a nuclear power plant indicates the existence of defects in some fuel rods. The power change leads to the cooling down of the fuel and results in the fragmentation of the UO 2 pellets, which facilitates the release of fission products from the intergranular regions. Furthermore the injection of boric acid after shutdown will increase the primary activity, due to the solution of deposited fission products from the surface of the core components. The calculation of these phenomena usually is based on the evaluation of activity measurements and power plant data. The estimation of iodine spiking peak during reactor transients is based on correlation with operating parameters, such as reactor power and primary pressure. The approach used in the present method was applied for CANDU reactors. The VVER-440 specific correlations were determined using the activity measurements of the Paks NPP and the data provided by the Russian fuel supplier. The present method is used for the evaluation of the iodine isotopes, as well as the noble gases. A numerical model has been developed for iodine spiking simulation and has been validated against several shutdown transients, measured at Paks NPP. (R.P.)

  4. Fast clustering using adaptive density peak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Yifan

    2017-12-01

    Common limitations of clustering methods include the slow algorithm convergence, the instability of the pre-specification on a number of intrinsic parameters, and the lack of robustness to outliers. A recent clustering approach proposed a fast search algorithm of cluster centers based on their local densities. However, the selection of the key intrinsic parameters in the algorithm was not systematically investigated. It is relatively difficult to estimate the "optimal" parameters since the original definition of the local density in the algorithm is based on a truncated counting measure. In this paper, we propose a clustering procedure with adaptive density peak detection, where the local density is estimated through the nonparametric multivariate kernel estimation. The model parameter is then able to be calculated from the equations with statistical theoretical justification. We also develop an automatic cluster centroid selection method through maximizing an average silhouette index. The advantage and flexibility of the proposed method are demonstrated through simulation studies and the analysis of a few benchmark gene expression data sets. The method only needs to perform in one single step without any iteration and thus is fast and has a great potential to apply on big data analysis. A user-friendly R package ADPclust is developed for public use.

  5. An overview of Booster and AGS Polarized Proton Operations during Run 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeno, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-10-11

    There were only a few differences in the setup between this year’s Polarized Proton run and the previous one (Run 15). Consequently, this note will focus on these differences as well as a few more notable studies done during the course of the run. This year, the Booster input intensity was kept around 7e11 for the majority of the run whereas in Run 15 it was kept around 9e11. It was lowered because there was some indication that the source polarization was higher with this lower input. Some of the polarization measurements that motivated this change will be discussed. Both the emittance and polarization on the AGS flattop show intensity dependence, thought to be related to the peak current, especially early in the AGS acceleration ramp. In Run 15, the AGS Rf was configured for h=8, but in this run h=6 was used to reduce the peak current and also to allow for the possibility of using a dual harmonic to reduce it further. Eventually, a dual harmonic configuration was used for the first 100 ms or so of the AGS acceleration cycle. Two cavities were set to h=12 and phased differently than the other 8 to accomplish this. Quad pumping was also used at Booster extraction to make the bunch injected into the AGS wider in order to match the dual harmonic bucket right at injection. This configuration, which was used for the majority of the run, will be described. Measurements of the intensity dependence of the transverse emittance and polarization with and without it will be compared.

  6. Electronic structure of Co islands grown on the {radical}3 x {radical}3-Ag/Ge(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Chou, Chi-Hao; Lin, Chun-Liang; Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Fu, Tsu-Yi, E-mail: phtifu@phy.ntnu.edu.tw

    2011-09-30

    By means of room temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy (RT STS), we have studied the electronic structure of two different Ag/Ge(111) phases as well as Co islands grown on the {radical}3 x {radical}3-Ag/Ge (111) forming either {radical}13 x {radical}13 or 2 x 2 patterns. The spectrum obtained from 4 x 4-Ag/Ge(111) structure shows the existence of a shoulder at 0.7 V which is also present in the electronic structure of the Ge(111)-c2 x 8 and indicates donation of Ge electrons to electronic states of the Ag-driven phase. However, this fact is not supported by the electronic spectrum taken from the {radical}3 x {radical}3-Ag/Ge (111). The complexity of the Co-{radical}13 x {radical}13 islands bonding with the substrate is mirrored by a large number of peaks in their electronic spectra. The spectra obtained from the Co-2 x 2 islands which had grown on the step differ from those taken from Co-2 x 2 islands located along the edge of the terrace by a number of peaks at negative sample bias. This discrepancy is elucidated in terms of dissimilarities of Co-substrate interaction accompanying Co islands growth on different areas of the stepped surface.

