WorldWideScience

Sample records for afue measurements part

  1. Clinical value of combined measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein, alpha-L-fucosidase and ferritin levels in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aimin; Chai Xiaohong; Jin Ying; Dong Xuemei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of combined measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU) and ferritin (SF) levels in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. Methods: Serum AFP, AFU (with RIA) and SF (with biochemical method) were determined in 52 patients with primary liver cancer and 40 controls. Results: The positive rates of AFP, AFU and SF in patient with liver cancer were 82.7%, 86.6% and 76.9%, respectively. Positive rates with combined measurement of AFP plus AFU, AFP plus SF, and AFP plus AFU, SF were 94.2%, 90.4% and 98.1% respectively. Conclusion: Combined measurement of AFP, AFU and SF can significantly increase the positive rate in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. (authors)

  2. Monitoring coordinate measuring machines by calibrated parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weckenmann, A; Lorz, J

    2005-01-01

    Coordinate measuring machines (CMM) are essential for quality assurance and production control in modern manufacturing. Due to the necessity of assuring traceability during the use of CMM, interim checks with calibrated objects carried out periodically. For this purpose usually special artefacts like standardized ball plates, hole plates, ball bars or step gages are measured. Measuring calibrated series parts would be more advantageous. Applying the substitution method of ISO 15530-3: 2000 such parts can be used. It is less cost intensive and less time consuming than measuring expensive special standardized objects in special programmed measurement routines. Moreover, the measurement results can directly compare with the calibration values; thus, direct information on systematic measurement deviations and uncertainty of the measured features are available. The paper describes a procedure for monitoring horizontal-arm CMMs with calibrated sheet metal series parts

  3. Magnetic Measurement and Magnet Tutorial, Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Jack

    2003-07-15

    Magnetic measurements, like magnet design, is a broad subject. It is the intention of this lecture to cover only a small part of the field, regarding the characterization of the line integral field quality of multipole magnets (dipoles, quadrupoles and sextupoles) using compensated rotating coils. Other areas which are not covered are magnet mapping, AC measurements and sweeping wire measurements.

  4. Compressor Part I: Measurement and Design Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Bein

    1999-01-01

    method used to design the 125-ton compressor is first reviewed and some related performance curves are predicted based on a quasi-3D method. In addition to an overall performance measurement, a series of instruments were installed on the compressor to identify where the measured performance differs from the predicted performance. The measurement techniques for providing the diagnostic flow parameters are also described briefly. Part II of this paper provides predictions of flow details in the areas of the compressor where there were differences between the measured and predicted performance.

  5. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  6. [Comparative quality measurements part 3: funnel plots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Lahmann, Nils

    2014-02-01

    Comparative quality measurements between organisations or institutions are common. Quality measures need to be standardised and risk adjusted. Random error must also be taken adequately into account. Rankings without consideration of the precision lead to flawed interpretations and enhances "gaming". Application of confidence intervals is one possibility to take chance variation into account. Funnel plots are modified control charts based on Statistical Process Control (SPC) theory. The quality measures are plotted against their sample size. Warning and control limits that are 2 or 3 standard deviations from the center line are added. With increasing group size the precision increases and so the control limits are forming a funnel. Data points within the control limits are considered to show common cause variation; data points outside special cause variation without the focus of spurious rankings. Funnel plots offer data based information about how to evaluate institutional performance within quality management contexts.

  7. Technical report on levels of electromagnetic fields created by Linky meters. Part 1: laboratory measurements; Part 2: laboratory additional measurements; Part 3: field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    The first part of this study reports measurements of electromagnetic radiations induced by remote-metering reading devices present in new power meters and using the Power-Line Communication (PLC or, in French, CPL) technology, such as the Linky meter. After a recall of legislation regarding exposure to electromagnetic waves, this first part present the two tested meters (Linky of first and third generation, G1 and G3), the performed tests, measurements devices and method. It more precisely reports investigations performed on these both meters, and a comparison with other home appliances. The second part reports additional measurements performed with both meters according to the same methodology, but with the use of a new electric field probe which allows more precise measurements. Maximum electric and magnetic fields have been measured. The third part reports field measurements performed with the same methodology but in dwellings equipped with Linky meters of first generation (G1). Exposure levels have been measured at the vicinity of meters and in other parts of the dwelling

  8. Level measurements part 2[5 figs]; Nivaamaalinger del 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundersen, Thor Ole

    2006-07-01

    The article discusses various level measurement methods other than using ultrasound that was discussed in part 1 of the article series. Methods using laser, capacity, weight and displacement are presented. Various life span aspects of the machinery are discussed.

  9. Optical technique to measure distortion on heat treated parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Federico Mariano

    The use of aluminum for structural applications grows with the continual improvement of their physical properties. Through the various amounts of heat treatments that are available, aluminum can vary in properties for all different types of applications. The automotive industry has benefited the most from the use of aluminum and they continue to seek more uses. The heat treatments of these parts are very vital in providing the properties needed for their particular applications. Moreover understanding the effects of heat treatments that may cause distortion to a part is critical. Most of the work carried out in this field is a pre and post measurement after part has experienced its treatment. In this study, we carry out in-situ measurements of the distortions that a heat-treated part undergoes when subjected to temperatures near melting followed by a slow cooling. In order to confirm the experimental measurements we used HOTPOINT to simulate the experiment and compare results. This study will provide much needed insight to the complex occurrences that aluminum parts undergo during heat treatment.

  10. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part II, Results and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Concepcion Monte; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R. A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    In part I of the article we discussed sample preparation procedure and described various methods used for the measurement of microstickies. Some of the important features of different methods are highlighted in Table 1. Temperatures used in the measurement methods vary from room temperature in some cases, 45 °C to 65 °C in other cases. Sample size ranges from as low as...

  11. Part-time work as a pre-retirement measure

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 7 December 2006, the Director-General has approved the extension of the Part-time work scheme as a pre-retirement measure for the year 2007, i.e. until 31 December 2007. Human Resources Department Tel. 72808/74128

  12. Part-time work as a pre-retirement measure

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 2 November 2007, the Director-General has approved the extension of the part-time work scheme as a pre-retirement measure for the year 2008, i.e. until 31 December 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 74484/73903

  13. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 222 - Alternative Safety Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 222, App. B Appendix B to Part 222—Alternative Safety Measures Introduction A public authority seeking... requirements associated with an SSM as listed in appendix A is revised or deleted, data or analysis supporting...); d. Photographic or video equipment deployed to capture images sufficient to document the violation...

  14. Evaporation measurement in the validation drift - part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, K.

    1991-12-01

    Two evaporation measurement series were carried out during April 3 - April 18, 1990 and May 27 . June 13, 1991 respectively in the validation drift. The first and the second measurement series were performed about one month and 14 months after the excavation, respectively. The results obtained by these measurement series are compared to each other with the aim to know the evaporation rate change during the period between these series. The evaporation rate from the matrix part of the rock mass decreased from the first measurement to the second. The average evaporation rate obtained from the second measurement series was about 1/4 of the first measurement. The frequency distribution of the evaporation rate measured in the second measurement series was more concentrated compared to the distribution of the first measurement series. The frequency distribution obtained by the second measurement seems to be approximated with a normal distribution curve. The evaporation rate from some major fractures did not decrease so much compared to the rate on the matrix part. The average rate obtained in the second measurement series on some fractures was about 80% of that of the first measurement series. The reduction of the evaporation rate may be due to the creation of an unsaturated zone around the drift. As the permeability decreases significantly when the saturation of the rock mass decreases, the evaporation rate or in the other word, the inflow rate must become smaller. An attempt was made to estimate the ratio between the matrix flow and the fracture flow. However, a detailed study is needed on unsaturated flow in rock mass for precise estimation. (au)

  15. Quality of life after surgical treatment of coarctation in long-term follow-up (CoAFU): Predictive value of clinical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambul Heck, Pinar; Pabst von Ohain, Jelena; Kaemmerer, Harald; Ewert, Peter; Hager, Alfred

    2018-01-01

    We sought to analyze the quality of life and the predictive value of clinical variables from previous follow-up study in patients late after surgical treatment of aortic coarctation on the quality of life. All patients, who have participated in the prospective cross-sectional COALA Study in 2000 with a structural clinical investigation including blood pressure measurement and symptom-limited exercise test were contacted for the health-related quality of life questionnaire SF-36 from January 2013 through December 2014. From 273 eligible patients, we received data from 135 patients, 9 of them died during the follow-up time at the median age of 46years (range 30-64years). Seventy-four patients did not participate in the study, other 64 patients moved to remote or unknown areas and could not be contacted. Quality of life was good in the fields of physical role and pain. However, patients reported a significant impairment in general health and in health transition, depending on the age. Arterial hypertension and variables from echocardiography or exercise testing from the COALA study were not predictive on functional health status. Quality of life in patients late after aortic coarctation repair is fairly good compared with healthy controls. Impairments in general health and health transition depend mainly on age, can be explained due to numerous comorbidities and reinterventions in long-term. The predictive value of the commonly assessed clinical variables on quality of life is limited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Standard Test Method for Measuring Binocular Disparity in Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the amount of binocular disparity that is induced by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens, canopies, HUD combining glasses, visors, or goggles. This test method may be applied to parts of any size, shape, or thickness, individually or in combination, so as to determine the contribution of each transparent part to the overall binocular disparity present in the total “viewing system” being used by a human operator. 1.2 This test method represents one of several techniques that are available for measuring binocular disparity, but is the only technique that yields a quantitative figure of merit that can be related to operator visual performance. 1.3 This test method employs apparatus currently being used in the measurement of optical angular deviation under Method F 801. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not con...

  17. Evaporation measurement in the validation drift - part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kunio

    1991-01-01

    Evaporation rate distribution over the wall surface of the validation drift was detaily mapped by using an equipment newly developed. The evaporation measurement was carried out to make clear the spatial variability of the inflow rate of groundwater seeping toward the tunnel. Air in the tunnel was warmed by an electric heater during the measurement period for reducing the relative humidity of air and for drying up the wall surface. Evaporation rates from rock matrix as well as from some major fractures were measured at about 500 points. Spatial distributions of evaporation rates over the tunnel wall were obtained under two different ventilation conditions. The average evaporation rates from the rock matrix of the wall were 0.29-0.35 mg/m 2 /s under these ventilation conditions. The average evaporation rate measured on some major fractures was about 1.3 mg/m 2 /s. The maximum evaporation rate measured was 12.8 mg/m 2 /s. Some spots of high evaporation rate were clearly found along some major fractures and these spots seemed to be the special seepage ways (channels) developed in those fractures. The fracture flow is relatively small compared with the matrix flow in the inner part of the drift. This measurement was performed about 1 month after the excavation of the validation drift. Groundwater flow around the tunnel might not be in a steady state because the period between tunnel excavation and the measurement was not so long. The evaporation rate distribution under the steady state of groundwater flow will be studied in 1991. (au)

  18. Dimensional measurement of micro-moulded parts by computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ontiveros, S.; Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Jiménez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is progressively assuming an important role in metrology applications and great efforts are being made in order to turn it into a reliable and standardized measuring technology. CT is typically used for non-destructive tests, but it is currently becoming very popular for ...... and the analysis of the results provide valuable conclusions about the advantages and drawbacks of using CT metrology in comparison with other measuring systems when these techniques are employed for the quality control of micro-moulded parts.......Computed tomography (CT) is progressively assuming an important role in metrology applications and great efforts are being made in order to turn it into a reliable and standardized measuring technology. CT is typically used for non-destructive tests, but it is currently becoming very popular...... for dimensional metrology applications due to its strategic advantages such as the capability of performing measurements on both the component's surface and volume, allowing inspection possibilities to otherwise non-accessible internal features. This paper focuses on the dimensional verification of two micro...

  19. Cyclopentane combustion. Part II. Ignition delay measurements and mechanism validation

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El

    2017-06-12

    This study reports cyclopentane ignition delay measurements over a wide range of conditions. The measurements were obtained using two shock tubes and a rapid compression machine, and were used to test a detailed low- and high-temperature mechanism of cyclopentane oxidation that was presented in part I of this study (Al Rashidi et al., 2017). The ignition delay times of cyclopentane/air mixtures were measured over the temperature range of 650–1350K at pressures of 20 and 40atm and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. The ignition delay times simulated using the detailed chemical kinetic model of cyclopentane oxidation show very good agreement with the experimental measurements, as well as with the cyclopentane ignition and flame speed data available in the literature. The agreement is significantly improved compared to previous models developed and investigated at higher temperatures. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were performed to provide insights into the ignition-controlling chemistry at low, intermediate and high temperatures. The results obtained in this study confirm that cycloalkanes are less reactive than their non-cyclic counterparts. Moreover, cyclopentane, a high octane number and high octane sensitivity fuel, exhibits minimal low-temperature chemistry and is considerably less reactive than cyclohexane. This study presents the first experimental low-temperature ignition delay data of cyclopentane, a potential fuel-blending component of particular interest due to its desirable antiknock characteristics.

  20. Cyclopentane combustion. Part II. Ignition delay measurements and mechanism validation

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El; Má rmol, Juan C.; Banyon, Colin; Sajid, Muhammad Bilal; Mehl, Marco; Pitz, William J.; Mohamed, Samah; Alfazazi, Adamu; Lu, Tianfeng; Curran, Henry J.; Farooq, Aamir; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    This study reports cyclopentane ignition delay measurements over a wide range of conditions. The measurements were obtained using two shock tubes and a rapid compression machine, and were used to test a detailed low- and high-temperature mechanism of cyclopentane oxidation that was presented in part I of this study (Al Rashidi et al., 2017). The ignition delay times of cyclopentane/air mixtures were measured over the temperature range of 650–1350K at pressures of 20 and 40atm and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. The ignition delay times simulated using the detailed chemical kinetic model of cyclopentane oxidation show very good agreement with the experimental measurements, as well as with the cyclopentane ignition and flame speed data available in the literature. The agreement is significantly improved compared to previous models developed and investigated at higher temperatures. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were performed to provide insights into the ignition-controlling chemistry at low, intermediate and high temperatures. The results obtained in this study confirm that cycloalkanes are less reactive than their non-cyclic counterparts. Moreover, cyclopentane, a high octane number and high octane sensitivity fuel, exhibits minimal low-temperature chemistry and is considerably less reactive than cyclohexane. This study presents the first experimental low-temperature ignition delay data of cyclopentane, a potential fuel-blending component of particular interest due to its desirable antiknock characteristics.

  1. FNR demonstration experiments Part II: Subcadmium neutron flux measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehe, D.K.; King, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The FNR HEU-LEU Demonstration Experiments include a comprehensive set of experiments to identify and quantify significant operational differences between two nuclear fuel enrichments. One aspect of these measurements, the subcadmium flux profiling, is the subject of this paper. The flux profiling effort has been accomplished through foil and wire activations, and by rhodium self-powered neutron detector (SPND) mappings. Within the experimental limitations discussed, the program to measure subcadmium flux profiles, lead to the following conclusions: (1) Replacement of a single fresh HEU element by a fresh LEU element at the center of an equilibrium HEU core produces a local flux depression. The ratio of HEU to LEU local flux is 1.19 ± .036, which is, well within experimental uncertainty, equal to the inverse of the U-235 masses for the two elements. (2) Whole core replacement of a large 38 element equilibrium HEU core by a fresh or nearly unburned LEU core reduces the core flux and raises the flux in both D 2 O and H 2 O reflectors. The reduction in the central core region is 40% to 10.0% for the small fresh 29 element LEU core, and 16% to 18% for a 31 element LEU core 482) with low average burnup 2 O reflector fluxes relative to core fluxes as measured by SPND with a fixed value of sensitivity, are in gross disagreement with the same flux ratios measured by Fe and Rh wire activations. Space dependent refinements of S are calculated to give some improvement in the discrepancy but the major part of the correction remains to be resolved

  2. Nondestructive nuclear measurement in the fuel cycle. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyoussi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nondestructive measurement techniques are today widely used in practically all steps of the fuel cycle. This article is devoted to the presentation of the control and characterization needs and to the main active nondestructive nuclear methods used: 1 - main active nondestructive nuclear measurement methods: active neutronic measurement (needs and motivations, physical principle, measurement of delayed neutrons following a continuous irradiation, measurement of prompt neutrons (differential die-away technique - DDT), measurement of prompt and delayed neutrons (Sphincs method), neutronic method coupled to gamma spectroscopy), measurement by induced photo-fissions (needs and motivations, physical principle); 2 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  3. Integration of Error Compensation of Coordinate Measuring Machines into Feature Measurement: Part I—Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Roque; D’Amato, Roberto; Gómez, Emilio; Domingo, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The development of an error compensation model for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) and its integration into feature measurement is presented. CMMs are widespread and dependable instruments in industry and laboratories for dimensional measurement. From the tip probe sensor to the machine display, there is a complex transformation of probed point coordinates through the geometrical feature model that makes the assessment of accuracy and uncertainty measurement results difficult. Therefore, error compensation is not standardized, conversely to other simpler instruments. Detailed coordinate error compensation models are generally based on CMM as a rigid-body and it requires a detailed mapping of the CMM’s behavior. In this paper a new model type of error compensation is proposed. It evaluates the error from the vectorial composition of length error by axis and its integration into the geometrical measurement model. The non-explained variability by the model is incorporated into the uncertainty budget. Model parameters are analyzed and linked to the geometrical errors and uncertainty of CMM response. Next, the outstanding measurement models of flatness, angle, and roundness are developed. The proposed models are useful for measurement improvement with easy integration into CMM signal processing, in particular in industrial environments where built-in solutions are sought. A battery of implementation tests are presented in Part II, where the experimental endorsement of the model is included. PMID:27690052

  4. Integration of Error Compensation of Coordinate Measuring Machines into Feature Measurement: Part I—Model Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Calvo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of an error compensation model for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs and its integration into feature measurement is presented. CMMs are widespread and dependable instruments in industry and laboratories for dimensional measurement. From the tip probe sensor to the machine display, there is a complex transformation of probed point coordinates through the geometrical feature model that makes the assessment of accuracy and uncertainty measurement results difficult. Therefore, error compensation is not standardized, conversely to other simpler instruments. Detailed coordinate error compensation models are generally based on CMM as a rigid-body and it requires a detailed mapping of the CMM’s behavior. In this paper a new model type of error compensation is proposed. It evaluates the error from the vectorial composition of length error by axis and its integration into the geometrical measurement model. The non-explained variability by the model is incorporated into the uncertainty budget. Model parameters are analyzed and linked to the geometrical errors and uncertainty of CMM response. Next, the outstanding measurement models of flatness, angle, and roundness are developed. The proposed models are useful for measurement improvement with easy integration into CMM signal processing, in particular in industrial environments where built-in solutions are sought. A battery of implementation tests are presented in Part II, where the experimental endorsement of the model is included.

  5. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part II Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.

  6. Nondestructive nuclear measurement in the fuel cycle. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyoussi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nondestructive measurement techniques are today widely used in practically all steps of the fuel cycle. This article is devoted to the presentation of the control and characterization needs and to the main passive nondestructive nuclear methods used: 1 - nondestructive nuclear measurement, needs and motivation: nuclear fuel cycle, nondestructive nuclear measurements (passive and active methods), comments; 2 - main passive nondestructive nuclear measurement methods: gamma spectroscopy (principle, detectors, electronic systems, data acquisition and signal processing, domains of application, main limitations), passive neutronic measurements (needs and motivations, neutron detectors, total neutronic counting, neutronic coincidences counting, neutronic multiplicities counting, comments). (J.S.)

  7. PART-TIME WORK AS A PRE-RETIREMENT MEASURE

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Upon the proposal of the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 9 and 10 October 2001, the Director-General has approved the extension of this part-time work scheme for requested effective dates commencing not later than 1 January 2003.

  8. Supply chain oriented performance measurement for automotive spare parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Beekman, L.

    2008-01-01

    Literature provides a number of conceptual frameworks and discussions on performance measurement in supply chains. However, most of these frameworks focus on a single link of a supply chain. Furthermore, there is a lack of empirical analysis and case studies on performance metrics and measurements

  9. Transducer-actuator systems and methods for performing on-machine measurements and automatic part alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkman, William E.; Dow, Thomas A.; Garrard, Kenneth P.; Marston, Zachary

    2016-07-12

    Systems and methods for performing on-machine measurements and automatic part alignment, including: a measurement component operable for determining the position of a part on a machine; and an actuation component operable for adjusting the position of the part by contacting the part with a predetermined force responsive to the determined position of the part. The measurement component consists of a transducer. The actuation component consists of a linear actuator. Optionally, the measurement component and the actuation component consist of a single linear actuator operable for contacting the part with a first lighter force for determining the position of the part and with a second harder force for adjusting the position of the part. The actuation component is utilized in a substantially horizontal configuration and the effects of gravitational drop of the part are accounted for in the force applied and the timing of the contact.

  10. Measuring solar reflectance - Part II: Review of practical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A companion article explored how solar reflectance varies with surface orientation and solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar reflectance is a preferred quantity for estimating solar heat gain. In this study we show that AM1GH solar reflectance R{sub g,0} can be accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer, or an updated edition of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer (version 6). Of primary concern are errors that result from variations in the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight. Neglecting shadow, background and instrument errors, the conventional pyranometer technique can measure R{sub g,0} to within 0.01 for surface slopes up to 5:12 [23 ], and to within 0.02 for surface slopes up to 12:12 [45 ]. An alternative pyranometer method minimizes shadow errors and can be used to measure R{sub g,0} of a surface as small as 1 m in diameter. The accuracy with which it can measure R{sub g,0} is otherwise comparable to that of the conventional pyranometer technique. A solar spectrophotometer can be used to determine R{sub g,0}{sup *}, a solar reflectance computed by averaging solar spectral reflectance weighted with AM1GH solar spectral irradiance. Neglecting instrument errors, R{sub g,0}{sup *} matches R{sub g,0} to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with version 5 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer can differ from R{sub g,0}{sup *} by as much as 0.08, but the AM1GH output of version 6 of this instrument matches R{sub g,0}{sup *} to within about 0.01. (author)

  11. The part task of the part-spacing paradigm is not a pure measurement of part-based information of faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Faces are arguably one of the most important object categories encountered by human observers, yet they present one of the most difficult challenges to both the human and artificial visual systems. A variety of experimental paradigms have been developed to study how faces are represented and recognized, among which is the part-spacing paradigm. This paradigm is presumed to characterize the processing of both the featural and configural information of faces, and it has become increasingly popular for testing hypotheses on face specificity and in the diagnosis of face perception in cognitive disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two experiments we questioned the validity of the part task of this paradigm by showing that, in this task, measuring pure information about face parts is confounded by the effect of face configuration on the perception of those parts. First, we eliminated or reduced contributions from face configuration by either rearranging face parts into a non-face configuration or by removing the low spatial frequencies of face images. We found that face parts were no longer sensitive to inversion, suggesting that the previously reported inversion effect observed in the part task was due in fact to the presence of face configuration. Second, self-reported prosopagnosic patients who were selectively impaired in the holistic processing of faces failed to detect part changes when face configurations were presented. When face configurations were scrambled, however, their performance was as good as that of normal controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In sum, consistent evidence from testing both normal and prosopagnosic subjects suggests the part task of the part-spacing paradigm is not an appropriate task for either measuring how face parts alone are processed or for providing a valid contrast to the spacing task. Therefore, conclusions from previous studies using the part-spacing paradigm may need re-evaluation with

  12. Measurements at cooling tower plumes. Part 3. Three-dimensional measurements at cooling tower plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortak, H.

    An extended field experiment is described in which cooling tower plumes were studied by means of three-dimensional in situ measurements. The goal was to obtain input data for numerical models of cooling tower plumes. Of special interest were data for testing or developing assumptions for sub-grid parametrizations. Utilizing modern systems for high-resolution aerology and small aircraft, four measuring campaigns were conducted: two campaigns (1974) at the cooling towers of the RWE power station Neurath and also two (1975) at the single cooling tower of the RWE power station Meppen. Because of the broad spectrum of weather situations it can be assumed that the results are representative with regard to the interrelationship between structure of cooling tower plume and large-scale meteorological situation. A large number of flights with a powered glider crossing the plumes on orthogonal tracks was performed. All flights showed that the plume could be identified up to large downwind distances by discontinuous jumps of temperature and vapor pressure. Therefore, a definite geometry of the plume could always be defined. In all cross sections a vertical circulation could be observed. At the boundary, which could be defined by the mentioned jumps of temperature and vapor pressure, a maximum of downward vertical motion could be observed in most cases. Entrainment along the boundary of a cross section seems to be very small, except at the lower part of the plume. There, the mass entrainment is maximum and is responsible for plume rise as well as for enlargement of the cross section. The visible part of the plume (cloud) was only a small fraction of the whole plume. High-resolution aerology is necessary in order to explain the structure and behavior of such plumes. This is especially the case in investigations regarding the dynamic break-through of temperature inversions. Such cases were observed frequently under various meteorological conditions and are described

  13. Radioactivity measurements in Europe after the Chernobyl accident. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raes, F.; Graziani, G.; Grossi, L.; Marciano, L.; Peirs, D.; Pedersen, B.; Stanners, D.; Zarimpas, N.

    1989-01-01

    The data base presented is being set up primarily for scientific studies such as the validation of long range transport models, physico-chemical behaviour of radionuclides in air, etc. The data were extracted from the REM Data Bank at the Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities at Ispra. The data where originally obtained from written reports or were copied directly from tapes or diskettes into the REM Data Bank. In the latter case, verification with written material was persued. The original sources are given in the references. In preparing this report, only those data were retained which were fully specified as far as time, location and measuring techniques are concerned, i.e.: beginning and end of sampling, geographical coordinates and types of filters are known

  14. Modeling the effect of probe force on length measurements on polymer parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Measurement uncertainty at micrometer level is in the future going to be very common in dimensional measurements on polymer parts. Accurate dimensional measurement of polymer parts is becoming a key and common practice in the industry, especially when micrometer tolerances are required. When cond...

  15. Features of measurement and processing of vibration signals registered on the moving parts of electrical machines

    OpenAIRE

    Gyzhko, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    Measurement and processing of vibration signals registered on the moving parts of the electrical machines using the diagnostic information-measuring system that uses Bluetooth wireless standard for the transmission of the measured data from moving parts of electrical machine is discussed.

  16. Defining Allowable Physical Property Variations for High Accurate Measurements on Polymer Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Madruga, Daniel González

    2015-01-01

    Measurement conditions and material properties have a significant impact on the dimensions of a part, especially for polymers parts. Temperature variation causes part deformations that increase the uncertainty of the measurement process. Current industrial tolerances of a few micrometres demand...... high accurate measurements in non-controlled ambient. Most of polymer parts are manufactured by injection moulding and their inspection is carried out after stabilization, around 200 hours. The overall goal of this work is to reach ±5μm in uncertainty measurements a polymer products which...

  17. The influence of humidity on accuracy length measurement on polymer parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madruga, Daniel González; Alexiou, A.; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The work deals with an experimental study of the influence of humidity on accurate length measurements on ABS parts. Polymer parts absorb water from the ambient until they reach hygroscopic equilibrium. Water content causes an expansion of the polymer part. The relationship between the water cont...

  18. CWT and RWT Metrics Measure the Performance of the Army's Logistics Chain for Spare Parts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    .... As part of its efforts to improve the logistics chain for spare parts, the Army must measure the performance of its supply system in filling orders for materiel. Velocity Management (VM) is a RAND-developed and Army implemented system that measures such performance and seeks ways to improve it through its Define-Measure- Improve (DMI) methodology. As the term DMI implies, measurement is central to this improvement approach.

  19. Optical interferometry for measurement of the geometric dimensions of industrial parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, Peter de; Biegen, Jim; Clark, Jack; Lega, Xavier Colonna de; Grigg, David

    2002-01-01

    We describe an instrument for the measurement of surface flatness, parallelism, and size (thickness) of plane-parallel parts in a single measurement to 1σ gauge capability of 0.02, 0.03, and 0.06 μm, respectively. A low-coherence IR profiler viewing both sides of the part simultaneously, believed to be novel, accommodates a wide variety of industrial surface finishes, including machined, ground, or lapped parts, with a 75-mm field of view and 15,000 pixels per side. A heterodyne laser displacement gauge together with an integrated zeroing system allows for a range of part sizes from 0 to 100 mm

  20. A circular feature-based pose measurement method for metal part grasping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chenrui; He, Zaixing; Zhang, Shuyou; Zhao, Xinyue

    2017-01-01

    The grasping of circular metal parts such as bearings and flanges is a common task in industry. Limited by low texture and repeated features, the point-feature-based method is not applicable in pose measurement of these parts. In this paper, we propose a novel pose measurement method for grasping circular metal parts. This method is based on cone degradation and involves a monocular camera. To achieve higher measurement accuracy, a position-based visual servoing method is presented to continuously control an eye-in-hand, six-degrees-of-freedom robot arm to grasp the part. The uncertainty of the part’s coordinate frame during the control process is solved by defining a fixed virtual coordinate frame. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the factors that affect measurement accuracy are analyzed. (paper)

  1. Accuracy increase of the coordinate measurement based on the model production of geometrical parts specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatkina, O. Yu

    2018-04-01

    There is a relationship between the service properties of component parts and their geometry; therefore, to predict and control the operational characteristics of parts and machines, it is necessary to measure their geometrical specifications. In modern production, a coordinate measuring machine is the advanced measuring instrument of the products geometrical specifications. The analysis of publications has shown that during the coordinate measurements the problems of choosing locating chart of parts and coordination have not been sufficiently studied. A special role in the coordination of the part is played by the coordinate axes informational content. Informational content is the sum of the degrees of freedom limited by the elementary item of a part. The coordinate planes of a rectangular coordinate system have different informational content (three, two, and one). The coordinate axes have informational content of four, two and zero. The higher the informational content of the coordinate plane or axis, the higher its priority for reading angular and linear coordinates is. The geometrical model production of the coordinate measurements object taking into account the information content of coordinate planes and coordinate axes allows us to clearly reveal the interrelationship of the coordinates of the deviations in location, sizes and deviations of their surfaces shape. The geometrical model helps to select the optimal locating chart of parts for bringing the machine coordinate system to the part coordinate system. The article presents an algorithm the model production of geometrical specifications using the example of the piston rod of a compressor.

  2. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part I, sample preparation and measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R.A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we completed a project on the comparison of macrostickies measurement methods. Based on the success of the project, we decided to embark on this new project on comparison of microstickies measurement methods. When we started this project, there were some concerns and doubts principally due to the lack of an accepted definition of microstickies. However, we...

  3. Activation measurements for fast neutrons. Part B. 63Ni measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, Tore; Rugel, Georg; Marchetti, Alfredo A.

    2005-01-01

    The AMS-measurements of 63 Ni in copper samples obtained from different distances in Hiroshima represent the first detection of fast neutrons after more than 50 years, and the first reliable bomb-induced fast neutron measurements beyond 700 m from the hypocenter. A major significance of these 63 Ni results is that they provide, for the first time, fast neutron measurements at the distances most relevant to atomic-bomb survivor locations (900-1,500 m). The measurement of 63 Ni in copper samples using AMS provides a substantial improvement in fast neutron detection compared with the 32 P measurements made in 1945. For example, the measurement-to-background ratio at about 400 m from the hypocenter is about 55 for 63 Ni and only about 2 for the 32 P measurements. Also, the 63 Ni measurements reach background levels at about 1,800 m from the hypocenter compared with only about 700 m for 32 P. At distances of ∼1,800 m from the hypocenter, out to at least 5,000 meters, the measurements appear to level off at a value on the order of 7x10 4 atoms of 63 Ni/g of Cu, suggesting a background of approximately that magnitude. When this background is subtracted and the resulting data corrected to 1945, the measured 63 Ni in copper samples from Hiroshima are in good agreement with DS02 sample-specific calculations. Comparisons with DS86 calculations also show good agreement except at the Bank of Japan. The difference at that distance is significant when compared with DS86 calculations. (J.P.N.)

  4. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part D. 36Cl measurements in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, Tore; Men, Ping; Marchetti, Alfredo A.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Roberts, James A.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    A large number of measurements were performed in the United States of 36 Cl in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of 36 Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results of these measurements are presented in this section and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. (J.P.N.)

  5. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part F. 36Cl measurements in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Yasuo; Seki, Riki; Matsuhiro, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Sasa, Kimikazu; Usui, Toshihide; Sueki, Keisuke

    2005-01-01

    The development of the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system at the Tandem Accelerator Center of the University of Tsukuba was started in 1995, using the university's own molecular pilot beam technique. Presently, it is the only facility in Japan used to measure 36 Cl (Nagashima et al. 2000). The sensitivity of the 36 Cl AMS system is around 10 -14 36 Cl/Cl atom ratio, which is enough to measure the natural level of the 36 Cl/Cl ratio. The system is characterized by long-term stability, enabling high-quality, continuous measurements over many hours. Our AMS system was used to measure 36 Cl produced in soil by neutrons released into the environment at the time of the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura in 1999 (Seki et al. 2003). At the beginning of 2001, our group joined the collaborative efforts to investigate and clarify the discrepancy observed between measurements and calculations of neutron activities induced by the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Using our AMS system, 36 Cl was measured in granite samples from Hiroshima exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons and in distant, unexposed samples. (author)

  6. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part I Standard Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of diagnostic informativeness of exhaust gas temperature measurements in turbocharged marine internal combustion engines. Theoretical principles of the process of exhaust gas flow in turbocharger inlet channels are analysed in its dynamic and energetic aspects. Diagnostic parameters are defined which enable to formulate general evaluation of technical condition of the engine based on standard online measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. A proposal is made to extend the parametric methods of diagnosing workspaces in turbocharged marine engines by analysing time-histories of enthalpy changes of the exhaust gas flowing to the turbocompressor turbine. Such a time-history can be worked out based on dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature, performed using a specially designed sheathed thermocouple.

  7. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part E. 36Cl measurements in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehm, Werner; Huber, Thomas; Nolte, Eckehart; Kato, Kazuo; Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    The long-lived radioisotope 36 Cl (half-life: 301,000 years) was measured in bomb-exposed granite and concrete samples from Hiroshima, and in granite samples not exposed to A-bomb neutrons, by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). For those samples exposed to A-bomb neutrons, measured 36 Cl/Cl ratios as a function of distance to the epicenter were compared with calculated ratios based on the new dosimetry system DS02. (J.P.N.)

  8. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part III: Behaviour and quality of the radiation measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohsiek, W.; Liebethal, C.; Foken, T.; Vogt, R.; Oncley, S.P.; Bernhofer, C.; Debruin, H.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    An important part of the Energy Balance Experiment (EBEX-2000) was the measurement of the net radiation and its components. Since the terrain, an irrigated cotton field, could not be considered homogeneous, radiation measurements were made at nine sites using a variety of radiation instruments,

  9. Measurement of turbulent kinetic energy spectrum - Part 2: Convection record measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Buchhave, Preben; Hodzic, Azur

    2017-01-01

    A novel exact temporal to spatial mapping for point measurements in turbulence has been applied to various flow conditions existing in a round turbulent jet. The conditions range between equilibrium and non-equilibrium as well as mid to high turbulence intensities. The exact mapping applies to all...... flows, including high intensity non-equilibrium flows, since it is based on the instantaneous velocity magnitude, thereby incorporating all relevant aspects of the flow dynamics. Devel-opment of the jet turbulence along the stream, from non-equilibrium to equilibrium, is observed. In the developed...... region of the jet, Taylor’s hypothesis is tested and the spectra using the novel exact mapping is validated with excellent agreement against directly measured spatial spectra in a mapped similarity space using PIV. The method is observed to produce the expected results even at turbulence intensi...

  10. Evaluating digital libraries in the health sector. Part 1: measuring inputs and outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena

    2003-12-01

    This is the first part of a two-part paper which explores methods that can be used to evaluate digital libraries in the health sector. In this first part, some approaches to evaluation that have been proposed for mainstream digital information services are examined for their suitability to provide models for the health sector. The paper summarizes some major national and collaborative initiatives to develop measures for digital libraries, and analyses these approaches in terms of their relationship to traditional measures of library performance, which are focused on inputs and outputs, and their relevance to current debates among health information specialists. The second part* looks more specifically at evaluative models based on outcomes, and models being developed in the health sector.

  11. International intercalibration and intercomparison programme for radon, thoron and daughters measuring equipment. Part. 1: Radon measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, E.O.; Solomon, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    The International Intercalibration and Intercomparison Programme for Radon, Thoron and Daughters Monitoring Equipment, abbreviated IIIP, is a program organized jointly by Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Radiation Protection Research Programme of the Commission of European Communities. The broad purpose of the IIIP is to determine if the somewhat diverse calibration procedures used in different countries are equivalent. The general approach was to select four regional reference laboratories and entrust them with the details of project definition and execution. The four selected laboratories are: Australian Radiation Laboratory, US DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory, UK National Radiation Protection Board, US DOI Bureau of Mines. The Organizing Committee that selected the four laboratories remained intact and served an oversight function in all work to date

  12. Comparison of Analysis, Simulation, and Measurement of Wire-to-Wire Crosstalk. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Yavoich, Brian James; Hodson, Shane M.; Godley, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, we compare crosstalk analysis, simulation, and measurement results for electrically short configurations. Methods include hand calculations, PSPICE simulations, Microstripes transient field solver, and empirical measurement. In total, four representative physical configurations are examined, including a single wire over a ground plane, a twisted pair over a ground plane, generator plus receptor wires inside a cylindrical conduit, and a single receptor wire inside a cylindrical conduit. Part 1 addresses the first two cases, and Part 2 addresses the final two. Agreement between the analysis methods and test data is shown to be very good.

  13. Comparison of Analysis, Simulation, and Measurement of Wire-to-Wire Crosstalk. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Yavoich, Brian James; Hodson, Shame M.; Godley, Richard Franklin

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, we compare crosstalk analysis, simulation, and measurement results for electrically short configurations. Methods include hand calculations, PSPICE simulations, Microstripes transient field solver, and empirical measurement. In total, four representative physical configurations are examined, including a single wire over a ground plane, a twisted pair over a ground plane, generator plus receptor wires inside a cylindrical conduit, and a single receptor wire inside a cylindrical conduit. Part 1 addresses the first two cases, and Part 2 addresses the final two. Agreement between the analysis, simulation, and test data is shown to be very good.

  14. Prototype gauge for measuring contour and wall thicknesses of hemispherical parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarts, H.J.; Robertson, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype gauge (gage) was designed and fabricated using air bearings in a new configuration to provide less error and distortion during inspection of hemispherical parts. No wear occurs on the moving parts during operations and accuracy of alignment is maintained. The gauge will check outside radial distance, inside radial, and outside radial and wall, and inner radial and wall thicknesses of parts. The gauge contains only four moving parts, which increases the measuring accuracy. A horizontal table rotates. A table mounted on the horizontal table at 45 0 rotates through two transducers. All moving parts are mounted on hydrostatic gas bearings. Laser interferometric, air-bearing gauge heads are used to obtain the required data. Investigation of a hemispherical part is in any desired spiral path from equator to pole. Measurement information is obtained from two laser interferometric transducers using linear air bearings. The transducers use a Spectra Physics Model-120 helium and neon laser. Working range of each transducer is 1.5 inches. The fringe voltage signals are amplified and converted to inches to be displayed on a digital readout. A punched paper tape contains the nominal inside diameter (ID) and outside diameter (OD) information in Binary Coded Decimal form. The tape is fed into a digital computer which calculates error information on ID, OD, and wall thickness. This information is converted to analog form and displayed simultaneously on a strip-chart recorder

  15. Safety study of PCC 2140 and ALILOG 21 used as part of safety measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriaux, Pierre; Adnot, Serge; Rayrolles, Catherine.

    1978-03-01

    The PCC 2140 and ALILOG 21 equipment may be used at C.E.A. or E.D.F., as part of safety measurement systems. In a study of a similar, but earlier equipment, it was noticed that certain types of failures caused the system to switch to the least sensitive measurement range, which was detrimental to safety. This report analyses failure modes leading to unsafe failures and evaluates the risks ran into taking in account tests during use [fr

  16. An optical technique to measure distortion in heat-treated parts in-situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Federico; Nash, Phillip

    2005-05-01

    Improvements in the properties of aluminum alloys have made them more popular for structural applications. Using the different heat treatments that are available, aluminum alloys can have a wide variation in properties for different types of applications. The appropriate heat treatments of these alloys are vital in providing the properties needed for their particular applications. Moreover, understanding the effects of heat treatments that may cause distortion to a part is critical. Most of the work carried out in this field is in the form of pre- and post-treatment analysis of a part. In this study, in-situ measurements of the distortions that a heat-treated part undergoes when subjected to rapid heating to temperatures near melting followed by slow cooling were carried out. A numerical model was built to simulate the experiment and the results are compared. This study will provide much-needed insight into the complex occurrences that aluminum parts undergo during heat treatment.

  17. Part-time work scheme as a pre-retirement measure

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Upon the proposal of the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 3 December 2003, the Director-General has approved the extension for one year of the Part-time work scheme as a pre-retirement measure, until 1 January 2005 inclusive. Human Resources Department Tel. 72808/74128

  18. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1998, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1998-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  19. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1992, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1992-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  20. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1991, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  1. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1999, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1999-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  2. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 2000, Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15, 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  3. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1993, Part 4: meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1993-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  4. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1991, Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1992-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  5. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1994. Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1994-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  6. Measurement of micro moulded parts by Computed Tomography and comparison to optical and tactile techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe, J.A.; Tosello, Guido; Carmignato, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on dimensional verification of two micro-injection moulded components, selected from actual industrial productions, using CT metrological tools. In addition to CT scanning, also a tactile Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) with sub-micrometer uncertainty and an Optical Coordinate...... Measuring Machine (OCMM) allowing fast measurements suitable for in-line quality control were employed as validation instruments. The experimental work carried out and the analysis of the results provide valuable conclusions about the advantages and drawbacks of using CT metrology in comparison with CMM...... and OCMM when these techniques are employed for quality control of micro moulded parts....

  7. Measuring Peer Socialization for Adolescent Substance Use: A Comparison of Perceived and Actual Friends’ Substance Use Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Arielle R.; Chernyavskiy, Pavel; Steinley, Douglas; Slutske, Wendy S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There has been an increase in the use of social network analysis in studies of peer socialization effects on adolescent substance use. Some researchers argue that social network analyses provide more accurate measures of peer substance use, that the alternate strategy of assessing perceptions of friends’ drug use is biased, and that perceptions of peer use and actual peer use represent different constructs. However, there has been little research directly comparing the two effects, and little is known about the extent to which the measures differ in the magnitude of their influence on adolescent substance use, as well as how these two effects may be redundant or separate constructs. Method: Using Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) saturated subsample, we directly compared effects of perception of friends’ use (PFU) and actual friends’ use (AFU) on alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana initiation and persistence of use 1 year later. We also examined potential moderating effects of friendship quality and individual use on the relationship between perceived and actual friends’ substance use and outcomes. Results: Results indicated that, overall, PFU effects were larger than AFU effects; however, these effects did not significantly differ in magnitude for most models. In addition, interaction effects differed for different substances and usage outcomes, indicating the meaning of PFU and AFU constructs (and thus, different types of peer socialization) may change based on substance and type of use. Conclusions: These results highlight the multifaceted nature of peer influence on substance use and the importance of assessing multiple aspects of peer socialization while accounting for distinct contexts related to specific substances and use outcomes. PMID:25785802

  8. Dollar$ & $en$e. Part IV: Measuring the value of people, structural, and customer capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, I

    2001-01-01

    In Part I of this series, I introduced the concept of memes (1). Memes are ideas or concepts, the information world equivalent of genes. The goal of this series of articles is to infect you with my memes, so that you will assimilate, translate, and express them. We discovered that no matter what our area of expertise or "-ology," we all are in the information business. Our goal is to be in the wisdom business. We saw that when we convert raw data into wisdom we are moving along a value chain. Each step in the chain adds a different amount of value to the final product: timely, relevant, accurate, and precise knowledge which can then be applied to create the ultimate product in the value chain: wisdom. In Part II of this series, I infected you with a set of memes for measuring the cost of adding value (2). In Part III of this series, I infected you with a new set of memes for measuring the added value of knowledge, i.e., intellectual capital (3). In Part IV of this series, I will infect you with memes for measuring the value of people, structural, and customer capital.

  9. Light detection and ranging measurements of wake dynamics. Part II: two-dimensional scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trujillo, Juan-José; Bingöl, Ferhat; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2011-01-01

    the instantaneous transversal wake position which is quantitatively compared with the prediction of the Dynamic Wake Meandering model. The results, shown for two 10-min time series, suggest that the conjecture of the wake behaving as a passive tracer is a fair approximation; this corroborates and expands...... the results of one-dimensional measurements already presented in the first part of this paper. Consequently, it is now possible to separate the deterministic and turbulent parts of the wake wind field, thus enabling capturing the wake in the meandering frame of reference. The results correspond, qualitatively...

  10. Measuring patient-centered medical home access and continuity in clinics with part-time clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Krein, Sarah L; Kim, Hyunglin Myra; Greenstone, Clinton L; Tremblay, Adam; Ratz, David; Saffar, Darcy; Kerr, Eve A

    2015-05-01

    Common patient-centered medical home (PCMH) performance measures value access to a single primary care provider (PCP), which may have unintended consequences for clinics that rely on part-time PCPs and team-based care. Retrospective analysis of 110,454 primary care visits from 2 Veterans Health Administration clinics from 2010 to 2012. Multi-level models examined associations between PCP availability in clinic, and performance on access and continuity measures. Patient experiences with access and continuity were compared using 2012 patient survey data (N = 2881). Patients of PCPs with fewer half-day clinic sessions per week were significantly less likely to get a requested same-day appointment with their usual PCP (predicted probability 17% for PCPs with 2 sessions/week, 20% for 5 sessions/week, and 26% for 10 sessions/week). Among requests that did not result in a same-day appointment with the usual PCP, there were no significant differences in same-day access to a different PCP, or access within 2 to 7 days with patients' usual PCP. Overall, patients had >92% continuity with their usual PCP at the hospital-based site regardless of PCP sessions/week. Patients of full-time PCPs reported timely appointments for urgent needs more often than patients of part-time PCPs (82% vs 71%; P Part-time PCP performance appeared worse when using measures focused on same-day access to patients' usual PCP. However, clinic-level same-day access, same-week access to the usual PCP, and overall continuity were similar for patients of part-time and full-time PCPs. Measures of in-person access to a usual PCP do not capture alternate access approaches encouraged by PCMH, and often used by part-time providers, such as team-based or non-face-to-face care.

  11. Survivor dosimetry. Part D. Graphical comparisons of measurements and calculations for neutrons and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbert, Stephen D.; Cullings, Harry M.

    2005-01-01

    An important part of validating the DS02 dosimetry system is the comparison of calculated initial neutron and gamma-ray radiation activation from the atomic bombs with all measurements that have been made, both before and during this current dosimetry reevaluation. All measurements that were made before the year 2002 are listed in Table 5 of Chapter 4. Many of these measurements have been compared to previous versions of the dosimetry systems for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In this section the measurements are compared to the new dosimetry system DS02. For the purposes of showing historical context, they are also compared to the previous dosimetry system DS86. References for these measurements are found in Chapter 4. (J.P.N.)

  12. Dimensional measurement of micro parts with high aspect ratio in HIT-UOI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hong; Cui, Jiwen; Feng, Kunpeng; Li, Junying; Zhao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Haoran; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-11-01

    Micro parts with high aspect ratios have been widely used in different fields including aerospace and defense industries, while the dimensional measurement of these micro parts becomes a challenge in the field of precision measurement and instrument. To deal with this contradiction, several probes for the micro parts precision measurement have been proposed by researchers in Center of Ultra-precision Optoelectronic Instrument (UOI), Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT). In this paper, optical fiber probes with structures of spherical coupling(SC) with double optical fibers, micro focal-length collimation (MFL-collimation) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) are described in detail. After introducing the sensing principles, both advantages and disadvantages of these probes are analyzed respectively. In order to improve the performances of these probes, several approaches are proposed. A two-dimensional orthogonal path arrangement is propounded to enhance the dimensional measurement ability of MFL-collimation probes, while a high resolution and response speed interrogation method based on differential method is used to improve the accuracy and dynamic characteristics of the FBG probes. The experiments for these special structural fiber probes are given with a focus on the characteristics of these probes, and engineering applications will also be presented to prove the availability of them. In order to improve the accuracy and the instantaneity of the engineering applications, several techniques are used in probe integration. The effectiveness of these fiber probes were therefore verified through both the analysis and experiments.

  13. Measuring and managing radiologist productivity, part 1: clinical metrics and benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszak, Richard; Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-06-01

    Physician productivity disparities are not uncommonly debated within radiology groups, sometimes in a contentious manner. Attempts to measure productivity, identify and motivate outliers, and develop equitable management policies can present challenges to private and academic practices alike but are often necessary for a variety of professional, financial, and personnel reasons. This is the first of a two-part series that will detail metrics for evaluating radiologist productivity and review published benchmarks, focusing primarily on clinical work. Issues and limitations that may prevent successful implementation of measurement systems are explored. Part 2 will expand that discussion to evaluating nonclinical administrative and academic activities, outlining advantages and disadvantages of addressing differential productivity, and introducing potential models for practices seeking to motivate physicians on the basis of both clinical and nonclinical work.

  14. Progressive Retirement Programme and Part-time work as a pre-retirement measure

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2004-01-01

    Following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 8 November 2004, the Director-General has approved the extension of the Progressive Retirement Programme with effect from 1 April 2005 until 31 March 2006; of the Part-time work scheme as a pre-retirement measure with effect from 1 January 2005 until 31 December 2005. Human Resources Department Tel. 72808/74128

  15. Progressive Retirement Programme and Part-time work as a pre-retirement measure

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 25 January 2006, the Director-General has approved the extension of the Progressive Retirement Programme with effect from 1 April 2006 until 31 March 2007; of the Part-time work scheme as a pre-retirement measure for the year 2006, i.e. until 31 December 2006. Human Resources Department Tel. 72808/74128

  16. Progressive Retirement Programme and Part-time work as a pre-retirement measure

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Upon the proposal of the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 25 November 2002, the Director-General has approved the extension for one year of the Progressive Retirement Programme with effect from 1 April 2003, and of the Part-time work scheme as a pre-retirement measure for requested effective dates commencing not later than 1 January 2004. Human Resources Division Tel. 72808/74128

  17. Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollel Tiruneh, Getachew; Wodaje Kebede, Worku

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels

  18. Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollel Tiruneh, Getachew [Ethiopian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 20486 code 1000, Addis-Ababa (Ethiopia)], E-mail: gwollel@yahoo.com; Wodaje Kebede, Worku [Ethiopian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 20486 code 1000, Addis-Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2008-11-15

    The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels.

  19. A New Apparatus for Measuring the Temperature at Machine Parts Rotating at High Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnam, E.

    1945-01-01

    After a brief survey of the available methods for measuring the temperatures of machine parts at high speed, in particular turbine blades and rotors, an apparatus is described which is constructed on the principle of induction. Transmission of the measuring current by sliding contacts therefore is avoided. Up-to-date experiments show that it is possible to give the apparatus a high degree of sensitivity and accuracy. In comparison with sliding contact types, the present apparatus shows the important advantage that it operates for any length of time without wear, and that the contact difficulties, particularly occurring at high sliding speeds,are avoided.

  20. Proportion of biogenic carbon in flue gas by carbon-14 measurement - part 2; Biohiili 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtomaeki, J.; Antson, O.; Hongisto, M. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)) (and others)

    2009-07-01

    The subject of this project is closely related to EU's emissions trading system and to the current and future monitoring needs therein. The determination of fossil part of emissions originated from various fuels by stack measurements or by laboratory analyses could possibly find users also in other fields outside the ETS - Emission Trading Scheme (e.g. waste incineration). After the market analysis and preliminary measurements carried out in the previous Biocarbon project this project focused on the development of the sampling method for stack measurements and to the validation of isotope measurements. The results obtained for fossil proportion of the fuel by current methods will be compared to those obtained by isotope measurements. The operation of the sampling system was tested in long period tests in plant conditions. Moreover, the sample preparation methods and isotope measurements were validated by measuring the proportions of biogenic and fossil carbon of known traffic fuel mixtures. The developed method can also be utilised as a fraud prevention measure related to the expanding international biofuels-trade. (orig.)

  1. A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorra, C; Sellner, S; Borchert, M J; Harrington, J A; Higuchi, T; Nagahama, H; Tanaka, T; Mooser, A; Schneider, G; Bohman, M; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Ospelkaus, C; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2017-10-18

    Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter-antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge-parity-time (CPT) invariance, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons, leptons and baryons have compared different properties of matter-antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level: the magnetic moment of the antiproton, . The extraordinary difficulty in measuring with high precision is caused by its intrinsic smallness; for example, it is 660 times smaller than the magnetic moment of the positron. Here we report a high-precision measurement of in units of the nuclear magneton μ N with a fractional precision of 1.5 parts per billion (68% confidence level). We use a two-particle spectroscopy method in an advanced cryogenic multi-Penning trap system. Our result  = -2.7928473441(42)μ N (where the number in parentheses represents the 68% confidence interval on the last digits of the value) improves the precision of the previous best measurement by a factor of approximately 350. The measured value is consistent with the proton magnetic moment, μ p  = 2.792847350(9)μ N , and is in agreement with CPT invariance. Consequently, this measurement constrains the magnitude of certain CPT-violating effects to below 1.8 × 10 -24 gigaelectronvolts, and a possible splitting of the proton-antiproton magnetic moments by CPT-odd dimension-five interactions to below 6 × 10 -12 Bohr magnetons.

  2. Virtual sensors for on-line wheel wear and part roughness measurement in the grinding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriandiaga, Ander; Portillo, Eva; Sánchez, Jose A; Cabanes, Itziar; Pombo, Iñigo

    2014-05-19

    Grinding is an advanced machining process for the manufacturing of valuable complex and accurate parts for high added value sectors such as aerospace, wind generation, etc. Due to the extremely severe conditions inside grinding machines, critical process variables such as part surface finish or grinding wheel wear cannot be easily and cheaply measured on-line. In this paper a virtual sensor for on-line monitoring of those variables is presented. The sensor is based on the modelling ability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for stochastic and non-linear processes such as grinding; the selected architecture is the Layer-Recurrent neural network. The sensor makes use of the relation between the variables to be measured and power consumption in the wheel spindle, which can be easily measured. A sensor calibration methodology is presented, and the levels of error that can be expected are discussed. Validation of the new sensor is carried out by comparing the sensor's results with actual measurements carried out in an industrial grinding machine. Results show excellent estimation performance for both wheel wear and surface roughness. In the case of wheel wear, the absolute error is within the range of microns (average value 32 μm). In the case of surface finish, the absolute error is well below Ra 1 μm (average value 0.32 μm). The present approach can be easily generalized to other grinding operations.

  3. Remote Measurement of Pollution-A 40-Year Langley Retrospective. Part 2; Aerosols and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsberg, Ellis E.

    2012-01-01

    A workshop was convened in 1971 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on the Remote Measurement of Pollution (RMOP), and the findings and recommendations of its participants are in a NASA Special Publication (NASA SP-285). The three primary workshop panels and their chairmen were focused on trace gas species (Will Kellogg), atmospheric particulates or aerosols (Verner Suomi), and water pollution (Gifford Ewing). Many of the workshop participants were specialists in the techniques that might be employed for regional to global-scale, remote measurements of the atmospheric parameters from Earth-orbiting satellites. In 2011 the author published a 40-year retrospective (or Part I) of the instrumental developments that were an outgrowth of the RMOP panel headed by Will Kellogg, i.e., on atmospheric temperature and gaseous species. The current report (or Part II) is an analogous retrospective of the vision of the panel led by Verner Suomi for the measurement of particulates (or aerosols) and clouds and for their effects on Earth s radiation budget. The class of measurement techniques includes laser radar or lidar, solar occultation, limb emission and scattering, nadir-viewing photometry or radiometry, and aerosol polarimetry. In addition, the retrospective refers to the scientific imperatives that led to those instrument developments of 1971-2010. Contributions of the atmospheric technologists at the Langley Research Center are emphasized, and their progress is placed in the context of the parallel and complementary work from within the larger atmospheric science community.

