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Sample records for afternoon

  1. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    scientific sense) to his then-new theory of general relativity. Instead, he applied his theory for the first time to the orbit of Mercury and demonstrated that it explains existing facts. In the same way, we may add or remove credence from the multiverse theory even without newly collected measurements on directly testable predictions.Plenary Session APOGEE: The New View of the Milky Way (by Nathan Sanders)Jo Bovy (Toronto) spoke about a bevy of recent discoveries by the APOGEE team, which has collected half a million spectra of red giant stars throughout the Milky Way disk. Bovy emphasized APOGEEs unprecedented scope, covering close to half of the Milky Way disk and ranging ~10 kpc in radius, rather than the tiny neighborhood around the sun that most historical stellar surveys have probed. Overcoming the challenges of galactic extinction, the APOGEE team has made the most precise measurement of the circular rotation velocity of the MIlky Way disk, v_c = 218 +- 6 km/s, and produced remarkable results on the chemical evolution history of the Galaxy. In particular, they have shown that the star formation and chemical evolution history of the Galaxy seems to be remarkably constant throughout the disk.However, the radial migration of stars, which follows a non-circular orbit across the Milky Ways spiral structure, causes mixing that makes the distribution of stellar parameters look uneven. Bovy also emphasized the importance of open science, sharing data and code related to their work. Like all SDSS data, the APOGEE spectra have been released publicly, and all their software pipelines and stellar models have also been made public. Coming next is an APOGEE-2 survey of the Southern sky, a copy of the instrument to be installed at the DuPont telescope in Chile.Afternoon Press Conference Dark Skies, Aliens, and the Multiverse (by Chris Faesi)Tuesday afternoon brought another press conference to the AAS 228th meeting, this one taking us beyond the benign realms of planets, stars, and

  2. Interaction between afternoon aeration and tilapia stocking density

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Roberto dos Santos Lima; Davi de Holanda Cavalcante; Vanessa Tomaz Rebouças; Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at determining the effects of the interaction between afternoon aeration and stocking density of Nile tilapia on variables of water and soil quality, growth performance and effluent quality. The experiment was a 3 x 2 factorial randomized block design, with three stocking densities (8, 12 and 16 fish per tank or 43.5, 65.3, and 87.0 g m-3) under two mechanical aeration regimes, absence (control; three replicates) and afternoon aeration (four replicates). The afternoon ...

  3. An Investigation of the Afternoon Decline in Tropical Forest Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, C.; Goulden, M. L.; Miller, S. D.; Menton, M. C.; da Rocha, H.; Freitas, H.; Figueira, M. A.; da Sousa, C. A.; Maia, A.

    2002-12-01

    The recent use of eddy covariance to measure the net exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and a tropical forest in Santarem Para, Brazil, has indicated a substantial decline in forest photosynthesis in the afternoon, even after taking light differences into account. Afternoon declines in leaf-level gas exchange have been reported for many ecosystems, including tropical forests. Potential causes for this decline include stomatal responses to VPD, low leaf water potential, changes in biochemistry due to elevated temperature, photoinhibition, photorespiration, or intrinsic circadian rhythm. This study attempts to understand this decline by using leaf gas exchange to measure photosynthesis while canopy leaves are kept under constant light, humidity, and temperature conditions for 24 to 36 hours hours.At constant light levels of 100 PAR æmol~m-2s-1, 7 of 12 species tested showed a substantial decline photosynthesis at night, and a subsequent recovery in photosynthesis during the next day. In most cases, the internal CO2 of these plants increased at night, indicating that this diel cycle was not simply an effect of a circadian rhythm in stomatal conductance. Rather, the photosynthesis of a significant fraction of the plants surveyed appears to be under the direct control of a circadian oscillator.

  4. Wind direction variability in Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Erik; Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Mahrt, Larry

    2014-05-01

    Understanding wind direction (WD) variability better is important for several reasons. Air pollution models need information about how variable wind direction is in different conditions (Davies and Thomson 1999). Accurate predictions of dispersion are important for human health and safety and allow for adaptation planning (Nagle et al. 2011). Other applications include horizontal diffusion, efficiency and fatigue of wind machines and air-sea interaction (Mahrt 2011). Most studies of wind direction variability have focused on nocturnal conditions because of greater variability in light winds. Modelling WD variability in transition periods when both mean wind speed and variance of the wind components are in a state of change can, however, also be very challenging and has not been the focus of earlier studies. The evening transitioning to the nocturnal boundary layer can play an important role in the diffusion process of pollutants and scalars emitted at surface and transported within the atmosphere. The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign that took place in southern France in June and July 2011 focused on the decaying turbulence of the late afternoon boundary layer and related issues (Lothon et al. 2012). We analyse field measurements from BLLAST to investigate WD variability in the evening transition period. Standard deviations of horizontal wind direction fluctuations in the lowest 60 m of the boundary layer have been examined for dependence on mean wind speed, higher order moments and averaging time. Measurement results are interpreted using measured and idealized probability density functions of horizontal wind vectors. These are also used to develop analytical functions describing how WD variability depends on wind speed, variance and other controlling factors in the atmospheric boundary layer. References: Davies B.M., Thomson D.J., 1999. Comparison of some parameterizations of wind direction variability with observations

  5. Mental activity after early afternoon nap awakenings in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Gemignani, Angelo; Feinberg, Irwin; Guazzelli, Mario; Campbell, Ian G

    2004-06-30

    Despite the common misconception that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a unique correlate of dreaming, reports of mental activity can be elicited after awakenings from any stage of nocturnal sleep. We extended the investigation to naps and tried to explore the relationship between recall length and level of sleep stage and depth preceding the awakening. We hypothesized that dream report length would be related to arousal level. In 10 healthy young adults, sleep EEG and EOG were recorded for four non-consecutive early afternoon naps. Dream recalls were recorded following 10 s, 1 min, and 6 min of NREM Stage 2 and after 5 min of first REM period. We measured mental recall with total word count (TWC) method, sleep stages by using EEG visual scoring and Delta and Beta activity by period amplitude (PAA) and power spectral (PSA) analyses. All awakening conditions were followed by a dream report. TWC was significantly greater after REM than after 10 s and 1 min of NREM, and TWC did not differ among the NREM awakenings. Delta activity after REM was significantly lower compared to the NREM 6 and 1 min while Beta activity did not differ across the conditions. Assuming that arousal level decreased with increased NREM duration and increasing Delta EEG activity, the constant TWC across the three NREM awakenings indicates that arousal level cannot be the only factor affecting dream report length. Some other factor such as memory processing may explain the longer dream reports following REM sleep, or it may be that the EEG is an imperfect indicator of arousal level. PMID:15245762

  6. a Mint Julep on a Hot Summer's Afternoon --Review of Forrest Gump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦明津

    2012-01-01

    Forrest Gump is a world wide famous movie.The most frequently recurring theme is an admonition not to give up on life. And its optimism, freshness, and emotional honesty Can reduce its audience to tears.It is just like a mint julep on a hot summer's afternoon.

  7. Turbulence Kinetic Energy budget during the afternoon transition - Part 2: A simple TKE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, E.; Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Pardyjak, E.; Hartogensis, O.; Darbieu, C.

    2015-11-01

    A simple model for turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and the TKE budget is presented for sheared convective atmospheric conditions based on observations from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign. It is based on an idealized mixed-layer approximation and a simplified near-surface TKE budget. In this model, the TKE is dependent on four budget terms (turbulent dissipation rate, buoyancy production, shear production and vertical transport of TKE) and only requires measurements of three input available (near-surface buoyancy flux, boundary layer depth and wind speed at one height in the surface layer). This simple model is shown to reproduce some of the observed variations between the different studied days in terms of near-surface TKE and its decay during the afternoon transition reasonably well. It is subsequently used to systematically study the effects of buoyancy and shear on TKE evolution using idealized constant and time-varying winds during the afternoon transition. From this, we conclude that many different TKE decay rates are possible under time-varying winds and that generalizing the decay with simple scaling laws for near-surface TKE of the form tα may be questionable. The model's errors result from the exclusion of processes such as elevated shear production and horizontal advection. The model also produces an overly rapid decay of shear production with height. However, the most influential budget terms governing near-surface TKE in the observed sheared convective boundary layers are included, while only second order factors are neglected. Comparison between modeled and averaged observed estimates of dissipation rate illustrate that the overall behavior of the model is often quite reasonable. Therefore, we use the model to discuss the low turbulence conditions that form first in the upper parts of the boundary layer during the afternoon transition and are only apparent later near the surface. This occurs as a

  8. Turbulence kinetic energy budget during the afternoon transition - Part 2: A simple TKE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Erik; Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Pardyjak, Eric; Hartogensis, Oscar; Darbieu, Clara

    2016-07-01

    A simple model for turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and the TKE budget is presented for sheared convective atmospheric conditions based on observations from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign. It is based on an idealized mixed-layer approximation and a simplified near-surface TKE budget. In this model, the TKE is dependent on four budget terms (turbulent dissipation rate, buoyancy production, shear production and vertical transport of TKE) and only requires measurements of three available inputs (near-surface buoyancy flux, boundary layer depth and wind speed at one height in the surface layer) to predict vertical profiles of TKE and TKE budget terms.This simple model is shown to reproduce some of the observed variations between the different studied days in terms of near-surface TKE and its decay during the afternoon transition reasonably well. It is subsequently used to systematically study the effects of buoyancy and shear on TKE evolution using idealized constant and time-varying winds during the afternoon transition. From this, we conclude that many different TKE decay rates are possible under time-varying winds and that generalizing the decay with simple scaling laws for near-surface TKE of the form tα may be questionable.The model's errors result from the exclusion of processes such as elevated shear production and horizontal advection. The model also produces an overly rapid decay of shear production with height. However, the most influential budget terms governing near-surface TKE in the observed sheared convective boundary layers are included, while only second-order factors are neglected. Comparison between modeled and averaged observed estimates of dissipation rate illustrates that the overall behavior of the model is often quite reasonable. Therefore, we use the model to discuss the low-turbulence conditions that form first in the upper parts of the boundary layer during the afternoon transition and are only

  9. Strategy for Mitigating Collision Between Landsat-5 and the Afternoon Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Joshua A.; Palmer, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Science Mission Operations project, the French space agency Centre National d tudes Spatiales, the Argentinian space agency Comisi n Nacional de Actividades Espaciales, and the United States Geological Survey all operate spacecraft in sun-synchronous frozen orbits. The orbits are planned to not place any of the spacecraft at risk of colliding with another. However, evolution of these orbits over time has com-promised the safe interaction between Landsat-5 and the Afternoon Constella-tion. This paper analyzes the interactions between the Landsat-5 spacecraft and the Afternoon Constellation members over a period of 6 years, describing the current risk and plan to mitigate collisions in the future.

  10. Numerical simulation of a severe late afternoon thunderstorm over Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Khai Shen; Juneng, Liew; Tangang, Fredolin T.; Hussin, Abdul Ghapor; Mahmud, Mastura

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the genesis and development of a tropical afternoon thunderstorm system over the central part of the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia on 10 June 2007. An attempt was made to numerically simulate the occurrence of the westward propagating rain system using the Pennsylvania State University — National Center for Atmospheric Research fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). The prevailing wind convergence at the lower troposphere increased the humidity and instability of the atmosphere. The results illustrate that convection was initiated due to surface heating and became stronger in the early afternoon. The convective activity was further enhanced by the interaction between the sea breeze from the Straits of Malacca and the strong easterly winds from the South China Sea. Due to orographic settings, the convergence of these wind systems occurred in the vicinity of the Klang Valley area and led to heavy rainfall that caused a flash flood in the affected region. This case study suggests that land and sea breeze circulations, modified by local topography are potentially crucial to the initialization and development of severe afternoon thunderstorms over the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

  11. Rye kernel breakfast increases satiety in the afternoon - an effect of food structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredriksson Helena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure of whole grain cereals is maintained to varying degrees during processing and preparation of foods. Food structure can influence metabolism, including perceived hunger and satiety. A diet that enhances satiety per calorie may help to prevent excessive calorie intake. The objective of this work was to compare subjective appetite ratings after consumption of intact and milled rye kernels. Methods Two studies were performed using a randomized, cross-over design. Ratings for appetite (hunger, satiety and desire to eat were registered during an 8-h period after consumption of whole and milled rye kernels prepared as breads (study 1, n = 24 and porridges (study 2, n = 20. Sifted wheat bread was used as reference in both study parts and the products were eaten in iso-caloric portions with standardized additional breakfast foods. Breads and porridges were analyzed to determine whether structure (whole vs. milled kernels effected dietary fibre content and composition after preparation of the products. Statistical evaluation of the appetite ratings after intake of the different breakfasts was done by paired t-tests for morning and afternoon ratings separately, with subjects as random effect and type of breakfast and time points as fixed effects. Results All rye breakfasts resulted in higher satiety ratings in the morning and afternoon compared with the iso-caloric reference breakfast with sifted wheat bread. Rye bread with milled or whole kernels affected appetite equally, so no effect of structure was observed. In contrast, after consumption of the rye kernel breakfast, satiety was increased and hunger suppressed in the afternoon compared with the milled rye kernel porridge breakfast. This effect could be related to structural differences alone, because the products were equal in nutritional content including dietary fibre content and composition. Conclusions The study demonstrates that small changes in diet composition

  12. Cerebrovascular responses during rowing: Do circadian rhythms explain morning and afternoon performance differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faull, O K; Cotter, J D; Lucas, S J E

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cerebrovascular responses to rowing exercise, investigating whether their diurnal variation might explain performance differences across a day. Twelve male rowers completed incremental rowing exercise and a 2000-m ergometer time trial at 07:00 h and 16:00 h, 1 week apart, while middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), cerebral (prefrontal), and muscular (vastus lateralis) tissue oxygenation and hemoglobin volume (via near-infrared spectroscopy), heart rate, and pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PET CO2) were recorded. MCAv was 20-25% above resting levels (68 ± 12 cm/s) during submaximal and maximal exercise intensities, despite PET CO2 being reduced during maximal efforts (down ∼ 0.5-0.8 kPa); thus revealing a different perfusion profile to the inverted-U observed in other exercise modes. The afternoon time trial was 3.4 s faster (95% confidence interval 0.9-5.8 s) and mean power output 3.2% higher (337 vs 347 W; P = 0.04), in conjunction with similar exercise-induced elevations in MCAv (P = 0.60) and reductions in cerebral oxygenation (TOI) (P = 0.12). At the muscle, afternoon trials involved similar oxygen extraction (HHb volume and TOI) albeit from a relatively lower total Hb volume (P rowing performance was better in the afternoon, but not in conjunction with differences in MCAv or exercise-induced differences in cerebral oxygenation. PMID:24942089

  13. Seasonal analysis of the planetary boundary-layer afternoon and evening transition through observational measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Yagüe, Carlos; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Maqueda, Gregorio

    2016-04-01

    From a typically convective diurnal situation to a stably stratified nocturnal one, the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) experiences the so-called afternoon and evening transition. This period is complex to study due to the presence of many different forcings, usually weak and opposite [1]. In this work, the transitional processes are studied by using 6-year data from permanent instrumentation at CIBA, a research center located in the Spanish Northern plateau. These measurements include particulate matter (PM) and turbulent records. Certain variables display a twin pattern in their time evolution for all the seasons, only differing in their absolute values. On the contrary, the air specific humidity behaves differently for each season, which is distinct to the results from a previous study at a different location [2]. Besides, a common pattern of increasing PM values near sunset is found, with a number of influences playing a role in PM concentrations: stability, turbulence and ABL thickness among others. In particular, the competing thermal and mechanical turbulent effects result in PM concentration reduction (settling on the ground or being advected) or increase, depending in each case on the specific season and particle group. Furthermore, the relative importance of the bigger PM (between 2.5 and 10 μm) is linked to the wind minimum around sunset, especially during summer. [1] Lothon, M. and coauthors (2014): The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10931-10960. [2] Wingo, S. M. and Knupp, K. R. (2015): Multi-platform observations characterizing the afternoon-to-evening transition of the planetary boundary layer in Northern Alabama, USA, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 155, 29-53.

  14. Does Increasing Active Warm-Up Duration Affect Afternoon Short-Term Maximal Performance during Ramadan?

    OpenAIRE

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Methods Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. ...

  15. The Ascent Plan of GCOM-W1 to the Afternoon Constellation (A-Train)

    OpenAIRE

    山元, 透; Yamamoto, Toru; 中村, 涼; Nakamura, Ryo; 佐々木, 俊崇; Sasaki, Toshitaka; 染谷, 一徳; Someya, Kazunori; 杢野, 正明; Mokuno, Masaaki; 伊藤, 徳政; Ito, Norimasa; 河野, 功; Kawano, Isao; 中川, 敬三

    2012-01-01

    The Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) is JAXA's project for the global and long-term observation of the Earth environment. GCOM is expected to play an important role in monitoring global water circulation and climate change. It will be a kind of health checkup of the Earth from space. GCOM-W1 is the first satellite in the GCOM-W series and carries the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), whose mission it is to observe the Earth's water cycle mechanism. || The Afternoon C...

  16. Effects of unconditioned stimulus intensity and fear extinction on subsequent sleep architecture in an afternoon nap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Anna; Czisch, Michael; Spoormaker, Victor I

    2013-12-01

    Impaired fear extinction and disturbed sleep coincide in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the nature of this relationship is unclear. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation impairs fear extinction recall in rodents and young healthy subjects, and animal models have demonstrated both disrupted sleep after fear conditioning and normalized sleep after extinction learning. As a correlation between unconditioned stimulus (US) responding and subsequent sleep architecture has been observed in healthy subjects, the goal of this study was to test whether US intensity would causally affect subsequent sleep. Twenty-four young healthy subjects underwent a fear conditioning session with skin conductance response measurements before an afternoon session of polysomnographically recorded sleep (up to 120 min) in the sleep laboratory. Two factors were manipulated experimentally in a 2 × 2 design: US (electrical shock) was set at high or low intensity, and subjects did or did not receive an extinction session after fear conditioning. We observed that neither factor affected REM sleep amount, that high US intensity nominally increased sleep fragmentation (more Stage 1 sleep, stage shifts and wake after sleep onset), and that extinction increased Stage 4 amount. Moreover, reduced Stage 1 and increased Stage 4 and REM sleep were associated with subjective sleep quality of the afternoon nap. These results provide evidence for the notion that US intensity and extinction affect subsequent sleep architecture in young healthy subjects, which may provide a translational bridge from findings in animal studies to correlations observed in PTSD patients. PMID:23919462

  17. Boundary layer plasmas as a source for high-latitude, early afternoon, auroral arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous measurements of hot boundary layer plasma from PROGNOZ-7 and particle precipitation from the TIROS/NOAA satellite in nearly magnetically conjugate regions have been used to study the dynamo process responsible for the formation of high latitude, early afternoon, auroral arcs. Characteristic for the PROGNOZ-7 observations in the dayside boundary layer at high latitudes is the frequent occurrence of regions with injected magnetosheath plasma embedded in a 'halo' of antisunward flowing magnetosphere plasma. The injected magnetosheath plasma have several features which indicate that it also acts as a local source of EMF in the boundary layer. The process resembles that of a local MHD dynamo driven by the excess drift velocity of the injected magnetosheath plasma relative to the background magnetospheric plasma. The dynamo region is capable of driving fielc-aligned currents that couple to the ionosphere, where the upward current is associated with the high latitude auroral arcs. We demonstrate that the large-scale morphology as well as the detailed data intercomparison between PROGNOZ-7 and TIROS-N both agree well with a local injection of magnetosheath plasma into the dayside boundary layer as the main dynamo process powering the high-latitude, early afternoon auroral arcs. (Author)

  18. Energy policy: the stakes of a global overview. Synthesis of the afternoon works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a report of the debates that took place at the French national assembly in October 1999 concerning the French energy policy and more particularly the new electricity and gas directives, the energy choices, the development of renewable energies, the building of the future EPR European Pressurized water reactor, the development of more efficient transportation systems, the reduction of air pollution and the fight against the greenhouse effect, and the mastery of energy consumptions. This synthesis of the afternoon works reports on the point of views exchanged during the last round table of the day about the stakes of the opening of the European energy market (internationalization and decentralization of the electricity and natural gas markets). (J.S.)

  19. Does increasing active warm-up duration affect afternoon short-term maximal performance during Ramadan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Baklouti

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test.Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan.The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.

  20. The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lothon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the major role of the sun in heating the earth's surface, the atmospheric planetary boundary layer over land is inherently marked by a diurnal cycle. The afternoon transition, the period of the day that connects the daytime dry convective to the night-time stable boundary layer, still raises several scientific issues. This phase of the diurnal cycle is challenging from both modeling and observational perspectives: it is transitory, most of the forcings are small or null and the turbulence regime changes from fully convective regime, close to homogeneous and isotropic, toward a more heterogeneous and intermittent state. These issues motivated the BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence field campaign that was conducted from 14 June to 8 July 2011 in southern France, in an area of complex and heterogeneous terrain. A wide range of integrated instrument platforms including full-size aircraft, remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS, remote sensing instruments, radiosoundings, tethered balloons, surface flux stations, and various meteorological towers were deployed over different surface types. The boundary layer, from the earth's surface to the free troposphere, was probed during the entire day, with a focus and intense observations from midday until sunset. The BLLAST field campaign also provided an opportunity to test innovative measurement systems, like new miniaturized sensors, and a new technique for frequent radiosoundings of the low troposphere. Twelve fair weather days displaying various meteorological conditions were extensively documented during the field experiment. The boundary layer growth varied from one day to another depending on many contributions including stability, advection, subsidence, the state of the residual layer of the previous day, as well as local, meso- or synoptic scale conditions. Ground-based measurements combined with tethered-balloon and airborne observations captured the turbulence

  1. Morning NO2 Exposure Sensitizes Hypertensive Rats to the Cardiovascular Effects of Same Day O3 Exposure in the Afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within urban air sheds specific ambient air pollutants typically peak at predictable times throughout the day. For example, in environments dominated by mobile sources, peak nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels coincide with morning and afternoon rush hours , whil...

  2. Frequency and Types of Foods Advertised on Saturday Morning and Weekday Afternoon English- and Spanish-Language American Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana; Culp, Jennifer; Alcalay, Rina

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe food advertised on networks serving children and youth, and to compare ads on English-language networks with ads on Spanish networks. Design: Analysis of television food advertisements appearing on Saturday morning and weekday afternoons in 2005-2006. A random sample of 1,130 advertisements appearing on 12 networks catering…

  3. Chronotype, Light Exposure, Sleep, and Daytime Functioning in High School Students Attending Morning or Afternoon School Shifts: An Actigraphic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Gaudreault, Michael M; Perron, Michel; Laberge, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent maturation is associated with delays of the endogenous circadian phase. Consequently, early school schedules may lead to a mismatch between internal and external time, which can be detrimental to adolescent sleep and health. In parallel, chronotype is known to play a role in adolescent health; evening chronotype adolescents are at higher risk for sleep problems and lower academic achievement. In the summer of 2008, Kénogami High School (Saguenay, Canada) was destroyed by fire. Kénogami students were subsequently relocated to Arvida High School (situated 5.3 km away) for the 2008-2009 academic year. A dual school schedule was implemented, with Arvida students attending a morning schedule (0740-1305 h) and Kénogami students an afternoon schedule (1325-1845 h). This study aimed to investigate the effects of such school schedules and chronotype on sleep, light exposure, and daytime functioning. Twenty-four morning and 33 afternoon schedule students wore an actigraph during 7 days to measure sleep and light exposure. Academic achievement was obtained from school. Subjects completed validated questionnaires on daytime sleepiness, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, alcohol, and chronotype. Overall, afternoon schedule students had longer sleep duration, lower sleepiness, and lower light exposure than morning schedule students. Evening chronotypes (E-types) reported higher levels of sleepiness than morning chronotypes (M-types) in both morning and afternoon schedules. Furthermore, M-types attending the morning schedule reported higher sleepiness than M-types attending the afternoon schedule. No difference was found between morning and afternoon schedule students with regard to academic achievement, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, and alcohol consumption. However, in both schedules, M-type had more regular social rhythms and lower alcohol consumption. In summary, this study emphasizes that an early school

  4. Effects of afternoon "siesta" naps on sleep, alertness, performance, and circadian rhythms in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Carrier, J.; Billy, B. D.; Rose, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a 90-minute afternoon nap regimen on nocturnal sleep, circadian rhythms, and evening alertness and performance levels in the healthy elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nine healthy elderly subjects (4m, 5f, age range 74y-87y) each experienced both nap and no-nap conditions in two studies each lasting 17 days (14 at home, 3 in the laboratory). In the nap condition a 90-minute nap was enforced between 13:30 and 15:00 every day, in the no-nap condition daytime napping was prohibited, and activity encouraged in the 13:30-15:00 interval. The order of the two conditions was counterbalanced. PARTICIPANTS: N/A INTERVENTIONS: N/A MEASUREMENTS: Diary measures, pencil and paper alertness tests, and wrist actigraphy were used at home. In the 72 hour laboratory studies, these measures were augmented by polysomnographic sleep recording, continuous rectal temperature measurement, a daily evening single trial of a Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), and computerized tests of mood, activation and performance efficiency. RESULTS: By the second week in the "at home" study, an average of 58 minutes of sleep was reported per siesta nap; in the laboratory, polysomnography confirmed an average of 57 minutes of sleep per nap. When nap and no-nap conditions were compared, mixed effects on nocturnal sleep were observed. Diary measures indicated no significant difference in nocturnal sleep duration, but a significant increase (of 38 mins.) in 24-hour Total Sleep Time (TST) when nocturnal sleeps and naps were added together (psleep efficiency in the nap condition (pSleep Time (TST) by 48 mins. in the nap condition (peffects on Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO), delta sleep measures, or percent stages 1 & 2. Unlike the diary study, the laboratory study yielded no overall increase in 24-hour TST consequent upon the siesta nap regimen. The only measure of evening alertness or performance to show an improvement was sleep latency in a single-trial evening MSLT

  5. Short-term effects of chewing gum on satiety and afternoon snack intake in healthy weight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Inui, Taichi; Kergoat, Sophie; Kelley, Michael; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2016-05-15

    Afternoon snacking contributes significantly to total energy intake. Strategies to enhance the satiety value of lunch and reduce afternoon snacking are of interest for body weight management. To assess whether between-meal gum chewing would enhance the satiety response to a fixed lunch meal; and assess the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) as a potential mediator of the response in non-obese healthy weight and obese women. Fifty unrestrained obese (n=25) and non-obese healthy weight (n=25) women participated in a two-arm cross-over study assessing multiple (15min per hour×3h) gum chewing (GUM) occurrences or no gum (Control) on subjective ratings of satiety, subsequent sweet and salty snack intake, CCK and general metabolic responses. GUM compared to Control resulted in significant suppression of hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption (pGUM, but not significantly different from Control (p=0.08). However, overall carbohydrate intake was reduced by GUM (p=0.03). This was consistent with a reduction in snacks characterized as high carbohydrate, low fat (p=0.02). BMI specific effects indicated GUM reduced pretzel intake in obese women (p=0.05) and Oreo cookie intake in healthy weight women (p=0.03) 3h after lunch. Metabolic responses and CCK did not differ between experimental conditions. Chewing gum intermittently post-lunch enhances perceptions of satiety and may have important implications in reducing afternoon high carbohydrate-snack intake. PMID:26948161

  6. CERN Technical Training 2002: Learning for the LHC! INTRODUCTION TO PVSS: FREE SESSION ON 11.11.2002 (AFTERNOON)

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2002-01-01

    A free-of-charge Introduction to PVSS session will be offered at CERN on November 11, 2002 (afternoon). This course is designed for people interested in SCADA-systems, and will provide an overview of PVSS features and possibilities. The programme will include a presentation of what can be done with the SCADA-system PVSS and of how PVSS is being used at CERN. A session of the complete Basic PVSS course would follow on 12-14 November (cost: 600.- CHF). More information, full programme and online registration by EDH are available from the CERN 2002 Technical Training pages or by contacting Technical.Training@cern.ch

  7. Turbulence Kinetic Energy budget during the afternoon transition – Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period days

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, E.; Lohou, F.; M. Lothon; Pardyjak, E.; Mahrt, L.; C. Darbieu

    2015-01-01

    The decay of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and its budget in the afternoon period from mid-day until zero buoyancy flux at the surface is studied in a two-part paper by means of measurements from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign for 10 Intensive Observation Period days. Here, in Part 1, near-surface measurements from a small tower are used to estimate a TKE budget. The overall boundary layer characteristics a...

  8. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping are associated with higher risk of incident diabetes in middle-aged and older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Bing; Wang, Jing; Pan, An; Li, Yaru; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2016-06-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the independent and combined effects of sleep duration and afternoon napping on the risk of incident diabetes among a cohort of middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Methods Information of sleep and napping was obtained by questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. We categorized sleep duration into  90 min. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Compared with referential sleeping group, subjects sleeping ≥10 h had a 42% higher risk of developing diabetes. The HR was 1.28 for napping > 90 min when compared with no napping. These associations were more pronounced in individuals without hypertension. Combined effects of long sleep duration and afternoon napping were further identified. Individuals with both sleep duration ≥ 10 h and napping > 60 min had a 72% higher risk of incident diabetes than those with sleeping 7∼sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. Key messages Sleep duration was associated with diabetes, but whether it is a real cause of incident diabetes especially in Chinese still remains to be elucidated. The association of afternoon napping and diabetes was not consistent and definite, we clarified this association in a large prospective study. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. PMID:26969344

  9. Morning versus afternoon cutting time of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) affects feed intake, milk yield and composition in Girgentana goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Renato Italo; Valenti, Bernardo; De Angelis, Anna; Avondo, Marcella; Pennisi, Pietro

    2011-11-01

    Twenty lactating Girgentana goats were used to evaluate the effect of morning v. afternoon cutting time of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition. Goats were randomly divided into two groups of ten animals, receiving 10 kg of fresh Berseem clover cut at 9.00 (AM group) or 16.00 (PM group), respectively; 500 g of concentrate was given individually to goats before offering forage. Feed intake increased (PMilk production, protein and casein content were higher (Pmilk fat, lactose or urea content. Body weight slowly decreased from the start to the end of the experiment, without differences between groups. This study showed an important milk yield responses in Girgentana goats offered afternoon-cut compared with morning-cut Berseem clover, due to a marked increase in WSC in the afternoon-cut forage. PMID:21939575

  10. Turbulence Kinetic Energy budget during the afternoon transition - Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, E.; Lohou, F.; Lothon, M.; Pardyjak, E.; Mahrt, L.; Darbieu, C.