  7. Controllable synthesis of dual emissive Ag:InP/ZnS quantum dots with high fluorescence quantum yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; He, Guoxing; Mei, Shiliang; Zhu, Jiatao; Zhang, Wanlu; Chen, Qiuhang; Zhang, Guilin; Guo, Ruiqian

    2017-11-01

    Dual emissive Cd-free quantum dots (QDs) are in great demand for various applications. However, their synthesis has been faced with challenges. Here, we demonstrate the dual emissive Ag:InP/ZnS core/shell QDs with the excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) up to 75% and their PL dependence on the reaction temperature, reaction time, the different ZnX2 (X = I, Cl, and Br) precursors, the ratio of In/Zn and the Ag dopant concentration. The as-prepared Ag:InP/ZnS QDs exhibit dual emission with one peak position of about 492 nm owing to the intrinsic emission, and the other peak position of about 575 nm resulting from Ag-doped emission. These dual emissive QDs are integrated with the commercial GaN-based blue LEDs, and the simulation results show that the Ag:InP/ZnS QDs-based white LEDs could realize bright natural white-lights with the luminous efficacy (LE) of 94.2-98.4 lm/W, the color rendering index (CRI) of 82-83 and the color quality scale (CQS) of 82-83 at different correlated color temperatures (CCT). This unique combination of the above properties makes this new class of dual emissive QDs attractive for white LED applications.

  8. Using 13X, LiX, and LiPdAgX zeolites for CO_2 capture from post-combustion flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.J.; Zhu, M.; Fu, Y.; Huang, Y.X.; Tao, Z.C.; Li, W.L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We synthesized a novel adsorbent named LiPdAgX zeolite. • CCS was proposed from microstructure, selectivity and separation factor of zeolite. • The static and flowing adsorption using CO_2/N_2 mixture on X zeolites were studied. • LiPdAgX zeolite required less energy for regeneration compared to 13X and MEA. • LiPdAgX zeolite can effectively capture CO_2 from post-combustion flue gas. - Abstract: This work investigates the application of X zeolites for capturing CO_2 from post-combustion flue gas. LiX and LiPdAgX zeolites were prepared by an ion-exchange method using 13X zeolite. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all samples exhibited characteristic peaks of X zeolites, where the peak intensities increased in the order: LiPdAgX > LiX > 13X. The enhanced intensity of the diffraction peaks can increase the activity of the X zeolites and improve their adsorption performance. Scanning electron microscopy imaging showed that the intergranular pore canals of LiPdAgX zeolite were more concentrated. Pore structure analysis indicated that addition of Li"+ to the 13X zeolite enhanced the specific surface areas and pore volumes of the zeolites. Among the 13X, LiX, and LiPdAgX zeolites, LiPdAgX showed the highest CO_2/N_2selectivity, where the difference in the CO_2 adsorption capacity was due to differences in the number of adsorption sites and thermal conductivities of the X zeolites. The CO_2 breakthrough time increased in succession for the 13X, LiX, and LiPdAgX zeolites. The CO_2/N_2 separation factor of the LiPdAgX zeolite was twice that of the 13X zeolite at a CO_2 concentration of 20 vol.%. The temperature variations during the adsorption process were used to determine the regeneration energy and adsorption capacity of the X zeolites. LiPdAgX zeolite required less energy for regeneration than 13X zeolite and MEA. After regeneration, the separation factor of LiPdAgX zeolite remained at 6.38 for 20 vol.% CO_2 in the flue gas. Therefore, LiPdAg