  4. A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, C; Borchert, M J; Harrington, J A; Higuchi, T; Nagahama, H; Tanaka, T; Mooser, A; Schneider, G; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Ospelkaus, C; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2017-01-01

    Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter–antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge–parity–time (CPT) invariance1, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons2, leptons3, 4 and baryons5, 6 have compared different properties of matter–antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level7, 8: the magnetic moment of the antiproton, . The extraordinary difficulty in measuring with high precision is caused by its intrinsic smallness; for example, it is 660 times smaller than the magnetic moment of the positron3. Here we report a high-precision measurement of in units of the nuclear magneton μN with a fractional precision of 1.5 parts per billion (68% confidence level). We use a two-particle spectroscopy method in an advanced cryogenic ...

  5. Clearance measurements on activated parts of accelerators by combined methods; Verfahrenskombinierte Freigabemessung aktivierter Beschleunigerteile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, S.; Friedemann, S. [VKTA, Dresden (Germany); Enghardt, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay

    2016-07-01

    The process of clearance of radioactive materials according to paragraph 29 StrlSchV contents the comparison of activity to mass and surface of the material. To avoid a borderless assessment of activity of activation it is often necessary to use combined measurement methods: For clearance of collimators of a medical proton accelerator (energy range up to 200 MeV) it needs to know the nuclide composition. The energetical and geometrical calibration was fixed by experiments. The clearance based on measurements of activity distribution, gammaspectroscopy verification of nuclide composition and gamma-counting detectors. Parts of medical electron-accelerators achieved its clearance by combination of abovementioned methods and in-situ-gammaspectroscopy. Activated und contaminated lead stones achieved its clearance by measurements of fluence, laboratory evaluation of samples, in-situ-gammaspectroscopy and wipe tests.

  6. Optimization of coastal protection measures on small islands in the northfrisian part of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöffler, T.; Jensen, J.; Schüttrumpf, H.

    2017-12-01

    Low lying small islands are among the most vulnerable regions worldwide due to the consequences of climate change. The reasons for this are the concentration of infrastructure, geographical features and their small size. Worldwide special forms and adaptations of coastal protection strategies and measures can be found on small islands. In the northfrisian part of the North Sea worldwide unique strategies and measures have been developed in the last centuries due to the geographic location and the isolation during extreme events. One special feature of their coastal protection strategy is the lack of dikes. For this reason, the houses are built on artificial dwelling mounds in order to protect the inhabitants and their goods against frequently occurring inundations during storm surge seasons (up to 30 times a year). The Hallig islands themselves benefit by these inundations due to sediments, which are accumulated on the island's surfaces. This sedimentation has enabled a natural adaption to sea level rise in the past. Nevertheless, the construction methods of the coastal protection measures are mainly based on tradition and the knowledge of the inhabitants. No resilient design approaches and safety standards for these special structures like dwelling mounds and elevated revetments exist today. For this reason, neither a cost efficient construction nor a prioritization of measures is possible. Main part of this paper is the scientific investigation of the existing coastal protection measures with the objective of the development of design approaches and safety standards. The results will optimize the construction of the existing coastal protection measures and can be transferred to other small islands and low lying areas worldwide.

  7. Radioactivity measurements in Europe after the Chernobyl accident. Part II: Fallout and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cort, M.; Graziani, G.; Raes, F.; Stanners, D.; Grippa, G.; Ricapito, I.

    1990-01-01

    The collection of deposition measurements, presented in this report and included in the floppy disk in the back cover has been put together as part of the REM programme (Radioactivity environmental Monitoring). This follows the compilation of air measurements (part 1) published previously (Raes, 1989). The objective of these compilations is to promote the integration of Chernobyl data on a European-wide basis to make them widely available in a coherent form for scientific study. Deposition measurements come in many forms (fallout, rain, soil) but all reflect the phenomena by which radionuclides in the air reach the surface. Depending on the manner of sampling, measurements can reflect integral values (e.g. from surface soil) or some fraction of the deposition (e.g. daily deposition using fallout or rain collectors). The latter can also be expressed as wet or dry according to the sampling apparatus used. The original sources of information from which this compilation was made vary widely : some of the data were obtained directly from floppy disks or tapes; others were copied manually from tables found in reports or papers in the scientific literature. The sets of measurements presented in this report were selected from this large patrimony of data in the REM data bank. Specific criteria were used to make this selection. Overall, only those data were used which had fully defined records. For daily deposition data actually sampled over 24 hourly periods were selected. With cumulative deposition care was taken to select data which covered the whole period of deposition marked by the passage of the cloud. The resulting data are presented on a unified format and as far as possible keep to individual measured values. In this manner the greatest flexibility is given to the user of this data

  8. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  9. Flow field calculation around the measuring part of a circulated flow tank for measurement; Keisokuyo kairyu suiso sokuteibu no ryujo keisan ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, H; Ogura, R; Yamazaki, R [West Japan Fluid Engineering Co. Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan)

    1996-04-10

    In order to increase a fluid dynamic understanding of the flow field around the measuring part as for the leveling of free surface of the circulated flow tank for measurement, the velocity and free surface profile at the measuring part have been calculated by applying the numerical fluid dynamics. The results were compared with actual phenomena. For the average velocity at the measuring part, inclining angle of surpressing plate, and quantity of water in the tank, the flow field simulation by the numerical fluid dynamics has provided a qualitative agreement with actual phenomena. Especially, it was clarified from the viewpoint of numerical fluid dynamics that the fine adjustment of the inclining angle of surpressing plate and quantity of water in the tank greatly affect the creation of horizontal free surface at the measuring part. Furthermore, effects of the length of measuring part and the ceiling tilt angle of pipe conduit in the downstream of measuring part, which were hard to be analyzed experimentally from the viewpoint of facility and cost, were investigated. Consequently, it was clarified that there are critical length of the measuring part and optimum ceiling tilt angle in the leveling of horizontal free surface. Thus, an instruction for designing was obtained. The present flow field simulation was useful for the fluid dynamic understanding of the flow field at the measuring part, as for the leveling of horizontal free surface. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  10. Instrumental measurement of iridium abundances in the part-per-trillion range following neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.W.; Asaro, F.; Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    An automated gamma-ray coincidence spectrometer has been constructed which, following neutron activation, can measure iridium (Ir) abundances of the order of 25 parts-per-trillion (ppt) in rock samples 500 times more rapidly than previously possible by instrumental techniques used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Twin intrinsic Ge gamma-ray detectors count coincidences between the 316.5 and 468.1 keV gamma rays of 192 Ir, and together with a mineral-oil-based Compton suppression shield provide a sensitivity of 50 ppt Ir in 7 minute measurements of 100 mg limestone samples subsequent to irradiation in the University of Missouri reactor. Over 3000 samples have been measured, and in collaboration with many geologists and paleontologists from around the world, anomalous amounts of Ir have been detected in rocks with approximate ages of 12, 39, 67, 91, 150 and 3500 million years. Modifications are nearly complete to measure ten other elements very important to geochemical studies simultaneously (in the singles rather than the coincidence mode) with the Ir measurements

  11. Standard Test Method for Measuring Optical Angular Deviation of Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers measuring the angular deviation of a light ray imposed by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens and canopies. The results are uncontaminated by the effects of lateral displacement, and the procedure may be performed in a relatively short optical path length. This is not intended as a referee standard. It is one convenient method for measuring angular deviations through transparent windows. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Radon measurement works in Dhaka city and central part of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukder, S.R.; Hamid Khan, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The major source of natural radiation that irradiates the human body is primarily due to inhalation of Radon and its short-lived progeny nuclides. It is well known that exposure of population to high concentration of Radon and its daughters for a long period leads to pathological effects like the respiratory functional changes and the occurrence of lung cancer. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (CR-39) are being used for detection and measurement works of radon and its progeny in Bangladesh. Dhaka the capital of Bangladesh and some areas of the central region of Bangladesh are chosen for the present study to measure the Radon concentration level of the country. Dhaka is one of the most populous cities in Bangladesh as well as in the world. High working levels (WL) were found in some locations of Dhaka city specially in the old part of the city where so many ancient building are established and in some villages of the central part of the country. The aim of the study is to prepare a Radon Map of Bangladesh and the results so far obtained have been presented in the paper. (author)

  13. Human Body Parts Tracking and Kinematic Features Assessment Based on RSSI and Inertial Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaddi Blumrosen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of patient kinematics in different environments plays an important role in the detection of risk situations such as fall detection in elderly patients, in rehabilitation of patients with injuries, and in the design of treatment plans for patients with neurological diseases. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI measurements in a Body Area Network (BAN, capture the signal power on a radio link. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of utilizing RSSI measurements in assessment of human kinematic features, and to give methods to determine these features. RSSI measurements can be used for tracking different body parts’ displacements on scales of a few centimeters, for classifying motion and gait patterns instead of inertial sensors, and to serve as an additional reference to other sensors, in particular inertial sensors. Criteria and analytical methods for body part tracking, kinematic motion feature extraction, and a Kalman filter model for aggregation of RSSI and inertial sensor were derived. The methods were verified by a set of experiments performed in an indoor environment. In the future, the use of RSSI measurements can help in continuous assessment of various kinematic features of patients during their daily life activities and enhance medical diagnosis accuracy with lower costs.

  14. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 1: Measurement techniques, uncertainties and availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hassler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC and other ozone depleting substance (ODS concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified. In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP/World Meteorological Organization (WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available. This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument. Archive location information for each data set is also given.

  15. Self-Calibrated In-Process Photogrammetry for Large Raw Part Measurement and Alignment before Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendikute, Alberto; Yagüe-Fabra, José A; Zatarain, Mikel; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Leizea, Ibai

    2017-09-09

    Photogrammetry methods are being used more and more as a 3D technique for large scale metrology applications in industry. Optical targets are placed on an object and images are taken around it, where measuring traceability is provided by precise off-process pre-calibrated digital cameras and scale bars. According to the 2D target image coordinates, target 3D coordinates and camera views are jointly computed. One of the applications of photogrammetry is the measurement of raw part surfaces prior to its machining. For this application, post-process bundle adjustment has usually been adopted for computing the 3D scene. With that approach, a high computation time is observed, leading in practice to time consuming and user dependent iterative review and re-processing procedures until an adequate set of images is taken, limiting its potential for fast, easy-to-use, and precise measurements. In this paper, a new efficient procedure is presented for solving the bundle adjustment problem in portable photogrammetry. In-process bundle computing capability is demonstrated on a consumer grade desktop PC, enabling quasi real time 2D image and 3D scene computing. Additionally, a method for the self-calibration of camera and lens distortion has been integrated into the in-process approach due to its potential for highest precision when using low cost non-specialized digital cameras. Measurement traceability is set only by scale bars available in the measuring scene, avoiding the uncertainty contribution of off-process camera calibration procedures or the use of special purpose calibration artifacts. The developed self-calibrated in-process photogrammetry has been evaluated both in a pilot case scenario and in industrial scenarios for raw part measurement, showing a total in-process computing time typically below 1 s per image up to a maximum of 2 s during the last stages of the computed industrial scenes, along with a relative precision of 1/10,000 (e.g. 0.1 mm error in 1 m) with

  16. Instructional Trends from AASL Journals: 1972-2007--Part 3: From Access-Measured to Evaluation-Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This article is Part 3 of a three part summary of selected articles from the journals of the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) over a period of thirty-five years from 1972 to 2007. This three-part series in the April, May, and June (2009) issues of "School Library Media Activities Monthly" ("SLMAM") illustrate the evolution in…

  17. Ants Colony Optimisation of a Measuring Path of Prismatic Parts on a CMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojadinovic Slavenko M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents optimisation of a measuring probe path in inspecting the prismatic parts on a CMM. The optimisation model is based on: (i the mathematical model that establishes an initial collision-free path presented by a set of points, and (ii the solution of Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP obtained with Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO. In order to solve TSP, an ACO algorithm that aims to find the shortest path of ant colony movement (i.e. the optimised path is applied. Then, the optimised path is compared with the measuring path obtained with online programming on CMM ZEISS UMM500 and with the measuring path obtained in the CMM inspection module of Pro/ENGINEER® software. The results of comparing the optimised path with the other two generated paths show that the optimised path is at least 20% shorter than the path obtained by on-line programming on CMM ZEISS UMM500, and at least 10% shorter than the path obtained by using the CMM module in Pro/ENGINEER®.

  18. Adherence to tuberculosis care in Canadian Aboriginal populations, Part 1: definition, measurement, responsibility, barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Pamela

    2011-04-01

    In a 2-part series, the current literature with respect to adherence to tuberculosis care among Canadian Aboriginal populations is reviewed. In the current paper, which comprises part 1 of this review, adherence is defined, and methods of measurement, issues of responsibility and potential barriers to adherence are explored. Study design. Literature review. A systematic search and analytic review of relevant studies was undertaken, including an online search of electronic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, MEDLINE, Native Health Database, Scopus, Social Science Citation Index) and publications by governmental and non-governmental agencies. Poor adherence to therapy for TB disease is the most common cause of initial treatment failure and of disease relapse worldwide. Adherence to care for TB disease is necessary for the health of both the affected individual and society as a whole. Adherence is a task-specific behaviour that is not inherent to ethnic identity. The term applies only when common agreement over a care plan has been reached between patient and provider. The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care and the Patients Charter outline the responsibilities for adherence on the part of both patients and providers. For Canadian Aboriginals, barriers to adherence may derive from a complex interaction between the health system, personal factors and social factors, which may include dysfunctional acute and public health systems, dissonant (between health care provider and patient) belief systems, concurrent co-morbidities and life stressors, poverty and social stigma. Adherence is a task-specific behaviour, not a personality trait. It is influenced by the interaction of systemic, personal and societal factors. These factors must be understood within the historical experience of TB and the cultural meaning of health and illness among Indigenous Canadians.

  19. Local density measurement of additive manufactured copper parts by instrumented indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Bellisario, Denise; Tedde, Giovanni Matteo; Zarcone, Mariano; Di Domenico, Gildo; D'Angelo, Pierpaolo; Corona, Diego

    2018-05-01

    Instrumented flat indentation has been used to evaluate local density of additive manufactured (AM) copper samples with different relative density. Indentations were made by using tungsten carbide (WC) flat pins with 1 mm diameter. Pure copper powders were used in a selective laser melting (SLM) machine to produce samples to test. By changing process parameters, samples density was changed from the relative density of 63% to 71%. Indentation tests were performed on the xy surface of the AM samples. In order to make a correlation between indentation test results and sample density, the indentation pressure at fixed displacement was selected. Results show that instrumented indentation is a valid technique to measure density distribution along the geometry of an SLM part. In fact, a linear trend between indentation pressure and sample density was found for the selected density range.

  20. Measuring and managing radiologist productivity, part 2: beyond the clinical numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszak, Richard; Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-07-01

    Radiology practices endeavoring to measure physician productivity, identify and motivate performance outliers, and develop equitable management strategies and policies often encounter numerous challenges. Nonetheless, such efforts are often necessary, in both private and academic settings, for a variety of professional, financial, and personnel reasons. Part 1 of this series detailed metrics for evaluating radiologist productivity and reviewed published benchmarks, focusing on clinical work. This segment expands that discussion to evaluating nonclinical administrative and academic efforts, along with professionalism and quality, outlining advantages and disadvantages of addressing differential productivity, and introducing potential models for practices seeking to motivate physicians on the basis of both their clinical and nonclinical endeavors. Copyright 2010 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of the detection limit and decision threshold for ionizing radiation measurements. Part 2: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements with the influence of sample treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This part of ISO 11929 addresses the field of ionizing radiation measurements in which events (in particular pulses) on samples are counted after treating them (e.g. aliquotation, solution, enrichment, separation). It considers, besides the random character of radioactive decay and of pulse counting, all other influences arising from sample treatment, (e.g. weighing, enrichment, calibration or the instability of the test setup). ISO 11929 consists of the following parts, under the general title Determination of the detection limit and decision threshold for ionizing radiation measurements: Part 1: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements without the influence of sample treatment; Part 2: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements with the influence of sample treatment; Part 3: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements by high resolution gamma spectrometry, without the influence of sample treatment; Part 4: Fundamentals and application to measurements by use of linear scale analogue ratemeters, without the influence of sample treatment. This part of ISO 11929 was prepared in parallel with other International Standards prepared by WG 2 (now WG 17): ISO 11932:1996, Activity measurements of solid materials considered for recycling, re-use or disposal as non radioactive waste, and ISO 11929-1, ISO 11929-3 and ISO 11929-4 and is, consequently, complementary to these documents

  2. Study of the dairy characters of lactating Murrah buffaloes on the basis of body parts measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Dhillod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to correlate the milk yield of Murrah buffaloes with certain body parts measurements. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 lactating Murrah buffaloes were selected from Buffalo Farm, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Hisar and were randomly selected in a range from first to fifth parity. Traits studied were 305 days milk yield (MY, body weight (BW, body length (BL, muzzle width (MW, height at wither (HW, abdominal girth (AG, chest girth (CG, body depth fore, body depth rear, hip bone distance (HBD, pin bone distance (PBD, skin thickness (STK, and tail length (TL. Data were collected and statically analyzed by Pearson’s correlation method. Result: The result of this study showed that Murrah buffaloes had the average 2604.8±39.5 kg for MY, 556.1±4.9 kg for BW, and 152.2±0.8 cm for BL. This study showed that buffaloes had positive significant (p<0.05 correlation between MY and BW (0.26. Highly significant (p<0.01 correlation was observed between MY and AG (0.64, MW (0.42. Significant (p<0.01 negative correlation was observed between MY and STK (−0.79. Different body part measurements (BW, BL, HW, AG, CG, MW, TL, BD, PBD, HBD, STK were significantly correlated with each other. Conclusion: This study can be helpful as a selection tool to enhance and evaluate the production potential by setting standards of Murrah buffalo breed. BW, abdominal growth, muzzle thickness, and STK were found key factors while selecting a dairy Murrah buffalo.

  3. Factors affecting neutron measurements and calculations. Part F. Water content in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Oka, Takamitsu; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2005-01-01

    As part of the DS02 studies to reevaluate neutrons from the atomic bomb, we cored rock samples from a pillar of Motoyasu Bridge, located at a distance of 128 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima, and measured the depth profile of induced 152 Eu radioactivity in the rock (Hasai et al. 1987). By use of the MCNP neutron transport calculation code, the depth profile of 152 Eu in the rock was calculated, assuming a neutron distribution at the given location around the pillar based on the DS86 calculations. The depth profile was then compared with the distribution of measurements (Endo et al. 1999). For the calculation, it is necessary to know the major components of the rock. It is also necessary to estimate the water content correctly, since the cross section of hydrogen-neutron reactions is large, and neutron moderation effects of hydrogen are significant. For this purpose, the basic characteristics of water content in rock were studied, based on a few characteristic experiments to estimate the water content, which was then used in neutron transport calculations. The following describes our concepts and methods. (author)

  4. The 183-WSL Fast Rain Rate Retrieval Algorithm. Part II: Validation Using Ground Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The Water vapour Strong Lines at 183 GHz (183-WSL) algorithm is a method for the retrieval of rain rates and precipitation type classification (convectivestratiform), that makes use of the water vapor absorption lines centered at 183.31 GHz of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit module B (AMSU-B) and of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) flying on NOAA-15-18 and NOAA-19Metop-A satellite series, respectively. The characteristics of this algorithm were described in Part I of this paper together with comparisons against analogous precipitation products. The focus of Part II is the analysis of the performance of the 183-WSL technique based on surface radar measurements. The ground truth dataset consists of 2.5 years of rainfall intensity fields from the NIMROD European radar network which covers North-Western Europe. The investigation of the 183-WSL retrieval performance is based on a twofold approach: 1) the dichotomous statistic is used to evaluate the capabilities of the method to identify rain and no-rain clouds; 2) the accuracy statistic is applied to quantify the errors in the estimation of rain rates.The results reveal that the 183-WSL technique shows good skills in the detection of rainno-rain areas and in the quantification of rain rate intensities. The categorical analysis shows annual values of the POD, FAR and HK indices varying in the range 0.80-0.82, 0.330.36 and 0.39-0.46, respectively. The RMSE value is 2.8 millimeters per hour for the whole period despite an overestimation in the retrieved rain rates. Of note is the distribution of the 183-WSL monthly mean rain rate with respect to radar: the seasonal fluctuations of the average rainfalls measured by radar are reproduced by the 183-WSL. However, the retrieval method appears to suffer for the winter seasonal conditions especially when the soil is partially frozen and the surface emissivity drastically changes. This fact is verified observing the discrepancy distribution diagrams where2the 183-WSL

  5. Evaluation of an integrated adherence program aimed to increase Medicare Part D star rating measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, R Scott; Tirado, Breanne; Patel, Bimal V; Rein, Philip J

    2014-12-01

    The Centers for Medicare Medicaid Services (CMS) Plan Quality and Performance Program, or Star Ratings Program, allows Medicare beneficiaries to compare quality of care among available Medicare Advantage prescription drug (MA-PD) plans and stand-alone prescription drug plans (PDPs). Health plans have increased intervention efforts and applied existing care management infrastructure as an approach to improving member medication adherence and subsequent Part D star rating performance. Independent Care Health Plan (iCare), an MA-PD plan; MedImpact Healthcare Systems, Inc. (MedImpact), a pharmacy benefits manager; and US MED, a mail order pharmacy, partnered to engage and enroll iCare's dual-eligible special needs population in an intervention designed to improve patient medication adherence and health plan performance for 3 Part D patient safety outcome measures: Medication Adherence for Oral Diabetes Medications (ODM), Medication Adherence for Hypertension (HTN), and Medication Adherence for Cholesterol (CHOL). To (a) assess the effectiveness of a coordinated member-directed medication adherence intervention and (b) determine the overall impact of the intervention on adherence rates and CMS Part D star rating adherence measures.  Administrative pharmacy claims and health plan eligibility data from MedImpact's databases were used to identify members using 3 target medication classes. Adherence was estimated by the proportion of days covered (PDC) for all members. Those members considered at high risk for nonadherence were prioritized for care management services. Risk factors were based on members' use of more than 1 target medication class, newly started therapy, and suboptimal adherence (PDC  less than  80%) in the most recent 6-month period. Data files listing member adherence rates and contact information were formatted and loaded monthly into iCare's care management system, which triggered an alert for care coordinators to counsel members on the importance

  6. CWT and RWT Metrics Measure the Performance of the Army's Logistics Chain for Spare Parts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    .... Maintaining these weapon systems requires that spare parts be available where and when they are needed. Thus, the responsive functioning of the logistics chain for spare parts is critical to keeping equipment ready to operate...

  7. CWT and RWT Metrics Measure the Performance of the Army's Logistics Chain for Spare Parts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    .... A responsive logistics chain for spare parts is also critical in deployments. When Army personnel know that parts can be quickly and dependably supplied through the logistics chain, units can deploy with fewer "just in case" supplies...

  8. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1988, Part -2, Annex 2c, Environmental radioactivity control, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Zaric, M.; Adamovic, M.; Stevanovic, M.

    1988-01-01

    During 1988, meteorology measurements were continued as a part of the environmental control of the Vinca Institute. This report covers the period from November 1984 - November 1985. Part of the meteorology measurements and data analysis is adapted to the needs of the Institute, i.e. RA reactor and some Laboratories. The objective of these activities is forming the data base for solving everyday and special problems related to control, protection and safety of Institute environment [sr

  9. Measuring solar reflectance - Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective ''cool colored'' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland US latitudes, this metric R{sub E891BN} can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {<=} 5:12 [23 ]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear sky air mass one global horizontal (''AM1GH'') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. (author)

  10. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool colored' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland U.S. latitudes, this metric RE891BN can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {le} 5:12 [23{sup o}]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool-roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear-sky air mass one global horizontal ('AM1GH') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer.

  11. Impact of Measuring Part Elements of Transformer Differential Protection on Input Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreev M.V

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The electric power system (EPS is a large, multi-parameter, non-linear and dynamic system. The problem of calculation of relay protection (RP settings has become more urgent nowadays. The situation is exacerbated by the active implementation of renewable energy sources, FACTS, etc., which significantly change the “traditional” EPS and their operating modes. The problem can be solved by deep analysis of functioning of main elements of RP devices in the specific operating conditions and revision of coefficients used in settings calculation. That can be done using RPs detailed mathematical models and modern EPS simulators. The results of the analysis will make it possible to formulate a new methodology for setting up RP. That is a final goal. In the framework of solving this problem, the novel approach for developing RPs’ detailed mathematical models is formulated and theoretically proved. On the basis of this approach, mathematical models of the system “instrumental transformer - auxiliary transformer - analog filter” (measuring part of digital transformer differential protection for different types of auxiliary current transformers (active and passive and filters (Butterworth, Chebyshev, Bessel are developed. A comparative numerical analysis of their frequency and phase responses is carried out, including taking into account the magnetization of instrumental current transformers. Summarizing, the theoretical and practical studies presented in the article allows formulating requirements for RPs’ detailed mathematical models, which will be used in the further research.

  12. Steam Generator Maintenance Measures as Part of an Integrated Management in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.; Drexler, A.; Fandrich, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Steam generator condition is a key factor for plant performance, high plant availability, possible life time extension and plant safety. Its major safety function is to act as a barrier between the radioactive primary side and the non-radioactive secondary side of pressurized water reactors. Any degradation mechanism, which impairs this barrier function, is a significant safety concern. The main reason for SG tube failure is known to be the accumulation of deposits contributing to formation of local aggressive conditions. Furthermore deposits on primary as well as secondary side of SG tubes reduce the heat transfer performance. A SG cleanliness management program is therefore mandatory to ensure high plant performance regarding efficiency as well as component integrity. Cleaning measures of steam generator are essential parts of the cleanliness management program. Mechanical cleaning, e.g. tubesheet and inner bundle lancing or upper bundle flushing are efficient methods for removal of local loose deposits. But a chemical cleaning is the only method to remove deposits from the complete SG. AREVA is providing with its C 3 (customized chemical cleaning) concept a tool box of chemical cleaning methods, to adapt to plant specific needs and requirements. (author)

  13. Characterization of Unsteady Flow Structures Near Leading-Edge Slat. Part 1; PIV Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Luther N.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive computational and experimental study has been performed at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program to investigate the unsteady flow near a leading-edge slat of a two-dimensional, high-lift system. This paper focuses on the experimental effort conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART) where Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data was acquired in the slat cove and at the slat trailing edge of a three-element, high-lift model at 4, 6, and 8 degrees angle of attack and a freestream Mach Number of 0.17. Instantaneous velocities obtained from PIV images are used to obtain mean and fluctuating components of velocity and vorticity. The data show the recirculation in the cove, reattachment of the shear layer on the slat lower surface, and discrete vortical structures within the shear layer emanating from the slat cusp and slat trailing edge. Detailed measurements are used to examine the shear layer formation at the slat cusp, vortex shedding at the slat trailing edge, and convection of vortical structures through the slat gap. Selected results are discussed and compared with unsteady, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) computations for the same configuration in a companion paper by Khorrami, Choudhari, and Jenkins (2004). The experimental dataset provides essential flow-field information for the validation of near-field inputs to noise prediction tools.

  14. Dosemetry for exposures to cosmic radiation in civilian aircraft - Part 1: Conceptual basis for measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    altitude is complex, with many types of ionizing radiation present, with energies ranging up to many GeV. The determination of ambient dose equivalent for such a complex radiation field is difficult, and the purpose of this International Standard is to give the conceptual basis for performing such measurements and for the calibration of instruments used for this purpose. In many cases, the methods used for the determination of ambient dose equivalent in aircraft are similar to those used at high-energy accelerators in research laboratories. Therefore, it is possible to recommend dosemetric methods and methods for the calibration of dosemetric devices, as well as the techniques for maintaining the traceability of dosemetric measurements to national standards. dosemetric measurements taken to evaluate ambient dose equivalent must be performed using accurate and reliable methods that ensure the quality of readings provided to workers and regulatory authorities. The future Part 2 of ISO 20785 will give procedures for the characterization of the response of instruments for the determination of ambient dose equivalent in aircraft. Requirements for the determination and recording of the cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew have been introduced into the national legislation of EU Member States and other countries. Harmonization of methods used for determining ambient dose equivalent and for calibrating instruments is desirable to ensure the compatibility of measurements performed with such instruments. This International Standard is intended for the use of primary and secondary calibration laboratories for ionizing radiation, by radiation protection personnel employed by governmental agencies, and by industrial corporations concerned with the determination of ambient dose equivalent for aircraft crew

  15. Performance measurement in healthcare: part II--state of the science findings by stage of the performance measurement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Carol E; Simpson, Elizabeth; Casebeer, Ann L; Birdsell, Judith M; Hayden, Katharine A; Lewis, Steven

    2006-07-01

    This paper summarizes findings of a comprehensive, systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature on performance measurement according to each stage of the performance measurement process--conceptualization, selection and development, data collection, and reporting and use. It also outlines implications for practice. Six hundred sixty-four articles about organizational performance measurement from the health and business literature were reviewed after systematic searches of the literature, multi-rater relevancy ratings, citation checks and expert author nominations. Key themes were extracted and summarized from the most highly rated papers for each performance measurement stage. Despite a virtually universal consensus on the potential benefits of performance measurement, little evidence currently exists to guide practice in healthcare. Issues in conceptualizing systems include strategic alignment and scope. There are debates on the criteria for selecting measures and on the types and quality of measures. Implementation of data collection and analysis systems is complex and costly, and challenges persist in reporting results, preventing unintended effects and putting findings for improvement into action. There is a need for further development and refinement of performance measures and measurement systems, with a particular focus on strategies to ensure that performance measurement leads to healthcare improvement.

  16. Nanomanufacturing Concerns about Measurements Made in the SEM Part IV: Charging and its Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T; Vladár, András E

    2015-01-01

    This is the fourth part of a series of tutorial papers discussing various causes of measurement uncertainty in scanned particle beam instruments, and some of the solutions researched and developed at NIST and other research institutions. Scanned particle beam instruments especially the scanning electron microscope (SEM) have gone through tremendous evolution to become indispensable tools for many and diverse scientific and industrial applications. These improvements have significantly enhanced their performance and made them far easier to operate. But, the ease of operation has also fostered operator complacency. In addition, the user-friendliness has reduced the apparent need for extensive operator training. Unfortunately, this has led to the idea that the SEM is just another expensive "digital camera" or another peripheral device connected to a computer and that all of the problems in obtaining good quality images and data have been solved. Hence, one using these instruments may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been fully eliminated and believing that, everything one sees on the micrograph is always correct. But, as described in this and the earlier papers, this may not be the case. Care must always be taken when reliable quantitative data are being sought. The first paper in this series discussed some of the issues related to signal generation in the SEM, including instrument calibration, electron beam-sample interactions and the need for physics-based modeling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms to properly interpret SEM images. The second paper has discussed another major issue confronting the microscopist: specimen contamination and methods to eliminate it. The third paper discussed mechanical vibration and stage drift and some useful solutions to mitigate the problems caused by them, and here, in this the fourth contribution, the issues related to specimen "charging" and its mitigation are discussed relative to

  17. Comparison of measurements from optical CMM and focus-variation microscope of a μPIM mechanical part

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Salaga, Jacek; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Two sets of 5 green and 5 sintered mechanical parts, manufactured by micro powder injection moulding (μPIM), were measured using an optical coordinate measuring machine (OCMM) and a focus-variation microscope (FVM). The examined features of size, including diameter, radii and distances, span...... geometrical features, such as surface texture and flatness, may depict FVM measurements as more attractive. However, measurements should be suitable for in-line quality control, in a production environment, where fast cycle time is required and measuring times are more compatible to those of the OCMM....

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on a Fluorescence Method”, Journal of the Air Control Pollution Association, vol. 23, p. 514-516... Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems—Volume II. Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Programs. U.S...

  19. MEASURE/ANOMTEST. Anomaly detection software package for the Dodewaard power plant facility. Supplement 1. Extension of measurement analysis part, addition of plot package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoonewelle, H.

    1995-01-01

    The anomaly detection software package installed at the Dodewaard nuclear power plant has been revised with respect to the part of the measurement analysis. A plot package has been added to the package. Signals in which an anomaly has been detected are automatically plotted including the uncertainty margins of the signals. This report gives a description of the revised measurement analysis part and the plot package. Each new routine of the plot package is described briefly and the new input and output files are given. (orig.)

  20. Evaluating digital libraries in the health sector. Part 2: measuring impacts and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena

    2004-03-01

    This is the second part of a two-part paper which explores methods that can be used to evaluate digital libraries in the health sector. Part 1 focuses on approaches to evaluation that have been proposed for mainstream digital information services. This paper investigates evaluative models developed for some innovative digital library projects, and some major national and international electronic health information projects. The value of ethnographic methods to provide qualitative data to explore outcomes, adding to quantitative approaches based on inputs and outputs is discussed. The paper concludes that new 'post-positivist' models of evaluation are needed to cover all the dimensions of the digital library in the health sector, and some ways of doing this are outlined.

  1. Metrological Array of Cyber-Physical Systems. Part 7. Additive Error Correction for Measuring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy YATSUK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since during design it is impossible to use the uncertainty approach because the measurement results are still absent and as noted the error approach that can be successfully applied taking as true the nominal value of instruments transformation function. Limiting possibilities of additive error correction of measuring instruments for Cyber-Physical Systems are studied basing on general and special methods of measurement. Principles of measuring circuit maximal symmetry and its minimal reconfiguration are proposed for measurement or/and calibration. It is theoretically justified for the variety of correction methods that minimum additive error of measuring instruments exists under considering the real equivalent parameters of input electronic switches. Terms of self-calibrating and verification the measuring instruments in place are studied.

  2. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part A. Cobalt (60Co) activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Maruyama, Takashi; Cullings, Harry M.; Komura, Kazuhisa; Okumura, Yutaka; Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    The 60 Co measurements at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were reviewed and compared with the results of the new DS02 calculations for the two cities. Some corrections were made to previously published data from the 1965 measurements of JNIRS, ground ranges of all of the 60 Co measurements were reviewed and new ground ranges were determined when possible by transforming sample coordinates to the new city maps for Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and transmission factors were investigated for a number of samples used in the 60 Co measurements. Transmission factors were not calculated for all samples used in the 60 Co measurements but some general rules were given for estimating transmission factors for these samples. Experimental measurements of the background 60 Co activity from environmental neutrons were also reviewed, and it was found that the 60 Co background from environmental neutrons was not an important factor in the 60 Co measurements of bomb-induced activity at either city. (J.P.N.)

  3. Ground penetrating radar measurements at the ONKALO research tunnel and eastern part of the Olkiluoto investigation area at July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipola, V.; Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements were carried out at ONKALO research site in summer 2006. Measurements included 400 metres of measurements inside ONKALO access tunnel and about 1800 metres of measurements on the ground, at the eastern parts of Olkiluoto investigation area. The purpose of the measurements done inside the access tunnel was to investigate, whether it would be possible to locate deformation structures or long fractures in the rock mass below the tunnel. The purpose of the measurements made on top of the ground was to investigate, whether it would be possible to locate glacio-isostatic faults from the soils. A secondary target was to try and locate the rock surface. The chosen part of ONKALO tunnel was measured using five different frequencies, which enabled comparing the results to each other. It also enabled getting a higher resolution picture of the top rock, than what would have been possible using only one low-frequency antenna. The on-the-ground measurements were measured using only one frequency. (orig.)

  4. Development of electrical efficiency measurement techniques for 10 kW-class SOFC system: Part I. Measurement of electrical efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yohei; Momma, Akihiko; Kato, Ken; Negishi, Akira; Takano, Kiyonami; Nozaki, Ken; Kato, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Measurement techniques to estimate electrical efficiency of 10 kW-class SOFC systems fueled by town-gas were developed and demonstrated for a system developed by Kansai Electric Power Company and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation under a NEDO project. Higher heating value of the fuel was evaluated with a transportable gas sampling unit and conventional gas chromatography in AIST laboratory with thermal-conductivity and flame-ionization detectors, leading to mean value 44.69 MJ m -3 on a volumetric base for ideal-gas at the standard state (0 deg. C, 101.325 kPa). Mass-flow-rate of the fuel was estimated as 33.04 slm with a mass-flow meter for CH 4 , which was calibrated to correct CH 4 flow-rate and effect of sensitivity change and to obtain conversion factor from CH 4 to town-gas. Without calibration, systematic effect would occur by 8% in flow-rate measurement in the case for CH 4 . Power output was measured with a precision power analyzer, a virtual three phase starpoint adapter, and tri-axial shunts. Power of fundamental wave (60 Hz) was estimated as 10.14 kW, considering from total active power, total higher harmonic distortion factor, and power consumption at the starpoint adapter. The electrical efficiency was presumed to be 41.2% (HHV), though this mean value will be complete only when uncertainty estimation is accompanied

  5. Why the Real Part of the Proton-Proton Forward Scattering Amplitude Should be Measured at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrely, C.; Martin, Andre; Soffer, Jacques; Wu, Tai Tsun

    2006-01-01

    For the energy of 14 TeV, to be reached at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have had for some time accurate predictions for both the real and imaginary parts of the forward proton-proton elastic scattering amplitude. LHC is now scheduled to start operating in two years, and it is timely to discuss some of the important consequences of the measurements of both the total cross-section and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part. We stress the importance of measuring the real part of the proton-proton forward scattering amplitude at LHC, because a deviation from existing theoretical predictions could be a strong sign for new physics.

  6. Bibliography of papers, reports, and presentations related to point-sample dimensional measurement methods for machined part evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Integrated Manufacturing Systems

    1996-04-01

    The Dimensional Inspection Techniques Specification (DITS) Project is an ongoing effort to produce tools and guidelines for optimum sampling and data analysis of machined parts, when measured using point-sample methods of dimensional metrology. This report is a compilation of results of a literature survey, conducted in support of the DITS. Over 160 citations are included, with author abstracts where available.

  7. Pulmonary adenocarcinomas appearing as part-solid ground-glass nodules: Is measuring solid component size a better prognostic indicator?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Eui Jin; Ryu, Youngjin; Lee, Sang Min [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, 101, Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, 101, Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Tae [Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Whan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Lung Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-02

    To assess whether measuring the solid portion of adenocarcinomas appearing as part-solid ground-glass nodules (GGNs) can predict a patient's prognosis accurately and how the prognosis corresponds to that of solid nodules. 501 patients (solid nodule group, 304; part-solid GGN group, 197) underwent curative surgery for stage I adenocarcinomas. Maximal diameters of the whole lesion including ground-glass opacities (D{sub whole}) and solid components only (D{sub solid}) were measured on CT. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from the date of surgery. D{sub solid} was a significant prognostic factor in the part-solid GGN group, while D{sub whole} was not. Part-solid GGNs with D{sub solid} ≤2 cm showed significantly better DFS (P = 0.016) and OS (P = 0.004) than solid nodules; however, those with D{sub solid} >2 cm did not show a significant difference. Hazard ratio (HR) for increase in D{sub solid} was significantly greater in part-solid GGNs than in solid nodules (P = 0.009). For OS, HR for increase in D{sub solid} was greater in part-solid GGNs than in solid nodule, which was marginally not significant (P = 0.060). D{sub solid} was better than D{sub whole} for prognosis prediction of adenocarcinomas appearing as part-solid GGNs. In addition, the influence of D{sub solid} on prognosis in the part-solid GGN group was greater than in the solid nodule group. (orig.)

  8. Gait variability measurements in lumbar spinal stenosis patients: part B. Preoperative versus postoperative gait variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, N C; Christakis, D G; Tzagarakis, G N; Chlouverakis, G I; Kampanis, N A; Stergiopoulos, K N; Katonis, P G

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the gait variability of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) patients and to evaluate its postoperative progression. The hypothesis was that LSS patients' preoperative gait variability in the frequency domain was higher than the corresponding postoperative. A tri-axial accelerometer sensor was used for the gait measurement and a spectral differential entropy algorithm was used to measure the gait variability. Twelve subjects with LSS were measured before and after surgery. Preoperative measurements were performed 2 days before surgery. Postoperative measurements were performed 6 and 12 months after surgery. Preoperative gait variability was higher than the corresponding postoperative. Also, in most cases, gait variability appeared to decrease throughout the year

  9. Metrological Array of Cyber-Physical Systems. Part 11. Remote Error Correction of Measuring Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy YATSUK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The multi-channel measuring instruments with both the classical structure and the isolated one is identified their errors major factors basing on general it metrological properties analysis. Limiting possibilities of the remote automatic method for additive and multiplicative errors correction of measuring instruments with help of code-control measures are studied. For on-site calibration of multi- channel measuring instruments, the portable voltage calibrators structures are suggested and their metrological properties while automatic errors adjusting are analysed. It was experimentally envisaged that unadjusted error value does not exceed ± 1 mV that satisfies most industrial applications. This has confirmed the main approval concerning the possibilities of remote errors self-adjustment as well multi- channel measuring instruments as calibration tools for proper verification.

  10. The vanishing discount problem and viscosity Mather measures. Part 2: boundary value problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Hitoshi; Mitake, Hiroyoshi; Tran, Hung V.

    2016-01-01

    In arXiv:1603.01051 (Part 1 of this series), we have introduced a variational approach to studying the vanishing discount problem for fully nonlinear, degenerate elliptic, partial differential equations in a torus. We develop this approach further here to handle boundary value problems. In particular, we establish new representation formulas for solutions of discount problems, critical values, and use them to prove convergence results for the vanishing discount problems.

  11. Measuring delayed part of the current of a self powered neutron detector and comparison with calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kophazi, J.; Czifrus, Sz.; Feher, S.; Por, G.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the measurement of the delayed signal of a Rh emitter Self Powered Neutron Detector (SPND) separately from other signal components originating from (n-gamma-e), (background gamma-e) and other effects. In order to separate the delayed signal, the detector was removed from the reactor core and placed to an adequately distant location during the measurement, where the radiation from the core was negligible. The experiment was carried out on the 100kW light water tank-type reactor of Technical University of Budapest and the results of the measurement were compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations.(author)

  12. Uncertainty estimation with a small number of measurements, part II: a redefinition of uncertainty and an estimator method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hening

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the second (Part II) in a series of two papers (Part I and Part II). Part I has quantitatively discussed the fundamental limitations of the t-interval method for uncertainty estimation with a small number of measurements. This paper (Part II) reveals that the t-interval is an ‘exact’ answer to a wrong question; it is actually misused in uncertainty estimation. This paper proposes a redefinition of uncertainty, based on the classical theory of errors and the theory of point estimation, and a modification of the conventional approach to estimating measurement uncertainty. It also presents an asymptotic procedure for estimating the z-interval. The proposed modification is to replace the t-based uncertainty with an uncertainty estimator (mean- or median-unbiased). The uncertainty estimator method is an approximate answer to the right question to uncertainty estimation. The modified approach provides realistic estimates of uncertainty, regardless of whether the population standard deviation is known or unknown, or if the sample size is small or large. As an application example of the modified approach, this paper presents a resolution to the Du-Yang paradox (i.e. Paradox 2), one of the three paradoxes caused by the misuse of the t-interval in uncertainty estimation.

  13. Exposure to electromagnetic fields from smart utility meters in GB; part I) laboratory measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Azadeh; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Goiceanu, Cristian; Maslanyj, Myron; Mann, Simon

    2017-05-01

    Laboratory measurements of electric fields have been carried out around examples of smart meter devices used in Great Britain. The aim was to quantify exposure of people to radiofrequency signals emitted from smart meter devices operating at 2.4 GHz, and then to compare this with international (ICNIRP) health-related guidelines and with exposures from other telecommunication sources such as mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices. The angular distribution of the electric fields from a sample of 39 smart meter devices was measured in a controlled laboratory environment. The angular direction where the power density was greatest was identified and the equivalent isotropically radiated power was determined in the same direction. Finally, measurements were carried out as a function of distance at the angles where maximum field strengths were recorded around each device. The maximum equivalent power density measured during transmission around smart meter devices at 0.5 m and beyond was 15 mWm -2 , with an estimation of maximum duty factor of only 1%. One outlier device had a maximum power density of 91 mWm -2 . All power density measurements reported in this study were well below the 10 W m -2 ICNIRP reference level for the general public. Bioelectromagnetics. 2017;38:280-294. © 2017 Crown copyright. BIOELECTROMAGNETICS © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Crown copyright. BIOELECTROMAGNETICS © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Activation measurements for fast neutrons. Part A. Sulfur (32P) activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The sulfur activation measurements at Hiroshima have been useful in refining and verifying the neutron source-term calculations for the Hiroshima bomb (Kerr and Pace 1988). For example, the Riken measurements of sulfur activation at Hiroshima were used to demonstrate that a two dimensional calculation of the neutron leakage was required for the Hiroshima bomb in order to accurately account for the blind spot in the neutron leakage through the nose of the device (Kerr 1982a,b; Kerr et al. 1983; Pace and Kerr 1984). The sulfur activation measurements at Hiroshima are discussed and compared in this section with the results of DS86 and DS02 calculations for the air-over-ground transport of neutrons at Hiroshima. (J.P.N.)

  15. Measurements of the Cosmic Radiation Doses at Board of Aircraft of Polish Airlines LOT. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, P.; Budzanowski, M.; Horwacik, T.; Marczewska, B.; Olko, P.

    2000-12-01

    Radiation doses received by a group of 30 pilots of the Polish Airlines LOT were investigated between July and October 2000. The measurement of the low-LET component of the cosmic radiation, lasting in average 2 months, was performed with 7 LiF:Mg,Ti and 7 L iF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent detectors. The neutron component was measured with the thermoluminescent albedo cassettes. Additionally for all flights, records of altitude profiles were kept and effective doses were then calculated with the CARI-6 computer code. In total, about 560 flights were included in the calculations. The highest obtained dose was about 0.8 mSv in 2 months. Results of calculations are mostly consistent with the results of measurements. (author)

  16. Measuring lip force by oral screens. Part 1: Importance of screen size and individual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertsén, Madeleine; Stenberg, Manne

    2017-06-01

    To reduce drooling and facilitate food transport in rehabilitation of patients with oral motor dysfunction, lip force can be trained using an oral screen. Longitudinal studies evaluating the effect of training require objective methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate a method for measuring lip strength, to investigate normal values and fluctuation of lip force in healthy adults on 1 occasion and over time, to study how the size of the screen affects the force, to evaluate the most appropriate measure of reliability, and to identify force performed in relation to gender. Three different sizes of oral screens were used to measure the lip force for 24 healthy adults on 3 different occasions, during a period of 6 months, using an apparatus based on strain gauge. The maximum lip force as evaluated with this method depends on the area of the screen size. By calculating the projected area of the screen, the lip force could be normalized to an oral screen pressure quantity expressed in kPa, which can be used for comparing measurements from screens with different sizes. Both the mean value and standard deviation were shown to vary between individuals. The study showed no differences regarding gender and only small variation with age. Normal variation over time (months) may be up to 3 times greater than the standard error of measurement at a certain occasion. The lip force increases in relation to the projected area of the screen. No general standard deviation can be assigned to the method and all measurements should be analyzed individually based on oral screen pressure to compensate for different screen sizes.

  17. Clinical measurements of part-body calcium using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tothill, P.; Smith, M.A.; Simpson, J.D.; Chew, I.; MacPherson, J.N.; Winney, R.J.; Strong, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Californium-252 sources have been used in a clinical environment for neutron activation analysis studies for a period of 2 1/2 years. During this period, changes in bone calcium in response to different treatment regimes have been measured in patients suffering from primary or secondary bone disease. The first measurements were performed on peripheral bone, in particular the forearm, using two sources of 252 Cf, minimum total activity 56mCi, for bilateral irradiation and two 15cmx10cm NaI crystals for detection. Optimization of the irradiation geometry and the patient irradiation programme enabled measurements to be performed with a precision of 1.6% and a dose of 3 rem. The precision estimate was based on 64 sets of repeated patient measurements and included errors due to patient movement. Apparatus was also developed to measure changes of calcium in the lumbar spine, particular attention being devoted to obtaining uniformity of sensitivity in the vertebrae. Unilateral irradiation with two 252 Cf sources, activity 100mCi each, separated by 20cm, and detection in whole-body counter with four 15cmx10cm NaI detectors gave a precision of 2% based on repeated measurements of 10 patients, with a dose of 1.3 rem to the spine and 10 rem to the skin surface. The following studies were undertaken: the effect of 1 α-hydroxycholecalciferol on 19 patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis, the use of vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 in the treatment of 33 patients with potential anticonvulsant osteomalacia, the effect of lithium carbonate in 20 patients with manic depression and the efficacy of conventional treatments in combating thyrotoxic osteodystrophy. (author)

  18. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part G. Natural 36Cl production in mineral samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, Eckehart; Huber, Thomas; Lazarev, Vitali; Ruehm, Werner; Kato, Kazuo; Schultz, Ludolf

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, a method was developed to calculate the contribution of natural in situ production of 36 Cl in mineral samples to the 36 Cl signal induced by the neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb. Parameters used in the calculations include local erosion rates, lithospheric depth, and elemental composition for each investigated sample. It has been shown that the calculations agree within their uncertainties with 36 Cl values measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry, in granite samples from quarries with known locations. Both calculations and measurements suggest typical 36 Cl/Cl ratios of about 10 -13 in mineral samples. (J.P.N.)

  19. Preoperational radiation measurements at the Angra-I nuclear power plant. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, J.L.B.; Barbosa, W.P.; Oberhofer, M.

    1991-01-01

    During December 10 and 11, 1980, γ-background measurements were performed at the Angra-I nuclear power plant within the reactor containment, within and outside the adjacent building complexes. The dose-rates within the containment averaged around 10,6 μR/h, within the auxiliary building around 14,4 μR/h. The lowest values, 6 μR/h, were measured within the reactor coolant pump and steam generator compartments, the highest value, 25 μR/h, in the charging pump valve operation room, elevation 8,65, close to area monitor No. 4. (author)

  20. Factors affecting neutron measurements and calculations. Part E. Hydrogen content in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsubara, Tetsuro; Sasa, Kimikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    For evaluation of radiation doses from the atomic bomb at Hiroshima, many systematic measurements have been made of the residual activities of activation products in rocks and concrete. For the Motoyasu Bridge, which is located close to the bomb hypocenter, the depth profile of 152 Eu was measured in a granite core (Hasai et al. 1987; Shizuma et al. 1997). In order to reproduce the depth profile of the activities, it is important to calculate the neutron scattering and absorption (Endo et al. 1999). In this section, the first result of hydrogen analysis by proton-proton elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry for the granite samples is described. (author)

  1. Improved passive flux samplers for measuring ammonia emissions from animal houses, part 1: Basic principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, R.; Hol, J.M.G.; Wagemans, M.J.M.; Phillips, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    At present, precise, expensive and laborious methods with a high resolution in time are needed, to determine ammonia emission rates from animal houses. The high costs for equipment, maintenance and labour limit the number of sites that can be measured. This study examines a new, simpler concept for

  2. Data transmission optical link for LLRF TESLA project part II: application for BER measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Olowski, Krzysztof; Perkuszewski, Karol; Zielinski, Jerzy; Kierzkowski, Krzysztof

    2006-02-01

    It may be predicted now, even assuming a very conservative approach, that the next generation of the Low Level RF control systems for future accelerators will use extensively such technologies like: very fast programmable circuits equipped with DSP, embedded PC and optical communication I/O functionalities, as well as multi-gigabit optical transmission of measurement data and control signals.

  3. Temperature measurement during solidification of thin wall ductile cast iron. Part 2: Numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Temperature measurements in castings are carried out with thermocouples (TC’s), which are inserted in the melt. The TC influence solidification of the casting, especially in thin wall castings where the heat content of the melt is small compared to the cooling power of the TC. A numerical analysi...

  4. Minimizing measurement uncertainties of coniferous needle-leaf optical properties, part I: methodological review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanez Rausell, L.; Schaepman, M.E.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Malenovsky, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Optical properties (OPs) of non-flat narrow plant leaves, i.e., coniferous needles, are extensively used by the remote sensing community, in particular for calibration and validation of radiative transfer models at leaf and canopy level. Optical measurements of such small living elements are,

  5. Direct inversion of circulation and mixing from tracer measurementsPart 1: Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Clarmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available From a series of zonal mean global stratospheric tracer measurements sampled in altitude vs. latitude, circulation and mixing patterns are inferred by the inverse solution of the continuity equation. As a first step, the continuity equation is written as a tendency equation, which is numerically integrated over time to predict a later atmospheric state, i.e., mixing ratio and air density. The integration is formally performed by the multiplication of the initially measured atmospheric state vector by a linear prediction operator. Further, the derivative of the predicted atmospheric state with respect to the wind vector components and mixing coefficients is used to find the most likely wind vector components and mixing coefficients which minimize the residual between the predicted atmospheric state and the later measurement of the atmospheric state. Unless multiple tracers are used, this inversion problem is under-determined, and dispersive behavior of the prediction further destabilizes the inversion. Both these problems are addressed by regularization. For this purpose, a first-order smoothness constraint has been chosen. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated by application to various tracer measurements recorded with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS. This method aims at a diagnosis of the Brewer–Dobson circulation without involving the concept of the mean age of stratospheric air, and related problems like the stratospheric tape recorder, or intrusions of mesospheric air into the stratosphere.

  6. Oslo traffic study - part 2: quantifying effects of traffic measures using individual exposure modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clench-Aas, J.; Bartonova, A.; Klaeboe, R.; Kolbenstvedt, M.

    2000-01-01

    In quantifying the benefits of air pollution reduction measures, it is desirable to compare the size of the benefits with the effects of other individual confounding factors such as smoking or passive smoking. The effect of pollution is rarely very large and in order to quantify it, exposure estimating procedures must be as accurate as possible. Dispersion models, run for hourly time intervals and controlled by measurements, are therefore used to provide estimates for specific receptor points. Results of three consecutive cross-sectional investigations in an area of Oslo characterized by heavy traffic are presented. The study was designed to provide repeated information on the effects of traffic diversion measures on the self-reporting of symptoms of reduced health of 1100 adults living in Oslo. The principal source of air pollution in Oslo is vehicular traffic. The primary pollutants of interest are nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and respirable particles (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ). The mean hourly concentration of exposure was estimated at each participant's home by means of a time-dependent finite dispersion model combined with subgrid models to describe the source contribution to the grid concentrations. The study controlled the confounding factors. Using the symptom fatigue, the study illustrates that by controlling the changes in population composition, estimated exposure-effect relationships for health symptoms allow the effect of the studied traffic measures on the population to be evaluated. Since the method is based on individual estimates of exposure to different pollutants, it allows standardizing the exposure to compare effects of different pollutants. The study offers a methodology that is useful in evaluating the benefits of measures by both being able to quantify and compare the effects of different compounds and effects on different population sub-groups. (author)

  7. Measuring Patients' Experience of Rehabilitation Services Across the Care Continuum. Part II: Key Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Josephine; McNeil, Heather; Lafortune, Claire; Black, Samantha; Prorok, Jeanette; Stolee, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To identify key dimensions of patients' experience across the rehabilitative care system and to recommend a framework to develop survey items that measure the rehabilitative care experience. Data were sourced from a literature review that searched MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL (Ebsco), and PsycINFO (APA PsycNET) databases from 2004 to 2014, the reference lists of the final accepted articles, and hand searches of relevant journals. Four reviewers performed the screening process on 2472 articles; 33 were included for analysis. Interrater reliability was confirmed through 2 rounds of title review and 1 round of abstract review, with an average κ score of .69. The final sample of 33 accepted articles was imported into a qualitative data analysis software application. Multiple levels of coding and a constant comparative methodology generated 6 themes. There were 502 discreet survey questions measuring patient experience that were categorized using the following dimensions: rehabilitative care ecosystem, client and informal caregiver engagement, patient and health care provider relation, pain and functional status, group and individual identity, and open ended. The most common survey questions examine the care delivery ecosystem (37%), the engagement of clients and their informal caregivers (24.9%), and the quality of relations between providers and patients (21.7%). Examination of patient's functional status and management of pain yielded (15.3%) of the instruments' questions. Currently available instruments and questions that measure patients' experience in rehabilitative care are unable to assess the performance of rehabilitative delivery systems that aspire to integrate care across the continuum. However, question panels derived from our 6 key themes may measure the key concepts that define rehabilitative care and facilitate measurement of patient experience at the system level. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  8. Measuring lip force by oral screens Part 2: The importance of screen design, instruction and suction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertsén, Madeleine; Stenberg, Manne

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find a reliable method for measuring lip force and to find the most important factors that influence the measurements in terms of magnitude and variability. The hypothesis tested was that suction is involved and thus the instruction and the design of the oral screen are of importance when measuring lip force. This is a methodological study in a healthy population. This study was conducted in a general community. The designs of the screens were soft and hard prefabricated screens and 2 semi-individually made with a tube allowing air to pass. The screens and the instructions squeeze or suck were tested on 29 healthy adults, one at a time and on 4 occasions. The test order of the screens was randomized. Data were collected during 4 consecutive days, and the procedure was repeated after 1 month. The participants were 29 healthy adult volunteers. The instruction was an important mean to distinguish between squeezing and sucking. The design of the screen affected the lip force so that it increases in relation to the projected area of the screen. A screen design with a tube allowing air to pass made it possible to avoid suction when squeezing. By measuring with and without allowing air to pass, it was possible to distinguish between suction related and not suction related lip force. The additional screen pressure when sucking was related to the ability to produce a negative intraoral pressure. In conclusion lip force increases in relation to the projected area of the screen, sucking generally increases the measured lip force and the additional screen pressure when sucking is related to the ability to produce a negative intraoral pressure.