    2015-11-01

    The decay of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and its budget in the afternoon period from mid-day until zero buoyancy flux at the surface is studied in a two-part paper by means of measurements from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign for 10 Intensive Observation Period days. Here, in Part 1, near-surface measurements from a small tower are used to estimate a TKE budget. The overall boundary layer characteristics and meso-scale situation at the site are also described based upon taller tower measurements, radiosoundings and remote sensing instrumentation. Analysis of the TKE budget during the afternoon transition reveals a variety of different surface layer dynamics in terms of TKE and TKE decay. This is largely attributed to variations in the 8 m wind speed, which is responsible for different amounts of near-surface shear production on different afternoons and variations within some of the afternoon periods. The partitioning of near surface production into local dissipation and transport in neutral and unstably stratified conditions was investigated. Although variations exist both between and within afternoons, as a rule of thumb, our results suggest that about 50 % of the near surface production of TKE is compensated by local dissipation near the surface, leaving about 50 % available for transport. This result indicates that it is important to also consider TKE transport as a factor influencing the near-surface TKE decay rate, which in many earlier studies has mainly been linked with the production terms of TKE by buoyancy and wind shear. We also conclude that the TKE tendency is smaller than the other budget terms, indicating a quasi-stationary evolution of TKE in the afternoon transition. Even though the TKE tendency was observed to be small, a strong correlation to mean buoyancy production of -0.69 was found for the afternoon period. For comparison with previous results, the TKE budget terms are normalized with

  11. Turbulence Kinetic Energy budget during the afternoon transition – Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nilsson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The decay of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE and its budget in the afternoon period from mid-day until zero buoyancy flux at the surface is studied in a two-part paper by means of measurements from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST field campaign for 10 Intensive Observation Period days. Here, in Part 1, near-surface measurements from a small tower are used to estimate a TKE budget. The overall boundary layer characteristics and meso-scale situation at the site are also described based upon taller tower measurements, radiosoundings and remote sensing instrumentation. Analysis of the TKE budget during the afternoon transition reveals a variety of different surface layer dynamics in terms of TKE and TKE decay. This is largely attributed to variations in the 8 m wind speed, which is responsible for different amounts of near-surface shear production on different afternoons and variations within some of the afternoon periods. The partitioning of near surface production into local dissipation and transport in neutral and unstably stratified conditions was investigated. Although variations exist both between and within afternoons, as a rule of thumb, our results suggest that about 50 % of the near surface production of TKE is compensated by local dissipation near the surface, leaving about 50 % available for transport. This result indicates that it is important to also consider TKE transport as a factor influencing the near-surface TKE decay rate, which in many earlier studies has mainly been linked with the production terms of TKE by buoyancy and wind shear. We also conclude that the TKE tendency is smaller than the other budget terms, indicating a quasi-stationary evolution of TKE in the afternoon transition. Even though the TKE tendency was observed to be small, a strong correlation to mean buoyancy production of −0.69 was found for the afternoon period. For comparison with previous results, the TKE budget terms are

  12. Turbulence kinetic energy budget during the afternoon transition - Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Erik; Lohou, Fabienne; Lothon, Marie; Pardyjak, Eric; Mahrt, Larry; Darbieu, Clara

    2016-07-01

    The decay of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and its budget in the afternoon period from midday until zero-buoyancy flux at the surface is studied in a two-part paper by means of measurements from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign for 10 intensive observation period days. Here, in Part 1, near-surface measurements from a small tower are used to estimate a TKE budget. The overall boundary layer characteristics and mesoscale situation at the site are also described based upon taller tower measurements, radiosoundings and remote sensing instrumentation. Analysis of the TKE budget during the afternoon transition reveals a variety of different surface layer dynamics in terms of TKE and TKE decay. This is largely attributed to variations in the 8 m wind speed, which is responsible for different amounts of near-surface shear production on different afternoons and variations within some of the afternoon periods. The partitioning of near-surface production into local dissipation and transport in neutral and unstably stratified conditions was investigated. Although variations exist both between and within afternoons, as a rule of thumb, our results suggest that about 50 % of the near-surface production of TKE is compensated for by local dissipation near the surface, leaving about 50 % available for transport. This result indicates that it is important to also consider TKE transport as a factor influencing the near-surface TKE decay rate, which in many earlier studies has mainly been linked with the production terms of TKE by buoyancy and wind shear. We also conclude that the TKE tendency is smaller than the other budget terms, indicating a quasi-stationary evolution of TKE in the afternoon transition. Even though the TKE tendency was observed to be small, a strong correlation to mean buoyancy production of -0.69 was found for the afternoon period. For comparison with previous results, the TKE budget terms are normalized with

  13. Performance and nitrogen use efficiency in mid-lactation dairy cows fed timothy cut in the afternoon or morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, A F; Tremblay, G F; Bertrand, A; Castonguay, Y; Bélanger, G; Michaud, R; Lafrenière, C; Martineau, R; Berthiaume, R

    2016-07-01

    Shifting cutting from morning to afternoon has been shown to increase the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates in forages. We hypothesized that, compared with a total mixed ration containing timothy baleage and silage cut in the morning (a.m.-cut TIM), a total mixed ration containing timothy baleage and silage cut in the afternoon (p.m.-cut TIM) would improve animal performance and N use efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein cows due to enhanced supply of ruminal fermentable energy. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of p.m.- versus a.m.-cut TIM on milk yield, concentrations and yields of milk components, ruminal metabolism, and plasma concentrations of AA in mid-lactation Holstein cows. Ten (6 ruminally cannulated) primiparous cows averaging 139±13 d in milk and 550±56 kg of body weight, and 6 (2 ruminally cannulated) multiparous cows averaging 128±11 d in milk and 632±57 kg of body weight at the beginning of the experiment, were used in a crossover design. Each period lasted 21 d with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. The concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates (water-soluble carbohydrates plus starch) was numerically greater in the p.m.- versus the a.m.-cut TIM and averaged 13.2±1.06% and 12.2±1.13%, respectively. Treatment × parity effects were observed for milk urea N, feed efficiency, and milk N efficiency, whereas parity effects were observed for nutrient intake, milk yield, and plasma concentration of several essential and nonessential AA. Intakes of dry matter (19.3 versus 18.6 kg/d) and nonstructural carbohydrates (2.56 versus 2.31 kg/d), and yields of 4% fat-corrected milk (23.1 versus 22.2 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (25.0 versus 24.1 kg/d), milk fat (0.91 versus 0.88 kg/d), and milk protein (0.77 versus 0.73 kg/d) were all greatest with feeding p.m.-cut TIM. Milk yield (23.5 versus 22.7 kg/d) tended to increase in cows fed p.m.-cut TIM. The ruminal fermentation profiles and plasma

  14. Water content of faeces is higher in the afternoon than in the morning in morning-fed dogs fed diets containing texturised vegetable protein from soya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard C; Burrows, Colin F; Ellison, Gary W; Finke, Mark D; Huntington, Jennifer L; Bauer, John E

    2011-10-01

    Faecal moisture content can determine whether faeces appear soft or firm, and faecal character can influence whether owners are satisfied with a dog food. In a previous study, dogs appeared to produce softer faeces after noon. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether time of defecation affected canine faecal water content. A total of eight hound dogs were fed one of four canned diets as a single meal each morning for 1 week per diet in a Latin square design. All four diets contained approximately 77 % moisture and, on a DM basis, 24 MJ/kg gross energy, 23 % crude protein, 32 % crude fat, 31 % N-free extract and 1 % crude fibre. The proportion of dietary protein from soya-derived texturised vegetable protein (TVP):beef was 0:100, 14:86, 29:71 and 57:43, respectively. Soya carbohydrate partially replaced maize starch as TVP increased. Faeces were collected by direct catch during the sixth morning and afternoon of each diet period. Mean faecal moisture content was greater in the afternoon than in the morning (79 v. 71 %; P = 0.01) and increased with dietary TVP (P ≤ 0.0001), and there was an interaction between time of day and percentage TVP (P = 0.003). Faecal moisture content differed from morning to afternoon only with TVP in the diet. Faecal wet weight was similar from morning to afternoon. This suggests that time of day and presence of TVP from soya should be taken into account when evaluating the effect of a diet on faecal form and moisture content in dogs fed once daily. PMID:22005429

  15. Effects of Performing Morning Versus Afternoon Exercise on Glycemic Control and Hypoglycemia Frequency in Type 1 Diabetes Patients on Sensor-Augmented Insulin Pump Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ana Maria; Gomez, Claudia; Aschner, Pablo; Veloza, Angelica; Muñoz, Oscar; Rubio, Claudia; Vallejo, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although physical exercise (PE) is recommended for individuals with type 1 diabetes (DM1), participation in exercise is challenging because it increases the risk of severe hypoglycemia and the available therapeutic options to prevent it frequently result in hyperglycemia. There is no clear recommendation about the best timing for exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the risk of hypoglycemia after morning or afternoon exercise sessions up to 36 hours postworkout. Methods: This randomized crossover study enrolled subjects with DM1, older than 18 years of age, on sensor-augmented insulin pump (SAP) therapy. Participants underwent 2 moderate-intensity exercise sessions; 1 in the morning and 1 in the afternoon, separated by a 7 to 14 day wash-out period. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data were collected 24 hours before, during and 36 hours after each session. Results: Thirty-five subjects (mean age 30.31 ± 12.66 years) participated in the study. The rate of hypoglycemia was significantly lower following morning versus afternoon exercise sessions (5.6 vs 10.7 events per patient, incidence rate ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43-0.63; P < .0001). Most hypoglycemic events occurred 15-24 hours after the session. On days following morning exercise sessions, there were 20% more CGM readings in near-euglycemic range (70-200 mg/dL) than on days prior to morning exercise (P = .003). Conclusions: Morning exercise confers a lower risk of late-onset hypoglycemia than afternoon exercise and improves metabolic control on the subsequent day. PMID:25555390

  16. Caries Epidemiology and Community Dentistry: Chances for Future Improvements in Caries Risk Groups. Outcomes of the ORCA Saturday Afternoon Symposium, Greifswald, 2014. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splieth, Christian H; Christiansen, Jette; Foster Page, Lyndie A

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the first part of the outcomes of the ORCA Saturday Afternoon Symposium 2014 dealing with 'caries epidemiology and community dentistry: chances for future improvements in caries risk groups'. After the caries decline in many countries, there are remaining pockets of higher caries levels, mostly in the primary dentition and/or linked to a low socio-economic status (SES). The review into the evidence of caries-preventive measures clearly points to the use of fluorides, especially toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and collective measures such as water fluoridation. In contrast to several unsuccessful high-risk approaches, community and public health programmes seem to be able to ensure a population-wide access and compliance in risk groups. Their simple and evidence-based measures mostly combine regular plaque removal and fluoride applications via toothbrushing, at least for children and adolescents. For the future, the common risk factor approach which addresses associations between oral health, social deprivation, diet, hygiene, smoking, alcohol use and stress should lead to combined efforts with other community health and education specialists. Further engagement with public policy, community leaders and administration is needed in order to strengthen healthy choices and behaviour, e.g. in 'healthy' schools and kindergartens. It seems advisable that these population programmes also aim at improving upstream factors. PMID:26752628

  17. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our contributions is available. Altogether, we contributed nearly 13,000 words to 44 articles.#aas228 @WikiEducation pic.twitter.com/Xj837wjuDJ AAS Executive Office (@AAS_Office) June 15, 2016The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: The Way Forward (by Gourav Khullar)After the town-hall with an open mic that raised exceptional questions in the morning, some of the pioneers of the field of scientific cosmology were here with their concluding remarks about the future of the field. John Carlstrom laid down the pipeline for future surveys that not only provide us with interesting constraints on current physics, but give us the opportunity to test new physics. He discussed the CMB, galaxy cluster growth, the Hubble constant and Baryonic Acoustic oscillations as parameters that would define our model of the universe cohesively in the future. The importance of facilities like LSST, SKA, DESI, CMB-S4 were discussed, and Carlstrom emphasized that over the next two decades these fantastic machines will decide the fate of scientific cosmology. Leonard Susskind followed this up with a theoretical framework of how the ideas of inflation and vacuum energy could lead to our understanding of whether String Theory could be the correct theory of the universe. Love the yellow submarine analogy by Prof. Susskind #aas228 pic.twitter.com/sbPwjgdsg9 Jesus Salas (@TheSource007) June 15, 2016He touched upon multiverses with his analogy of a submarine floating in a sea with just the right amount of buoyancy balancing gravity a multiverse can have universes with different parameterized cosmological constants! Moreover, in Susskinds opinion, the only true limit that inhibits our understanding of the features of our universe beyond the cosmic event horizon was the event horizon of an event or phenomena. Jim Peebles concluding this mesmerizing series of talks with his opinions on how physics ought to be direct and assertive with its theories, and should take pride in its explanatory power (or should it?).Peebles: expect surprises and think outside the box yes! #aas228 Kevin Schawinski (@kevinschawinski) June 15, 2016His comparison of local vs. high-redshift cosmology in terms of scales of problems was outstanding, and he encouraged the audience and the community to keep an open mind. After all, in Sean Carrolls words, we do live in a preposterous universe, and the time is almost right to explain it all.This The Limits of Scientific Cosmology series at #aas228 has been absolutely fantastic. @AAS_Office please put videos on youtube! Kevin Schawinski (@kevinschawinski) June 15, 2016Press Conference Black Holes and Gamma-Ray Bursts (by Susanna Kohler)The final press conference of the meeting covered three topics from the categories of black holes and gamma-ray bursts.Fred Rasio (CIERA/Northwestern University) opened the conference with a discussion of how the systems that LIGO detected might have formed. There are two primary models for how these black-hole binaries are created. In the first, they start out as binary systems of two massive stars. If the binary survives the process of both stars collapsing into black holes, then a binary black hole system results.Rasio focused on the second theory, in which that black holes are formed in dense stellar clusters. These black holes then sink (via dynamical friction) to the centers of the clusters like dust particles settling on the floor of a room, where they form binaries in a black hole mosh pit eventually getting kicked out of the cluster by dynamical interactions. You can read more about their research in the press release here.Rasio presents a pretty awesome animation of this black hole mosh pit. https://t.co/AkewctI7uK#aas228 astrobites (@astrobites) June 15, 2016The effects of a spinning black hole on the spacetime around it. [J.P. Eekels J.M. Overduin]Next up was Richard Henry (Johns Hopkins University), who spoke about the internal structure of spinning black holes (known as Kerr black holes). Because no light can escape from black hole interiors, we cant learn whats in them via observation. Instead, we rely on mathematical descriptions of what their interiors look like. Henry and collaborators have developed a new coordinate-invariant depiction of the structure of black holes that reframes how we think about visualize their interiors. More information can be found in their paper here.The final press conference presentation was given by Maria Dainotti (Stanford University) on the subject of using gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as standard candles. Standard candles are astrophysical sources that have known luminosities. We can use the light we observe from standard candles to estimate their distance, making them useful tools for testing cosmological models.Type Ia supernovae (which always have roughly the same source brightness) are a typical example of a standard candle, and led to the discovery of dark energy in the 1990s. But if GRBs could be used in a similar way, they would be a much more powerful tool: theyre visible out to significantly further distances because theyre so bright. Dainotti and collaborators are analyzing a subset of GRBs from Swift observations that they term gold GRBs. By examining the correlations between parameters of these gold GRBs, Dainotti attempts to understand whether they can be used as standard candles.Plenary Session From the First Stars and Galaxies to the Epoch of Reionization: 20 Years of Computational Progress (by Gourav Khullar)Mike Normans (University of California San Diego) plenary talk concluded the AAS Plenary sessions with a treatise on the current generation of simulations that aim to characterize the first stars and galaxies that formed in the Universe. Last plenary talk for today. #aas228pic.twitter.com/uTaWt6Qi00 Daniel Caton (@DanielCaton) June 15, 2016Mike has been working in the field for a long time, and his collaborators work on the Enzo simulations is very well known. This talk was centered around some of the latest Enzo results, with a special emphasis on tracking down the Epoch of Reionization with a new series of runs called the Renaissance simulations. These runs focused on the most primeval galaxies ever formed in a cosmological box. Mikes team uses Blue Waters, USAs fastest supercomputer, situated in NCSA at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois (which also manages the large datasets coming out of the Dark Energy Survey!). The talk described the initial dark matter and gas dynamics along with a dark energy-supported metric evolution using simulations of a cosmic box that was the initial universe. The linear fluctuations of this initial universe formed the first stars (called Population III stars in the astrophysics community) from hydrogen and helium generated in the Big Bang. Mike and his team established a catalogue of these first stars, and parameterized these into a function that modeled how these stars became the first galaxies, and eventually into the larger galaxies from the merger of smaller galaxy halos. Michael Norman shows some new computational simulations of ionization in the early Universe. #aas228pic.twitter.com/pzXPMTgnIs Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) June 15, 2016The statistics of these first galaxies (from the above mentioned Renaissance simulations) show that the first galaxies formed around a redshift of z = 20, roughly around the same time as the first stars, and way before the actual epoch of reionization (at z ~ 7, the concept is described here). The simulation results extended this evolution to the epoch of reionization and put interesting constraints on observations of this epoch, when we can actually see the ionized gas from this epoch in our observations. Investigations are ongoing, and Mike Normans team is positive that the Enzo simulations are here to stay for a long time, challenging and collaborating with observations along the way.

  18. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our contributions is available. Altogether, we contributed nearly 13,000 words to 44 articles.#aas228 @WikiEducation pic.twitter.com/Xj837wjuDJ AAS Executive Office (@AAS_Office) June 15, 2016The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: The Way Forward (by Gourav Khullar)After the town-hall with an open mic that raised exceptional questions in the morning, some of the pioneers of the field of scientific cosmology were here with their concluding remarks about the future of the field. John Carlstrom laid down the pipeline for future surveys that not only provide us with interesting constraints on current physics, but give us the opportunity to test new physics. He discussed the CMB, galaxy cluster growth, the Hubble constant and Baryonic Acoustic oscillations as parameters that would define our model of the universe cohesively in the future. The importance of facilities like LSST, SKA, DESI, CMB-S4 were discussed, and Carlstrom emphasized that over the next two decades these fantastic machines will decide the fate of scientific cosmology. Leonard Susskind followed this up with a theoretical framework of how the ideas of inflation and vacuum energy could lead to our understanding of whether String Theory could be the correct theory of the universe. Love the yellow submarine analogy by Prof. Susskind #aas228 pic.twitter.com/sbPwjgdsg9 Jesus Salas (@TheSource007) June 15, 2016He touched upon multiverses with his analogy of a submarine floating in a sea with just the right amount of buoyancy balancing gravity a multiverse can have universes with different parameterized cosmological constants! Moreover, in Susskinds opinion, the only true limit that inhibits our understanding of the features of our universe beyond the cosmic event horizon was the event horizon of an event or phenomena. Jim Peebles concluding this mesmerizing series of talks with his opinions on how physics ought to be direct and assertive with its theories, and should take pride in its explanatory power (or should it?).Peebles: expect surprises and think outside the box yes! #aas228 Kevin Schawinski (@kevinschawinski) Ju

  19. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: Setting the Stage: Accepted Facts, and Testing Limitations in Theory and Data (by Gourav Khullar)With a stellar lineup of speakers to talk about current and future prospects of cosmology and its limits (or lack thereof), the first session kicked off with talks by Risa Wechsler, Joseph Silk, and Sean Carroll (his talk on Multiverses is described below, by Nathan Sanders). Risa set the stage with an elaborate description of the current accepted facts in the era of precision cosmology including the standard model of concordance cosmology, described by seven parameters and an accepted Lambda-CDM paradigm (with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter). The talk stressed on the fact that all these parameters are understood to a percent order precision, which is a remarkable deviation from the time in 1990s when according to Risa, Alan Guth never thought that any of these numbers could be measured precisely!Risa Wechsler describing our current constraints on what Dark Matter could constitute.Joseph Silk discussing limits on cosmological parameters.The CMB measurements, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis estimates and galaxy clustering statistics all contribute to locking down the description of our universe. She emphasized on the tensions between different probes to measure expansion rate H0 of the universe, and small scale predictions of cold dark matter simulations, but she is hopeful that these shall be resolved eventually. Joe Silk followed this up with his interpretation of trying to understand our place in the universe and placing limits on different parameters and scales that we measure, ranging from star masses to dark energy scale estimates.By invoking the anthropic principle, Silk pointed out that perhaps multiverses could offer a potential solution to certain causes of concern in our current models. The future looked good, and according to Silk, a better characterization of non-gaussianities using powerful simulations and precise CMB measurements is the way to go.The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: Normal Science in a Multiverse(by Nathan Sanders)Slotted into the contrarian slot of this special session on the limits of cosmology, Sean Carroll (Caltech) made a powerful argument for the normalcy of the multiverse prediction of inflationary and other theories of cosmology. While other scientists, including earlier speakers in the session, suggested that the intense difficulty of collecting data directly testing the multiverse prediction disqualifies it as a scientific theory, Carroll argued that this is no different from the reality of the scientific process applied generally. He combats the absolutist interpretation of Karl Poppers writing on demarcation, which implies that only imminently-falsifiable theories qualify as scientific. Instead, he points us to abduction as the fundamental motive of science, the idea that we seek to move towards the model that best explains the available evidence, closely related to Bayes theorem. He acknowledged that we may never collect enough evidence for our credence in the multiverse to converge to one, and yet it may definitely be true. While he puts his own credence in the multiverse at about 50%, Carroll concludes that we should not reject the possibility of the multiverse out of hand solely on the basis of philosophical arguments. Surprisingly, Carroll also comments that evidence can include both data and theory, specifically new interpretations of old ideas and new predictions. For example, Einstein did not make new observations of the precession of Mercury to lend credence (in the scientific sense) to his then-new theory of general relativity. Instead, he applied his theory for the

  20. Autumn Afternoon in Hale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The seasons on Mars and Earth are anti-correlated at present: days are getting shorter and shadows are getting longer as autumn end sand the beginning of winter draws nearer in the martian southern hemisphere, just as the same is occurring in Earth's northern hemisphere. Long shadows are especially prominent in this high resolution view of mountains forming part of the central peaks of Hale Crater (left), a 136 kilometer-(85 mile)-diameter impact crater at 36oS, 37oW. The two pictures were taken simultaneously by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera on November 10, 2000. The sun illuminates the scene from the northwest (upper left)about 22o above the horizon. Knowing the sun angle and the length of the longest shadow (1.6 km; 1.0 mi), the height of the largest peak in the high resolution view (right) is about 630 meters (2,070 ft) above the crater floor. Sand dunes blanket the middle portion of the high resolution view, and small gullies--possibly carved by water--can be seen on the slopes of some of the peaks at the upper left. Winter in the southern hemisphere will begin in mid-December 2000. The high resolution view covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide at a full-resolution scale of 3 meters (9.8 ft) per pixel.

  1. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session: From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World(by Michael Zevin)In the conferences second plenary session, NASAs Daniel Irwin turned the eyes of the conference back to Earth by highlighting the huge impact that NASA missions play in protecting and developing our own planet.Daniel Irwin: using satellite imagery to detect differences in vegetation and find ancient Mayan cities. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9LFPQdCHTM astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Irwin came to be involved in NASA through his work mapping Guatemalan jungles, where he would spend 22 days at a time exploring the treacherous jungles on foot armed with a 1st generation GPS, a compass, and a machete. A colleague introduced Irwin to the satellite imagery thathe was exploring, demonstratinghow these images are a strong complement to field work. The sharing of this satellite data with nearby villages helped to show the encroachment of agriculture and the necessity of connecting space to the village. Satellite imagery also played a role in archeological endeavors, uncovering dozens of Mayan cities that have been buried for over a millennia by vegetation, and it provided evidence that the fall of the Mayan civilization may have been due to massive deforestation that ledto drought.Glacial retreat in Chile imaged by ISERV.Irwin displayed the constellation of NASAs Earth-monitoring satellites that have played an integral role in conserving our planet and alerting the world of natural disasters. He also showed images from the The ISS / SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System Completed Operations (ISERV, which Irwin claimed as the instrument acronym that contains the most acronyms). ISERV is a monitoring camera aboard the ISS with 4m resolution of the ground and a 14.5 km by 10 km field of view. This camera is able identify indications of natural disasters to give early-warnings to areas that are potentially threatened, and help analyze disaster aftermath to aid in recoveries. Particularly striking was an image of the retreating glaciers in Chile due to rising global temperatures. 47,000 such images are available to the public at http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/! The contributions by NASA to the well-being of our planet and civilization are certainly staggering. 110: Galaxy Clusters (by Ben Cook)A short session on clusters of galaxies began with X-ray observations by David Buote studying the distribution of mass in a cluster. By measuring the X-ray temperature (using the spectral information) and the intensity of X-rays, Buote derived the amount of gas in each part of the cluster. By assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, this lets you derive the total mass (not just the gas, but also the stars and dark matter!) of the cluster. But its unclear so far whether that assumption is valid here. Jack Burns followed this up by discussing the ways we can observe the wreckage when galaxy clusters merge together. These mergers, as Burns puts it, are the most energetic events since the Big Bang. When two clusters crash together, their gas is heated to very high temperatures, producing radio emission that is visible as radio relics.Reinout Van Weeren used similar observations in the radio to attempt to measure the magnetic fields in a few clusters. Christine Jones looked at the two primary ways of locating clusters through X-rays and through the SunyaevZeldovich (SZ) effect in the radio and concluded that the two methods are different: one method will easily find clusters the other is less likely to see, and vice versa. Angela Berti detected the signal of galactic conformit

  2. The effect of two weeks morning and afternoon special training program on performance and plasma levels of IL-17 and cortisol in wushu athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B ghayeblo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Recent evidences (knowing the effects of time on physiological variables show that the human body undergoes a lot of changes during the day and the night and has a special ability in each hour. Competition in the morning Confronts athletes with the problem of susceptibility to infection and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine The effect of two weeks morning and afternoon special training program on performance and plasma levels of IL-17 and cortisol in boy wushu athletes Materials and Methods: Fourteen sanda boy athletes were purposefully selected and after Bruce and  rast tests run, divided into the two Similar groups morning-time training group (N = 7, training time 9 a.m. and evening-time training group (N=7, training time 18 pm . The Subjects were trained for two weeks (6 session in each week according to an Sanda sport specific training program. Values of peak anaerobic power, average anaerobic power, minimum anaerobic power and fatigue index measured with Field  rast test. To determine the amount of plasma IL-17 and cortisol , the participants’ blood samples was taken In the fasting state three times, 24 h before the first training session in baseline status and Immediately after tests at 9 am and 48 h after the last training session immediately after tests performance at 9 a.m. Data were analyzed using repeated measures, independent-samplesT-test, ,paired- samplesT-test  and Covariance. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences between the amounts of plasma IL-17 of the two groups after two weeks(P0.05. Conclusion: It seems likely transition training time to the morning, 2 weeks before the competition in the morning, decrease inflammatory factors such as IL-17 in sanda boys. Therefore appears that two weeks transition training time from evening to morning can increase the safety of athletes immune during the competition.

  3. Comparison of Toxicity Associated With Early Morning Versus Late Afternoon Radiotherapy in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (HN3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Based on our demonstration of a circadian rhythm in the human oral mucosa cell cycle, with most cells in the G1 phase in the morning and M phase at night, we hypothesized that morning radiotherapy (RT) would lead to less oral mucositis than afternoon RT. Methods and Materials: A total of 216 patients were randomized to morning (8-10 AM) vs. afternoon (4-6 PM) RT and stratified by radiation dose, smoking status, and center. Patients receiving primary or postoperative RT alone were eligible. Oral mucositis was scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria and a validated scoring system. Results: Of 205 evaluable patients, 52.9% vs. 62.4% developed RTOG Grade 3 or greater mucositis after morning vs. afternoon RT, respectively (p = 0.17). Morning RT was also associated with significantly less weight loss after 5 months (p = 0.024). In a subgroup of 111 patients treated to a dose of 66-70 Gy in 33-35 fractions, exploratory analyses revealed a significant reduction in Grade 3 or greater mucositis with morning RT (44.6% vs. 67.3%, p = 0.022) and a longer interval to the development of Grade 3 or greater mucositis (median, >7.9 vs. 5.6 weeks, p = 0.033). In 53 patients, who smoked during therapy, a significant reduction was found in Grade 3 or greater mucositis with morning RT (42.9% vs. 76%, p = 0.025). Conclusion: In this proof of principle study, morning RT was associated with significantly less weight loss after 5 months and an apparent reduction in oral mucositis in a subset of patients receiving ≥66 Gy and in patients who smoked during therapy

  4. Big Bang Day : Afternoon Play - Torchwood: Lost Souls

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Martha Jones, ex-time traveller and now working as a doctor for a UN task force, has been called to CERN where they're about to activate the Large Hadron Collider. Once activated, the Collider will fire beams of protons together recreating conditions a billionth of a second after the Big Bang - and potentially allowing the human race a greater insight into what the Universe is made of. But so much could go wrong - it could open a gateway to a parallel dimension, or create a black hole - and now voices from the past are calling out to people and scientists have started to disappear... Where have the missing scientists gone? What is the secret of the glowing man? What is lurking in the underground tunnel? And do the dead ever really stay dead? Lost Souls is a spin-off from the award-winning BBC Wales TV production Torchwood. It stars John Barrowman, Freema Agyeman, Eve Myles, Gareth David-Lloyd, Lucy Montgomery (of Titty Bang Bang) and Stephen Critchlow.