  9. Removal of Ag+ from water environment using a novel magnetic thiourea-chitosan imprinted Ag+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Lulu; Luo, Chuannan; Lv, Zhen; Lu, Fuguang; Qiu, Huamin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Coating modified chitosan on magnetic fluids, which were using Ag(I) as imprinted ions, is a new method to expand function of the chitosan. → The method can improve the surface area for adsorption of Ag + and reduce the required dosage for the adsorption of Ag(I). → The imprinted magnetic chitosan can be used effectively and selectively to remove Ag(I) ions from aqueous solutions. → It shows the facile, fast separation process of magnetic chitosan during the experiments. The absorbent has a good application prospect. - Abstract: A novel, thiourea-chitosan coating on the surface of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) (Ag-TCM) was successfully synthesized using Ag(I) as imprinted ions for adsorption and removal of Ag(I) ions from aqueous solutions. The thermal stability, chemical structure and magnetic property of the Ag-TCM were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the adsorption conditions, selectivity and reusability. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity was 4.93 mmol/g, observed at pH 5 and temperature 30 o C. Equilibrium adsorption was achieved within 50 min. The kinetic data, obtained at the optimum pH 5, could be fitted with a pseudo-second order equation. Adsorption process could be well described by Langmuir adsorption isotherms and the maximum adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir equation was 5.29 mmol/g. The selectivity coefficient of Ag(I) ions and other metal cations onto Ag-TCM indicated an overall preference for Ag(I) ions, which was much higher than non-imprinted thiourea-chitosan beads. Moreover, the sorbent was stable and easily recovered, the adsorption capacity was about 90% of the initial saturation adsorption capacity after being used five times.

  10. Bimetallic Ag-Pt and Au-Pt aggregates synthesized by radiolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remita, S; Mostafavi, M; Delcourt, M O [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1996-02-01

    Irradiating aqueous solutions containing both Ag{sub 2}So{sub 4} and K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4} leads to intermetallic aggregates of various sizes according to the stabilizing agent: polyvinylalcohol, polyacrylic acid or polyacrylate. In the last case, the particle diameter is 1.5 nm. The bimetallic character is evidenced in all cases by the spectral changes of such sols compared to pure silver sols which display a characteristic surface plasmon absorption band. This plasmon band disappears when 10 to 20 at.% or more Pr is present. Observation by TEM gives an estimation of the particle sizes. Comparable results have been obtained for Au-Pt particles. (author).

  11. Effect of annealing temperature and dopant concentration on the thermoluminescence sensitivity in LiF:Mg,Cu,Ag material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaabadi, Akram; Torkzadeh, Falamarz; Rezaei Ochbelagh, Dariush; Hosseini Pooya, Seyed Mahdi

    2018-04-24

    LiF:Mg,Cu,Ag is a new dosimetry material that is similar to LiF:Mg,Cu,P in terms of dosimetric properties. The effect of the annealing temperature in the range of 200 to 350°C on the thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity and the glow curve structure of this material at different concentrations of silver (Ag) was investigated. It has been demonstrated that the optimum values of the annealing temperature and the Ag concentration are 240°C and 0.1 mol% for better sensitivity, respectively. The TL intensity decreases at annealing temperatures lower than 240°C or higher than 240°C, reaching a minimum at 300°C and then again increases for various Ag concentrations. It was observed that the glow curve structure altered and the area under the low temperature peak as well as the area under the main dosimetric peak decreased with increasing annealing temperature. The position of the main dosimetric peak moved in the direction of higher temperatures, but at 320 and 350°C annealing temperatures, it shifted to lower temperatures. It was also observed that the TL sensitivity could partially be recovered by a combined annealing procedure. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Studies on highly luminescent AgInS{sub 2} and Ag–Zn–In–S quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Weidong, E-mail: xiangweidong001@126.com [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Xie, Cuiping; Wang, Jing; Zhong, Jiasong; Liang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Hailong; Luo, Le [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Chen, Zhaoping [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • The quantum yield of the obtained ternary AgInS{sub 2} QDs was up to 62% with the emission peak of 642 nm under the excitation of 460 nm. • Colorful luminescent Ag–Zn–In–S QDs were obtained by adding Zn salts directly as well as Ag and In precursors. • The obtained highly luminescent quantum dots showed promising applications in the white light emitting diodes (W-LED). • The electroluminescence (EL) of AgInS{sub 2} QDs was observed in QD-LED device. -- Abstract: Silver indium sulfide (AIS) quantum dots (QDs) with different Ag/In molar ratios were synthesized via a hot-injection method. Intense photoluminescence (PL) originating from the donor–acceptor pair recombination were observed for all the samples and the emission peak blue-shifted from 739 to 632 nm, being similar to the behavior of the absorption onset as the Ag/In ratios decreased. The highest PL quantum yield (QY) of the obtained ternary AIS QDs was ca. 62% with an optimum ratio of Ag/In = 1/4. Compared with AIS QDs, when Zn ions were introduced, the absorption spectra of the obtained quaternary Ag–Zn–In–S QDs were blue-shifted, and their emission peaks moved to higher energies accordingly, showing a tunable emission from red to green by altering the band gap energy. In order to further study the electroluminescence (EL) as well as looking forward to the applications in the optoelectronic devices of the obtained highly luminescent nanoparticles, the colloidal AIS QDs were deposited as thin films to the sandwich-like structured QD-LED. The experimental results showed that the obtained EL device exhibited EL emission originated from QDs thin films by adjusting the turn on voltage, which is for the first time to realize EL of AIS QDs in such QD-LED.