  9. Biogeochemistry Science and Education Part One: Using Non-Traditional Stable Isotopes as Environmental Tracers Part Two: Identifying and Measuring Undergraduate Misconceptions in Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Chris

    This dissertation is presented in two sections. First, I explore two methods of using stable isotope analysis to trace environmental and biogeochemical processes. Second, I present two related studies investigating student understanding of the biogeochemical concepts that underlie part one. Fe and Hg are each biogeochemically important elements in their own way. Fe is a critical nutrient for phytoplankton, while Hg is detrimental to nearly all forms of life. Fe is often a limiting factor in marine phytoplankton growth. The largest source, by mass, of Fe to the open ocean is windblown mineral dust, but other more soluble sources are more bioavailable. To look for evidence of these non-soil dust sources of Fe to the open ocean, I measured the isotopic composition of aerosol samples collected on Bermuda. I found clear evidence in the fine size fraction of a non-soil dust Fe source, which I conclude is most likely from biomass burning. Widespread adoption of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) has increased their importance as a source of environmental Hg. Isotope analysis would be a useful tool in quantifying this impact if the isotopic composition of Hg from CFL were known. My measurements show that CFL-Hg is isotopically fractionated, in a unique pattern, during normal operation. This fractionation is large and has a distinctive, mass-independent signature, such that CFL Hg can be uniquely identified from other sources. Misconceptions research in geology has been a very active area of research, but student thinking regarding the related field of biogeochemistry has not yet been studied in detail. From interviews with 40 undergraduates, I identified over 150 specific misconceptions. I also designed a multiple-choice survey (concept inventory) to measure understanding of these same biogeochemistry concepts. I present statistical evidence, based on the Rasch model, for the reliability and validity of this instrument. This instrument will allow teachers and researchers to

  10. Software measurement standards for areal surface texture parameters: part 2—comparison of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, P M; Smith, I M; Giusca, C; Leach, R K; Wang, C

    2012-01-01

    A companion paper in this issue describes reference software for the evaluation of areal surface texture parameters, focusing on the definitions of the parameters and giving details of the numerical algorithms employed in the software to implement those definitions. The reference software is used as a benchmark against which software in a measuring instrument can be compared. A data set is used as input to both the software under test and the reference software, and the results delivered by the software under test are compared with those provided by the reference software. This paper presents a comparison of the results returned by the reference software with those reported by proprietary software for surface texture measurement. Differences between the results can be used to identify where algorithms and software for evaluating the parameters differ. They might also be helpful in identifying where parameters are not sufficiently well-defined in standards. (paper)

  11. Simulation and Measurement of the Transmission Distortions of the Digital Television DVB-T/H Part 2: Hierarchical Modulation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stukavec

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the second part of results of the Czech Science Foundation research project that was aimed into the simulation and measurement of the transmission distortions of the digital terrestrial television according to DVB-T/H standards. In this part the hierarchical modulation performance characteristics and its simulation and laboratory measurements are presented. The paper deals with the hierarchical oriented COFDM modulator for the digital terrestrial television transmission and DVB-T/H standards and possible utilization of this technique in real broadcasting scenarios – fixed, portable and mobile digital TV, all in one TV channel. Impact of the hierarchical modulation on Modulation Error Rate from I/Q constellations and Bit Error Rates before and after Viterbi decoding in DVB-T/H signal decoding are evaluated and discussed.

  12. Airflows and turbulent flux measurements in mountainous terrain: Part 1. Canopy and local effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Anderson, Dean E.; Blanken, Peter D.; Baugh, William M.; Monson, Russell K.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the effects of local topography and canopy structure on turbulent flux measurements at a site located in mountainous terrain within a subalpine, coniferous forest. Our primary aim was to determine whether the complex terrain of the site affects the accuracy of eddy flux measurements from a practical perspective. We observed displacement heights, roughness lengths, spectral peaks, turbulent length scales, and profiles of turbulent intensities that were comparable in magnitude and pattern to those reported for forest canopies in simpler terrain. We conclude that in many of these statistical measures, the local canopy exerts considerably more influence than does topographical complexity. Lack of vertical flux divergence and modeling suggests that the flux footprints for the site are within the standards acceptable for the application of flux statistics. We investigated three different methods of coordinate rotation: double rotation (DR), triple rotation (TR), and planar-fit rotation (PF). Significant variability in rotation angles at low wind speeds was encountered with the commonly used DR and TR methods, as opposed to the PF method, causing some overestimation of the fluxes. However, these differences in fluxes were small when applied to large datasets involving sensible heat and CO2 fluxes. We observed evidence of frequent drainage flows near the ground during stable, stratified conditions at night. Concurrent with the appearance of these flows, we observed a positive bias in the mean vertical wind speed, presumably due to subtle topographic variations inducing a flow convergence below the measurement sensors. In the presence of such drainage flows, advection of scalars and non-zero bias in the mean vertical wind speed can complicate closure of the mass conservation budget at the site.

  13. Frequency-Dependent Streaming Potential of Porous Media—Part 2: Experimental Measurement of Unconsolidated Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. J. Glover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency-dependent streaming potential coefficient measurements have been made upon Ottawa sand and glass bead packs using a new apparatus that is based on an electromagnetic drive. The apparatus operates in the range 1 Hz to 1 kHz with samples of 25.4 mm diameter up to 150 mm long. The results have been analysed using theoretical models that are either (i based upon vibrational mechanics, (ii treat the geological material as a bundle of capillary tubes, or (iii treat the material as a porous medium. The best fit was provided by the Pride model and its simplification, which is satisfying as this model was conceived for porous media rather than capillary tube bundles. Values for the transition frequency were derived from each of the models for each sample and were found to be in good agreement with those expected from the independently measured effective pore radius of each material. The fit to the Pride model for all four samples was also found to be consistent with the independently measured steady-state permeability, while the value of the streaming potential coefficient in the low-frequency limit was found to be in good agreement with other steady-state streaming potential coefficient data.

  14. Adapting social neuroscience measures for schizophrenia clinical trials, part 3: fathoming external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbert, Charles M; Penn, David L; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Ochsner, Kevin N; Marder, Stephen R; Green, Michael F

    2013-11-01

    It is unknown whether measures adapted from social neuroscience linked to specific neural systems will demonstrate relationships to external variables. Four paradigms adapted from social neuroscience were administered to 173 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia to determine their relationships to functionally meaningful variables and to investigate their incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition. The 4 paradigms included 2 that assess perception of nonverbal social and action cues (basic biological motion and emotion in biological motion) and 2 that involve higher level inferences about self and others' mental states (self-referential memory and empathic accuracy). Overall, social neuroscience paradigms showed significant relationships to functional capacity but weak relationships to community functioning; the paradigms also showed weak correlations to clinical symptoms. Evidence for incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition was mixed with additional predictive power shown for functional capacity but not community functioning. Of the newly adapted paradigms, the empathic accuracy task had the broadest external validity. These results underscore the difficulty of translating developments from neuroscience into clinically useful tasks with functional significance.

  15. JCL roundtable: Future of the lipid laboratory: Choosing valuable measures among the lipoproteins (part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William Virgil; Handelsman, Yehuda; Martin, Seth S; Morris, Pamela B

    The measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides as indicators of metabolic disorders and most particularly of vascular disease risk has been of growing importance to physicians and epidemiologists over the past century. This was refocused on the lipoproteins, the specific packages in blood that carry these lipids, by John Gofman, MD, PhD, and Don Fredrickson, MD, more than 50 years ago. We continue to learn about the metabolism of these large molecular structures and their relationship to arteriosclerosis as new genetic and interventional studies are published. The clinical laboratory has evolved to provide more focused information with measures that can help us assess risk and target our therapy more effectively. In this roundtable discussion, I had the opportunity to talk with physicians who consider lipoprotein management to be central features of their practice every day. They personally care for patients with metabolic disorders in which the lipoproteins have caused disease or are predicted to do so. They are well-versed on the way that science is leading us in our field. I believe that you will learn from their view of current needs regarding lipoprotein measures and the changes that may derive from ongoing scientific studies in our field. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In-situ measurements of seismic velocities in the San Francisco Bay Region; part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.; Roth, Edward F.

    1977-01-01

    Seismic wave velocities (compressional and shear) are important parameters for estimating the seismic response characteristics of various geologic units when subjected to strong earthquake ground shaking. Seismic velocities of various units often show a strong correlation with the amounts of damage following large earthquakes and have been used as a basis for certain types of seismic zonation studies. In the current program seismic velocities have been measured at 59 locations 1n the San Francisco Bay Region. This report is the third in a series of Open-File Reports and describes the in-situ velocity measurements at locations 35-59. At each location seismic travel times are measured in drill holes, normally at 2.5-m intervals to a depth of 30 m. Geologic logs are determined from drill cuttings, undisturbed (cored) samples, and penetrometer samples. The data provide a detailed comparison of geologic and seismic characteristics and provide parameters for estimating strong earthquake ground motions quantitatively at each of the sites. A major emphasis of this program is to obtain a detailed comparison of geologic and seismic data on a regional scale for use in seismic zonation. There is a variety of geologic and seismic data available in the San Francisco Bay Region for use 1n developing the general zoning techniques which can then be applied to other areas. Shear wave velocities 1n near-surface geologic materials are of especial interest for engineering seismology and seismic zonation studies, yet in general, they are difficult to measure because of contamination by compressional waves. A comparison of various in-situ techniques by Warrick (1974) establishes the reliability of the method utilizing a "horizontal traction" source for sites underlain by bay mud and alluvium. Gibbs, and others (1975a) present data from 12 holes and establishes the reliability of the method for sites underlain by a variety of different rock units and suggest extending the measurements to

  17. Methods of neutron spectrum calculation from measured reaction rates in saips. Part 1. Review of mathematical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondars, Kh.Ya.; Lapenas, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    We adapted or used on ES EhVM, operating under the control of OS ES, the currently most common algorithms for calculating neutron spectra from measured reaction rates. These programs, together with the neutron cross-section and spectrum libraries, are part of the computerized information system SAIPS. The present article descibes the basic mathematical concepts used in the algorithms of the SAIPS calculation programs

  18. Decision Threshold and Detection Limit in Spectrometric Measurements. Part 1: Application to Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.; Gasco, C.; Lopez, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarised the author's lecture of the advanced gamma spectrometry course organised by CIEMAT. The characteristic limits determination in gamma spectrometry generally is obtained through the programming that the trade marks offers to the client with the objective of the automatic calculation of the activity concentrations existing in a sample. In this report, the examples shown in the ISO 11929 standard are compared to the programming realised by Genie 2k for determining characteristic limits. The main difference of both is located in the uncertainty calculations due to the efficiency calibration that is considered by ISO and not by Genie 2K. Through implementation in the software developed by trade marks will be possible to introduce this uncertainty and to assimilate to the calculation done by ISO 11929. In the second part of this report will be analyzed the more complicated samples of this application as counting in a whole body counter (following ISO-28218 about Performance Criteria for radio bioassay), multiplet, overlapping, addition of several peaks for obtaining the activity concentration, etc. (Author) 19 refs.

  19. Stripa Project. Part II: Measurement of triaxial rock stresses in borehole V1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strindell, L.; Andersson, M.

    1981-07-01

    The investigation was performed December 16-18, 1980 and February 2-5, 1981 by Lars Strindell and Mats Andersson, Swedish State Power Board. The drilling was carried out by Hagby Bruk, Nora. One of the tasks within the project is to drill a vertical hole with a diameter of 76 mm to 1050 meters depth. The drilling is performed from a place in the mine at about 360 m below ground level. Hydrologic investigations will be performed in the borehole and knowledge about the existing rock pressure will aid the interpretation of the hydrology data. The intention was to perform 4 measurements at depth of 150, 300 and 450 m respectively. At present, measurements have been carried out at 150 and 300 m depth. At 450 m the quality of the rock was too poor to allow any measurements. The drilling has been interrupted at 506 m depth but the plan is to continue when the borehole has been stabilized along the highly fractured zone. At 150 m the average stresses in the horizontal plane is about 25 MPa in E-W direction and about 20 MPa in the N-S direction. In the region just below 300 m the average stresses is about 20 MPa in the NE-SW direction and about 12 MPa in NW-SE direction. The average vertical stress at 150 m depth is 13.5 MPa and this is in good agreement with the theoretical value. At 300 m the vertical stress is about 13.8 MPa which is somewhat lower than the theoretical value. (author)

  20. Noise and LPI radar as part of counter-drone mitigation system measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan (Rockee); Huang, Yih-Ru; Thumann, Charles

    2017-05-01

    With the rapid proliferation of small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace, small operational drones are being sometimes considered as a security threat for critical infrastructures, such as sports stadiums, military facilities, and airports. There have been many civilian counter-drone solutions and products reported, including radar and electromagnetic counter measures. For the current electromagnetic solutions, they are usually limited to particular type of detection and counter-measure scheme, which is usually effective for the specific type of drones. Also, control and communication link technologies used in even RC drones nowadays are more sophisticated, making them more difficult to detect, decode and counter. Facing these challenges, our team proposes a "software-defined" solution based on noise and LPI radar. For the detection, wideband-noise radar has the resolution performance to discriminate possible micro-Doppler features of the drone versus biological scatterers. It also has the benefit of more adaptive to different types of drones, and covertly detecting for security application. For counter-measures, random noise can be combined with "random sweeping" jamming scheme, to achieve the optimal balance between peak power allowed and the effective jamming probabilities. Some theoretical analysis of the proposed solution is provided in this study, a design case study is developed, and initial laboratory experiments, as well as outdoor tests are conducted to validate the basic concepts and theories. The study demonstrates the basic feasibilities of the Drone Detection and Mitigation Radar (DDMR) concept, while there are still much work needs to be done for a complete and field-worthy technology development.

  1. Rockfall Modelling with Remedial Design and Measures along Part of a Mountainous Settlement Area, Southern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntel, Berna; Acar, Altay

    2016-10-01

    In June 2011, a heavy rainfall triggered a number of rockfalls from steep slopes and on slopes made of soft to loose soils capped by inhomogeneous hard rock blocks and masses in the Düziçi Town of Osmaniye Province in Turkey. Large rock blocks had damaged 15 prefabricated hotel rooms whereas the slope movement blocked the major road between Duzigi and hot spring facilities at numerous locations along 280 m. This paper describes remedial measures and design recommended according to the modelling process based on the collection of data and simulation of rockfall with Rocscience RockFall 5.0 software.

  2. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part J. Evaluation of thermal neutron transmission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    In order to relate thermal neutron activation measurements in samples to the calculated free-in-air thermal neutron activation levels given in Chapter 3, use is made of sample transmission factors. Transmission factors account for the modification of the fluence and activation at each sample's in situ location. For the purposes of this discussion, the transmission factor (TF) is defined as the ratio of the in situ sample activation divided by the free-in-air (FIA) activation at a height of 1 m above ground at the same ground range. The procedures for calculation of TF's and example results are presented in this section. (author)

  3. Activation measurements for fast neutrons. Part E. Evaluation of fast neutron 63Ni transmission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    The 63 Ni measurements for fast neutrons in copper samples are compared to the calculated free-in-air 63 Ni neutron activation given in Chapter 3 by use of transmission factors. Transmission factors were calculated to account for the modification of the fluence and activation at each sample's in situ location. For the purposes of this discussion, the transmission factor (TF) is defined as the ratio of the in situ sample activation divided by the untilted free-in-air (FIA) activation at a height of 1 m above ground at the same ground range. Examples of the application of TF's will be provided in this section. (author)

  4. Fluid mechanics of needle valves with rounded components. Part II: Preliminary measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 251, November (2016), s. 52-58 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : needle valves * pressure measurements * valves Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.499, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S092442471630440X/1-s2.0-S092442471630440X-main.pdf?_tid=45acccf4-951f-11e6-a831-00000aab0f02&acdnat=1476787402_bf349ff3cfc7a824c1a01397a9a5b8b3

  5. Temperature measurement during solidification of thin wall ductile cast iron. Part 1: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    cooing curves in thin wall ductile iron castings. The experiments show how TC’s of different design interact with the melt and how TC design and surface quality affect the results of the data acquisition. It is discussed which precautions should be taken to ensure reliable acquisition of cooling curves....... Measurement error depending on TC design and cooling conditions is shown. A method is presented that allows acquisition of cooling curves in thin walled ductile iron castings down to thickness of at least 2.8 mm. The obtained cooling curves can be used to compare nucleation and growth during solidification...

  6. Gait variability measurements in lumbar spinal stenosis patients: part A. Comparison with healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, N C; Christakis, D G; Tzagarakis, G N; Chlouverakis, G I; Kampanis, N A; Stergiopoulos, K N; Katonis, P G

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the gait variability of patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (experimental group) with healthy individuals (control group). The hypothesis is that the preoperative gait variability of the experimental group is higher than the control group. The experimental group consisted of 35 adults (18 males, 17 females). The subjects of the experimental group suffered exclusively from spinal stenosis. The patients were determined by MRI scans. A tri-axial accelerometer sensor was used for the gait measurement, and differential entropy algorithm was used to quantify the gait acceleration signal. The Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire was used to determine the condition on the day of the measurement. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was utilized to assess the diagnostic value of the method and determine a cut-off value. There is a statistically significant difference between gait variability in the control group and the experimental group. ROC analysis determines a cut-off differential entropy value. The cut-off value has a 97.6% probability of separating patients with spinal stenosis from healthy subjects. The Oswestry Low Back Questionnaire is well correlated with the spectral differential entropy values

  7. Measurement of Impairment among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as Part of Evaluating Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Ahmed M

    2013-05-01

    This study assesses the impairment and treatment outcome of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an outpatient child psychiatry clinic, using multiple sources, including the Children Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). A total of 20 children, aged 4 to 16 years, were recruited serially in 2010 from the Child Psychiatric Unit of the Psychiatric Hospital, Manama, Bahrain. The children received a diagnosis of ADHD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). The children were assessed with the C-GAS by a blinded investigator, initially at the beginning of the treatment and then one year later. The parents of the patients reported improvement in all cases; the improvement in impairment after one year, assessed using the C-GAS, was significant for all of the cases (P = 0.001) and low for those with comorbidity (P = 0.07). Measurement of improvement using the C-GAS was a suitable method of collecting data, and hence should be included in routine clinical practice for both ADHD diagnosis and outcome measurement.

  8. Measurements of Burnout Conditions for Flow of Boiling Water in Vertical Round Ducts (Part 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt M; Mathisen, R P; Eklind, O; Norman, B

    1964-01-15

    The hydrodynamic stability and the burnout conditions for flow of boiling water have been studied in a natural circulation loop in the pressure range from 10 to 70 atg. The test section was a round, duct of 20 mm inner diameter and 4890 mm heated length. The experimental results showed that within the ranges tested the stability of the flow increases with increasing pressure, increasing throttling before the test section, but decreases with increasing inlet sub-cooling and increasing throttling after the test section. The measured thresholds of instability compared well with the analytical results by Jahnberg. For an inlet sub-cooling temperature of about 2 deg C the measured burnout steam qualities were low by a factor of about 1.3 compared to forced circulation data obtained with the same test section. At higher sub-cooling temperatures the discrepancy between forced and natural circulation data increased, so that at {delta}t{sub sub} = 16 deg C, the natural circulation data were low by a factor of about 2.5. However, by applying inlet throttling of the flow the burnout values approached and finally coincided with the forced circulation data.

  9. In-situ measurements of seismic velocities in the San Francisco Bay region...part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1976-01-01

    Seismic wave velocities (compressional and shear) are important parameters for determining the seismic response characteristics of various geologic units when subjected to strong earthquake ground shaking. Seismic velocities of various units often show a strong correlation with the amounts of damage following large earthquakes and have been used as a basis for certain types of seismic zonation studies. Currently a program is in progress to measure seismic velocities in the San Francisco Bay region at an estimated 150 sites. At each site seismic travel times are measured in drill holes, normally at 2.5-m intervals to a depth of 30 m. Geologic logs are determined from drill hole cuttings, undisturbed samples, and penetrometer samples. The data provide a detailed comparison of geologic and seismic characteristics and provide parameters for estimating strong earthquake ground motions quantitatively at each of the site. A major emphasis of this program is to obtain a detailed comparison of geologic and seismic data on a regional scale for use in seismic zonation. The broad data base available in the San Francisco Bay region suggests using the area as a pilot area for the development of general techniques applicable to other areas.

  10. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal, part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Steven Ray

    2008-01-01

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keY of 65.4 +3.1 3.0 (stat) +2.6 -2.8 (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neUlrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1 ± 3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced 37 Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior 51 Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.88 ± 0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in 71 Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63--67 SNU with an uncertainly of about 5%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the pp neutrino flux produced in the Sun to be φ · pp = (6.1 ± 0.8) x 10 10 /(cm 2 s), which agrees well with the flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  11. Part I: Basic Considerations and Recommendations for Preparation, Measurement and Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haroske

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A task force of invited experts in the field of diagnostic DNA image cytometry, especially consisting of participants from the PRESS (Prototype Reference Standard Slides and EUROPATH (European Pathology Assisted by Telematics for Healthcare projects, but open to any other scientist or physician revealing experience in that new diagnostic procedure (names are given in the Annex A agreed upon the following updated consensus report during the 5th International Congress of the ESACP 1997 in Oslo. This report is based on the preceeding one [9] and on results of the above mentioned European research projects. It deals with the following items: – Biological background and aims of DNA image cytometry,– Principles of the method,– Basic performance standards,– Diagnostic interpretation of DNA measurements,– Recommendations for practical use.

  12. Measurements of Burnout Conditions for Flow of Boiling Water in Vertical Round Ducts (Part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Kurt M.; Persson, P.; Nilsson, L.; Eriksson, O.

    1963-06-01

    The present report deals with the results of the second phase of an experimental investigation of burnout conditions for flow of boiling water in vertical round ducts. The following ranges of variables were studied and 809 burnout measurements were obtained. Pressure 5. 3 2 ; Inlet subcooling 56 sub BO 2 ; Mass velocity 100 2 s; Heated length 600 BO , were plotted against the pressure with the surface heat flux as parameter. The data have been correlated by curves, and the scatter around the curves is less than ± 5 per cent. In the ranges investigated, the observed steam quality at burnout, X BO generally decreases with increasing heat flux and mass velocity but increases with increasing pressure. The data have been compared with the empirical correlation by Tong, and excellent agreement was found for pressures higher than 10 kg/cm 2

  13. Measurement and deconvolution of detector response time for short HPM pulses: Part 1, Microwave diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, P.R.

    1987-06-01

    A technique is described for measuring and deconvolving response times of microwave diode detection systems in order to generate corrected input signals typical of an infinite detection rate. The method has been applied to cases of 2.86 GHz ultra-short HPM pulse detection where pulse rise time is comparable to that of the detector; whereas, the duration of a few nanoseconds is significantly longer. Results are specified in terms of the enhancement of equivalent deconvolved input voltages for given observed voltages. The convolution integral imposes the constraint of linear detector response to input power levels. This is physically equivalent to the conservation of integrated pulse energy in the deconvolution process. The applicable dynamic range of a microwave diode is therefore limited to a smaller signal region as determined by its calibration

  14. Source profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in China: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Shao, Min; Fu, Linlin; Lu, Sihua; Zeng, Limin; Tang, Dagang

    The profiles of major volatile organic compound (VOC) sources in China, including vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapor, paint, asphalt, industrial and residential coal burning, biomass burning, and the petrochemical industry, were experimentally determined. Source samples were taken using a dilution chamber for mobile and stationary sources, biomass burning in an actual Chinese farmer's house, and ambient air in a petrochemical industrial area. The concentrations of 92 VOC species were quantified using canister sampling and a gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry system, and VOC source profiles were developed for source apportionment of VOCs in the Pearl River Delta region. Based on the measurement of source profiles, possible tracers for various emission sources were identified; e.g., 2-methylpentane and 1,3-butadiene could be used as tracers for vehicle exhaust; the characteristic compounds of architectural coating were aromatics such as toluene and m, p-xylene; the light hydrocarbons, namely n-butane, trans-2-butene, and n-pentane, dominated the composition of gasoline vapor; and n-nonane, n-decane, and n-undecane were found to be typical of diesel vapor and asphalt application processes. As different emission sources are characterized by overlapping VOC species, the ratio of possible VOC tracers could be used to assess the contribution of various sources. The ratios between n-butane and isobutane, 1,3-butadiene and isoprene, and the ratios of aromatics (e.g., toluene to benzene and ethylbenzene to m, p-xylene) in the measured sources were compared.

  15. Nanomanufacturing concerns about measurements made in the SEM Part III: vibration and drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.; Vladár, András. E.; Cizmar, Petr

    2014-08-01

    Many advanced manufacturing processes employ scanning electron microscopes (SEM) for on-line critical measurements for process and quality control. This is the third of a series of papers discussing various causes of measurement uncertainty in scanned particle beam instruments, and some of the solutions researched and developed at NIST. Scanned particle beam instruments especially the scanning electron microscope have gone through tremendous evolution to become indispensable tools for many and diverse scientifi c and industrial applications. These improvements have signifi cantly enhanced their performance and made them far easier to operate. But, ease of operation has also fostered operator complacency. In addition, the user-friendliness has reduced the need for extensive operator training. Unfortunately, this has led to the concept that the SEM is just another expensive digital camera or another peripheral device connected to a computer and that all of the issues related to obtaining quality data have been solved. Hence, a person (or company) using these instruments may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been fully eliminated and they believe everything they see on the micrograph is always correct. But, as described in this and the earlier presentations this may not be the case. The fi rst paper in this series discussed some of the issues related to signal generation in the SEM, including instrument calibration, electron beam-sample interactions and the need for physics-based modelling to understand the actual image formation mechanisms to properly interpret SEM images. The second paper, discussed another major issue confronting the microscopist: specimen contamination and methods of contamination elimination. This third paper, discusses vibration and drift and some useful solutions.

  16. Transcontinental methane measurements: Part 2. Mobile surface investigation of fossil fuel industrial fugitive emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Culling, Daniel; Schneising, Oliver; Farrell, Paige; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.

    2013-08-01

    The potent greenhouse gas, methane, CH4, has a wide variety of anthropogenic and natural sources. Fall, continental-scale (Florida to California) surface CH4 data were collected to investigate the importance of fossil fuel industrial (FFI) emissions in the South US. A total of 6600 measurements along 7020-km of roadways were made by flame ion detection gas chromatography onboard a nearly continuously moving recreational vehicle in 2010. A second, winter survey in Southern California measured CH4 at 2 Hz with a cavity ring-down spectrometer in 2012. Data revealed strong and persistent FFI CH4 sources associated with refining, oil/gas production, a presumed major pipeline leak, and a coal loading plant. Nocturnal CH4 mixing ratios tended to be higher than daytime values for similar sources, sometimes significantly, which was attributed to day/night meteorological differences, primarily changes in the boundary layer height. The highest CH4 mixing ratio (39 ppm) was observed near the Kern River Oil Field, California, which uses steam reinjection. FFI CH4 plume signatures were distinguished as stronger than other sources on local scales. On large (4°) scales, the CH4 trend was better matched spatially with FFI activity than wetland spatial patterns. Qualitative comparison of surface data with SCIAMACHY and GOSAT satellite retrievals showed agreement of the large-scale CH4 spatial patterns. Comparison with inventory models and seasonal winds suggests for some seasons and some portions of the Gulf of Mexico a non-negligible underestimation of FFI emissions. For other seasons and locations, qualitative interpretation is not feasible. Unambiguous quantitative source attribution is more complex, requiring transport modeling.

  17. An international marine-atmospheric 222Rn measurement intercomparison in Bermuda. Part 2: Results for the participating laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colle, R.; Unterweger, M.P.; Hutchinson, J.M.R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of an international measurement intercomparison of instruments used to measure atmospheric 222 Rn, four participating laboratories made nearly simultaneous measurements of 222 Rn activity concentration in commonly sampled, ambient air over approximately a 2 week period, and three of these four laboratories participated in the measurement comparison of 14 introduced samples with known, but undisclosed (blind) 222 Rn activity concentration. The exercise was conducted in Bermuda in October 1991. The 222 Rn activity concentrations in ambient Bermudian air over the course of the intercomparison ranged from a few hundredths of a Bq · m -3 to about 2 Bq · m -3 , while the standardized sample additions covered a range from approximately 2.5 Bq · m -3 to 35 Bq · m -3 . The overall uncertainty in the latter concentrations was in the general range of 10%, approximating a 3 standard deviation uncertainty interval. The results of the intercomparison indicated that two of the laboratories were within very good agreement with the standard additions, and almost within expected statistical variations. These same two laboratories, however, at lower ambient concentrations, exhibited a systematic difference with an averaged offset of roughly 0.3 Bq · m -3 . The third laboratory participating in the measurement of standardized sample additions was systematically low by about 65% to 70%, with respect to the standard addition which was also confirmed in their ambient air concentration measurements. The fourth laboratory, participating in only the ambient measurement part of the intercomparison, was also systematically low by at least 40% with respect to the first two laboratories

  18. Measurements of Burnout Conditions for Flow of Boiling Water in Vertical Annuli (Part I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Kurt M.; Hernborg, G.

    1962-12-01

    The present report deals with measurements of burnout conditions for flow of boiling water in an annulus with an inner diameter of 9.92 mm, an outer diameter of 17 - 42 mm and a heated length of 608 mm. Data were obtained in respect of external heating only, internal heating only and dual uniform and non-uniform heating. The following ranges of variables were studied and 978 burnout measurements were obtained. Pressure 8.5 2 ; Inlet subcooling 60 sub i 2 ; Outer surface heat flux 0 o 2 ; Mass velocity 71 2 /sec; The results are presented in diagrams where the burnout steam qualities, x BO , were plotted against the pressure with the surface heat fluxes as parameters. The data have been correlated by curves. The scatter of the data around the curves is less than ± 5 per cent. In the case of equal heat fluxes on both walls of the annulus, burnout always occurred on the inner wall, and the data compared rather well with round duct data. When the annulus was heated internally only, the data showed very low burnout values in comparison with the results for dual heating and round ducts. This disagreement was explained by considering the climbing film flow model and by the fact that only a fraction of the channel perimeter was heated. For external heating the data are somewhat lower than corresponding round duct data, but rather high in comparison with internal heating. The climbing film flow model was also used to interpret this observation. For dual non-uniform heating it was found that the outer surface may be overloaded from 30 to 70 per cent compared with the inner surface without reducing the margin of safety in respect of burnout for the annulus. It was further observed that when the heat flux fox the wall on which burnout occurs is increased, the burnout steam quality for the channel decreases. If, however, the heat flux for the opposite wall is increased, the burnout steam quality also increases. It was also observed that the highest burnout values are obtained

  19. Measurements of Burnout Conditions for Flow of Boiling Water in Vertical Annuli (Part I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt M; Hernborg, G

    1962-12-15

    The present report deals with measurements of burnout conditions for flow of boiling water in an annulus with an inner diameter of 9.92 mm, an outer diameter of 17 - 42 mm and a heated length of 608 mm. Data were obtained in respect of external heating only, internal heating only and dual uniform and non-uniform heating. The following ranges of variables were studied and 978 burnout measurements were obtained. Pressure 8.5 < 37.5 kg/cm{sup 2}; Inlet subcooling 60 < {delta}t{sub sub} < 205 deg C; Steam quality 0.1 < x < 0.91; Inner surface heat flux 0 < (q/A){sub i} < 303 W/cm{sup 2}; Outer surface heat flux 0 < (q/A){sub o} < 374 W/cm{sup 2}; Mass velocity 71 < m/F < 961 kg/m{sup 2}/sec; The results are presented in diagrams where the burnout steam qualities, x{sub BO}, were plotted against the pressure with the surface heat fluxes as parameters. The data have been correlated by curves. The scatter of the data around the curves is less than {+-} 5 per cent. In the case of equal heat fluxes on both walls of the annulus, burnout always occurred on the inner wall, and the data compared rather well with round duct data. When the annulus was heated internally only, the data showed very low burnout values in comparison with the results for dual heating and round ducts. This disagreement was explained by considering the climbing film flow model and by the fact that only a fraction of the channel perimeter was heated. For external heating the data are somewhat lower than corresponding round duct data, but rather high in comparison with internal heating. The climbing film flow model was also used to interpret this observation. For dual non-uniform heating it was found that the outer surface may be overloaded from 30 to 70 per cent compared with the inner surface without reducing the margin of safety in respect of burnout for the annulus. It was further observed that when the heat flux fox the wall on which burnout occurs is increased, the burnout steam quality for the

  20. Heat of hydration measurements on cemented radioactive wastes. Part 1: cement-water pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.J.

    1983-12-01

    This report describes the hydration of cement pastes in terms of chemical and kinetic models. A calorimetric technique was used to measure the heat of hydration to develop these models. The effects of temperature, water/cement ratio and cement replacements, ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and pulverised fuel ash (PFA) on the hydration of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is reported. The incorporation of BFS or PFA has a marked effect on the hydration reaction. The effect of temperature is also important but changing the water/cement ratio has little effect. Results from cement pastes containing only water and cement yield total heats of reaction of 400, 200 and 100 kJ/kg for OPC, BFS and PFA respectively. Using the results from the models which have been developed, the effect of major salts present in radioactive waste streams can be assessed. Values of the total heat of reaction, the time to complete 50 percent reaction, and the energy of activation, can be compared for different waste systems. (U.K.)

  1. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria: Part 3. Measurements of radionuclides in airborne and deposited material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattenden, N.J.; Cambray, R.S.; Playford, K.; Eakins, J.D.; Fisher, E.M.R.

    1980-09-01

    Six stations sampling airborne particulate and deposited material were established in the Cumbrian coastal region. The measurements were undertaken to study current atmospheric levels and to discriminate between material from nuclear weapon tests, routine atmospheric discharges from the nuclear reprocessing works at Windscale and other sources, e.g. the sea. The results show that samples of both airborne and deposited material contain radionuclide concentrations in excess of those expected from nuclear weapon fallout. For Pu and 241 Am isotopes, the excess material comes mainly from a seaward direction. The transfer mechanism is probably resuspension, but the actinide levels are much greater than would be expected from the simple transfer of bulk seawater. For 137 Cs, the material in excess of amounts expected from nuclear weapon fallout can be attributed largely to Windscale discharges to air and seaspray containing the bulk seawater concentration of 137 Cs. Other fission products present in amounts exceeding nuclear weapon fallout were 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 134 Cs and 144 Ce. Tritium was also observed in amounts slightly in excess of nuclear weapon fallout. The highest observed annual average concentration in air for Pu isotopes was 0.2% of the derived air concentration, modified for members of the public, of 2.3 mBq/m 3 . (author)

  2. Measurements of Burnout Conditions for Flow of Boiling Water in Vertical Round Ducts (Part 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt M; Persson, P; Nilsson, L; Eriksson, O

    1963-06-15

    The present report deals with the results of the second phase of an experimental investigation of burnout conditions for flow of boiling water in vertical round ducts. The following ranges of variables were studied and 809 burnout measurements were obtained. Pressure 5. 3 < p < 37. 3 kg/cm{sup 2}; Inlet subcooling 56 < {delta}t{sub sub} < 212 deg C; Steam quality 0. 20 < x{sub BO} < 0.95; Heat Flux 50 < q/A < 515 W/cm{sup 2}; Mass velocity 100 < m'/F < 1890 kg/m{sup 2}s; Heated length 600 < L < 2500 mm; Duct diameter d = 10 mm. The results are presented in diagrams, where for a certain geometry, the burnout steam qualities, x{sub BO} , were plotted against the pressure with the surface heat flux as parameter. The data have been correlated by curves, and the scatter around the curves is less than {+-} 5 per cent. In the ranges investigated, the observed steam quality at burnout, X{sub BO} generally decreases with increasing heat flux and mass velocity but increases with increasing pressure. The data have been compared with the empirical correlation by Tong, and excellent agreement was found for pressures higher than 10 kg/cm{sup 2}.

  3. Measurements of ultimate accelerating gradients in the SLAC disk-loaded structure. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Loew, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The work reported here describes measurements made to study the maximum attainable accelerating gradients in a conventional SLAC disk-loaded accelerator section of the constant-gradient type running at 2856 MHz. The objective was to reach an accelerating gradient of at least 100 MV/m. The accelerating gradient at which the SLAC disk-loaded waveguide runs routinely is approx. 9 MV/m (36 MW tubes without SLED) and approx. 12 MV/m with SLED I (2.5 μsec pulse). To reach 100 MV/m in a conventional 3 m constant-gradient section, one would need a klystron with a peak power output of 900 MW. since such a tube is not available, we decided to use a short standing-wave section in which the resonant fields would be allowed to build up. The design criteria for this section, the fabrication, matching and tuning, the experimental set-up and the results are described below

  4. A Scandinavian chemical wood pulp mill. Part 1. Energy audit aiming at efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klugman, Sofia [Department of Technology and Building Environment, Gaevle University, SE-801 76 Gaevle (Sweden); Karlsson, Magnus; Moshfegh, Bahram [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    A Swedish wood-pulp mill is surveyed in terms of energy supply and use in order to determine the energy-saving potential. Conservation measures are of increasing interest to Swedish industry, as energy prices have continued to rise in recent years. The electricity price particularly increased after the deregulation of the Scandinavian electricity market in 1996. The deregulation expanded to all of the EU in July 2004, which may increase the Swedish electricity price further until it reaches the generally higher European price level. Furthermore, oil prices have increased and the emissions trading scheme for CO{sub 2} adds to the incentive to reduce oil consumption. The energy system at the surveyed pulp mill is described in terms of electricity and process heat production and use. The total energy-saving potential is estimated and some saving points are identified. The heat that today is wasted at the mill has been surveyed in order to find potential for heat integration or heat export. The result shows that the mill probably could become self-sufficient in electricity. Particularly important in that endeavour is updating old pumps. (author)

  5. The Australian Commonwealth standard of measurement for absorbed radiation dose. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, S.L.

    1989-08-01

    As an agent for the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation is responsible for maintenance of the Australian Commonwealth standard of absorbed dose. This standard of measurement has application in radiation therapy dosimetry, which is required for the treatment of cancer patients. This report is the first in a series of reports documenting the absorbed dose standard for photon beams in the range from 1 to 25 MeV. The Urquhart graphite micro-calorimeters, which is used for the determination of absorbed dose under high energy photon beams, has been now placed under computer control. Accordingly, a complete upgrade of the calorimeter systems was performed to allow operation in the hospital. In this report, control and monitoring techniques have been described, with an assessment of the performance achieved being given for 6 and 18 MeV bremsstrahlung beams. Random errors have been reduced to near negligible proportions, while systematic errors have been minimized by achieving true quasi-adiabatic operation. 16 refs., 9 tabs., 11 figs

  6. Measurement of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of aerial parts of medicinal plant Coronopus didymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Hafiza; Semmar, Nabil; Farman, Muhammad; McCullagh, James S O

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the total phenolic content and compare the antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts and fractions from the aerial parts of Coronopus didymus through various assays. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the in vitro antioxidant activity of a number of different extracts was investigated in a dose-dependent manner with three different methods: the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A flavone was isolated from the most active ethanolic extract with high antioxidant activity using size exclusion chromatography. IC 50 values were calculated for the DPPH and ABTS methods. The FRAP activity was assessed in terms of μM Fe (II) equivalent. The phenolic content was found to be highest in the ethanol extract (CDA Et; 47.8 mM GAE) and the lowest in the dichloromethane extract (CDA DCM; 3.13 mM GAE). The ethanol extract showed high radical scavenging activity towards DPPH and ABTS radicals with IC 50 values of (7.80 × 10 2 ) and (4.32 × 10 2 ) μg/mL, respectively. The most active ethanol extract had a FRAP value of 1921.7 μM Fe (II) equivalent. The isolated flavone F10C (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxy flavone) was far more effective for scavenging free radicals in the DPPH and ABTS assays with IC 50 of 43.8 and 0.08 μg/mL, than the standard trolox, with IC 50 values of 97.5 and 21.1 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the flavone F10C and the standard ascorbic acid had FRAP values of 1621.7 and 16 038.0 μM Fe (II) equivalents, respectively. The total phenolic content of extracts in decreasing order is ethanol extract (CDA Et) > acetone extract (CDA ACE) > phenolic extract (CDA MW) > n-hexane extract (CDA nHX)> chloroform extract (CDA CHL) > dichloromethane extract (CDA DCM). The ordering of extracts in terms of antioxidant activity from highest to lowest is CDA Et

  7. Why the real part of the proton-proton forward scattering amplitude should be measured at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrely, C.; Soffer, J. [Centre de Physique Theorique, UMR 6207 b, CNRS-Luminy, 13 - Marseille (France); Khuri, N.N. [Rockfeller Univ., (2) Physics Dept., New York, N.Y. (United States); Martin, A.; Tai Tsun Wu, J. [Conseil Europeen pour la recherche nucleaire, Theory Div., Geneve (Switzerland); Tai Tsun Wu, J. [Harvard Univ., Gordon Mc Kay Lab., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    For the energy of 14 TeV, to be reached at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have had for some time accurate predictions for both the real and imaginary parts of the forward proton-proton elastic scattering amplitude. LHC is now scheduled to start operating in 2 years, and it is timely to discuss some of the important consequences of the measurements of both the total cross-section and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part ({rho}). An accurate prediction is given by the BSW model: {rho} = 0.122 with {sigma}(total) = 103.6 mb (at the LHC energy {radical}(s) = 14 TeV. If the experiment gives numbers compatible with those above, it will mean that the scale of violation is very much above the LHC energy or that the corresponding minimal size is much smaller. On the contrary a disagreement would give indication for new physics and we stress the importance of measuring the real part of the proton-proton forward scattering amplitude at LHC, because a deviation from existing theoretical predictions could be a strong sign for new physics.

  8. Double-trap measurement of the proton magnetic moment at 0.3 parts per billion precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Georg; Mooser, Andreas; Bohman, Matthew; Schön, Natalie; Harrington, James; Higuchi, Takashi; Nagahama, Hiroki; Sellner, Stefan; Smorra, Christian; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Ulmer, Stefan

    2017-11-24

    Precise knowledge of the fundamental properties of the proton is essential for our understanding of atomic structure as well as for precise tests of fundamental symmetries. We report on a direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment μ p of the proton in units of the nuclear magneton μ N The result, μ p = 2.79284734462 (±0.00000000082) μ N , has a fractional precision of 0.3 parts per billion, improves the previous best measurement by a factor of 11, and is consistent with the currently accepted value. This was achieved with the use of an optimized double-Penning trap technique. Provided a similar measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment can be performed, this result will enable a test of the fundamental symmetry between matter and antimatter in the baryonic sector at the 10 -10 level. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Void Measurements in the Regions of Sub-Cooled and Low-Quality Boiling. Part 2. Higher Mass Velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhani, S Z

    1966-07-15

    This report consists mostly of tables of experimental data obtained in void measurements. It is a continuation and the completing part of a previous report with the same title. The data are from the measurements in a vertical annular channel with 25 mm O.D. and 12 mm I.D. at a heated length of 1090 mm. These experiments covered pressures from 10 to 50 bars, mass velocities from 650 to 1450 kg/m -sec., heat fluxes from 60 to 120 W/cm{sup 2}, sub-coolings from 30 to 0 C, and steam qualities from 0 to 12 %. The tables include the inlet temperatures and measured wall super-heat.

  10. Assessing the precision of strain measurements using electron backscatter diffraction – Part 2: Experimental demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, T.B.; Jiang, J.; Clough, R.; Tarleton, E.; Kirkland, A.I.; Wilkinson, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The residual impression after performing a microhardness indent in silicon has been mapped with high resolution EBSD to reveal residual elastic strain and lattice rotation fields. Mapping of the same area has been performed with variable pattern binning and exposure times to reveal the qualitative and quantitative differences resulting from reducing the pattern size and exposure time. Two dimension ‘image’ plots of these fields indicate that qualitative assessment of the shape and size of the fields can be performed with as much as 4×4 binning. However, quantitative assessment using line scans reveals that the smoothest profile can be obtained using minimal pattern binning and long exposure times. To compare and contrast with these experimental maps, finite element analysis has been performed using a continuum damage-plasticity material law which has been independently calibrated to Si [9]. The constitutive law incorporates isotropic hardening in compression, and isotropic hardening and damage in tension. To accurately capture the localised damage which develops during indentation via the nucleation and propagation of cracks around the indentation site cohesive elements were assigned along the interfaces between the planes which experience the maximum traction. The residual strain state around the indenter and the size of the cracks agree very well with the experimentally measured value. - Highlights: • Similar deformation fields around a microhardness indent have been characterised with HR-EBSD and simulated with a finite element model. • Qualitative assessment of the stress field can be performed with significant EBSD pattern binning (i.e. faster capture of maps). • Quantitative assessment of the stress fields benefits significantly from increased exposure times and minimal binning

  11. Pain measurement as part of primary healthcare of adult patients with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Aparecida Felix Signorelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this exploratory, cross-sectional study was to evaluate pain in sickle cell disease patients and aspects related to primary healthcare. METHODS: Data were obtained through home interviews. The assessment instruments (body diagram, Numerical Pain Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire collected information on the underlying disease and on pain. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program for Windows. Associations between the subgroups of sickle cell disease patients (hemoglobin SS, hemoglobin SC, sickle β-thalassemia and others and pain were analyzed using contingency tables and non-parametric tests of association (classic chi-square, Fisher's and Kruskal-Wallis with a level of 5% (p-value < 0.05 being set for the rejection of the null hypothesis. RESULTS: Forty-seven over 18-year-old patients with sickle cell disease were evaluated. Most were black (78.7% and female (59.6% and the mean age was 30.1 years. The average number of bouts of pain annually was 7.02; pain was predominantly reported by individuals with sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin SS. The intensity of pain (Numeric Pain Scale was 5.5 and the quantitative index (McGill was 35.9. This study also shows that patients presented a high frequency of moderately painful crises in their own homes. CONCLUSION: According to these facts, it is essential that pain related to sickle cell disease is properly identified, quantified, characterized and treated at the three levels of healthcare. In primary healthcare, accurate measurement of pain combined with better care may decrease acute painful episodes and consequently minimize tissue damage, thus improving the patient's overall health.

  12. Field significance of performance measures in the context of regional climate model evaluation. Part 2: precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Martin; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2018-04-01

    A new approach for rigorous spatial analysis of the downscaling performance of regional climate model (RCM) simulations is introduced. It is based on a multiple comparison of the local tests at the grid cells and is also known as `field' or `global' significance. The block length for the local resampling tests is precisely determined to adequately account for the time series structure. New performance measures for estimating the added value of downscaled data relative to the large-scale forcing fields are developed. The methodology is exemplarily applied to a standard EURO-CORDEX hindcast simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the land surface model NOAH at 0.11 ∘ grid resolution. Daily precipitation climatology for the 1990-2009 period is analysed for Germany for winter and summer in comparison with high-resolution gridded observations from the German Weather Service. The field significance test controls the proportion of falsely rejected local tests in a meaningful way and is robust to spatial dependence. Hence, the spatial patterns of the statistically significant local tests are also meaningful. We interpret them from a process-oriented perspective. While the downscaled precipitation distributions are statistically indistinguishable from the observed ones in most regions in summer, the biases of some distribution characteristics are significant over large areas in winter. WRF-NOAH generates appropriate stationary fine-scale climate features in the daily precipitation field over regions of complex topography in both seasons and appropriate transient fine-scale features almost everywhere in summer. As the added value of global climate model (GCM)-driven simulations cannot be smaller than this perfect-boundary estimate, this work demonstrates in a rigorous manner the clear additional value of dynamical downscaling over global climate simulations. The evaluation methodology has a broad spectrum of applicability as it is

  13. Field significance of performance measures in the context of regional climate model evaluation. Part 1: temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Martin; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2018-04-01

    A new approach for rigorous spatial analysis of the downscaling performance of regional climate model (RCM) simulations is introduced. It is based on a multiple comparison of the local tests at the grid cells and is also known as "field" or "global" significance. New performance measures for estimating the added value of downscaled data relative to the large-scale forcing fields are developed. The methodology is exemplarily applied to a standard EURO-CORDEX hindcast simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the land surface model NOAH at 0.11 ∘ grid resolution. Monthly temperature climatology for the 1990-2009 period is analysed for Germany for winter and summer in comparison with high-resolution gridded observations from the German Weather Service. The field significance test controls the proportion of falsely rejected local tests in a meaningful way and is robust to spatial dependence. Hence, the spatial patterns of the statistically significant local tests are also meaningful. We interpret them from a process-oriented perspective. In winter and in most regions in summer, the downscaled distributions are statistically indistinguishable from the observed ones. A systematic cold summer bias occurs in deep river valleys due to overestimated elevations, in coastal areas due probably to enhanced sea breeze circulation, and over large lakes due to the interpolation of water temperatures. Urban areas in concave topography forms have a warm summer bias due to the strong heat islands, not reflected in the observations. WRF-NOAH generates appropriate fine-scale features in the monthly temperature field over regions of complex topography, but over spatially homogeneous areas even small biases can lead to significant deteriorations relative to the driving reanalysis. As the added value of global climate model (GCM)-driven simulations cannot be smaller than this perfect-boundary estimate, this work demonstrates in a rigorous manner the

  14. Neutron dose rate in the upper part of a PWR containment. Comparison between measurements and TRIPOLI-2 calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnaud, T.; Bourdet, L.; Gonnord, J.; Nimal, J.C.; Champion, G.

    1984-01-01

    Conception of a reactor building requires large openings in the primary concrete shield for a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. Through these openings neutrons escape and produce dose rates in several parts of the reactor building. Some calculations using ANISN, DOT and essentially TRIPOLI-2 codes allow to compute the neutron dose rates at several places such as reactor containment operating floor and containment annulus. Some complementary shields are provided and the instrumentations are placed in area where the dose rate is lower. Comparisons are presented between measurements and calculations

  15. Application of legal measures as part of the policy for prevention of corruption in public sphere: Kosovo case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilard Bytyqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the application of legal measures as part of the policy of corruption prevention in the public sphere. At present, corruption offenses have become a very dangerous phenomenon for the stability and security of societies, undermining the institutions and values of democracy, ethical values and justice, and jeopardizing the essential development and the rule of law. Knowing that these criminal offenses carry a high social risk and are conducted with high professionalism from people who have the state power, a greater focus should be placed on its prevention. Naturally, the criminal sanctions against criminal acts of corruption have their positive effect, punitive and preventive, but these are the last measures that the state should use. The state of Kosovo in an effort to prevent corruption, has established in legal terms an advanced legislation in accordance with international laws and comparable to developed countries.

  16. Importance of the inverted control in measuring holistic face processing with the composite effect and part-whole effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor eMcKone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Holistic coding for faces is shown in several illusions that demonstrate integration of the percept across the entire face. The illusions occur upright but, crucially, not inverted. Converting the illusions into experimental tasks that measure their strength – and thus index degree of holistic coding – is often considered straightforward yet in fact relies on a hidden assumption, namely that there is no contribution to the experimental measure from secondary cognitive factors. For the composite effect, a relevant secondary factor is size of the "spotlight" of visuospatial attention. The composite task assumes this spotlight can be easily restricted to the target half (e.g., top half of the compound face stimulus. Yet, if this assumption were not true then a large spotlight, in the absence of holistic perception, could produce a false composite effect, present even for inverted faces and contributing partially to the score for upright faces. We review evidence that various factors can influence spotlight size: race/culture (Asians often prefer a more global distribution of attention than Caucasians; sex (females can be more global; appearance of the join or gap between face halves; and location of the eyes, which typically attract attention. Results from 5 experiments then show inverted faces can sometimes produce large false composite effects, and imply that whether this happens or not depends on complex interactions between causal factors. We also report, for both identity and expression, that only top-half-face targets (containing eyes produce valid composite measures. A sixth experiment demonstrates an example of a false inverted part-whole effect, where encoding-specificity is the secondary cognitive factor. We conclude the inverted face control should be tested in all composite and part-whole studies, and an effect for upright faces should be interpreted as a pure measure of holistic processing only when the experimental design produces

  17. Importance of the Inverted Control in Measuring Holistic Face Processing with the Composite Effect and Part-Whole Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Elinor; Davies, Anne Aimola; Darke, Hayley; Crookes, Kate; Wickramariyaratne, Tushara; Zappia, Stephanie; Fiorentini, Chiara; Favelle, Simone; Broughton, Mary; Fernando, Dinusha

    2013-01-01

    Holistic coding for faces is shown in several illusions that demonstrate integration of the percept across the entire face. The illusions occur upright but, crucially, not inverted. Converting the illusions into experimental tasks that measure their strength – and thus index degree of holistic coding – is often considered straightforward yet in fact relies on a hidden assumption, namely that there is no contribution to the experimental measure from secondary cognitive factors. For the composite effect, a relevant secondary factor is size of the “spotlight” of visuospatial attention. The composite task assumes this spotlight can be easily restricted to the target half (e.g., top-half) of the compound face stimulus. Yet, if this assumption were not true then a large spotlight, in the absence of holistic perception, could produce a false composite effect, present even for inverted faces and contributing partially to the score for upright faces. We review evidence that various factors can influence spotlight size: race/culture (Asians often prefer a more global distribution of attention than Caucasians); sex (females can be more global); appearance of the join or gap between face halves; and location of the eyes, which typically attract attention. Results from five experiments then show inverted faces can sometimes produce large false composite effects, and imply that whether this happens or not depends on complex interactions between causal factors. We also report, for both identity and expression, that only top-half face targets (containing eyes) produce valid composite measures. A sixth experiment demonstrates an example of a false inverted part-whole effect, where encoding-specificity is the secondary cognitive factor. We conclude the inverted face control should be tested in all composite and part-whole studies, and an effect for upright faces should be interpreted as a pure measure of holistic processing only when the experimental design produces no

  18. Network performance measurements as part of feasibility studies on moving an ATLAS event filter to off-site institutes

    CERN Document Server

    Korcyl, K; Dobinson, Robert W; Ivanovici, M; Losada-Maia, Marcia; Meirosu, C; Sladowski, G

    2004-01-01

    We present a system for measuring network performance as part of the feasibility studies for locating the ATLAS third level trigger, the event filter (EF), in remote locations. Part of the processing power required to run the EF algorithms, the current estimate is 2000 state off the art processors, can be provided in remote, CERN-affiliated institutes, if a suitable network connection between CERN and the remote site could be achieved. The system is composed of two PCs equipped with GPS systems, CERN-designed clock cards and Alteon gigabit programmable network interface cards. In the first set of measurements we plan to quantify connection in terms of end-to-end latency, throughput, jitter and packet loss. Running streaming tests and study throughput, IP QoS, routing testing and traffic shaping follows this. Finally, we plan to install the event filter software in a remote location and feed it with data from test beams at CERN. Each of these tests should be preformed with the test traffic treated in the netwo...

  19. Structural health monitoring and damage assessment using measured FRFs from multiple sensors. Part II. Decision making with RBF networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, C.; Friswell, M.I. [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Univ. of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Imregun, M. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This paper is the second of two papers concerned with structural health monitoring and damage assessment using measured FRFs from multiple sensors, and discusses the decision making technique with radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. In PART 1 of the paper, the correlation criteria showed their capability to indicate various changes to the structure's state. PART 2, presented here, develops the methodology of decision theory to identify precisely all of the structure states. Although, the statistical approach can be used for classification, interpreting the information is difficult. Neural network techniques have been proven to possess many advantages for classification due to their learning ability and good generalization. In this paper, the radial basis function neural network is applied for function approximation and recognition. The key idea is to partition the input space (the indicators of the correlation criteria) into a number of subspaces that are in the form of hyper spheres. Then, the widely used k-mean clustering algorithm was selected as a logical approach to detecting the structure states. A bookshelf structure with measured frequency responses from 24 accelerometers was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The results show the successful classification of all structure states, for instance, the undamaged and damage states, damage locations and damage levels, and the environmental variability. (orig.)