  5. Determinação de fatores multiplicativos para estimar a produção de leite no dia do controle leiteiro, a partir da produção de leite da manhã ou da tarde Determination of multiplicative factors to estimate the milk production at the daily milk yield control, from the morning or afternoon milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio de Moraes Gonçalves

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar fatores multiplicativos para estimar a produção de leite (PD no dia do controle leiteiro, com base na produção de leite da ordenha da manhã (PM ou da tarde (PT, obtidos de 3632 lactações de 2143 vacas da raça Gir, filhas de 336 touros, de registros entre 1986 e 1996. Ano de parto (A, duração da lactação - linear (DL, idade ao parto - linear e quadrática (I e um fator K (possíveis interações duplas, triplas e quadrupla entre nível de manejo (baixo-alto, classe de ordem de parto (primíparas-multíparas, estação de parição (águas-seca e nove classes de intervalo do parto ao controle leiteiro foram considerados, no modelo, para se ajustarem aos fatores multiplicativos da manhã (FM e da tarde (FT. Foram observados efeitos significativos de A, I, DL e K sobre os fatores, à exceção do efeito da DL sobre FT, sugerindo o uso de fatores que considerem simultaneamente os efeitos contidos em K, além de A, I e DL, para se obterem estimativas mais precisas da produção de leite no dia do controle leiteiro. Os fatores multiplicativos da manhã diminuíram no decorrer da lactação, em ambas as estações, para multíparas e primíparas e animais criados em rebanhos de alto nível de manejo. No entanto, FT tendeu a aumentar, tanto para vacas como para primíparas, nas duas estações e em rebanhos que se encontram em ambos os níveis de manejo, exceto para vacas em rebanhos de baixo nível de manejo, na estação das águas, que não apresentaram comportamento constante.The objective of this work was to determine the multiplicative factors to estimate the milk production (DP based on the morning (MM or afternoon (AP milk yield and their were obtained of 3,632 lactations from 2,143 cows of the Gir breed, daughters of 335 sires, from 1993 to 1996 records. The calving year (Y lactation length - linear (LL, calving age - linear and quadratic (A and a factor K (the possible double, triple and

  6. Morning vaccination enhances antibody response over afternoon vaccination: A cluster-randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Joanna E.; Drayson, Mark T; Taylor, Angela E.; Toellner, Kai M.; Lord, Janet M.; Phillips, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    Highlights • Early small studies provide mixed evidence for effects of time of vaccination on antibody response. • This is the first large scale randomised trial of different times of vaccination. • Morning vaccination enhances the antibody response to the influenza vaccine. • This simple manipulation is cost neutral and may improve protection from influenza in older adults.

  7. Evolution in an Afternoon: Rapid Natural Selection and Adaptation of Bacterial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, rapid and low-cost technique for growing bacteria (or other microbes) in an environmental gradient, in order to determine the tolerance of the microbial population to varying concentrations of sodium chloride ions, and suggests how the evolutionary response of a microbial population to the selection pressure of the…

  8. Fine Scale Structure of the Afternoon Equatorial Magnetopause as Seen on the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Le, G.; Baumjohann, W.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Zhao, C.; Leinweber, H. K.; Anderson, B. J.; Fischer, D.; Slavin, J. A.; Bromund, K. R.; Kepko, L.; Chutter, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Magnes, W.; Nakamura, R.; Burch, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The four Magnetospheric Multiscale mission spacecraft were launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station early on March 13 2015 into an elliptical orbit with apogee of 12 Re in the dawn magnetosphere. Until July 9, the spacecraft orbited the Earth in a string of pearls configuration exploring the near-Earth tail with a brief exit of the magnetosphere when CME arrived at Earth. On July 9, the four spacecraft were stationed in a tetrahedral formation with separations of 160 km. During the period ending December 1, the four spacecraft drift around to noon, exploring the magnetopause with a well formed tetrahedron, with sides as short as 10 km allowing us to study the magnetic and electric current structure of the magnetopause. This structure is complex. There is large-scale reconnection often resulting in the formation of fluxropes connected to the magnetosphere such as FTEs. Consistent with earlier measurements, there are often thin tubes of magnetic field crossing the current layer. In this survey we compare the MMS observations with the observed earlier by ISEEs 1 and 2 spacecraft.

  9. Rye kernel breakfast increases satiety in the afternoon - an effect of food structure

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson Helena; Andersson Roger; Rakha Allah; Isaksson Hanna; Olsson Johan; Åman Per

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The structure of whole grain cereals is maintained to varying degrees during processing and preparation of foods. Food structure can influence metabolism, including perceived hunger and satiety. A diet that enhances satiety per calorie may help to prevent excessive calorie intake. The objective of this work was to compare subjective appetite ratings after consumption of intact and milled rye kernels. Methods Two studies were performed using a randomized, cross-over design....

  10. Is the Class Schedule the Only Difference between Morning and Afternoon Shift Schools in Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas Denham, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Double-shift schooling has been implemented in Mexico for several decades as a strategy to achieve universal access to basic education. This study provides evidence on the existence of social inequalities related to the implementation of this schooling model. Using quantitative data from several databases including the National Census, the…

  11. Loss Aversion in Sequential Auctions: Endogenous Interdependence, Informational Externalities and the "Afternoon Effect"

    OpenAIRE

    Rosato, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Empirical evidence from sequential auctions shows that prices of identical goods tend to decline between rounds. In this paper, I show how expectations-based reference-dependent preferences and loss aversion can rationalize this phenomenon. I analyze two-round sealed-bid auctions with symmetric bidders having independent private values and unit demand. Equilibrium bids in the second round are history-dependent and subject to a "discouragement effect": the higher the winning bid in the first a...

  12. Sealants in dentistry: outcomes of the ORCA Saturday Afternoon Symposium 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Splieth, C H; Ekstrand, K R; Alkilzy, M;

    2009-01-01

    Sealants are a successful tool in caries prevention, but their role in preventive strategies after the caries decline has to be discussed. A survey of paediatric departments across Europe revealed that indications for pit and fissure sealants vary considerably, both nationally and internationally...

  13. Gas Breakdown, Low Current diffuse discharges, Townsend's theory: A Friday afternoon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Zoran

    2013-09-01

    Numerous aspects of the ``standard model'' of gas breakdown have been addressed in the past 20 years by Art Phelps and his coworkers. First, his studies of excitation coefficients were carried out in the Townsend regime where electric field is quasi uniform so swarm like conditions prevail. These studies have been extended to very high E/N where non-hydrodynamic effects were to be observed but were overshadowed in most cases by fast neutral excitation. Absolute calibration of emission provided a basis to obtain fast neutral cross section sets. This work necessarily overlapped with the left hand side of the Paschen curve and in extension of an ill fated data gathering experiment a review was made of all the processes that contribute to the secondary electron emission. It was shown that, if one includes all the processes, it is possible to fit the available breakdown data, Paschen curves and effective electron yields by binary collision data obtained in separate experiments. While performing measurements in the low current diffuse (Townsend) regime one can find negative differential resistance and oscillations. Both were explained by taking detailed information on properties of particles close to the cathode and small perturbations to the local field by the growing space charge. Last but not the least Phelps managed, with his coworkers to provide a phenomenology and predictions of the anomalously broadened profiles often observed in various discharges. In all those cases deep knowledge of atomic and molecular physics and of gas discharges were combined with best available data to produce quantitative (quantitative, quantitative) agreement with experiments. Coworkers: Dragana Maric. Supported by MPNTR project ON171037 and SANU project 155.

  14. LHC First Physics : First collisions in the LHC's experiments, afternoon of March the 30th, 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    We did it! The first high-energy collisions were achieved at 13.06 today at all four points of the LHC ring. Collisions occurred after a few attempts at injecting and ramping beams in the morning. Before the collisions, there was a mixture of excitement, expectation, fear and apprehension in the CERN Control Centre. Nobody had ever attempted to make two proton beams collide at 3.5 TeV before. Only Nature produces collisions like this routinely, in the processes that yield cosmic radiation, but in a way that makes it very difficult to extract meaningful data.

  15. Morning NO2 Exposure Sensitizes Hypertensive Rats to the Cardiovascular Effects of O3 Exposure in the Afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although ambient air sheds vary in composition, specific pollutants typically peak at predictable times throughout the course of a day. For example, in urban environments, peak nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels coincide with rush hour traffic in the morning and...

  16. Missing persons in the semidarkness of the afternoon: private disputes, memory and armed internal conflict in San Miguel (Ayacucho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nory Cóndor Alarcón

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the case of Francisco Buendía, a man of San Miguel, in the province of La Mar (Ayacucho, who was disappeared by Sendero Luminoso in 1984. From Stathis N. Kalyvas’ theoretical offers, it reconstructs the secret microdynamics of the case, which they connected with the armed internal conflict. To find these local dynamics, one resorts to the remembrances and silences of the Buendía’s relatives and to the information that reveal the notarial and judicial documents that the memory tries to hide. This paper shows that the local dynamics contain disputes that they have to see with the process of restructuring of the land that in the locality comes from the 19th century. The disputes finally developed intopolicies, causing the disappearance of Buendía.

  17. We're Creative on a Friday Afternoon: Investigating Children's Perceptions of their Experience of Design & Technology in Relation to Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Clare; Lunt, Julie

    2011-10-01

    In the last 15 years there has been an increased emphasis in both educational research and curriculum development upon investigating children's perspectives of their experience of learning. Children naturally have very particular and important insights to offer in helping us to develop our understanding of teaching and learning. However, research into children's perceptions in the field of primary Design & Technology education is still at a very early stage (Lunt in International handbook of research and development in technology education, Sense Publishers, Utrecht, 2009a). For example, in three reviews of educational research in Design & Technology (Kimbell in A guide to educational research, The Woburn Publishers, London, 1996; Eggleston in Teaching and learning design and technology: a guide to recent research and its applications, Continuum, London, 2000; Harris and Wilson in Designs on the curriculum? A review of the literature on the impact of design and technology in schools, Department for Education and Skills, London, 2003) there are only passing references made to eliciting and considering pupils' views and, in the studies where it does occur, it is used as a supplementary method of data collection rather than as a focus of research. The work which exists is small-scale and the majority of studies relate to secondary-aged pupils. The research that we have recently undertaken has tried to redress this gap. It has focused on primary children's (aged 9-11 years) perceptions of Design & Technology in general (Benson and Lunt in PATT 18 international conference on design and technology educational research: teaching and learning technological literacy in the classroom, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, 2007) and latterly creativity in Design & Technology. It has been claimed by many that Design & Technology is a `creative' subject which develops children's creative abilities. This is a bold claim and one that needs careful consideration. This paper sets out a framework for thinking about creativity drawn from a review of the literature and uses evidence of children's perceptions of their experience of Design & Technology to compare practice with theory in an attempt to raise questions and issues relevant to both policy and practice.

  18. Role of light in the mediation of acute effects of a single afternoon melatonin injection on steroidogenic activity of testis in the rat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saumen K Maitra; Arun K Ray

    2000-09-01

    Young adult male rats, maintained either in an LD 12 : 12 or in continuous illumination (LL) for one week, were given a single injection of 25 g melatonin/100 g body wt or ethanolic-saline (control) at 17.00 h. Animals from each group were sacrificed at 11.00 h on the following day. The activity of two important steroidogenic enzymes, 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17-HSD) and Δ5-3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Δ5-3-HSD), and serum concentrations of testosterone, were measured following highly specific and sensitive spectrophotometric techniques and RIA, respectively. A significant decrease in the activity of both the steroidogenic enzymes was noted in the testes of melatonin-treated rats maintained under normal light-dark schedules, but this response was found to be lacking in the LL rats. However, no significant changes in the level of serum testosterone were noted in either group of melatonin-treated rats from the values in respective groups of ethanolic saline-administered LD and LL rats. Exposure of ethanolic saline-injected rats to continuous light also did not cause any change in the steroidogenic activity of the testis from those in LD rats. The study indicates that continuous light as such does not affect the endocrine function of testis but abolishes suppressive effects of melatonin on the steroidogenic activity of the testis in rat.

  19. 午后的独白——评艾云的思想随笔%An Afternoon Monologue——A Review of AI Yun's Essays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜翔林

    2008-01-01

    艾云的思想随笔以"旷野独白"的方式,在审美的心境中,自由地徜徉于此岸与彼岸、时间与空间、理性与欲望、现实与历史之间,给人以深邃的思想启迪和独特的审美享受.

  20. Controles alternados das ordenhas da manhã e da tarde para estimação da produção de leite na lactação Morning and afternoon tests for estimating lactation milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Teixeira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se procedimentos para estimar produção diária de leite usando controles da manhã (AM ou da tarde (PM e comparar sistemas de controle para previsão da produção de leite em 305 dias usando várias combinações de controles AM e PM. Utilizaram-se 20.328 produções do dia de controle de 1.516 lactações de vacas ordenhadas duas vezes ao dia, em 96 rebanhos supervisionados pela Associação dos Criadores de Gado Holandês de Minas Gerais e registradas no período de 2000 a 2003. Sete procedimentos foram usados para estimação da produção diária. Correlações entre produções observada e estimada, médias e desvios-padrão das diferenças entre elas e desvios-padrão das produções estimadas foram os critérios para comparação de procedimentos. As estimativas obtidas com a ordenha da manhã foram mais acuradas do que as obtidas com as da ordenha da tarde. O procedimento em que se incluiu uma regressão para cada classe de intervalo de ordenhas e uma regressão sobre dias em lactação foi o selecionado para estimação da produção diária. Quatro sistemas para previsão da produção de leite em 305 dias foram comparados. Os sistemas com alternância mensal dos controles AM-PM apresentaram melhores resultados do que aqueles em que se utilizaram somente o controle AM ou somente PM. As correlações entre produção estimada e observada foram 0,99 e 0,97, respectivamente, para os primeiros e os últimos sistemas. Alternância dos controles AM-PM, iniciando-se com o controle AM, foi o sistema mais acurado de estimação.Procedures to estimate daily yield from either morning (AM or evening (PM test weighings and to compare different systems of testing for accuracy of predicting 305-day milk yield using various combinations of AM and PM production records were determined. Data of 20,328 test-day records of 1,516 cows milked twice-a-day, from 96 Holstein Dairy Cattle Association herds in Minas Gerais State and recorded from 2000 to 2003. Seven procedures were used to estimate daily yields. Comparisons were made on the basis of correlations between true and estimated daily yields, average difference between the estimated and actual values and also the variances of differences. Morning weighings predicted daily yield more accurately than evening weighings. The procedure which included a regression for each milking interval class and a regression on days in milk were selected for estimation of daily yields. Four systems for predicting 305-day milk yield were compared. Alternating AM-PM testing systems on monthly frequency showed better results than testing always in the AM or always in the PM. Correlations between observed and estimated 305-day lactation yields were 0.99 and 0.97, respectively, for the first and later systems. Alternating AM-PM testing starting with an AM test was the most accurate system of estimation.

  1. The effect of offering a high-fiber snack in the morning and the afternoon on overall diet quality and dietary fiber intake in a sample of school-age children.

    OpenAIRE

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Miller, Kevin B; Baker, Selena

    2014-01-01

    Diet quality in American children is suboptimal, contributing to the risk for overweight, obesity, and development of other chronic diseases. The objective of this community-based, randomized, controlled nutrition intervention was to assess the effect of serving high-fiber snacks (mean fiber content 5.1 g) twice daily on children’s diet quality and fiber intake. Participants (n=81) were healthy children 7 – 11 years of age attending a local elementary school. Children were cluster-randomized ...

  2. Fragment o dimenzijah emocije, "mathesisa" in časa v čisto glasbenem: A fragment on the emotion, "mathesis" and the time dimension of the purely musical: marginalia with Prelude to the afternoon of a faun by Claude Debussy: pripombe ob Preludiju k faunovemu popoldnevu Claudea Debussyja:

    OpenAIRE

    Popović Mlađenović, Tijana

    2007-01-01

    In the dialogue What Is Music? between Carl Dahlhaus and Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht, music is defined as a "mathematized emotion" or an "emotionalized 'mathesis'". As emphasized by Marija Bergamo, this is the way of underlining its equal and unavoidable constitution, based on emotion and rational organization in the time dimension. So, Marija Bergamo is continuously searching for those music determinants in a musical work as an "autonomous aesthetic fact", whose base and real essence lie "withi...

  3. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient, Dr. Barry Katsen, who is a medical director of the Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, and Dr. Ignacio Rua, who is a medical director of vascular surgery. Good afternoon, guys. Good afternoon. ...

  4. Developing Internal Controls through Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, F. Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Life events can include the Tuesday afternoon cooking class with the group worker or the Saturday afternoon football game, but in the sense that Fritz Redl thought of them, these activities are only threads in a fabric of living that includes all the elements of daily life: playing, working, school-based learning, learning through activities,…

  5. Impacts of Scheduling Recess before Lunch in Elementary Schools: A Case Study Approach of Plate Waste and Perceived Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohbehn, Catherine H.; Strohbehn, Garth W.; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Litchfield, Ruth A.; Scheidel, Carrie; Delger, Patti

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Recess Before Lunch (RBL) for elementary students is considered a best practice related to increased nutrient intakes at lunch, decreased afternoon behavioral issues, and increased afternoon learning efficiency; however, school characteristics, such as amount of time for lunch, offer vs. serve, and scheduling factors can…

  6. On the Go

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Take a civilized afternoon tea at the Raffles Hotel,Beijing and enjoy unusual cakes and pastries such as Valrhona Chocolate Eclairs and Orange Mousse,all served on a display stand inspired by I93OS architect Lin Huiyin who was the pioneer of afternoon tea in Beijing.Tea costs RMB 195 per stand,plus I5% service.

  7. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... screen and open the door to informed medical care. Good afternoon and welcome to the Heart Institute ... be progressive and less invasive in how we care for our patients. 8 Here's one from one ...

  8. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to this ORlive Webcast presentation, live from the Heart Institute at First Health Moore Regional Hospital in ... medical care. Good afternoon and welcome to the Heart Institute of First Health of the Carolinas, Moore ...

  9. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... versus open?” I should have mentioned in the introduction our procedure time was about 6-1/2 ... afternoon. We want to thank our support, the administration and other doctors at the University of Pennsylvania, ...

  10. Paracardioscopic Ex-Maze

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... let's join the doctors. 00:00:49 ANDY C. KISER, MD: Good afternoon and welcome to the ... be here. Thank you. 00:01:26 ANDY C. KISER, MD: Atrial fibrillation is a disease that ...

  11. What Can You Do About Sleep Apnea?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... down to the basement. Barbara Peck: I went two levels below. John Peck: To get away. Barbara ... as a chemical dependency counselor. John Peck: Around two or three o'clock in the afternoon, I' ...

  12. Making a Memory Book

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with her granddaughter, Geri, and Geri's husband and three daughters, Hattie's great-grandchildren. This afternoon they're ... So... Grossman: Who's my great-granddaughter? Bourgeois: These three, here. Right? Grossman: Do you realize that? Great- ...

  13. What Can You Do About Sleep Apnea?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more than 15 million Americans suffer from it. Three-quarters of them are men. But only one ... chemical dependency counselor. John Peck: Around two or three o'clock in the afternoon, I'd just [ ...

  14. Making a Memory Book

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Geri's husband and three daughters, Hattie's great-grandchildren. This afternoon they're working on a project with ... losing touch with very important family memories. Geri: This is going in your book, Grandma. That's why ...

  15. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... January 22, 2009 From Pennsylvania Hospital Welcome to this "OR Live" Webcast presentation brought to you by ... Philadelphia. My colleague, Dr. Daniel Eun and I this afternoon will be joining you to watch footage ...

  16. Making a Memory Book

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... daughters, Hattie's great-grandchildren. This afternoon they're working on a project with University of Pittsburgh researcher, ... that describe what the picture is. It's a group activity that family members of all ages can ...

  17. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Watch South Miami Hospital Surgeons Perform Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy South Miami Hospital Miami, FL January 19, 2010 Good afternoon. Welcome to the South Miami Hospital operating room, the Center ...

  18. Diagnosing & Treating Digestive Tract Disorders Endoscopically

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... perform these procedures under a single sedation, as doctors John Baillie and Girish Mishra will moderate. The ... to informed medical care. Now, let's join the doctors. 00:00:50 GIRISH MISHRA: Good afternoon. My ...

  19. Systematic review of miscellaneous agents for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Jarvis, Virginia; Zadik, Yehuda;

    2013-01-01

    , pentoxifylline, timing of radiation therapy (RT) (morning versus late afternoon), pilocarpine, bethanechol, chewing gum, propantheline, and tetrachlorodecaoxide. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer...

  20. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... afternoon. We want to thank our support, the administration and other doctors at the University of Pennsylvania, ... medical care. "OR Live," the vision of improving health. 15

  1. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... open the door to informed medical care. "OR Live," the vision of improving health. Good afternoon. I’m Dr. Tom Randall from the University of Pennsylvania Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. And ...

  2. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Live," the vision of improving health. Good afternoon. I’m Dr. Tom Randall from the University of Pennsylvania Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. And I'm a gynecologic oncologist at Pennsylvania Hospital in ...

  3. What Can You Do About Sleep Apnea?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... morning, I was tired, pure tired. So I'd hit the coffee right away. [talking on phone ... or three o'clock in the afternoon, I'd just [nods, closes eyes] you know, like that. ...

  4. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Good afternoon. Welcome to the South Miami Hospital operating room, the Center for Robotic Surgery. My name ... Darren Bruck, and I’m here in the operating room at South Miami Hospital in Miami, Florida. ...

  5. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GABLES, FLORIDA June 18, 2008 00:00:00 JOHN ZVIJAC, M.D.: Good afternoon and welcome to ... Hospital in Coral Gables, Florida. I'm Dr. John Zvijac, sports medicine and shoulder surgeon here at ...

  6. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Webcast presentation, live from the Heart Institute at First Health Moore Regional Hospital in Pinehurst, North Carolina. ... afternoon and welcome to the Heart Institute of First Health of the Carolinas, Moore Regional Hospital in ...

  7. 76 FR 38740 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... General Presentation of Interest Antenna isolation and aircraft installation issues-- Honeywell WiMAX Forum coordination status--WiMAX Forum ] Tuesday Afternoon--MOPS WG Breakout Session Review Status...

  8. 78 FR 12830 - Voluntary Service National Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... held at 12 noon. Educational workshops will be held in the afternoon and will focus on student..., presentations on No One Dies Alone program, suicide prevention, and Make the Connection resources....

  9. CNPC Becomes a Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Beijing Organizing Committee for the 2008 Olympic Games (BOCOG) signed an agreement with China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) at Diaoyutai State Guesthouse in the afternoon of May 30,making CNPC an official partner of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games.

  10. Radiation Protection Group

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to inform you that the Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre will be closed on the afternoon of Tuesday 19 December 2006. Thank-you for your understanding.

  11. Chinese Firms Participate in Galileo Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2005-01-01

    On the afternoon of March 9, 2005,the Nationa Remote Sensing Center ofChina (NRSCC), subsidiary of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST) signed an agreement on Galileo Project with China Galileo Industries Ltd.

  12. Row, Row, Row Your Boat...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PHILIP JONES

    2010-01-01

    @@ My afternoon plans to go dragon boat racing on Houhai Lake in downtown Beijing could have started better. Cycling across town, a pedal snapped off my bicycle as I was aggressively building up speed across a Second Ring Road junction.

  13. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... afternoon. I’m Dr. Tom Randall from the University of Pennsylvania Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. And ... Eun. I am an assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania working out of Pennsylvania Hospital. I ...

  14. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient, Dr. Barry Katsen, who is a medical director of the Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, and Dr. Ignacio Rua, who is a medical director of vascular surgery. Good afternoon, guys. Good ...

  15. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your screen and open the door to informed medical care. Good afternoon and welcome to the Heart ... manufacturers or the devices used in this continuing medical educational activity. Thanks, John, we want to remind ...

  16. Uterine Fibroid Embolization

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2010 Good afternoon, and welcome to the Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute here in Miami, Florida. I' ... an interventional radiologist practicing here at the Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute. Our case today is going ...

  17. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 7, 2009 Good afternoon. Welcome to the Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute here in Miami. My name ... who is a medical director of the Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, and Dr. Ignacio Rua, who ...

  18. Craniofacial Procedure to Treat Encephalocele and an Arachnoid Cyst

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Well good afternoon. Welcome to Boston. This is the ... went through and the steps to do that. Well, thank you both, you know, for laying a ...

  19. Craniofacial Procedure to Treat Encephalocele and an Arachnoid Cyst

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Well good afternoon. Welcome to Boston. This is the Children’s Hospital of Boston Craniofacial webcast. We’re going ...

  20. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... door to informed medical care. "OR Live," the vision of improving health. Good afternoon. I’m Dr. ... the precision of the instrumentation and of our vision as well last our ability to minimize bleeding ...

  1. Craniofacial Procedure to Treat Encephalocele and an Arachnoid Cyst

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Well good afternoon. Welcome to ... in terms of the control his of his vision, his ability for his nose to grow well. ...

  2. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Nozad; Ali-Gholi Ramin; Siamak Asri Rezaie

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na+ and Mg++, respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, ...

  3. Mode shifting in school travel mode: examining the prevalence and correlates of active school transport in Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Buliung Ron; Faulkner Guy; Wong Bonny Yee-Man; Irving Hyacinth

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies examining the correlates of school transport commonly fail to make the distinction between morning and afternoon school trips. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of mode shift from passive in the morning to active in the afternoon among elementary and secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. Methods Data were derived from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). 3,633 students in grades 7 th...

  4. Diurnal Dependence of Growth Responses to Shade in Arabidopsis: Role of Hormone, Clock,and Light Signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Romina Sellaro; Manuel Pacín; Jorge J. Casal

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the diurnal dependence of the hypocotyl-growth responses to shade under sunlight-night cycles in Arabidopsis thaliana.Afternoon shade events promoted hypocotyl growth,while morning shade was ineffective.The Ihy-D,elf3,lux,pif4 pif5,toc1,and quadruple della mutants retained the response to afternoon shade and the lack of response to morning shade while the Ihy cca 1 mutant responded to both morning and afternoon shade.The phyB mutant,plants overexpressing the multidrug resistance-like membrane protein ABCB19,and the iaa17/axr3 loss-of-function mutant failed to respond to shade.Transient exposure of sunlight-grown seedlings to synthetic auxin in the afternoon caused a stronger promotion of hypocotyl growth than morning treatments.The promotion of hypocotyl growth by afternoon shade or afternoon auxin required light perceived by phytochrome A or cryptochromes during the previous hours of the photoperiod.Although the ELF4-ELF3-LUX complex,PIF4,PIF5,and DELLA are key players in the generation of diurnal hypocotyl-growth patterns,they exert a minor role in the control of the diurnal pattern of growth responses to shade.We conclude that the strong diurnal dependency of hypocotyl-growth responses to shade relates to the balance between the antagonistic actions of LHY-CCA1 and a light-derived signal.

  5. Work-family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and displaced aggression toward others: the moderating roles of workplace interpersonal conflict and perceived managerial family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihao; Wang, Mo; Chang, Chu-Hsiang; Shi, Junqi; Zhou, Le; Shao, Ruodan

    2015-05-01

    Taking a resource-based self-regulation perspective, this study examined afternoon emotional exhaustion as a mediator linking the within-person relations between morning work-family conflict and later employee displaced aggression in the work and family domains. In addition, it examined resource-related contextual factors as moderators of these relations. The theoretical model was tested using daily diary data from 125 employees. Data were collected at 4 time points during each workday for 3 consecutive weeks. Multilevel modeling analysis showed that morning family-to-work conflict was positively related to afternoon emotional exhaustion, which in turn predicted displaced aggression toward supervisors and coworkers in the afternoon and displaced aggression toward family members in the evening. In addition, morning workplace interpersonal conflict exacerbated the impact of morning work-to-family conflict on afternoon emotional exhaustion, whereas perceived managerial family support alleviated the impact of morning family-to-work conflict on afternoon emotional exhaustion. These findings indicate the importance of adopting a self-regulation perspective to understand work-family conflict at work and its consequences (i.e., displaced aggression) in both work and family domains. PMID:25528246

  6. CERN Technical Training 2005: New Short Course (SC) Sessions on Office Software - July 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    The following new course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2005, within the Office Software curriculum: OUTLOOK 2003 (Short Course I) - E-mail : 6.7.2005 (morning) OUTLOOK 2003 (Short Course II) - Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 7.7.2005 (morning) OUTLOOK 2003 (Short Course III) - Meetings and Delegation : 8.7.2005 (morning) WORD 2003 (Short Course I) - HowTo... Work with repetitive tasks: 4.7.2005 (afternoon) WORD 2003 (Short Course II) - HowTo... Mail merge : 5.7.2005 (afternoon) WORD 2003 (Short Course III) - HowTo... Work with long documents : 6.7.2005 (afternoon) EXCEL 2003 (Short Course I) - HowTo... Work with formulae : 7.7.2005 (afternoon) EXCEL 2003 (Short Course II) - HowTo... Format your worksheet for printing : 8.7.2005 (afternoon) All the above sessions are organised in the new format of Short Courses (SC): 3 hour sessions (9h30-12h30 or 14h30-17h30), at a nominal cost of 75.- CHF per person per course. Any course can be followed independe...

  7. Changes In Some Physiological And Chemical Parameters Of Ostrich In Response To The Seasonal And Diurnal Temperature Variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of temperature variation during summer and winter seasons and diurnal effect on ostrich performance and changes in some physiological and blood chemical parameters. Twelve immature ostrich birds (7 months old) were exposed to daily natural ambient temperatures during the summer and winter. The birds were fed a grower ration ad libitum (19 % protein and 2450 K cal ME/kg) and the daily feed consumption (g/ bird/day) and water consumption (ml/bird/day) were measured for a representative 7 days during each season. Cloacal temperatures was measured and blood samples were collected twice; one in the morning at 7:00 am and the other in the afternoon at 15.00 pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (40±2 degree C) (summer) and the 7 cold days of January (18±2 degree C) (winter). Red blood cells count (RBC) and total white blood cells count (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were calculated. In serum, levels of total protein (TP), albumin (A) and globulin (G), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, triiodothyronine (T3) and cortisol were estimated. Results indicated that feed consumption unlike water consumption was significantly increased during winter than in summer season. Moreover, body temperature was increased significantly during the summer season as compared with the winter season and was significantly elevated at the afternoon than at the morning. Blood picture showed that hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells count (RBC) and total white blood cells count (WBC) were significantly decreased in the summer than in winter at the two diurnal periods. Also, both mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were significantly increased in summer than winter

  8. An extensive survey of dayside diffuse aurora based on optical observations at Yellow River Station

    CERN Document Server

    Han, De-Sheng; Liu, Jian-Jun; Qiu, Qi; Keika, K; Hu, Ze-Jun; Liu, Jun-Ming; Hu, Hong-Qiao; Yang, Hui-Gen

    2016-01-01

    By using 7 years optical auroral observations obtained at Yellow River Station (magnetic latitude $76.24\\,^{\\circ}{\\rm C}$N) at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, we performed the first extensive survey for the dayside diffuse auroras (DDAs) and acquired observational results as follows. (1) The DDAs can be classified into two broad categories, i.e., unstructured and structured DDAs. The unstructured DDAs are mainly distributed in the morning and afternoon, but the structured DDAs predominantly occurred around the magnetic local noon (MLN). (2) The unstructured DDAs observed in morning and afternoon present obviously different properties. The afternoon ones are much stable and seldom show pulsating property. (3) The DDAs are more easily observed under geomagnetically quiet times. (4) The structured DDAsmainly show patchy, stripy, and irregular forms and are often pulsating and drifting. The drifting directions are mostly westward (with speed $\\sim$5km/s), but there are cases showing eastward or poleward drifting. (5) The ...