  13. Antibacterial Ag/a-C nanocomposite coatings: The influence of nano-galvanic a-C and Ag couples on Ag ionization rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, N.K., E-mail: nora.sousa@dem.uc.pt [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); GRF-CFUM, Physics Department, University of Minho, Campus of Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Calderon, S. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); GRF-CFUM, Physics Department, University of Minho, Campus of Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Carvalho, I. [GRF-CFUM, Physics Department, University of Minho, Campus of Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); CEB—Centre of Biological Engineering, LIBRO-Laboratório de Investigação em Biofilmes Rosário Oliveira, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Henriques, M. [CEB—Centre of Biological Engineering, LIBRO-Laboratório de Investigação em Biofilmes Rosário Oliveira, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Cavaleiro, A. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Carvalho, S. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); GRF-CFUM, Physics Department, University of Minho, Campus of Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • Amorphous carbon (a-C), Ag/a-C and Ag coatings were deposited by magnetron sputtering. • a-C/Ag coating shows antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis. • The formation of nano-galvanic couples in a-C/Ag enhances the Ag{sup +} ionization rate. • The Ag{sup +} ionization occurs along with Ag nanoparticles agglomeration in 0.9% NaCl. - Abstract: Biofilm formation has been pointed as a major concern in different industrial applications, namely on biomedical implants and surgical instruments, which has prompted the development of new strategies for production of efficient antimicrobial surfaces. In this work, nano-galvanic couples were created to enhance the antibacterial properties of silver, by embedding it into amorphous carbon (a-C) matrix. The developed Ag/a-C nanocomposite coatings, deposited by magnetron sputtering, revealed an outstanding antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, promoting a total reduction in biofilm formation with no bacteria counts in all dilution. The open circuit potential (OCP) tests in 0.9% NaCl confirmed that a-C shows a positive OCP value, in contrast to Ag coating, thus enhancing the ionization of biocidal Ag{sup +} due to the nano-galvanic couple activation. This result was confirmed by the inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), which revealed a higher Ag ionization rate in the nanocomposite coating in comparison with the Ag coating. The surface of Ag/a-C and Ag coatings immersed in 0.9% NaCl were monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) over a period of 24 h, being found that the Ag ionization determined by ICP-OES was accompanied by an Ag nanoparticles coalescence and agglomeration in Ag/a-C coating.

  14. Both released silver ions and particulate Ag contribute to the toxicity of AgNPs to earthworm Eisenia fetida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.; , van, Gestel C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    To disentangle the contribution of ionic and nanoparticulate Ag to the overall toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida, a semi-permeable membrane strategy was used to separate Ag+ released from silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous exposure. Internal Ag fractionation, activities of antioxidant

  15. Core/shell AgNi/PtAgNi nanoparticles as methanol-tolerant oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dengfeng; Cheng, Daojian

    2015-01-01

    A core/shell AgNi/PtAgNi nanoparticle (NP) was synthesized via a new seed-mediated growth method in organic solvent medium. The as-synthesized AgNi/PtAgNiNP exhibits an AgNi core coated with PtAgNi shell, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst possesses higher oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and better durability compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. It is found that the ORR polarization curve of the AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst shows an onset potential of 0.91 V vs. RHE, which is superior to the commercial Pt/C (0.88 V vs. RHE). In addition, the AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst shows much better durability than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More interestingly, the AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst displays much higher methanol tolerance than the commercial Pt/C catalyst in 0.1 M KOH solution in the presence of 0.5 M methanol. Our results show that core/shell AgNi/PtAgNiNPs possess selective activity for ORR even in the presence of methanol, showing potential application as methanol-tolerant cathode catalysts in direct methanol fuel cells.