  20. An experimental and modeling study of propene oxidation. Part 2: Ignition delay time and flame speed measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Burke, Sinéad M.

    2015-02-01

    Experimental data obtained in this study (Part II) complement the speciation data presented in Part I, but also offer a basis for extensive facility cross-comparisons for both experimental ignition delay time (IDT) and laminar flame speed (LFS) observables. To improve our understanding of the ignition characteristics of propene, a series of IDT experiments were performed in six different shock tubes and two rapid compression machines (RCMs) under conditions not previously studied. This work is the first of its kind to directly compare ignition in several different shock tubes over a wide range of conditions. For common nominal reaction conditions among these facilities, cross-comparison of shock tube IDTs suggests 20-30% reproducibility (2σ) for the IDT observable. The combination of shock tube and RCM data greatly expands the data available for validation of propene oxidation models to higher pressures (2-40. atm) and lower temperatures (750-1750. K).Propene flames were studied at pressures from 1 to 20. atm and unburned gas temperatures of 295-398. K for a range of equivalence ratios and dilutions in different facilities. The present propene-air LFS results at 1. atm were also compared to LFS measurements from the literature. With respect to initial reaction conditions, the present experimental LFS cross-comparison is not as comprehensive as the IDT comparison; however, it still suggests reproducibility limits for the LFS observable. For the LFS results, there was agreement between certain data sets and for certain equivalence ratios (mostly in the lean region), but the remaining discrepancies highlight the need to reduce uncertainties in laminar flame speed experiments amongst different groups and different methods. Moreover, this is the first study to investigate the burning rate characteristics of propene at elevated pressures (>5. atm).IDT and LFS measurements are compared to predictions of the chemical kinetic mechanism presented in Part I and good

  1. An experimental and modeling study of propene oxidation. Part 2: Ignition delay time and flame speed measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Burke, Siné ad M.; Burke, Ultan; Mc Donagh, Reuben; Mathieu, Olivier; Osorio, Irmis; Keesee, Charles L.; Morones, Aní bal; Petersen, Eric L.; Wang, Weijing; DeVerter, Trent A.; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.; Rhodes, Brandie; Hanson, Ronald K.; Davidson, David F.; Weber, Bryan W.; Sung, Chihjen; Santner, Jeffrey S.; Ju, Yiguang; Haas, Francis M.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Volkov, Evgeniy N.; Nilsson, Elna J K; Konnov, Alexander A.; Alrefae, Majed; Khaled, Fathi; Farooq, Aamir; Dirrenberger, Patricia; Glaude, Pierre Alexandre; Battin-Leclerc, F.; Curran, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data obtained in this study (Part II) complement the speciation data presented in Part I, but also offer a basis for extensive facility cross-comparisons for both experimental ignition delay time (IDT) and laminar flame speed (LFS) observables. To improve our understanding of the ignition characteristics of propene, a series of IDT experiments were performed in six different shock tubes and two rapid compression machines (RCMs) under conditions not previously studied. This work is the first of its kind to directly compare ignition in several different shock tubes over a wide range of conditions. For common nominal reaction conditions among these facilities, cross-comparison of shock tube IDTs suggests 20-30% reproducibility (2σ) for the IDT observable. The combination of shock tube and RCM data greatly expands the data available for validation of propene oxidation models to higher pressures (2-40. atm) and lower temperatures (750-1750. K).Propene flames were studied at pressures from 1 to 20. atm and unburned gas temperatures of 295-398. K for a range of equivalence ratios and dilutions in different facilities. The present propene-air LFS results at 1. atm were also compared to LFS measurements from the literature. With respect to initial reaction conditions, the present experimental LFS cross-comparison is not as comprehensive as the IDT comparison; however, it still suggests reproducibility limits for the LFS observable. For the LFS results, there was agreement between certain data sets and for certain equivalence ratios (mostly in the lean region), but the remaining discrepancies highlight the need to reduce uncertainties in laminar flame speed experiments amongst different groups and different methods. Moreover, this is the first study to investigate the burning rate characteristics of propene at elevated pressures (>5. atm).IDT and LFS measurements are compared to predictions of the chemical kinetic mechanism presented in Part I and good

  2. Electron Density Measurement on JUICE Mission by Mutual Impedance Technique: MIME Instrument as a Part of RPWI Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, J. L.; Henri, P.; Wahlund, J. E.; Le Duff, O.; Sene, O.; Colin, F.; Lagoutte, D.; Gilet, N.; Ahlen, L.; Bergman, J.; Gill, R.; Puccio, W.

    2017-09-01

    Mutual Impedance MEasurements (MIME) instrument is a part of the Radio Wave Plasma Investigation (RPWI) consortium which has been selected by European Space Agency (ESA) on the nest planetary mission JJUpiter ICy moons Exploer (JUICE) for a launch in 2022. The goals are to explore Jupiter and its potentially habitable icy moons and to study its plasma environment. Impedance probes, which are well known in geophysical prospection, in particular for ground permittivity investigations, have been successfully transposed to space plasmas diagnostic. Transmitting and receiving electrodes are used for measuring on open circuit the dynamic impedance of the system at several fixed frequencies over a range that includes characteristic frequencies of the ambient plasma. The measurements are then interpreted using a suitable theory and the values of plasma parameters, such as the electron density and possibly the temperature of the plasma can be deduced. To show how powerful this technique is, results obtained in the Earth's plasmasphere by the mutual impedance probe onboard ROSETTA are presented as example. MIME instrument proposal is then described and its ability to make valuable measurements in the Jupiter space environment and in particular around Europe, Callisto and Ganymede is investigated..

  3. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1994. Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements; Deo 2 - Prilog 4 - Meteoroloska merenja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grsic, Z; Adamovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1994-12-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day. [Serbo-Croat] Meteoroloska merenja u Institutu obavljaju se u skladu sa pravilnikom o nacinu, obimu i rokovima ispitivanja kontaminacije radioaktivnim materijama u okolini nuklearnih objekata. Predvidjeno je da se merenja i obrada podataka obavljaju automatskom meteoroloskom stanicom, medjutim do sada se dnevni meteoroloski bilten Instituta zavrsava na racunaru ali se prikupljanje i unos podataka radi manuelno. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi tabelarni i graficki prikaz rezultata obrade meteoroloskih merenja i osmatranja na meteoroloskoj stanici koja se nalazi u Institutu. Racunarski programi za obradu merenih podataka razvijeni su u Institutu. Podaci se sakupljaju u 24 dnevna termina, manuelno obradjuju, a zatim unose u mehanografske obrasce i u racunar. Originalni meteoroloski podaci arhiviraju se u obliku analognih zapisa.

  4. A measurement of the absorption of liquid argon scintillation light by dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B J P; Chiu, C S; Conrad, J M; Ignarra, C M; Katori, T; Toups, M

    2013-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume of liquid argon and monitor the light yield from an alpha source. The source is placed at different distances from a cryogenic photomultiplier tube assembly. By comparing the light yield from each position we extract the absorption cross section of nitrogen. We find that nitrogen absorbs argon scintillation light with strength of (1.51±0.15) × 10 −4 cm −1 ppm −1 , corresponding to an absorption cross section of (4.99±0.51) × 10 −21 cm 2 molecule −1 . We obtain the relationship between absorption length and nitrogen concentration over the 0 to 50 ppm range and discuss the implications for the design and data analysis of future large liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) detectors. Our results indicate that for a current-generation LArTPC, where a concentration of 2 parts per million of nitrogen is expected, the attenuation length due to nitrogen will be 30±3 meters

  5. Applying hot wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell - Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Al Shakhshir, Saher

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately determine the water balance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell it has recently been suggested to employ constant temperature anemometry (CTA), a frequently used method to measure the velocity of a fluid stream. CTA relies on convective heat transfer around a heated wire...... the equations required to calculate the heat transfer coefficient and the resulting voltage signal as function of the fuel cell water balance. The most critical and least understood part is the determination of the Nusselt number to calculate the heat transfer between the wire and the gas stream. Different...... expressions taken from the literature will be examined in detail, and it will be demonstrated that the power-law approach suggested by Hilpert is the only useful one for the current purposes because in this case the voltage response from the hot-wire sensor E/E0 shows the same dependency to the water balance...

  6. Geophysical measurements for subsurface mapping and groundwater exploration at the central part of the Sinai peninsula, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, S.A.; Alla, M. Abd; Mekhemer, Hatem M.; Santos, F. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of a deep aquifer is the main target of the research work presented here. The study area is located in the central part of Sinai, an extremely arid region in Egypt. Different geophysical methods, including resistivity, gravity, and magnetic, were applied in the study area for groundwater exploration. Fifteen vertical electrical soundings were measured with current electrode spacing ranging from AB = 10 m to AB= 6000 m, in order to detect the deep aquifer in the study area. The resistivity 1D models were used to construct a geoelectrical cross-section to define the subsurface stratigraphy units, including the water-bearing aquifer. The geoelectrical cross-sections showed that the upper part of the subsurface consists of four geoelectric units. The deep aquifer is lodged by the last unit constituted of Nubian sandstone (Lower Cretaceous deposits). The depth of the top of the Nubian sandstone ranges between 300 and 1000 m. The resistivity of the aquifer varies between 60 and 400 ohm-m, indicating the existence of good quality water. Gravity and ground magnetic (total magnetic field) measurements were made at one hundred and fifty stations. The combined interpretation of the magnetic and gravity data allowed the determination of the depth of the surface of the granitic basement and the depth of the Conrad surface. The results of the modeling indicate that the basement lies between 1500 and 3150 m depth and that the Conrad surface (interface between the granitic and basaltic layer) is ranging from 7130 to 8780 m. Structural elements (mostly normal faults) NW-SE, N-S and NE-SW oriented, have been detected. These structures are associated with vertical movements that might have controlled the sedimentation of the uppermost geological formations. (author)

  7. Improvement of high resolution borehole seismics. Part 1: Development of processing methods for VSP surveys. Part 2: Piezoelectric signal transmitter for seismic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, C.; Heikkinen, P.; Pekonen, S.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of the high resolution borehole seismics project has been to improve the reliability and resolution of seismic methods in the particular environment of nuclear waste repository sites. The results obtained, especially the data processing and interpretation methods developed, are applicable also to other geophysical methods (e.g. Georadar). The goals of the seismic development project have been: the development of processing and interpretation techniques for mapping fractured zones, and the design and construction of a seismic source complying with the requirements of repository site characterization programs. Because these two aspects of the work are very different in nature, we have structured the report as two self contained parts. Part 1 describes the development of interpretive techniques. We have used for demonstrating the effect of different methods a VSP data set collected at the SCV site during Stage 1 of the project. Five techniques have been studied: FK-filtering, three versions of Tau-p filtering and a new technique that we have developed lately, Image Space filtering. Part 2 refers to the construction of the piezoelectric source. Earlier results obtained over short distances with low energy piezoelectric transmitters let us believe that the same principle could be applied for seismic signal transmitters, if solutions for higher energy and lower frequency output were found. The instrument which we have constructed is a cylindrical unit which can be placed in a borehole and is able to produce a radial strain when excited axially. The minimum borehole diameter is 56 mm. (au)

  8. Demonstration of an automated electromanometer for measurement of solution in accountability vessels in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamonouchi, T.; Fukuari, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Komatsu, M.; Suyama, N.; Uchida, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the results of an operational field test of the automated electromanometer system installed at the input accountability vessel (251V10) and the plutonium product accountability vessel (266V23) in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. This system has been in use since September 1979 when it was installed in the PNC plant by BNL as part of Task-E, one of the thirteen tasks, in the Tokai Advanced Safeguards Technology Exercise (TASTEX) program. The first report on the progress of this task was published by S. Suda, et al., in the Proceedings of the INMM 22nd Annual Meeting. In this paper, further results of measurement and data analysis are shown. Also, the reliability and applicability of this instrument for accountability, safeguards, and process control purposes are investigated using the data of 106 batches for 251V10 and 40 batches for 266V23 obtained during two campaigns in 1981. There were small but significant differences relative to the plant's measurements for both vessels of 251V10 and 266V23; however, the difference for 251V10 was slightly decreased in the latest vessel calibration. Initially, there were many spurious signals originating with the raw data caused by a software error in the system. However, almost normal conditions were obtained after corrections of the program were made

  9. Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and activation for secondary organic aerosol: Part 1 – Evidence from measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wex

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA studied in previous laboratory experiments generally showed only slight hygroscopic growth, but a much better activity as a CCN (Cloud Condensation Nucleus than indicated by the hygroscopic growth. This discrepancy was examined at LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, using a portable generator that produced SOA particles from the ozonolysis of α-pinene, and adding butanol or butanol and water vapor during some of the experiments. The light scattering signal of dry SOA-particles was measured by the LACIS optical particle spectrometer and was used to derive a refractive index for SOA of 1.45. LACIS also measured the hygroscopic growth of SOA particles up to 99.6% relative humidity (RH, and a CCN counter was used to measure the particle activation. SOA-particles were CCN active with critical diameters of e.g. 100 nm and 55 nm at super-saturations of 0.4% and 1.1%, respectively. But only slight hygroscopic growth with hygroscopic growth factors ≤1.05 was observed at RH<98% RH. At RH>98%, the hygroscopic growth increased stronger than would be expected if a constant hygroscopicity parameter for the particle/droplet solution was assumed. An increase of the hygroscopicity parameter by a factor of 4–6 was observed in the RH-range from below 90% to 99.6%, and this increase continued for increasingly diluted particle solutions for activating particles. This explains an observation already made in the past: that the relation between critical super-saturation and dry diameter for activation is steeper than what would be expected for a constant value of the hygroscopicity. Combining measurements of hygroscopic growth and activation, it was found that the surface tension that has to be assumed to interpret the measurements consistently is greater than 55 mN/m, possibly close to that of pure water, depending on the different SOA-types produced, and therefore only in part accounts for the discrepancy

  10. The Discovery of the Tau Lepton: Part 1, The Early History Through 1975; Part 2, Confirmation of the Discovery and Measurement of Major Properties, 1976--1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, M. L.

    1994-08-01

    Several previous papers have given the history of the discovery of the {tau} lepton at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). These papers emphasized (a) the experiments which led to our 1975 publication of the first evidence for the existence of the {tau}, (b) the subsequent experiments which confirmed the existence of the r, and (c) the experiments which elucidated the major properties of the {tau}. That history will be summarized in Part 2 of this talk. In this Part 1, I describe the earlier thoughts and work of myself and my colleagues at SLAC in the 1960's and early 1970's which led to the discovery. I also describe the theoretical and experimental events in particle physics in the 1960's in which our work was immersed. I will also try to describe for the younger generations of particle physicists, the atmosphere in the 1960's. That was before the elucidation of the quark model of hadrons, before the development of the concept of particle generations The experimental paths to program we hot as clear as they are today and we had to cast a wide experimental net.

  11. The discovery of the tau lepton: Part 1, The early history through 1975; Part 2, Confirmation of the discovery and measurement of major properties, 1976--1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1994-08-01

    Several previous papers have given the history of the discovery of the τ lepton at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). These papers emphasized (a) the experiments which led to our 1975 publication of the first evidence for the existence of the τ, (b) the subsequent experiments which confirmed the existence of the r, and (c) the experiments which elucidated the major properties of the τ. That history will be summarized in Part 2 of this talk. In this Part 1, I describe the earlier thoughts and work of myself and my colleagues at SLAC in the 1960's and early 1970's which led to the discovery. I also describe the theoretical and experimental events in particle physics in the 1960's in which our work was immersed. I will also try to describe for the younger generations of particle physicists, the atmosphere in the 1960's. That was before the elucidation of the quark model of hadrons, before the development of the concept of particle generations The experimental paths to program we hot as clear as they are today and we had to cast a wide experimental net

  12. Measurement of activity limitations and participation restrictions: examination of ICF-linked content and scale properties of the FIM and PC-PART instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzins, Susan W; Imms, Christine; Di Stefano, Marilyn

    2017-05-01

    To explore the operationalization of activity and participation-related measurement constructs through comparison of item phrasing, item response categories and scoring (scale properties) for two separate instruments targeting activities of daily living. Personal Care Participation Assessment and Resource Tool (PC-PART) item content was linked to ICF categories using established linking rules. Previously reported ICF-linked FIM content categories and ICF-linked PC-PART content categories were compared to identify common ICF categories between the instruments. Scale properties of both instruments were compared using a patient scenario to explore the instruments' separate measurement constructs. The PC-PART and FIM shared 15 of the 53 level two ICF-linked categories identified across both instruments. Examination of the instruments' scale properties for items with overlapping ICF content, and exploration through a patient scenario, provided supportive evidence that the instruments measure different constructs. While the PC-PART and FIM share common ICF-linked content, they measure separate constructs. Measurement construct was influenced by the instruments' scale properties. The FIM was observed to measure activity limitations and the PC-PART measured participation restrictions. Scrutiny of instruments' scale properties in addition to item content is critical in the operationalization of activity and participation-related measurement constructs. Implications for Rehabilitation When selecting outcome measures for use in rehabilitation it is necessary to examine both the content of the instruments' items and item phrasing, response categories and scoring, to clarify the construct being measured. Measurement of activity limitations as well as participation restrictions in activities of daily living required for community life provides a more comprehensive measurement of rehabilitation outcomes than measurement of either construct alone. To measure the effects of

  13. Radiation protection at the RA reactor in 1984, Part II c Radioactivity control in the environment of the RA reactor, Meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Zaric, M.; Nikolic, R.; Stevanovic, M.

    1984-01-01

    During 1984, meteorology measurements were continued as a part of the environmental control of the Vinca Institute. This report covers the period from December 1983 - November 1984. Part of the meteorology measurements and data analysis is adapted to the needs of the Institute, i.e. RA reactor and some Laboratories. The objective of these activities is forming the data base for solving everyday and special problems related to control, protection and safety of Institute environment

  14. Engineering survey planning for the alignment of a particle accelerator: part II. Design of a reference network and measurement strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira Leão, Rodrigo; Raffaelo Baldo, Crhistian; Collucci da Costa Reis, Maria Luisa; Alves Trabanco, Jorge Luiz

    2018-03-01

    The building blocks of particle accelerators are magnets responsible for keeping beams of charged particles at a desired trajectory. Magnets are commonly grouped in support structures named girders, which are mounted on vertical and horizontal stages. The performance of this type of machine is highly dependent on the relative alignment between its main components. The length of particle accelerators ranges from small machines to large-scale national or international facilities, with typical lengths of hundreds of meters to a few kilometers. This relatively large volume together with micrometric positioning tolerances make the alignment activity a classical large-scale dimensional metrology problem. The alignment concept relies on networks of fixed monuments installed on the building structure to which all accelerator components are referred. In this work, the Sirius accelerator is taken as a case study, and an alignment network is optimized via computational methods in terms of geometry, densification, and surveying procedure. Laser trackers are employed to guide the installation and measure the girders’ positions, using the optimized network as a reference and applying the metric developed in part I of this paper. Simulations demonstrate the feasibility of aligning the 220 girders of the Sirius synchrotron to better than 0.080 mm, at a coverage probability of 95%.

  15. Measurement of airborne radioactivity and its meteorological application. Part IV. Annual report, 1 April 1972--31 March 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, R.; Sladkovic, R.; Kanter, H.J.; Carnuth, W.; Poetzi, K.

    1975-01-01

    Results obtained by a previously described method of studying the exchange of air masses between stratosphere and troposphere are reported. Continuous data on the ratio of 7 Be, 32 P, 33 P, and 35 S and of fallout radioisotopes are given for the entire period reported. First measurements with a Rawinsonde station and with a lidar system are described. An intrusion of stratospheric air into the troposphere is described by a detailed meteorological analysis. The transport between place of intrusion and observation could be reconstructed with all details over a distance of about 12,000 km. Subsidence has been observed only during the first part of the course of transport. Over more than half the distance of the transport was maintained by advection. A case of horizontal mixing observed could be described by two corresponding trajectories on the same plane. Radionuclides with a short life-time originating from a Chinese nuclear test were determined in fallout by γ-spectrometry. Solar f []ares increase the frequency of intrusions of stratospheric air into the troposphere. (auth)

  16. Part 1, Angular distribution measurement of beam-foil muonium, Part 2, Muon injection simulation for a new muon g-2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, H.E.

    1992-10-01

    The angular and energy distributions of positive muons μ + and muonium M produced by the beam-foil method have been measured for the first time. A 7 MeV/c subsurface μ + beam was delivered to our apparatus from the Stopped Muon Channel at the Los Alamos Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The μ + formed M by electron capture in a thin Al target foil. A low pressure multi-wire proportional chamber upstream of the target foil was used both as a moderator and as a muon counter. To observe muonium, muons sere swept away by a bending magnet which was placed downstream of the target foil. This magnet was turned off while measuring the μ + distribution. Beyond the magnetic field, particles were collimated and then stopped by a microchannel plate detector located at various angles to the incident muon beam axis. Two pairs of scintillators mounted above (St) and below (Sb) the MC-P were used to detect the decay positrons to verify from the lifetime spectrum that the particles detected by the MCP are muons. The intensities of μ + and M emerging from the Al foil at different angles were obtained from both a time-of-flight spectrum and a lifetime spectrum

  17. Research on Non-Similarity about Thermal Deformation Error of Mechanical Parts in High-accuracy Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Z; Fei, Y T

    2006-01-01

    Expanding with heat and contracting with cold are common physical phenomenon in the nature. The conventional theories and calculations of thermal deformation are approximate and linear, can only be applied in normal or low precision field. The thermal deformation error of mechanical parts doesn't follow the conventional linear formula, it relates to all physical dimension of the mechanical part, and the deformation can be indicated by a nonlinear formula of physical dimensions. A theory on non-similarity about thermal deformation error of mechanical parts is presented. Studies on some common mechanical parts in precision technology have went on and the mathematical models have been set up, hollow piece, gear and cube are included. The experimental results also make it clear that these models are more logical than traditional models

  18. Project Ancient Acoustics Part 1 of 4 : a method for accurate impulse response measurements in large open air theatres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, C.C.J.M.; Hoekstra, N.; Nicolai, B.; Wenmaekers, R.H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Selecting an appropriate method for measuring ‘normal’ indoor concert hall acoustics is always a trade-off between time, stimulus type, number of measurements and measurement quality. For ISO 3382 room acoustic parameters to be derived accurately from impulse responses, this tradeoff aims at a

  19. Determination of the detection limit and decision threshold for ionizing radiation measurements. Part 3: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements by high resolution gamma spectrometry, without the influence of sample treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This part of ISO 11929 addresses the field of ionizing radiation measurements in which events (in particular pulses) are counted by high resolution gamma spectrometry registrating a pulse-heights distribution (acquisition of a multichannel spectrum), for example on samples. It considers exclusively the random character of radioactive decay and of pulse counting and ignores all other influences (e.g. arising from sample treatment, weighing, enrichment or the instability of the test setup). It assumes that the distance of neighbouring peaks of gamma lines is not smaller than four times the full width half maximum (FWHM) of gamma line and that the background near to gamma line is nearly a straight line. Otherwise ISO 11929-1 or ISO 11929-2 should be used. ISO 11929 consists of the following parts, under the general title Determination of the detection limit and decision threshold for ionizing radiation measurements: Part 1: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements without the influence of sample treatment; Part 2: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements with the influence of sample treatment; Part 3: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements by high resolution gamma spectrometry, without the influence of sample treatment; Part 4: Fundamentals and application to measurements by use of linear scale analogue ratemeters, without the influence of sample treatment. This part of ISO 11929 was prepared in parallel with other International Standards prepared by WG2 (now WG 17): ISO 11932:1996, Activity measurements of solid materials considered for recycling, re-use or disposal as nonradioactive waste, and ISO 11929-1, ISO 11929-2 and ISO 11929-4, and is, consequently, complementary to these documents

  20. Use of two-part regression calibration model to correct for measurement error in episodically consumed foods in a single-replicate study design: EPIC case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agogo, George O; van der Voet, Hilko; van't Veer, Pieter; Ferrari, Pietro; Leenders, Max; Muller, David C; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Bamia, Christina; Braaten, Tonje; Knüppel, Sven; Johansson, Ingegerd; van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Boshuizen, Hendriek

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiologic studies, measurement error in dietary variables often attenuates association between dietary intake and disease occurrence. To adjust for the attenuation caused by error in dietary intake, regression calibration is commonly used. To apply regression calibration, unbiased reference measurements are required. Short-term reference measurements for foods that are not consumed daily contain excess zeroes that pose challenges in the calibration model. We adapted two-part regression calibration model, initially developed for multiple replicates of reference measurements per individual to a single-replicate setting. We showed how to handle excess zero reference measurements by two-step modeling approach, how to explore heteroscedasticity in the consumed amount with variance-mean graph, how to explore nonlinearity with the generalized additive modeling (GAM) and the empirical logit approaches, and how to select covariates in the calibration model. The performance of two-part calibration model was compared with the one-part counterpart. We used vegetable intake and mortality data from European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. In the EPIC, reference measurements were taken with 24-hour recalls. For each of the three vegetable subgroups assessed separately, correcting for error with an appropriately specified two-part calibration model resulted in about three fold increase in the strength of association with all-cause mortality, as measured by the log hazard ratio. Further found is that the standard way of including covariates in the calibration model can lead to over fitting the two-part calibration model. Moreover, the extent of adjusting for error is influenced by the number and forms of covariates in the calibration model. For episodically consumed foods, we advise researchers to pay special attention to response distribution, nonlinearity, and covariate inclusion in specifying the calibration model.

  1. Developing of risk-hedging CO2-emission policy. Part II: risks associated with measures to limit emissions, synthesis and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L.D.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is Part II of a two-part series in which the risk associated with unrestrained greenhouse-gas emissions, and with measures to limit emissions, are reviewed. The following risks associated with these efforts to limit CO 2 emissions are reviewed here: (1) resources might be diverted from other urgent needs; (2) economic growth might be reduced; (3) reduction measures might cost more than expected; (4) early action might cost more than later action; (5) reduction measures might have undesired side effects; (6) reduction measures might require heavy-handed government intervention; and (7) reduction measures might not work. With gradual implementation of a diversified portfolio of measures, these risks can be greatly reduced. Based on the review of risks associated with measures to limit emissions here, and the review of the risk associated with unrestrained emissions presented in Part I, it is concluded that a reasonable near-term (20-30 year) risk hedging strategy is one which seeks to stabilize global fossil CO 2 emissions at the present (early 1990s) level. This is turn implies an emission reduction of 26% for industrialized countries as a whole and 40-50% for Canada and the USA if developing country emissions are to increase by no more than 60%, which in itself would require major assistance from the industrialized countries. The framework and conclusions presented here are critically compared with so-called optimization frameworks. 82 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Heuristics for multi-item two-echelon spare parts inventory control subject to aggregate and individual service measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topan, E.; Bayindir, Z.P.; Tan, T.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a multi-item two-echelon spare parts inventory system in which the central warehouse operates under a (Q, R) policy and local warehouses implement (S−1,S) policy. The objective is to find the policy parameters minimizing expected system-wide inventory holding and fixed ordering subject

  3. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies: Tier 1 Leverage Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Consolidated Financial Statements (FR Y-9C Report), less goodwill; amounts of mortgage servicing assets... part. b. The tier 1 leverage guidelines apply on a consolidated basis to any bank holding company with consolidated assets of $500 million or more. The tier 1 leverage guidelines also apply on a consolidated basis...

  4. 40 CFR 33.408 - May a recipient use race and/or gender conscious measures as part of this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a recipient use race and/or gender... PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN... race and/or gender conscious measures as part of this program? (a) Should the good faith efforts...

  5. Measurements at the RA Reactor related to the VISA-2 project - Part 1, Start-up of the RA reactor and measurement of new RA reactor core parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, H.

    1962-07-01

    The objective of the measurements was determining the neutron flux in the RA reactor core. Since the number of fuel channels is increased from 56 to 68 within the VISA-2 project, it was necessary to attain criticality of the RA reactor and measure the neutron flux properties. The 'program of RA reactor start-up' has been prepared separately and it is included in this report. Measurements were divided in two phases. First phase was measuring of the neutron flux after the criticality was achieved but at zero power. During phase two measurements were repeated at several power levels, at equilibrium xenon poisoning. This report includes experimental data of flux distributions and absolute values of the thermal and fast neutron flux in the RA reactor experimental channels and values of cadmium ratio for determining the neutron epithermal flux. Data related to calibration of regulatory rods for cold un poisoned core are included [sr

  6. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks; Market Risk Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... A bank subject to this appendix must have a risk management system that meets the following minimum... management and is independent from business trading units. (2) The bank's internal risk measurement model... its risk measurement and risk management systems at least annually. (c) Market risk factors. The bank...

  7. Development of Wall-Thinning Evaluation Procedure for Nuclear Power Plant Piping—Part 1: Quantification of Thickness Measurement Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Yun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pipe wall thinning by flow-accelerated corrosion and various types of erosion is a significant and costly damage phenomenon in secondary piping systems of nuclear power plants (NPPs. Most NPPs have management programs to ensure pipe integrity due to wall thinning that includes periodic measurements for pipe wall thicknesses using nondestructive evaluation techniques. Numerous measurements using ultrasonic tests (UTs; one of the nondestructive evaluation technologies have been performed during scheduled outages in NPPs. Using the thickness measurement data, wall thinning rates of each component are determined conservatively according to several evaluation methods developed by the United States Electric Power Research Institute. However, little is known about the conservativeness or reliability of the evaluation methods because of a lack of understanding of the measurement error. In this study, quantitative models for UT thickness measurement deviations of nuclear pipes and fittings were developed as the first step for establishing an optimized thinning evaluation procedure considering measurement error. In order to understand the characteristics of UT thickness measurement errors of nuclear pipes and fittings, round robin test results, which were obtained by previous researchers under laboratory conditions, were analyzed. Then, based on a large dataset of actual plant data from four NPPs, a quantitative model for UT thickness measurement deviation is proposed for plant conditions.

  8. Minimizing measurement uncertainties of coniferous needle-leaf optical properties, part II: experimental set-up and error analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanez Rausell, L.; Malenovsky, Z.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    We present uncertainties associated with the measurement of coniferous needle-leaf optical properties (OPs) with an integrating sphere using an optimized gap-fraction (GF) correction method, where GF refers to the air gaps appearing between the needles of a measured sample. We used an optically

  9. Development of a wind energy converter and investigation of its operational function. Part 4: Test setup and results of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, S.; Molly, J. P.

    1982-12-01

    Measurements made during test operations at the MODA.10 plant as well as at a 25 years old 6 kW wind energy converter are presented. The test arrangements, measurement results of both wind energy converters, and the experience gained are described.

  10. Comparison of theoretical estimates and experimental measurements of fatigue crack growth under severe thermal shock conditions (part one - experimental observations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, D.; Green, D.; Parker, R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment in which a severe thermal cycle comprising of alternate upshocks and downshocks has been applied to an axisymmetric feature with an internal, partial penetration weld and crevice. The direction of cracking and crack growth rate were observed experimentally and detailed records made of the thermal cycle. A second part to the paper, reported separately, compares a linear elastic fracture mechanics assessment of the cracking to the experimental observations

  11. Pressure measurements and high speed visualizations of the cavitation phenomena at deep part load condition in a Francis turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K; Müller, A; Favrel, A; Landry, C; Avellan, F

    2014-01-01

    In a hydraulic power plant, it is essential to provide a reliable, sustainable and flexible energy supply. In recent years, in order to cover the variations of the renewable electricity production, hydraulic power plants are demanded to operate with more extended operating range. Under these off-design conditions, a hydraulic turbine is subject to cavitating swirl flow at the runner outlet. It is well-known that the helically/symmetrically shaped cavitation develops at the runner outlet in part load/full load condition, and it gives severe damage to the hydraulic systems under certain conditions. Although there have been many studies about partial and full load conditions, contributions reporting the deep part load condition are limited, and the cavitation behaviour at this condition is not yet understood. This study aims to unveil the cavitation phenomena at deep part load condition by high speed visualizations focusing on the draft tube cone as well as the runner blade channel, and pressure fluctuations associated with the phenomena were also investigated

  12. Development of electrical efficiency measurement techniques for 10 kW-class SOFC system: Part II. Uncertainty estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yohei; Momma, Akihiko; Kato, Ken; Negishi, Akira; Takano, Kiyonami; Nozaki, Ken; Kato, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty of electrical efficiency measurement was investigated for a 10 kW-class SOFC system using town gas. Uncertainty of heating value measured by the gas chromatography method on a mole base was estimated as ±0.12% at 95% level of confidence. Micro-gas chromatography with/without CH 4 quantification may be able to reduce uncertainty of measurement. Calibration and uncertainty estimation methods are proposed for flow-rate measurement of town gas with thermal mass-flow meters or controllers. By adequate calibrations for flowmeters, flow rate of town gas or natural gas at 35 standard litters per minute can be measured within relative uncertainty ±1.0% at 95 % level of confidence. Uncertainty of power measurement can be as low as ±0.14% when a precise wattmeter is used and calibrated properly. It is clarified that electrical efficiency for non-pressurized 10 kW-class SOFC systems can be measured within ±1.0% relative uncertainty at 95% level of confidence with the developed techniques when the SOFC systems are operated relatively stably

  13. Comparison of oxygen saturation values and measurement times by pulse oximetry in various parts of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Khorshid, Leyla

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study, which included 40 patients, was to compare the values pulse oximetry and the measurement times in various regions of the body. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient test and paired-sample test. The confidence power value was found to be .81 for the comparison of oxygen saturation values by arterial blood gas analysis and measurement by the forehead probe. It was found that the time for oxygen saturation measurement using the forehead probe was shorter than those using the finger and toe probes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. LIMITATIONS ON THE USES OF MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR MULTIPATHWAY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT - PART II: EFFECTS OF MISSING DATA AND IMPRECISION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multimedia data from two probability-based exposure studies were investigated in terms of how missing data and measurement-error imprecision affected estimation of population parameters and associations. Missing data resulted mainly from individuals' refusing to participate in c...

  15. Residual stress measurement of EB-welded plates with contour method. Part 2: FEM analysis of contour profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romppanen, A.-J.; Immonen, E.

    2013-12-01

    The residual stresses formed as a result of Electronic Beam welding (EB-welding) in copper are investigated by Posiva. In the present study, residual stresses of EB-welded copper plates were studied with contour method. In the method eleven copper plates (X436 - X440 and X453 - X458) were cut in half with wire electric discharge machining (EDM) after which the deformation due to stress relaxation was measured with coordinate measurement system. The measured data was then used as boundary displacement data for the FEM analyses, in which the corresponding residual stresses were calculated. Before giving the corresponding displacement boundary conditions to the FE models, the deformation data was processed and smoothed appropriately. The residual stress levels of the copper plates were found to be around 40 - 55 MPa at maximum. This corresponds to other reported residual stress measurements and current state of knowledge with this material in Posiva. (orig.)

  16. Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, Part D. U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tore Straume; Alfredo A, Marchetti; Stephen D, Egbert; James A, Roberts; Ping Men; Shoichiro Fujita; Kiyoshi Shizuma; Masaharu Hoshi; G, Rugel; W, Ruhm; G, Korschinek; J. E. McAninch; K. L. Carroll; T. Faestermann; K. Knie; R. E. Martinelli; A. Wallner; C. Wallner

    2005-01-01

    The present paper presents the 36 Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of 36 Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of 36 Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of 36 Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction 35 Cl(n,γ) 36 Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, 39 K(n,α) 36 Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the 36 Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain ∼ 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that 36 Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of 36 Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure 36 Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded 36 Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been 36 Cl measurements made by a Japanese group. The impetus for the extensive 36 Cl and other neutron activation

  17. A thermal technique for local ultrasound intensity measurement: part 2. Application to exposimetry on a medical diagnostic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkens, V

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic output measurements on medical ultrasound equipment are usually performed using radiation force balances to determine the output power and using hydrophones to determine pressure and intensity parameters. The local temporal-average ultrasound intensity can be measured alternatively by thermal sensors. The technique was described and prototype sensors were characterized in a preceding paper. Here, the application of such a thermal intensity sensor to the output beam characterization of a typical medical diagnostic device is described. Two transducers, a 7.5 MHz linear array and a 3.5 MHz convex array were investigated in different operating modes. For comparison, hydrophone measurements were also performed. If the spatial averaging effect is taken into account, good agreement is found between both measurement methods. The maximum deviations of the spatial-peak temporal-average intensities I SPTA obtained with the thermal sensor from the corresponding hydrophone-based results were below 12%. The simple thermal technique offers advantages for intensity measurements especially in the case of scanning and combined modes of the diagnostic device, where the synchronization between hydrophone measurements and the complex pulse emission pattern can be difficult

  18. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS – Part 2: Measurements of trace gases with stratospheric or tropospheric origin in the UTLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jurkat

    2016-04-01

    an isotopically labeled 34SO2 standard. In addition, we report on trace gas measurements of HONO, which is sensitive to the reaction with SF5−. The detection limit for the various trace gases is in the low 10 pptv range at a 1 s time resolution with an overall uncertainty of the measurement of the order of 20 %. AIMS has been integrated and successfully operated on the DLR research aircraft Falcon and HALO (High Altitude LOng range research aircraft. As an example, measurements conducted during the TACTS/ESMVal (Transport and Composition of the LMS/UT and Earth System Model Validation mission with HALO in 2012 are presented, focusing on a classification of tropospheric and stratospheric influences in the UTLS region. The combination of AIMS measurements with other measurement techniques yields a comprehensive picture of the sulfur, chlorine and reactive nitrogen oxide budget in the UTLS. The different trace gases measured with AIMS exhibit the potential to gain a better understanding of the trace gas origin and variability at and near the tropopause.

  19. A study of the exposure of subjects to RF radiation during MRI examinations. Measurement of the SAR of head parts and the evaluation of the measured values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masayuki; Koga, Sukehiko; Sugie, Masami; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Anno, Hirofumi; Katada, Kazuhiro.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, as the fast spin echo technique has become prevailing among all the techniques in this line, there has been an increasing interest in the exposure of subjects to radiofrequency (RF) radiation during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. On the other hand, there have been no reports about the safety of the MRI examination in Japan. For this reason, in this study, the authors aimed to evaluate the extent of the exposure of subjects to RF radiation during MRI examinations, and measured the specific absorption rate (SAR) of spherical phantoms, which assumed to be adult heads, by using the procedures set forth in two safety guidelines respectively: the 1988 Guideline of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the 1995 Standards of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). As a result of the measurement, it was found that the highest value of the SAR was 1.361 W/kg, which stayed far below the upper limits set forth by the respective safety guidelines referred to in the above. However, the measured values of the SAR varied depending on the respective measuring procedures. As both the measuring procedures are equivalent theoretically, the authors consider the variance to be very important. (author)

  20. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  1. Coal forming conditions for coal seams and coal measures of the Heshan Group Upper Permian Series in Guangxi Province (part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.

    1980-10-01

    Coal forming conditions for the coal measures of the Heshan Group are discussed based on the analysis of the historical background and paleogeographical environment of the Permian in Guangxi Province. The roof, floor, and partings of the seams are composed of algal micritic limestone, therefore affirming that the central part of Guangxi Province in the late Permian was a typical epi-continental sea. The compensative deposit of algea on the carbonate platform in very shallow water created the conditions for the occurrence of the peat swamp and established the supra-tidal swampy facies. The environment for the accumulation of the major coal seams are analyzed. (In Chinese)

  2. Estimation of aerosol particle number distribution with Kalman Filtering – Part 2: Simultaneous use of DMPS, APS and nephelometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Viskari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is used to estimate particle size distributions from observations. The focus here is on the practical application of EKF to simultaneously merge information from different types of experimental instruments. Every 10 min, the prior state estimate is updated with size-segregating measurements from Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS as well as integrating measurements from a nephelometer. Error covariances are approximate in our EKF implementation. The observation operator assumes a constant particle density and refractive index. The state estimates are compared to particle size distributions that are a composite of DMPS and APS measurements. The impact of each instrument on the size distribution estimate is studied. Kalman Filtering of DMPS and APS yielded a temporally consistent state estimate. This state estimate is continuous over the overlapping size range of DMPS and APS. Inclusion of the integrating measurements further reduces the effect of measurement noise. Even with the present approximations, EKF is shown to be a very promising method to estimate particle size distribution with observations from different types of instruments.

  3. Chances and Limitations of Implementing Measures of Differentiation for Gifted Children in Primary Schools: The Teachers’ Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Endepohls-Ulpe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented study analyzes German primary school teachers’ attitudes towards several measures of internal differentiation with re-spect to the anticipated benefit for gifted pupils and the anticipated work load for teachers. Be-sides, correlations of these attitudes with teach-ers’ statements on the frequency of adopting the measures in their own classes were inspected. One-hundred thirty-seven teachers and teacher students were interviewed with a questionnaire on the assessed consequences and the fre-quency of the usage of several methods of dif-ferentiation. Data analysis was done by anal-yses of variance and calculation of Pearson cor-relation coefficients. Results show that teachers, as well as teacher students, mostly assessed the listed measures of internal differentiation to be appropriate for the promotion of gifted pupils, but for teachers there were significant negative correlations between assessed work load and frequency of usage in their own classes.

  4. Thermoluminescence dosimetry for gamma rays. Part B. Comparison of TLD measurements with DS86 and DS02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullings, Harry M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Egbert, Stephen D.; Maruyama, Takashi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    The overall agreement between measurement and calculation continues to be good for DS02, as it was for DS86. In Hiroshima, the overall agreement is somewhat better for DS02 than for DS86. Agreement near the hypocenter in Hiroshima is excellent with DS02 based on the methods described in this work. Agreement at middle and longer distances in Hiroshima is better for DS02 than for DS86, although there remain some indications of measured values exceeding calculated values at longer distances. These indications must be qualified by a careful consideration of issues related to background as described in this chapter. (J.P.N.)

  5. Inductive Sensor for Lightning Current Measurement, Fitted in Aircraft Windows-Part I: Analysis for a Circular Window

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Deursen, A.P.J.; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 199-204 ISSN 1530-437X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Lightning * inductive sensor * aircraft * window * viewport Subject RIV: JB - Sensors , Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.520, year: 2011

  6. In situ Measurements of Residual Stresses and Elelastic Moduli in Thermal Sprayed Coatings. Part 1: Apparatus and Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Sampath, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2003), s. 863-872 ISSN 1359-6454 Grant - others:NSF(US) DMR9632570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : coatings plasma spraying, mechanical properties testing, elastic modulus Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 3.059, year: 2003

  7. Light diffuseness metric, part 2 : Describing, measuring and visualizing the light flow and diffuseness in three-dimensional spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, L.; Pont, S.C.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a way to simultaneously measure the light density, light vector and diffuseness of the light field using a cubic illumination meter based on the spherical harmonics representation of the light field. This approach was applied to six light probe images of natural scenes and four real

  8. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies: Market Risk Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The organization must have a risk control unit that reports directly to senior management and is...-based capital ratio numerator. Section 4. Internal Models (a) General. For risk-based capital purposes... techniques adequately measure associated market risk. 10 An organization's internal model may use any...

  9. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part II. Accountability, instrumentation and measurement techniques in fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; McDaniel, T.; Miller, C.L.; Nguyen, T.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the measurement techniques, the instrumentation, and the procedures used in accountability and control of nuclear materials, as they apply to fuel fabrication facilities. A general discussion is given of instrumentation and measurement techniques which are presently used being considered for fuel fabrication facilities. Those aspects which are most significant from the point of view of satisfying regulatory constraints have been emphasized. Sensors and measurement devices have been discussed, together with their interfacing into a computerized system designed to permit real-time data collection and analysis. Estimates of accuracy and precision of measurement techniques have been given, and, where applicable, estimates of associated costs have been presented. A general description of material control and accounting is also included. In this section, the general principles of nuclear material accounting have been reviewed first (closure of material balance). After a discussion of the most current techniques used to calculate the limit of error on inventory difference, a number of advanced statistical techniques are reviewed. The rest of the section deals with some regulatory aspects of data collection and analysis, for accountability purposes, and with the overall effectiveness of accountability in detecting diversion attempts in fuel fabrication facilities. A specific example of application of the accountability methods to a model fuel fabrication facility is given. The effect of random and systematic errors on the total material uncertainty has been discussed, together with the effect on uncertainty of the length of the accounting period

  10. Computer vision system approach in colour measurements of foods: Part II. validation of methodology with real foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih TARLAK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The colour of food is one of the most important factors affecting consumers’ purchasing decision. Although there are many colour spaces, the most widely used colour space in the food industry is L*a*b* colour space. Conventionally, the colour of foods is analysed with a colorimeter that measures small and non-representative areas of the food and the measurements usually vary depending on the point where the measurement is taken. This leads to the development of alternative colour analysis techniques. In this work, a simple and alternative method to measure the colour of foods known as “computer vision system” is presented and justified. With the aid of the computer vision system, foods that are homogenous and uniform in colour and shape could be classified with regard to their colours in a fast, inexpensive and simple way. This system could also be used to distinguish the defectives from the non-defectives. Quality parameters of meat and dairy products could be monitored without any physical contact, which causes contamination during sampling.

  11. A new airborne Polar Nephelometer for the measurement of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part II: Preliminary tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Crépel

    Full Text Available A new optical sensor, the airborne Polar Nephelometer, has been tested in an open wind tunnel. The wind tunnel was operated in cloudy conditions including either cloud water droplets or ice crystals, or a mixture of these particles. The sensor is designed to measure the optical and microphysical parameters of cloud particles sized from a few micrometers to about 500 µm diameter. Basically, the probe measures the scattering phase function of an ensemble of cloud particles which intersect a collimated laser beam near the focal point of a paraboloidal mirror. From the measured scattering phase function the retrieval of the droplet-size spectra and subsequent derived quantities such as liquid water content and size parameters can be calculated using an inversion method. The particle phase discrimination (water droplets/ice particles can be derived from the shape of the scattering phase function and the sensitivity of the probe allows the detection of small ice crystals (typically of 5 µm diameter. The paper describes the preliminary results obtained by the prototype version of the Polar Nephelometer in various cloudy conditions. These results are compared with direct microphysical measurements obtained by usual PMS probes also mounted in the wind tunnel. Complementary results obtained in a cold chamber are presented in order to illustrate the reliability of the Polar Nephelometer in the presence of small ice crystals.

  12. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part II. Accountability, instrumentation and measurement techniques in fuel fabrication facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; McDaniel, T.; Miller, C.L.; Nguyen, T.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the measurement techniques, the instrumentation, and the procedures used in accountability and control of nuclear materials, as they apply to fuel fabrication facilities. A general discussion is given of instrumentation and measurement techniques which are presently used being considered for fuel fabrication facilities. Those aspects which are most significant from the point of view of satisfying regulatory constraints have been emphasized. Sensors and measurement devices have been discussed, together with their interfacing into a computerized system designed to permit real-time data collection and analysis. Estimates of accuracy and precision of measurement techniques have been given, and, where applicable, estimates of associated costs have been presented. A general description of material control and accounting is also included. In this section, the general principles of nuclear material accounting have been reviewed first (closure of material balance). After a discussion of the most current techniques used to calculate the limit of error on inventory difference, a number of advanced statistical techniques are reviewed. The rest of the section deals with some regulatory aspects of data collection and analysis, for accountability purposes, and with the overall effectiveness of accountability in detecting diversion attempts in fuel fabrication facilities. A specific example of application of the accountability methods to a model fuel fabrication facility is given. The effect of random and systematic errors on the total material uncertainty has been discussed, together with the effect on uncertainty of the length of the accounting period.

  13. The vulnerability of Australian rural communities to climate variability and change: Part I—Conceptualising and measuring vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, R.; Kokic, P.; Crimp, S.; Meinke, H.B.; Howden, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Vulnerability is a term frequently used to describe the potential threat to rural communities posed by climate variability and change. Despite growing use of the term, analytical measures of vulnerability that are useful for prioritising and evaluating policy responses are yet to evolve. Demand for

  14. Aggregation of measures to produce an overall assessment of animal welfare. Part 1: a review of existing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boteau, R.; Bonde, Marianne; Butterworth, A.

    2007-01-01

    Several systems have been proposed for the overall assessment of animal welfare at the farm level for the purpose of advising farmers or assisting public decision-making. They are generally based on several measures compounded into a single evaluation, using different rules to assemble the inform...

  15. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland – Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spirig

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial ammonia (NH3 analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland by application of the aerodynamic gradient method. The measurements from July 2006 to October 2007 covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during unstable and near-neutral conditions was 20% and the detection limit was 10 ng NH3 m−2 s−1. Hence the flux measurements are considered sufficiently accurate for studying typical NH3 deposition rates over growing vegetation. Quantifying the overall emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during broadspreading of liquid manure. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN varied between 4 and 19%, which is roughly a factor of three lower than the values for broadspreading of liquid manure in emission inventories. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the low dry matter content of the applied slurry and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  16. Depth-kymography of vocal fold vibrations : part II. Simulations and direct comparisons with 3D profile measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mul, Frits F. M.; George, Nibu A.; Qiu, Qingjun; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Schutte, Harm K.

    2009-01-01

    We report novel direct quantitative comparisons between 3D profiling measurements and simulations of human vocal fold vibrations. Until now, in human vocal folds research, only imaging in a horizontal plane was possible. However, for the investigation of several diseases, depth information is

  17. Measuring Patients' Experience of Rehabilitation Services Across the Care Continuum. Part I: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Josephine; McNeil, Heather; Lafortune, Claire; Black, Samantha; Prorok, Jeanette; Stolee, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To identify empirically tested survey instruments designed to measure patient experience across a rehabilitative care system. A comprehensive search was conducted of the MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL (EBSCO), and PsycINFO (APA PsycNET) databases from 2004 to 2014. Further searches were conducted in relevant journals and the reference lists of the final accepted articles. Of 2472 articles identified, 33 were selected for inclusion and analysis. Articles were excluded if they were unrelated to rehabilitative care, were anecdotal or descriptive reports, or had a veterinary, mental health, palliative care, dental, or pediatric focus. Four reviewers performed the screening process. Interrater reliability was confirmed through 2 rounds of title review (30 articles each) and 1 round of abstract review (10 articles), with an average κ score of .69. Data were extracted related to the instrument, study setting, and patient characteristics, including treated disease, type of rehabilitation (eg, occupational or physical therapy), methodology, sample size, and level of evidence. There were 25 discrete measurement instruments identified in the 33 articles evaluated. Seven of the instruments originated outside of the rehabilitative care sector, and only 1 measured service experience across the care continuum. As providers move to integrate rehabilitative care across the continuum from hospital to home, patients experience a system of care. Research is required to develop psychometrically tested instruments that measure patients' experience across a rehabilitative system. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ventilation distribution in rats: Part I - The effect of gas composition as measured with electrical impedance tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunster Kimble R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The measurement of ventilation distribution is currently performed using inhaled tracer gases for multiple breath inhalation studies or imaging techniques to quantify spatial gas distribution. Most tracer gases used for these studies have properties different from that of air. The effect of gas density on regional ventilation distribution has not been studied. This study aimed to measure the effect of gas density on regional ventilation distribution. Methods Ventilation distribution was measured in seven rats using electrical impedance tomography (EIT in supine, prone, left and right lateral positions while being mechanically ventilated with either air, heliox (30% oxygen, 70% helium or sulfur hexafluoride (20% SF6, 20% oxygen, 60% air. The effect of gas density on regional ventilation distribution was assessed. Results Gas density did not impact on regional ventilation distribution. The non-dependent lung was better ventilated in all four body positions. Gas density had no further impact on regional filling characteristics. The filling characteristics followed an anatomical pattern with the anterior and left lung showing a greater impedance change during the initial phase of the inspiration. Conclusion It was shown that gas density did not impact on convection dependent ventilation distribution in rats measured with EIT.

  19. Use of Pourbaix diagrams and the eH and pH measurements in hydrometallurgy. Part 2-Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, L.A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The interpretation of Pourbaix diagrams, presenting as examples; acid lixiviation of uranium ore, iron ion removal from process solutions, lixiviation of copper ores and cyaniding of Au ores containing Cu and Fe is presented. Practical aspects on eH and pH measurement in solutions of hydrometallurgical process. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. An optimal guarding scheme for thermal conductivity measurement using a guarded cut-bar technique, part 1 experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Changhu

    2014-01-01

    In the guarded cut-bar technique, a guard surrounding the measured sample and reference (meter) bars is temperature controlled to carefully regulate heat losses from the sample and reference bars. Guarding is typically carried out by matching the temperature profiles between the guard and the test stack of sample and meter bars. Problems arise in matching the profiles, especially when the thermal conductivities of the meter bars and of the sample differ, as is usually the case. In a previous numerical study, the applied guarding condition (guard temperature profile) was found to be an important factor in measurement accuracy. Different from the linear-matched or isothermal schemes recommended in literature, the optimal guarding condition is dependent on the system geometry and thermal conductivity ratio of sample to meter bar. To validate the numerical results, an experimental study was performed to investigate the resulting error under different guarding conditions using stainless steel 304 as both the sample and meter bars. The optimal guarding condition was further verified on a certified reference material, pyroceram 9606, and 99.95% pure iron whose thermal conductivities are much smaller and much larger, respectively, than that of the stainless steel meter bars. Additionally, measurements are performed using three different inert gases to show the effect of the insulation effective thermal conductivity on measurement error, revealing low conductivity, argon gas, gives the lowest error sensitivity when deviating from the optimal condition. The result of this study provides a general guideline for the specific measurement method and for methods requiring optimal guarding or insulation

  1. Studies of Corrosion of Cladding Materials in Simulated BWR-environment Using Impedance Measurements. Part I: Measurements in the Pre-transition Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Stefan; Ahlberg, Elisabet; Andersson, Ulf

    2004-09-01

    The corrosion of three Zircaloy 2 cladding materials, LK2, LK2+ and LK3, have been studied in-situ in an autoclave using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Measurements were performed in simulated BWR water at temperatures up to 288 deg C. The impedance spectra were successfully modelled using equivalent circuits. When the oxide grew thicker during the experiments, a change-over from one to two time constants was seen, showing that a layered structure was formed. Oxide thickness, oxide conductivity and effective donor density were evaluated from the impedance data. The calculated oxide thickness at the end of the experiments was consistent with the value obtained from SEM. It was shown that the difference in oxide growth rate between the investigated materials is small in the pre-transition region. The effective donor density, which is a measure of electronic conductivity, was found to be lower for the LK3 material compared to the other two materials

  2. Carbon dioxide and methane measurements from the Los Angeles Megacity Carbon Project - Part 1: calibration, urban enhancements, and uncertainty estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Kristal R.; Karion, Anna; Kim, Jooil; Salameh, Peter K.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Newman, Sally; Miller, John; Sloop, Christopher; Pongetti, Thomas; Rao, Preeti; Wong, Clare; Hopkins, Francesca M.; Yadav, Vineet; Weiss, Ray F.; Duren, Riley M.; Miller, Charles E.

    2017-07-01

    We report continuous surface observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from the Los Angeles (LA) Megacity Carbon Project during 2015. We devised a calibration strategy, methods for selection of background air masses, calculation of urban enhancements, and a detailed algorithm for estimating uncertainties in urban-scale CO2 and CH4 measurements. These methods are essential for understanding carbon fluxes from the LA megacity and other complex urban environments globally. We estimate background mole fractions entering LA using observations from four extra-urban sites including two marine sites located south of LA in La Jolla (LJO) and offshore on San Clemente Island (SCI), one continental site located in Victorville (VIC), in the high desert northeast of LA, and one continental/mid-troposphere site located on Mount Wilson (MWO) in the San Gabriel Mountains. We find that a local marine background can be established to within ˜ 1 ppm CO2 and ˜ 10 ppb CH4 using these local measurement sites. Overall, atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane levels are highly variable across Los Angeles. Urban and suburban sites show moderate to large CO2 and CH4 enhancements relative to a marine background estimate. The USC (University of Southern California) site near downtown LA exhibits median hourly enhancements of ˜ 20 ppm CO2 and ˜ 150 ppb CH4 during 2015 as well as ˜ 15 ppm CO2 and ˜ 80 ppb CH4 during mid-afternoon hours (12:00-16:00 LT, local time), which is the typical period of focus for flux inversions. The estimated measurement uncertainty is typically better than 0.1 ppm CO2 and 1 ppb CH4 based on the repeated standard gas measurements from the LA sites during the last 2 years, similar to Andrews et al. (2014). The largest component of the measurement uncertainty is due to the single-point calibration method; however, the uncertainty in the background mole fraction is much larger than the measurement uncertainty. The background uncertainty for the marine

  3. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1989, Part 2 , Environmental radioactivity control - Meteorology measurements, Annex 2b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.; Zaric, M.