  9. Diurnal changes in postural control in normal children: Computerized static and dynamic assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bourelle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI causes postural control deficits and accordingly comparison of aberrant postural control against normal postural control may help diagnose mTBI. However, in the current literature, little is known regarding the normal pattern of postural control in young children. This study was therefore conducted as an effort to fill this knowledge gap. Eight normal school-aged children participated. Posture assessment was conducted before (7-8 a.m. in the morning and after (4-7 p.m. in the afternoon school on regular school days using the Balance Master ® evaluation system composed of 3 static tests and 2 dynamic balance tests. A significant difference in the weight-bearing squats was detected between morning hours and afternoon hours (P < 0.05. By end of afternoon, the body weight was borne mainly on the left side with the knee fully extended and at various degrees of knee flexion. A significantly better directional control of the lateral rhythmic weight shifts was observed at the end of the afternoon than at morning hours (P < 0.05. In summary, most of our findings are inconsistent with results from previous studies in adults, suggesting age-related differences in posture control in humans. On a regular school day, the capacity of postural control and laterality or medio-lateral balance in children varies between morning and afternoon hours. We suggest that posturographic assessment in children, either in normal (e.g., physical education and sports training or in abnormal conditions (e.g., mTBI-associated balance disorders, be better performed late in the afternoon.

  10. Does science need computer science?

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Jeremy; Reynolds, Andrew; Roberts, Matt; Legg, Steve; Jones, Nick; Glover-Gunn, May

    2004-01-01

    IBM Hursley Talks Series 3 An afternoon of talks, to be held on Wednesday March 10 from 2:30pm in Bldg 35 Lecture Room A, arranged by the School of Chemistry in conjunction with IBM Hursley and the Combechem e-Science Project. The talks are aimed at science students (undergraduate and post-graduate) from across the faculty. This is the third series of talks we have organized, but the first time we have put them together in an afternoon. The talks are general in nature and knowledge...

  11. Dose-remission of pulsating electromagnetic fields as augmentation in therapy-resistant depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straasø, Birgit; Lauritzen, Lise; Lunde, Marianne;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate to what extent a twice daily dose of Transcranial Pulsating ElectroMagnetic Fields (T-PEMF) was superior to once daily in patients with treatment-resistant depression as to obtaining symptom remission after 8 weeks of augmentation therapy. METHODS: A self-treatment set-up of...... (active dose in the morning and sham in the afternoon) or two T-PEMF doses (active dose both morning and afternoon) in a double-blind procedure. A score of 7 or less on the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) was the criterion of remission. RESULTS: In total 34 patients received active T-PEMF once a day...

  12. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, K. Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-10-01

    Doppler Lidar and Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) observations are utilized to show wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth (AOD) during daytime boundary layer evolution over the Himalayan region. Fourier analysis depicted 60-80 min periods dominant during afternoon hours, implying that observed modulations could be plausible reason for the AOD forenoon-afternoon asymmetry which was previously reported. Inclusion of wave amplitude in diurnal variation of aerosol radiative forcing estimates showed ~40% additional warming in the atmosphere relative to mean AOD. The present observations emphasize the importance of wave induced variations in AOD and radiation budget over the site.

  13. Craniofacial Procedure to Treat Encephalocele and an Arachnoid Cyst

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Well good afternoon. Welcome to Boston. This is ... of Neurosurgery, and David Walton from Partners in Health. Ed, I’m going to let you lead ...

  14. Researcher reports more evidence that lightning strike coincides with West Virginia mine explosion

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Martin Chapman, director of the Virginia Tech Seismological Observatory and research assistant professor of geosciences in the College of Science, reported Friday afternoon, Jan. 6, that the West Virginia digital seismic station recorded a seismic event at the time of the explosion at the Sago Mine on Jan. 2 that correlates with lightning strikes in that area.

  15. 78 FR 20318 - Public Meeting of the Advisory Council on Government Auditing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ...This notice informs the public that the Advisory Council on Government Auditing Standards will hold a public meeting by teleconference on April 12, 2013. The public is invited to listen to the Council's discussion. Members of the public will be provided an opportunity to address the Council with a brief (five-minute) presentation in the afternoon. The Advisory Council's primary purpose is to......

  16. Women, Literacy, and Development: Challenges for the 21st Century. A Report on the World Assembly of the International Council for Adult Education (5th, Cairo, Egypt, September 15-23, 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassara, Beverly B.

    The World Assembly addressed the theme of women, literacy, and development from the perspectives of international leaders, countries, and the host country. Critical issues related to education, social and political status, and the environment, poverty, and population were treated in plenary sessions; afternoon workshops were held on such topics as…

  17. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... screen and open the door to informed medical care. "OR Live," the vision of improving health. Good afternoon. I’m Dr. Tom Randall from ... screen and open the door to informed medical care. "OR Live," the vision of improving health. 15

  18. Evaluation of the Teaching Guide as an Instrument for Adaptation to the New European Credit System: Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Mercedes; Tirado, Pilar; Menor, Esther

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of the teaching guide application for the subject of management control in the Business Management and Administration Degree. The evaluation began with the analysis of a questionnaire which aimed to collect the perceptions of learners who have studied this subject in two groups (morning and afternoon) during the…

  19. Transport of ozone by turbulence and clouds in an urban boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The turbulent fluxes of ozone and latent and sensible heat are computed from fast-response measurements made abroard a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration aircraft over downtown Philadelphia and the surrounding suburbs during the afternoon and evening of August 22, 1979. In the afternoon the ozone flux at a height of 200 m is downward throughout the region with the largest magnitude (-2(ppb)m s-1) occurring over the urban center. During the afternoon at both 200 m and a few hundred meters below cloud base, the horizontal profile of mean ozone concentration peaks at 130 ppb over the urban core with values of the order of 90 ppb to the southeast and northwest. The urban ozone condentration at 200 m decreases to 35 ppb by early evening. The normalized variances and spectra of vertical velocity, temperature, and ozone show little change with height or location in the urban center and northwest suburbs during the afternoon in good agreement with normalized statistics obtained over rural terrain (Kaimal et al., 1976); Lenshow et al., 1980). Data from a cloud penetration by the aircraft is used to estimate a mean updraft velocity of 4 m s-1 and an updraft area of approximately 1 km3. The flux of ozone due to the mean motion in the updraft is 2 orders of magnitude larger than the turbulent eddy fluxes within the cloud

  20. The Social Mechanisms of Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrera, Davide

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, when I was an undergraduate student, in front of the main building of the University of Turin there was a big parking lot, which was always completely full. Two guys were looking after the parking lot every day from early in the morning till very late in the afternoon. They were neithe

  1. Shark Teeth Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Creel, Sally; Lee, Velda

    2009-01-01

    On a recent autumn afternoon at Harmony Leland Elementary in Mableton, Georgia, students in a fifth-grade science class investigated the essential process of classification--the act of putting things into groups according to some common characteristics or attributes. While they may have honed these skills earlier in the week by grouping their own…

  2. A Compendium of LSAT and LSAC-Sponsored Item Types, 1948-1994. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Lynda M.; Cotter, Ruth Anne

    This report provides a description of the item types that have appeared on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) from the first administration of the test in February 1948 through 1994. Also included is information related to the General Background and Writing tests that were administered for some time in an afternoon session, but for which…

  3. Sleeping pattern of kindergartners and nursery school children: function of daytime nap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Sakashita, Yukine

    2002-02-01

    With a questionnaire answered by parents this study investigated the sleeping pattern of children attending kindergartens or nursery schools and the function of an afternoon nap. Sleeping pattern was investigated by a questionnaire with 441 young children (229 boys and 212 girls) attending kindergartens or nursery schools at the ages of 3 to 6 years old. Nighttime sleep did not show any significant change, while daytime naps decreased drastically and almost disappeared by the age of 6. Nursery school children went to bed later at night, so nighttime sleep was shorter than that of kindergartners. They also reported having more 'difficulty to fall asleep', more frequent 'staying-up at late night', less 'not getting enough sleep', worse 'mood at rising', and more 'unwillingness to go to their schools'. To investigate whether afternoon naps, which are routine at Japanese nursery schools, can compensate for sleep insufficiency on the previous night and whether they have the effect of delaying the onset of the subsequent nighttime sleep, we compared sleep duration on the previous night and the sleep onset time between the days with and without an afternoon nap. The afternoon nap appeared to cause delayed sleep onset but was not a result of sleep deficiency. PMID:11883566

  4. Tips for Getting a Good Night's Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after 3 p.m. Naps can help make up for lost sleep, but late afternoon naps can make it harder to fall ... awake. If you find yourself still awake after staying in bed for more than 30 minutes or if you are starting to feel anxious or worried, get up and do some relaxing activity until you feel ...

  5. Aerosol Daytime Variations over North and South America Derived from Multiyear AERONET Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Hongbin; Eck, Tom F.; Smirnov, Alexander; Chin, Mian; Remer, Lorraine A.; Bian, Huisheng; Tan, Qian; Levy, Roberrt; Holben, Brent N.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the daytime variation of aerosol with seasonal distinction by using multi-year measurements from 54 of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites over North America, South America, and islands in surrounding oceans. The analysis shows a wide range of daily variability of aerosol optical depth (AOO) and Angstrom exponent depending on location and season. Possible reasons for daytime variations are given. The largest AOO daytime variation range at 440 nm, up to 75%, occurs in Mexico City, with maximum AOO in the afternoon. Large AOO daily variations are also observed in the polluted mid-Atlantic U.S. and U.S. West Coast with maximum AOO occurring in the afternoon in the mid-Atlantic U.S., but in the morning in the West Coast. In South American sites during the biomass burning season (August to October), maximum AOO generally occurs in the afternoon. But the daytime variation becomes smaller when sites are influenced more by long-range transported smoke than by local burning. Islands show minimum AOO in the morning and maximum AOO in the afternoon. The diverse patterns of aerosol daytime variation suggest that geostationary satellite measurements would be invaluable for characterizing aerosol temporal variations on regional and continental scales. In particular, simultaneous measurements of aerosols and aerosol precursors from a geostationary satellite would greatly aid in understanding the evolution of aerosol as determined by emissions, chemical transformations, and transport processes.

  6. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Uieda

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  7. A Vignette with Comments on Manners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The author wants to relate a little incident that certainly made her realize that something is lacking in civilizing mechanisms today. She and a friend of hers were having a snack on a weekday afternoon at a fast food restaurant in which a number of people were eating. Near them was a group of schoolgirls talking in loud, piercing voices. Her…

  8. Crossing Over In Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s Grammy-nominated soprano Song Zuying and her illustrious friends bring the Bird’s Nest back to life It was a blue-sky summer day in Beijing. In the afternoon sun the metallic twists of the iconic National Stadium of China, also known as the Bird’s Nest, sent

  9. Pandas on The Move

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    After surviving the earthquake,China’s panda population face the search for a new home on the afternoon of May 24,with the landing of a China Southern Airlines Boeing 747 at Beijing Capital International Airport, eight pandas from Sichuan Province finally arrived in China’s capital safe from the aftershocks of the May 12 earthquake. The pandas all came from Wolong

  10. 疯狂节和睡衣日

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈韵正

    2007-01-01

    “Good afternoon! Remember tomorrow is crazy day,you are、welcome to do anything crazy(下午好!记得明天是疯狂节哦,欢迎你装扮成疯子)!”这是学校喇叭里传出的通知。

  11. Is There Anything Wrong with Her Ears?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    2001-01-01

    It was Friday afternoon. A school meeting was held on the playground. Lily, my deskmate, looked very excited Because she for the first time had won the first place in the final examina tion. But before this she was thought not to be clever. She often asked foolish questions that madeher classmates laugh at her.

  12. 中国网通10亿美元入股电讯盈科%China Netcom Establishing Strategic Cooperation with PCCW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On the afternoon of January 20,China Network Communications Group Corporation and PCCW Limited announced a strategic alliance to jointly develop their respective businesses.China Netcom Group has agreed to pay approximately US$1 billion in cash.PCCW and China Netcom Group believe that the appropriate representation is a place to maximize value for all shareholders.

  13. Examination of reproductive biological state of cattle by determination of serum and milk progesterone by direct RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestrus cycle and the changes taking place during the oestrus cycle (successful and unsuccessful inseminations, abortion) can be properly followed up by the authors' RIA progesterone test using blood serum and toned afternoon premilk of cows. In the cases reporting functional disturbances of ovaries, the reproductive biological state of cows may present a proper basis for the adequate application of available hormone preparations. (author)

  14. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractOn the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  15. A Proposal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正All the students in our school, A sudden 8.0 earthquake happened in Wenchuan, Sichuan Province at 2:28 on the afternoon of May 12, 2008. Many houses fell down and lots of people have become homeless. A large number of people were badly injured and so many people lost their lives. The people in

  16. Making a Memory Book

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Narrator: Another project you and your loved one can do together is make a memory book. Hattie Grossman is 93 years ... grandchildren. This afternoon they're working on a project with University of Pittsburgh researcher, Michelle Bourgeois. Bourgeois: ...

  17. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ARTHROSCOPIC ROTATOR CUFF REPAIR DOCTORS HOSPITAL CENTER FOR ORTHOPEDICS AND SPORTS MEDICINE CORAL GABLES, FLORIDA June 18, 2008 00:00:00 JOHN ZVIJAC, M.D.: Good afternoon and welcome to Doctors Hospital in Coral Gables, Florida. I'm Dr. ...

  18. Exploring Market State and Stock Interactions on the Minute Timescale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Tan

    Full Text Available A stock market is a non-stationary complex system. The stock interactions are important for understanding the state of the market. However, our knowledge on the stock interactions on the minute timescale is limited. Here we apply the random matrix theory and methods in complex networks to study the stock interactions and sector interactions. Further, we construct a new kind of cross-correlation matrix to investigate the correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes within one trading day. Based on 50 million minute-to-minute price data in the Shanghai stock market, we discover that the market states in the morning and afternoon are significantly different. The differences mainly exist in three aspects, i.e. the co-movement of stock prices, interactions of sectors and correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes. In the afternoon, the component stocks of sectors are more robust and the structure of sectors is firmer. Therefore, the market state in the afternoon is more stable. Furthermore, we reveal that the information of the sector interactions can indicate the financial crisis in the market, and the indicator based on the empirical data in the afternoon is more effective.

  19. Exploring Market State and Stock Interactions on the Minute Timescale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Chen, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Bo; Ouyang, Fang-Yan

    2016-01-01

    A stock market is a non-stationary complex system. The stock interactions are important for understanding the state of the market. However, our knowledge on the stock interactions on the minute timescale is limited. Here we apply the random matrix theory and methods in complex networks to study the stock interactions and sector interactions. Further, we construct a new kind of cross-correlation matrix to investigate the correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes within one trading day. Based on 50 million minute-to-minute price data in the Shanghai stock market, we discover that the market states in the morning and afternoon are significantly different. The differences mainly exist in three aspects, i.e. the co-movement of stock prices, interactions of sectors and correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes. In the afternoon, the component stocks of sectors are more robust and the structure of sectors is firmer. Therefore, the market state in the afternoon is more stable. Furthermore, we reveal that the information of the sector interactions can indicate the financial crisis in the market, and the indicator based on the empirical data in the afternoon is more effective. PMID:26900948

  20. Taking the School to the Child: An Experiment by Ruchika School Service Wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Inderjit

    1992-01-01

    Describes a basic literacy project targeting deprived children in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India. Considers such program features as the use of 35 slum and public utility centers as sites for teaching basic skills, nutrition, and hygiene; flexible schedules including morning classes for slum children and afternoon and evening classes for working…

  1. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Dosimetry Service will be closed every afternoon the week of 21st to 25th February 2005. The opening hours will be from 8.30 am to 12.00 midday. Don't forget to read your dosimeter, as regular read-outs are indispensable to ensure periodic monitoring of personal doses. Thank you for you cooperation.

  2. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available on the following courses: LabVIEW Real-Time (F) : 7 - 9.6.2005 (3 jours) LabVIEW Migration 6 to 7: 14.6.2005 (1 day) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 2 : 16 & 17.6.2005 (2 jours) Utilisation de fichiers PDF avec ACROBAT 6.0 : 20.6.2005 (1journée) Introduction to ANSYS: 21 - 24.6.2005 (4 days) WORD 2003 (Short Course I) - HowTo... Work with repetitive tasks /AutoText, AutoFormat, AutoCorrect, Find/Replace) : 4.7.2005 (afternoon) WORD 2003 (Short Course II) - HowTo... Mail merge: 5.7.2005 (afternoon) WORD 2003 (Short Course III) - HowTo... Work with long documents : 6.7.2005 (afternoon) ACCESS 2003 - Level 2 - ECDL AM5: 5 - 8.7.2005 (4 mornings) EXCEL 2003 (Short Course I) - HowTo... Work with formulae: 7.7.2005 (afternoon) EXCEL 2003 (Short Course II) - HowTo... Format your worksheet for printing: 8.7.2005 (aftern...

  3. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available on the following courses: LabVIEW base 1 : 4 - 6.7.2005 (3 jours) LabVIEW Basics 2: 7 - 8.7.2005 (2 days) Utilisation des fichiers PDF avec ACROBAT 7.0 : 5.7.2005 (1 jour) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 1 : 6-7.7.2005 (2 jours) WORD 2003 (Short Course I) - HowTo... Work with repetitive tasks /AutoText, AutoFormat, AutoCorrect, Find/Replace) : 4.7.2005 (afternoon) WORD 2003 (Short Course II) - HowTo... Mail merge: 5.7.2005 (afternoon) WORD 2003 (Short Course III) - HowTo... Work with long documents : 6.7.2005 (afternoon) OUTLOOK (Short Course I) - E-mail: 6.7.2005 (morning) OUTLOOK (Short Course II) - Calendar, Tasks and Notes: 7.7.2005 (morning) OUTLOOK (Short Course III) - Meetings and Delegation: 8.7.2005 (morning) EXCEL 2003 (Short Course I) - HowTo... Work with formulae: 7.7.2005 (afternoon) EXCEL 2003 (Short Course II) - HowTo... Format y...

  4. Using a Group Approach to Preventing Heroin Overdose in North London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Peter; Glover, Chris; Allan, Teresa; Khoo, Mary Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Aims: This study used group psycho-education methods to assist injecting heroin users in preventing, and responding to overdose. Methods: An "OD Prevention" group was advertised in a London prescribing service and associated primary care unit. The intervention took place in a small group over one afternoon (3.5 hours), and trained participants in…

  5. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uieda Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  6. Vitalizing Creative Learning in Science and Technology through an Extracurricular Club: A Perspective Based on Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Chen, Mei-Yung; Hwang, Ming-Yueh

    2013-01-01

    A case study was undertaken in a junior high school that had won the highest award of the National PowerTech Contest in Taiwan. In the contest, students were required to create their own wooden robot (mechatronics project) in the morning and compete in the afternoon, in order to better avoid the intervention of parents and teachers in the process.…

  7. Bringing Home The Bread:Profit Repatriation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In China, even simple things can be made difficult. A trip to the post office becomes an afternoon outing. Bureaucracy rules here, and renting property, getting licences, hiring employees or paying taxes can generate mind-boggling quantities of red tape. Many independent foreign business people who have worked in China reflect that success is

  8. Developing Vocabulary and Conceptual Knowledge for Low-Income Preschoolers: A Design Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Dwyer, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test, and iteratively derive principles of word learning and word organization that could help to theoretically advance our understanding of vocabulary development for low-income preschoolers. Six Head Start teachers in morning and afternoon programs and their children (N = 89) were selected…

  9. Bobby Brontosaurus ( I )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BarbaraJ.Beatty; 白云; 邓彬

    2002-01-01

    The first birds had just finished their studies at Song School. A flock (群) of them circled their new home, earth, looking over the strange creatures with which they'd be living.The day was cool and the sun shone brightly.Suddenly a loud cry broke into the quiet afternoon.

  10. From Zero to Infinity: Montessori Parent Education in Hong Kong and Greater China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Daisy; Yau, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    It was a hot and humid afternoon in 2006, 3 months after the opening of the Children's House at the Infinity Children's School in Hong Kong. A 3-year-old boy selected a table-scrubbing activity. He moved erratically and without purpose, accidentally bumping into another child and spilling water on the floor. Meanwhile, a toddler girl strolled…

  11. A Foreign Face in the Crowd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAM; GOFFMAN

    2009-01-01

    0ne afternoon not too long ago, I was exploring Qibao Town, an old river town near Shanghai. The place was packed with tourists. On the outskirts of town merchants set up small stalls selling snacks, DVDs and all the other myriad things you can find on the street in China. Some had no more than a cloth on the grass with

  12. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Aortic Aneurysm Repair May 7, 2009 Good afternoon. Welcome to the Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute here in Miami. My name ... our live webcast. Today we’re going to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm using a technology called ...

  13. 幽默与笑话%HUMOUR AND JOKES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon

    2004-01-01

    @@ Kidspeak 儿童语言 Our four-year-old son speaks English and French, and he has picked up some Guangdongese since living in Hong Kong. One day I was getting ready to take him to a rugby game. His mother, not being a rugby fan, planned a quiet afternoon at home. Our son, however, pleased.

  14. Diurnal water relations of walnut trees - Implications for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, James A.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1991-01-01

    Leaflet water content (WC), relative water content (RWC), and water potential, Phi(lf) were measured as indicators of diurnal change in tree water status in an experimental walnut orchard receiving two irrigation treatments: 100 and 33 percent of potential evapotranspiration (PET). Diurnal change was greatest in Phi(lf) throughout the experimental period, with minima occurring each day in early to mid-afternoon and maxima between midnight and sunrise. Leaflet WC and RWC were lower in the afternoon than at night, but had greater variability so that the diurnal pattern was not as clear. Comparison between the pattern of Phi(lf) and dielectric constants (DCs) measured from probes inserted 2 cm into a tree hole showed that both declined nearly in parallel in the morning. Phi(lf) recovered more rapidly than DC in the afternoon. This temporal discrepancy could be caused by cavitation of xylem elements in the vicinity of the DC probe. Microwave backscatter for L- and X-bands also measured diurnal variation that had local minima in the afternoon, but the pattern among wavelength and polarization signatures was complex.

  15. 76 FR 20436 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Status RTCA PMC Feedback and Guidance on WiMAX Forum Test Suites General Presentations of Interest Aero...-space requirements Interface Requirements Interoperability requirements Tour of WiMAX testing facility (return by 15:00) Wednesday Afternoon--MOPS WG Breakout Session RF Performance Tests WiMAX Forum...

  16. China,and All That Jazz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    EACH nation has characteristics that distinguish it from others. When thinking about Spain, flamenco music and paella come to mind. England has connotations of dismally wet weather (don’t forget your umbrella!), double-decker buses, and afternoon tea. France is known for

  17. "A Date Which Will Live in Infamy"--The First Typed Draft of Franklin D. Roosevelt's War Address. Teaching with Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Early in the afternoon of December 7, 1941, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his chief foreign policy aide, Harry Hopkins, were interrupted by a telephone call from Secretary of War, Henry Stimson, and told that the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor (Hawaii). At about 5:00 p.m., following meetings with his military advisers, the president…

  18. Carlson Wagonlit Travel is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The renovation of the Main Building continues!   Because of this, Carlson Wagonlit Travel will move from building 62 to building 510 on 4 October and the agency will be closed in the afternoon. An emergency service will be organised for official travels only. Phone: 022 799 75 73 & 022 799 75 78 / e-mail: cern@carlsonwagonlit.ch

  19. 75 FR 3206 - Mission Statement; Middle East Public Health Mission, June 5-10, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... site visit--choice of hospital or waste/water treatment facility. Monday June 7; Riyadh/Jeddah... in afternoon visit-- choice of hospital or waste/water; treatment facility. Note: The final schedule... including medical waste; incinerators, bio-mass technology, recycling and integrated solid waste...

  20. High frequency ground temperature fluctuation in a Convective Boundary Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garai, A.; Kleissl, J.; Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Pardyjak, E.; Saïd, F.; Cuxart, J.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Yaguë, C.; Derrien, S.; Alexander, D.; Villagrasa, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    To study influence of the turbulent structures in the convective boundary layer (CBL) on the ground temperature, during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) observational campaign, high frequency ground temperature was recorded through infra-red imagery from 13 June - 8 J

  1. Language Learning versus Vocational Training: French, Arab and British Voices Speak about Indigenous Girls' Education in Nineteenth-Century Colonial Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the first school for indigenous girls in Algeria that opened in Algiers in 1845. The founder, Eugenie Luce, taught girls the rudiments--French language and grammar, reading, arithmetic, and Arabic, while the afternoon hours were devoted to sewing. This early focus on teaching French in order to achieve the "fusion of the…

  2. China-ROK nanotechnology center formally opens in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The ceremony for unveiling the nameplate of the China-Korea Nanotechnology Research Center was held on the afternoon of 2 July in Beijing. CAS Executive Vice President BAI Chunli and Vice Premier and S&T Minister of Republic of Korea (ROK) Kim Woo-Sik were present to witness the event.

  3. Discover city's master of science posters mark centenary of the physics genius who foretold future

    CERN Multimedia

    Quinn, J

    2002-01-01

    The Institute of Physics is marking the centenary of the birth of Paul Dirac, a Bristol physicist, with six Japanese cartoon-style posters. The posters will be on display at Bristol University today - which has been dubbed Dirac Day - to coincide with an afternoon of talks about the physicist (1/2 page).

  4. Nap-titration : An effective alternative for continuous positive airway pressure titration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A; Stegenga, B; Meinesz, AF; van der Hoeven, JH; Wijkstra, PJ

    2006-01-01

    When treating Obstructive Steep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) several alternatives for standard (manual) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration are feasible. A practical alternative is titration without polysomnography during an afternoon nap (Nap-titration). The aim of the present s

  5. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancerous. 00:42:10 KELLY L. MOLPUS, MD: Well, it would be one that we would be concerned that it ... suspect by tomorrow afternoon she will be feeling well enough to be discharged to home. I'd like to thank ...

  6. State-based metacognition: how time of day affects the accuracy of metamemory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2014-01-01

    Although there is an abundance of research on how stimulus characteristics and encoding conditions affect metamemory, and how those effects either do or do not mirror effects on memory, there is little research on whether and how characteristics of participants' states-like mood, fatigue, or hunger-affect metamemory. The present study examined whether metamemory ability fluctuates with time of day. Specifically, we evaluated whether learners can successfully account for the effects of time of day on their memory, and whether metacognitive monitoring is more accurate at an individual's optimal time of day. Young adults studied and recalled lists of words in both the morning and the afternoon, providing various metamemory judgements during each test session. We replicated the finding that young participants recalled more words in the afternoon than in the morning. Prior to study, participants did not predict superior recall in the afternoon, but they did after they had an opportunity to study the list (but before the test on that material). We also found that item-by-item predictions were more accurate in the afternoon, suggesting that self-regulated learning might benefit from being scheduled during times of day that accord with individuals' peak arousal. PMID:23742008

  7. Zinc Plating Industry Drives Zinc Consumption by Power Grids, Railways and Highways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>On the afternoon of June 30, at the Chengdu Lead and Zinc Summit, more than 150 partici-pants voted for the product they felt drives zinc consumption the most. 48% went for zinc plat-ing products, 16% voted for zinc oxide,

  8. So Much Depends upon a Red Chili Pepper: A Faculty Perspective on the Bringing Theory to Practice Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The author had a conversation one late afternoon with an untenured colleague from another department regarding chili pepper ratings. Her colleague explained that the popular RateMyProfessor.com Web site allows students to rate faculty members not only according to standards of "clarity," "helpfulness," and something called "easiness," but also in…

  9. Presentations from 35th SLAC Summer Institute On Particle Physics (SSI 2007): Dark Matter: From The Cosmos To The Laboratory 30 Jul - 10 Aug 2007, Menlo Park, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morning lectures covered all aspects of dark matter, from observational evidence for its existence, to its role in cosmic evolution and structure formation, to indirect and direct searches and attempts to produce it at colliders. In the afternoons, topical conference talks alternated with discussion sessions, tours, and social events

  10. Is it Time to Transform Our Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nauck

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This meeting comprised two sessions: the morning session centred around glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R agonists and SGLT-2 inhibitors, a new class of glucose-lowering compounds, while the afternoon session focused on new results of cardiovascular safety studies with diabetes medications, with special attention to the SAVOR-TIMI trial of saxagliptin.

  11. Principles of Community emphasizes university-wide commitment to diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    At its recent quarterly meeting, the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors endorsed the Virginia Tech Principles of Community, a statement that affirms the university's commitment to a diverse and inclusive community. Board members joined university officials March 14 to sign the document in a public ceremony following the full board meeting held that afternoon.

  12. All About Love ENZO Wedding Collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the spring afternoon in Macao Fisherman’s Wharf on April 13,hundreds of guests from China’s mainland,Hong Kong and Macao gathered at the leading colored gem brand ENZO’s 20,000-square-feet flagship store to celebrate ENZO Wedding

  13. Note on the Honduras Radio Schools (ACPH--Accion Cultural Popular Hondureno). IEC Discussion Paper. Appendix 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael

    This report on the radio schools in Honduras, Central America, includes (1) an account of an afternoon session of the radio school's Primary Equivalence Programme (PEPA), including a testimonial of a student and a statement regarding the importance of the monitors; (2) information on the social background of Honduras; (3) an historical account of…

  14. The Sixth Annual Knowledge-Based Software Engineering Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Selfridge, Peter G.

    1992-01-01

    The Sixth Annual Knowledge-Based Software Engineering Conference (KBSE-91) was held at the Sheraton University Inn and Conference Center in Syracuse, New York, from Sunday afternoon, 22 September, through midday Wednesday, 25 September. The KBSE field is concerned with applying knowledge-based AI techniques to the problems of creating, understanding, and maintaining very large software systems.

  15. The Talent Managing Work of the Balaton-Felvideki Szin-Vonal Primary Art School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyai, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, art education has been recognized as a suitable tool for enhancing emotional intelligence and nurturing a child's creative development. However, it seems that the education of art has lost the race against other primary school subjects, with only a minimal number of lessons being taught. The establishment of the afternoon art…

  16. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 18, 2008 00:00:00 JOHN ZVIJAC, M.D.: Good afternoon and welcome to Doctors Hospital in ... M-Access button on your computer and we'd be happy to answer these throughout our broadcast. ...

  17. Daily patterns of physical activity by type 2 diabetes definition: Comparing diabetes, prediabetes, and participants with normal glucose levels in NHANES 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A. Steeves

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our novel methodology provides information about PA patterns by diabetes definition. Significantly lower TAC in the diabetes group, their significant drop in afternoon PA, and the similarity of PA between participants with normal glucose levels and prediabetes provide insight into potential targets for intervention.