  16. Lateral cervical cleft: a previously unreported anomaly resulting from incomplete disappearance of the second pharyngeal (branchial) cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsoy, M H; Gedikoğlu, G; Tanyel, F C

    1999-03-01

    The authors present a 2-year-old boy with a skin defect located in the right lateral side of the neck. They suggest the defect is a partial failure of disappearance of the second pharyngeal (branchial) cleft and propose a name of lateral cervical cleft.

  17. Pedagogies of Hauntology in History Education: Learning to Live with the Ghosts of Disappeared Victims of War and Dictatorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2013-01-01

    Michalinos Zembylas examines how history education can be reconceived in terms of Jacques Derrida's notion of "hauntology," that is, as an ongoing conversation with the "ghost"--in the case of this essay, the ghosts of disappeared victims of war and dictatorship. Here, Zembylas uses hauntology as both metaphor and pedagogical methodology for…

  18. Role of model ingredients on the directed flow and its disappearance using isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, R.

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of different equations of state, momentum dependence of nuclear forces and in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross-sections on the directed flow and its disappearance. Our findings reveal that soft momentum-dependent equation of state along with reduced cross-section shows good agreement with the experimentally observed mass dependence of balance energy. (authors)

  19. Search for chirality in 109Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timar, J.; Nyako, B.M.; Berek, G.; Gal, J.; Kalinka, G.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Molnar, J.; Zolnai, L.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The existence of nuclear chirality is one of the most intriguing questions of contemporary high-spin nuclear structure studies. Rotational doublet-band candidates for chiral structures have been observed mostly in two regions of the nuclear chart: around 134 Pr, and around 104 Rh. In this second region chirality in the Rh isotopes are rather well studied, chiral doubling have also been observed in 100 Tc, however, results obtained for chirality in the studied Ag nuclei ( 105 Ag and 106 Ag) look rather contradictory. Thus, it is interesting to study these doublet bands in the nearby higher-mass Ag nuclei. In order to search for a chiral-candidate partner band to the yrast πg 9/2 v(h 11/2 ) 2 band in 109 Ag, high-spin states of this nucleus have been studied using the 96 Zr( 18 O,p4n) reaction. The experiment was performed at iThemba LABS using 8 Clover detectors of the AFRODITE array and the DIAMANT charged-particle array to detect the γ-rays and the charged particles, respectively. Altogether ∼140 million γγ-coincidence events were collected. Approximately 10 million events of them correspond to the reaction channel producing 109 Ag. No chiral candidate partner band has been found to the πg 9/2 v(h 11/2 ) 2 band with this statistics, however, the level scheme could be extended by several new levels and γ-transitions. A preliminary level scheme of 109 Ag obtained from the ongoing data analysis is shown in Fig. 1

  20. Research Opportunities at Storm Peak Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation of 3210 m MSL (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. The ridge-top location produces almost daily transition from free tropospheric to boundary layer air which occurs near midday in both summer and winter seasons. Long-term observations at SPL document the role of orographically induced mixing and convection on vertical pollutant transport and dispersion. During winter, SPL is above cloud base 25% of the time, providing a unique capability for studying aerosol-cloud interactions (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). A comprehensive set of continuous aerosol measurements was initiated at SPL in 2002. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a cold room for precipitation and cloud rime ice sample handling and ice crystal microphotography, a 150 m2 roof deck area for outside sampling equipment, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. The laboratory is currently well equipped for aerosol and cloud measurements. Particles are sampled from an insulated, 15 cm diameter manifold within approximately 1 m of its horizontal entry point through an outside wall. The 4 m high vertical section outside the building is capped with an inverted can to exclude large particles.