    1989-01-01

    Already poor state of the equipment and insufficient staff of the meteorology service in the Institute was not improved during the past year, on the contrary. In addition to the fact that the series of meteorology sensors available in the Institute are not appropriate for special measurements which are obligatory for nuclear facilities, it is clear that the methods of data acquisition and processing applied during the past year were such as emergency methods applied worldwide in case when automated measurements are not functioning. It is underlined that meteorology data acquisition and data processing are not in accordance with the legal regulations, which demand each nuclear facility owner to have an automated meteorology station [sr

  4. Experimental measurements of the thermal conductivity of ash deposits: Part 2. Effects of sintering and deposit microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Robinson; S. G. Buckley; N. Yang; L. L. Baxter

    2000-04-01

    The authors report results from an experimental study that examines the influence of sintering and microstructure on ash deposit thermal conductivity. The measurements are made using a technique developed to make in situ, time-resolved measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of ash deposits formed under conditions that closely replicate those found in the convective pass of a commercial boiler. The technique is designed to minimize the disturbance of the natural deposit microstructure. The initial stages of sintering and densification are accompanied by an increase in deposit thermal conductivity. Subsequent sintering continues to densify the deposit, but has little effect on deposit thermal conductivity. SEM analyses indicates that sintering creates a layered deposit structure with a relatively unsintered innermost layer. They hypothesize that this unsintered layer largely determines the overall deposit thermal conductivity. A theoretical model that treats a deposit as a two-layered material predicts the observed trends in thermal conductivity.

  5. Synoptic water-level measurements of the Upper Floridan aquifer in Florida and parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama, May-June 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaman, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Water levels for the Upper Floridan aquifer were measured throughout Florida and in parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama in May-June 2010. These measurements were compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Floridan Aquifer System Groundwater Availability Study and conducted as part of the USGS Groundwater Resources Program. Data were collected by personnel from the USGS Florida Water Science Center, Georgia Water Science Center, South Carolina Water Science Center and several state and county agencies in Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama using standard techniques. Data collected by USGS personnel are stored in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS), Groundwater Site-Inventory System (GWSI). Furnished records from cooperators are stored in NWIS/GWSI when possible, but are available from the source agency.

  6. Recent Experiments Leading to the Characterization of the Performance of Portable (He-Ne)/CH4 Lasers: Part II: Results of the 1986 LPTF Absolute Frequency Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairon, A.; Dahmani, B.; Acef, O.; Granveaud, M.; Domnin, Yu S.; Pouchkine, S. B.; Tatarenkov, V. M.; Felder, R.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the VNIIFTRI and LPTF frequency multiplication chains has been carried out through the measurement of the frequency of a portable VNIIFTRI (He-Ne)/CH4 laser. Agreement is within 100 Hz (1.1 parts in 1012) and is secured by the very good medium-term frequency repeatability of the (He-Ne)/CH4 VNIIFTRI portable laser (a few parts in 1013). On the same occasion a measurement of the frequency of the BIPM (He-Ne)/CH4 reference laser (B.3) has been performed at LPTF. Other experiments carried out on the BIPM laser show that the reproducibility of the (He-Ne)/CH4 system could be improved by a systematic study and then by a better control of the various perturbing factors which influence the shape of the methane-saturated absorption peak.

  7. The role of singular values of measured frequency response function matrix in modal damping estimation (Part I: Theory)

    OpenAIRE

    Pápai, Ferenc; Szűcs, István

    2015-01-01

    The singular value decomposition of the measured frequency response function matrix, as a very effective tool of experimental modal analysis is used over the last twenty-five years. The complex mode indication function has become a common numerical tool in processing experimental data. There are many references on the development of complex mode indication function including the enhanced mode indication function and its use together with the enhanced frequency response function to form spatia...

  8. The role of singular values of measured frequency response function matrix in modal damping estimation (Part II: Investigations)

    OpenAIRE

    Pápai, Ferenc; Szűcs, István

    2015-01-01

    The singular value decomposition of the measured frequency response function matrix, as a very effective tool of experimental modal analysis is used over the last twenty-five years. The complex mode indication function has become a common numerical tool in processing experimental data. There are many references on the development of complex mode indication function including the enhanced mode indication function and its use together with the enhanced frequency response function to form spatia...

  9. Laser Velocimeter Measurements in the Pump of an Automotive Torque Converter Part I – Effect of Speed Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Ainley

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A torque converter was tested at four turbine/pump rotational speed ratios (0.200, 0.400, 0.600, and 0.800 all with a constant pump rotational speed in order to determine the effect of speed ratio on the torque converter pump flow field. Laser velocimetry was used to measure three components of velocity within the pump and a shaft encoder was employed to record the instantaneous pump angular position. Shaft encoder information was correlated with measured velocities to develop flow field blade-to-blade profiles and vector plots. Measurements were obtained in both the pump mid- and exit planes for all four speed ratios. Results showed large separation regions and jet/wake flows throughout the pump. The midplane flow was found to have strong counter-clockwise secondary components and the exit plane flow had strong clockwise secondary components. Mass flows were calculated from the velocity data and were found to decrease as the speed ratio was increased. Also, the vorticity and slip factors were calculated from the experimental data and are included. The mid-plane slip factors compare favorably to those for conventional centrifugal pumps but less slip was present in the exit plane than the mid-plane. Neither the slip factor nor the vorticity were seen to be strongly affected by the speed ratio. Finally, the torque core-to-shell and blade-to-blade torque distributions are presented for both planes.

  10. Structural health monitoring and damage assessment using measured FRFs from multiple sensors. Part I. The indicator of correlation criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, C.; Friswell, M.I. [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Univ. of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Imregun, M. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents two criteria for correlating measured frequency responses from multiple sensors and proposes to use them as indicators for structural damage detection. The first criterion is a global shape correlation (GSC) function that is sensitive to mode shape differences but not to relative scales. The second criterion, a global amplitude correlation (GAC) function, is based on actual response amplitudes. Both correlation criteria are a function of frequency and uniquely map a set of complex responses to a real scalar between zero and unity. The averaged integrations of GSC and GAC functions along the frequency points over the measurement range, also called damage indicators, are used to describe the correlation between two sets of vibration data. When a structure state remains unchanged, both correlation criteria are as close to unity simultaneously. Otherwise, the correlation with the reference data will be decreased with changes of structure states. Using GSC and GAC functions has the advantage of being able to deal with incomplete measurements. Also, all available response data are used and hence there is no critical selection of frequency points for damage detection. The above correlation criteria were applied to a bookshelf structure and various cases such as undamaged states, damage locations (single and multiple), damage levels, as well as environmental variability are discussed. As expected, it was found that indicators of correlation criteria were able to identify all various cases correctly. (orig.)

  11. Field measurements of supermarket refrigeration systems. Part I: Analysis of CO2 trans-critical refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawalha, Samer; Karampour, Mazyar; Rogstam, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the refrigeration performance of three CO 2 trans-critical solutions based on field measurements. The measurements are carried out in five supermarkets in Sweden. Using the field measurements, low and medium temperature level cooling capacities and COP's are calculated for ten-minute intervals, filtered and averaged to monthly values. The results indicate that the systems using trans-critical booster system with gas removal from the intermediate vessel have relatively the highest total COP. The reasons are higher evaporation temperatures, lower internal and external superheat and higher total efficiency of booster compressors. Another important factor is gas removal from the intermediate vessel which leads to higher COP of low temperature level. Comparing the older and newer installed systems, a trend in energy efficiency improvement has been seen. The study shows this improvement originates from both changes in the system design (e.g. two stage expansion) and components efficiency improvement (e.g. higher total efficiency of compressors - lower internal superheat and higher evaporation temperatures of cabinets). - Highlights: • Five Swedish supermarkets using three CO 2 refrigeration solutions are analyzed. • A trend of improvement in energy efficiency has been observed. • Parallel CO 2 system with indirect heat rejection offers the lowest energy efficiency. • CO 2 trans-critical booster with gas removal achieves up to 35% COP improvement

  12. Coordinating bracket torque and incisor inclination : Part 2: Reproducibility and statistical measures of the torque coordination angle (TCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sino, H; Zimmer, B; Schelper, I; Schenk-Kazan, S; Streibelt, F

    2018-03-09

    To determine the reproducibility and statistical measures of the torque coordination angle (TCA). A total of 107 final cephalograms and corresponding casts were included, all reflecting treatment outcomes that met high qualitative standards, one of them being a Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) score of ≤3. Based on these records, the TCA was measured as a parameter to identify differences related to tooth morphology and bracket position between the torque-relevant reference plane at the bracket base and the long axis of a tooth. All measurements were performed on upper and lower central incisors (U1 and L1). Several reproducibility assessments for the TCA measurements yielded good results, including objectivity at 1.26 ± 0.81° (U1) or 1.41 ± 1.18° (L1), examiner reliability at 1.30 ± 0.97° (U1) or 1.25 ± 0.82° (L1), and method reliability at 1.80 ± 1.13° (U1) or 1.53 ± 1.07° (L1). The statistical measures revealed a high degree of interindividual variability. With bracket placement 4.5 mm (U1) or 4.0 mm (L1) above the incisal edge, the differences between the maximum and minimum TCA values were similarly large in both jaws (21.0° for U1 or 20.0° for L1), given mean TCA values of 24.6 ± 3.6° (U1) or 22.9 ± 4.3° (L1). Moving the bracket placement from 3.5 to 5.5 mm (U1) or from 3.0 to 5.0 mm (L1) changed the mean TCA values by 4.5° (U1) or 3.2° (L1). The TCA is a suitable cephalometric parameter to identify differences related to tooth morphology and bracket placement. Given its high interindividual variability, the fixed torque value of a specific bracket system should not be expected to produce the same incisor inclinations across patients.

  13. Digest of data from the measurement of radioactivity in the Irish Marine Environment 1982-1984. Part I: Fish and Shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, John

    1985-11-01

    Levels of radioactivity in fish and shellfish have been measured at the National Radiation Monitoring Service since 1982. These measurement are part of the Nuclear Energy Board's radioactivity monitoring of the marine environment. The main effort was directed at the measurement of radioactivity, in particular radiocaesium, in fish and shellfish from the Irish Sea where the polluting effect of radioactive wastes from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield is greatest. The measured levels of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in the popular species of fish and shellfish allow the estimation of the population dose to the Irish public as a result of eating seafood contaminated with radiocaseium. This report attempts to set out, in summarised form, a comprehensive review of sampling, analytical and dose assessment details for the three-year period 1982 to 1984. Levels of K-40, the naturally occurring radionuclide, in the fish and shellfish samples are also reported. (author)

  14. East Asian SO2 pollution plume over Europe – Part 1: Airborne trace gas measurements and source identification by particle dispersion model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A large SO2-rich pollution plume of East Asian origin was detected by aircraft based CIMS (Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry measurements at 3–7.5 km altitude over the North Atlantic. The measurements, which took place on 3 May 2006 aboard of the German research aircraft Falcon, were part of the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B campaign. Additional trace gases (NO, NOy, CO, H2O were measured and used for comparison and source identification. The atmospheric SO2 mole fraction was markedly increased inside the plume and reached up to 900 pmol/mol. Accompanying lagrangian FLEXPART particle dispersion model simulations indicate that the probed pollution plume originated at low altitudes from densely populated and industrialized regions of East Asia, primarily China, about 8–12 days prior to the measurements.

  15. Activation measurements for fast neutrons. Part D. Evaluation of cosmic-ray-induced 63Ni background in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehm, Werner; Rugel, Georg; Faestermann, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    As a result of a joint collaboration between the University of Utah, LLNL, the Technical University Munich and the Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, it became possible to determine A-bomb induced 63 Ni in pure copper samples from Hiroshima beyond a ground range of 1,000 m (see Chapter 9, Part B). The low 63 Ni activities induced in copper samples due to neutrons from the A-bomb explosion at large distance require, however, a careful discussion of the fraction of 63 Ni produced in these samples due to cosmic radiation. In this section, an analysis of the production of 63 Ni in copper samples due to cosmic radiation is performed. Production due to neutrons, protons, stopped muons, and photonuclear reactions is discussed. It is obvious from Figure 1 (Pfennig et al. 1995) that a variety of reactions induced by neutrons, protons, muons and photons can contribute to the production of 63 Ni in copper. The most important of these processes will be discussed here. Since the cross-sections for the production of 63 Ni in copper samples due to fast and stopped muons were not known, they were determined experimentally. (J.P.N.)

  16. Evaluating Models Of The Neutral, Barotropic Planetary Boundary Layer Using Integral Measures: Part Ii. Modelling Observed Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, G. D.; Garratt, J. R.

    The steady-state, horizontally homogeneous, neutral, barotropiccase forms the foundation of our theoretical understanding of the planetary boundary layer (PBL).While simple analytical models and first-order closure models simulate atmospheric observationsof this case well, more sophisticated models, in general, do not. In this paperwe examine how well three higher-order closure models, E - - l, E - l, and LRR - l,which have been especially modified for PBL applications, perform in predicting the behaviour of thecross-isobaric angle 0, the geostrophic drag coefficient Cg, and the integral of the dissipationrate over the boundary layer, as a function of the surface Rossby number Ro. For comparison we alsoexamine the performance of three first-order closure mixing-length models, two proposed byA. K. Blackadar and one by H. H. Lettau, and the performance of the standard model forsecond-order closure and a modification of it designed to reduce the overprediction of turbulence inthe upper part of the boundary layer.

  17. Dispersion of a Passive Scalar Fluctuating Plume in a Turbulent Boundary Layer. Part I: Velocity and Concentration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nironi, Chiara; Salizzoni, Pietro; Marro, Massimo; Mejean, Patrick; Grosjean, Nathalie; Soulhac, Lionel

    2015-09-01

    The prediction of the probability density function (PDF) of a pollutant concentration within atmospheric flows is of primary importance in estimating the hazard related to accidental releases of toxic or flammable substances and their effects on human health. This need motivates studies devoted to the characterization of concentration statistics of pollutants dispersion in the lower atmosphere, and their dependence on the parameters controlling their emissions. As is known from previous experimental results, concentration fluctuations are significantly influenced by the diameter of the source and its elevation. In this study, we aim to further investigate the dependence of the dispersion process on the source configuration, including source size, elevation and emission velocity. To that end we study experimentally the influence of these parameters on the statistics of the concentration of a passive scalar, measured at several distances downwind of the source. We analyze the spatial distribution of the first four moments of the concentration PDFs, with a focus on the variance, its dissipation and production and its spectral density. The information provided by the dataset, completed by estimates of the intermittency factors, allow us to discuss the role of the main mechanisms controlling the scalar dispersion and their link to the form of the PDF. The latter is shown to be very well approximated by a Gamma distribution, irrespective of the emission conditions and the distance from the source. Concentration measurements are complemented by a detailed description of the velocity statistics, including direct estimates of the Eulerian integral length scales from two-point correlations, a measurement that has been rarely presented to date.

  18. Geophysical Measurements in the Beaver Basin, West-Central Utah; Part 1--Slingram, Magnetic, and Self-Potential Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Flanigan, Vincent J.; Campbell, David L.; U.S. Geological Survey

    1981-01-01

    This report consists of figures showing profile locations (fig. 1, table 1) in the Beaver Basin, west-central Utah, and ground geophysical data collected in September 1980 along these traverses (figs. 2-11). These data consist of slingram electromagnetic (real and imaginary components at 222, 444, 888, 1777, and 3555 Hz), ground magnetic and self-potential measurements collected at 200-foot (61-m) intervals along about 8.8 miles (14.2 km) of survey line. Table 2 lists equipment used. The r...

  19. Methods of neutron spectrum calculation from measured reaction rates in SAIPS. Part 2: Software and data input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzonis, M.A.; Bondars, H.Ya.

    1981-08-01

    A brief description of the SAIPS software and the basic principles of its application is given. SAIPS contains programs needed to unfold spectra, libraries of neutron cross sections and reference spectra, and software for automatic calculation and for system maintenance. SAIPS offers the possibility of determining the reliability of an unfolded neutron spectrum and of planning measurements and calculations by varying different factors: the errors in the reaction rates, the errors in the cross sections used, the detector assembly, the unfolding programs, etc. SAIPS runs on the ES 1022 computer

  20. Nuclear energy - Waste-packages activity measurement - Part.1: high-resolution gamma spectrometry in integral mode with open geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ISO 14850:2004 describes a procedure for measurements of gamma-emitting radionuclide activity in homogeneous objects such as unconditioned waste (including process waste, dismantling waste, etc.), waste conditioned in various matrices (bitumen, hydraulic binder, thermosetting resins, etc.), notably in the form of 100 L, 200 L, 400 L or 800 L drums, and test specimens or samples, (vitrified waste), and waste packaged in a container, notably technological waste. It also specifies the calibration of the gamma spectrometry chain. The gamma energies used generally range from 0,05 MeV to 3 MeV. (authors)

  1. Novel, cyclic heat dissipation method for the correction of natural temperature gradients in sap flow measurements. Part 2. Laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Acosta, J Leonardo; Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy; Lubczynski, Maciek W

    2012-07-01

    Sap flow measurements conducted with thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) are vulnerable to natural temperature gradient (NTG) bias. Few studies, however, attempted to explain the dynamics underlying the NTG formation and its influence on the sensors' signal. This study focused on understanding how the TDP signals are affected by negative and positive temperature influences from NTG and tested the novel cyclic heat dissipation (CHD) method to filter out the NTG bias. A series of three experiments were performed in which gravity-driven water flow was enforced on freshly cut stem segments of Fagus sylvatica L., while an artificial temperature gradient (ATG) was induced. The first experiment sought to confirm the incidence of the ATG on sensors. The second experiment established the mis-estimations caused by the biasing effect of the ATG on standard TDP measurements. The third experiment tested the accuracy of the CHD method to account for the ATG biasing effect, as compared with other cyclic correction methods. During experiments, sap flow measured by TDP was assessed against gravimetric measurements. The results show that negative and positive ATGs were comparable in pattern but substantially larger than field NTGs. Second, the ATG bias caused an overestimation of the standard TDP sap flux density of ∼17 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) by 76%, and the sap flux density of ∼2 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) by over 800%. Finally, the proposed CHD method successfully reduced the max. ATG bias to 25% at ∼11 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1) and to 40% at ∼1 cm(3) cm(-2) h(-1). We concluded that: (i) the TDP method is susceptible to NTG especially at low flows; (ii) the CHD method successfully corrected the TDP signal and resulted in generally more accurate sap flux density estimates (mean absolute percentage error ranging between 11 and 21%) than standard constant power TDP method and other cyclic power methods; and (iii) the ATG enforcing system is a suitable way of re-creating NTG for future tests.

  2. Fast sorption measurements of volatile organic compounds on building materials: Part 1 – Methodology developed for field applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS has been coupled to the outlet of a Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC, to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC concentration during a sorption experiments (Rizk et al., this issue [1]. The limits of detection of the PTR-MS for three VOCs are presented for different time resolution (2, 10 and 20 s. The mass transfer coefficient was calculated in the FLEC cavity for the different flow rates. The concentration profile obtained from a sorption experiment performed on a gypsum board and a vinyl flooring are also presented in comparison with the profile obtained for a Pyrex glass used as a material that do not present any sorption behavior (no sink. Finally, the correlation between the concentration of VOCs adsorbed on the surface of the gypsum board at equilibrium (Cse and the concentration of VOCs Ce measured in the gas phase at equilibrium is presented for benzene, C8 aromatics and toluene.

  3. Depth-kymography of vocal fold vibrations: part II. Simulations and direct comparisons with 3D profile measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mul, Frits F M de; George, Nibu A; Qiu Qingjun; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Schutte, Harm K [Department of Biomedical Engineering BMSA, Faculty of Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen UMCG, University of Groningen, PO Box 196, 9700 AD Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: ffm@demul.net

    2009-07-07

    We report novel direct quantitative comparisons between 3D profiling measurements and simulations of human vocal fold vibrations. Until now, in human vocal folds research, only imaging in a horizontal plane was possible. However, for the investigation of several diseases, depth information is needed, especially when the two folds act differently, e.g. in the case of tumour growth. Recently, with our novel depth-kymographic laryngoscope, we obtained calibrated data about the horizontal and vertical positions of the visible surface of the vibrating vocal folds. In order to find relations with physical parameters such as elasticity and damping constants, we numerically simulated the horizontal and vertical positions and movements of the human vocal folds while vibrating and investigated the effect of varying several parameters on the characteristics of the phonation: the masses and their dimensions, the respective forces and pressures, and the details of the vocal tract compartments. Direct one-to-one comparison with measured 3D positions presents-for the first time-a direct means of validation of these calculations. This may start a new field in vocal folds research.

  4. Depth-kymography of vocal fold vibrations: part II. Simulations and direct comparisons with 3D profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mul, Frits F M de; George, Nibu A; Qiu Qingjun; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Schutte, Harm K

    2009-01-01

    We report novel direct quantitative comparisons between 3D profiling measurements and simulations of human vocal fold vibrations. Until now, in human vocal folds research, only imaging in a horizontal plane was possible. However, for the investigation of several diseases, depth information is needed, especially when the two folds act differently, e.g. in the case of tumour growth. Recently, with our novel depth-kymographic laryngoscope, we obtained calibrated data about the horizontal and vertical positions of the visible surface of the vibrating vocal folds. In order to find relations with physical parameters such as elasticity and damping constants, we numerically simulated the horizontal and vertical positions and movements of the human vocal folds while vibrating and investigated the effect of varying several parameters on the characteristics of the phonation: the masses and their dimensions, the respective forces and pressures, and the details of the vocal tract compartments. Direct one-to-one comparison with measured 3D positions presents-for the first time-a direct means of validation of these calculations. This may start a new field in vocal folds research.

  5. Metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables: oceanic salinity and pH, and atmospheric humidity. Part 1: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.; Wielgosz, R.; Bell, S. A.; Camões, M. F.; Cooper, J. R.; Dexter, P.; Dickson, A. G.; Fisicaro, P.; Harvey, A. H.; Heinonen, M.; Hellmuth, O.; Kretzschmar, H.-J.; Lovell-Smith, J. W.; McDougall, T. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Ridout, P.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Stoica, D.; Wolf, H.

    2016-02-01

    Water in its three ambient phases plays the central thermodynamic role in the terrestrial climate system. Clouds control Earth’s radiation balance, atmospheric water vapour is the strongest ‘greenhouse’ gas, and non-equilibrium relative humidity at the air-sea interface drives evaporation and latent heat export from the ocean. On climatic time scales, melting ice caps and regional deviations of the hydrological cycle result in changes of seawater salinity, which in turn may modify the global circulation of the oceans and their ability to store heat and to buffer anthropogenically produced carbon dioxide. In this paper, together with three companion articles, we examine the climatologically relevant quantities ocean salinity, seawater pH and atmospheric relative humidity, noting fundamental deficiencies in the definitions of those key observables, and their lack of secure foundation on the International System of Units, the SI. The metrological histories of those three quantities are reviewed, problems with their current definitions and measurement practices are analysed, and options for future improvements are discussed in conjunction with the recent seawater standard TEOS-10. It is concluded that the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, BIPM, in cooperation with the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS, along with other international organizations and institutions, can make significant contributions by developing and recommending state-of-the-art solutions for these long standing metrological problems in climatology.

  6. Grant request: to implement energy conservation measures as part of the state original and supplemental energy conservation plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-16

    The program measures described in this document comprise a grant request to DOE under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 and the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1976. The amount requested, $5,555,000, will allow the extension, acceleration, and implementation of energy conservation activities already in progress in California. Accomplishments to date have included the adoption of residential standards, and the implementation of an energy survey program for public buildings. Efficiency standards have been established for refrigerators and room and central air conditioners, appliances which utilize a significant amount of residential energy. Before the end of 1977, efficiency standards will be established for clothes dryers, washers, and water heaters. Program elements are: technical/financial assistance; public awareness; standards setting; solar element; research/analysis/evaluation; and coordination and management.

  7. The kinetics of colour change in textiles and fibres treated with detergent solutions Part II - Spectrophotometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Grzesiak, Edyta

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess colour variations that occur in several types of textiles and their constituent fibres, resulting from the long-term influence of various laundry detergents. A 14-day experiment was conducted using blue, red and grey/black cotton, wool, acrylic and polyester textiles. The spectrophotometric measurement of colour changes in fabric samples and test solutions, as well as the microspectrophotometric analysis of colour changes in single fibres were described. An evaluation of the observed colour changes from a forensic fibre analysis expert's point of view, as well as that of an average user/consumer of the textiles and laundry detergents is also provided. Copyright 2009 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Void Measurements in the Regions of Sub-Cooled and Low-Quality Boiling. Part 1. Low Mass Velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhani, S Z

    1966-07-15

    By the application of the ({gamma}, n) reaction to boiling heavy water, void volume fractions have been measured in a vertical annular channel with 25 mm O.D. and 12 mm I.D. at a heated length of 1090 mm. The experiments covered pressures from 10 to 50 bars, mass velocities from 50 to 1450 kg/m-sec, heat fluxes from 30 to 90 W/cm{sup 2}, sub coolings from 30 to 0 C, and steam qualities from 0 to 15 %. The results indicate noticeable effects of pressure, heat flux and even mass velocity upon the variations of void with subcooling and steam quality. A novel explanation of the mechanism of their effects has been found and proved by qualitative analysis.

  9. Factors affecting neutron measurements and calculations. Part C. Trace element concentrations in granite and their impact on thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehm, Werner; Huber, Thomas; Nolte, Eckehart; Kato, Kazuo; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    Trace elements such as Li, B, Sm, and Gd can, despite their low elemental concentration in mineral materials, influence thermal neutron activation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki samples, due to their high thermal neutron absorption cross sections. This was demonstrated for a granite core, where the addition of those trace elements to the elemental composition of granite reduces the production of 152 Eu by some 25% at a depth of 25 cm from the surface. If typical concentrations of those trace elements are added to DS02 reference soil, however, the production of 152 Eu one meter above ground is not changed significantly, because of the high water content of the soil. This indicates that DS02 soil represents a reasonable reference material for the air-over-ground transport calculations. It must be kept in mind, however, that the local environment of any sample investigated for thermal neutron activation might be characterized by other elemental compositions. In particular, trace element and hydrogen concentrations could be considerably different from those used for DS02 reference soil. As an example it was demonstrated that in a granite gravestone thermal neutron activation of 36 Cl close to the surface might be, in the worst case, reduced by some 30%, due to increased local granite concentration in this type of environment. Beside other parameters such as, for example, individual sample geometry, the variability of trace elements in soil might be one reason for the variability that is observed in the individual thermal neutron activation measurements (Gold 1995). It is necessary, therefore, to carefully model the exposure geometry of the exposed material, its chemical composition, and the surrounding interface materials in order to obtain the best possible agreement in comparisons between calculated and measured data for thermal neutrons. (author)

  10. Improving and Assessing Aircraft-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Rate Measurements at Indianapolis as part of the INFLUX project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimburger, A. M. F.; Shepson, P. B.; Stirm, B. H.; Susdorf, C.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Copenhagen accord in 2009, several countries have affirmed their commitment to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The United States and Canada committed to reduce their emissions by 17% below 2005 levels, by 2020, Europe by 14% and China by ~40%. To achieve such targets, coherent and effective strategies in mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions must be implemented in the next decades. Whether such goals are actually achieved, they require that reductions are "measurable", "reportable", and "verifiable". Management of greenhouse gas emissions must focus on urban environments since ~74% of CO2 emissions worldwide will be from cities, while measurement approaches are highly uncertain (~50% to >100%). The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was established to develop, assess and improve top-down and bottom-up quantifications of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Based on an aircraft mass balance approach, we performed a series of experiments focused on the improvement of CO2, CH4 and CO emission rates quantification from Indianapolis, our final objective being to drastically improve the method overall uncertainty from the previous estimate of 50%. In November-December 2014, we conducted nine methodologically identical mass balance experiments in a short period of time (24 days, one downwind distance) for assumed constant total emission rate conditions, as a means to obtain an improved standard deviation of the mean determination. By averaging the individual emission rate determinations, we were able to obtain a method precision of 17% and 16% for CO2 and CO, respectively, at the 95%C.L. CH4 emission rates are highly variable day to day, leading to precision of 60%. Our results show that repetitive sampling can enable improvement in precision of the aircraft top-down methods through averaging.

  11. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion observation activities of The SATREPS, MarDiM project -Part 2-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Arslan, Safa; Aksahin, Bengi; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo

    2016-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, Tekirdag, Canakkale and Edirne provinces at about 109 sites on October 2013, September 2014 and 2015. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374

  12. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion observation activities of The SATREPS, MarDiM project -Part 3-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Seckin; Safa Arslan, Mehmet; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Behiye Aksahin, Bengi; Hatayama, Ken; Sahin, Abdurrahman; Ohori, Michihiro; Safak, Erdal; Hori, Muneo

    2017-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, Tekirdag, Canakkale and Edirne provinces at about 140 sites on October 2013, September 2014, 2015 and 2016. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor

  13. Part two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Korsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

    A novel micro combined heat and power system and a dynamic model thereof were presented in part one of the publication. In the following, the control system and dynamic performance of the system are presented. The model is subjected to a measured consumption pattern of 25 Danish single family...... houses with measurements of heat, power and hot water consumption every 15th minute during one year. Three scenarios are analyzed ranging from heat following only (grid compensation for electricity) to heat and power following with net export of electricity during high and peak load hours. Average...

  14. Hilbert-Schmidt and Sobol sensitivity indices for static and time series Wnt signaling measurements in colorectal cancer - part A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shriprakash

    2017-12-04

    Ever since the accidental discovery of Wingless [Sharma R.P., Drosophila information service, 1973, 50, p 134], research in the field of Wnt signaling pathway has taken significant strides in wet lab experiments and various cancer clinical trials, augmented by recent developments in advanced computational modeling of the pathway. Information rich gene expression profiles reveal various aspects of the signaling pathway and help in studying different issues simultaneously. Hitherto, not many computational studies exist which incorporate the simultaneous study of these issues. This manuscript ∙ explores the strength of contributing factors in the signaling pathway, ∙ analyzes the existing causal relations among the inter/extracellular factors effecting the pathway based on prior biological knowledge and ∙ investigates the deviations in fold changes in the recently found prevalence of psychophysical laws working in the pathway. To achieve this goal, local and global sensitivity analysis is conducted on the (non)linear responses between the factors obtained from static and time series expression profiles using the density (Hilbert-Schmidt Information Criterion) and variance (Sobol) based sensitivity indices. The results show the advantage of using density based indices over variance based indices mainly due to the former's employment of distance measures & the kernel trick via Reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) that capture nonlinear relations among various intra/extracellular factors of the pathway in a higher dimensional space. In time series data, using these indices it is now possible to observe where in time, which factors get influenced & contribute to the pathway, as changes in concentration of the other factors are made. This synergy of prior biological knowledge, sensitivity analysis & representations in higher dimensional spaces can facilitate in time based administration of target therapeutic drugs & reveal hidden biological information within

  15. Pressure Autoregulation Measurement Techniques in Adult Traumatic Brain Injury, Part I: A Scoping Review of Intermittent/Semi-Intermittent Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Donnelly, Joseph; Calviello, Leanne; Menon, David K; Smielewski, Peter; Czosnyka, Marek

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic, scoping review of commonly described intermittent/semi-intermittent autoregulation measurement techniques in adult traumatic brain injury (TBI). Nine separate systematic reviews were conducted for each intermittent technique: computed tomographic perfusion (CTP)/Xenon-CT (Xe-CT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), arteriovenous difference in oxygen (AVDO 2 ) technique, thigh cuff deflation technique (TCDT), transient hyperemic response test (THRT), orthostatic hypotension test (OHT), mean flow index (Mx), and transfer function autoregulation index (TF-ARI). MEDLINE ® , BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library (inception to December 2016), and reference lists of relevant articles were searched. A two tier filter of references was conducted. The total number of articles utilizing each of the nine searched techniques for intermittent/semi-intermittent autoregulation techniques in adult TBI were: CTP/Xe-CT (10), PET (6), MRI (0), AVDO 2 (10), ARI-based TCDT (9), THRT (6), OHT (3), Mx (17), and TF-ARI (6). The premise behind all of the intermittent techniques is manipulation of systemic blood pressure/blood volume via either chemical (such as vasopressors) or mechanical (such as thigh cuffs or carotid compression) means. Exceptionally, Mx and TF-ARI are based on spontaneous fluctuations of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) or mean arterial pressure (MAP). The method for assessing the cerebral circulation during these manipulations varies, with both imaging-based techniques and TCD utilized. Despite the limited literature for intermittent/semi-intermittent techniques in adult TBI (minus Mx), it is important to acknowledge the availability of such tests. They have provided fundamental insight into human autoregulatory capacity, leading to the development of continuous and more commonly applied techniques in the intensive care unit (ICU). Numerous methods of

  16. Phase Transition Enthalpy Measurements of Organic and Organometallic Compounds. Sublimation, Vaporization and Fusion Enthalpies From 1880 to 2015. Part 1. C1 - C10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, William; Chickos, James S.

    2016-09-01

    A compendium of phase change enthalpies published in 2010 is updated to include the period 1880-2015. Phase change enthalpies including fusion, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies are included for organic, organometallic, and a few inorganic compounds. Part 1 of this compendium includes organic compounds from C1 to C10. Part 2 of this compendium, to be published separately, will include organic and organometallic compounds from C11 to C192. Sufficient data are presently available to permit thermodynamic cycles to be constructed as an independent means of evaluating the reliability of the data. Temperature adjustments of phase change enthalpies from the temperature of measurement to the standard reference temperature, T = 298.15 K, and a protocol for doing so are briefly discussed.

  17. The ICF Core Sets for hearing loss--researcher perspective. Part I: Systematic review of outcome measures identified in audiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Sarah; Dahlström, Jennie; Möller, Claes; Kähäri, Kim; Danermark, Berth

    2014-02-01

    To review the literature in order to identify outcome measures used in research on adults with hearing loss (HL) as part of the ICF Core Sets development project, and to describe study and population characteristics of the reviewed studies. A systematic review methodology was applied using multiple databases. A comprehensive search was conducted and two search pools were created, pool I and pool II. The study population included adults (≥ 18 years of age) with HL and oral language as the primary mode of communication. 122 studies were included. Outcome measures were distinguished by 'instrument type', and 10 types were identified. In total, 246 (pool I) and 122 (pool II) different measures were identified, and only approximately 20% were extracted twice or more. Most measures were related to speech recognition. Fifty-one different questionnaires were identified. Many studies used small sample sizes, and the sex of participants was not revealed in several studies. The low prevalence of identified measures reflects a lack of consensus regarding the optimal outcome measures to use in audiology. Reflections and discussions are made in relation to small sample sizes and the lack of sex differentiation/descriptions within the included articles.

  18. Geology and fuel resources of the southern part of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Part 1, The coal field from Gallup eastward toward Mount Taylor, with a measured section of pre-Dakota(?) rocks near Navajo Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Julian D.

    1934-01-01

    member is split by the thick Hosta sandstone member, which toward the east and northeast is in turn split by the Satan tongue of the Mancos shale, of upper Niobrara (upper Colorado) age.In general the structure of the rocks is simple, showing a gentle northward dip into the San Juan Basin. At the west edge of the field the rocks dip steeply west in the north end of the prominent ridges known locally as the Hogback. In the eastern part there is a series of pronounced folds, whose crests and troughs retain the gentle basinward dip but whose limbs are steep monoclines that in places are faulted.The coal is of subbituminous rank and of fairly good grade. The coal beds are very irregular and lenticular. Those in the Gallup and Dilco members are of comparatively little importance, reaching a thickness of 4 to 5 feet in only a few places and, in general, being less than 3 feet thick. The coal beds of the Gibson, especially of its lower part, are more numerous and thicker, measurements of 4 to 6 feet thick being fairly common and one bed showing a thickness of 12 feet for more than a mile. No commercial mining has been undertaken in this field, but a few small mines have been used to supply trading posts and the Indian schools at Crown Point and Tohatchi.

  19. Should measurement of maximum urinary flow rate and residual urine volume be a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme in female incontinence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Pia; Mouritsen, L; Andersen, J Thorup

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of routine measurements of urinary flow rate and residual urine volume as a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme for women with urinary incontinence in detecting clinical significant bladder emptying problems. MATERIAL AND METHODS....... Twenty-six per cent had a maximum flow rate less than 15 ml/s, but only 4% at a voided volume > or =200 ml. Residual urine more than 149 ml was found in 6%. Two women had chronic retention with overflow incontinence. Both had typical symptoms with continuous leakage, stranguria and chronic cystitis...

  20. Shunt resistance and saturation current determination in CdTe and CIGS solar cells. Part 2: application to experimental IV measurements and comparison with other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Kuoppa, Victor-Tapio; Albor-Aguilera, María-de-Lourdes; Hérnandez-Vásquez, César; Flores-Márquez, José-Manuel; Jiménez-Olarte, Daniel; Sastré-Hernández, Jorge; González-Trujillo, Miguel-Ángel; Contreras-Puente, Gerardo-Silverio

    2018-04-01

    In this Part 2 of this series of articles, the procedure proposed in Part 1, namely a new parameter extraction technique of the shunt resistance (R sh ) and saturation current (I sat ) of a current-voltage (I-V) measurement of a solar cell, within the one-diode model, is applied to CdS-CdTe and CIGS-CdS solar cells. First, the Cheung method is used to obtain the series resistance (R s ) and the ideality factor n. Afterwards, procedures A and B proposed in Part 1 are used to obtain R sh and I sat . The procedure is compared with two other commonly used procedures. Better accuracy on the simulated I-V curves used with the parameters extracted by our method is obtained. Also, the integral percentage errors from the simulated I-V curves using the method proposed in this study are one order of magnitude smaller compared with the integral percentage errors using the other two methods.

  1. Fiscal 1999 technological survey report. Part 2. Applied technology for measuring human sense (Human sense measuring manual - basic technology for sense evaluation); Ningen kankaku keisoku manual. 2. Kankaku hyoka kiban gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A method of measuring/evaluating a mental and physical state by means of physiological information developed by a project was compiled into a 'guide book', as was a method of evaluating adaptability to the environment or products; and, this manual was prepared for the purpose of improving the adaptability of human beings to products by making use of the guide book widely in the field of industrial manufacturing. The part 2 explains a hard measuring instrument, evaluation device, simulation system, method of data analysis, etc., as 'basic technology for sense evaluation'. The chapter 1 is a new measuring and evaluation device (device for measuring physiological signals on the surface of the body, device for measuring visual characteristics, measuring device of in vivo substance, measuring device of thermal response, and system for evaluating adaptability of practical form), the chapter 2 is a new simulator (model of human body temperature with clothes on, human comfort meter, perspiring thermal manikin, and autonomic nerve control model in cardiac blood vessel/respiratory system), and the chapter 3 is new experimental/analytical method (new data analysis method and subjective evaluation questionnaire for stress assessment). (NEDO)

  2. Measuring the electron density in plasmas from the difference of Lorentzian part of the widths of two Balmer series hydrogen lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yubero, C. [Grupo de Física de Plasmas: Diagnosis, Modelos y Aplicaciones (FQM-136), Edificio A. Einstein (C-2), Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); García, M.C., E-mail: fa1gamam@uco.es [Grupo de Física de Plasmas: Diagnosis, Modelos y Aplicaciones (FQM-136), Edificio A. Einstein (C-2), Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Dimitrijevic, M.S. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Sola, A.; Gamero, A. [Grupo de Física de Plasmas: Diagnosis, Modelos y Aplicaciones (FQM-136), Edificio A. Einstein (C-2), Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    We present an alternative optical emission spectroscopy method to measure the plasma electron density from the difference of widths of two Balmer series hydrogen lines (H{sub α} and H{sub β}), especially convenient for non-thermal plasmas since with this method, there is no need to know either the gas temperature or the van der Waals contribution to the Lorentzian part of the line. In this paper it has been assumed that the part of full width at half maximum due to Stark broadening can be determined with the approximation of Lorentzian line shape. The method has been applied to the determination of the electron density in an argon microwave-induced plasma maintained at atmospheric pressure, and comparison with the results obtained using other diagnostic methods has been done. - Highlights: • An alternative method to measure the electron density in plasmas from two Balmer series hydrogen lines (H{sub α} and H{sub β}) is presented. • The method is very convenient for plasmas with electron densities of the order of 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3} and above, at low gas temperatures. • It has been applied to the determination of the electron density of an argon microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure. • Results from it are in good agreement with previous ones obtained using other diagnostic methods.

  3. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Soil - Part 2: Guidance for the selection of the sampling strategy, sampling and pre-treatment of samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This part of ISO 18589 specifies the general requirements, based on ISO 11074 and ISO/IEC 17025, for all steps in the planning (desk study and area reconnaissance) of the sampling and the preparation of samples for testing. It includes the selection of the sampling strategy, the outline of the sampling plan, the presentation of general sampling methods and equipment, as well as the methodology of the pre-treatment of samples adapted to the measurements of the activity of radionuclides in soil. This part of ISO 18589 is addressed to the people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soil for the purpose of radiation protection. It is applicable to soil from gardens, farmland, urban or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities. This part of ISO 18589 is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the range of the testing performed. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this part of ISO 18589, such as planning, sampling or testing, the corresponding requirements do not apply. Information is provided on scope, normative references, terms and definitions and symbols, principle, sampling strategy, sampling plan, sampling process, pre-treatment of samples and recorded information. Five annexes inform about selection of the sampling strategy according to the objectives and the radiological characterization of the site and sampling areas, diagram of the evolution of the sample characteristics from the sampling site to the laboratory, example of sampling plan for a site divided in three sampling areas, example of a sampling record for a single/composite sample and example for a sample record for a soil profile with soil description. A bibliography is provided

  4. Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement theory takes measurement as the assignment of numbers to properties of an empirical system so that a homomorphism between the system and a numerical system is established. To avoid operationalism, two approaches can be distinguished. In the axiomatic approach it is asserted that if the

  5. Descriptive statistics: the specification of statistical measures and their presentation in tables and graphs. Part 7 of a series on evaluation of scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriestersbach, Albert; Röhrig, Bernd; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Gerhold-Ay, Aslihan; Blettner, Maria

    2009-09-01

    Descriptive statistics are an essential part of biometric analysis and a prerequisite for the understanding of further statistical evaluations, including the drawing of inferences. When data are well presented, it is usually obvious whether the author has collected and evaluated them correctly and in keeping with accepted practice in the field. Statistical variables in medicine may be of either the metric (continuous, quantitative) or categorical (nominal, ordinal) type. Easily understandable examples are given. Basic techniques for the statistical description of collected data are presented and illustrated with examples. The goal of a scientific study must always be clearly defined. The definition of the target value or clinical endpoint determines the level of measurement of the variables in question. Nearly all variables, whatever their level of measurement, can be usefully presented graphically and numerically. The level of measurement determines what types of diagrams and statistical values are appropriate. There are also different ways of presenting combinations of two independent variables graphically and numerically. The description of collected data is indispensable. If the data are of good quality, valid and important conclusions can already be drawn when they are properly described. Furthermore, data description provides a basis for inferential statistics.

  6. Interpretation of the Total Magnetic Field Anomalies Measured by the CHAMP Satellite Over a Part of Europe and the Pannonian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, K. I.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Wittmann, G.; Toronyi, B.; Puszta, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we interpret the magnetic anomalies at satellite altitude over a part of Europe and the Pannonian Basin. These anomalies are derived from the total magnetic measurements from the CHAMP satellite. The anomalies reduced to an elevation of 324 km. An inversion method is used to interpret the total magnetic anomalies over the Pannonian Basin. A three dimensional triangular model is used in the inversion. Two parameter distributions: Laplacian and Gaussian are investigated. The regularized inversion is numerically calculated with the Simplex and Simulated Annealing methods and the anomalous source is located in the upper crust. A probable source of the magnetization is due to the exsolution of the hematite-ilmenite minerals.

  7. Part I. Development of a concept inventory addressing students' beliefs and reasoning difficulties regarding the greenhouse effect, Part II. Distribution of chlorine measured by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John Michael

    This work presents two research efforts, one involving planetary science education research and a second involving the surface composition of Mars. In the former, student beliefs and reasoning difficulties associated with the greenhouse effect were elicited through student interviews and written survey responses from >900 US undergraduate non-science majors. This guided the development of the Greenhouse Effect Concept Inventory (GECI), an educational research tool designed to assess pre- and post-instruction conceptual understanding of the greenhouse effect. Three versions of this multiple-choice instrument were administered to >2,500 undergraduates as part of the development and validation process. In contrast to previous research efforts regarding causes, consequences, and solutions to the enhanced greenhouse effect, the GECI focuses primarily on the physics of energy flow through Earth's atmosphere. The GECI is offered to the science education community as a research tool for assessing instructional strategies on this topic. It was confirmed that the study population subscribes to several previously identified beliefs. These include correct understandings that carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas and the greenhouse effect increases planetary surface temperatures. Students also commonly associate the greenhouse effect with increased penetration of sunlight into and trapping of solar energy in the atmosphere. Students intermix concepts associated with the greenhouse effect, global warming, and ozone depletion. Reinforcing the latter concept, a majority believe that the Sun radiates most of its energy as ultraviolet light. Students also describe inaccurate and incomplete trapping models, which include permanent trapping, trapping through reflection, and trapping of gases and pollution. Another reasoning difficulty involves the idea that Earth's surface radiates energy primarily during the nighttime. The second research effort describes the distribution of

  8. The benefits and harms of providing parents with weight feedback as part of the national child measurement programme: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Small-scale evaluations suggest that the provision of feedback to parents about their child’s weight status may improve recognition of overweight, but the effects on lifestyle behaviour are unclear and there are concerns that informing parents that their child is overweight may have harmful effects. The aims of this study were to describe the benefits and harms of providing weight feedback to parents as part of a national school-based weight-screening programme in England. Methods We conducted a pre-post survey of 1,844 parents of children aged 4–5 and 10–11 years who received weight feedback as part of the 2010–2011 National Child Measurement Programme. Questionnaires assessed general knowledge about the health risks associated with child overweight, parental recognition of overweight and the associated health risks in their child, child lifestyle behaviour, child self-esteem and weight-related teasing, parental experience of the feedback, and parental help-seeking behaviour. Differences in the pre-post proportions of parents reporting each outcome were assessed using a McNemar’s test. Results General knowledge about child overweight as a health issue was high at baseline and increased further after weight feedback. After feedback, the proportion of parents that correctly recognised their child was overweight increased from 21.9% to 37.7%, and more than a third of parents of overweight children sought further information regarding their child’s weight. However, parent-reported changes in lifestyle behaviours among children were minimal, and limited to increases in physical activity in the obese children only. There was some suggestion that weight feedback had a greater impact upon changing parental recognition of the health risks associated with child overweight in non-white ethnic groups. Conclusions In this population-based sample of parents of children participating in the National Child Measurement Programme, provision of weight feedback

  9. A 13 kA current lead, measuring 1.5 m in length. The lower part consists of a high-temperature superconductor (Bi-2223), operating at between 50 K and 4.5 K, while the heat-exchanger upper part allows the current to be brought from room temperature to 50 K.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A 13 kA current lead, measuring 1.5 m in length. The lower part consists of a high-temperature superconductor (Bi-2223), operating at between 50 K and 4.5 K, while the heat-exchanger upper part allows the current to be brought from room temperature to 50 K.

  10. IFCC primary reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 °C. Part 9: reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of alkaline phosphatase International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Scientific Division, Committee on Reference Systems of Enzymes (C-RSE) (1)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Gerhard; Klauke, Rainer; Canalias, Francesca; Bossert-Reuther, Steffen; Franck, Paul F H; Gella, F-Javier; Jørgensen, Poul J; Kang, Dongchon; Lessinger, Jean-Marc; Panteghini, Mauro; Ceriotti, Ferruccio

    2011-09-01

    Abstract This paper is the ninth in a series dealing with reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 °C and the certification of reference preparations. Other parts deal with: Part 1. The concept of reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes; Part 2. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of creatine kinase; Part 3. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of lactate dehydrogenase; Part 4. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of alanine aminotransferase; Part 5. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of aspartate aminotransferase; Part 6. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of γ-glutamyltransferase; Part 7. Certification of four reference materials for the determination of enzymatic activity of γ-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase at 37 °C; Part 8. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of α-amylase. The procedure described here is derived from the previously described 30 °C IFCC reference method. Differences are tabulated and commented on in Appendix 1.

  11. Development of methods for evaluation of electricity saving and load levelling measures. Part 2: The planning and implementation of a power conservation campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm Soerensen, M.; Madsen, P.K. [NESA A/S, Research and Development Dept. (Denmark)

    1997-12-01

    In recent years many campaigns and projects have been carried out with the purpose of reducing the energy consumption. Simultaneously a lot of economic and structural changes are taking place in society in general; changes which also affect the size of the electricity consumption. Furthermore, there is a trend towards increased use of wind mills and decentral combined heating and power plants, which affects the electricity load of the local area. It is difficult to identify and separate the effect of each of these attitude-adjusting activities. The project `Development of methods for evaluation of the effect of electricity saving and load levelling measures` focuses on two different methods which, on different levels, can be used to determine the impact of different different activities on the electricity consumption. Both methods are based on mathematical statistics, and they consist of an analysis of historical data and a test campaign which will make it possible to test specific activities in a comparatively small scale. The historical part covers the years 1974 to 1994 and include such variables as: demography, economic factors, climatic conditions, periods of electricity saving campaigns, the start of billing according to time of day tariff etc. The wish to be able to measure the extent of these energy saving and load reducing initiatives resulted in a test campaign which was carried out under very restricted conditions starting in the fall of 1996. If the effect of the test campaign can be measured and as a consequence of this a method can be estimated, it will be possible to place models which can measure the effect of future campaigns. The primary object of the campaign is not the size of the electricity savings of the individual customer, but rather to obtain total savings for the entire group of customers. The test has been structured in a way which makes it possible to perform an analysis of the effect of the campaign by use of analysis of intervention

  12. Can text messages reach the parts other process measures cannot reach: an evaluation of a behavior change intervention delivered by mobile phone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Irvine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Process evaluation is essential in developing, piloting and evaluating complex interventions. This often involves observation of intervention delivery and interviews with study participants. Mobile telephone interventions involve no face to face contact, making conventional process evaluation difficult. This study assesses the utility of novel techniques for process evaluation involving no face to face contact. METHODS: Text messages were delivered to 34 disadvantaged men as part of a feasibility study of a brief alcohol intervention. Process evaluation focused on delivery of the text messages and responses received from study participants. The computerized delivery system captured data on receipt of the messages. The text messages, delivered over 28 days, included nine which asked questions. Responses to these questions served as one technique for process evaluation by ascertaining the nature of engagement with the study and with steps on the causal chain to behavior change. RESULTS: A total of 646 SMS text messages were sent to participants. Of these, 613 messages (95% were recorded as delivered to participants' telephones. 88% of participants responded to messages that asked questions. There was little attenuation in responses to the questions across the intervention period. Content analysis of the responses revealed that participants engaged with text messages, thought deeply about their content and provided carefully considered personal responses to the questions. CONCLUSIONS: Socially disadvantaged men, a hard to reach population, engaged in a meaningful way over a sustained period with an interactive intervention delivered by text message. The novel process measures used in the study are unobtrusive, low cost and collect real-time data on all participants. They assessed the fidelity of delivery of the intervention and monitored retention in the study. They measured levels of engagement and identified participants' reactions to

  13. Infrared optical constants of aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component tropospheric aerosols from attenuated total reflectance measurements: Part II. An examination of mixing rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Gregory J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Martin, Scot T.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the performance of several mixing rules that are commonly used in modeling optical constants of aerosol mixtures either in remote sensing or radiation transfer/climate studies employing the new refractive index data reported in Part I. We demonstrate that the optical constants of the considered mixtures are not accurately modeled using pure solute optical constants (e.g., ammonium sulfate optical constants and the optical constants of pure water) due to the complex ion-ion and ion-water interactions. On the other hand, we do find that ternary and quaternary mixtures can be well modeled by applying the mixing rules to lower order multi-component optical constants data, e.g., binary data to determine ternary optical constants, or binary and ternary data to determine quaternary optical constants. By using lower order optical constants data sets, much of the ion-ion and ion-water effects are captured. Both mass-fraction and volume-fraction weighting of the 'component' optical constants yield satisfactory results, performing as well or better than the more complicated mixing rules. These findings will be of practical use in remote sensing and radiation transfer/climate studies as well as help guide the decision on what optical constants measurements will be required

  14. Reports in the area sensor technology: Part 2: Dynamic deviations which may appear via the sensing lines in measurement of reactor pressure and level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergdahl, Bengt-Goeran

    2002-12-01

    The sensors are part of the safety system in a nuclear power plant. They are the first link in a chain of components, which affect the safety system. It is therefore of great importance that the sensors fulfil tough requirements on reliability and response time. In practice, the dynamic qualities of the sensors in a BWR are seldom, or never, tested. The static qualities, on the other hand, are controlled every year when the transmitters are calibrated. This is done during the regular outage of the power plant. It is common that several sensors are connected to the same sensing line. This is true especially in old reactors, where only a few pressure taps are available in the reactor pressure vessel. This is a troublesome disadvantage in the design, since a failure in one sensing line will affect all components, which are connected to that sensing line ('Common Cause Failure'). This report focuses on deviations in the measurement system connected to the sensing lines. The deviations are illustrated by examples from Swedish and foreign BWRs. The sensing lines are mechanically passive components. They can reduce a system's response time even if there are now deviations in the static presentation. This report mentions cases in nuclear power plants, where the time constant of the sensing line has changed from 0.1 seconds, which is a normal response time, to 5 seconds. This has happened because of a gradual blockage of the sensing line. Today, signal analysis is the only way to examine the dynamic qualities of sensing lines. Filtrations can be unveiled by measuring and analysing the transmitter signal, regardless the location of the filtration: in the sensing line, in the transmitter or in other instrumentation components. A practical case is presented where pulsation dampers with so-called needles were used at Ringhals 1 in Sweden. Their influence on the response time for the measurement signal corresponds to a time constant = 0.55 s. By eliminating the needles the

  15. The impact of the congestion charging scheme on air quality in London. Part 1. Emissions modeling and analysis of air pollution measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank; Anderson, H Ross; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Derwent, Dick; Green, David; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-04-01

    On February 17, 2003, a congestion charging scheme (CCS*) was introduced in central London along with a program of traffic management measures. The scheme operated Monday through Friday, 7 AM to 6 PM. This program resulted in an 18% reduction in traffic volume and a 30% reduction in traffic congestion in the first year (2003). We developed methods to evaluate the possible effects of the scheme on air quality: We used a temporal-spatial design in which modeled and measured air quality data from roadside and background monitoring stations were used to compare time periods before (2001-2002) and after (2003-2004) the CCS was introduced and to compare the spatial area of the congestion charging zone (CCZ) with the rest of London. In the first part of this project, we modeled changes in concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and PM10 (particles with a mass median aerodynamic diameter public transport associated with the CCS). In the second part of the project, we established a CCS Study Database from measurements obtained from the London Air Quality Network (LAQN) for air pollution monitors sited to measure roadside and urban background concentrations. Fully ratified (validated) 15-minute mean carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), NO2, NOx, PM10, and PM2.5 data from each chosen monitoring site for the period from February 17, 2001, to February 16, 2005, were transferred from the LAQN database. In the third part of our project, these data were used to compare geometric means for the 2 years before and the 2 years after the CCS was introduced. Temporal changes within the CCZ were compared with changes, over the same period, at similarly sited (roadside or background) monitors in a control area 8 km distant from the center of the CCZ. The analysis was confined to measurements obtained during the hours and days on which the scheme was in operation and focused on pollutants derived from vehicles (NO, NO2, NOx, PM10, and CO). This set of

  16. Fiscal 1999 technological survey report. Part 1. Applied technology for measuring human sense (Human sense measuring manual - human sense evaluation index guideline); Ningen kankaku keisoku manual. 1. Ningen kankaku hyoka shihyo guide line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A method of measuring/evaluating a mental and physical state by means of physiological information developed by a project was compiled into a 'guide book', as was a method of evaluating adaptability to the environment or products; and, this manual was prepared for the purpose of improving the adaptability of human beings to products by making use of the guide book widely in the field of industrial manufacturing. Described in the part 1 are a method of evaluating human mind and body by the measurement of physiological quantity, a method of evaluating mental and physical adaptability from the element of environmental physics such as vision, sound and warmth, and a method of evaluating adaptability concerning utilization of machines and equipment, as 'human sense evaluation indexes'. The chapter 1 is the index of physiological/psychological state (stress evaluation index, fatigue/awakening evaluation index), the chapter 2 is an environmental/psychological index (overall environmental evaluation index, visual environmental effect index, sound/vibration environmental evaluation index, thermal environmental evaluation index), the chapter 3 is an adaptability evaluation index of products and the like (adaptability evaluation index by form and movement, evaluation index for operability of equipment for example), and the chapter 4 is the guideline (of environmental design and of product design). (NEDO)

  17. Electrical resistivity measurements to estimate groundwater recharge potential of latosolos in Brasília as a working part of the IWAS Água DF Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffron, Anne; Hirsch, Markus; Weiss, Holger

    2010-05-01

    The IWAS Água DF Project is a bilateral cooperation project initiated in 2009, coordinated by German and Brazilian institutions, with the main objective to develop an Integrated Water Resource Management System, in order to guarantee the safe water supply of the Federal District of Brazil and its surrounding urban areas. In this project a working package for Water Cycle is settled in with a special task for a feasibility study for artificial groundwater recharge with pretreated municipal wastewater in typical regional soils of Brasília. Brazil's Federal District with the capital Brasília developed rapidly in the last 50 years and counts about 2.5 million inhabitants by now. The predicted water scarcity, caused by climate change, growing population and increasing agriculture requires short-term action in water resources management. Basically this part of the IWAS Água DF project is focusing on the investigation of artificial groundwater recharge to estimate the retardation potential of different soils by infiltration of pretreated wastewater. Therefore in São Sebastião (37 km SE of Brasilia) a field test site with two infiltration basins (5 x 5 m) has been established to investigate the infiltration processes. Pretreated municipal waste water originating from the local waste water treatment plant serving the city of São Sebastião and surrounding areas is used for infiltration. In this treatment plant the waste water is treated in three steps. After a first mechanical treatment step the pretreated waste water is pumped through a temporary basin for anaerobic treating. Following this, the water is spread over large area sloped meadows by a branched piping system where the main part of the treatment of waste water takes place. The waste water percolates through the upper soil layer and gets filtrated in the clayey horizons of the local latosols. As a result, an artificial O/A horizon of 10 to 15 cm is build up because of the high nutrient content of the

  18. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument – Part 2: Raman scattering probability measurements and retrieval of aerosol optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Ivan; Coburn, Sean; Berg, Larry K.; Lantz, Kathy; Michalsky, Joseph; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is ~0.19, and that over oceans is ~0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employ radiative transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 < AOD430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), -0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), -0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMELAOD - MFRSRAOD) and yields the following

  19. Evaluation of sampling methods for measuring exposure to volatile inorganic acids in workplace air. Part 2: Sampling capacity and breakthrough tests for sodium carbonate-impregnated filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Martine; Oury, Véronique; Rousset, Davy

    2011-11-01

    In France, the MétroPol 009 method used to measure workplace exposure to inorganic acids, such as HF, HCl, and HNO3, consists of a closed-face cassette fitted with a prefilter to collect particles, and two sodium carbonate-impregnated filters to collect acid vapor. This method was compared with other European methods during the development of a three-part standard (ISO 21438) on the determination of inorganic acids in workplace air by ion chromatography. Results of this work, presented in a companion paper, led to a need to go deeper into the performance of the MétroPol 009 method regarding evaluation of the breakthrough of the acids, both alone and in mixtures, interference from particulate salts, the amount of sodium carbonate required to impregnate the sampling filter, the influence of sampler components, and so on. Results enabled improvements to be made to the sampling device with respect to the required amount of sodium carbonate to sample high HCl or HNO3 concentrations (500 μL of 5% Na2CO3 on each of two impregnated filters). In addition, a PVC-A filter used as a prefilter in a sampling device showed a propensity to retain HNO3 vapor so a PTFE filter was considered more suitable for use as a prefilter. Neither the material of the sampling cassette (polystyrene or polypropylene) nor the sampling flowrate (1 L/min or 2 L/min) influenced the performance of the sampling device, as a recovery of about 100% was achieved in all experiments for HNO3, HCl, and HF, as well as HNO3+HF and HNO3+HCl mixtures, over a wide range of concentrations. However, this work points to the possibility of interference between an acid and salts of other acids. For instance, interference can occur through interaction of HNO3 with chloride salts: the stronger the acid, the greater the interference. Methods based on impregnated filters are reliable for quantitative recovery of inorganic volatile acids in workplace atmosphere but are valuable only in the absence of interferents.