  18. 75 FR 22100 - Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... the Federal Register on April 13, 2010 (75 FR 18781). At the Board meeting scheduled on the afternoon..., cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see http://www.access-board.gov/about/policies/fragrance.htm for more information). David M. Capozzi, Executive Director. BILLING CODE 8150-01-P...

  19. 死亡网络%Point Click and Die

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rebecca Sinderbrand; 张平

    2003-01-01

    @@ "Pro-choice" suicide sites come under legal scrutiny(详细审查) After her grandmother died, 21-year-old Julie Veteto sank into a severe depression. Still, her family was stunned the afternoon her husband,Roger, came home to find her body dangling(摇摆) from a dog leash in their bathroom doorway.

  20. Real-Life Maths and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    As a primary teacher in a large junior school the author would spend many Sunday afternoons planning exciting science lessons only to find they did not include sufficient mathematical knowledge and skills. At the time, the Numeracy Strategy was spreading through classrooms like wildfire. Meanwhile, science lessons were progressing under the…

  1. Large aperture scintillometer used over a homogeneous irrigated area, partly affected by regional advection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, J.C.B.; Zuurbier, R.M.; Watts, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Scintillometer measurements were collected over an irrigated wheat field in a semi-arid region in northwest Mexico. Conditions were unstable in the morning and stable during the afternoon, while latent heat fluxes remained high throughout the day. Regional advection was observed during near-neutral

  2. IMF effect on daytime through according to Kosmos-900 satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the Kosmos-900 satellite data in 1978-1979 has shown that ionization troughs in the afternoon sector are observed at any magnetic activity level. Under quiet conditions the trough location dependence on IMF is observed as follows: with the BZ>0 increase the through shifts to the upper latitudes. However, this regularity is well expressed only at Byy>0

  3. Strong thermospheric cooling during the 2009 major stratosphere warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, H.; Doornbos, E.N.; Yamamoto, M.; Ram, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    Thermospheric density simultaneously observed by the CHAMP and GRACE satellites in both the pre‐dawn and afternoon local time sectors undergoes significant decrease across both hemispheres during the major stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) in January 2009. This decrease is largest in the equatorial

  4. Schlumberger and China Petroleum Industry Eye Win-Win Goal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mingyi

    2005-01-01

    @@ In the afternoon of Oct.10,2005, China National Petroleum Corporation(CNPC),China Petrochemical Corporation(Sinopec), China National Offshore Oil Corporation(CNOOC) and Schlumberger jointly celebrated 25 years of cooperation between China petroleum undustry and Schlumberger at Diaoyutai State Guesthouse.

  5. The thermos principle; Das Thermoskannen-Prinzip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banse, Stephanie

    2011-12-14

    While Grandma's tea cozy kept the hot liquid warm for an afternoon, a thermos flask still contains residual heat the next morning. This principle is now used by manufacturers of buffer stores. There are now vacuum seasonal stores with low heat losses that will keep the energy of the summer sun for the winter season.

  6. 76 FR 65736 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... proposed indication (use) for this product is for the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer). During the afternoon session, the committee will discuss new drug application... renal failure in adult patients on dialysis. FDA intends to make background material available to...

  7. Thermoregulatory traits of crossbred cattle Holstein x Gir in southern of Piauí state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Lopes da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aimed to evaluate the thermoregulatory traits of crossbred cattle Holstein x Gir under climatic influence during the morning and afternoon shifts of the raining season of the year, in southern of Piaui state. This study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Piaui (UFPI, Campus Professora Cinobelina Elvas (CPCE, situated in Bom Jesus city, in Piaui state. Ten cows in lactation were used and respiratory and cardiac frequencies, rectal temperature and sweating rate were measured. The physical analysis of the thermal environment of the install was acquired in the weather station of the UFPI’s campus, which registered the temperature and air relative humidity. The wet bulb globe temperature index (WBGTI was obtained by a thermometer inserted into a black globe. There was significant difference (P<0.05 for all the weather variables, highlighting the air temperature, which had higher value in the afternoon shift (30.41 °C. A significant effect (P<0.05 was observed for the physiological variables respiratory rate and sweating rate, in which higher values were measured during the afternoon shift, being respectively 51.59 mov./min. and 104.69 g/m/h, probably because this shift showed the highest values for air temperature. The animals evaluated in this study showed a certain level of thermal discomfort, mainly in the afternoon shift.

  8. Dr. Hermann otto Sleumer retired

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1971-01-01

    On March 1st, 1971, Dr. Hermann Otto Sleumer, senior staff member of the Rijksherbarium, retired on reaching the age of 65 years. I have expressly omitted to say ‘from active service’, because his work has gone on uninterruptedly and he even had objections against spending one afternoon, on Febr. 26

  9. Using Point-of-View Video Modeling and Forward Chaining to Teach a Functional Self-Help Skill to a Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Akriti; Anderson, Angelika; Moore, Dennis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of point-of-view video modeling in a forward-chaining procedure to teach a 4-year-old boy with autism to serve himself an afternoon snack. Task analysis was undertaken, and the task was divided into 3 phases with 1 video produced for each phase. A changing criterion design was used to evaluate the effects of…

  10. Migration hos trollsländad Hemianax ephippiger (Burmeister, 1839) (Odonata, Aechnidae) iakttagen i Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    A swarm of Hemianax ephippiger was observed in Eilath (Israel) on 12 March 1986. During the week before this date, no dragonflies were to be seen. In the late afternoon thousands of dragonflies were observed at the beach, 8 km SW of Eilath. They were resting on walls of buildings or flying slowly...

  11. All of Africa Will Be Free before We Can Get a Lousy Cup of Coffee: The Impact of the 1943 Lunch Counter Sit-Ins on the Civil Rights Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aarushi H.

    2012-01-01

    One spring afternoon, a group of young black students enter a local eating establishment with one modest desire--to sit with friends and enjoy a cup of coffee. They wait patiently, but are only served dirty looks, cold shoulders, and some choice words. Such an experience was not uncommon in Chicago in the early 1940s. Segregation, though illegal,…

  12. Salivary Biomarker Levels and Diurnal Variation: Associations with Medications Prescribed to Control Children's Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred

    2007-01-01

    This study examined associations between medications prescribed to control children's problem behaviors and levels of, and diurnal variation in, salivary cortisol (C), testosterone (T), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Saliva was collected in the morning, midday, and afternoon from 432 children ages 6-13 years. Relative to a no-medication…

  13. Classroom Emotional Support Predicts Differences in Preschool Children's Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Bridget E.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.; O'Brien, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests children enrolled in full-time child care often display afternoon elevations of the hormone cortisol, which is an indicator of stress. Recent advances in immunoassays allow for measurement of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic sympathetic nervous system from saliva, and measurement…

  14. Philanthropist in Juvenile Reformatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN NIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of February 1, 2007, Chen Guangbiao, a noted philanthropist, found himself in the Jiangsu Provincial Juvenile Reformatory in Jurong City for a ceremony to donate two buses, 100 computers, and 100 desks and 100 chairs for the juvenile offenders to use in their study.

  15. High performance linear algebra algorithms: An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, F.G.; Wasniewski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    his Mini-Symposium consisted of two back to back sessions, each consisting of five presentations, held on the afternoon of Monday, June 21, 2004. A major theme of both sessions was novel data structures for the matrices of dense linear algebra, DLA. Talks one to four of session one all centered...

  16. Information from the Site Engineering Group

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    This morning, there will be road marking works at the Entrance B crossroad, which might create some traffic disruption. The temporary roundabout previously installed will be replaced by traffic lights in the afternoon. Please comply with the new signage. Department of General Infrastructure Services (GS) GS-SE Group

  17. A Passion for Success: Beating the Odds in a New Delhi Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Penny

    2002-01-01

    A private alternative school in the slums of New Delhi (India) is committed to ending female child labor and ensuring that its students don't grow up poor. The school was able to enroll girls in its all-female afternoon classes by getting their mothers involved in income-generating cooperatives. The students often outperform their peers in state…

  18. Sensitivity of diurnal variation in simulated precipitation during East Asian summer monsoon to cumulus parameterization schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Jin; Jin, Emilia Kyung; Han, Ji-Young; Kim, So-Young; Kwon, Young

    2015-12-01

    The capability to simulate the diurnal variation of precipitation over East Asia region during the summertime of 2011 is investigated using five different cumulus parameterization schemes with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. A semidiurnal cycle with a 12 h interval over land and a diurnal cycle with a 24 h interval over ocean are commonly found in all simulations, consistent with the observed diurnal cycle. Two observed dominant peaks in the early morning and afternoon are reproduced in all simulations. With overestimated precipitation rate, however, the simulated afternoon peaks occur earlier than the observed peaks by 2 h for the Kain-Fritsch (KF) and Simplified Arakawa-Schubert schemes, and by 3 h for the Betts-Miller-Janjić and Tiedtke schemes. The overestimation of simulated precipitation frequency leads to amplitude and phase errors in the precipitation rate, and the early peak time of simulated precipitation intensity intensifies the phase error in the simulation over land. The KF scheme with alternative trigger function (KFtr) based on moisture advection provides slightly better results in terms of alleviating the overestimated precipitation rate and frequency and delaying the afternoon peaks. Additional sensitivity simulations based on the change of temperature perturbation in the trigger function of the KF and KFtr schemes demonstrate the afternoon peak tends to be delayed as temperature perturbation decreases, implying the significant role of convective initiation frequency in determining diurnal peaks of precipitation. Modulation of temperature perturbation alleviates the precipitation frequency bias, while it could not resolve the precipitation intensity bias.

  19. The 1925 Fort Union Indian Congress: Divergent Narratives, One Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blee, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    This essay investigates how various perspectives differ and converge in the span of an afternoon, thus illustrating how divergent narratives, through their very difference, enhance one's understanding of the past. The case study of the 1925 Fort Union Indian Congress points to the process of narrativizing experience and underscores how meaning is…

  20. Redox activity of urban quasi-ultrafine particles from primary and secondary sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vishal; Ning, Zhi; Cho, Arthur K.; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-12-01

    To characterize the redox activity profiles of atmospheric aerosols from primary (traffic) and secondary photochemical sources, ambient quasi-ultrafine particles were collected near downtown Los Angeles in two different time periods - morning (6:00-9:00 PDT) and afternoon (11:00-14:00 PDT) in the summer of 2008. Detailed chemical analysis of the collected samples, including water-soluble elements, inorganic ions, organic species and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was conducted and redox activity of the samples was measured by two different assays: the dithiothreitol (DTT) and the macrophage reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. Tracers of secondary photochemical reactions, such as sulfate and organic acids were higher (2.1 ± 0.6 times for sulfate, and up to 3 times for the organic acids) in the afternoon period. WSOC was also elevated by 2.5 ± 0.9 times in the afternoon period due to photo-oxidation of primary particles during atmospheric aging. Redox activity measured by the DTT assay was considerably higher for the samples collected during the afternoon; on the other hand, diurnal trends in the ROS-based activity were not consistent between the morning and afternoon periods. A linear regression between redox activity and various PM chemical constituents showed that the DTT assay was highly correlated with WSOC ( R2 = 0.80), while ROS activity was associated mostly with water soluble transition metals (Vanadium, Nickel and Cadmium; R2 > 0.70). The DTT and ROS assays, which are based on the generation of different oxidizing species by chemical PM constituents, provide important information for elucidating the health risks related to PM exposure from different sources. Thus, both primary and secondary particles possess high redox activity; however, photochemical transformations of primary emissions with atmospheric aging enhance the toxicological potency of primary particles in terms of generating oxidative stress and leading to subsequent damage in cells.

  1. Physiological responses and manual performance in humans following repeated exposure to severe cold at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, H; Nagai, Y; Tochihara, Y

    2001-04-01

    We evaluated human physiological responses and the performance of manual tasks during exposure to severe cold (-25 degrees C) at night (0300-0500 hours) and in the afternoon (1500-1700 hours). Thirteen male students wearing standard cold protective clothing occupied a severely cold room (-25 degrees C) for 20 min, and were then transferred to a cool room (10 degrees C) for 20 min. This pattern of exposure was repeated three times, for a total time of exposure to extreme cold of 60 min. The experiments were started either at 1500 hours or 0300 hours and measurements of rectal temperature, skin temperature, blood pressure, performance in a counting task, hand tremor, and subjective responses were made in each condition. At the end of the experiment at night the mean decrease in rectal temperature [0.68 (SEM 0.04) degree C] was significantly greater than that at the end of the experiment in the afternoon [0.55 (SEM 0.08) degree C, P second cold exposure at night the mean increase in diastolic blood pressure [90 (SEM 2.0) mmHg] was significantly greater than that at the end of the second cold exposure in the afternoon [82 (SEM 2.8) mmHg, P second cold exposure at night, mean finger skin temperature [11.8 (SEM 0.8) degrees C] was significantly higher than that at the comparable time in the afternoon [9.0 (SEM 0.7) degrees C, P second cold exposure at night [25.6 (SEM 1.5) degrees C] was significantly higher than in the afternoon [20.1 (SEM 0.8) degrees C, P < 0.01]. The increased skin temperatures in the periphery resulted in increased heat loss. Since peripheral skin temperatures were highest at night, the subjects noted diminished sensations of thermal cold and pain at that time. Manual dexterity at the end of the first cold exposure at night [mean 83.7 (SEM 3.6) times.min-1] had decreased significantly more than at the end of the first cold exposure in the afternoon [mean 89.4 (SEM 3.5) times.min-1, P < 0.01]. These findings of a lowered rectal temperature and

  2. Characteristics of Aerosol Spectral Optical Depths over Manora Peak, Nainital $-$ A High Altitude Station in the Central Himalayas

    CERN Document Server

    Sagar, R; Dumka, U C; Moorthy, K K; Pant, P

    2003-01-01

    We present for the first time spectral behaviour of aerosol optical depths (AODs) over Manora Peak, Nainital located at an altitude of ~2 km in the central Himalayas. The observations were carried out using a Multi-Wavelength Solar Radiometer during January to December 2002. The primary features of the study are (i) larger AOD during afternoon periods compared to forenoon, attributable to change in the ray path from comparatively cleaner environment in the forenoon to polluted environment in the afternoon (ii) extremely low AODs during local winter and a remarkable increase to high values in summer (iii) a distinct change in the spectral dependencies of AODs from a relatively steeper spectra during winter to a shallower one in summer representing both transparent (meteorological aerosols) and polluted summer (urban haze aerosols) skies.The mean aerosol extinction law at Nainital during 2002 is best represented by $0.10 \\lambda^{-0.61}$.

  3. Analysis of global Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes distribution and special focus on AGILE detections over South America

    CERN Document Server

    Fabró, Ferran; Marisaldi, Martino; van der Velde, Oscar A; Fuschino, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Global distribution of the Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) detected by AGILE and RHESSI for the period from March 2009 to July 2012 has been analysed. A fourth TGF production region has been distinguished over the Pacific. It is confirmed that TGF occurrence follows the Intertropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) seasonal migration and prefers afternoons. TGF/lightning ratio appears to be lower over America than other regions suggesting that meteorological regional differences are important for the TGF production. Diurnal cycle of TGFs peaks in the afternoon suggesting that Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) and convection are important for TGF production. Moreover all AGILE passages over South America in the same period have been analysed to find meteorological preferences for TGF occurrence. In each passage the analysis of Cloud Top Altitude (CTA), CAPE, number of strokes, number of storms and coverage area of clouds with temperatures below $-70\\,^{\\circ}{\\rm C}$ (Cloud Top Coverage area, CTC) are c...

  4. France @ CERN | Come and meet 37 French companies at the 2014 “France @ CERN” Event | 1-3 December

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The 13th “France @ CERN” event will take place from 1 December to 3 December 2014. Thanks to Ubifrance, the French agency for international business development, 37 French firms will have the opportunity to showcase their know-how at CERN.   These companies are looking forward to meeting you during the B2B sessions which will be held on Tuesday, 2 December (afternoon) and on Wednesday, 3 December (afternoon) in buildings 500 and 61 or at your convenience in your own office. The fair’s opening ceremony will take place on Tuesday, 2 December (morning) in the Council Chamber in the presence of Rolf Heuer, Director-General of CERN and Nicolas Niemtchinow, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations in Geneva and to international organisations in Switzerland. For more information about the event and the 37 participating French firms, please visit: http://www.la-france-au-cern.com/

  5. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  6. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced, transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-sources@cern.ch

  7. 信息共享在八年制医学生妇科见习中的应用%Application of Information Sharing during Gynecological Clinical Internship for Eight-year Program Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓柳枝; 李梦熊; 张喜春

    2014-01-01

    Gynecological clinical internship is an important process for eight-year program medical students to Integrate medical theory and clinical practice .Gynecological clinical internship is different from other disciplines .“Afternoon report”-an information sharing model ,enables maximize clinical resource utilization ,promote teaching and learning and help students teamwork spirit cultivation .%八年制医学生的临床见习是实现医学理论与临床实践联系与跨越的重要过程。妇科见习有着与其他学科不同的特点。通过实施“afternoon report”这种信息共享模式,能使临床资源利用最大化,促进教学相长,并有利于培养学生的团队协作精神。

  8. The effect of fasting during Ramadan on parameters of the haematological and steroidal modules of the athletes biological passport - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaadi, K; Voss, S C; Kraiem, S; Alwahaibi, A; Alyazedi, S; Dbes, N; Goebel, R; Mohamed-Ali, V; Alsowaidi, S; Seyam, A M; Bashraheel, A S; Alsayrafi, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Ramadan on the haematological and steroid module of the Athletes Biological Passport (ABP) of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Nine healthy physically active subjects were tested in the morning and afternoon for two days before and three days during Ramadan. Sample collection and all analyses were performed according to WADA technical documents. Although there were significant changes in the haemoglobin concentration during Ramadan, especially during the first fasting week, none of the subjects in this study exceeded the individually calculated thresholds of the ABP. No significant effects on testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio were observed but only the afternoon specific gravity (SG) of the urine was elevated. Thus, when urinary steroid concentrations are required, SG corrections need to be performed. The haematological and the steroid module of the ABP can be reliably applied during Ramadan as the observed changes are only marginal. PMID:26695489

  9. Heat production and quantitative oxidation of nutrients by physical activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Chwalibog, André; Jakobsen, K;

    1994-01-01

    The effect of physical activity on heat production and oxidation of nutrients was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. The experiment included 6 male and 4 female healthy subjects who, during a 24-hour stay in the respiration chambers, performed, in the morning and afternoon, 15 min cycling...... with the total work of 6,750 kg m. Experiments were repeated twice (3- to 4-week interval) showing no differences between the gas exchange in the morning and afternoon and between first and second experiment. The gas exchange during cycling was about 4 times higher than during basal periods. The identical work...... of 66.2 kJ by cycling caused on average a heat increment of 309 kJ, yielding the mean energetic efficiency for the performed work of 0.22. The activity caused an increment of 11.5 g oxidized carbohydrate and 2.6 g oxidized fat....

  10. CERN Technical Training Programme: Learning for the LHC!

    CERN Multimedia

    CLEAN-2002: Working in a Cleanroom CLEAN-2002 is a free of charge, half-day seminar in the context of Technical Training for the LHC. The course is designed for personnel working or managing activities in an assembly cleanroom, for example physicists, engineers and technicians working at or visiting the laboratory. CLEAN-2002 is aimed at raising awareness about good working practices in a cleanroom, and at providing practical examples, analysis tools, and documentation. Specific problems put forward beforehand by attendees will also be addressed. If you are interested in CLEAN-2002, please discuss with your supervisor or your DTO. More information and online registration by EDH are available from the Technical Training pages: http://www.cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/ The next session in French will be on Thursday, 4 September 2003 (afternoon), and in English on Thursday, 23 October 2003 (afternoon). Organiser: Davide Vitè / HR-TD / 75141 Davide.Vite@cern.ch

  11. The longitude dependence of the dayside F region trough: A detailed model-observation comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nighttime main F region trough extends into the sunlit afternoon sector. This trough feature exhibits both a strong magnetic activity dependence and a longitude (UT) dependence. Whalen (1987), using International Geophysical Year (IGY) ionosonde data, showed that both of these effects are readily extracted from f0F2 observations. In this study the authors show that the longitude effect is the same as that contained in the Utah State University time-dependent ionospheric model. It arises from the offset of the geomagnetic axis from the geographic axis. The magnetic activity dependency is associated with the westward convection in the afternoon sector. It is also contained in the ionospheric model via the empirical magnetospheric convection model. This one-to-one observational-model agreement is unique; to date no other magnetic activity dependent ionospheric feature has been simulated this systemtically

  12. Biomass and waste to energy. Financial incentives for renewables. Altener workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The title workshop was organised by Novem in cooperation with its partners in the Altener Waste for Energy (WfE) network, and AFB-Nett (Agricultural and Forestry Biomass Network). Almost 100 participants from 13 European countries attended the workshop. The aim of the workshop was to explore the industrial potential, to discuss mutual differences and financial barriers that appear still to be present. The morning session of the workshop included country presentations of existing national financial incentives to support renewable energy. In the afternoon session three 'Dutch cases' were presented, followed by a presentation of the results of a European comparison, commissioned by Novem. The second part of the afternoon was reserved for an 'in-depth' plenary panel discussion, e.g. on best practices, new instruments, potential and need for harmonization

  13. 222Rn as indicator of atmospheric turbulence: measurements at Lake Maggiore and on the pre-Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentration measurements in atmosphere were taken in years from 1997 to 1999 in Milan and at pre-alpine sites located north of Lombardy. In this paper the results of measuring campaigns and a comparison of radon levels observed in the hilly area north of the town and on the pre-Alps are reported. The general criteria of the measurements and the interpretative models of radon concentration are presented. The Lake Maggiore area shows evidence of a great nocturnal stability and frequent formation of Nocturnal Stable Layer. The peculiar findings in the high altitude stations confirm the use of radon as an indicator of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in an area with complex orography. The afternoon minimum values are concordant for the different stations: this implies a remixing in afternoon hours over the whole area investigated

  14. Workshop on developing safe software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Workshop on Developing Safe Software was held July 22--23 at the Hotel del Coronado, San Diego, California. The purpose of the workshop was to have four world experts discuss among themselves software safety issues which are of interest to the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). These issues concern the development of software systems for use in nuclear power plant protection systems. The workshop comprised four sessions. Wednesday morning, July 22, consisted of presentations from each of the four panel members. On Wednesday afternoon, the panel members went through a list of possible software development techniques and commented on them. The Thursday morning, July 23, session consisted of an extended discussion among the panel members and the observers from the NRC. A final session on Thursday afternoon consisted of a discussion among the NRC observers as to what was teamed from the workshop

  15. CERN Technical Training 2006: Office Software Curriculum Scheduled Course Sessions (October-December 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Office Software Curriculum of the CERN Technical Training Programme currently offers comprehensive training in Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, Powerpoint, Access, Outlook), MS Project, Frontpage, Dreamweaver, Indesign, LaTeX, and CERN EDMS. There are some places available on the following Microsoft Office 2003 course sessions, currently scheduled until December 2007: EXCEL 2003 - niveau 2 : ECDL - 16-17 October (2 days, session in French) WORD 2003 (Short Course II) - HowTo... Mail merge - 2 November (morning, bilingual session) WORD 2003 (Short Course IV) - HowTo... Work with master document - 2 November (afternoon, bilingual session) OUTLOOK 2003 (Short Course III) - Meetings and Delegation - 3 November (morning, bilingual session) EXCEL 2003 (Short Course IV) - HowTo... Link cells, worksheets and workbooks - 3 November (afternoon, bilingual session) EXCEL 2003 - Level 1: ECDL - 13-14 November (2 days, session in English) ACCESS 2003 - Level 2: ECDL - 5-6 December (2 days, session in English) The abo...

  16. On the mutual relationship of the equatorial electrojet, TEC and scintillation in the Peruvian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Sovit M.; Valladares, Cesar; Pradipta, Rezy; Pacheco, Edgardo; Condor, Percy

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the interrelationship between the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) strength, Global Positioning System (GPS)-derived total electron content (TEC), and postsunset scintillation from ground observations with the aim of finding reliable precursors of the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities. Mutual relationship studies provide a possible route to predict the occurrence of TEC fluctuation and scintillation in the ionosphere during the late afternoon and night respectively based on daytime measurement of the equatorial ionosphere. Data from ground based observations in the low latitudes of the west American longitude sector were examined during the 2008 solar minimum. We find a strong relationship exists between the noontime equatorial electrojet and GPS-derived TEC distributions during the afternoon mediated by vertical E × B drift via the fountain effect, but there is little or no relationship with postsunset ionospheric scintillation.

  17. Characteristics of urban ozone level in Hong kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The long term trend of ozone level in Hong Kong has been investigated. One of the characteristics of ozone level in Hong Kong is the existence of autumn maximum and summer minimum. Observations of the diurnal variation of ozone level have been made in different area categories. There are early morning peak and afternoon peak occurred in the diurnal variation, which are different from some metropolitans where only an afternoon peak is observed. A negative correlation coefficient was found between monthly ozone level with nitric oxide level. On the contrary, there is a positive correlation between ozone and nitrogen dioxide. The positive correlation coefficient between nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide shows that the total amount of nitric oxide emitted from a series of moving and fixed sources greatly exceeded the stoichiometric amount of ozone formed from chemical reactions of precursors and long distance transportation.

  18. Comparison of radioactive tracer tin colloid and phytate for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masato; Nagashima, Takashi; Kasagawa, Takahiro; Sakakibara, Masahiro; Oshida, Keiko; Sangai, Takafumi; Nakano, S.; Miyazaki, Masaru [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-10-01

    Eighty-four consecutive sentinel node biopsies were performed using dye and radioactive tracer (tin colloid for 42 tumors and phytate for 42 tumors). They had subdermal injection on the morning of surgery or the afternoon before surgery. Maximum RI count of each sentinel node was recorded and classified {<=}5 counts per second (cps), 5-20, or 20<. In injection on the afternoon before surgery, 19 tumors had {<=}5 cps and 2 had 20 cps< in 24 of tin colloid, whereas 1 had {<=}5 cps and 18 had 20 cps< in 22 of phytate. In injection on the morning of surgery, 9 had {<=}5 and 20 had 20< in 18 of tin colloid, whereas 1 had {<=}5 and 18 had 20< in 20 of phytate. The injection of phytate tended to have higher RI count than tin colloid. Phytate is superior to tin colloid for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. (author)

  19. Bioaerosol sampling for airborne bacteria in a small animal veterinary teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisha A. M. Harper

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Airborne microorganisms within the hospital environment can potentially cause infection in susceptible patients. The objectives of this study were to identify, quantify, and determine the nosocomial potential of common airborne microorganisms present within a small animal teaching hospital. Methods: Bioaerosol sampling was done initially in all 11 rooms and, subsequently, weekly samples were taken from selected rooms over a 9-week period. Samples were collected twice (morning and afternoon at each site on each sampling day. The rooms were divided into two groups: Group 1, in which morning sampling was post-cleaning and afternoon sampling was during activity, and Group 2, in which morning sampling was pre-cleaning and afternoon sampling was post-cleaning. The total aerobic bacterial plate counts per m3 and bacterial identification were done using standard microbiological methods. Results: A total of 14 bacterial genera were isolated with the most frequent being Micrococcus spp. followed by species of Corynebacterium, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus. There was a significant interaction between location and time for rooms in Group 1 (p=0.0028 but not in Group 2 (p>0.05. Microbial counts for rooms in Group 2 were significantly greater in the mornings than in the afternoon (p=0.0049. The microbial counts were also significantly different between some rooms (p=0.0333. Conclusion: The detection of significantly higher airborne microbial loads in different rooms at different times of the day suggests that the probability of acquiring nosocomial infections is higher at these times and locations.

  20. An Update to the Warm-Season Convective Wind Climatology of KSC/CCAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Total of 1100 convective events in the 17-year warm-season climatology at KSC/CCAFS. July and August typically are the peak of convective events, May being the minimum. Warning and non-warning level convective winds are more likely to occur in the late afternoon (1900-2000Z). Southwesterly flow regimes and wind directions produce the strongest winds. Storms moving from southwesterly direction tend to produce more warning level winds than those moving from the northerly and easterly directions.

  1. The phase shift hypothesis for the circadian component of winter depression

    OpenAIRE

    Lewy, Alfred J.; Rough, Jennifer N.; Songer, Jeannine B.; Mishra, Neelam; Yuhas, Krista; Emens, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    The finding that bright light can suppress melatonin production led to the study of two situations, indeed, models, of light deprivation: totally blind people and winterdepressives. The leading hypothesis for winter depression (seasonal affective disorder, or SAD) is the phase shift hypothesis (PSH). The PSH was recently established in a study in which SAD patients were given low-dose melatonin in the afternoon/evening to cause phase advances, or in the morning to cause phase delays, or place...

  2. Diurnal variation of depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wirz-Justice, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal variation of depressive symptoms appears to be part of the core of depression. Yet longitudinal investigation of an individual's pattern regularity, relation to clinical state, and clinical improvement reveals little homogeneity. Morning lows, afternoon slump, evening worsening - all can occur during a single depressive episode. Mood variability, or the propensity to produce mood swings, appears to be the characteristic that most predicts capacity to respond to treatment. Laboratory s...

  3. Determining the potential impact of a micro heat pump for domestic water heating / Pieter Willem Jordaan

    OpenAIRE

    Jordaan, Pieter Willem

    2002-01-01

    Hot water used in the South African domestic sector is mostly heated by in-tank electrical resistance heaters. These so-called "geysers" are the major contributors to the undesirable high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. These peak demands continue to be of concern to Eskom. The "reduced capacity in-line water heating system design methodology" was developed to address this problem. A parallel inline heat pump water heater further red...

  4. The warm ionized medium in spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Haffner, L M; Beckman, J E; Wood, K; Slavin, J D; Giammanco, C; Madsen, G J; Zurita, A; Reynolds, R J

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews observations and models of the diffuse ionized gas that permeates the disk and halo of our Galaxy and others. It was inspired by a series of invited talks presented during an afternoon scientific session of the 65th birthday celebration for Professor Carl Heiles held at Arecibo Observatory in August 2004. This review is in recognition of Carl's long standing interest in and advocacy for studies of the ionized as well as the neutral components of the interstellar medium.

  5. Slingerland Receives 2012 G. K. Gilbert Award: Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Rudy L.

    2013-09-01

    I'm deeply honored to receive the Earth and Planetary Surface Processes G. K. Gilbert Award, in no small part because Gilbert's application of simple physical principles to Earth surface processes has always been an inspiration to me. My desire to study the transportation of debris by running water started a long time ago on our family farm, where re-engineering the local stream with a backhoe was a rewarding afternoon activity.

  6. MIRACLE RESCUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Atotal of 115 workers had been miraculously retrieved from the flooded Wangjialing Coal Mine in north China's Shanxi Province by the afternoon of April 5, after being trapped underground for more than a week. "It is a miracle in the history of Chinese mining rescues," said Luo Lin, Director of the State Administration of Work Safety, who stood waiting at the pit entrance. "The trapped miners displayed an unwavering determination to survive for eight days and eight nights."

  7. Seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric mercury across the US determined from AMNet monitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Speciated atmospheric mercury observations collected over the period from 2008 to 2010 at the Environmental Protection Agency and National Atmospheric Deposition Program Atmospheric Mercury Network sites (AMNet were analyzed for its spatial, seasonal, and diurnal characteristics across the US. Median values of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM and particulate bound mercury (PBM at 11 different AMNet sites ranged from 148–226 ppqv (1.32–2.02 ng m−3, 0.05–1.4 ppqv (0.47–12.4 pg m−3 and 0.18–1.5 ppqv (1.61–13.7 pg m−3, respectively. Common characteristics of these sites were the similar median levels of GEM as well as its seasonality, with the highest mixing ratios occurring in winter and spring and the lowest in fall. However, discernible differences in monthly average GEM were as large as 30 ppqv, which may be caused by sporadic influence from local emission sources. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GEM occurred in the summer. Seven rural sites displayed similar GEM summer diurnal patterns, in that the lowest levels appeared in the early morning, and then the GEM mixing ratio increased after sunrise and reached its maxima at noon or in the early afternoon. Unlike GEM, GOM exhibited higher mixing ratios in spring and summer. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GOM occurred in spring for most AMNet sites. The GOM diurnal minima appeared before sunrise and maxima appeared in the afternoon. The increased GOM mixing ratio in the afternoon indicated a photochemically driven oxidation of GEM resulting in GOM formation. PBM exhibited diurnal fluctuations in summertime. The summertime PBM diurnal pattern displayed daily maxima in the early afternoon and lower mixing ratios at night, implying photochemical production of PBM in summer.

  8. At Home With Entertainment. Changing uses, places and meanings of digital entertainment in family leisure

    OpenAIRE

    Tiilikainen, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    This study describes how the families studied use and domesticate digital entertainment technologies and services at home as a part of their practices. Data were collected using fieldwork and analyzed using grounded theory. A total of eight families with children were visited, for one weekday afternoon each. During the visits, each family member was interviewed and their use of entertainment was observed and photographed. Family members also completed some assignments. Motivations for us...

  9. Calories From Beverages Purchased at 2 Major Coffee Chains in New York City, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Christina; Dumanovsky, Tamara; Silver, Lynn D; Nonas, Cathy; Bassett, Mary T

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Calorie intake from beverages has increased in the past decades, which most likely contributes to higher obesity rates. Although coffee chains have grown in popularity in recent years, few data examine the calorie contribution of these drinks. We examined afternoon beverage purchases in New York City at 2 major coffee chains and estimated the mean calorie content of these beverages. Methods We collected purchase receipts and brief surveys from adult customers at 42 Starbucks and ...

  10. College Student Involvement in English Language Learning in Cambodia : Trends and Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Kreng

    2012-01-01

    This study examines (1) the extent to which students at one premier faculty of English in Cambodia exhibit their involvement level in academic activities under a new learning environment and (2) whether differential involvement patterns exist within certain groups of students. The data source was 215 sophomore students randomly selected from all study periods (morning, afternoon and evening) in the 2010 academic year. Student involvement was assessed by their engagement behaviors using select...

  11. Hubungan Jam Kerja Lembur Dengan Kelelahan Kerja Pada Operator Di Unit Instalasi Sunggal Pdam Tirtanadi Di Medan Tahun 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Maraden Frans

    2016-01-01

    Worktime for someone determine the pertinent health, efficiency, efectivity and their work productivity. The most important aspect in case of worktime is the length of someone be able work in a good condition.. the correlation between worktima and rest, daily worktime according to work periode including day periode (morning, day, and afternoon) and night day. Extending worktime from their limit of ability to work usually don’t get along with efficiency, efectivity, and optimal work productivi...

  12. Brand ONLY Ex-Senior Designer Signs Project with Jintian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of Aug.24th,Aurelien LecouE an ex-senior designer of the famous brand ONLY,appears at a news conference in Shanghai to attend signing ceremony for his design consulting service project with his client,Mr.Zhai Fangping,president of Shandong Jintian Trading Company that is situated in Zaozhuang city,one of the most important clothing export bases in China.

  13. Thermospheric zonal mean winds and tides revealed by CHAMP

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, R.S.; Akmaev, R. A.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Doornbos, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present direct, global observations of longitudinally averaged CHAMP zonal winds gathered between 2003 and 2007. A diurnal variation dominates the global zonal wind. Westward flows are observed from the early morning through afternoon hours, while eastward flows peak in the evening. A semidiurnal harmonic is also present, with magnitudes that are approximately one third of the diurnal harmonic. The time mean wind indicates westward winds over much of the globe, with weak superrotation (+E,...

  14. Students Combine Studies with Stethoscopes | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Janine Bahsali and Esther Shafer are Middletown High School seniors who go to school in the morning and spend their afternoons taking blood pressure, assisting with physical exams, learning how to draw a blood sample and stitch a wound closed, and generally assisting the staff of Occupational Health Services (OHS), a health care department serving more than 2,000 employees at NCI at Frederick.

  15. Comprehensive Cooperation of CHINA-PERU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of March 19th,Chinese President Hu Jintao warmly welcomed Peruvian President Alan Garcia at the Great Hall of the People.Accompanying President Alan Garcia was the Minister of Foreign Trade and Tourism, Mercedes Araoz, who came to China to attend the forum on Investment and Business Opportunities in Peru, sponsored by CCPIT.At the event, the graceful lady meticulously introduced her country to the all of the Chinese and Peruvian entrepreneurs in attendance.

  16. Speech by Mr Micheál Martin TD at Launch of Pre-Registration Nursing Degree Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2001-01-01

    Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen. I am very pleased that you were all able to accept my invitation to join me here today on this landmark occasion for nursing education. It is fitting that all of the key stakeholders from the health and education sectors should be so well represented at the launch of an historic new development. Rapid and unpredictable change throughout society has been the hallmark of the twenty-first century, and healthcare is no exception. Regardless of what chang...

  17. Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports.

    OpenAIRE

    Germolec, Dori R.; Kimber, Ian; Goldman, Lynn; Selgrade, Maryjane

    2003-01-01

    On the final afternoon of the workshop "Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods," held 10-12 December 2001 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of use of human clinical data, animal models to assess food allergy, biomarkers of exposure and effect, sensitive populations, dose-response assessment, and postmarket surveillance. Each group addressed general questions regarding a...

  18. Role of residual layer and large-scale phenomena on the evolution of the boundary layer

    OpenAIRE

    Blay, E.; D. Pino; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Boer; Coster, van, R.; I. Faloona; Garrouste, O.; Hartogensis, O. K.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-layer theory and large-eddy simulations are used to analyze the dynamics of the boundary layer on two intensive operational periods during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) campaign: 1st and 2nd of July 2011, when convective boundary layers (CBLs) were observed. Continuous measurements made by several remote sensing and in situ instruments in combination with radiosoundings, and measurements done by unmanned aerial vehicles and an aircraft probed the verti...

  19. Adaptability of females buffaloes in milking parlor of “agreste” region Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Paula Felipe de Oliveira; Adriano Henrique do Nascimento Rangel; Mayara Leilane de Jesus Barreto; Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior; Stela Antas Urbano; Igor de Paula Lopes Aureliano

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the environmental adaptability of female buffalo in primiparous and pluriparous parlor in rural Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Was done reading the climate elements relative humidity (RH) and air temperature (TA) weekly in morning and afternoon shifts for six weeks, and calculated the temperature and humidity index (THI) in the milking parlor. The surface temperature was also measured. In addition, behavioral observations of the environment milking were recorded twice...

  20. Safety Training: Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace

    CERN Multimedia

    Isabelle Cusato

    2010-01-01

        We propose a half day awareness session on the hazards posed by a poor posture while working on a screen (back pain, eyestrain, sore wrists…) and best practices to address them. The next sessions will be held on 18 November 2010 (morning session in French and afternoon session in English). The registration via the Safety Training catalogue is mandatory. Places will be allocated in order of receipt. For any further information, please contact Isabelle Cusato, 73811.  

  1. 两纲之窗(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Love for Left-behind Children情系留守儿童Welcoming the New Year with‘Mothers of Love’和"爱心妈妈"一起过年During the afternoon of December 28,2006,laughter filled the campus of Sencun School in Shexian County,Anhui Province.The"Mothers of Love"had arrived to welcome the New Year with left- behind children,whose parents left the county to find work in cities.

  2. Importance of multidisciplinary trauma prevention program for youth

    OpenAIRE

    Alcir Escocia Dorigatti; Laísa Simakawa Jimenez; Barbara Ribeiro Redondano; Rodrigo Barros de Carvalho; Thiago Rodrigues Araujo Calderan; Gustavo Pereira Fraga

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: present the experience of the P.A.R.T.Y. program in Campinas, thereby changing the habits of young people. METHODS: The organizers visited the participating schools talking to the students, who are aged between 14-18 years. These students spent an afternoon at the Clinics Hospital of Unicamp, where, for four hours, they attended lectures of the organizers, partners and municipal sectors, and also visited the hospital, talking with trauma victims. Questionnaires were evaluated ...

  3. A Study of a Dryline Convective Downburst

    OpenAIRE

    Pryor, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    During the afternoon of 15 June 2005, convective storms developed along and west of the dryline over eastern Colorado and New Mexico. One such storm tracked eastward into Cimarron County, Oklahoma and produced a strong downburst at Kenton. The dryline, as it tracked eastward over the western Oklahoma Panhandle, established favorable conditions for hybrid microbursts by enhancing vertical circulation west of the dryline and hence, the depth of the convective boundary layer (CBL). Prior to conv...

  4. Cases analysis of rational use of medicine(9)%临床药学英语实践(9)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜金山

    2004-01-01

    @@ Case 1 1. Patient's conditions: A 58-year-old,male,Patient had diabetes for 15years, and got cough more than one month. He cought a cold before two weeks,Since then he felt very weak and feverish. His body temperature was always a little higher in the afternoon, the sputum of this patient sometine was bloody. The chest x-ray suggested that he had pulmonary tuberculosis.

  5. The last Bulletin of the year delayed

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2007-01-01

    In order to inform you of the December session of the CERN Council that will take place the 13 and 14 December, the parution of the next issue of the Bulletin – and the last of the year – will be postponed. The Bulletin will be available on Monday 17 December, in the morning for the electronic version and in the afternoon for the paper version. Thank you for your comprehension, The Bulletin team mailto:Information.Bulletin@cern.ch

  6. Performance Evaluation of a Solar Adsorption Refrigeration System with a Wing Type Compound Parabolic Concentrator

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Umair; Atsushi Akisawa; Yuki Ueda

    2014-01-01

    Simulation study of a solar adsorption refrigeration system using a wing type compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) is presented. The system consists of the wing type collector set at optimum angles, adsorption bed, a condenser and a refrigerator. The wing type collector captures the solar energy efficiently in the morning and afternoon and provides the effective temperature for a longer period of time compared to that achieved by a linear collector. The objectives of the study were to evalua...

  7. Radioactive waste management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight senior government representatives outlined the views and policies of their countries in the field of radioactive waste management at a 'scientific afternoon' during the 27th Regular Session of the General Conference of the IAEA in Vienna in October. The countries represented were Argentina, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, India, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the USA; statements made by the participants are reproduced in this article

  8. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass. PMID:12530732

  9. CONTROL OF OPERATIONAL HYGIENE IN FAST FOOD RESTAURANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ľubomír Lopašovský; Simona Kunová; Alica Bobková; Lucia Zeleňáková; Marek Bobko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was control of operational hygiene in fast-food restaurants. Control was carried out in three fast food restaurants. Samples were collected from ten sampling places, in cycles of morning, afternoon and evening. Sanitation process was also controlled in each operation. Grown colonies of microorganisms were counted after incubation in a thermostat. Samples were collected using a 3M ® plates PetrifilmTM - modern detection methods. Presence of coliform bacteria was determi...

  10. The Mourning Ceremony for The Victims

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ At 14:28 on the afternoon of May 19, CCPIT held the Mourning Ceremony for the victims of the May-12 Wenchuan 8.0-magnitude earthquake. Over 300 people including all staff members of CCPIT offices and departments as well as CCPIT enterprises and institutions at-tended the ceremony and mourned for the victims for three min-utes, expressing their deeply-felt grief.

  11. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Nozad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na+ and Mg++, respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p < 0.05. The individual comparison of milk parameters between both groups in the different milking times were also different (p < 0.05. The results of correlation among macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na+ and K+, in which there was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05. The highest and lowest correlations were found between Ca++ and inorganic phosphorus (IP (r=0.37, p < 0.05 and Na+ and IP (r=0.10, p < 0.05, respectively. It is concluded that the concentration of macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg++ was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca++/ IP was the highest, while Na+/K+ revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry.

  12. Relationship between Brazilian airline pilot errors and time of day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. de Mello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Flight safety is one of the most important and frequently discussed issues in aviation. Recent accident inquiries have raised questions as to how the work of flight crews is organized and the extent to which these conditions may have been contributing factors to accidents. Fatigue is based on physiologic limitations, which are reflected in performance deficits. The purpose of the present study was to provide an analysis of the periods of the day in which pilots working for a commercial airline presented major errors. Errors made by 515 captains and 472 copilots were analyzed using data from flight operation quality assurance systems. To analyze the times of day (shifts during which incidents occurred, we divided the light-dark cycle (24:00 in four periods: morning, afternoon, night, and early morning. The differences of risk during the day were reported as the ratio of morning to afternoon, morning to night and morning to early morning error rates. For the purposes of this research, level 3 events alone were taken into account, since these were the most serious in which company operational limits were exceeded or when established procedures were not followed. According to airline flight schedules, 35% of flights take place in the morning period, 32% in the afternoon, 26% at night, and 7% in the early morning. Data showed that the risk of errors increased by almost 50% in the early morning relative to the morning period (ratio of 1:1.46. For the period of the afternoon, the ratio was 1:1.04 and for the night a ratio of 1:1.05 was found. These results showed that the period of the early morning represented a greater risk of attention problems and fatigue.

  13. Urinary fluoride excretion by children 4-6 years old in a south Texas community Excreción urinaria de fluoruro en niños de cuatro a seis años de edad en una comunidad del sur de Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon J. Baez; Martha X. Baez; Thomas M. Marthaler

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated urinary fluoride excretion by school children 4-6 years old who were living in a south Texas rural community that had concentrations of fluoride in drinking water supplies generally around the optimal level. We took supervised collections of urine samples in the morning and afternoon at school, and parents of the participating students collected nocturnal samples. We recorded the beginning and end times of the three collection periods and then determined the urinary volum...

  14. Urinary fluoride excretion by children 4-6 years old in a south Texas community

    OpenAIRE

    Baez Ramon J.; Baez Martha X.; Marthaler Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated urinary fluoride excretion by school children 4-6 years old who were living in a south Texas rural community that had concentrations of fluoride in drinking water supplies generally around the optimal level. We took supervised collections of urine samples in the morning and afternoon at school, and parents of the participating students collected nocturnal samples. We recorded the beginning and end times of the three collection periods and then determined the urinary volum...

  15. Raising Medical Students’ Awareness of Nutrition and Fitness in Disease Prevention: Nutrition and Fitness Program at the University of Iowa

    OpenAIRE

    Snetselaar, Linda; Malville-Shipan, Katherine; Ahrens, Lois; Smith, Karen; Chenard, Cathy; Stumbo, Phyllis; Gordon, Joel; Thomas, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    At the University of Iowa we devised a learning experience, called the Nutrition and Fitness Program, for third-year medical students. The program was designed to raise awareness of the role of nutrition and exercise in the prevention and treatment of disease. Students spent one af-ternoon learning about their personal health risk factors, such as body mass index, percent body fat, other anthropometric measures such as waist, hip and mid-arm circumference, blood lipids, bone-mass density, die...

  16. Measurements of ozone and its precursors in Beijing during summertime: impact of urban plumes on ozone pollution in downwind rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, J.; Ma, J. Z.; Zhang, X.L.; X. B. XU; X. F. Xu; W. L. Lin; Wang, Y.; Meng, W; Z. Q. MA

    2011-01-01

    Sea-land and mount-valley circulations are the dominant mesoscale synoptic systems affecting the Beijing area during summertime. Under the influence of these two circulations, the prevailing wind is southwesterly from afternoon to midnight, and then changes to northeasterly till forenoon. In this study, surface ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and non-methane h...

  17. Chinese Standardization Undertakings Attracted Wide Attention in Strategy Executive Committee Meeting of ISO Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The 14th Strategy Executive Committee Meeting of ISO Council, held in Geneva, Switzerland,was about to end on the afternoon of Jan. 27th, 2004.It was decided in the meeting to particularly add an agenda: Wang Zhongmin, Vice Director of the Standardization Administration of China, was going to make a theme speech to introduce the Standardization Administration of China and the situation of Chinese standardization undertakings.

  18. Smile to Your Guests,Smile to Yourself

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As the warm winter sun shone on a weekday afternoon, a thin, middle-aged man sat at the Cosmo Bar, taking a break from the hustle and bustle of modern life. As the first General Manager of the newly opened Pullman Beijing West Wanda Hotel, Joseph W.C. Mak, a Hong Kong citizen with more than 30 years of experience in the hospitality industry, was proud to see this hotel become operational in less than four

  19. Farmer Training Fund Set Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>On the afternoon of February 12, 2007, the China Friendship Foundation for Peace and Development (CFFPD) held the inauguration of the Farmer Training Fund and a press conference. Li Xiaolin, CPAFFC vice president and chairman of the Board of Directors of the CFFPD, who announced the inauguration, said, the Farmer Training Fund is set up by the CFFPD timely in response to the Party’s call of "building a new socialist countryside" and a

  20. Grid operators' newest nightmare: managing low-demand periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-08-15

    As more renewable energy resources are added in many parts of the world, a new and even more daunting challenge is likely to face grid operators in the future - how to get through the minimum demand periods. This is especially a problem in systems where the difference between the daytime peak, usually in the early to late summer afternoons, and minimum load, usually in the late evening and early morning hours, is significant.

  1. 幽默故事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    捷伦

    2007-01-01

    @@ My Roses Mrs Williams loved flowers and had a small but beautiful garden.In summer,her roses were always the best in her street. One summer afternoon her bell rang,and when she went to the front door,she saw a small boy outside. He was about seven years old,and was holding a big bunch(束) of beautiful roses in his hand.

  2. The Handshake Between CCPIT and JCETC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of July 29, Chairman Wan Jifei met with Tanii Akio, Chairman of both Japan-China Economic & Trade Center(JCETC)and Japan-China Friendship Association of Osaka Prefecture, and the delegation. Chairman Wan expressed that Japan-China Economic and Trade Center is one of the major Japanese economic and trade organizations friendly to China, and has important influence in the Kansai business community.

  3. 短文改错实战演练

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖添发; 陈觉法; 古光英; 温从秀

    2009-01-01

    When the winter holiday was in the way, Tim was so excited to jump with joy for he no longer had to do a plenty of work from morning till dark like before. But to his disappoint, all his daytime were occupied with all kinds of activities. He had to attend the music class and learn playing violin in the morning, or attend the art class and learn painting in the afternoon. Every day when he finished a day's work,

  4. REAL ESTATE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Project: Shihua International Center Developer: Beijing Urban Construction Real Estate Co. Ltd. Location: Inner side of Jingguangqiao Overpass along the East Third Ring Road, Beijing Project Introduction: On the afternoon of March 30, Beijing Urban Construction Real Estate Co. Ltd. and Beijing Huihe Real Estate Co. Ltd. held the first introductory conference on the project of Shihua International Center in the Conference Hall of Jingguanq Center. At the conference,

  5. Problematika trávení volného času u dětí na 2. stupni základní školy a kompenzace školní zátěže

    OpenAIRE

    Ležáková, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor thesis is focused on middle school children and spending their free time and compensation of schoolwork. Nowadays, there is a large amount of extracurricular pursuits which children can follow in their free time. They can attend various leisure-time centres, centres for children and youth, school centres and clubs and many others providing leisure-time activities. These centres primarily offer sport activities, afternoon clubs, educational trips and a great deal of ot...

  6. List of "2012 Top Ten Suppliers for China Apparel industry" Released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Flora

    2012-01-01

    2012 Joint Press Conference of Top Ten Suppliers for China Apparel Industry hosted by China National Garment Association staged on the afternoon of March 26. During the conference, Yang Xiaodong, Director of Science and Technology Department of CNGA, introduced the related organizations of "Recommendations of Top Ten Suppliers for China Apparel Industry" and announced the companies' names, including Shanghai Baison Software Co., Ltd.,globalfabric.

  7. Vertical niche separation between two closely related planktonic flagellate species (Rhodomonas minuta v. nannoplanktica and Rhodomonas lens)

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Ulrich

    1982-01-01

    Rhodomonas minuta v. nannoplanctica Skuja and Rhodomonas lens Pascher et Ruttner were found to perform vertical migrations. From sunrise until afternoon they adjust their vertical position to an optimum light-intensity, which is for R. minuta 2.5 times higher than for R. lens. The spatial separation of both species is increasing throughout the whole light phase. The species distinction between them has been questioned recently, but can be maintained not only because of morphological differenc...

  8. Georges Charpak, Nobel Physics Prize 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wednesday 14 October looked like being a day like any other for detector specialist Georges Charpak. Except he had an unwelcome appointment with the dentist early that afternoon. Late that morning he was able to telephone to cancel the appointment. 'I have a small problem...', he explained. The problem was the announcement that Georges Charpak receives 1992's most prestigious award for physics

  9. A Study on Clinical Profile, risk factors and Mortality in Hypertensive Intracerebral Hemorrhage in a tertiary care hospital in Surat city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nileshkumar M Doctor

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: It was concluded that the most common presentation of cases of hypertensive ICH was altered sensorium (60%. Diurnal variation in the occurrence of hypertensive ICH was present with 94% of the cases during either morning hours or early afternoon hours. Alcohol abuse and tobacco abuse was significantly associated with 30 days mortality. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 381-384

  10. Functional Visual Disturbance due to Hysteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Chun Lai; Ken-Kuo Lin; Meng-Ling Yang; Henry Shen-Lih Chen

    2007-01-01

    A 23-year-old male complained of loss of peripheral visual field and everything havingpurple shadows in the afternoon. This had lasted for 3 years but he had paid little attention tothe symptoms. Investigations, including visual acuity, intra-ocular pressure, pupil reflex, andanterior and posterior segment of the eyes, were normal. He denied ocular pain, history ofhead injury, epilepsy or related family history. The Goldmann perimeter and tangent screenexaminations showed a bilateral constric...

  11. ヒロシマ被爆体験を次世代に継承するための原爆痕跡地図作成 GIS ワークショップ

    OpenAIRE

    岩井,哲; 竹崎,嘉彦; 川瀬, 正樹; 太田,弘

    2009-01-01

    The GIS workshop was held in Hiroshima City on July 31, 2006, which was planned for “the Day of the Hiroshima Atomic bomb” on August 6. The workshop attendants, who were a new generation having no Atomic bomb suffering, look for signs of radiation exposure and try making a digital map. The GIS (Geographic Information Systems) workshop constituted of two parts of the morning and the afternoon session. Two groups including several primary and secondary students surveyed objects concerning the a...

  12. Die-away kinetics of aerosolized bacteria from sprinkler application of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teltsch, B; Shuval, H I; Tadmor, J

    1980-06-01

    A methodology for estimating, under field conditions, the microbial die-away constant (lambda) is presented. This constant may be used in predicting the aerosolized pathogenic microorganism concentrations downwind from a wastewater spray or aeration site by means of modified atmospheric diffusion equations. The mean lambda of Escherichia coli for very early morning runs was 8.8 X 10(-3)s-1, and that for afternoon runs was 6.6 X 10(-2)s-1. PMID:6996614

  13. Analysis of global Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes distribution and special focus on AGILE detections over South America

    OpenAIRE

    Fabró, Ferran; Montanyà, Joan; Marisaldi, Martino; van der Velde, Oscar A.; Fuschino, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Global distribution of the Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) detected by AGILE and RHESSI for the period from March 2009 to July 2012 has been analysed. A fourth TGF production region has been distinguished over the Pacific. It is confirmed that TGF occurrence follows the Intertropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) seasonal migration and prefers afternoons. TGF/lightning ratio appears to be lower over America than other regions suggesting that meteorological regional differences are important for...

  14. Analysis of global Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes distribution and special focus on AGILE detections over South America

    OpenAIRE

    Fabró Tàpia, Ferran; Montanya, Joan; Marisaldi, Martino; Van der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Fuschino, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Global distribution of the Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) detected by AGILE and RHESSI for the period from March 2009 to July 2012 has been analysed. A fourth TGF production region has been distinguished over the Pacific. It is confirmed that TGF occurrence follows the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) seasonal migration and prefers afternoons. TGF/lightning ratio appears to be lower over America than other regions suggesting that meteorological regional differences are important fo...

  15. Duodenal varices

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Peng, L; Yi-Lan, L; Wen-Ko, S

    2011-01-01

    A 76-year-old man had a history of liver cirrhosis secondary to chronic hepatitis B infection. A hepatoma had also been noted 2 years previously. This time, he presented initially at the emergency department because of dysuria and fever for 2 days and tarry stool since the afternoon. The initial upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed esophageal varices, gastric ulcer, and duodenitis that was not actively bleeding. Proton pump inhibitors were prescribed. Unfortunately, massive blood stools ...

  16. TV food advertisements effect on food consumption and adiposity among women and children in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Bacardí-Gascón; Glenda Díaz-Ramírez; Brenda Cruz López; Erika López Zuñiga; Arturo Jiménez-Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was to assess the association between TV foods advertisements and the ones consumed by mothers and children, and the body weight of both mother and child, among population from different SES in two Mexican cities. Methods: During June through October 2011 in Tijuana and Tuxtla Gutierrez, two national broadcasted channels were recorded during a period of 5 h in the afternoon on working days. Direct interviews were conducted to explore the foods consumed b...

  17. Dinamika planetarnog graničnog sloja iznad zagrijanog planinskog obronka

    OpenAIRE

    Wooldridge, Gene L.; McIntyre, Ernest L.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal structures and airflows of upslope circulations over mountain slopes were measured with temperature sondes on dualtheodolite tracked pilot and mylar superpressured balloons. Measurements were made during the development period of morning hours and the quasi-stationary period of early afternoon. Upslope flows began shortly after sunrise, and quickly became deeper and stronger. By late morning, the flow field was fully established in a deep layer of a neutral atmosphere. The...

  18. Consumption of palatable food decreases the anorectic effects of serotonergic, but not dopaminergic drugs in baboons

    OpenAIRE

    Foltin, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of periodic access to a palatable, high sugar content food (candy) in 8 male baboons on the anorectic response to d-amphetamine, which increases dopamine, and dexfenfluramine, which increases serotonin. During candy access, up to 200 candies containing 75% of energy as sugar were available during the morning on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays; food pellets (19% of energy as sugar) were available in the afternoon and throughout the remaining days of the week. During can...

  19. Somebody is Watching EFL Classroom: A project on Improving Students’ Performance Level with a Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Akalın, Suna

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explain a project on supporting students‟ speaking skills with a monitoring system. The monitoring system is aimed at controlling the usage of English continually in the afternoons, in weekdays, at a room which is being controlled by cameras. The absence of a teacher in the room is more comfortable than the cameras watching. This is a report of the Project implemented in the Department of teaching English, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey. This study was conducted to fin...

  20. Travel Time Variability After A Shock: The Case Of The Twin Cities Ramp Meter Shut Off

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang; David Levinson

    2001-01-01

    Ramp meters in the Twin Cities were turned off for 8 weeks in the Fall of 2000. This paper analyzes travel time variability with and without ramp metering for several representative freeways during the afternoon peak period. Travel time variability is generally reduced with metering. However, it is found that ramp meters are particularly helpful for long trips relative to short trips. The benefits from reducing travel time variability with meters are on the order of 37% of the benefits from r...

  1. ??Qu?? experimentamos al tomar t??? Estudio cualitativo y efecto farmacol??gico de sus componentes

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Mart??nez, T.; Campo y Matilla, M.M. del; Slowing Barillas, K.

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN: Al igual que otras plantas, la Camellia sinensis posee efectos sobre nuestro organismo. La costumbre actual del ???afternoon tea??? en Inglaterra, y el consumo de t?? como bebida placentera (Nestea, Trina t?????) ha hecho que sus efectos farmacol??gicos pasen a un segundo plano sin percatarnos del beneficio que nos aporta. Este estudio pretende mostrar lo que ???desconocemos??? sobre ??l. OBJETIVO: Conocer los principales componentes del t??, su control de calidad y su...

  2. Sing who you are: music and identity in postcolonial British-South Asian literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hoene, Christin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the role of music in British-South Asian postcolonial literature, asking how music relates to the possibility of constructing postcolonial identity. The focus is on novels that explore the postcolonial condition in India and the United Kingdom, as well as Pakistan and the United States: Vikram Seth's A Suitable Boy (1993), Amit Chaudhuri's Afternoon Raag (1993), Suhayl Saadi's Psychoraag (2004), Hanif Kureishi's The Buddha of Suburbia (1990) and The Black A...

  3. A Page from My Diary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Saturday,May 26 Windy Saturday again.How time flies!Another week has gone.This afternoon,I was often absent-minded in class,for I was thinking of the film"The Sound of Music",which would be shown at 7 p.m.on the school playground.As soon as class was over,I hurried out of the classroom.

  4. Personality, adrenal steroid hormones, and resilience in maltreated children: A multi-level perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2007-01-01

    In this multi-level investigation, resilience in adaptive functioning among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 677) was examined in relation to the regulation of two stress-responsive adrenal steroid hormones, cortisol and dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA), as well as the personality constructs of ego resiliency and ego control. Maltreatment status was not related to differences in average levels of morning or afternoon cortisol or DHEA. However, lower morning cortisol was relat...

  5. Kenya's 2007 election crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuda, Miwa; 津田, みわ

    2010-01-01

    On 27 December 2007, the Republic of Kenya held its tenth general election since independence. The ballot-related proceedings went as planned up to and including the vote count, providing grounds for optimism for a largely peaceful transfer of power. However, after the official declaration by the Electoral Commission of Kenya late in the afternoon of 30 December that the presidential election had been won by the incumbent, Mwai Kibaki (from Central Province and a Kikuyu), Kenya entered into a...