  20. Experimental measurements and analytical analysis related to gas turbine heat transfer. Part 1: Time-averaged heat-flux and surface-pressure measurements on the vanes and blades of the SSME fuel-side turbine and comparison with prediction. Part 2: Phase-resolved surface-pressure and heat-flux measurements on the first blade of the SSME fuel-side turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Time averaged Stanton number and surface-pressure distributions are reported for the first-stage vane row, the first stage blade row, and the second stage vane row of the Rocketdyne Space Shuttle Main Engine two-stage fuel-side turbine. Unsteady pressure envelope measurements for the first blade are also reported. These measurements were made at 10 percent, 50 percent, and 90 percent span on both the pressure and suction surfaces of the first stage components. Additional Stanton number measurements were made on the first stage blade platform blade tip, and shroud, and at 50 percent span on the second vane. A shock tube was used as a short duration source of heated and pressurized air to which the turbine was subjected. Platinum thin-film heat flux gages were used to obtain the heat flux measurements, while miniature silicon-diaphragm flush-mounted pressure transducers were used to obtain the pressure measurements. The first stage vane Stanton number distributions are compared with predictions obtained using a version of STAN5 and a quasi-3D Navier-Stokes solution. This same quasi-3D N-S code was also used to obtain predictions for the first blade and the second vane.

  1. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 658 - Devices That Are Excluded From Measurement of the Length or Width of a Commercial Motor Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; (v) Tarp basket; (w) Tire carrier; and (x) Uppercoupler. 2. Devices excluded from length measurement... measurement are side rails running the length of the vehicle and rear doors, provided the only function of the...

  2. Motorcycle Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    An article in NASA Tech Briefs describing a vacuum bagging process for forming composite parts helped a small Oklahoma Company to improve its manufacturing process. President of Performance Extremes, Larry Ortega, and his partners make motorcycle parts from carbon/epoxy to reduce weight. Using vacuum bags, parts have a better surface and fewer voids inside. When heat used in the vacuum bag process caused deformation upon cooling, a solution found in another tech brief solved the problem. A metal plate inside the vacuum bag made for more even heat transfer. A third article described a simple procedure for repairing loose connector pins, which the company has also utilized.

  3. Decision Threshold and Detection Limit in Spectrometric Measurements. Part 1: Application to Gamma Spectrometry; Umbral de Decision y Limite de Deteccion en Medidas Espectrometricas. Parte 1: Aplicacion a la Espectrometria Gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, C.; Gasco, C.; Lopez, M.A.

    2010-03-03

    This report summarised the author's lecture of the advanced gamma spectrometry course organised by CIEMAT. The characteristic limits determination in gamma spectrometry generally is obtained through the programming that the trade marks offers to the client with the objective of the automatic calculation of the activity concentrations existing in a sample. In this report, the examples shown in the ISO 11929 standard are compared to the programming realised by Genie 2k for determining characteristic limits. The main difference of both is located in the uncertainty calculations due to the efficiency calibration that is considered by ISO and not by Genie 2K. Through implementation in the software developed by trade marks will be possible to introduce this uncertainty and to assimilate to the calculation done by ISO 11929. In the second part of this report will be analyzed the more complicated samples of this application as counting in a whole body counter (following ISO-28218 about Performance Criteria for radio bioassay), multiplet, overlapping, addition of several peaks for obtaining the activity concentration, etc. (Author) 19 refs.

  4. Measurements of 161 Double Stars With a High-Speed CCD: The Winter/Spring 2017 Observing Program at Brilliant Sky Observatory, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard

    2018-04-01

    In the winter and spring of 2017, an aggressive observing program of measuring close double stars with speckle interferometry and CCD imaging was undertaken at Brilliant Sky Observatory, my observing site in Cave Creek, Arizona. A total of 596 stars were observed, 8 of which were rejected for various reasons, leaving 588 pairs. Of these, 427 were observed and measured with speckle interferometry, while the remaining 161 were measured with a CCD. This paper reports the results of the observations of the 161 CCD cases. A separate paper in this issue will report the speckle measurements of the 427 other pairs.

  5. Measurements of 427 Double Stars With Speckle Interferometry: The Winter/Spring 2017 Observing Program at Brilliant Sky Observatory, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard

    2018-04-01

    In the winter and spring of 2017, an aggressive observing program of measuring close double stars with speckle interferometry and CCD imaging was undertaken at Brilliant Sky Observatory, my observing site in Cave Creek, Arizona. A total of 596 stars were observed, 8 of which were rejected for various reasons, leaving 588 pairs. Of these, 427 were observed and measured with speckle interferometry, while the remaining 161 were measured with a CCD. This paper reports the results of the observations of the 427 speckle cases. A separate paper in this issue will report the CCD measurements of the 161 other pairs.

  6. Joint stability characteristics of the ankle complex in female athletes with histories of lateral ankle sprain, part II: clinical experience using arthrometric measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleski, John E; Heitman, Robert J; Gurchiek, Larry R; Hollis, J M; Liu, Wei; Pearsall, Albert W

    2014-01-01

    This is part II of a 2-part series discussing stability characteristics of the ankle complex. In part I, we used a cadaver model to examine the effects of sectioning the lateral ankle ligaments on anterior and inversion motion and stiffness of the ankle complex. In part II, we wanted to build on and apply these findings to the clinical assessment of ankle-complex motion and stiffness in a group of athletes with a history of unilateral ankle sprain. To examine ankle-complex motion and stiffness in a group of athletes with reported history of lateral ankle sprain. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. Twenty-five female college athletes (age = 19.4 ± 1.4 years, height = 170.2 ± 7.4 cm, mass = 67.3 ± 10.0 kg) with histories of unilateral ankle sprain. All ankles underwent loading with an ankle arthrometer. Ankles were tested bilaterally. The dependent variables were anterior displacement, anterior end-range stiffness, inversion rotation, and inversion end-range stiffness. Anterior displacement of the ankle complex did not differ between the uninjured and sprained ankles (P = .37), whereas ankle-complex rotation was greater for the sprained ankles (P = .03). The sprained ankles had less anterior and inversion end-range stiffness than the uninjured ankles (P ankle-complex laxity and end-range stiffness were detected in ankles with histories of sprain. These results indicate the presence of altered mechanical characteristics in the soft tissues of the sprained ankles.

  7. Measuring atmospheric ammonia with remote sensing campaign: Part 1 - Characterisation of vertical ammonia concentration profile in the centre of The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammers, E.; Schaap, M.; Haaima, M.; Palm, M.; Wichink Kruit, R. J.; Volten, H.; Hensen, A.; Swart, D.; Erisman, J. W.

    2017-11-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is difficult to monitor at atmospheric concentrations due its high solubility and reactivity and the strong spatial and temporal variations of its concentrations. Monitoring is mostly performed using passive samplers or filter packs with daily coverage at best. Only at a few sites ammonia is measured with more expensive wet chemical or spectroscopic measurement techniques. Instruments using an open path show the most potential as these avoid the use of inlets and thus the interactions of NH3 with tubing, filters, and inlets. Measurements on the vertical distribution of NH3 are even scarcer, with only a few available airborne and tower measurements. Satellite observations of NH3 show potential to be used for real-time monitoring as these have global coverage often with daily overpasses. Unfortunately, validation of satellite NH3 products representing the total atmospheric column with ground based instruments measuring in situ NH3 has been troublesome due to a lack of knowledge about the vertical distribution. Validation with FTIR instruments has shown potential but has been performed for only a limited number of stations. In this study we report on measurements performed during the Measuring atmospheric Ammonia with Remote Sensing (MARS) field campaign at Cabauw, the Netherlands. The aim of the campaign was to improve the general understanding of the vertical distribution of NH3. An approach was taken using four mini-DOAS instruments installed in the meteorological tower at Cabauw, supplemented by measurements with a MARGA and a mobile FTIR instrument. The measurements between May and October 2014 showed large variations in the concentrations and maximum concentrations reached up to 240 μg m-3. The lower three mini-DOAS and MARGA measurements showed large differences on an hourly basis, which were shown to originate from multiple measurement artefacts of the MARGA. The mini-DOAS concentrations varied sharply between the different levels with the lower

  8. Development of novel Sol-Gel Indicators (SGI's) for in-situ environmental measurements: Part 1, Program and a new pH Sol-Gel Indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.R.; Baylor, L.; Wicks, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating analytical indicators into a sol-gel glassy matrix and then coating substrates with this composite material has bee demonstrated. Substrates coated include paper, wood, glass, and the lens of an analytical probe. The first SRTC sol-gel indicator, comprising bromophenol blue dispersed in a silica matrix, was fabricated and successfully used to measure solution pH in the range of pH 3.0 to 7.5. material exhibited a quick response time, as measured by color changes both qualitatively and quantitatively, and the measuring device was reversible or reusable. Additional indicators with responses over other ranges as well as indicators sensitive to the presence of elements of interest, are also under development. The new SGI composites possess promising properties and an excellent potential for performing a variety important in-situ environmental measurements and area discussed in this report

  9. Measuring border delay and crossing times at the US-Mexico border : part II. Guidebook for analysis and dissemination of border crossing time and wait time data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this guidebook is to describe to local, regional, and State agencies how to analyze and disseminate data collected by a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based system to measure travel times of commercial vehicles, which is referre...

  10. Transitioning from CRD to CDRD in Bayesian retrieval of rainfall from satellite passive microwave measurements: Part 3 – Identification of optimal meteorological tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Smith

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the first two parts of this study we have presented a performance analysis of our new Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database (CDRD satellite precipitation retrieval algorithm on various convective and stratiform rainfall case studies verified with precision radar ground truth data, and an exposition of the algorithm's detailed design in conjunction with a proof-of-concept analysis vis-à-vis its theoretical underpinnings. In this third part of the study, we present the underlying analysis used to identify what we refer to as the optimal metrological and geophysical tags, which are the optimally effective atmospheric and geographic parameters that are used to refine the selection of candidate microphysical profiles used for the Bayesian retrieval. These tags enable extending beyond the conventional Cloud Radiation Database (CRD algorithm by invoking meteorological-geophysical guidance, drawn from a simulated database, which affect and are in congruence with the observed precipitation states. This is guidance beyond the restrictive control provided by only simulated radiative transfer equation (RTE model-derived database brightness temperature (TB vector proximity information in seeking to relate physically consistent precipitation profile solutions to individual satellite-observed TB vectors. The first two parts of the study have rigorously demonstrated that the optimal tags effectively mitigate against solution ambiguity, where use of only a CRD framework (TB guidance only leads to pervasive non-uniqueness problems in finding rainfall solutions. Alternatively, a CDRD framework (TB + tag guidance mitigates against non-uniqueness problems through improved constraints. It remains to show how these optimal tags are identified. By use of three statistical analysis procedures applied to a database from 120 North American atmospheric simulations of precipitating storms (independent of the 60 simulations for the European-Mediterranean basin region

  11. Development and clinical application of radioimmunoassay techniques for the measurement of thyroid and parathyroid hormones. Part of a coordinated programme on in vitro assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos Stevenson, R.

    1976-08-01

    Radioimmunoassay procedures were utilized to investigate the aetiology and pathology of endemic goitre in Pirque and Petregosa, Chile. The studies were carried out on adult woman and on children. The basal levels of TSH, T3 and T4 were determined. Significant differences were observed between the results in both localities. No children under the age of 5 were observed with goitre in Pedregosa, but goitre incidence increased with age up to 74% at age 18, the percentage being higher for femals. Conclusion: Aetiology and pathology of goitre may vary considerably even within a given country and both dietary and ethnic factors may play a part in this variation

  12. Doppler measurements of the ionosphere on the occasion of the Apollo-Soyuz test project. Part 1: Computer simulation of ionospheric-induced Doppler shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, M. D.; Gay, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A computer simulation of the ionospheric experiment of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) was performed. ASTP is the first example of USA/USSR cooperation in space and is scheduled for summer 1975. The experiment consists of performing dual-frequency Doppler measurements (at 162 and 324 MHz) between the Apollo Command Service Module (CSM) and the ASTP Docking Module (DM), both orbiting at 221-km height and at a relative distance of 300 km. The computer simulation showed that, with the Doppler measurement resolution of approximately 3 mHz provided by the instrumentation (in 10-sec integration time), ionospheric-induced Doppler shifts will be measurable accurately at all times, with some rare exceptions occurring when the radio path crosses regions of minimum ionospheric density. The computer simulation evaluated the ability of the experiment to measure changes of columnar electron content between CSM and DM (from which horizontal gradients of electron density at 221-km height can be obtained) and to measure variations in DM-to-ground columnar content (from which an averaged columnar content and the electron density at the DM can be deduced, under some simplifying assumptions).

  13. Evaluation of the salt deposition on the canister surface of concrete cask. Part 2. Measurement test of the salt concentration in air and salt deposition in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataru, Masumi

    2012-01-01

    Concerning the storage facility of spent nuclear fuel using the concrete cask, there is an issue of stress corrosion cracking(SCC). The cooling air goes up along the canister surface in the concrete cask. To evaluate the initiation of SCC or rusting, it is important to verify the estimation method of the sea salt deposition on the metal canister surface transported by cooling air including sea salt particles. To measure the deposition rate, field tests were performed in Choushi test center. In the field test, it was found that the amount of sea salt deposition was very low because the density of the atmospheric sea salt concentration was very low compared with the laboratory test. Using relation between laboratory data and filed data, it is possible to evaluate the salt deposition rate on the canister surface. We also measured atmospheric sea salt concentration in Choushi test center to make the environment condition clear and compared the measurement data with the calculation data to verify the evaluation model. We are developing the automatic measuring device for atmospheric sea salt concentration. To check its performance, we are measuring atmospheric sea salt concentration in Yokosuka Area of CRIEPI and it was confirmed that the device works for one month automatically and fulfills its specifications. (author)

  14. Comparison of FLOWTRAN predictions of onset of significant voiding (OSV) to Savannah River Heat Transfer Laboratory subcooled boiling flow instability measurements, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1988-10-01

    The onset of flow instability (OFI) was measured in the first of a scheduled series of subcooled boiling tests at the Savannah River Heat Transfer Laboratory (HTL). This report summarizes the benchmarking of predictions of the onset of significant voiding (OSV) using Version 16 of the FLOWTRANΩ reactor limits code against the HTL measurements. This study confirms that, for this series of HTL subcooled boiling tests, the Saha-Zuber OSV correlation was a conservative indicator of OFI for Peclet numbers between 30,000 and 80,000. The Saha-Zuber correlation was not a conservative indicator of OFI for Peclet numbers below 30,000. A conservative bound to the Saha-Zuber correlation (the Saha-Zuber constant Stanton number criterion -- 30%) was agreed to at a meeting of SRL, DOE, and the DOE EH and DP review panels. This bound was a conservative indicator of OFI for all measurements in this study

  15. Absolute absorbed dose measurements with an array of ionization chambers as part of a routine procedure of quality control for the VMAT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Cabello Murillo, E.; Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la

    2011-01-01

    Arcotheraphy techniques volumetric modulated (VMAT) treatments involve continuous variation of the gantry rotation speed, positions of the sheets and dose rate. Since all treatments are administered by continuous arcs, these techniques require quality control procedures to ensure quick and easy constancy of the calibration factor (total absorbed dose) for any gantry angle. We report here a simple method of quality control for the measurement of the calibration factor using an array of ionization chambers. The measurements were performed on a unit of 6 MV Elekta Synergy with VMAT, belonging to the Radiation Oncology service of the Defense Central Hospital Gomez Ulla.

  16. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Part III. Virus Detection by RT-qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Method 1615 measures enteroviruses and noroviruses present in environmental and drinking waters. The viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) from water sample concentrates is extracted and tested for enterovirus and norovirus RNA using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). V...

  17. The determination of the pressure-viscosity coefficient of a lubricant through an accurate film thickness formula and accurate film thickness measurements : part 2 : high L values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The pressure-viscosity coefficient of a traction fluid is determined by fitting calculation results on accurate film thickness measurements, obtained at different speeds, loads, and temperatures. Through experiments, covering a range of 5.6

  18. Long-term development and effectiveness of private flood mitigation measures: an analysis for the German part of the river Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bubeck, P.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Flood mitigation measures implemented by private households have become an important component of contemporary integrated flood risk management in Germany and many other countries. Despite the growing responsibility of private households to contribute to flood damage reduction by means of private

  19. A study of electron density profiles in relation to ionization sources and ground-based radio wave absorption measurements, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanalingam, S.; Kane, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An extensive set of ground-based measurements of the diurnal variation of medium frequency radio wave adsorption and virtual height is analyzed in terms of current understanding of the D- and lower E-region ion production and loss process. When this is done a gross discrepancy arises, the source of which is not known.

  20. Physical and chemical properties of the regional mixed layer of Mexico's Megapolis Part II: evaluation of measured and modeled trace gases and particle size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ochoa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study extends the work of Baumgardner et al. (2009 in which measurements of trace gases and particles, at a remote, high altitude mountain site, 60 km from Mexico City were analyzed with respect to the origin of the air masses. In the current evaluation, the temperature, water vapor mixing ratio (WMR, ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and acyl peroxy nitrate (APN are simulated with the WRF-Chem chemical transport model and compared with the measurements at the mountain site. Comparisons between the model and measurements are also evaluated for particle size distributions (PSDs of the mass concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and organic mass (OM. The model predictions of the diurnal trends in temperature, WMR and trace gases were generally well correlated; 13 of the 18 correlations were significant at a confidence level of <0.01. Less satisfactory were the average hourly differences between model and measurements that showed predicted values within expected, natural variation for only 10 of the 18 comparisons. The model performed best when comparing with the measurements during periods when the air originated from the east. In that case all six of the parameters being compared had average differences between the model and measurements less than the expected standard deviation. For the cases when the air masses are from the southwest or west northwest, only two of the comparisons from each case showed differences less than the expected standard deviation. The differences appear to be a result of an overly rapid growth of the boundary layer predicted by the model and too much dilution. There also is more O3 being produced, most likely by photochemical production, downwind of the emission sources than is predicted by the model.

    The measured and modeled PSD compare very well with respect to their general shape and the diameter of the peak concentrations. The spectra are log

  1. Phase Transition Enthalpy Measurements of Organic and Organometallic Compounds and Ionic Liquids. Sublimation, Vaporization, and Fusion Enthalpies from 1880 to 2015. Part 2. C11-C192

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, William; Chickos, James S.

    2017-03-01

    The second part of this compendium concludes with a collection of phase change enthalpies of organic molecules inclusive of C11-C192 reported over the period 1880-2015. Also included are phase change enthalpies including fusion, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies for organometallic, ionic liquids, and a few inorganic compounds. Paper I of this compendium, published separately, includes organic compounds from C1 to C10 and describes a group additivity method for evaluating solid, liquid, and gas phase heat capacities as well as temperature adjustments of phase changes. Paper II of this compendium also includes an updated version of a group additivity method for evaluating total phase change entropies which together with the fusion temperature can be useful in estimating total phase change enthalpies. Other uses include application in identifying potential substances that either form liquid or plastic crystals or exhibit additional phase changes such as undetected solid-solid transitions or behave anisotropically in the liquid state.

  2. Novel, cyclic heat dissipation method for the correction of natural temperature gradients in sap flow measurements. Part 1. Theory and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubczynski, Maciek W; Chavarro-Rincon, Diana; Roy, Jean

    2012-07-01

    Natural temperature gradient (NTG) can be a significant problem in thermal sap flow measurements, particularly in dry environments with sparse vegetation. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel correction method called cyclic heat dissipation (CHD) in its thermal dissipation probe (TDP) application. The CHD method is based on cyclic, switching ON/OFF power schema measurements and a three-exponential model, extrapolating measured signal to steady state thermal equilibrium. The extrapolated signal OFF represents NTG, whereas the extrapolated signal ON represents standard TDP signal, biased by NTG. Therefore, subtraction of the OFF signal from the ON signal allows defining the unbiased TDP signal, finally processed according to standard Granier calibration. The in vivo Kalahari measurements were carried out in three steps on four different tree species, first as NTG, then as standard TDP and finally in CHD mode, each step for ∼1-2 days. Afterwards, each tree was separated from its stem following modified Roberts' (1977) procedure, and CHD verification was applied. The typical NTG varying from ∼0.5 °C during night-time to -1 °C during day-time, after CHD correction, resulted in significant reduction of sap flux densities (J(p)) as compared with the standard TDP, particularly distinct for low J(p). The verification of the CHD method indicated ∼20% agreement with the reference method, largely dependent on the sapwood area estimate. The proposed CHD method offers the following advantages: (i) in contrast to any other NTG correction method, it removes NTG bias from the measured signal by using in situ, extrapolated to thermal equilibrium signal; (ii) it does not need any specific calibration making use of the standard Granier calibration; (iii) it provides a physical background to the proposed NTG correction; (iv) it allows for power savings; (v) it is not tied to TDP, and so can be adapted to other thermal methods. In its current state, the CHD data

  3. Evaluation and modelling of the size fractionated aerosol particle number concentration measurements nearby a major road in Helsinki - Part I: Modelling results within the LIPIKA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, M. A.; Pirjola, L.; Karppinen, A.; Härkönen, J.; Korhonen, H.; Hussein, T.; Ketzel, M.; Kukkonen, J.

    2007-08-01

    A field measurement campaign was conducted near a major road "Itäväylä" in an urban area in Helsinki in 17-20 February 2003. Aerosol measurements were conducted using a mobile laboratory "Sniffer" at various distances from the road, and at an urban background location. Measurements included particle size distribution in the size range of 7 nm-10 μm (aerodynamic diameter) by the Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) and in the size range of 3-50 nm (mobility diameter) by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), total number concentration of particles larger than 3 nm detected by an ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC), temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, driving route of the mobile laboratory, and traffic density on the studied road. In this study, we have compared measured concentration data with the predictions of the road network dispersion model CAR-FMI used in combination with an aerosol process model MONO32. For model comparison purposes, one of the cases was additionally computed using the aerosol process model UHMA, combined with the CAR-FMI model. The vehicular exhaust emissions, and atmospheric dispersion and transformation of fine and ultrafine particles was evaluated within the distance scale of 200 m (corresponding to a time scale of a couple of minutes). We computed the temporal evolution of the number concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions of various particle size classes. The atmospheric dilution rate of particles is obtained from the roadside dispersion model CAR-FMI. Considering the evolution of total number concentration, dilution was shown to be the most important process. The influence of coagulation and condensation on the number concentrations of particle size modes was found to be negligible on this distance scale. Condensation was found to affect the evolution of particle diameter in the two smallest particle modes. The assumed value of the concentration of condensable organic

  4. Development of photoacoustic water vapor and total water measuring instrument with a long term objective of becoming part of the IAGOS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatrai, David; Bors, Noemi; Gulyas, Gabor; Szabo, Gabor; Smit, Herman G. J.; Petzold, Andreas; Bozoki, Zoltan

    2016-04-01

    Airborne hygrometry is one of the key topics in atmospheric and climate research that is why airborne hygrometers are almost always included in aircraft based measurement campaigns (see e.g. MOZAIC and CARIBIC). However for its successful application an airborne hygrometer has to be able to measure humidity in a wide range (1 60000 ppmV) at various total pressures with high accuracy and short response time. In addition, an instrument capable of measuring water vapor and condensed water selectively has considerable added value as the water content of clouds seems to be a very uncertain parameter in climate models. At the University of Szeged, a dual channel, photoacoustic spectroscopy based hygrometer system had been developed, that measures water vapor concentration and total water content simultaneously from the ground level up to cruising altitude [1, 2]. An early version of this system is the core hygrometer of the CARIBIC project. In the past few years efforts were made to improve further the performance and long term reliability of the system [3] while also reducing its size and weight. Most important of the recent achievements is a new data acquisition and control system with more precise control performance [4]. Many of these results have been proved by various laboratory (AquaVIT2a-b) and in-flight (DANCHAR-IFCC, AIRTOSS I-II) measurement campaigns. Based on these results the system received invitation into the IAGOS ESFRI project to become one of its core instruments. The presented work was funded by EUFAR contract no. 227159, by the Hungarian Research and Technology Innovation Fund (OTKA), project no. NN109679 and by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 312311. [1] Szakáll, M et.al: Infrared Physics & Technology. 2006. 48, (3) 192-201 [2] Szakáll, M. et.al: Infrared Physics & Technology, 2007. 51, (2) 113-121 [3] Tátrai, D. et.al: Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 33-42, 2015 [4] Tátrai, D. et

  5. Evaluation and modelling of the size fractionated aerosol particle number concentration measurements nearby a major road in Helsinki ─ Part I: Modelling results within the LIPIKA project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ketzel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A field measurement campaign was conducted near a major road "Itäväylä" in an urban area in Helsinki in 17–20 February 2003. Aerosol measurements were conducted using a mobile laboratory "Sniffer" at various distances from the road, and at an urban background location. Measurements included particle size distribution in the size range of 7 nm–10 μm (aerodynamic diameter by the Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI and in the size range of 3–50 nm (mobility diameter by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, total number concentration of particles larger than 3 nm detected by an ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, driving route of the mobile laboratory, and traffic density on the studied road. In this study, we have compared measured concentration data with the predictions of the road network dispersion model CAR-FMI used in combination with an aerosol process model MONO32. For model comparison purposes, one of the cases was additionally computed using the aerosol process model UHMA, combined with the CAR-FMI model. The vehicular exhaust emissions, and atmospheric dispersion and transformation of fine and ultrafine particles was evaluated within the distance scale of 200 m (corresponding to a time scale of a couple of minutes. We computed the temporal evolution of the number concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions of various particle size classes. The atmospheric dilution rate of particles is obtained from the roadside dispersion model CAR-FMI. Considering the evolution of total number concentration, dilution was shown to be the most important process. The influence of coagulation and condensation on the number concentrations of particle size modes was found to be negligible on this distance scale. Condensation was found to affect the evolution of particle diameter in the two smallest particle modes. The assumed value of the concentration of

  6. The measurement of the real part of the proton-antiproton elastic scattering amplitude at a C.M.S. energy of 546 GEV and the rise of the total cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluit, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the experimental study of the elastic scattering of protons and anti-protons at a centre of mass energy of 546 GeV at the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN. The measurement of ρ, i.e. the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the nuclear part of elastic scattering amplitude for proton-antiproton at zero momentum transfer squared (-t = 0 GeV 2 ), at a centre of mass energy of √s = 546 GeV is described. The implications of the result of this measurement for the behaviour of the total cross section in the TeV domain are derived. The hypothesis is investigated whether there is a relation between the rise of the total cross section and the rise of the total jet cross section, as calculated in perturbative QCD and observed by the UA1 experiment. 104 refs.; 40 figs.; 16 tabs

  7. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part II. Accountability, instrumntation, and measurement techniques in fuel fabrication facilities, P.O.1236909. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; McDaniel, T.; Miller, C.L.; Nguyen, T.

    1978-12-01

    This report describes the measurement techniques, the instrumentation, and the procedures used in accountability and control of nuclear materials, as they apply to fuel fabrication facilities. Some of the material included has appeared elswhere and it has been summarized. An extensive bibliography is included. A spcific example of application of the accountability methods to a model fuel fabrication facility which is based on the Westinghouse Anderson design

  8. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--part 1: instrument validation of the DELTAplusXP IRMS for bulk nitrogen isotope ratio measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Hill, David M; Maynard, Philip; Roux, Claude

    2010-01-01

    A significant amount of research has been conducted into the use of stable isotopes to assist in determining the origin of various materials. The research conducted in the forensic field shows the potential of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to provide a level of discrimination not achievable utilizing traditional forensic techniques. Despite the research there have been few, if any, publications addressing the validation and measurement uncertainty of the technique for forensic applications. This study, the first in a planned series, presents validation data for the measurement of bulk nitrogen isotope ratios in ammonium nitrate (AN) using the DELTA(plus)XP (Thermo Finnigan) IRMS instrument equipped with a ConFlo III interface and FlashEA 1112 elemental analyzer (EA). Appropriate laboratory standards, analytical methods and correction calculations were developed and evaluated. A validation protocol was developed in line with the guidelines provided by the National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia (NATA). Performance characteristics including: accuracy, precision/repeatability, reproducibility/ruggedness, robustness, linear range, and measurement uncertainty were evaluated for the measurement of nitrogen isotope ratios in AN. AN (99.5%) and ammonium thiocyanate (99.99+%) were determined to be the most suitable laboratory standards and were calibrated against international standards (certified reference materials). All performance characteristics were within an acceptable range when potential uncertainties, including the manufacturer's uncertainty of the technique and standards, were taken into account. The experiments described in this article could be used as a model for validation of other instruments for similar purposes. Later studies in this series will address the more general issue of demonstrating that the IRMS technique is scientifically sound and fit-for-purpose in the forensic explosives analysis field.

  9. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part II. Accountability, instrumntation, and measurement techniques in fuel fabrication facilities, P. O. 1236909. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; McDaniel, T.; Miller, C.L.; Nguyen, T.

    1978-12-01

    This report describes the measurement techniques, the instrumentation, and the procedures used in accountability and control of nuclear materials, as they apply to fuel fabrication facilities. Some of the material included has appeared elswhere and it has been summarized. An extensive bibliography is included. A spcific example of application of the accountability methods to a model fuel fabrication facility which is based on the Westinghouse Anderson design.

  10. Qualification of spontaneous undirected locomotor behavior of fish for sublethal toxicity testing. Part 2. Variability of measurement parameters under toxicant-induced stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillitsch, B.; Vogl, C.; Wytek, R.

    1999-12-01

    Spontaneous locomotor behavior of semiadult zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) was recorded under sublethal short-term exposure to the anionic technical surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C{sub 10-13}-LAS) and cadmium in single compound tests using an automated video-monitoring and object-tracing system. Vertical position and swimming velocity in the horizontal and vertical directions were used as behavioral measurement parameters. Data were analyzed by different statistical methods. In pairwise comparisons, consistent, statistically significant, and toxicant-induced alterations of locomotor behavior were observed only for test concentrations, which also caused aspectoric symptoms of intoxication. This comparatively low sensitivity of the behavioral indication criteria was related to high variation in the measurement parameters and corresponding high, minimum detectable, statistically significant, and toxicant-induced deviations. In contrast, results obtained by regression analysis showed significant trends in locomotor activity over the range of toxicant concentrations tested. Thus, the findings support the inappropriateness of no observed effect concentrations and the lowest observed effect concentrations as summary measures of toxicity and indicate that the regression analysis approach is superior to the analysis of variance approach.

  11. Carbon dioxide and methane measurements from the Los Angeles Megacity Carbon Project – Part 1: calibration, urban enhancements, and uncertainty estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Verhulst

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report continuous surface observations of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 from the Los Angeles (LA Megacity Carbon Project during 2015. We devised a calibration strategy, methods for selection of background air masses, calculation of urban enhancements, and a detailed algorithm for estimating uncertainties in urban-scale CO2 and CH4 measurements. These methods are essential for understanding carbon fluxes from the LA megacity and other complex urban environments globally. We estimate background mole fractions entering LA using observations from four extra-urban sites including two marine sites located south of LA in La Jolla (LJO and offshore on San Clemente Island (SCI, one continental site located in Victorville (VIC, in the high desert northeast of LA, and one continental/mid-troposphere site located on Mount Wilson (MWO in the San Gabriel Mountains. We find that a local marine background can be established to within  ∼  1 ppm CO2 and  ∼  10 ppb CH4 using these local measurement sites. Overall, atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane levels are highly variable across Los Angeles. Urban and suburban sites show moderate to large CO2 and CH4 enhancements relative to a marine background estimate. The USC (University of Southern California site near downtown LA exhibits median hourly enhancements of  ∼  20 ppm CO2 and  ∼  150 ppb CH4 during 2015 as well as  ∼  15 ppm CO2 and  ∼  80 ppb CH4 during mid-afternoon hours (12:00–16:00 LT, local time, which is the typical period of focus for flux inversions. The estimated measurement uncertainty is typically better than 0.1 ppm CO2 and 1 ppb CH4 based on the repeated standard gas measurements from the LA sites during the last 2 years, similar to Andrews et al. (2014. The largest component of the measurement uncertainty is due to the single-point calibration method; however, the uncertainty in the background mole fraction is much

  12. Magnetic field fluctuations measurement onboard ESA/JUICE mission by search-coil magnetometer: SCM instrument as a part of RPWI consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinò, A.; Chust, T.; Mansour, M.; Canu, P.; Sahraoui, F.; Le Contel, O.; Alison, D.; Sou, G.; Varizat, L.; Techer, J.-D.; Jeandet, A.; Geyskens, N.; Chariet, M.; Cecconi, B.; Bergman, J.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Santolik, O.; Soucek, J.; Dougherty, M.

    2017-09-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission is planned for launch in 2022 with arrival at Jupiter in 2029 and will spend at least three years making detailed observations of Jupiter's system. The Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (RPWI) consortium will carry the most advanced set of electric and magnetic fields sensors ever flown therein, which will allow to characterize the plasma wave environment and the radio emission of Jupiter and its icy moons in great detail. The Search Coil Magnetometer (SCM) will provide high-quality measurements of the magnetic field fluctuations' vector for RPWI. Here we present the technical features of the SCM instrument and we discuss its scientific objectives.

  13. Current radiological situation in areas of Ukraine contaminated by the Chernobyl accident: Part 1. Human dietary exposure to Caesium-137 and possible mitigation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labunska, I; Kashparov, V; Levchuk, S; Santillo, D; Johnston, P; Polishchuk, S; Lazarev, N; Khomutinin, Y

    2018-08-01

    This study reports for the first time temporal trends for the period of 2011-2016 in 137 Cs content in cow's milk originating from private farms and households of 14 settlements located in the territories of the Rivne region, Ukraine. These areas are still radioactively contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in 1986. In 2016, the average 137 Cs activity concentration in milk exceeded the Ukrainian Permissible Level (PL) for adults of 100 Bq/l in samples from 6 settlements and the PL for children of 40 Bq/l in 8 settlements, reaching activity concentration of around 500 Bq/l in some samples. Estimated annual effective doses calculated utilizing two different methodologies were in the range of 1.4-2.6 mSv/year and 1.2-1.8 mSv/year, respectively. The estimated effective period of milk semi-purification (T 1/2 _ eff ) from 137 Cs in these settlements was in the range from 8 to 17 years. The estimated ecological period of milk semi-purification (T 1/2 _ eco ) from 137 Cs was in the range from 11 to 36 years. The optimization of the remedial actions strategy for investigated settlements exposed to an effective dose above 1 mSv/year (as estimated in 2016) has shown that a diversity of measures can decrease effective dose for a representative person to below 1 mSv/year. Such measures include application of Ferrocyn to cows, mineral fertilization of potato fields, information campaigns on consumption of wild mushrooms and other forestry products, and feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder. The total costs of such measures are estimated to be about 71,000 Euro per year for the combined population (8336 inhabitants) of the six villages investigated in this study that showed the highest median residual 137 Cs activity concentrations in milk, with a subsequent decrease in cost in the future. This would result in an averted collective dose of 11 man-Sv, at an average cost of 6.5 kEuro/man-Sv averted. In the

  14. Interfacial area measurement in two-phase bubbly flows - 3. Part - comparison between the light attenuation technique and a local method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veteau, Jean-Michel; Charlot, Roland.

    1981-09-01

    Initially designed for rectangular test sections the light attenuation technique is reconsidered for an application in circular tubes. Principles of a two-head local probe method are discussed, including the problems related to the measurement of interface velocities. The two techniques are compared experimentally and results lead to the conclusion that, in view of its global nature, the light attenuation method is more suitable for homogeneous two-phase flows. A new experimental set up is proposed to overcome this limitation in order to obtain local values as in the probe technique [fr

  15. A quantitative mechanistic description of Ni, Zn and Ca sorption on Na-Montmorillonite. Part I: Physico-chemical characterisation and titration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.H.

    1995-07-01

    The work presented in this report is primarily concerned with characterisation studies and titration measurements on conditioned Na-montmorillonite. The starting material, SWy-1 Na-montmorillonite (Crook County, Wyoming, USA), contains background metal impurities, soluble salts and sparingly soluble minerals which can influence titration and sorption measurements and thereby lead to difficulties in the interpretation of the data. A conditioning procedure is described which yielded a purified clay material in the homoionic sodium form with a particle size 4 . The reasons for choosing a batch method, coupled with back titration of the supernatant solutions, instead of a continuous procedure, are fully discussed. Chemical analyses data for the supernatant solutions are presented in detail. The influence of background impurities, not removed by the conditioning, and cation exchange processes on the form of the titration curves were investigates. Net Na-montmorillonite titration curves at two different ionic strengths were derived which are considered to reflect only the acid/base behaviour of ≡SOH type surface sites. The acid end point in the titration data was used to estimate an ≡SOH site capacity of 0.08 moles per kg conditioned Na-montmorillonite. (author) 8 figs., 19 tabs., refs

  16. Modular version of SIMCON, FPGA based, DSP integrated, LLRF control system for TESLA FEL part II: measurement of SIMCON 3.0 DSP daughterboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giergusiewicz, Wojciech; Koprek, Waldemar; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2006-02-01

    The paper describes design, construction and initial measurements of an eight channel electronic LLRF device predicted for building of the control system for the W-FEL accelerator at DESY (Hamburg). The device, referred in the paper to as the SIMCON 3.0 (from the SC cavity simulator and controller) consists of a 16 layer, VME size, PCB, a large FPGA chip (VirtexII-4000 by Xilinx), eight fast ADCs and four DACs (by Analog Devices). To our knowledge, the proposed device is the first of this kind for the accelerator technology in which there was achieved (the FPGA based) DSP latency below 200 ns. With the optimized data transmission system, the overall LLRF system latency can be as low as 500 ns. The SIMCON 3.0 sub-system was applied for initial tests with the ACCl module of the VUV FEL accelerator (eight channels) and with the CHECHIA test stand (single channel), both at the DESY. The promising results with the SIMCON 3.0. encouraged us to enter the design of SIMCON 3.1. possessing 10 measurement and control channels and some additional features to be reported in the next technical note. SIMCON 3.0. is a modular solution, while SIMCON 3.1. will be an integrated board of the all-in-one type. Two design approaches - modular and all-in-one - after branching off in this version of the Simcon, will be continued.

  17. State-of-the-Art Review on Sustainable Design and Construction of Quieter Pavements—Part 1: Traffic Noise Measurement and Abatement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD Ohiduzzaman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution due to highway traffic has drawn the attention of transportation agencies worldwide. Noise pollution is an irritant to residents, especially in urban areas near roads with high traffic volume. In addition to its adverse effects on the quality of life, traffic noise can induce stress that could lead to sleep disturbance and anxiety. Traditionally, noise barrier walls have been used for highways to mitigate traffic noise. However, using barrier walls as a noise abatement measure has proven to be very expensive. In addition to the cost, noise barrier walls are not always effective because they must break the line of sight to work properly, which is not always possible in case of intersections or driveways. Therefore, researchers especially from Europe and USA have been very proactive to reduce the noise at source. A number of research studies show traffic noise can be reduced by using an alternative surface type or changing texture of the pavement while complying with other requirements of sustainability, i.e., safety, structural durability, construction and maintenance costs. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the research conducted on this subject. A review of the tire-pavement noise generation and amplification mechanism, various traffic noise measurement methods and correlation among these methods, in addition to the abatement techniques used by various agencies to reduce pavement noise, is also presented.

  18. Measuring border delay and crossing times at the US-Mexico border : part II. Step-by-step guidelines for implementing a radio frequency identification (RFID) system to measure border crossing and wait times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of these step-by-step guidelines is to assist in planning, designing, and deploying a system that uses radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to measure the time needed for commercial vehicles to complete the northbound border c...

  19. Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part 1: Retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raspollini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding instrument on the Envisat (Environmental satellite satellite has provided vertical profiles of the atmospheric composition on a global scale for almost ten years. The MIPAS mission is divided in two phases: the full resolution phase, from 2002 to 2004, and the optimized resolution phase, from 2005 to 2012, which is characterized by a finer vertical and horizontal sampling attained through a reduction of the spectral resolution. While the description and characterization of the products of the ESA processor for the full resolution phase has been already described in previous papers, in this paper we focus on the performances of the latest version of the ESA (European Space Agency processor, named ML2PP V6 (MIPAS Level 2 Prototype Processor, which has been used for reprocessing the entire mission. The ESA processor had to perform the operational near real time analysis of the observations and its products needed to be available for data assimilation. Therefore, it has been designed for fast, continuous and automated analysis of observations made in quite different atmospheric conditions and for a minimum use of external constraints in order to avoid biases in the products. The dense vertical sampling of the measurements adopted in the second phase of the MIPAS mission resulted in sampling intervals finer than the instantaneous field of view of the instrument. Together with the choice of a retrieval grid aligned with the vertical sampling of the measurements, this made ill-conditioned the retrieval problem of the MIPAS operational processor. This problem has been handled with minimal changes to the original retrieval approach but with significant improvements nonetheless. The Levenberg–Marquardt method, already present in the retrieval scheme for its capability to provide fast convergence for nonlinear problems, is now also exploited for the reduction of the ill-conditioning of

  20. Speed-dependent Voigt lineshape parameter database from dual frequency comb measurements up to 1305 K. Part I: Pure H2O absorption, 6801-7188 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Paul J.; Cich, Matthew J.; Yang, Jinyu; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Swann, William C.; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.; Drouin, Brian J.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2018-05-01

    We measure speed-dependent Voigt lineshape parameters with temperature-dependence exponents for several hundred spectroscopic features of pure water spanning 6801-7188 cm-1. The parameters are extracted from broad bandwidth, high-resolution dual frequency comb absorption spectra with multispectrum fitting techniques. The data encompass 25 spectra ranging from 296 K to 1305 K and 1 to 17 Torr of pure water vapor. We present the extracted parameters, compare them to published data, and present speed-dependence, self-shift, and self-broadening temperature-dependent parameters for the first time. Lineshape data is extracted using a quadratic speed-dependent Voigt profile and a single self-broadening power law temperature-dependence exponent over the entire temperature range. The results represent an important step toward a new high-temperature database using advanced lineshape profiles.

  1. Revalidation of the method used for measurement of electron beam absorbed dose by means of a polyvinylchloride film dosimeter. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peimel-Stuglik, Z.; Fabisiak, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Sterilization Plant operated at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) is using the dosimetry method based on optical signal measurement at polyvinylchloride (PVC) film which is 30 years old. After so long storage time, a scrupulous revalidation of the method is necessary. In the report there were presented results of investigations dealing with physical parameters mainly. It was ascertained that PVC film used in the INCT belongs to different batches. Thickness scattering is low (±2%), but the transparency, sensitivity to radiation, repeatability of dosimetric signal and other parameters are changing to a wide extent. As a result, each scroll of the PVC film must be carefully checked and calibrated before its dosimetric use. (authors) [pl

  2. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part II: Distal blood pressure after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    collected in the early 1970s from healthy individuals in the age range 21-26 years. Our aims were to collect new reference data for DBP at ankle level after exercise based on older populations, and to compare between reference data for different age groups to find out whether the normal values are dependent......Objective. Distal blood pressure (DBP) determination after an exercise test is used on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd). In our department. the average age of these patients is about 60 years. The usual reference values for pressures after exercise were based on data...... on age. Material and methods. DBP after exercise was measured using the strain-gauge technique on individuals in two groups: group I comprising 25 healthy persons aged between 61 and 82 years, and group II 14 healthy persons aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results...

  3. A systematic review of generic multidimensional patient-reported outcome measures for children, part II: evaluation of psychometric performance of English-language versions in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Astrid; Rogers, Morwenna; Thompson Coon, Jo; Allen, Karen; Green, Colin; Jenkinson, Crispin; Tennant, Alan; Logan, Stuart; Morris, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this systematic review were 1) to identify studies that assess the psychometric performance of the English-language version of 35 generic multidimensional patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for children and young people in general populations and evaluate their quality and 2) to summarize the psychometric properties of each PROM. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched. The methodological quality of the articles was assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. For each PROM, extracted evidence of content validity, construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, proxy reliability, responsiveness, and precision was judged against standardized reference criteria. We found no evidence for 14 PROMs. For the remaining 21 PROMs, 90 studies were identified. The methodological quality of most studies was fair. Quality was generally rated higher in more recent studies. Not reporting how missing data were handled was the most common reason for downgrading the quality. None of the 21 PROMs has had all psychometric properties evaluated; data on construct validity and internal consistency were most frequently reported. Overall, consistent positive findings for at least five psychometric properties were found for Child Health and Illness Profile, Healthy Pathways, KIDSCREEN, and Multi-dimensional Student Life Satisfaction Scale. None of the PROMs had been evaluated for responsiveness to detect change in general populations. Further well-designed studies with transparent reporting of methods and results are required. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. TRANSFORMATION AND SCATTERING OF SURFACE WAVES ON THE ACOUSTIC LOAD TO ULTRASONIC EVALUATION AND MEASUREMENTS. Part 1. The boundary of acoustic contact is sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Baev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available for the enhancement and improvement of ultrasonic methods evaluation and measurements. The purpose of this work is to determine the influence of the geometric parameters of the acoustic load body and its position on the coefficients of reflection and propagation of the Stoneley and Rayleigh waves and to identify the possibility of using the results of the study for practical applications.Based on the analysis of the acoustic path and the experimental data, the relationship between the measured amplitude parameters and the coefficients of the propagation and reflection of surface waves, as well as the reflectivity of the contact region of the load body in the form of a prism through the sliding boundary, which reaches up to ≈ 32–34 дБ, is established. For the first time, the dependence of these coefficients on the inclination angle of one of the prism lateral faces in the range of 0 ± 45°, dimensionless thickness of the contact layer (0–0,05 and its orientation relative to the acoustic axis.It is established that these coefficients are mainly maximal when the prism is rectangular. The coefficient of reflectivity in the hard contact of bodies is more than an order of magnitude less, and the coefficients of wave propagation – comparable in magnitude. The prospects of using the results of the study to evaluate the quality of adhesion of materials during welding, soldering, gluing, detection of defects in hardto-reach places, as well as to determine the physical and mechanical properties of metals by the proposed method of creating a reference signal are shown.

  5. Automated transport and sorting system in a large reference laboratory: part 2. Implementation of the system and performance measures over three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Charles D; Roberts, William L; Garr, Susan B; Hamilton, Leslie T; Penrose, John R; Ashwood, Edward R; Weiss, Ronald L

    2002-10-01

    Our laboratory implemented a major automation system in November 1998. A related report describes a 4-year process of evaluation and planning leading to system installation. This report describes the implementation and performance results over 3 years since the system was placed into use. Project management software was used to track the project. Turnaround times of our top 500 tests before and after automation were measured. We compared the rate of hiring of employees and the billed unit per employee ratio before and after automation by use of linear regression analysis. Finally, we analyzed the financial contribution of the project through an analysis of return on investment. Since implementation, the volume of work transported and sorted has grown to >15,000 new tubes and >25,000 total tubes per day. Median turnaround time has decreased by an estimated 7 h, and turnaround time at the 95th percentile has decreased by 12 h. Lost specimens have decreased by 58%. A comparison of pre- and post-implementation hiring rates of employees estimated a savings of 33.6 employees, whereas a similar comparison of ratios of billed units per employee estimated a savings of 49.1 employees. Using the higher figure, we estimated that the $4.02 million cost of the project would be paid off approximately 4.9 years subsequent to placing the system into daily use. The overall automation project implemented in our laboratory has contributed considerably to improvement of key performance measures and has met our original project objectives.

  6. Mapping ionospheric backscatter measured by the SuperDARN HF radars – Part 2: Assessing SuperDARN virtual height models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Yeoman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN network of HF coherent backscatter radars form a unique global diagnostic of large-scale ionospheric and magnetospheric dynamics in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Currently the ground projections of the HF radar returns are routinely determined by a simple rangefinding algorithm, which takes no account of the prevailing, or indeed the average, HF propagation conditions. This is in spite of the fact that both direct E- and F-region backscatter and 1½-hop E- and F-region backscatter are commonly used in geophysical interpretation of the data. In a companion paper, Chisham et al. (2008 have suggested a new virtual height model for SuperDARN, based on average measured propagation paths. Over shorter propagation paths the existing rangefinding algorithm is adequate, but mapping errors become significant for longer paths where the roundness of the Earth becomes important, and a correct assumption of virtual height becomes more difficult. The SuperDARN radar at Hankasalmi has a propagation path to high power HF ionospheric modification facilities at both Tromsø on a ½-hop path and SPEAR on a 1½-hop path. The SuperDARN radar at Þykkvibǽr has propagation paths to both facilities over 1½-hop paths. These paths provide an opportunity to quantitatively test the available SuperDARN virtual height models. It is also possible to use HF radar backscatter which has been artificially induced by the ionospheric heaters as an accurate calibration point for the Hankasalmi elevation angle of arrival data, providing a range correction algorithm for the SuperDARN radars which directly uses elevation angle. These developments enable the accurate mappings of the SuperDARN electric field measurements which are required for the growing number of multi-instrument studies of the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere.

  7. Report of the Panel on Nuclear Standards Needed for Neutron Cross Section Measurements. Brussels, Belgium, 8-12 May 1967. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-05-15

    The International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC), in September of 1965, recommended to the International Atomic Energy Agency that a panel be convened to examine the nuclear standards needed for neutron cross section measurements. The accuracy requirements for cross sections of structural and fuel materials needed for the design of nuclear reactors and for precision neutron dosimetry have fostered an interest in the selection and investigation of standard cross sections and in the neutron flux measuring techniques. A Panel met in Brussels during the second week of May 1967 to review the problems and progress associated with these standards activities, and to make specific recommendations concerning these matters to the IAEA. This Panel consisted of 23 scientists representing 11 countries, European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the IAEA, and Bureau International des Poids and Mesures (BIPM). The field of neutron cross section standards is not one in which rapid progress can be expected. Very rarely is there a breakthrough to initiate a spectacular advance; on the contrary it is necessary to depend upon persistent application of effort to effect gradual improvements in accuracies or the clearing up of aggravating discrepancies. Despite this, however, the progress of recent years has been very encouraging. There are no doubt many reasons for this, but three are worthy of mention here. First the Symposium on Neutron Flux Standards in the 1-100 keV Region held at Oxford, United Kingdom, 1963, suggested and strongly supported by the European American Nuclear Data Committee (EANDC), certainly stimulated much activity in the field. Second, the EANDC itself has kept a watchful eye on the subsequent activity and has made sure that the interest has been sustained. Third, the recognized Standards laboratories in several countries have become more aware of the problems and are rapidly becoming major contributors to the field. The Panel of which the present report is the

  8. Comparison of UV irradiances from Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI with Brewer measurements at El Arenosillo (Spain – Part 1: Analysis of parameter influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antón

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to compare the erythemal UV irradiance (UVER and spectral UV irradiances (at 305, 310 and 324 nm from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI onboard NASA EOS/Aura polar sun-synchronous satellite (launched in July 2004, local equator crossing time 01:45 p.m. with ground-based measurements from the Brewer spectrophotometer #150 located at El Arenosillo (South of Spain. The analyzed period comprises more than four years, from October 2004 to December 2008. The effects of several factors (clouds, aerosols and the solar elevation on OMI-Brewer comparisons were analyzed. The proxies used for each factor were: OMI Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER at 360 nm (clouds, the aerosol optical depth (AOD at 440 nm measured from the ground-based Cimel sun-photometer (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov, and solar zenith angle (SZA at OMI overpass time. The comparison for all sky conditions reveals positive biases (OMI higher than Brewer 12.3% for UVER, 14.2% for UV irradiance at 305 nm, 10.6% for 310 nm and 8.7% for 324 nm. The OMI-Brewer root mean square error (RMSE is reduced when cloudy cases are removed from the analysis, (e.g., RMSE~20% for all sky conditions and RMSE smaller than 10% for cloud-free conditions. However, the biases remain and even become more significant for the cloud-free cases with respect to all sky conditions. The mentioned overestimation is partially due to aerosol extinction influence. In addition, the differences OMI-Brewer typically decrease with SZA except days with high aerosol loading, when the bias is near constant. The seasonal dependence of the OMI-Brewer difference for cloud-free conditions is driven by aerosol climatology.

    To account for the aerosol effect, a first evaluation in order to compare with previous TOMS results (Antón et al., 2007 was performed. This comparison shows that the OMI bias is between +14% and +19% for

  9. The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study: Part 2: Dimensional measures of psychopathology and intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeyers Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with ADHD and 1446 unselected siblings. The aim was to describe and analyse questionnaire data and IQ measures from all probands and siblings. In particular, to investigate the influence of age, gender, family status (proband vs. sibling, informant, and centres on sample homogeneity in psychopathological measures. Methods Conners' Questionnaires, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires, and Wechsler Intelligence Scores were used to describe the phenotype of the sample. Data were analysed by use of robust statistical multi-way procedures. Results Besides main effects of age, gender, informant, and centre, there were considerable interaction effects on questionnaire data. The larger differences between probands and siblings at home than at school may reflect contrast effects in the parents. Furthermore, there were marked gender by status effects on the ADHD symptom ratings with girls scoring one standard deviation higher than boys in the proband sample but lower than boys in the siblings sample. The multi-centre design is another important source of heterogeneity, particularly in the interaction with the family status. To a large extent the centres differed from each other with regard to differences between proband and sibling scores. Conclusions When ADHD probands are diagnosed by use of fixed symptom counts, the severity of the disorder in the proband sample may markedly differ between boys and girls and across age, particularly in samples with a large age range. A multi-centre design carries the risk of considerable phenotypic differences between centres and, consequently, of additional heterogeneity of the sample even if standardized diagnostic procedures are

  10. The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study: Part 2: Dimensional measures of psychopathology and intelligence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muller, Ueli C

    2011-04-07

    Abstract Background The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with ADHD and 1446 unselected siblings. The aim was to describe and analyse questionnaire data and IQ measures from all probands and siblings. In particular, to investigate the influence of age, gender, family status (proband vs. sibling), informant, and centres on sample homogeneity in psychopathological measures. Methods Conners\\' Questionnaires, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires, and Wechsler Intelligence Scores were used to describe the phenotype of the sample. Data were analysed by use of robust statistical multi-way procedures. Results Besides main effects of age, gender, informant, and centre, there were considerable interaction effects on questionnaire data. The larger differences between probands and siblings at home than at school may reflect contrast effects in the parents. Furthermore, there were marked gender by status effects on the ADHD symptom ratings with girls scoring one standard deviation higher than boys in the proband sample but lower than boys in the siblings sample. The multi-centre design is another important source of heterogeneity, particularly in the interaction with the family status. To a large extent the centres differed from each other with regard to differences between proband and sibling scores. Conclusions When ADHD probands are diagnosed by use of fixed symptom counts, the severity of the disorder in the proband sample may markedly differ between boys and girls and across age, particularly in samples with a large age range. A multi-centre design carries the risk of considerable phenotypic differences between centres and, consequently, of additional heterogeneity of the sample even if standardized diagnostic procedures are used. These

  11. Report of the Panel on Nuclear Standards Needed for Neutron Cross Section Measurements. Brussels, Belgium, 8-12 May 1967. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-05-01

    The International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC), in September of 1965, recommended to the International Atomic Energy Agency that a panel be convened to examine the nuclear standards needed for neutron cross section measurements. The accuracy requirements for cross sections of structural and fuel materials needed for the design of nuclear reactors and for precision neutron dosimetry have fostered an interest in the selection and investigation of standard cross sections and in the neutron flux measuring techniques. A Panel met in Brussels during the second week of May 1967 to review the problems and progress associated with these standards activities, and to make specific recommendations concerning these matters to the IAEA. This Panel consisted of 23 scientists representing 11 countries, European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the IAEA, and Bureau International des Poids and Mesures (BIPM). The field of neutron cross section standards is not one in which rapid progress can be expected. Very rarely is there a breakthrough to initiate a spectacular advance; on the contrary it is necessary to depend upon persistent application of effort to effect gradual improvements in accuracies or the clearing up of aggravating discrepancies. Despite this, however, the progress of recent years has been very encouraging. There are no doubt many reasons for this, but three are worthy of mention here. First the Symposium on Neutron Flux Standards in the 1-100 keV Region held at Oxford, United Kingdom, 1963, suggested and strongly supported by the European American Nuclear Data Committee (EANDC), certainly stimulated much activity in the field. Second, the EANDC itself has kept a watchful eye on the subsequent activity and has made sure that the interest has been sustained. Third, the recognized Standards laboratories in several countries have become more aware of the problems and are rapidly becoming major contributors to the field. The Panel of which the present report is the

  12. Measurement and microscopic analysis of the 11B(p,p') reaction at Ep = 150 MeV. Part I: Inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannen, V.M.; Van den Berg, A.M.; Bieber, R.K.; Harakeh, M.N.; De Huu, M.A.; Kruesemann, B.A.M.; Van der Werf, S.Y.; Woertche, H.J.; Amos, K.; Deb, P.K.; Ellinghaus, F.; Frekers, D.; Rakers, S.; Schmidt, R.; Hagemann, M.

    2001-01-01

    Cross sections and analyzing powers for the 11 B(p.p') reaction have been measured using a 150 MeV polarized proton beam from the AGOR cyclotron at KVI. For the stronger inelastic transitions, also spin-flip probabilities have been extracted. A fully microscopic distorted-wave analysis of the elastic and inelastic data has been made, using density-dependent effective interactions and input from shell-model calculations in a complete (0+2) ℎω model space for normal parity transitions and in a 1 ℎω model space for non-normal parity transitions. With the help of these model calculations spin-isovector M1 strengths for the negative-parity states at excitation energies of 2.125 MeV (J π = 1/2 - ), 4.445 MeV (J π 5/2 - ), 5.020 MeV (J π = 3/2 - ) and 8.920 MeV (J π 5/2 - ) have been extracted and compared to known Gamow-Teller strengths for the analog transitions to 11 C

  13. Detection of cracks with low vertical offset in clayey formations from galleries by using seismic methods. Tournemire experimental station. First part: problem analysis and measurement sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretaudeau, Francois; Gelis, Celine; Cabrera, Justo; Leparoux, Donatienne; Cote, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Within the frame of the expertise of the ANDRA file on the project of storage of radioactive wastes in clayey formations, the detection of natural cracks which could locally alter the argillite containment properties is a crucial issue. As some previous studies showed that some cracks exhibiting a low vertical offset could not be detected in clayey formations from the surface, this document reports a study which aimed at assessing the possibility of detection of such a crack by means of seismic methods directly implemented from underground works. It reports a detailed analysis of the seismic imagery problem, the characterization of different areas of the investigated environment, the assessment and validation of various hypotheses by using experimental data obtained in an experimental station and numerical simulations. The potential of each envisaged method (migration, tomography, wave form inversion) is assessed, notably with respect to synthetic seismic data obtained by numerical modelling. Preliminary results are used to size a complete seismic measurement campaign aimed at the characterization of the crack area, and at the assessment of detection limitations of the different methods

  14. Application of X-ray fluorescence measurements to some problems in occupational health. Part of a coordinated programme on application of nuclear-related techniques in occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnar, M.

    1985-04-01

    This research involved the use of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for occupational health studies of workers exposed to lead and various other toxic elements. Workplace monitoring was conducted by collection and analysis of air filter samples using a cascade impactor to separate the aerosols according to particle size. Biological monitoring was conducted by collection and analysis of blood and urine. The biological measurements were supplemented by the use of AAS and also by various biochemical tests. Preliminary work was also done to set up an in vivo X-ray fluorescence method for determining lead in the finger bone of exposed workers. The most important outcome of this work was to demonstrate that aerosol concentrations of lead in a lead battery factory were significantly elevated over normal background levels (even as compared with a welding factory). Although mostly lower than the maximum permissible concentrations for occupationally exposed people, this kind of exposure was apparently sufficient to cause significant changes in various biochemical parameters, and thus might be a cause for concern. Low correlations between blood-lead and aerosol-lead indicate that workplace monitoring is not always a reliable guide to individual exposure, and that it should therefore be supplemented by biological monitoring of high risk groups

  15. In vivo measurements of maximal occlusal force and minimal pressure threshold on overdentures supported by implants or natural roots: a comparative study, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericske-Stern, R; Hofmann, J; Wedig, A; Geering, A H

    1993-01-01

    Numerous investigations give evidence of improvement of masticatory performance when edentulous patients have had implants placed. A comparative study was carried out to investigate the oral function and tactile sensibility of patients restored with implant-supported overdentures. Twenty-six patients with ITI implants and 18 patients with natural-tooth roots were selected. The minimal pressure threshold perceived in vertical and horizontal directions was registered with dynamometers. Maximal occlusal force was recorded with a miniature bite recorder placed between each pair of antagonistic teeth on both jaw sides separately. All measurements were repeated three times and the average was calculated. The records of minimal perceived pressure revealed a significantly higher threshold (factor 100) for the implant group. In both test groups, values registered in the vertical direction were slightly increased. A tendency for test subjects with implants to reach higher maximal occlusal force was observed, but not at a statistically significant level. In both test groups, the average maximum was found on the second premolar. The minimal pressure threshold seems to depend on the presence of receptors in the periodontal ligament. The records of maximal occlusal force, which were similar in both test groups, lead to the assumption that the limitation in maximal occlusal capacity of overdenture wearers is multifactorial and does not depend on the presence of a periodontal ligament.

  16. Development of simulation tools for improvement of measurement accuracy and efficiency in ultrasonic testing. Part 2. Development of fast simulator based on analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hisao; Fukutomi, Hiroyuki; Lin, Shan; Ogata, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    CRIEPI developed a high speed simulation method to predict B scope images for crack-like defects under ultrasonic testing. This method is based on the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) to follow ultrasonic waves transmitted from the angle probe and with the aid of reciprocity relations to find analytical equations to express echoes received by the probe. The tip and mirror echoes from a slit with an arbitrary angle in the direction of thickness of test article and an arbitrary depth can be calculated by this method. Main object of the study is to develop a high speed simulation tool to gain B scope displays from the crack-like defect. This was achieved for the simple slits in geometry change regions by the prototype software based on the method. Fairy complete B scope images for slits could be obtained by about a minute on a current personal computer. The numerical predictions related to the surface opening slits were in excellent agreement with the relative experimental measurements. (author)

  17. The Middle Triassic megafossil flora of the Basin Creek Formation, Nymboida Coal Measures, New South Wales, Australia. Part 3. Fern-like foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, W.B.K. [Noonee Nyrang, Wellington, NSW (Australia)

    2003-01-31

    Two quarries in the Basin Creek Formation of the Middle Triassic Nymboida Coal Measures have yielded numerous examples of fern-like foliage. No affiliated fertile material is available to place the fronds in a natural classification. Twenty three species in twelve genera are described as morpho-taxa in Order and Family Incertae Sedis. Plants described in this paper are: Cladophlebis conferta sp. nov., C octonerva sp. nov., C. paucinerva sp. nov., C. relallachfisp. nov., C. sinuala sp. nov., C. lenuoinnula sp. nov., Diconymba sparnosa gen. et sp. nov., Gouldianum alelhopleroides gen. et sp. nov., Leconama stachyophylla gen. et sp. nov., Micronymbopteris repens gen. et sp. nov., Nymbiella lacerata gen. et sp. nov., Nymboidiantum glossophyllum (Tenison-Woods) gen. et comb. nov., N. multilobatum gen. et sp. nov., N. elegans gen. et sp. nov., N. fractiflexum gen. et sp. nov., N. robustum gen. et sp. nov., Nymbophlebis polymorpha gen. et sp. nov., Nymbopteron dejerseyi (Retallack) gen. et comb. nov.,N. foleyi gen. et sp. nov., N. uncinatum gen. et sp. nov., Nymborhipteris radiata gen. et sp. nov., Ptilotonymba curvinervia gen. et sp. nov. and Sphenopteris speciosa sp. nov. The diversity of this new material demonstrates the remarkable recovery of Gondwana vegetation following the end-Permian extinction event.

  18. Building Of Training Program Of Non-Destructive Testing For Concrete Structures (Part 1: Radiographic testing; Ultrasonic pulse velocity measurement; Nuclear moisture-density gauge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Le Son; Phan Chanh Vu; Pham The Hung; Vu Huy Thuc

    2007-01-01

    Non-destructive testing methods (NDT) have been identified as a strong candidate for remote sensing of concrete structures over recent years. This has accelerated the powerful development of the NDT techniques in Vietnam. Hence, there is an urgent need to promote the awareness of NDT methods which could give an improved estimate of the condition concrete. Building of training program of non-destructive testing for concrete structures is a necessary duty, in aiming to build a unified training program, possibly satisfying the requirements on training as well as researching. Under the framework of the basic VAEC project (CS/07/02-03), a training program for the first 03 NDT methods: 1. Radiographic testing; 2. Ultrasonic pulse velocity measurement; 3. Nuclear moisture- density gauge was prepared. The main products of this project include: 1. Set out 03 training notes for 03 methods; 2. Set out the practical exercises to train for 03 methods; 3. Editing a set of examination questions in aiming to familiarize with various questions in 03 trained methods; 4. Fabricating practical test specimens to demonstrate for 03 techniques. (author)

  19. Workshop 96. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Part II of the seminar proceedings contains contributions in various areas of science and technology, among them materials science in mechanical engineering, materials science in electrical, chemical and civil engineering, and electronics, measuring and communication engineering. In those areas, 6 contributions have been selected for INIS. (P.A.).

  20. Workshop 96. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Part II of the seminar proceedings contains contributions in various areas of science and technology, among them materials science in mechanical engineering, materials science in electrical, chemical and civil engineering, and electronics, measuring and communication engineering. In those areas, 6 contributions have been selected for INIS. (P.A.)

  1. (segunda parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Oliva-Martínez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es la continuación de otro anterior (Oliva, 2004, ambos dedicados al estudio de la importancia del pensamiento analógico en la construcción histórica de la noción de fuerza gravitatoria y del modelo de Sistema Solar. En aquella ocasión analizamos dicho papel durante el período comprendido desde las antiguas civilizaciones hasta llegar a la revolución copernicana con científicos como Copérnico, Gilbert, Kepler o el propio Galileo. En esta segunda parte, se continúa con algunos de los razonamientos analógicos proporcionados desde la vertiente mecanicista, capitaneada por Descartes y desde la tradición subsiguiente que se desarrolló en línea con la utilización del método de la analogía como criterio argumentativo (Huyghens, Hooke, Bernoulli, etc.. Dedicamos asimismo un capítulo aparte a la figura de Newton, quien continúa con dicha tradición en su intento de explicar la naturaleza de la gravitación. Finalmente se procede, a modo de síntesis, a realizar una clasificación de distintos tipos de razonamientos analógicos aportados en el desarrollo histórico en torno a estos temas, estudiando el papel científico y divulgativo de cada uno

  2. Laser Velocimeter Measurements in the Pump of an Automotive Torque Converter Part II – Effect of Pump Speed and Oil Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Flack

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The velocity field inside a torque converter pump was studied for two separate effects: variable pump rotational speed and variable oil viscosity. Three-dimensional velocity measurements were taken using a laser velocimeter for both the pump mid- and exit planes. The effect ofvariable pump rotational speed was studied by running the pump at two different speeds and holding speed ratio (pump rotational speed]turbine rotational speed constant. Similarly, the effect of viscosity on the pump flow field was studied by varying the temperature and]or using two different viscosity oils as the working fluid in the pump. Threedimensional velocity vector plots, through-flow contour plots, and secondary flow profiles were obtained for both pump planes and all test conditions. Results showed that torque converter mass flows increased approximately linearly with increasing pump rotational speed (and fixed speed ratio but that the flow was not directly proportional to pump rotational speed. However, mass flows were seen to decrease as the oil viscosity was decreased with a resulting increased Reynolds number; for these conditions the high velocity regions were seen to decrease in size and low velocity regions were seen to increase in size. In the pump mid-plane strong counter-clockwise secondary flows and in the exit plane strong clockwise secondary flows were observed. The vorticities and slip factors were calculated from the experimental results and are presented. The torque core-to-shell and blade-to-blade torque distributions were calculated for both planes. Finally, the flow fields were seen to demonstrate similitude when Reynolds numbers were matched.

  3. Research and development on groundwater dating. Part 11. The proposal of separation method of chloride and sulfate ion for accurate measurement of 36Cl/Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kotaro; Hasegawa, Takuma

    2010-01-01

    36 Cl is one of the most powerful tools to estimate the residence time of groundwater about 300-1800 thousand years. AMS(Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy) can provide accurate estimation of 36 Cl. However, estimation of 36 Cl by AMS is usually disturbed by isobar such as 36 S. Thus, separation of Cl (usually Cl - form in groundwater) and S (usually SO 4 -2 form in groundwater) is required for accurate estimation of 36 Cl. In previous studies, a methodology (BaSO 4 Method) that uses the difference in solubility between BaSO 4 and BaCl 2 , had been applied as pretreatment method for 36 Cl estimation by AMS. However BaSO 4 Method has following disadvantages; (1) Cl and SO 4 can not be separated completely, (2) accuracy of separation depends on the skills of operator, (3) it takes a long time for treatment, (4) it can not be applied to dilute solutions. Therefore, new methodology that can overcome disadvantages of BaSO 4 method is required for more accurate estimation of 36 Cl. In this study, Column Method based on column chromatography was investigated for pretreatment method for 36 Cl estimation by AMS to separate Cl and SO 4 ions. The conditions for Column Method were determined and adjusted so that Cl and SO 4 ions were separated completely and sufficient amount of Cl for 36 Cl estimation can be treated. The results of AMS measurement showed Column Method can remove SO 4 from Cl more effectively comparing with BaSO 4 method. Furthermore, Column Method was found to have following advantages over BaSO 4 Method; (1) dependence of accuracy of separation on the skills of operator is quite low, (2) treatment can be done within 6 h, (3) it can be applied to dilute solutions. (author)

  4. Assessment of body fat in the pony: part II. Validation of the deuterium oxide dilution technique for the measurement of body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, A H A; Curtis, G C; Milne, E; Harris, P A; Argo, C Mc

    2011-09-01

    Excessive accumulations or depletions of body fat have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in horses and ponies. An objective, minimally-invasive method to accurately quantify body fat in living animals is required to aid nutritional management and define welfare/performance limits. To compare deuterium oxide (D(2) O) dilution-derived estimates of total body water (TBW) and body fat with values obtained by 'gold standard' proximate analysis and cadaver dissection. D(2) O dilution offers a valid method for the determination of TBW and body fat in equids. Seven mature (mean ± s.e. 13 ± 3 years, 212 ± 14 kg, body condition scores 1.25-7/9), healthy, Welsh Mountain pony mares, destined for euthanasia (for nonresearch purposes) were used. Blood samples were collected before and 4 h after D(2) O (0.11-0.13 g/kg bwt, 99.8 atom percent excess) administration. Plasma was analysed by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry following filtration and zinc reduction. After euthanasia, white adipose tissue (WAT) mass was recorded before all body tissues were analysed by proximate chemical analyses. D(2) O-derived estimates of TBW and body fat were strongly associated with proximate analysis- and dissection-derived values (all r(2) >0.97, P≤0.0001). Bland-Altman analyses demonstrated good agreements between methods. D(2) O dilution slightly overestimated TBW (0.79%, limits of agreement (LoA) -3.75-2.17%) and underestimated total body lipid (1.78%, LoA -0.59-4.15%) and dissected WAT (0.72%, LoA -2.77-4.21%). This study provides the first validation of the D(2) O dilution method for the minimally-invasive, accurate, repeatable and objective measurement of body water and fat in living equids. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Effect of expansion chamber geometry on atomization and spray dispersion characters of a flashing mixture containing inerts. Part I. Numerical predictions and dual laser measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Dehao; Shrimpton, John; Bowdrey, Moira; Hearn, Alex

    2012-08-01

    A cigarette alternative is designed to deliver a dose of medicinal nicotine within a timeframe comparable to that of a cigarette, and gives much of what smokers expect from a cigarette without the risks of smoking tobacco. The design concept is the same as a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI), but is a breath actuated device (Oxette(®)). This work predicts the residual mass median diameter (MMD) of the spray issuing from early stage Oxette(®) prototypes by using an evaporation model of multi-component liquid droplets with the help of a numerical multi-component two-phase actuation model (developed by the authors) to quantify the sprays. Two different formulations with 95% and 98% mass fraction of HFA 134a, and two prototypes of cigarette alternatives with different expansion chamber volumes have been analyzed by the numerical model and compared with laser based measurements. The later designed device provides a larger expansion chamber volume to enhance the propellant evaporation, recirculation, bubble generation and growth inside the chamber, and it makes a significant improvement to produce finer sprays than the earlier design. The mass fraction of the formulation does not affect significantly on the initial MMD of the droplets near the discharge orifice. However, it influences the residual MMD at x=100mm from the discharge orifice, where the ratio of the predicted residual MMDs of the droplets generated by the formulations with 98% and 95% of HFA 134a is 0.73. Although the formulation with 98% of HFA 134a can generate smaller droplets, the formulation with 95% of HFA 134a produces more steady puffs with relatively low mass flow rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Good research practices for measuring drug costs in cost-effectiveness analyses: a societal perspective: the ISPOR Drug Cost Task Force report--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Mansley, Edward C; Abbott, Thomas A; Bresnahan, Brian W; Hay, Joel W; Smeeding, James

    2010-01-01

    Major guidelines regarding the application of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) have recommended the common and widespread use of the "societal perspective" for purposes of consistency and comparability. The objective of this Task Force subgroup report (one of six reports from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research [ISPOR] Task Force on Good Research Practices-Use of Drug Costs for Cost Effectiveness Analysis [Drug Cost Task Force (DCTF)]) was to review the definition of this perspective, assess its specific application in measuring drug costs, identify any limitations in theory or practice, and make recommendations regarding potential improvements. Key articles, books, and reports in the methodological literature were reviewed, summarized, and integrated into a draft review and report. This draft report was posted for review and comment by ISPOR membership. Numerous comments and suggestions were received, and the report was revised in response to them. The societal perspective can be defined by three conditions: 1) the inclusion of time costs, 2) the use of opportunity costs, and 3) the use of community preferences. In practice, very few, if any, published CEAs have met all of these conditions, though many claim to have taken a societal perspective. Branded drug costs have typically used actual acquisition cost rather than the much lower social opportunity costs that would reflect only short-run manufacturing and distribution costs. This practice is understandable, pragmatic, and useful to current decision-makers. Nevertheless, this use of CEA focuses on static rather than dynamic efficacy and overlooks the related incentives for innovation. Our key recommendation is that current CEA practice acknowledge and embrace this limitation by adopting a new standard for the reference case as one of a "limited societal" or "health systems" perspective, using acquisition drug prices while including indirect costs and community preferences. The

  7. Measurements at the RA Reactor related to the VISA-2 project - Part 2, Measurement of neutron flux in VISA-2 channels; Fizicka merenja na reaktoru RA u vezi projekta VISA-2 - II deo, Merenje fluksa neutrona u kanalima VISA - 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, H [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1962-07-15

    This report describes the task concerned with measurements of neutron flux in four experimental channels, called VISA-2 channels. All the channels are made of aluminium tubes, one is sealed to prevent contact of foils with heavy water, and are placed in the regular reactor lattice next to the central experimental channel VK-5. Measuring results, i.e. absolute values of neutron flux and flux distribution are needed for realisation of the VISA-2 project. Measurements of neutron flux are done by activation method. Activation foils are placed in cylindrical aluminium tubes specially prepared for this purpose and placed in VISA-2 channels. Foils are irradiated simultaneously for 5 hours at reactor power of 150 kW. Neutron flux distribution is determined by measuring the relative activity of cobalt foils. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj opisuje merenja neutronskog fluksa u cetiri eksperimentalna kanala VISA-2. Svi VISA-2 kanali nacinjeni su od aluminijuma, jedan je hermeticki zatvoren da folije koje se ozacuju ne dodju ukontakt sa teskom vodom i svi su smesteni neposredno pored centralnog eksperimentalnog kanala VK-5. Rezultati merenja, odnosno apsolutne vrednosti neutronskog fluksa i reposdele fluksa potrebni su za realizaciju projekta VISA-2. Mrerenja neutronskog fluksa izvreseno je aktivacionom tehnikom. Aktivacione folije smestene su u prethodno napravljene aluminijumske cevcice. Folije su ozracivane istovremeno pri snazi od 150 kW pe casova. Raspodela neutronskog fluksa odredjena je merenjem relativne aktivnosti folija od kobalta.

  8. Foreseen hydrological changes drive efforts to formulate water balance improvement measures as part of the management options of adaptation at Lake Balaton, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Gabor; Kutics, Karoly

    2013-04-01

    Located in Western Hungary, Lake Balaton (LB) is one of the shallowest large lakes of the world. The catchment area including the lake is 5775 km2, only 10 times more than the lake surface area of 593 km2. This relatively small catchment area and the relatively dry climate results in high vulnerability of the lake water budget to any hydro-meteorological changes. Due to the combined effects of planned water quality protection measures (refer to adjoining article on LB water quality) water quality was not as serious a concern over the last 15 years. However, a new and potentially more damaging threat, decreasing water level started to emerge in 2000. The natural water budget was negative half of the time, i.e. 6 years in the last 12 years. It hadn't occurred in the previous 80 years, since 1921, the year from which detailed meteorological data on the area are available. This new phenomenon raised and continues to raise serious sustainability concerns in the Lake Balaton area requiring better understanding of climatic changes and their foreseen impacts on hydrological and ecological processes that would lead decision makers to formulate the appropriate vulnerability and adaptation policies. Based on the common methodologies of the EULAKES project, present state of the hydrological conditions was analyzed as well as qualitative vulnerability assessment carried out to the area. Using the climate scenarios developed by the project partner Austrian Institute of Technology, calculations on water budget changes was possible. It is estimated that by the middle of the 21st century the lake will experience a drastic drop in the inflow and, accompanied by the increased evaporation, it is likely that years without outflow and serious drops in water-level would occur. The increased frequency of unfavorable water deficit will cause not only ecological, but also socio-economic conflicts in the multipurpose usage of the lake. Therefore, a qualitative vulnerability assessment was

  9. Parental response to a letter reporting child overweight measured as part of a routine national programme in England: results from interviews with parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnyanzi, Lawrence A; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Ells, Louisa; Shucksmith, Janet

    2016-08-20

    Rising rates of childhood obesity have become a pressing issue in public health, threatening both the mental and physical well-being of children. Attempts to address this problem are multifaceted, and in England include the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) which assesses weight status in English primary school children in reception class (aged 4-5) and in year 6 (aged 10-11), with results being sent out to parents. However the effectiveness and impact of this routine parental feedback has yet to be fully understood. This paper reports one component of a mixed methods study undertaken in North East England, examining the impact of the feedback letters on parents' understanding and feelings about their child's weight status and whether or not this seemed likely to lead to behaviour change. One-to-one semi-structured interviews (n = 16) were conducted with a sample of parents/guardians after they had received their child's weight results letter. Eight parents/guardians were sub-sampled from the group whose child had been indicated to be overweight or obese and eight were from the group whose child had been indicated to be of ideal weight status. Interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached for both groups. The reactions of parents/guardians whose children were identified as being overweight followed a sequence of behaviours ranging from shock, disgust with the programme, through denial and self-blame to acceptance, worry and intention to seek help. On the other hand, the reaction of parents/guardians whose children were identified as being ideal weight ranged from relief, pleasure and happiness through affirmation and self-congratulation to 'othering'. Whilst overweight and obesity is often portrayed as a medical condition, parents/guardians see it as deeply rooted in their social lives and not in health terms. Parents believe that the causes of overeating and lack of exercise relate closely to the obesogenic environment, particularly the

  10. Parental response to a letter reporting child overweight measured as part of a routine national programme in England: results from interviews with parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Nnyanzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rising rates of childhood obesity have become a pressing issue in public health, threatening both the mental and physical well-being of children. Attempts to address this problem are multifaceted, and in England include the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP which assesses weight status in English primary school children in reception class (aged 4–5 and in year 6 (aged 10–11, with results being sent out to parents. However the effectiveness and impact of this routine parental feedback has yet to be fully understood. This paper reports one component of a mixed methods study undertaken in North East England, examining the impact of the feedback letters on parents’ understanding and feelings about their child’s weight status and whether or not this seemed likely to lead to behaviour change. Methods One-to-one semi-structured interviews (n = 16 were conducted with a sample of parents/guardians after they had received their child’s weight results letter. Eight parents/guardians were sub-sampled from the group whose child had been indicated to be overweight or obese and eight were from the group whose child had been indicated to be of ideal weight status. Interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached for both groups. Results The reactions of parents/guardians whose children were identified as being overweight followed a sequence of behaviours ranging from shock, disgust with the programme, through denial and self-blame to acceptance, worry and intention to seek help. On the other hand, the reaction of parents/guardians whose children were identified as being ideal weight ranged from relief, pleasure and happiness through affirmation and self-congratulation to ‘othering’. Conclusions Whilst overweight and obesity is often portrayed as a medical condition, parents/guardians see it as deeply rooted in their social lives and not in health terms. Parents believe that the causes of overeating and

  11. Indoor Radon-222 concentration measurements during the summer season of year 2000 in some houses in the western part of Yatta City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Samreh, Mohammad M.

    2005-01-01

    has been recognized as a worldwide problem and a cause of significant lung cancer risk to the population [10, 12]. Therefore, it is of great importance to assess to the exposure to 222Rn and its progeny in houses and areas of high 222Rn levels for the purposes of quality control, radioactivity monitoring for building materials, and for correction measures recommendations. During the past two decades, a tremendous number of investigations have been conducted in different countries all over the world in order to monitor radon level before action can be taken. The recommended indoor action level for the population ranges between 200 and 600 Bq/m3 [13]. An indoor concentration of 200 Bq/m3 has been level for the population ranges between 200 and 600 Bq/m3 [13]. An indoor concentration of 200 Bq/m3 has been assigned as a reference for radon level in most European countries [10]. A radon level of 150Bq/m3 and an average effective dose of 7.5 mSv/y have been also adopted in USA as a reference level for 222Rn concentration and as an acceptable dose before taking any action [6]. (author)

  12. Comparison of UV irradiances from Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) with Brewer measurements at El Arenosillo (Spain) - Part 2: Analysis of site aerosol influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachorro, V. E.; Toledano, C.; Antón, M.; Berjón, A.; de Frutos, A.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Arola, A.; Krotkov, N. A.

    2010-12-01

    Several validation studies have shown a notable overestimation of the clear sky ultraviolet (UV) irradiance at the Earth's surface derived from satellite sensors such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) with respect to ground-based UV data at many locations. Most of this positive bias is attributed to boundary layer aerosol absorption that is not accounted for in the TOMS/OMI operational UV algorithm. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to analyse the aerosol effect on the bias between OMI erythemal UV irradiance (UVER) and spectral UV (305 nm, 310 nm and 324 nm) surface irradiances and ground-based Brewer spectroradiometer measurements from October 2004 to December 2008 at El Arenosillo station (37.1° N, 6.7° W, 20 m a.s.l.), with meteorological conditions representative of the South-West of Spain. The effects of other factors as clouds, ozone and the solar elevation over this intercomparison were analysed in detail in a companion paper (Antón et al., 2010). In that paper the aerosol effects were studied making only a rough evaluation based on aerosol optical depth (AOD) information at 440 nm wavelength (visible range) without applying any correction. We have used the precise information given by single scattering albedo (SSA) from AERONET for the determination of absorbing aerosols which has allowed the correction of the OMI UV data. An aerosol correction expression was applied to the OMI operational UV data using two approaches to estimate the UV absorption aerosol optical depth, AAOD. The first approach was based on an assumption of constant SSA value of 0.91. This approach reduces the OMI UVER bias against the reference Brewer data from 13.4% to 8.4%. Second approach uses daily AERONET SSA values reducing the bias only to 11.6%. Therefore we have obtained a 37% and 12% of improvement respectively. For the spectral irradiance at 324 nm, the OMI bias is reduced from 10.5% to 6.98% for constant

  13. Impedance imaging in core analysis. Imaging of phase distributions in samples of natural cores of North Sea chalk containing conducting as well as non-conducting fluids. Part 1: Development of prototype measurement cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Nielsen, C. [DTU, Inst. for Kemi (Denmark); Lauersen, S. [DTU, Lab. for Energiteknik (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    To make reservoir simulations it is necessary to know such parameter functions as the capillary pressure curve, relative permeabilities etc. These are difficult to measure in chalk by means of traditional techniques because of the low permeability. In the present approach a displacement process is studied in detail and computer simulation with reservoir simulators can be used to determine parameter functions. To do this, however, it is necessary to know the developments of saturation profiles during the experiment. Different methods are tested in the programme. NMR-scanning and {gamma}-logging are methods where straight rays penetrate the sample and are partly absorbed. In electric current imaging an electric field is induced in the sample and detected at the surface. There are several benefits of this method compared with the others: There are no special safety requirements in contrast to work with radiation; No expensive and limited available equipment is needed unlike NMR; There are no intrinsic procedures slowing the method. There are, however, also drawbacks: Making measurements on a core sample implies the application of a large number of minute electrodes. To do this an implementation has to be derived from scratch; The inverse problem, i.e. the determination of the field inside the sample from surface measurements, is more difficult than the inverse problem of straight ray absorption. In the present report the development of an experimental technique is described. In part II of the report the interpretation of the experimental results will be discussed. (EG) 21 refs.

  14. Measurement of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude in K/sup + -/p elastic scattering at 10. 4 and 14 GeV/c. [Differential cross sections, interference, coulomb and nuclear interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnegie, R K; Cashmore, R J; Davier, M; Leith, D W.G.S.; Richard, F; Schacht, P; Walden, P; Williams, S H [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-10

    The differential cross section for K/sup + -/p elastic scattering has been measured in the very low t region (0.003part of the forward scattering amplitude. At 10.4 GeV/c the authors measure ..cap alpha..(K/sup +/p)=-0.21+-0.06 and ..cap alpha..(K/sup -/p)=0.08+-0.04, and at 14 GeV/c, ..cap alpha..(K/sup +/p)=-0.13+-0.03 and ..cap alpha..(K/sup -/p)=0.00+-0.04 in agreement with the predictions of dispersion theory calculations.

  15. Measurement of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude by means of the Coulomb-nuclear interference in πsup(+-)p and Ksup(+-)p elastic scattering at incident momenta below 3 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillon, P.; Bricman, C.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Jenni, P.; Perreau, J.M.; Tripp, R.D.; Ypsilantis, T.; Declais, Y.; Seguinot, J.

    1975-01-01

    The differential cross sections for π + p elastic scattering at 0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 GeV/c, for π - p at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 GeV/c, for K + p at 1.2, 1.8, 2.6 GeV/c and for K - p at 0.9, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.6 GeV/c have been measured with an overall accuracy of the order of 1 to 2 per cent in a counter experiment over the angular region corresponding to momentum transfers t between 0.0005 and 0.10 GeV 2 . Making use of the interference effects between the Coulomb and the nuclear interaction, a determination has been done of the magnitude and sign of the real part of the scattering amplitude near t = 0. The πp real parts are compared to the values predicted by the dispersion relations and found to agree quite well. The Ksup(+-)p real parts have been used in a dispersion relation to derive the value of the KNA coupling constant. Two possible values of this coupling constant are found, both much larger than those commonly accepted. One of them agrees well with the value predicted by the SU(3) and SU(6) symmetry schemes. (Author)

  16. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1994. 2. Main issue (Part 1 for research and development of a physiological effect measuring technology); 1994 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kekyu kaihatsu. 2. Honronhen (Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This research and development was performed on (1) a composite physiological function measuring technology for stress measurement, (2) a contact-free skin temperature measuring technology, and (3) a stress indexing substance measuring technology. With regard to the subject (1), the target for the current fiscal year is to restructure a small restraint-free skin impedance measuring device into a practical device that can be used easily at working sites. In order to achieve the goal, electric power conservation and size reduction were moved forward by improving the circuit design, and stabilized measurement, in which the measurement algorithm is made more intelligent, was realized. With regard to the subject (2), the contact-free skin temperature measurement device having been structured by the previous fiscal year was given improvements in such parts as the infrared and visible image input, image processing, and data indication and sense volume estimation. With respect to the subject (3), the technology was established to measure such stress indexing substances as CS and CA from saliva. Positioning of CS and CA as the stress indexing substance was nearly completed. The stress indexing substance measuring device was tried of structuring the prototype A and prototype B applying the semi-micro specifications for an attempt of clearing the steps toward practically usable device. (NEDO)

  17. FY 1991 report on the results of the contract R and D of the human sense measuring application technology. Volume 2. R and D of the physiological effect measuring technology (Part 1); 1991 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu itaku kenkyu seika hokokusho. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    Targets of the total development is to develop technology to non-invasively/simply measure changes in physiological function for physical and mental stimuli and to develop a human sense measuring technology needed to realize 'comfortableness.' As a part of it, the following R and D were conducted in this fiscal year. As to the R and D of skin impedance measuring, measuring methods such as the conducting method and potential method were studied. Further, an experiment with a person to be tested was conducted using the experiment use electrode. And detected were skin impedance changes caused by mental strain stress which were distinguished from changes caused by external environment. As the blink reflection measuring method, the paper took up the eyelid micro-vibration method under consideration and verified effectiveness of the method. The data were acquired using the same person as tested in the above-mentioned experiment when he is not tired, and the extraction of parameters of blink reflection which change according to working loads was studied. As to the continued blood pressure measuring technology, a measuring method which gives no loads on the person tested was studied, and the measuring portion where stable output can be obtained was selected. In addition, small/lightweight continued blood pressure measuring instrument which can be used in daily life was trially manufactured and designed. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1991 report on the results of the contract R and D of the human sense measuring application technology. Volume 2. R and D of the physiological effect measuring technology (Part 1); 1991 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu itaku kenkyu seika hokokusho. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    Targets of the total development is to develop technology to non-invasively/simply measure changes in physiological function for physical and mental stimuli and to develop a human sense measuring technology needed to realize 'comfortableness.' As a part of it, the following R and D were conducted in this fiscal year. As to the R and D of skin impedance measuring, measuring methods such as the conducting method and potential method were studied. Further, an experiment with a person to be tested was conducted using the experiment use electrode. And detected were skin impedance changes caused by mental strain stress which were distinguished from changes caused by external environment. As the blink reflection measuring method, the paper took up the eyelid micro-vibration method under consideration and verified effectiveness of the method. The data were acquired using the same person as tested in the above-mentioned experiment when he is not tired, and the extraction of parameters of blink reflection which change according to working loads was studied. As to the continued blood pressure measuring technology, a measuring method which gives no loads on the person tested was studied, and the measuring portion where stable output can be obtained was selected. In addition, small/lightweight continued blood pressure measuring instrument which can be used in daily life was trially manufactured and designed. (NEDO)

  19. Inter-laboratory comparison of elemental analysis and gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Part I: delta13C measurements of selected compounds for the development of an isotopic Grob-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, F; Janeiro, A; Calderone, G; Rojas, J M Moreno; Rhodes, C; Gonthier, L A; Martin, F; Lees, M; Mosandl, A; Sewenig, S; Hener, U; Henriques, B; Ramalho, L; Reniero, F; Teixeira, A J; Guillou, C

    2007-03-01

    This study was directed towards investigating suitable compounds to be used as stable isotope reference materials for gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) calibration. Several compounds were selected from those used in the 'Grob-test' mixture. Oxygen- and nitrogen-containing substances were added to these compounds to allow the mixture to be used as a possible multi-isotopic calibration tool for 2H/1H, 13C/12C, 15N/14N and 18O/16O ratio determinations. In this paper we present the results of delta13C measurements performed by the consortium of the five laboratories taking part in this inter-calibration exercise. All the compounds were individually assessed for homogeneity, short-term stability and long-term stability by means of EA-IRMS, as required by the bureau communitaire de reference (BCR) Guide for Production of Certified Reference Materials. The results were compared then with the GC-C-IRMS measurements using both polar and non-polar columns, and the final mixture of selected compounds underwent a further certification exercise assessing limits of accuracy and reproducibility under specified GC-C-IRMS conditions. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cathode Life Test Facility Users Manual Operating and Measurement Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    towerag I how pm rsa q rkig d tknu riwwww ruv tr m suwori"m~g i ao soJas . gl - il w - rv &a g U iu -u w- -, wvj rrnwriig eificokb d irlawriow Send vrwf...OflA AfU) A .- flflf lA A AA A-s൴ m .544455554l...45455444444 54 c. " C44.5ൾ -45( 2 114.14...................4.4. . . . A .44 AA.4 A4A14 14.44.A4.A4A

  1. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Berthet, Gwenaël; Lurton, Thibaut; Vignelles, Damien; Jégou, Fabrice; Tonnelier, Thierry; Jeannot, Matthieu; Couté, Benoit; Akiki, Rony; Verdier, Nicolas; Mallet, Marc; Gensdarmes, François; Charpentier, Patrick; Mesmin, Samuel; Duverger, Vincent; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Elias, Thierry; Crenn, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Zieger, Paul; Salter, Matthew; Roberts, Tjarda; Giacomoni, Jérôme; Gobbi, Matthieu; Hamonou, Eric; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Mazel, Christophe; Décamps, Thierry; Piringer, Martin; Surcin, Jérémy; Daugeron, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In the companion (Part I) paper, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter), based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60°. That allows for some typology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size-segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 µm up to possibly more than 100 µm depending on sampling conditions (Renard et al., 2016). Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 µm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from a UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  2. R806 (part 1)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    R806 was designed by the BNL-CERN-Syracuse-Yale Collaboration (Bill Willis spokesman) to study large transverse momentum phenomena, and installed in intersection 8 of the ISR. The main detectors were Lithium foil transition radiation detectors to identify electrons and liquid argon calorimeters to measure the energy of the electrons and photons (among the first such calorimeters to be used in an experiment). In part 1 there were two modules, top and bottom of the horizontal beam pipe; the black vertical pipe contains the cryogenics (LN2 and Lar) and is connected to the two modules with the horizontal piping.

  3. An innovative way of renovating with low energy: the Albert-Schweitzer Quarter, Berlin-Friedrichshagen. Short report, final report part 1: state-of-the art, final report part 2: planning and implementation, measurements and evaluations; Innovative Niedrigenergiesanierung Albert-Schweitzer-Viertel, Berlin-Friedrichshagen. Kurzbericht, Schlussbericht Teil 1: Bestandsaufnahme, Schlussbericht Teil 2: Planung und Durchfuehrung, Messungen und Auswertungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Although there are high rates of vacancies in some regions, the 2 million flats in the flat-roof buildings in the new states (Eastern Germany) are a part of Germany's residential buildings which cannot be done without. Almost one tenth of them is likely to be torn down within the next years, but the major part must be converted into energy-saving, well-functioning and well-accepted building if they are not to come down to 21st century-slums. The Albert-Schweitzer Quarter was renovated as a model where strategies to achieve these objectives were tested. The model project covers the energetic rehabilitation and elimination of construction-related damage in the residential blockP2, Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 31-40 with a total of 100 flats. The project was started in January 2001. The works were finished by the end of 2001. The project including measurements and evaluations continued until December 2003. [German] Trotz punktuell hoher Leerstandsquoten bilden die 2 Millionen Wohnungen in den Plattenbauten der neuen Bundeslaender insgesamt einen unverzichtbaren Bestandteil des Wohngebaeudebestandes. Etwa ein Zehntel dieser Substanz wird in den naechsten Jahren wohl abgerissen, aber der weitaus groesste Teil muss in energiesparende, gut funktionierende und Akzeptanz findende Gebaeude umgewandelt werden, sollen diese Siedlungen nicht zu den Slums des 21. Jahrhunderts verkommen. In der modellhaften Sanierung Albert-Scheitzer-Viertel wurden Strategien zum Erreichen dieser Ziele erprobt. Das Modellvorhaben umfasst die energetische Sanierung und Bauschadensbeseitigung des P2-Wohnblockes Albert-Schweitzer-Str. Nr. 31-40 mit insgesamt 100 Wohnungen. Projektstart war im Januar 2001. Die Baumassnahmen wurden Ende 2001 abgeschlossen, das Vorhaben lief einschliesslich der Messungen und Auswertungen bis Dezember 2003. (orig.)

  4. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core

  5. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B. [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600) Santa Fe (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600) Santa Fe (Argentina); Instituto de Física del Plasma (CONICET), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA) Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  6. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevosto, L; Kelly, H; Mancinelli, B

    2013-12-01

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  7. POBLACIÓN EN SITUACIÓN DE DESPLAZAMIENTO EN ANTIOQUIA. EL PAPEL DEL ENFOQUE DE DERECHOS EN LOS ASPECTOS TÉCNICOS PARA EL DISEÑO Y MEDICIÓN DE INDICADORES. (PARTE I POPULATION IN SITUATION OF DISPLACEMENT IN ANTIOQUIA: THE ROLE OF THE APPROACH OF RIGHTS IN THE TECHNICAL ASPECTS FOR THE DESIGN AND THE MEASUREMENT OF INDICATORS (PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Espinosa Menéndez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, expone los resultados y lineamientos metodológicos derivados de una investigación realizada por el Observatorio De partamental de Desplazamiento Forzado de Antioquia (ODDIF para estimar el estado del Goce Efectivo de Derechos (GED de la población víctima de desplazamiento forzado en el Departamento. Esta investigación fue realizada en respuesta a los Autos de Seguimiento y a las órdenes impartidas en la sentencia T-025 de 2004 de la Corte Constitucional. El Auto 116 de 2008, estableció los parámetros de medición a adoptar por parte de los entes territoriales para rendir cuentas sobre la garantía de los derechos de esta población. Con el objeto de ofrecer elementos de análisis tanto para las instituciones como para las organizaciones de la sociedad civil, tanto nacionales como internacionales, que analizan y siguen el comportamiento de las situación socioeconómica de las víctimas del conflicto armado en Colombia, en una serie de cuatro artículos, se cubrirán tanto la metodología de medición como algunos de los resultados hallados en el GED de Antioquia. En esta entrega, en particular, serán expuestos el marco normativo del informe, el enfoque teórico de los indicadores tratados y las principales consideraciones técnicas y metodológicas para su medición. A manera de resultado de investigación, en esta entrega del informe se señala las diferencias tanto en las metodologías como en las cifras que hay en la medición de la situación sociooeconómica de la población en situación de desplazamiento realizada por el DNP y la medición de esta realizada por el Osbervatorio.This article introduces the results and the methodological guidelines derived from a piece of research carried out by the State Observatory of Forced Displacement in Antioquia (ODDIF, in order to estimate the state of Full Possession of Rights of the population victim of forced displacement in the State of Antioquia. This piece of research

  8. SAFETY MEASURES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; Tel. 75152

    2001-01-01

    Following the recent terrorist attacks, the French authorities have introduced increased-vigilance measures («Vigipirate renforcé») as part of their prevention of terrorism campaign and have expressed the wish to extend these measures to the French part of the CERN site. The Organization has acceded to this request with the understanding that its international status will be respectd and has granted the French Gendarmerie right of access to the Prévessin site and to the LEP/LHC sites on French territory.

  9. Part C and Part D Compliance Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page includes results from CMSs Past Performance Review. The report called Spring 2014 Past Performance Review Outlier Results lists MA organizations and Part D...

  10. Machine Shop Fundamentals: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael G.; And Others

    These instructional materials were developed and designed for secondary and adult limited English proficient students enrolled in machine tool technology courses. Part 1 includes 24 lessons covering introduction, safety and shop rules, basic machine tools, basic machine operations, measurement, basic blueprint reading, layout, and bench tools.…

  11. Water samples data from the sea surface as part of the U.S. Global Ocean Flux Study cruise to measure the taxonomic marker pigments from 01 January 1998 to 25 January 1998 (NODC Accession 0000285)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chlorophyll data were collected from the ROGER REVELLE from January 1, 1998 to January 25, 1998. Data were submitted by Oregon State University as part of the US...

  12. The organizational measurement manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wealleans, David

    2001-01-01

    ... Relationship of process to strategic measurements Summary 37 36Contents 19/10/2000 1:23 pm Page vi vi THE ORGANIZATIONAL MEASUREMENT MANUAL 4 PART 2 ESTABLISHING A PROCESS MEASUREMENT PROGRAMME...

  13. Pushing for Part Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1987-01-01

    More employees are choosing to work part time. Although this trend started because of working women, some men are choosing part-time positions. Part-time employees forfeit salary and promotion potential, yet most feel the trade is fair and that they are more productive during their working hours. (CH)

  14. Quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....

  15. Multiple trigger scintillators were installed: big ones covering the total surface of the sensor and several smaller ones. The former give a trigger for each beam particle. The latter are used to select a part of the sensor surface for efficiency measurements.

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple trigger scintillators were installed: big ones covering the total surface of the sensor and several smaller ones. The former give a trigger for each beam particle. The latter are used to select a part of the sensor surface for efficiency measurements.

  16. Speech parts as Poisson processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamenti, A F

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents evidence that six of the seven parts of speech occur in written text as Poisson processes, simple or recurring. The six major parts are nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, with the interjection occurring too infrequently to support a model. The data consist of more than the first 5000 words of works by four major authors coded to label the parts of speech, as well as periods (sentence terminators). Sentence length is measured via the period and found to be normally distributed with no stochastic model identified for its occurrence. The models for all six speech parts but the noun significantly distinguish some pairs of authors and likewise for the joint use of all words types. Any one author is significantly distinguished from any other by at least one word type and sentence length very significantly distinguishes each from all others. The variety of word type use, measured by Shannon entropy, builds to about 90% of its maximum possible value. The rate constants for nouns are close to the fractions of maximum entropy achieved. This finding together with the stochastic models and the relations among them suggest that the noun may be a primitive organizer of written text.

  17. Assessment of the Contour Method for 2-D Cross Sectional Residual Stress Measurements of Friction Stir Welded Parts of AA2024-T3—Numerical and Experimental Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Carlone, Pierpaolo; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2017-01-01

    The contour method is one of the newest techniques for obtaining residual stress fields from friction stir welded (FSW) parts, experimentally. This method has many advantages; however, edge effects coming from the process itself might introduce artifacts in the obtained results, and this was slig......The contour method is one of the newest techniques for obtaining residual stress fields from friction stir welded (FSW) parts, experimentally. This method has many advantages; however, edge effects coming from the process itself might introduce artifacts in the obtained results......) cross sectional map obtained by the method, peak stresses in tension are observed in the mid-section of the FSW butt-welded plates at the distance of the tool radius from the centerline. The corresponding numerical simulation indicates the same behavior because of the particular clamping conditions...

  18. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  19. Standard Biological Parts Knowledgebase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M.; Gennari, John H.

    2011-01-01

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate “promoter” parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible. PMID:21390321

  20. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  1. Loose part monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention estimates a place where loose parts occur and structural components as the loose parts in a fluid flow channel of a reactor device, to provide information thereof to a plant operator. That is, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a plurality of detectors disposed to each of equipments constituting fluid channels, (2) an abnormal sound sensing device for sensing signals from the detectors, (3) an estimation section for estimating the place where the loose parts occur and the structural components thereof based on the signals sensed by the abnormal sound sensing section, (4) a memory section for storing data of the plant structure necessary for the estimation, and (5) a display section for displaying the result of the estimation. In such a device, the position where the loose parts collide against the plant structural component and the energy thereof are estimated. The dropping path of the loose parts is estimated from the estimation position. Parts to be loose parts in the path are listed up. The parts on the list is selected based on the estimated energy thereby enabling to determine the loose parts. (I.S.)

  2. Controlled parts management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, C.M.; Hidalgo, S.P.; Martinez, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Controlled Parts Management (CPM) system is based on industry standard practices for managing inventory. CPM is designed to record the movement of any type of inventory in a defined region referred to as an Account or SubAccount. The system is used to track the receiving, processing, storing and transfer of inventory parts. CPM provides information on parts, quantity and the exact location of the inventory. CPM is a barcode-based-part tracking system currently used to track controlled parts that are used in the R and D and testing of weapons; this tracking helps maintain the part pedigree that is required for certification of a weapon or weapon test. CPM includes bar code data collection software programmed into portable bar code readers for automating physical inventory services and remote transaction capture. CPM interfaces to other Engineering systems and supports a 'material content' of a weapons test through the test Bill of Materials and assignment of a unique inventory part in CPM. Additional functionality includes the ability to group or join parts, logically or physically and temporary or permanent, to represent discrete parts, containers, subassemblies and assemblies, and groupings.

  3. Measurement of radionuclides in various environmental samples and in items of diet of the local population. Part of a coordinated programme on environmental monitoring for radiological protection in Asia and the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A.

    1980-03-01

    The research covered identification of radionuclides and measurement of their concentration in various environmental media and items of diet of the local population. Biomedia and items of diet selected for study were air, surface water, precipitation, vegetables, meat, poultry and fish etc. Radioactive assays under-taken were gross gamma activity measurements and gamma spectrometric analyses for the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides. These were followed by radiochemical analyses for the separation of Sr 90 and Pu 239. Radiometric measurements for Sr 90 and Pu 239 were performed by low back-ground beta counting and alpha spectrometric analyses respectively

  4. Introduction to Part 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2015-01-01

    A brief contextualising discussion of Western Music History and its relations to Theological Aesthetical Thought since Carolingian Times as an introduction to 3 music articles in Part 3 of the volume.......A brief contextualising discussion of Western Music History and its relations to Theological Aesthetical Thought since Carolingian Times as an introduction to 3 music articles in Part 3 of the volume....

  5. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing such c...

  6. Play your part

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsey, Gaynor

    1978-01-01

    Play your part is a collection of then situations in which students have to take on the roles of particular people and express their opinions, feelings or arguments about the situation. Play your part is intended for use with advanced students of English.

  7. Developing methods of measuring competitiveness of sterilized laboratory insects. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of the sterile male technique for control of Lepidopterous insects attacking fruit and forest trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalay-Marzso, L.

    1978-08-01

    Optical and acoustical equipment were developed and tested for measuring insect activity, one of the parameters used to assess insect quality. The acoustical equipment which recorded the sound generated by moving insects performed well in the laboratory but was either unsuitable to measure the activity of populations as opposed to pairs or was unsuitable under field conditions. The optical equipment, however, based on light interception, performed well in the field also. In other studies the fitness of insects receiving various treatments was assessed on the basis of release-recapture experiments, number of matings and percentage sperm transfer. These methods proved very sensitive but were more laborious compared to automated recordings

  8. Study of 3-D stress development in parent and twin pairs of a hexagonal close-packed polycrystal: Part I - In-situ three-dimensional synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdolvand, Hamidreza; Majkut, Marta; Oddershede, Jette

    2015-01-01

    to reconstruct the 3D microstructure and statistically study neighborhood effects on the load sharing. The investigated volume of the sample contained 6132 grains initially, yet as a result of twin formation, 9724 grains were measured in the same volume at the last loading step. It is shown that the most favored......) microscopy. In-situ uniaxial straining was carried out at seven steps up to 2.7% in the macroscopic direction that favors twin formation, while center-of-mass position, crystallographic orientation, elastic strain, stress, and relative volume of each grain were measured. This information was used...

  9. Biostatistics primer: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholser, Brian R; Sowinski, Kevin M

    2007-12-01

    Biostatistics is the application of statistics to biologic data. The field of statistics can be broken down into 2 fundamental parts: descriptive and inferential. Descriptive statistics are commonly used to categorize, display, and summarize data. Inferential statistics can be used to make predictions based on a sample obtained from a population or some large body of information. It is these inferences that are used to test specific research hypotheses. This 2-part review will outline important features of descriptive and inferential statistics as they apply to commonly conducted research studies in the biomedical literature. Part 1 in this issue will discuss fundamental topics of statistics and data analysis. Additionally, some of the most commonly used statistical tests found in the biomedical literature will be reviewed in Part 2 in the February 2008 issue.

  10. Workshop 96. Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Part III of the proceedings contain 155 contributions in various fields of science and technology including nuclear engineering, environmental science, and biomedical engineering. Out of these, 10 were selected to be inputted in INIS. (P.A.).

  11. Parts lubas uut muusikakooli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Peaminister Juhan Parts vastas Tallinna Muusikakeskkooli õpilase Judith Partsi kirjale Tallinna Muusikakeskkooli olukorrast lubadusega hoida silma peal Tallinna Muusikakeskkoolile, Tallinna Balletikoolile ja Georg Otsa nim. Muusikakoolile ühise hoone võimaldamisest kokkuehituseks Eesti Muusikaakadeemiaga

  12. Male hypogonadism (Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy; V.Yе. Luchytskyy; M.D. Tronko

    2017-01-01

    The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  13. Male hypogonadism (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  14. Workshop 96. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Part III of the proceedings contain 155 contributions in various fields of science and technology including nuclear engineering, environmental science, and biomedical engineering. Out of these, 10 were selected to be inputted in INIS. (P.A.)