  6. High-resolution NO₂ remote sensing from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Popp, C; Brunner, D.; Damm, A.; Van Roozendael, M.; Fayt, C.; Buchmann, B

    2012-01-01

    We present and evaluate the retrieval of high spatial resolution maps of NO2 vertical column densities (VCD) from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer. APEX is a novel instrument providing airborne measurements of unique spectral and spatial resolution and coverage as well as high signal stability. In this study, we use spectrometer data acquired over Zurich, Switzerland, in the morning and late afternoon during a flight campaign on a cloud-free summer d...

  7. Annotated and Expanded Minutes of the Milk Marketing Policy Meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.

    2006-01-01

    The July 18, 2006 meeting at the University of Connecticut continues an ongoing investigation of the Northeast fluid milk prices by universities, state and local officials, cooperatives and farmers. There was a morning and afternoon session. Dairy farmers and state legislators explicitly charged the group of economists that met in the morning session to discuss and develop strategies to raise farm level milk prices in the Northeast. Then after lunch the economists reported to a larger group o...

  8. Thermoregulatory traits of crossbred cattle Holstein x Gir in southern of Piauí state

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Lopes da Silva; Laylson da Silva Borges; Valquiria Alves de Sousa; Cicero Pereira Barros Júnior; Tiago Vieira de Andrade; Paulo Henrique Amaral Araújo de Sousa; Edna Teles dos Santos; Leonardo Atta Farias; Severino Cavalcante de Sousa Júnior

    2015-01-01

    In this work we aimed to evaluate the thermoregulatory traits of crossbred cattle Holstein x Gir under climatic influence during the morning and afternoon shifts of the raining season of the year, in southern of Piaui state. This study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Piaui (UFPI), Campus Professora Cinobelina Elvas (CPCE), situated in Bom Jesus city, in Piaui state. Ten cows in lactation were used and respiratory and cardiac frequencies, rectal temperatur...

  9. Dynamics of low-latitudinal boundary of penetration of low-energy solar protons in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of low-latitudinal (equatorial) boundary of penetration of solar Esub(p)>approximately 1 MeV protons during geomagnetic disturbance of different power according to observations by means of polar satellites ''Kosmos'' and ''Interkosmos- 17'' in 1972-1979 is investigated. The most relative displacement of the boundary at the growth of the level of geomagnetic disturbance is shown to be observed in afternoon and evening hours

  10. Equatorial electrodynamics and neutral background in the Asian sector during the 2009 stratospheric sudden warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huixin; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Ram, S. Tulasi;

    2011-01-01

    Using ground observations of total electron content (TEC) and equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in the Asian sector, along with plasma and neutral densities obtained from the CHAMP satellite, we investigate the ionospheric electrodynamics and neutral background in this longitude sector during the major...... and hemispheric asymmetry of the semidiurnal perturbation. Finally, thermospheric density undergoes similar to 25% decrease at low latitudes in the afternoon local time sector during the SSW, indicating significant cooling effects in the tropical upper thermosphere....

  11. Mode shifting in school travel mode: examining the prevalence and correlates of active school transport in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buliung Ron

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies examining the correlates of school transport commonly fail to make the distinction between morning and afternoon school trips. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of mode shift from passive in the morning to active in the afternoon among elementary and secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. Methods Data were derived from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. 3,633 students in grades 7 through 12 completed self-administered questionnaires. Socio-demographic, behavioural, psychological, and environmental predictors of active school transport (AST were assessed using logistic regression. Results Overall, 47% and 38% of elementary school students reported AST to and from school, respectively. The corresponding figures were 23% and 32% for secondary school students. The prevalence of AST varied temporarily and spatially. There was a higher prevalence of walking/biking found for elementary school students than for secondary school students, and there was an approximate 10% increase in AST in the afternoon. Different correlates of active school transport were also found across elementary and secondary school students. For all ages, students living in urban areas, with a shorter travel time between home and school, and having some input to the decision making process, were more likely to walk to and from school. Conclusions Future research examining AST should continue to make the analytic distinction between the morning and afternoon trip, and control for the moderating effect of age and geography in predicting mode choice. In terms of practice, these variations highlight the need for school-specific travel plans rather than 'one size fits all' interventions in promoting active school transport.

  12. Oocyst shedding by green-winged-saltator (Saltator similis) in the diagnostic of coccidiosis and Isospora similisi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Oliveira, Vinícius Modesto de; Flausino, Walter; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Diurnal periodicity is a phenomenon that has been observed in coccidian of Isospora parasites of passerines, which have been eliminated great number of oocysts at dusk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of periodicity of oocysts presence in the green-winged-saltator Saltator similis, and its use in the diagnosis of coccidiosis in wild birds in captivity. A total of 220 fecal samples were collected from birds, apprehended from illegal trading and kept in quarantine in CETAS∕IBAMA, in the morning and late afternoon, from May to November 2010. It was observed that 1.82% of the samples collected in the morning were positive, while 31.36% of samples were positive in the late afternoon. In addition, the number of oocysts shed was greater in the afternoon. Therefore, it was concluded that the sampling in the late afternoon provided greater reliability for the diagnosis of coccidiosis in green-winged-saltators. Moreover, in this study a new isosporoid coccidian parasite from the green-winged-saltator S. similis was observed and is herein described. Isospora similisi n. sp. oocysts are spheroidal to sub-spheroidal, 27.5 × 25.9 µm, with a smooth and bi-layered wall, ∼1.2 mm. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but splinter-like or comma-like granules are present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal or slightly ovoidal, 17.4 × 12.2 mm. A stieda body and substieda body are present. The sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with a single refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidium infecting S. similis and the sixth description from Cardinalidae. PMID:24252953

  13. Identifying Traffic-Related Air Pollution Hotspots in the Built Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This study characterizes the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollution in an urban street environment given traffic and meteorological conditions. A mobile air monitoring platform was used to measure ultrafine particle (UFP) counts on a 1-second basis along a 3 mile-long transect in Downtown Los Angeles in April-July 2008 for a total of 12 runs and roughly 7,500 observations. Significantly higher UFP concentrations were found in morning compared to afternoon measurements. Spatially s...

  14. Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations

    OpenAIRE

    Cemal Yazici; John Losurdo; BROWN, MICHAEL D.; Scott Oosterveen; Robert Rahimi; Ali Keshavarzian; Leila Bozorgnia; Ece Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE) completion rate (CECR) including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status. METHODS: We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005. Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure. CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses. After ret...

  15. High-resolution NO₂ remote sensing from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Popp, C; Brunner, Dominik; DAMM Alexander; M. Van Roozendael; C. Fayt; B. Buchmann

    2012-01-01

    We present and evaluate the retrieval of high spatial resolution maps of NO₂ vertical column densities (VCD) from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer. APEX is a novel instrument providing airborne measurements of unique spectral and spatial resolution and coverage as well as high signal stability. In this study, we use spectrometer data acquired over Zurich, Switzerland, in the morning and late afternoon during a flight campaign on a cloud-free summer day in June 2010. N...

  16. Organización de corridas de toros en la Nueva España del siglo XVIII y primeros años del XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Hernández, Benjamín

    2004-01-01

    The article studies the bullfights organization in New Spain during the XVIIIth Century, when bullfight had changed to the infantry bullfight. Then, generally, there were two weeks seasons, with four days of bullfight each week, in the morning and in the afternoon. Authorities auctioned the ring, and they organized everything. The collected money was used to pay some public works. During whole century, there were still bullfights to celebrate royal occasions, like coronations, royal marriages...

  17. Cortisol responses to immobilization with Telazol or ketamine in baboons (Papio cynocephalus/anubis) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Bentson, K L; Capitanio, J P; Mendoza, S P

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of Telazol on cortisol or of anesthetic agents on immunological measures, and reports of ketamine's effect on cortisol are inconsistent. We measured effects of Telazol, ketamine and blood sampling on cortisol in male rhesus macaques and male savannah baboons. We also obtained leukocyte counts in the macaques. In macaques, Telazol reduced cortisol in the morning but not in the afternoon; ketamine had no effect on cortisol in these animals. In baboons, cortis...

  18. CHECK-IN/CHECK-OUT: A SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION AND COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Amy; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Tier 2 interventions are implemented similarly across students and thus serve as an efficient and cost-effective method of behavior support in school settings. Check-in/check-out is a Tier 2 intervention with documented effectiveness (e.g., Hawken & Horner, 2003; Todd, Campbell, Meyer, & Horner, 2008). Key features of the intervention include brief morning and afternoon meetings with the intervention coordinator, use of a point card on which the teacher monitors student behavior, and teacher ...

  19. Activity patterns of terrestrial gamebirds in the Willem Pretorius Game reserve, Orange Free State

    OpenAIRE

    C. W. Jubelius; O. B. Kok

    1985-01-01

    Activity patterns of the Natal francolin (Francolinus natalensis), Swaison’s francolin (F. swaisoni) and the crowned guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris) appear to be influenced mainly by climatic conditions, either directly or indirectly. Diurnal activities are characterised by early-morning and late-afternoon peaks and long periods of rest during the middle of the day. Feeding is the most important activity of the birds, followed by maintenance and strenuous activities. Seasonal and species-speci...

  20. An intensive two-week study of an urban CO2 dome in Phoenix, Arizona, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations were measured prior to dawn and in the middle of the afternoon at a height of 2m above the ground along four transects through the metropolitan area of Phoenix, Arizona on 14 consecutive days in January 2000. The data revealed the existence of a strong but variable urban CO2 dome, which at one time exhibited a peak CO2 concentration at the center of the city that was 75% greater than that of the surrounding rural area. Mean city-center peak enhancements, however, were considerably lower, averaging 43% on weekdays and 38% on weekends; and averaged over the entire commercial sector of the city, they were lower still, registering 30% on weekdays and 23% on weekends. Over the surrounding residential areas, on the other hand, there are no weekday-weekend differences in boundary-layer CO2 concentration. Furthermore, because of enhanced vertical mixing during the day, near-surface CO2 concentrations in the afternoon are typically reduced from what they are prior to sunrise. This situation is additionally perturbed by the prevailing southwest-to-northeast flow of air at that time of day, which lowers afternoon CO2 concentrations on the southern and western edges of the city still more, as a consequence of the importation of pristine rural air. The southwest-to-northeast flow of air also sometimes totally compensates for the afternoon vertical-mixing-induced loss of CO2 from areas on the northern and eastern sides of the city, as a consequence of the northeastward advection of CO2 emanating from the central, southern and western sectors of the city. Hence, although complex, the nature of the urban CO2 dome of Phoenix, Arizona, is readily understandable in terms of basic meteorological phenomena and their interaction with human activities occurring at the land/air interface. (Author)

  1. KINERJA Jurnal Bisnis dan Ekonomi

    OpenAIRE

    Kaaro, Hermeindito; Sukamulja, Sukmawati; Kusumastuti, Sri Yani; Krisnadewara, P. Didit; Lako, Andreas; Widiastuti, Theresia Diah; Ellitan, Lena; Priyogo, C. Jarot

    2004-01-01

    1. Kebangkrutan Versus Restrukturisasi:Evaluasi dan Prediksi Kelangsungan Hidup Perusahaan Pasca Krisis Keuangan 1997 oleh Hermeindito Kaaro 2. Morning LosSQS and Afternoon Price Volatility: Evidence of Jsksrts Stock Exchange oleh Sukmawati Sukamulja 3. Penentuan NilaiTukar: Pengujian Purchasing Power Parity diIndonesia oleh Sri Yani Kusumastuti 4. SurveiKinerja KoneksiInternet dan Kemampuan lnvestasi Warnet di Yogyakarta oleh P. Didit Krisnadewara 5. Peranan Corporate Str...

  2. I Failed Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨友连

    2009-01-01

    Yesterday afternoon I participated in an interview for an English debate contest, and failed, completely1. To make the contest fair, everyone is2 supposed to draw a lot to decide his/her topic. The one I got was "Women should be allowed to sell their eggs." The rest got "Whether military training should be compulsary."3 "Whether compulsary education should be extended to 12 years.", and the like. And I was the third to give my speech. Bad luck!

  3. A temporal dimension to the influence of pollen rewards on bee behaviour and fecundity in Aloe tenuior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Karl J; Johnson, Steven D; Peter, Craig I

    2014-01-01

    The net effect of pollen production on fecundity in plants can range from negative--when self-pollen interferes with fecundity due to incompatibility mechanisms, to positive--when pollen availability is associated with increased pollinator visitation and fecundity due to its utilization as a reward. We investigated the responses of bees to pollen and nectar rewards, and the effects of these rewards on pollen deposition and fecundity in the hermaphroditic succulent shrub Aloe tenuior. Self-pollinated plants failed to set fruit, but their ovules were regularly penetrated by self-pollen tubes, which uniformly failed to develop into seeds as expected from ovarian self-incompatibility (or strong early inbreeding depression). Bees consistently foraged for pollen during the morning and early afternoon, but switched to nectar in the late afternoon. As a consequence of this differential foraging, we were able to test the relative contribution to fecundity of pollen- versus nectar-collecting flower visitors. We exposed emasculated and intact flowers in either the morning or late afternoon to foraging bees and showed that emasculation reduced pollen deposition by insects in the morning, but had little effect in the afternoon. Despite the potential for self-pollination to result in ovule discounting due to late-acting self-sterility, fecundity was severely reduced in artificially emasculated plants. Although there were temporal fluctuations in reward preference, most bee visits were for pollen rewards. Therefore the benefit of providing pollen that is accessible to bee foragers outweighs any potential costs to fitness in terms of gender interference in this species. PMID:24755611

  4. Unproceedings of the Fourth .Astronomy Conference (.Astronomy 4), Heidelberg, Germany, July 9-11 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Robert J.; Lintott, Chris; Bauer, Amanda; Berriman, Bruce; Gomez, Edward; Kendrew, Sarah; Kitching, Thomas; Muench, August; Muna, Demitri; Robitaille, Thomas; Schwamb, Megan E.; Simmons, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the .Astronomy conference series is to bring together astronomers, educators, developers and others interested in using the Internet as a medium for astronomy. Attendance at the event is limited to approximately 50 participants, and days are split into mornings of scheduled talks, followed by 'unconference' afternoons, where sessions are defined by participants during the course of the event. Participants in unconference sessions are discouraged from formal presentations, with dis...

  5. HONEST ON MONDAYS: HONESTY AND THE TEMPORAL DISTANCE BETWEEN DECISIONS AND PAYOFFS

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley J. Ruffle; Tobol, Yossi

    2013-01-01

    We show that temporally distancing the decision task from the payment of the reward increases honest behavior. Each of 427 Israeli soldiers fulfilling their mandatory military service rolled a six-sided die in private and reported the outcome to the unit's cadet coordinator. For every point reported, the soldier received an additional half-hour early release from the army base on Thursday afternoon. Soldiers who participated on Sunday (the first work day of the week) are significantly more ho...

  6. Screening for Honesty

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffle, Bradley; Tobol, Yossi

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a field experiment on honesty conducted on 427 Israeli soldiers fulfilling their mandatory military service. Each soldier rolled a six-sided die in private and reported the outcome to the unit's cadet coordinator. For every point reported, the soldier received an additional half hour early release from the army base on Thursday afternoon. We find that the higher a soldier's military entrance score, the more honest he is on average. Moreover, to the extent that honesty...

  7. 2005年高考全国卷Ⅱ 英语完形填空题解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平

    2005-01-01

    One afternoon I was sitting at my favorite table in a restaurant,waiting for the food I had ordered to arrive.Suddenly I 36 that a man sitting at a table near the window kept glancing in my direction,37 he knew me.The man had a newspaper 38 in front of him,which he was 39 to read,but I could 40 that be was keeping an eye on me.

  8. Space-Time Characteristics of Rainfall Diurnal Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Kummerow, Chris; Olson, Bill; Smith, Eric A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The space-time features of rainfall diurnal variation of precipitation are systematically investigated by using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation products retrieved from TRMM microwave imager (TMI), precipitation radar (PR) and TMI/PR combined algorithms. Results demonstrate that diurnal variability of precipitation is obvious over tropical regions. The dominant feature of rainfall diurnal cycle over, ocean is that there is consistent rainfall peak in early morning, while there is a consistent rainfall peak in mid-late afternoon over land. The seasonal variation on intensity of rainfall diurnal cycle is clearly evidenced. Horizontal distributions of rainfall diurnal variations indicate that there is a clearly early-morning peak with a secondary peak in the middle-late afternoon in ocean rainfall at latitudes dominated by large-scale convergence and deep convection. There is also an analogous early-morning peak in land rainfall along with a stronger afternoon peak forced by surface heating. Amplitude analysis shows that the patterns and its evolution of rainfall diurnal cycle are very close to rainfall distribution pattern and its evolution. These results indicate that rainfall diurnal variations are strongly associated with large-scale convective systems and climate weather systems. Phase studies clearly present the regional and seasonal features of rainfall diurnal activities. Further studies on convective and stratiform rainfall show different characteristics of diurnal cycles. Their spatial and temporal variations of convective and stratiform rainfall indicate that mechanisms for rainfall diurnal variations vary with time and space.

  9. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, K.  Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a case study on 16 October 2011 to show the first observational evidence of the influence of short period gravity waves in aerosol transport during daytime over the central Himalayan region. The Doppler lidar data has been utilized to address the daytime boundary layer evolution and related aerosol dynamics over the site. Mixing layer height is estimated by wavelet covariance transform method and found to be ~ 0.7 km, AGL. Aerosol optical depth observations during daytime revealed an asymmetry showing clear enhancement during afternoon hours as compared to forenoon. Interestingly, Fourier and wavelet analysis of vertical velocity and attenuated backscatter showed similar 50-90 min short period gravity wave signatures during afternoon hours. Moreover, our observations showed that gravity waves are dominant within the boundary layer implying that the daytime boundary layer dynamics is playing a vital role in transporting the aerosols from surface to the top of the boundary layer. Similar modulations are also evident in surface parameters like temperature, relative humidity and wind speed indicating these waves are associated with the dynamical aspects over Himalayan region. Finally, time evolution of range-23 height indicator snapshots during daytime showed strong upward velocities especially during afternoon hours implying that convective processes through short period gravity waves plays a significant role in transporting aerosols from the nearby valley region to boundary layer top over the site. These observations also establish the importance of wave induced daytime convective boundary layer dynamics in the lower Himalayan region.

  10. Researches on Rumination Behavior in Six Months of Age Calves from Romanian Black and White Breed Fed Using Different Feed Space Allowance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Tripon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to measure the main aspects that characterize the rumination behavior in six months old calves fed using three different feed spaces allowance. During the experiments the following rumination behavior aspects were determined: number of rumination periods, the length of rumination periods and the total length of rumination periods. Results showed that calves spent ruminating, on average, only 96.4 minutes in the morning, 176 minutes in the afternoon and 262.6 minutes during the night when the length of feeding space was 0.6 m per calf. Calves spent ruminating 124.2 minutes during the morning, 173.6 minutes during the afternoon and 243.4 minutes during the night when the length of the feeding space was 0.32 m per calf. Calves spent ruminating 106.2 minutes during the morning, 134.2 minutes during the afternoon and 286.4 minutes during the night when the length of the feeding space was 0.28 m per calf. The total time spent ruminating by calves was 535 minutes when the length of feeding space was 0.6 m per calf, 541 minutes when the length of feeding space was 0.32 per calf and 527 minutes when the length of the feeding space was 0.28 per calf. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 for total time spent ruminating by calves between the three experimental variants.

  11. Sustained Diurnal Stimulation of Cyclic Electron Flow in Two Tropical Tree Species Erythrophleum guineense and Khaya ivorensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Hu, Hong; Cao, Kun-Fang; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    The photosystem II (PSII) activity of C3 plants is usually inhibited at noon associated with high light but can be repaired fast in the afternoon. However, the diurnal variation of photosystem I (PSI) activity is unknown. Although, cyclic electron flow (CEF) has been documented as an important mechanism for photosynthesis, the diurnal variation of CEF in sun leaves is little known. We determined the diurnal changes in PSI and PSII activities, light energy dissipation in PSII and the P700 redox state in two tropical tree species Erythrophleum guineense and Khaya ivorensis grown in an open field. The PSI activity (as indicated by the maximum quantity of photo-oxidizable P700) was maintained stable during the daytime. CEF was strongly activated under high light at noon, accompanying with high levels of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and PSI oxidation ratio. In the afternoon, CEF was maintained at a relatively high level under low light, which was accompanied with low levels of NPQ and P700 oxidation ratio. These results indicated that CEF was flexibly modulated during daytime under fluctuating light conditions. Under high light at noon, CEF-dependent generation of proton gradient across the thylakoid membranes (ΔpH) mainly contributed to photoprotection for PSI and PSII. By comparison, at low light in the afternoon, the CEF-dependent formation of ΔpH may be important for PSII repair via an additional ATP synthesis. PMID:27486473

  12. The combined effect of sleep and time of day on emotion decoding from dynamic visual cues in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsokanaki P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paraskevi Tsokanaki,1 Despina Moraitou,1 Georgia Papantoniou2 1Section of Cognitive and Experimental Psychology, School of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 2Department of Early Childhood Education, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece Abstract: It is well known that night sleep is a decisive factor for the effective functioning of the human body and mind. In addition to the role of sleep, older adults report that they are “morning types” and that their cognitive and emotional abilities seem to be at a higher level in the morning hours. In this vein, this study is aimed at examining the effect of sleep combined with the “time of day” condition on a specific ability that is crucial for interpersonal communication, namely, emotion recognition, in older adults. Specifically, the study compared older adults’ performance in decoding emotions from ecologically valid, dynamic visual cues, in two conditions: “early in the morning and after night sleep”, and “in the afternoon and after many hours since night sleep”. An emotion recognition task was administered twice to 37 community-dwelling older adults. The results showed a statistically significant higher performance in the morning in decoding all emotions presented, compared to the afternoon condition. Pleasant surprise, sadness, and anxiety were revealed as the most difficult emotions to be recognized in the afternoon condition. Keywords: aging, cognition, emotion recognition

  13. Diurnal Variation of Precipitation During MC3E Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Di; Matsui, Toshi; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Hou, Arthur; Rienecker, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The diurnal variation of precipitation processes in the United States (US) is well recognized but incompletely understood (Cabone et al. 2002). The diurnal cycle of precipitation has been studied using surface rainfall data, radar reflectivity data, and satellite-derived cloudiness and precipitation (Wallace 1975; Dai et al. 1999; Carbone et al. 2002; Carbone and Tuttle, 2008; Parker and Ahijevych, 2007; Matsui et al. 2010 and others). These observations indicate that the summer-time precipitation most of the North America and typically feature late-afternoon precipitation maxima. These diurnal variation of precipitation can also be generally categorized into three different types: 1) afternoon rainfall maxima due to mesoscale and local circulations over the south and east of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, 2) nocturnal rainfall maxima from eastward-propagating mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over the Lee side of Rocky Mountain regions and 3) afternoon rainfall maxima in the Appalachian Mountains, and then propagate eastward toward the coast. The main objective of this paper is to use a regional cloud-scale model with very high-resolution (i.e., WRF) to examine the WRF ability to simulate diurnal variation of precipitation. Specifically, the study will (1) identify the physical processes responsible to diurnal variation of precipitation, (2) examine the sensitivity of resolution (2, 6, 18, and 30 km) to model simulated diurnal variation of precipitation and (3) identify the relationships between microphysics and cumulus parameterization schemes.

  14. Effects of Water Provision and Hydration on Cognitive Function among Primary-School Pupils in Zambia: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinies, Victoria; Chard, Anna N.; Mateo, Tommy; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a well-established link between hydration and improved cognitive performance among adults, with evidence of similar findings among children. No trials have investigated the impact of water provision on cognitive performance among schoolchildren in hot and arid low-resource settings. We conducted a randomized-controlled trial in five schools with limited water access in Chipata district in Eastern province, Zambia, to assess the efficacy of water provision on cognition. Pupils in grades 3–6 were randomly assigned to either receive a bottle of drinking water that they could refill throughout the day (water group, n = 149) or only have access to drinking water that was normally available at the school (control group, n = 143). Hydration was assessed in the morning before provision of water and in the afternoon through urine specific gravity (Usg) measured with a portable refractometer. In the afternoon we administered six cognitive tests to assess short-term memory, concentration, visual attention, and visual motor skills. Morning prevalence of dehydration, defined as Usg≥1.020, was 42%. Afternoon dehydration increased to 67% among the control arm and dropped to 10% among the intervention arm. We did not find that provision of water or hydration impacted cognitive test scores, although there were suggestive relationships between both water provision and hydration and increased scores on tests measuring visual attention. We identified key improvements to the study design that are warranted to further investigate this relationship. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01924546 PMID:26950696

  15. Thermal comfort requirements in hot dry regions with special reference to Riyadh Part 2: for Friday prayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, S.A.R. [King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Architecture and Building Science

    1996-01-01

    This study is an attempt to define thermal comfort requirements for Friday prayer during the hot season of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. According to Islam, a Muslim should perform his prayers five times a day. The obligatory five prayers are Subuh prayer immediately before dawn, Thohor prayer in the afternoon, Assor prayer in late afternoon, Maghreb prayer immediately after sunset, and Ishaa prayer early evening. Generally, Muslims are encouraged to perform all five prayers in a mosque. Friday prayer that replaces Thohor prayer once a week, should take place in one of the main mosques of the neighbourhood. The mosque where Friday prayer could be performed is known as Friday mosque. Usually Friday prayer is attended by hundreds of worshippers and takes place in the afternoon. Since the summer of Riyadh is characterised by a very high temperature and a very low relative humidity, the indoor climate of the Friday mosque (Al-Masjed Al-Gamae) need a special study. This is the second part of a series of field investigations dealing with thermal comfort requirements in the hot-dry region of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  16. Relationship of cortisol, norepinephrine, and epinephrine levels with war-induced posttraumatic stress disorder in fathers and their offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Taha Yahyavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare afternoon serum/plasma levels of hormones in four groups: (A veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, (B offspring of PTSD veterans, (C veterans without PTSD, and (D offspring of non-PTSD veterans.Methods:Evaluation consisted of a semi-structured interview for axis I and II diagnoses, followed by measurement of afternoon serum cortisol and plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine by ELISA (Diametra and LND (LDN Labor Diagnostika Nord GmbH & Co. KG respectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Student t, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and nonparametric Mann-Whitney tests.Results:One hundred and sixty-eight volunteers were investigated across the four groups. The groups were similar in terms of demographic characteristics, war experience and traumatization, and psychiatric and medical conditions other than PTSD (group A was similar to group C and group B was similar to group D. Between-groups comparisons did not yield statistically significant differences. Post-hoc analyses revealed significant differences in afternoon cortisol level between the offspring of veterans with current/past history of PTSD and the offspring of veterans without a history of PTSD.Conclusion:We only found decreased cortisol levels in offspring of veterans after rearranging the groups to reflect previous history of PTSD. Further studies are required to investigate the relationship between cortisol levels and the transgenerational effects of trauma and parental PTSD.

  17. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available on the following courses: Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming: 28 - 30.6.2005 (3 days) Introduction to ANSYS: 28.6 - 1.7.2005 (4 days) IT3T/3 - Working remotely with Windows XP: 28.6.2005 (IT Technical Training Tutorial, free of charge) IT3T/4 - Editing Websites with Frontpage 2003: 30.6.2005 (IT Technical Training Tutorial, free of charge) LabVIEW base 1 : 4 - 6.7.2005 (3 jours) LabVIEW Basics 2: 7 - 8.7.2005 (2 days) Utilisation des fichiers PDF avec ACROBAT 7.0 : 5.7.2005 (1 jour) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 1 : 6-7.7.2005 (2 jours) WORD 2003 (Short Course I) - HowTo... Work with repetitive tasks /AutoText, AutoFormat, AutoCorrect, Find/Replace) : 4.7.2005 (afternoon) WORD 2003 (Short Course II) - HowTo... Mail merge: 5.7.2005 (afternoon) WORD 2003 (Short Course III) - HowTo... Work with long documents : 6.7.2005 (afternoon) ACCES...

  18. The combined effect of sleep and time of day on emotion decoding from dynamic visual cues in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokanaki, Paraskevi; Moraitou, Despina; Papantoniou, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that night sleep is a decisive factor for the effective functioning of the human body and mind. In addition to the role of sleep, older adults report that they are “morning types” and that their cognitive and emotional abilities seem to be at a higher level in the morning hours. In this vein, this study is aimed at examining the effect of sleep combined with the “time of day” condition on a specific ability that is crucial for interpersonal communication, namely, emotion recognition, in older adults. Specifically, the study compared older adults’ performance in decoding emotions from ecologically valid, dynamic visual cues, in two conditions: “early in the morning and after night sleep”, and “in the afternoon and after many hours since night sleep”. An emotion recognition task was administered twice to 37 community-dwelling older adults. The results showed a statistically significant higher performance in the morning in decoding all emotions presented, compared to the afternoon condition. Pleasant surprise, sadness, and anxiety were revealed as the most difficult emotions to be recognized in the afternoon condition.