  15. Determination of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Part project 11: Practice-oriented adaption and field testing of various automatic measuring devices; Messung polycyclischer aromatischer Verbindungen. Teilvorhaben 11: Praxisbezogene Anpassung und Felderprobung verschiedener automatischer Messeinrichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbring, P.; Jockel, W.

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine various automatic emission measuring devices. The task was to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on-line. The following measuring devices were used: photoelectric aerosol sensor; emission mass spectrometer; laser-induced aerosol fluorescence; chemical ionisation mass spectrometer; photoelectric aerosol sensor. Most of the above-named measuring devices for automatic PAH monitoring had already demonstrated their general suitability in the course of extensive studies carried out in precursor projects. The next step, performed in this study, was to test the measuring devices` fitness for use. First, practice-oriented laboratory tests were carried out on the devices, whose measuring principles are incidentally highly diverse. These tests focussed on the identification of process parameters (e.g., detection limit, cross-sensitivity, availability, drift behaviour) and examination of the devices` analysis function and hence of their calibratability. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] In diesem Vorhaben wurden verschiedene automatisch arbeitende Emissionsmesseinrichtungen untersucht. Die Aufgabenstellung bestand in der on-line-Bestimmung von polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK). Dazu standen folgende Messeinrichtungen zur Verfuegung: - Photoelektrischer Aerosolsensor - Emissionsmassenspektrometer - Laserinduzierte Aerosolfluoreszenz - Chemisches Ionisationsmassenspektrometer - Photoelektrischer Aerosolsensor. Aus den umfangreichen Untersuchungen im Rahmen der Vorlaeuferprojekte ist die prinzipielle Einsatzfaehigkeit der meisten der oben genannten Messeinrichtungen zur automatisierbaren PAK-Kontrolle bekannt. Ziel des Vorhabens war es, die Praxistauglichkeit dieser auf den unterschiedlichsten Messprinzipien basierenden Messeinrichtungen zu untersuchen. Dazu waren zunaechst Labortests vorzunehmen. Diese Pruefungen erfolgen praxisorientert mit den Schwerpunkten: - Ermittlung von Verfahrenskenngroessen (z. B

  16. Investigations on sail force by full scale measurement and numerical calculation. Part 1. Steady sailing performance; Sail ryutairyoku ni kansuru jissen shiken to suchi keisan. 1. Teijo hanso seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuyama, Y.; Fukasawa, T. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan); Kitazaki, T. [DMW Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    Sailing forces are measured with a 10.3m long full-scale sailing boat, equipped with a sail force dynamometer, CCD camera for sail shape measurement and an instrument for detecting sailing conditions of the hull, in order to obtain highly reliable performance data of a sailing yacht. The vortex lattice method is used for step-by-step numerical calculations, and the results are compared with the observed ones. The test results clearly show performance changing with slight changes in relative wind directions and sail shapes, which are not clearly obtained by the traditional wind tunnel tests. The calculated results, although deviating from the observed ones to some extent, well represent trends of performance changing with wind directions and sail shapes. In particular, changed performance caused by slight changes in draft at the main sail is clearly demonstrated. The numerical calculation is considered to be useful for searching for sail trim conditions. 17 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Evaluation of the salt deposition on the canister surface of concrete cask. Part 3. Long-term measurement of salt concentration in air and evaluation of the salt deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataru, Masumi; Takeda, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    To realize the dry storage using concrete cask in Japan, it is important to develop the evaluation method of the SCC of the canister. One of the key issues is sea salt deposition on the canister surface during the storage period. If the amount of salt deposition exceeds the critical value, the SCC may occur. The amount of salt deposition depends on the ambient air condition. We developed the measurement device of salt in air to make clear the ambient condition. The device sucks the air including sea salt and the sea salt dissolves in water. We analyze the water including sea salt. This device works automatically for one or two months. In this study, the performance of this device was verified comparing the data obtained by the air sampler using filter pack. In Yokosuka area of CRIEPI, we measured the ambient air condition using this device for three years. Furthermore, we performed the salt deposition test using the small ducts in the same area. The ambient air including sea salt flows in the duct and the sea salt deposits on the test specimen put on the duct inner surface. We took out the specimen after certain time and measured the salt amount on the test specimen. Using these data, we obtained the relation between the salt deposition and the time on this ambient condition. The results of this study are useful to evaluate the SCC of the canister. (author)

  18. Development and test of a mobile environmental system for emission and ambient air measurement in the eastern part of Germany. Final report; Entwicklung und Erprobung eines mobilen Messsystems zur Emissions- und Immissionsmessung von Schadstoffen in den neuen Bundeslaendern; Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosebach, H; Schaefer, K; Haus, R; Eisenmann, T; Rippel, H; Klein, V; Wehner, D

    1993-06-30

    A mobile environmental laboratory was developed and successfully tested. This system is used for the remote emissions and ambient air measurements. The key instrument of this laboratory is the Kayser-Threde double pendulum interferometer K300, a field proven FT-IR system for remote emission and ambient air measurements. In addition, the laboratory contains conventional ambient air sensors and a battery system for current source free usage. Basic scientific research was necessary for the development of appropriate analysis methods for quantitative detection of emissions from smoke stacks when doing remote sensing, as well as for ambient air measurements. The mobile laboratory was used in a number of measurement campaigns. The following gaseous specimens could quantitatively analyzed: H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO, NO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, HCl, HCHO and total hydrocarbons (THC). The correspondence between the K300 remote sensing results with the measured values taken by conventional reference systems was good to excellent, in many cases considerably better than expected. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurde ein Umwelt-Messfahrzeug entwickelt und erfolgreich erprobt, das fuer die Fernerkundungsmessung von Emissionen und Immissionen eingesetzt werden kann. Das zentrale Messgeraet in diesem Fahrzeug ist die Kayser-Threde Eigenentwicklung K300, ein feldtaugliches FT-IR-Geraet, das zur Fernerkundungsmessung von Emissionen und Immissionen dient. Weiterhin sind u.a. in dem Fahrzeug konventionelle eignungsgepruefte Immissionsmessgeraete und eine autarke Stromversorgungseinheit eingebaut. Eine Erarbeitung fundierter wissenschaftlicher Grundlagen und daraus resultierender Analyseverfahren waren notwendig, um in Fernerkundung Emissionen aus Kraftwerken sowie Immissionen qualitativ erfassen zu koennen. In einer Reihe von Messkampagnen wurde das Messfahrzeug eingesetzt und eine Analytik fuer folgende Stoffe durchgefuehrt: H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO, NO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O

  19. Against 'measurement'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, John

    1990-01-01

    This author of this article rails against the term ''measurement'' as it is commonly used in quantum mechanics. Many terms such as this are full of common place, everyday associations which are entirely inappropriate to the quantum world and lead to misunderstanding even amongst physicists. Measurement implies, at least for laboratory experiments, that the complexities of the real world have been simplified to the minimum number of variables. This can never be so for quantum mechanics where the act of measurement is intrinsic to the result, where even the mind of the observer plays a part. Three books on quantum mechanics are reviewed in an attempt to present a more precise comprehension of the meaning inside quantum mechanics. (UK)

  20. Development of radioimmunoassay techniques for measurement of gonadotrophins and other hormones with application in pharmacological studies of the anterior hypophysis in man. Part of a coordinated programme on in vitro assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simionescu, L.

    1975-01-01

    Human studies were performed on psychiatric patients, patients under thyroidectolmy stress and normal individuals. Radioimmunoassay determined HGH, insulin, LH, FSH and testosterone in basal condition in psychiatric patients and in normal subjects. The same hormones were also measured in untreated psychiatric patients during and acute administration of chlorpromazine (CPZ). Changes in insulin, LH, FSH and testosterone remained within the limits of variation generally observed in or between individuals. The HGH level was increased paradoxically after CPZ administration in some parapsychiatric untreated patients. Constant increase in prolactin was observed both in chronic treated patients and during acute administration of CPZ. Measuring HGH, insulin, LH, FSH or testosterone during acute administration of CPZ does not appear to be relevant model for studying the influence of this drug on hormone release. The release of GH during thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidia proved similar to release during general surgery, while release of prolactin is lower. The reasons for this are discussed. Radioimmunoassay gave data on GH in infants, children and adolescents. Measurement of GH levels during an acute test (insulin and glucagon) allowed classification of hypostatural children into ''pituitary dwarfism'', ''non-pituitary dwarfism'' and ''limited response dwarfism''. A doubling of LH levels appeared at the 13-14 year age interval for both sexes. The hypophyseal and serum TSH was investigated in male adult rats exposed to cold, under immobilization stress or receiving substances acting as chemical suppressors (methyliouracyls) or neurotropic substances (benzoactamine and amphetamine). The variations were classified in the percentual and multiplicative area in animals receiving neurotropic substances or exposed to metabolic sollicitations, while order of magnitude area of variation was observed after chemical suppression of thyroid function. The TSH determined by radioimmunoassay

  1. Tunnel technique with connective tissue graft versus coronally advanced flap with enamel matrix derivative for root coverage: a RCT using 3D digital measuring methods. Part II. Volumetric studies on healing dynamics and gingival dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebele, Stephan F; Zuhr, Otto; Schneider, David; Jung, Ronny E; Hürzeler, Markus B

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this randomized clinical trial (RCT) was to compare the clinical performance of the tunnel technique with subepithelial connective tissue graft (TUN) versus a coronally advanced flap with enamel matrix derivative (CAF) in the treatment of gingival recession defects. The use of innovative 3D digital measuring methods allowed to study healing dynamics at connective tissue (CT)-grafted sites and to evaluate the influence of the thickness of the root covering soft tissues on the outcome of surgical root coverage. Twenty-four patients contributed a total of 47 Miller class I or II recessions for scientific evaluation. Precise study models collected at baseline and follow-up examinations were optically scanned and virtually superimposed for digital evaluation of clinical outcome measures including mean marginal soft tissue thickness (THK). Healing dynamics were measured in a defined region of interest at CT-grafted sites where volume differences between time points were calculated. At 12 months, recession reduction as well as mean root coverage were significantly better at CT-grafted sites treated in the TUN group (1.94 mm and 98.4% respectively) compared to the non-augmented sites of the CAF group (1.17 mm and 71.8% respectively) and statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation of THK (1.63 mm TUN versus 0.91 mm CAF, p tissue healing following surgical root coverage with CT-grafting was mainly accomplished after 6 months, with around two-thirds of the augmented volume being maintained after 12 months. The TUN resulted in thicker gingiva and better clinical outcomes compared to CAF. Increased gingival thickness was associated with better surgical outcomes in terms of recession reduction and root coverage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Characterization of hydrometeors in Sahelian convective systems with an X-band radar and comparison with in situ measurements. Part I : Sensitivity of polarimetric radar particle identification retrieval and case study evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Cazenave, Frédéric; Gosset, Marielle; Kacou, M.; Alcoba, M.; Fontaine, E.; Duroure, C.; Dolan, B.

    2016-01-01

    The particle identification scheme developed by Dolan and Rutledge for X-band polarimetric radar is tested for the first time in Africa and compared with in situ measurements. The data were acquired during the Megha-Tropiques mission algorithm-validation campaign that occurred in Niger in 2010. The radar classification is compared with the in situ observations gathered by an instrumented aircraft for the 13 August 2010 squall-line case. An original approach has been developed for the radar-in...

  3. A study on magnetic relaxation times of various organs and body fluids using superconducting magnetic resonance imaging system part I: measurement of relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation time in various portions of brain and cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Jae Ho; Han, Man Chang; Kim, Chu Wan

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertake to determine if routine clinical magnetic resonance imaging sequences using only two different repetition times (TRs) and with only two sequential echo times (TEs) can be used to measure reproducible relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation time for normal brain tissues and cerebrospinal fluid using a 2.0T superconducting system. In 47 patients 6 different anatomic sites were measured. For each anatomic location, the mean and standard deviation of these values were determined. On T1-weighted (SE 500msec/30msec) images, in globus pallidus and thalamus, of the CSF, cortical gray matter and retrobulbar fat tissue varied more, with a standard deviation of 11-14% on T1-weighted images. On T2-weighted (SE 3000msec/30msec and 3000msec/80msec) images, the relative signal intensity of all anatomic regions varied more than on T1-weighted images. The standard deviation of T2 relaxation times also varied from 10% (fat tissue) to 18% (CSF). These variations might be due to partial volume averaging, signal alteration of CSF secondary to CSF pulsatile motion, etc. Knowing that relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation times calculated from routine imaging sequences are reproducible in only limited area, these normal ranges can be used to investigate changes occurring in disease states of the limited regions.

  4. Interlaboratory comparison of techniques for measuring lung burdens of low-energy X-ray emitters. Part of a coordinated programme on the calibration of burdens of inhaled plutonium by external counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, D.; Fry, F.A.; Taylor, B.T.; Eagle, M.C.; Sharma, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    An interlaboratory exercise has been conducted to assess techniques of detection and calibration in the direct measurement of lung contamination with plutonium and other nuclides emitting only low-energy X-rays. Three volunteers, of small, intermediate and large physique, inhaled an aerosol incorporating Pd-103, a 20-keV X-ray emitter, and visited 13 other laboratories in the UK, Europe and North America. Participants in the exercise were asked to estimate each subject's lung content, using their procedures for assessing burdens of plutonium, and their estimates were compared with values derived independently from measurements of Cr-51, also incorporated in the inhaled particles, by gamma-ray spectrometry. Laboratories' calibration procedures were in most cases based on elaborate thorax phantoms, and these generally led to underestimates of the subjects' contents, in some instances by a factor of three or more; only one such laboratory produced estimates in satisfactory agreement with the independently-known values. The ''phoswich'' detectors, employed by most participants, appeared to be more sensitive than gas counters. If a standard configuration were required, offering the highest sensitivity in most situations, the choice would be a pair of 12-cm diameter phoswich detectors viewing the left and right anterior surfaces of the upper thorax. No improvement in sensitivity would result from increasing the size, although larger units may offer other advantages

  5. The monitoring system for meteorological and oceanografic parameters off the Venice lagoon. Part 1. The measurement station 'Acqua alta'; Il sistema di monitoraggio del moto ondoso lungo i litorali della laguna di Venezia. Parte 1. La stazione di misura Acqua alta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscopia, R. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipartimento Idraulica Trasporti Strade; De Girolamo, P. [L' Aquila Univ., L' Aquila (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria delle Strutture, delle Acque e del Terreno; Cecconi, G. [Consorzio Venezia Nuova SpA, Venice (Italy); Pellegrini, G. [Technital SpA, Marghera, VE (Italy); Contini, P.; Saltari, D. [Modimar Srl, Milan (Italy); Lorenzi, P. [Emes Srl, Bracciano RM (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    The present paper is aimed to describe the new monitoring system of the Venice lagoon beaches, built up by the 'Consorzio Venezia Nuova' on behalf of the 'Magistrato alle Acque di Venezia'. The first paragraph is given up to explain the purposes of the new monitoring system. Then, the second paragraph is aimed to outline the measurement instruments installed whereas the goal of the third paragraph is to describe the measured data analysis. The wave analysis are carried out by the classical procedures of the spectral analysis and of the individual wave method. The directional information is drawn from the joint frequency distribution of the wave height and the horizontal velocity direction. Finally, some results obtained from the analysis of the data collected are reported in the forth paragraph. In short, the efficiency of the new measuring station is connected with the reduced risk of data loss due to radio interference, with the slight risk of operating loss and with the flexibility of the data acquisition system which allows the recording of both the short and the long waves. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro e' descritto il nuovo sistema di monitoraggio dei litorali della laguna di Venezia, messo a punto dal Consorzio Venezia Nuova per conto del Magistrato alle Acque Alte di Venezia. In particolare: sono illustrate la strumentazione installata, le modalita' di funzionamento del sistema, il tipo di analisi effettuate sulle misure raccolte e sono riportati alcuni dei risultati ottenuti dalle analisi dei dati raccolti a partire dall'entrata in funzione del sistema.

  6. Plutonium microstructures. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    This report is the first of three parts in which Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory metallographers exhibit a consolidated set of illustrations of inclusions that are seen in plutonium metal as a consequence of inherent and tramp impurities, alloy additions, and thermal or mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of nonmetallic and intermetallic inclusions characteristic of major impurity elements as an aid to identifying unknowns. It also describes historical aspects of the increased purity of laboratory plutonium samples, and it gives the composition of the etchant solutions and describes the etching procedure used in the preparation of each illustrated sample. 25 figures

  7. PHP The Good Parts

    CERN Document Server

    MacIntyre, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Get past all the hype about PHP and dig into the real power of this language. This book explores the most useful features of PHP and how they can speed up the web development process, and explains why the most commonly used PHP elements are often misused or misapplied. You'll learn which parts add strength to object-oriented programming, and how to use certain features to integrate your application with databases. Written by a longtime member of the PHP community, PHP: The Good Parts is ideal for new PHP programmers, as well as web developers switching from other languages. Become familiar w

  8. Measurement of complex surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.M.

    1993-05-01

    Several of the components used in coil fabrication involve complex surfaces and dimensions that are not well suited to measurements using conventional dimensional measuring equipment. Some relatively simple techniques that are in use in the SSCL Magnet Systems Division (MSD) for incoming inspection will be described, with discussion of their suitability for specific applications. Components that are submitted for MSD Quality Assurance (QA) dimensional inspection may be divided into two distinct categories; the first category involves components for which there is an approved drawing and for which all nominal dimensions are known; the second category involves parts for which 'reverse engineering' is required, the part is available but there are no available drawings or dimensions. This second category typically occurs during development of coil end parts and coil turn filler parts where it is necessary to manually shape the part and then measure it to develop the information required to prepare a drawing for the part

  9. Cloud condensation nuclei in polluted air and biomass burning smoke near the mega-city Guangzhou, China – Part 1: Size-resolved measurements and implications for the modeling of aerosol particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rose

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. We measured and characterized CCN in polluted air and biomass burning smoke during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign from 1–30 July 2006 at a rural site ~60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeastern China.

    CCN efficiency spectra (activated fraction vs. dry particle diameter; 20–290 nm were recorded at water vapor supersaturations (S in the range of 0.068% to 1.27%. The corresponding effective hygroscopicity parameters describing the influence of particle composition on CCN activity were in the range of κ≈0.1–0.5. The campaign average value of κ=0.3 equals the average value of κ for other continental locations. During a strong local biomass burning event, the average value of κ dropped to 0.2, which can be considered as characteristic for freshly emitted smoke from the burning of agricultural waste. At low S (≤0.27%, the maximum activated fraction remained generally well below one, indicating substantial portions of externally mixed CCN-inactive particles with much lower hygroscopicity – most likely soot particles (up to ~60% at ~250 nm.

    The mean CCN number concentrations (NCCN,S ranged from 1000 cm−3 at S=0.068% to 16 000 cm−3 at S=1.27%, which is about two orders of magnitude higher than in pristine air. Nevertheless, the ratios between CCN concentration and total aerosol particle concentration (integral CCN efficiencies were similar to the ratios observed in pristine continental air (~6% to ~85% at S=0.068% to 1.27%. Based on the measurement data, we have tested different model approaches for the approximation/prediction of NCCN,S. Depending on S and on the model approach, the relative deviations between observed and predicted NCCN,S ranged from a few

  10. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement. Part 2, Production of 7Be and 10Be in water targets deployed in the Southern Hemisphere, 1997-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, I.J.; Barry, B.J.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Zondervan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sealed containers of de-ionised water were exposed to cosmic-rays at seven sites in Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica, covering a range of altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes, over time periods of six months to three years (1997-2001). After isotopic analysis by gamma counting (for 7 Be) and accelerator mass spectrometry (for 10 Be), the data obtained were corrected to obtain relative production factors (i.e., 'k' values). This report presents a full description of the target design, isotope extraction, and measurement procedures employed. It thus provides the raw data from which cosmogenic nuclide production rates for the Southern Hemisphere can be calculated, and scaling factors used in surface exposure dating can be independently validated. (author). 35 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Evaluation of NDA techniques applying to the measurement of alpha-activities in medium or low level radioactive reprocessing wastes (part 5). The development of LiF coating semiconductor detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Takatoshi; Ishii, Keiichiro [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.

    1988-12-01

    In order to design the neutron detection system in the non-destructive assay device applying to the measurement of alpha-activity in medium or low level radioactive reprocessing wastes, we examined the property of the LiF coating semiconductor detector applying to gamma-radiation field. The sensitivity for thermal neutron of LiF coating ion implanted detector is 1.6 cps/nv, and reduced to half in about 300 R/h gamma-radiation field. Compared with the other neutron detectors, for example proportional counters, the performance of this detector is almost similar to that of them. This new detector has a merit to be possible to use a dry battery instead of a high voltage supply. (author).

  12. Measurement and microscopic analysis of the 11B(p,p) reaction at Ep = 150 MeV. Part II: Depolarization of elastic scattering on an odd-A nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannen, V.M.; Van den Berg, A.M.; Bieber, R.K.; Harakeh, M.N.; De Huu, M.A.; Kruesemann, B.A.M.; Van der Werf, S.Y.; Woertche, H.J.; Amos, K.; Deb, P.K.; Ellinghaus, F.; Frekers, D.; Rakers, S.; Schmidt, R.; Hayse, J.

    2001-01-01

    The depolarization parameter D nn ' in elastic proton scattering off 11 B at an energy of 150 MeV has been measured in the angular range 5 deg nn ' from unity were observed starting around a center-of-mass angle of 23 deg. The observed angular distribution of D nn ' will be described in the framework of a fully microscopic distorted-wave analysis using a folding potential to generate distorted waves from the nuclear ground-state density and from a recent density-dependent parameterization of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. The same kind of analysis has been applied to datasets of D nn ' in elastic scattering off 13 C and off 15 N which are available in the literature. The agreement of the fully microscopic analysis with the data is comparable or, in the case of 11 B, slightly better than what is achieved with the conventional calculations

  13. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  14. Measurement of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137CS and 40K in edible parts of two types of leafy vegetables cultivated in Tehran province-Iran and resultant annual ingestion radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changizi, V.; Jafarpoor, Z.; Naseri, M.

    2010-01-01

    The sources of radioactivity in the environment have natural; terrestrial and extraterrestrial. and anthropogenic origins. Plants may get radioactive nuclides in two ways: (i) by the deposition of radioactive fallout, (ii) by absorption from the soil. Materials and Methods: The Concentrations of the natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 40 K) and the artificial radionuclide ( 137 CS) in leek and parsley in Tehran province-Iran were determined using high-purity Ge detectors. Also the effective dose due to the ingestion of such vegetables by the population of Tehran province was studied. Results: The average value of radionuclide concentrations in parsley samples were measured 177.69 ± 12.47 mBq kg -1 fresh for 226 Ra; 349.62 ± 28.42 mBq kg -1 fresh for 228 Ra; 187364.6 mBq kg 1 fresh for 40 K. The average value of radionuclide concentrations in leek samples were measured 94.31 ± 6.46 mBq kg -1 fresh for 226 Ra; 207.47 ± 19.46 mBq kg -1 fresh for 228 Ra; 174555 ± 1704.21 mBq kg -1 fresh for 40 K. The concentrations of 137 Cs in most of Parsley and Leek samples were below the minimum detectable activity. Conclusion: The Average 226 Ra and 228 Ra activities in 29 leek and parsley samples were about 2.63 and 6.78 times the reference values, respectively. The annual effective dose resulting from the studied radionuclides for the adult population in Tehran province were found to be safe in comparison with normal background areas.

  15. Observations of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, Colorado, USA: Part 1, in-situ measurements of flow dynamics, tracer particle movement and video imagery from the summer of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Scott W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; Tucker, Greg E.; Staley, Dennis M.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.

    2011-01-01

    Debris flows initiated by surface-water runoff during short duration, moderate- to high-intensity rainfall are common in steep, rocky, and sparsely vegetated terrain. Yet large uncertainties remain about the potential for a flow to grow through entrainment of loose debris, which make formulation of accurate mechanical models of debris-flow routing difficult. Using a combination of in situ measurements of debris flow dynamics, video imagery, tracer rocks implanted with passive integrated transponders (PIT) and pre- and post-flow 2-cm resolution digital terrain models (terrain data presented in a companion paper by STALEY et alii, 2011), we investigated the entrainment and transport response of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, CO, USA. Four monitored events during the summer of 2009 all initiated from surface-water runoff, generally less than an hour after the first measurable rain. Despite reach-scale morphology that remained relatively constant, the four flow events displayed a range of responses, from long-runout flows that entrained significant amounts of channel sediment and dammed the main-stem river, to smaller, short-runout flows that were primarily depositional in the upper basin. Tracer-rock travel-distance distributions for these events were bimodal; particles either remained immobile or they travelled the entire length of the catchment. The long-runout, large-entrainment flow differed from the other smaller flows by the following controlling factors: peak 10-minute rain intensity; duration of significant flow in the channel; and to a lesser extent, peak surge depth and velocity. Our growing database of natural debris-flow events can be used to develop linkages between observed debris-flow transport and entrainment responses and the controlling rainstorm characteristics and flow properties.

  16. Multiple part feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    " is capable of successfully servicing four part feeders in three production cells using command signals from an Open Process Control (OPC) server. Furthermore, the paper presents future research and development suggestions for AIMM, which contributes to near-term industrial maturation and implementation...

  17. Basic Electricity. Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Third (part 3) in a set of four guides designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide includes four units: Unit VI--Ohm's Law, covering six lessons (voltage, current-flow and resistance, the Ohm's Law formula, formula for finding voltage, formula for finding resistance); Unit VII--Voltages, covering five lessons…

  18. Workshop 95. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The proceedings of the seminar contain more than 420 contributions divided into 21 areas of interest. In Part I, 144 contributions are presented from the following fields: mathematics, physics, chemistry, engineering informatics and cybernetics, computer art, and fluid mechanics. For input in INIS, 15 contributions were selected from the physics section and 1 from the chemistry section. (J.B.)

  19. Workshop 95. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The proceedings of the seminar contain more than 420 contributions divided into 21 areas of interest. In Part I, 144 contributions are presented from the following fields: mathematics, physics, chemistry, engineering informatics and cybernetics, computer art, and fluid mechanics. For input in INIS, 15 contributions were selected from the physics section and 1 from the chemistry section. (J.B.).

  20. Workshop 93. Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The aim of the seminar was to present and discuss the latest results obtained in research at the Czech Technical University and collaborating institutions. Part A of the Proceedings contains 99 contributions from the following fields: physical electronics and optics, mathematics, informatics and cybernetics, and materials engineering. Two contributions were selected for INIS. (J.B.).

  1. MIRD methodology. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Ana M.

    2004-01-01

    This lecture develops the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) methodology for the evaluation of the internal dose due to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals. In this first part, the basic concepts and the main equations are presented. The ICRP Dosimetric System is also explained. (author)

  2. MIRD methodology. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Parada, Ines

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) methodology for the evaluation of the internal dose due to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals. In this second part, different methods for the calculation of the accumulated activity are presented, together with the effective half life definition. Different forms of Retention Activity curves are also shown. (author)

  3. Machine Parts as Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Gerald

    The connection between Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) and literature is discussed with examples of technical vocabulary drawn from a variety of writers, with particular attention to a sketch by the British dramatist Harold Pinter, "Trouble in the Works," which makes extensive use of the terminology of machine parts. It is noted…

  4. Workshop 93. Part A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the seminar was to present and discuss the latest results obtained in research at the Czech Technical University and collaborating institutions. Part A of the Proceedings contains 99 contributions from the following fields: physical electronics and optics, mathematics, informatics and cybernetics, and materials engineering. Two contributions were selected for INIS. (J.B.)

  5. Uncertainty for Part Density Determination: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez, Mario Orlando [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-12-14

    Accurate and precise density measurements by hydrostatic weighing requires the use of an analytical balance, configured with a suspension system, to both measure the weight of a part in water and in air. Additionally, the densities of these liquid media (water and air) must be precisely known for the part density determination. To validate the accuracy and precision of these measurements, uncertainty statements are required. The work in this report is a revision of an original report written more than a decade ago, specifically applying principles and guidelines suggested by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) for determining the part density uncertainty through sensitivity analysis. In this work, updated derivations are provided; an original example is revised with the updated derivations and appendix, provided solely to uncertainty evaluations using Monte Carlo techniques, specifically using the NIST Uncertainty Machine, as a viable alternative method.

  6. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1992. 2. Research and development of a physiological effect measuring technology (Part 1); 1992 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes the physiological effect measuring technology, extracted from the achievements in the development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1992. In the composite physiological function measuring technology to measure stresses, improvement was made on the skin impedance measuring device of tri-electrode double-point simultaneous measuring type. A non-contact measuring device using a light sensor was developed as a spontaneous blinking detecting system. A prototype device that can measure blood pressure continuously at the temple was developed, and its usefulness was verified. In non-contact skin temperature measurement, expansion was performed on the image input type visible camera, infrared ray camera and other systems produced to date, and hardware structuring was completed. For the software, person extracting, position recognizing and attitude determining algorithms were developed, whose effectiveness was verified experimentally. A prospect was reached that in measuring stress indexing substances, the measurement can be performed non-invasively using small amount of saliva and urine. The sensitivity was enhanced 20 to 5000 times in catecholamine, and ten times in corticosteroid as much as that in the previous year. It is estimated that on-line measurement may be executed on cortisol by using saliva sample of 100 to 200 {mu} L. (NEDO)

  7. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1993. 2. Research and development of physiological effect measuring technology (Part 1); 1993 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Development in fiscal 1993 of a composite physiological function measurement method to measure stresses included the development of a watch type device using the tri-electrode double-point simultaneous measuring method for skin impedance, and a device placed around a head as a blinking meter using the simplified potential method. Both were reduced largely in size and weight. They were verified to have good performance by the measurement performance experiments. For noncontact skin temperature measurement, a noncontact temperature measuring system will be developed that automatically tracks movement of the head of a human body which moves within a limited area, and continuously measure temperatures of specific positions with measurement resolution of 0.2 degree C. Image processing utilizing sensor fusion of infrared and visible images was used to have extracted successfully persons under the natural background. A technology was developed to recognize specific portions of a face (eyes and eyebrows). Developments were made on an algorithm to measure directions of a head, and an attitude controlling and measuring system using a magnetic sensor. In measuring stress index materials, a prospect was obtained to realize semi-macro measurement by collecting cortisol and catecholamine from saliva. Discussions were also given on detecting catecholamine in urine by using high-speed liquid chromatography. (NEDO)

  8. Essentials of measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kubrusly, Carlos S

    2015-01-01

    Classical in its approach, this textbook is thoughtfully designed and composed in two parts. Part I is meant for a one-semester beginning graduate course in measure theory, proposing an “abstract” approach to measure and integration, where the classical concrete cases of Lebesgue measure and Lebesgue integral are presented as an important particular case of general theory. Part II of the text is more advanced and is addressed to a more experienced reader. The material is designed to cover another one-semester graduate course subsequent to a first course, dealing with measure and integration in topological spaces. The final section of each chapter in Part I presents problems that are integral to each chapter, the majority of which consist of auxiliary results, extensions of the theory, examples, and counterexamples. Problems which are highly theoretical have accompanying hints. The last section of each chapter of Part II consists of Additional Propositions containing auxiliary and complementary results. Th...

  9. Submarine ground water discharge and fate along the coast of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai‘i: Part I: time-series measurements of currents, waves, salinity and temperature: November, 2005-July, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presto, M. Katherine; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Logan, Joshua B.; Grossman, Eric E.

    2007-01-01

    The impending development for the west Hawai‘i coastline adjacent to Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park (KAHO) may potentially alter coastal hydrology and water quality in the marine waters of the park. Water resources are perhaps the most significant natural and cultural resource component in the park, and are critical to the health and well being of six federally listed species. KAHO contains ecosystems of brackish anchialine pools, two 11-acre fishponds, and 596 acres of coral reef habitats, all fed by groundwater originating upslope. The steep gradients on high islands, combined with typically porous substrates and high rainfall levels at upper elevations, make these settings especially vulnerable to shifts in submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and its entrained nutrients and pollutants. Little is known about the magnitude, rate, frequency, and variability of SGD and its influence on contaminant loading to Hawaiian coastal environments. Recent studies show that groundwater flux through the park is vital to many ecosystem components including anchialine ponds and wetland biota. The function of these ecosystems may be vulnerable to changes in groundwater flow stemming from natural changes (climate and sea level) and land use (groundwater pumping and contamination). Oki and others (1999) showed that increased groundwater withdrawals for urban development since 1978 likely decreased groundwater flux to the coast by 50%. During this same time, the quality of groundwater has been vulnerable to increases in contaminant and nutrient/fertilizer additions associated with industrial, commercial and residential use upslope from KAHO (Oki and others, 1999). High-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature and salinity were collected in the marine portion of the park from November, 2005, through July, 2006, to establish baseline information on the magnitude, rate, frequency, and variability of SGD. These data are intended to help

  10. Enhancement of the spectral selectivity of complex samples by measuring them in a frozen state at low temperatures in order to improve accuracy for quantitative analysis. Part II. Determination of viscosity for lube base oils using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mooeung; Chung, Hoeil

    2013-03-07

    The use of selectivity-enhanced Raman spectra of lube base oil (LBO) samples achieved by the spectral collection under frozen conditions at low temperatures was effective for improving accuracy for the determination of the kinematic viscosity at 40 °C (KV@40). A collection of Raman spectra from samples cooled around -160 °C provided the most accurate measurement of KV@40. Components of the LBO samples were mainly long-chain hydrocarbons with molecular structures that were deformable when these were frozen, and the different structural deformabilities of the components enhanced spectral selectivity among the samples. To study the structural variation of components according to the change of sample temperature from cryogenic to ambient condition, n-heptadecane and pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) were selected as representative components of LBO samples, and their temperature-induced spectral features as well as the corresponding spectral loadings were investigated. A two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was also employed to explain the origin for the improved accuracy. The asynchronous 2D correlation pattern was simplest at the optimal temperature, indicating the occurrence of distinct and selective spectral variations, which enabled the variation of KV@40 of LBO samples to be more accurately assessed.

  11. Leading research in FY 1995. Research of product evaluation and advanced measurements - Part 1 (product evaluation); 1995 nendo sendo kenkyu. Seihin hyoka kodo keisoku bunseki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - 1 (seihin hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Product evaluation has been investigated from a viewpoint of compatibility with human life by considering human being as the subject of life. This report describes the investigation results. Product evaluation is defined as evaluating products on a consumer-oriented viewpoint and informing consumers of the evaluation results. According to a questionnaire survey with regard to daily living products, products in the low degree of satisfaction in their usage were electric tooth brush, video camera, electric rice jar, vacuum cleaner, and electric iron. Contents of dissatisfaction with these products were classified by aspect, i.e., human aspect regarding human body/recognition, life aspect regarding functions of products and how to use them, and sensitivity aspect such as appearance of products. Thus, points at issue were clarified. As regards the human aspect, incompatibility between the size/form of products and human body/posture, and recognition psychological incompatibility such as difficulty in understanding function or operation of products were pointed out. Establishment of a method for measuring and evaluating the human`s body functions and the compatibility with products, and necessity of the acquisition of human`s body characteristic data and the consolidation positions are also described. 4 refs., 42 figs., 30 tabs.

  12. A comprehensive in vitro study of image accuracy and quality for periodontal diagnosis. Part 1: the influence of X-ray generator on periodontal measurements using conventional and digital receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Bart; Corpas, Livia; Bosmans, Hilde; Yang, Jie; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of image accuracy and quality for periodontal diagnosis using various X-ray generators with conventional and digital radiographs. Thirty-one in vitro periodontal defects were evaluated on intraoral conventional (E-, F/E-speed) and digital images (three indirect, two direct sensors). Standardised radiographs were made with an alternating current (AC), a high-frequency (HF) and a direct current (DC) X-ray unit at rising exposure times (20-160 ms with 20-ms interval) with a constant kV of 70. Three observers assessed bone levels for comparison to the gold standard. Lamina dura, contrast, trabecularisation, crater and furcation involvements were evaluated. Irrespective X-ray generator-type, measurement deviations increased at higher exposure times for solid-state, but decreased for photostimulable storage phosphor (PSP) systems. Accuracy for HF or DC was significantly higher than AC (p DC generators compared to AC, but only for PSP. No savings were found for solid-state sensors, indicating their higher sensitivity. The use of digital sensors compared to film allowed 15-90% dose savings using the AC tube, whilst solid-state sensors allowed approximately 50% savings compared to PSP, depending on tube type and threshold level.. Accuracy of periodontal diagnosis increases when using HF or DC generators and/or digital receptors with adequate diagnostic information at lower exposure times.

  13. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies in the systems alkali chloride-zinconium (or hafnium) tetrachloride: Part I. Vapour pressure measurements over hexachloro compounds and use of vapour pressure data in fractional decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, H.S.; Bhat, B.G.; Reddy, G.S.; Biswas, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    A molten tin isoteniscope has been used to measure the vapour pressures over ZrCl 4 , HfCl 4 and the hexachlore zirconates (M 2 ZrCl 6 ) and the hexachloro hafnates (M 2 HfCl 6 ) of four alkali metals (M = Na,K,Rb,Cs). The method of preparation of these compounds and the effect of small amounts of residual alkali chlorides on the their vapour pressure are discussed. The pressure-temperature plots are examined in the light of some theoretical postulates. A scheme for separation of hafnium from zirconoium by multistage fractional decomposition of the hexachlore compounds of any alkali metal is described. The scheme, which is analogous to rectification in liquid-vapour systems, employs a countercurrent flow of Zr(Hf)Cl 4 in a gas stream and a moving bed of alkali chlorides. The separation is based on the difference in the dissociation equilibrium for zirconium and hafnium compounds. Stage calculations for such a scheme and the main conclusions of a computational work are presented. (author)

  14. What quantum measurements measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2017-09-01

    A solution to the second measurement problem, determining what prior microscopic properties can be inferred from measurement outcomes ("pointer positions"), is worked out for projective and generalized (POVM) measurements, using consistent histories. The result supports the idea that equipment properly designed and calibrated reveals the properties it was designed to measure. Applications include Einstein's hemisphere and Wheeler's delayed choice paradoxes, and a method for analyzing weak measurements without recourse to weak values. Quantum measurements are noncontextual in the original sense employed by Bell and Mermin: if [A ,B ]=[A ,C ]=0 ,[B ,C ]≠0 , the outcome of an A measurement does not depend on whether it is measured with B or with C . An application to Bohm's model of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen situation suggests that a faulty understanding of quantum measurements is at the root of this paradox.

  15. Health and happiness is more important than weight': a qualitative investigation of the views of parents receiving written feedback on their child's weight as part of the National Child Measurement Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrad, H; Falconer, C; Cooke, L; Saxena, S; Kessel, A S; Viner, R; Kinra, S; Wardle, J

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to explore parental perceptions of overweight children and associated health risks after receiving National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) weight feedback. Fifty-two parents of overweight and obese children aged 4-5 years and 10-11 years enrolled in the NCMP programme in England in 2010-2011 participated in qualitative, semi-structured interviews about their perceptions of their child's weight and health risk after receiving weight feedback. Interviews were audio tape recorded and were conducted either by telephone (n = 9) or in the respondents' homes (n = 41). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative thematic analysis. Parents who received NCMP written feedback informing them that their child was overweight disregarded the results because they viewed 'health and happiness as being more important than weight'. The feedback was viewed as less credible because it did not consider the individual child's lifestyle.'Broad definitions of healthy' were described that did not include weight,such as reference to the child having good emotional and physical health and a healthy diet. Parents attributed weight to 'inherited/acquired factors' such as genetics or puppy fat, or did not regard their child's 'appearance' as reflecting being overweight. 'Cultural influence' also meant that being overweight was not viewed negatively by some non-white parents. After receiving written weight feedback, parents use methods other than actual weight when evaluating their child's weight status and health risks. Parents' conceptions of health and weight should be considered when communicating with parents, with the aim of bridging the gap between parental recognition of being overweight and subsequent behaviour change.

  16. A simple method for regional cerebral blood flow measurement by one-point arterial blood sampling and 123I-IMP microsphere model (part 2). A study of time correction of one-point blood sample count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yasuhiko; Makino, Kenichi; Gotoh, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    In our previous paper regarding determination of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using the 123 I-IMP microsphere model, we reported that the accuracy of determination of the integrated value of the input function from one-point arterial blood sampling can be increased by performing correction using the 5 min: 29 min ratio for the whole-brain count. However, failure to carry out the arterial blood collection at exactly 5 minutes after 123 I-IMP injection causes errors with this method, and there is thus a time limitation. We have now revised out method so that the one-point arterial blood sampling can be performed at any time during the interval between 5 minutes and 20 minutes after 123 I-IMP injection, with addition of a correction step for the sampling time. This revised method permits more accurate estimation of the integral of the input functions. This method was then applied to 174 experimental subjects: one-point blood samples collected at random times between 5 and 20 minutes, and the estimated values for the continuous arterial octanol extraction count (COC) were determined. The mean error rate between the COC and the actual measured continuous arterial octanol extraction count (OC) was 3.6%, and the standard deviation was 12.7%. Accordingly, in 70% of the cases, the rCBF was able to be estimated within an error rate of 13%, while estimation was possible in 95% of the cases within an error rate of 25%. This improved method is a simple technique for determination of the rCBF by 123 I-IMP microsphere model and one-point arterial blood sampling which no longer shows a time limitation and does not require any octanol extraction step. (author)

  17. Quality of cancer family history and referral for genetic counseling and testing among oncology practices: a pilot test of quality measures as part of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Quality Oncology Practice Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marie E; Kadlubek, Pamela; Pham, Trang H; Wollins, Dana S; Lu, Karen H; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Neuss, Michael N; Hughes, Kevin S

    2014-03-10

    Family history of cancer (CFH) is important for identifying individuals to receive genetic counseling/testing (GC/GT). Prior studies have demonstrated low rates of family history documentation and referral for GC/GT. CFH quality and GC/GT practices for patients with breast (BC) or colon cancer (CRC) were assessed in 271 practices participating in the American Society of Clinical Oncology Quality Oncology Practice Initiative in fall 2011. A total of 212 practices completed measures regarding CFH and GC/GT practices for 10,466 patients; 77.4% of all medical records reviewed documented presence or absence of CFH in first-degree relatives, and 61.5% of medical records documented presence or absence of CFH in second-degree relatives, with significantly higher documentation for patients with BC compared with CRC. Age at diagnosis was documented for all relatives with cancer in 30.7% of medical records (BC, 45.2%; CRC, 35.4%; P ≤ .001). Referall for GC/GT occurred in 22.1% of all patients with BC or CRC. Of patients with increased risk for hereditary cancer, 52.2% of patients with BC and 26.4% of those with CRC were referred for GC/GT. When genetic testing was performed, consent was documented 77.7% of the time, and discussion of results was documented 78.8% of the time. We identified low rates of complete CFH documentation and low rates of referral for those with BC or CRC meeting guidelines for referral among US oncologists. Documentation and referral were greater for patients with BC compared with CRC. Education and support regarding the importance of accurate CFH and the benefits of proactive high-risk patient management are clearly needed.

  18. ‘Health and happiness is more important than weight’: a qualitative investigation of the views of parents receiving written feedback on their child's weight as part of the National Child Measurement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrad, H; Falconer, C; Cooke, L; Saxena, S; Kessel, A S; Viner, R; Kinra, S; Wardle, J; Croker, H

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to explore parental perceptions of overweight children and associated health risks after receiving National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) weight feedback. Methods Fifty-two parents of overweight and obese children aged 4–5 years and 10–11 years enrolled in the NCMP programme in England in 2010–2011 participated in qualitative, semi-structured interviews about their perceptions of their child's weight and health risk after receiving weight feedback. Interviews were audio tape recorded and were conducted either by telephone (n = 9) or in the respondents’ homes (n = 41). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative thematic analysis. Results Parents who received NCMP written feedback informing them that their child was overweight disregarded the results because they viewed ‘health and happiness as being more important than weight’. The feedback was viewed as less credible because it did not consider the individual child's lifestyle. ‘Broad definitions of healthy’ were described that did not include weight, such as reference to the child having good emotional and physical health and a healthy diet. Parents attributed weight to ‘inherited/acquired factors’ such as genetics or puppy fat, or did not regard their child's ‘appearance’ as reflecting being overweight. ‘Cultural influence’ also meant that being overweight was not viewed negatively by some non-white parents. Conclusions After receiving written weight feedback, parents use methods other than actual weight when evaluating their child's weight status and health risks. Parents’ conceptions of health and weight should be considered when communicating with parents, with the aim of bridging the gap between parental recognition of being overweight and subsequent behaviour change. PMID:26295077

  19. Part two: Error propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this chapter include a discussion of exact results as related to nuclear materials management and accounting in nuclear facilities; propagation of error for a single measured value; propagation of error for several measured values; error propagation for materials balances; and an application of error propagation to an example of uranium hexafluoride conversion process

  20. Occlusion effects, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    annoyances and the objective measurements were analysed. Persons suffering from tinnitus behaved differently than person without tinnitus. The latter group showed significant relations between the measured occlusion effect, hearing loss and the personal of occlusion. The actual sensation level is also...

  1. Concern for older parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, E.; Spink, T.; Cookson, B.; Tenera, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    For the last half decade, regulatory expectations of the procurement process for nuclear commercial-grade safety-related materials have increase. The changes have been driven by concern for fraudulent or misrepresented parts and the loss of original equipment manufacturers. The industry responded to these concerns by developing improved procurement programs that changed how parts were specified and received and provided for verification of attributes that were critical to the successful performance of safety functions(s). Like its counterparts, Duquesne Light Company (DLCo), Beaver Valley power station began applying these enhanced requirements to procurements initiated after January 1, 1990, in response to the Nuclear Management and Resources Council initiative on dedication. Procurements prior to this data were not subject to the new requirements

  2. Workshop 93. Part B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the seminar was to present and discuss the latest results obtained in research at the Czech Technical University and collaborating institutions. Part B of the Proceedings contains 109 contributions from the following fields: physics; medical engineering; fluid mechanics, environmental engineering, and structural mechanics. Fourteen contributions dealing with nuclear physics, plasma physics, quantum physics, nuclear chemistry, and computational physics were selected for INIS. (J.B.)

  3. Electricity Bill [Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, C.; Hogg, N.; Salmond, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the first part of the Parliamentary debate on the second reading of the Electricity Bill, House of Commons, London 1988. The Bill sets out the government's proposals for the restructuring and privatisation of the electricity supply industry throughout Great Britain. Customers and suppliers, choice for the consumer, competition promotion, security of supply, nuclear power stations, and cost, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Workshop 93. Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The aim of the seminar was to present and discuss the latest results obtained in research at the Czech Technical University and collaborating institutions. Part B of the Proceedings contains 109 contributions from the following fields: physics; medical engineering; fluid mechanics, environmental engineering, and structural mechanics. Fourteen contributions dealing with nuclear physics, plasma physics, quantum physics, nuclear chemistry, and computational physics were selected for INIS. (J.B.).

  5. Workshop 96. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The proceedings of the seminar contain nearly 500 contributions divided into 22 fields of science and technology. In Part I, 167 contributions are presented in the following areas: mathematics, physics, chemistry, engineering informatics and cybernetics, computers, and fluid mechanics. For input in INIS, 19 contributions were selected from the Physics section, 2 from the Mathematics section, and 4 from the Chemistry section. (P.A.)

  6. Workshop 96. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The proceedings of the seminar contain nearly 500 contributions divided into 22 fields of science and technology. In Part I, 167 contributions are presented in the following areas: mathematics, physics, chemistry, engineering informatics and cybernetics, computers, and fluid mechanics. For input in INIS, 19 contributions were selected from the Physics section, 2 from the Mathematics section, and 4 from the Chemistry section. (P.A.).

  7. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1992. 2. Research and development of a physiological effect measuring technology (Part 2); 1992 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes the physiological effect measuring technology, extracted from the achievements in the development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1992. Primary prototype fabrication and evaluation were given on an easy-to-mount high-sensitivity brain wave measuring instrument. The multiple application telemeter has come close to completion excepting the integration. For multi-point brain wave measurement, analyzing device interface was completed. In measuring living organism activity and rhythm, development was made on an evaluation method that uses substituting characteristics, with a portable monitor kept in mind. The activity generated by power spectrum change in the {alpha} brain wave was compared with that in the autonomic nervous system to derive the mutual relationship therein, whereas usefulness of the pulse cycle characteristics was verified. Development was made on a method to measure and analyze the tympanum temperature rhythm that corresponds to the intestinum rectum rhythm, and the tympanum temperature was measured discretely by using an infrared sensor. Verification was given on the correlation between the circadian rhythm derived from the intestinum rectum temperature and that derived from the discrete measurement. In developing a nonrestraind accelerated pulse meter, a transmitter of the small accelerated pulse meter that can measure pulses under non-invasive and nonrestraint condition was fabricated on a trial basis, whose easiness of mounting and possibility of signal transmission were demonstrated. (NEDO)

  8. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  9. Endocrine system: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    2014-05-27

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the endocrine system, examines the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health. The role of the endocrine system and the types, actions and control of hormones are explored. The gross structure of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described along with relevant physiology. Several disorders of the thyroid gland are outlined. The second article examines growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands.

  10. Fuel cells (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanari, S.; Macchi, E.

    1999-01-01

    The article, following and completing the issues dealt with in part 1 (CH4 Energia Metano, 1/99, p. 7), describe the operating characteristic and construction features of molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells (MCFC and SOFC). For the latter type, construction cost are evaluated by various authors and research institutes. The article ends by presenting some tables showing the classification and the main characteristics of various fuel cells, and well as the effect of some gases on the behaviour of some of them [it

  11. Java The Good Parts

    CERN Document Server

    Waldo, Jim

    2010-01-01

    What if you could condense Java down to its very best features and build better applications with that simpler version? In this book, veteran Sun Labs engineer Jim Waldo reveals which parts of Java are most useful, and why those features make Java among the best programming languages available. Every language eventually builds up crud, Java included. The core language has become increasingly large and complex, and the libraries associated with it have grown even more. Learn how to take advantage of Java's best features by working with an example application throughout the book. You may not l

  12. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Omar I; Kirby, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma is a rare neoplasm usually arising in the soft tissues of the lower limbs in adults and in the head and neck region in children. It presents primarily as a slowly growing mass or as metastatic disease. It is characterized by a specific chromosomal alteration, der(17)t(X:17)(p11:q25), resulting in fusion of the transcription factor E3 (TFE3) with alveolar soft part sarcoma critical region 1 (ASPSCR1) at 17q25. This translocation is diagnostically useful because the tumor nuclei are positive for TFE3 by immunohistochemistry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion transcript on paraffin-embedded tissue blocks has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than detection of TFE3 by immunohistochemical stain. Cathepsin K is a relatively recent immunohistochemical stain that can aid in the diagnosis. The recent discovery of the role of the ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion protein in the MET proto-oncogene signaling pathway promoting angiogenesis and cell proliferation offers a promising targeted molecular therapy.

  13. Mapping sequences by parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guziolowski Carito

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: We present the N-map method, a pairwise and asymmetrical approach which allows us to compare sequences by taking into account evolutionary events that produce shuffled, reversed or repeated elements. Basically, the optimal N-map of a sequence s over a sequence t is the best way of partitioning the first sequence into N parts and placing them, possibly complementary reversed, over the second sequence in order to maximize the sum of their gapless alignment scores. Results: We introduce an algorithm computing an optimal N-map with time complexity O (|s| × |t| × N using O (|s| × |t| × N memory space. Among all the numbers of parts taken in a reasonable range, we select the value N for which the optimal N-map has the most significant score. To evaluate this significance, we study the empirical distributions of the scores of optimal N-maps and show that they can be approximated by normal distributions with a reasonable accuracy. We test the functionality of the approach over random sequences on which we apply artificial evolutionary events. Practical Application: The method is illustrated with four case studies of pairs of sequences involving non-standard evolutionary events.

  14. Standards in neurosonology. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojcza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specifi c brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler. Part II and III are devoted to standards for specifi c clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-toleft shunts, confi rmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional effi ciency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity.

  15. Standards in neurosonology. Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojczal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler. Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity.

  16. Forming parts over small radii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, S K; Hughes, D J; Pereira, M P; Rolfe, B F

    2016-01-01

    Stamping simulations usually make the plane stress simplifying assumption. However, this becomes less valid when material draws around features with radius to sheet thickness ratios less than 20. Pereira, Yan and Rolfe (Wear, Vol.265, p.1687 (2008)) predicted that out-of-plane stress equivalent to material yield can occur because a line contact forms briefly at the start of the draw process. The high transient stress can cause high rates of tool wear and may cause the ‘die impact line’ cosmetic defect. In this work, we present residual strain results of a channel section that was drawn over a small radius. Using the neutron source at the Institut Laue-Langevin, in-plane and out-of-plane strains were measured in the channel part to show some support for the conclusions of Pereira et. al. (paper)

  17. Ventilation of ETA3-spaces in buildings. Part 2. Performance measurements of a smoking area for the Faculty of Architecture in the Delft University of Technology; Ventilatie van ETA3-ruimten in gebouwen. Deel 2. Prestatiemetingen van een rookserre voor de faculteit Bouwkunde van de TU Delft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronsema, B. [Faculteit Bouwkinde, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Marra, J. [Philips Research, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    The European standard prEN 13779 (CEN 2004) distinguishes four classes of interior spaces in buildings focusing on air quality. The classes are named ETA1 to ETA4. Class ETA3 concerns spaces with a high level of air pollution due to emissions of water vapour, industrial process emissions, chemical pollutants, etc., which substantially impair the air quality. Part 2 considers the measurement of separation effectiveness and discusses measuring methods using particle sensors. The concept of TRIO concentration mentioned in part 1 is important in this connection. TRIO is a Dutch acronym meaning Environmental Tobacco Smoke, which serves as a criterion for separation effectiveness and ventilation effectiveness. The article then goes on to discuss the theory behind particle sensors, the measurement methods and the measurement results. Finally, the environmental tobacco smoke concentrations are assessed and related to particulate concentrations in reference situations. [Dutch] De Europese norm prEN 13779 (CEN 2004) onderscheidt voor verschillende ruimten in gebouwen vier klassen van afnemende luchtkwaliteit, ETA1 t/m ETA4. Klasse ETA3 staat voor ruimten met een hoge graad van luchtverontreiniging door emissie van vocht, processen, chemische verontreinigingen e.d., die de luchtkwaliteit substantieel verminderen. AIs voorbeelden worden genoemd toilet- en wasruimten, keukens, sommige chemische laboratoria, reproruimten, en speciaal ontworpen rookruimten. Ook warme restaurants en sommige werkplaatsen zouden tot deze klasse kunnen worden gerekend. Klasse ETA4 staat voor ruimten met een zeer hoge graad van luchlverontreiniging door geuren en verontreinigingen die schadelijk voor de gezondheid kunnen zijn. In dit deel 2 wordt de scheidingseffectiviteit in de praktijk gemeten en wordt ingegaan op meetmethodes met behulp van partikelsensoren. Belangrijk hierbij is het begrip TRIO concentratie dat in deel 1 is benoemd. TRIO staat voor TabaksRook In de Omgeving en wordt gebruikt als

  18. Workshop 93. Part C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Out of 94 short communications contained in the proceedings, 11 items were inputted to the INIS system. The topics covered include underground containment, in situ gamma scintillation spectroscopy, radionuclide methods in measuring fuel flow to boilers, microdosimetric studies of photon fields, training reactors, digital control of research reactors, nuclear reactor educational programmes, PIXE analysis, and transient analysis of steam turbines. (Z.S.)

  19. Workshop 93. Part C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Out of 94 short communications contained in the proceedings, 11 items were inputted to the INIS system. The topics covered include underground containment, in situ gamma scintillation spectroscopy, radionuclide methods in measuring fuel flow to boilers, microdosimetric studies of photon fields, training reactors, digital control of research reactors, nuclear reactor educational programmes, PIXE analysis, and transient analysis of steam turbines. (Z.S.).

  20. Transient pressure measurements at part load operating condition of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Goyal

    2 Water Power Laboratory, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian ... The present paper focuses on the investigation of a high head model Francis turbine operating at 50% load. ..... cascade of bandpass filters in MATLAB to eliminate the .... simulation of unsteady operation of hydroelectric systems.