  19. Changes in evapotranspiration of summer and winter crops of netted melon [Cucumis melo] grown under glass in relation to meteorological and plant-related factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of evapotranspiration taken in the summer and winter on netted melon crops grown under glass were taken to characterize seasonal and daily changes. The data were compared to meteorological and plant-related factors to seek some relationships. Evapotranspiration followed a sigmoid curve until one week after pollination, and then decreased gradually during fruit growth. Cumulative evapotranspirations after transplanting were about 116 kg and 60 kg, respectively, for the summer and winter crops, whereas the peak evapotranspirations were 3.O kg plant(-1) day(-1) and 1.3 kg plant(-1) day(-1). The rapid increase h the evapotranspiration during the early stage was associated with the increase in leaf area; its gradual decrease during fruit growth was associated with a decrease in the transpiration potential of leaves. Therefore, irrigation amounts should be increased with leaf development and decreased with fruit growth. The curve of solar radiation in sunny summer days peaked at noon, whereas vapor pressure deficit usually peaked in early or mid afternoon; evapotranspirations in the afternoon had higher values than had those in the morning. In winter, vapor pressure deficit was relatively high during late afternoon and early morning because of heating, whereas it was low during the remainder of the day on account of low ventilation. These fluctuations led to a weak correlation between evapotranspiration and vapor pressure deficit. Regression analyses indicated that solar radiation was a main meteorological factor affecting evapotranspiration

  20. Learning effects, variation during office hours and reproducibility of static and dynamic spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, K; Hedenström, H; Malmberg, P

    1987-01-01

    Static and dynamic spirometric tests were performed in 21 healthy subjects (21-61 years old, 8 smokers and 9 ex-smokers) on 3 different days within 2 weeks. The design of the study allowed separation of the influence of learning and diurnal changes between 09.00 and 17.00 h. In addition, the reproducibility of the tests and the effect of inhalation of 2.5 mg of terbutaline sulphate were studied. No learning effect was observed. There were slight, but statistically significant differences between morning, noon and afternoon measurements. Thus, the residual volume and flow in the early phase of forced expiration were highest in the afternoon, while maximal voluntary ventilation was lower at noon than in the afternoon or morning. The intraindividual variabilities (defined as standard deviation of difference between first and second measurement) of total lung capacity, vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were about 3% of the predicted values. The ratio of intra- to interindividual variability was 0.2-0.3. The remaining tests showed higher variability and a higher intra- to interindividual variability ratio. Terbutaline inhalation caused a significant increase in most forced expiratory flow variables. A 10% increase in FEV1 corresponded to a 50-60% increase in endexpiratory flow. In spite of this, the endexpiratory flow and mean transit time were better discriminators of the effects of bronchodilation in normal subjects. PMID:3602594

  1. Daytime nap controls toddlers’ nighttime sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Machiko; Ohta, Hidenobu; Nagaoki, Yuko; Shimabukuro, Rinshu; Asaka, Yoko; Takahashi, Noriko; Nakazawa, Takayo; Kaneshi, Yousuke; Morioka, Keita; Oishi, Yoshihisa; Azami, Yuriko; Ikeuchi, Mari; Takahashi, Mari; Hirata, Michio; Ozawa, Miwa; Cho, Kazutoshi; Kusakawa, Isao; Yoda, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that afternoon naps can have a negative effect on subsequent nighttime sleep in children. These studies have mainly been based on sleep questionnaires completed by parents. To investigate the effect of napping on such aspects of sleep quality, we performed a study in which child activity and sleep levels were recorded using actigraphy. The parents were asked to attach actigraphy units to their child’s waist by an adjustable elastic belt and complete a sleep diary for 7 consecutive days. 50 healthy young toddlers of approximately 1.5 years of age were recruited. There was a significant negative correlation between nap duration and both nighttime sleep duration and sleep onset time, suggesting that long nap sleep induces short nighttime sleep duration and late sleep onset time. We also found a significant negative correlation between nap timing and nighttime sleep duration and also a significant positive correlation between nap timing and sleep onset time, suggesting that naps in the late afternoon also lead to short nighttime sleep duration and late sleep onset. Our findings suggest that duration-controlled naps starting early in the afternoon can induce a longer nighttime sleep in full-term infants of approximately 1.5 years of age. PMID:27277329

  2. Interannual Variation of the Surface Temperature of Tropical Forests from Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilin Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperatures (LSTs within tropical forests contribute to climate variations. However, observational data are very limited in such regions. This study used passive microwave remote sensing data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS, providing observations under all weather conditions, to investigate the LST over the Amazon and Congo rainforests. The SSM/I and SSMIS data were collected from 1996 to 2012. The morning and afternoon observations from passive microwave remote sensing facilitate the investigation of the interannual changes of LST anomalies on a diurnal basis. As a result of the variability of cloud cover and the corresponding reduction of solar radiation, the afternoon LST anomalies tend to vary more than the morning LST anomalies. The dominant spatial and temporal patterns for interseasonal variations of the LST anomalies over the tropical rainforest were analyzed. The impacts of droughts and El Niños on this LST were also investigated. Differences between early morning and late afternoon LST anomalies were identified by the remote sensing product, with the morning LST anomalies controlled by humidity (according to comparisons with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP reanalysis data.

  3. EFFECT OF FLOOR TYPE ON BEHAVIOURAL ACTIVITIES OF INTENSIVELY MANAGED OSTRICHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan SEABO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of providing grit on daily behavioural activities of intensively kept ostriches were investigated at the Botswana College of Agriculture. Two groups of ostriches were each housed in a 30 x 6m pen. Each group had seven ostriches in it. Each member of the group was identified by a number tag attached to its neck. Activities studied were feeding, picking objects, walking about, sparring, standing rest, sitting rest, grooming self, and grooming others. The study lasted 30 days. The results of the study show that during the mornings and afternoons, ostriches without access to grit allocated significantly (P<0.05 greater proportion of their activity time to feeding than did those with access to grit. The proportion of time allocated to morning feeding by the non-grit group was 23.1% as opposed to 13.9% for the grit group. In the afternoon, the non-grit group of ostriches continued allocating significantly more time (13.3 % to feeding than the grit group which only allocated 4.8% of their activity to the same activity. This trend in apportioning activity time by the two groups of ostriches was maintained with regards to the proportion of time allocated to walking about in the pens. The non-grit group allocated significantly (P<0.05 greater proportions of time to walking than the grit group. In the morning, non-grit ostriches allocated 25.8% of their daily activity to walking about in the pen while their grit counterparts allocated 19.9% to the same activity. The grit-fed group of ostriches rested more as they allocated significantly higher proportion (28.1% of their afternoon time to resting while standing than the proportion (17.7% allocated to the same by the non-grit group. Both treatment groups allocated higher proportions of their activity times to morning feeding. The group with access to grit spent 35.2% of the morning time feeding while allocating only 22.5% for the same activity in the afternoon feeding. The non-grit group allocated 24

  4. Diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations of global formaldehyde columns inferred from combined OMI and GOME-2 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, I.; Stavrakou, T.; Hendrick, F.; Danckaert, T.; Vlemmix, T.; Pinardi, G.; Theys, N.; Lerot, C.; Gielen, C.; Vigouroux, C.; Hermans, C.; Fayt, C.; Veefkind, P.; Müller, J.-F.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2015-11-01

    We present the new version (v14) of the BIRA-IASB algorithm for the retrieval of formaldehyde (H2CO) columns from spaceborne UV-visible sensors. Applied to OMI measurements from Aura and to GOME-2 measurements from MetOp-A and MetOp-B, this algorithm is used to produce global distributions of H2CO representative of mid-morning and early afternoon conditions. Its main features include (1) a new iterative DOAS scheme involving three fitting intervals to better account for the O2-O2 absorption, (2) the use of earthshine radiances averaged in the equatorial Pacific as reference spectra, and (3) a destriping correction and background normalisation resolved in the across-swath position. For the air mass factor calculation, a priori vertical profiles calculated by the IMAGES chemistry transport model at 09:30 and 13:30 LT are used. Although the resulting GOME-2 and OMI H2CO vertical columns are found to be highly correlated, some systematic differences are observed. Afternoon columns are generally larger than morning ones, especially in mid-latitude regions. In contrast, over tropical rainforests, morning H2CO columns significantly exceed those observed in the afternoon. These differences are discussed in terms of the H2CO column variation between mid-morning and early afternoon, using ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements available from seven stations in Europe, China and Africa. Validation results confirm the capacity of the combined satellite measurements to resolve diurnal variations in H2CO columns. Furthermore, vertical profiles derived from MAX-DOAS measurements in the Beijing area and in Bujumbura are used for a more detailed validation exercise. In both regions, we find an agreement better than 15 % when MAX-DOAS profiles are used as a priori for the satellite retrievals. Finally, regional trends in H2CO columns are estimated for the 2004-2014 period using SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 data for morning conditions, and OMI for early afternoon conditions. Consistent features

  5. Diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations of global formaldehyde columns inferred from combined OMI and GOME-2 observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. De Smedt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the new version (v14 of the BIRA-IASB algorithm for the retrieval of formaldehyde (H2CO columns from spaceborne UV-Visible sensors. Applied to OMI measurements from Aura and to GOME-2 measurements from MetOp-A and B, this algorithm is used to produce global distributions of H2CO representative of mid-morning and early afternoon conditions. Its main features include (1 a new iterative DOAS scheme involving three fitting intervals to better account for the O2-O2 absorption, (2 the use of earthshine radiances averaged in the equatorial Pacific as reference spectra, (3 a destriping correction and background normalisation resolved in the along-swath position. For the air mass factor calculation, a priori vertical profiles calculated by the IMAGES chemistry transport model at 9.30 a.m. and 13.30 p.m. are used. Although the resulting GOME-2 and OMI H2CO vertical columns are found to be highly correlated, some systematic differences are observed. Afternoon columns are generally larger than morning ones, especially in mid-latitude regions. In contrast, over tropical rainforests, morning H2CO columns significantly exceed those observed in the afternoon. These differences are discussed in terms of the H2CO column variation between mid-morning and early afternoon, using ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements available from seven stations in Europe, China and Africa. Validation results confirm the capacity of the combined satellite measurements to resolve diurnal variations in H2CO columns. Furthermore, vertical profiles derived from MAX-DOAS measurements in the Beijing area and in Bujumbura are used for a more detailed validation exercise. In both regions, we find an agreement better than 15% when MAX-DOAS profiles are used as a priori for the satellite retrievals. Finally regional trends in H2CO columns are estimated for the 2004–2014 period using SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 data for morning conditions, and OMI for early afternoon conditions. Consistent

  6. Variable coupling between sap-flow and transpiration in pine trees under drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, Yakir; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Grunzweig, Jose M.; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Changes in diurnal patterns in water transport and physiological activities in response to changes in environmental conditions are important adjustments of trees to drought. The rate of sap flow (SF) in trees is expected to be in agreement with the rate of tree-scale transpiration (T) and provides a powerful measure of water transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. The aim of this five-years study was to investigate the temporal links between SF and T in Pinus halepensis exposed to extreme seasonal drought in the Yatir forest in Israel. We continuously measured SF (20 trees), the daily variations in stem diameter (ΔDBH, determined with high precision dendrometers; 8 trees), and ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET; eddy covariance), which were complemented with short-term campaigns of leaf-scale measurements of H2O and CO2 gas exchange, water potentials, and hydraulic conductivity. During the rainy season, tree SF was well synchronized with ecosystem ET, reaching maximum rates during midday in all trees. However, during the dry season, the daily SF trends greatly varied among trees, allowing a classification of trees into three classes: 1) Trees that remain with SF maximum at midday, 2) trees that advanced their SF peak to early morning, and 3) trees that delayed their SF peak to late afternoon hours. This classification remained valid for the entire study period (2010-2015), and strongly correlated with tree height and DBH, and to a lower degree with crown size and competition index. In the dry season, class 3 trees (large) tended to delay the timing of SF maximum to the afternoon, and to advance their maximum diurnal DBH to early morning, while class 2 trees (smaller) advanced their SF maximum to early morning and had maximum daily DBH during midday and afternoon. Leaf-scale transpiration (T), measurements showed a typical morning peak in all trees, irrespective of classification, and a secondary peak in the afternoon in large trees only. Water potential and

  7. Effects of seasonal variations on thermoregulation of ostrich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve ostrich aged 7 months old were used during summer and winter from the breeding flock of the ostrich farm, at the Nuclear Research Center in Inshas, of Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. In the study all birds were exposed to ambient temperatures in summer and winter, and the birds were fed grower ration ad libitum (19% protein and 2450 K cal ME /Kg).The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of temperature variation during summer and winter seasons and diurnal effect on changes in some physiological and blood chemical parameters, the daily feed consumption (g/bird/day) and water consumption (ml/bird/day) these parameters were measured during 7 days in each season. Cloacal temperatures was measured and blood samples were taken twice, one in the morning at 7 am and once in the afternoon at 3 pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (40±2 degree C) (summer) and the 7 cold days of January (18±2 degree C) (winter). Red blood cell (RBCs) counts and total white blood cell (WBCs) counts, hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were calculated. Serum, total protein (TP), albumen (A) and globulin (G) concentrations were measured. Furthermore, serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), glucose and triglycerides concentrations were determined. Also, serum triiodothyronine (T3), and aldosterone levels were estimated. Also, the amount of total body water was determined by the antipyren method. Finally, serum protein profile it was conducted by Native-PAGE method (Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) on vertical slab gel to determine protein profiles in blood proteins of ostrich. Results indicated that feed consumption unlike water consumption was significantly increased during winter than in summer season. Moreover, body temperature increased significantly during the summer

  8. Irrigation and fertigation frequencies with nitrogen in the watermelon culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Newdmar Vieira Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of different irrigation frequencies and different nitrogen fertigation frequencies on the growth performance of the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus culture. Two experiments were conducted at the Paraguay farm in the Cruz municipality, Ceará, Brazil. They was randomized blocks design with six treatments and four replications. The irrigation frequency experiment consisted of the application of different irrigation frequencies. The treatments were: DM - daily irrigation in the morning with 100% daily dosage; DT - daily irrigation in the afternoon, with 100% daily dosage; DMT - twice daily irrigation, with 50% daily dosage in the morning and 50% daily dosage in the afternoon; 2D - irrigation every two days; 3D - irrigation every three days and 4D - irrigation every four days. To the experiment with different nitrogen fertigation frequencies, the treatments used were: 2F - 2 fertigations in a cycle; 4F - 4 fertigations in a cycle; 8F - 8 fertigations in a cycle; 16F - 16 fertigations in a cycle; 32F - 32 fertigations in a cycle and 64F - 64 fertigations in a cycle. We evaluated the marketable yield (PC, fruit weight (M, polar diameter (DP, equatorial diameter (DE, shell thickness (EC and soluble solids (SS. The irrigation frequency treatments influenced all variables significantly, with twice daily irrigation (DMT, 50% in the morning and the 50% in the afternoon promoting the highest productivity (69.79 t ha-1. The different frequencies of fertigation also significantly influenced all variables, except for the shell thickness, the highest yield (80.69 t ha-1 being obtained with treatment 64 fertigations in a cycle.

  9. HF Doppler observations of vector plasma drifts in the evening F-region at the magnetic equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, N.; Jayachandran, B.; Balachandran Nair, R.; Namboothiri, S. P.; Bailey, G. J.; Rao, P. B.

    Using HF Doppler radar in a spaced-receiver configuration, observations conducted on the vector plasma drifts in the equatorial F-region at Trivandrum during the afternoon-midnight period of March-April 1988, are presented. The three components of the F-region plasma drift at the magnetic equator are such that the North-South component corresponds to the meridional neutral air wind while the other two components represent the electrodynamic drift. The vertical component of the plasma drift is characterized by a prereversal upward enhancement which fits the interpretation based on the F-region dynamo operating at sunset. Equatorial spread-F, which is linked to the prereversal enhancement, appears to be inhibited during the main phase of magnetic storms. The East-West component of the plasma drift is westward during the afternoon and eastward during the night with mean peak velocities of 30 and 110 ms -1, respectively. The large night-time drift is believed to be due to a large reduction in the degree of electromagnetic coupling between the E- and F-regions during the night. The North-South component, representing the meridional neutral air wind, is found to be northward during the afternoon and southward during the night with respective mean peak velocities of about 50 and 70 m s -1. The neutral air wind shows a tendency to reverse from southward to northward at around midnight and is thought to be caused by the midnight bulge in the neutral air temperature. The observations which correspond to the lower F-region are found to be consistent with those reported earlier using other experimental techniques.

  10. Behaviour and orcadian rhythm of the fish bathygobius soporator Valenciennes (Gobiidae under the influence of environmental salinity and temperature

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    Edith Fanta

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavioural patterns and their cireadian rhythms may be adaptive to the peculiar environmental conditions of subtropical brackish waters where Ba-thygobius soporator Valenciennes, 1837 live. Adult fish were caught at the southern Brazilian coast from mangrove rivers and rocky shores in a bay, where temperature and water salinity vary during the day and through the year. Observation on the behaviour of the animals was undertaken in salinity 8.5ppt, 17.0ppt, 25.5ppt and 34.0ppt, each one in temperatures of 18ºC and 28ºC. Temperature and salinity affect the frequency and intensity of some of the behavioural events, more than its pattern or rhythm. Swimming is rare, decreasing along the day and with temperature increase, being even lower at low salinity; aggressiveness is the highest in the morning being not affected by temperature, but by salinity, being higher the higher it is; territory defence decreases along the day and is lower at high temperature and extreme salinities; fish hide more at high temperature and with the decrease of salinity, but this is not rhythmical; a higher proportion of fish rest in vertical position when salinity and temperature are high, increasing slightly at the beginning of the afternoon; respiratory frequency increases with temperature, salinity and in the afternoon; the colour of the fish is mainly light with spots in all hours of the day and in all temperatures and different levels of salinity, but with a tendency of the presence of some dark fish during the morning and some light ones in the afternoon, showing a higher variability of colours at low temperature and extreme salinities. Besides temperature, salinity and light, feeding seems to be one of the determinant factors for the performance of the typical behaviour of B. soporator.

  11. Behaviour of captive Ostrich chicks from 10 days to 5 months of age

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    Marina Freire Amado

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of ostrich chicks bred in captivity was studied by using groups with 30 birds in five age groups: from 10 to 40 days of age; from 41 to 60 days of age; from 61 to 90 days of age; from 91 to 120 days of age and from 121 to 150 days of age. Six birds at each age were ringed around one of their feet and observed for four consecutive days for eight hours daily in three periods (in the morning, at noon and in the afternoon, following the "one-zero" method for sampling. The order for observation of behaviour of the six selected birds was performed randomly at every thirty minutes, totalling 16 periods or 80 minutes/bird/day. Fourteen types of behaviour were observed. There were differences among ages for behaviour like standing, walking, running, ingesting stones, ingesting feces, picking and attacking. Non-parametric-tests were used to analyse the behaviour according to age of the bird and to the periods of the day. There was a statistical difference between in the morning and at noon periods on behaviours standing, walking, eating ration and in litophagia, which were observed more frequently at the first hours of the day. When periods of the morning and afternoon were compared, the birds' age had a significant effect on behaviour sand bathing. When the periods noon/afternoon were compared, the behaviours which presented significant differences were walking, running, drinking water, eating ration, litophagia, coprophagia, dancing, sand bathing, whose occurrence was the highest during dusk. It was observed that the behaviour of young ostriches diverge according to the age and to day period.

  12. Emission and chemistry of organic carbon in the gas and aerosol phase at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March 2006 during the MILAGRO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. de Gouw

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs and carbonaceous aerosol were measured at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March of 2006 during the MILAGRO study (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Objectives. Diurnal variations of hydrocarbons, elemental carbon (EC and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA were dominated by a high peak in the early morning when local emissions accumulated in a shallow boundary layer, and a minimum in the afternoon when the emissions were diluted in a significantly expanded boundary layer and, in case of the reactive gases, removed by OH. In comparison, diurnal variations of species with secondary sources such as the aldehydes, ketones, oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC stayed relatively high in the afternoon indicating strong photochemical formation. Emission ratios of many hydrocarbon species relative to CO were higher in Mexico City than in the U.S., but we found similar emission ratios for most oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol. Secondary formation of acetone may be more efficient in Mexico City than in the U.S., due to higher emissions of alkane precursors from the use of liquefied petroleum gas. Secondary formation of organic aerosol was similar between Mexico City and the U.S. Combining the data for all measured gas and aerosol species, we describe the budget of total observed organic carbon (TOOC, and find that the enhancement ratio of TOOC relative to CO is conserved between the early morning and mid afternoon despite large compositional changes. Finally, the influence of biomass burning is investigated using the measurements of acetonitrile, which was found to correlate with levoglucosan in the particle phase. Diurnal variations of acetonitrile indicate a contribution from local burning sources. Scatter plots of acetonitrile versus CO suggest that the contribution of biomass burning to the enhancement of most gas and aerosol species was not dominant and perhaps

  13. Diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties in the North China Plain and their influences on the estimates of direct aerosol radiative effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Ye; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties and their influences on the estimation of daily average direct aerosol radiative effect (DARE) in the North China Plain (NCP) are investigated based on in situ measurements from Haze in China campaign. For ambient aerosol, the diurnal patterns of single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry factor (g) in the NCP are both highest at dawn and lowest in the late afternoon, and quite different from those of dry-state aerosol. The relative humidity is the dominant factor which determines the diurnal patterns of SSA and g for ambient aerosol. Basing on the calculated SSA and g, several cases are designed to investigate the impacts of the diurnal changes of aerosol optical properties on DARE. The results demonstrate that the diurnal changes of SSA and g in the NCP have significant influences on the estimation of DARE at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). If the full temporal coverage of aerosol optical depth (AOD), SSA and g are available, an accurate estimation of daily average DARE can be achieved by using the daily averages of AOD, SSA and g. However, due to the lack of full temporal coverage datasets of SSA and g, their daily averages are usually not available. Basing on the results of designed cases, if the RH plays a dominant role in the diurnal variations of SSA and g, we suggest that using both SSA and g averaged over early morning and late afternoon as inputs for radiative transfer model to improve the accurate estimation of DARE. If the temporal samplings of SSA or g are too few to adopt this method, either averaged over early morning or late afternoon of both SSA and g can be used to improve the estimation of DARF at TOA.

  14. Circadian analysis of myocardial infarction incidence in an Argentine and Uruguayan population

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    Nicola-Siri Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of variations in the spectrum of cardiovascular disease between different regions of the world and ethnic groups have been the subject of great interest. This study report the 24-h variation of myocardial infarction (MI occurrence in patients recruited from CCU located in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods A cohort of 1063 patients admitted to the CCU within 24 h of the onset of symptoms of an acute MI was examined. MI incidence along the day was computed in 1 h-intervals. Results A minimal MI incidence between 03:00 and 07:00 h and the occurrence of a first maximum between 08:00 and 12:00 h and a second maximum between 15:00 and 22:00 h were verified. The best fit curve was a 24 h cosinor (acrophase ~ 19:00 h, accounting for 63 % of variance together with a symmetrical gaussian bell (maximum at ~ 10:00 h, accounting for 37 % of variance. A similar picture was observed for MI frequencies among different excluding subgroups (older or younger than 70 years; with or without previous symptoms; diabetics or non diabetics; Q wave- or non-Q wave-type MI; anterior or inferior MI location. Proportion between cosinor and gaussian probabilities was maintained among most subgroups except for older patients who had more MI at the afternoon and patients with previous symptoms who were equally distributed among the morning and afternoon maxima. Conclusion The results support the existence of two maxima (at morning and afternoon hours in MI incidence in the Argentine and Uruguayan population.

  15. Body Sway as a Possible Indicator of Fatigue in Clerical Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Ina; Kirchner, Christine; Bock, Otmar Leo; Wascher, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    Background Fatigue has a strong impact on workers' performance and safety, but expedient methods for assessing fatigue on the job are not yet available. Studies discuss posturography as an indicator of fatigue, but further evidence for its use in the workplace is needed. The purpose of the study is to examine whether posturography is a suitable indicator of fatigue in clerical workers. Methods Thirty-six employees (Ø 34.8 years, standard deviation = 12.5) participated in postural tasks (eyes open, eyes closed, arm swinging, and dual task) in the morning and afternoon. Position of their center of pressure (COP) was registered using a Nintendo Wii Balance Board and commercial software. From registered COP time series, we calculated the following parameters: path length (mm), velocity (mm/s), anterior–posterior variance (mm), mediolateral variance (mm), and confidence area (mm2). These parameters were reduced to two orthogonal factors in a factor analysis with varimax rotation. Results Statistical analysis of the first factor (path length and velocity) showed a significant effect of time of day: COP moved along a shorter path at a lower velocity in the afternoon compared with that in the morning. There also was a significant effect of task, but no significant interaction. Conclusion Data suggest that postural stability of clerical workers was comparable in the morning and afternoon, but COP movement was greater in the morning. Within the framework of dynamic systems theory, this could indicate that the postural system explored the state space in more detail, and thus was more ready to respond to unexpected perturbations in the morning. PMID:26929829

  16. A before and after comparison of the effects of forest walking on the sleep of a community-based sample of people with sleep complaints

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    Miyaura Tomiyasu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbance is a major health issue in Japan. This before-after study aimed to evaluate the immediate effects of forest walking in a community-based population with sleep complaints. Methods Participants were 71 healthy volunteers (43 men and 28 women. Two-hour forest-walking sessions were conducted on 8 different weekend days from September through December 2005. Sleep conditions were compared between the nights before and after walking in a forest by self-administered questionnaire and actigraphy data. Results Two hours of forest walking improved sleep characteristics; impacting actual sleep time, immobile minutes, self-rated depth of sleep, and sleep quality. Mean actual sleep time estimated by actigraphy on the night after forest walking was 419.8 ± 128.7 (S.D. minutes whereas that the night before was 365.9 ± 89.4 minutes (n = 42. Forest walking in the afternoon improved actual sleep time and immobile minutes compared with forest walking in the forenoon. Mean actual sleep times did not increase after forenoon walks (n = 26 (the night before and after forenoon walks, 380.0 ± 99.6 and 385.6 ± 101.7 minutes, respectively, whereas afternoon walks (n = 16 increased mean actual sleep times from 342.9 ± 66.2 to 475.4 ± 150.5 minutes. The trend of mean immobile minutes was similar to the abovementioned trend of mean actual sleep times. Conclusions Forest walking improved nocturnal sleep conditions for individuals with sleep complaints, possibly as a result of exercise and emotional improvement. Furthermore, extension of sleep duration was greater after an afternoon walk compared to a forenoon walk. Further study of a forest-walking program in a randomized controlled trial is warranted to clarify its effect on people with insomnia.

  17. The association between daytime napping and cognitive functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome.

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    Zoe M Gotts

    Full Text Available The precise relationship between sleep and physical and mental functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has not been examined directly, nor has the impact of daytime napping. This study aimed to examine self-reported sleep in patients with CFS and explore whether sleep quality and daytime napping, specific patient characteristics (gender, illness length and levels of anxiety and depression, predicted daytime fatigue severity, levels of daytime sleepiness and cognitive functioning, all key dimensions of the illness experience.118 adults meeting the 1994 CDC case criteria for CFS completed a standardised sleep diary over 14 days. Momentary functional assessments of fatigue, sleepiness, cognition and mood were completed by patients as part of usual care. Levels of daytime functioning and disability were quantified using symptom assessment tools, measuring fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Scale, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, and mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.Hierarchical Regressions demonstrated that a shorter time since diagnosis, higher depression and longer wake time after sleep onset predicted 23.4% of the variance in fatigue severity (p <.001. Being male, higher depression and more afternoon naps predicted 25.6% of the variance in objective cognitive dysfunction (p <.001. Higher anxiety and depression and morning napping predicted 32.2% of the variance in subjective cognitive dysfunction (p <.001. When patients were classified into groups of mild and moderate sleepiness, those with longer daytime naps, those who mainly napped in the afternoon, and those with higher levels of anxiety, were more likely to be in the moderately sleepy group.Napping, particularly in the afternoon is associated with poorer cognitive functioning and more daytime sleepiness in CFS. These findings have clinical implications for symptom management strategies.

  18. Dynamic optimization of a linear-quadratic model with incomplete repair and volume-dependent sensitivity and repopulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The linear-quadratic model typically assumes that tumor sensitivity and repopulation are constant over the time course of radiotherapy. However, evidence suggests that the growth fraction increases and the cell-loss factor decreases as the tumor shrinks. We investigate whether this evolution in tumor geometry, as well as the irregular time intervals between fractions in conventional hyperfractionation schemes, can be exploited by fractionation schedules that employ time-varying fraction sizes. Methods: We construct a mathematical model of a spherical tumor with a hypoxic core and a viable rim, which is most appropriate for a prevascular tumor, and is only a caricature of a vascularized tumor. This model is embedded into the traditional linear-quadratic model by assuming instantaneous reoxygenation. Dynamic programming is used to numerically compute the fractionation regimen that maximizes the tumor-control probability (TCP) subject to constraints on the biologically effective dose of the early and late tissues. Results: In several numerical examples that employ five or 10 fractions per week on a 1-cm or 5-cm diameter tumor, optimally varying the fraction sizes increases the TCP significantly. The optimal regimen incorporates large Friday (afternoon, if 10 fractions per week) fractions that are escalated throughout the course of treatment, and larger afternoon fractions than morning fractions. Conclusion: Numerical results suggest that a significant increase in tumor cure can be achieved by allowing the fraction sizes to vary throughout the course of treatment. Several strategies deserve further investigation: using larger fractions before overnight and weekend breaks, and escalating the dose (particularly on Friday afternoons) throughout the course of treatment

  19. Physiological and Molecular Response of Ostrich to the Seasonal and Diurnal Variations in Egyptian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve immature ostrich›s birds, 7 months old were used to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature variation and diurnal effect on response changes of some physiological and chemical parameters. All birds were reared out doors and exposed to daily ambient temperatures fluctuations during summer and winter. Blood samples were taken twice, one in the morning at 7 Am and once in the afternoon at 3 Pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (summer) (40±2ºC) and the 7 cold days of January (winter) (18±2ºC). Serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, uric acid concentrations and aldosterone level were determined. The amount of total body water (TBW) and serum heat shock proteins (HSP) were estimated. Serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium concentrations in ostrich were significantly decreased, while uric acid concentration and aldosterone hormone level were significantly increased in summer as compared in winter during both at morning and at afternoon periods. Concerning the diurnal variation, serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium concentrations and aldosterone hormone level in ostrich were significantly increased, while uric acid concentration was significantly decreased at morning as compared at afternoon during both summer and winter seasons. TBW was significantly higher in summer season by 15.04% than winter season. It is concluded from the present study that heat or cold stress has a negative effect on most of the parameters studied and we recommend must be supplement diet with some nutrients like vitamins C, and E, sodium bicarbonate or yeast to overcome the negative effect and to better perform under such conditions

  20. Optical performance of vertical axis three azimuth angles tracked solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a new sun-tracking concept was proposed, and the optical performance of solar panels with such sun-tracking system was theoretically investigated based on the developed mathematical method and monthly horizontal radiation. The mechanism of the proposed sun-tracking technique is that the azimuth angle of solar panels is daily adjusted three times at three fixed positions: eastward, southward and westward in the morning, noon, and afternoon, respectively, by rotating solar panels about the vertical axis (3A sun-tracking, in short). The analysis indicated that the tilt-angle of solar panels, β3A, azimuth angle of solar panels in the morning and afternoon from due south, φa, and solar hour angle when the azimuth angle adjustment was made in the morning and afternoon, ωa, were three key parameters affecting the optical performance of such tracked solar panels. Calculation results showed that, for 3A tracked solar panels with a yearly fixed tilt-angle, the maximum annual collectible radiation was above 92% of that on a solar panel with full 2-axis sun-tracking; whereas for those with the tilt-angle being seasonally adjusted, it was above 95%. Results also showed that yearly or seasonally optimal values of β3A, φa and ωa for maximizing annual solar gain were related to site latitudes, and empirical correlations for a quick estimation of optimal values of these parameters were proposed based on climatic data of 32 sites in China.

  1. Impact of menstrual cycle phase on endocrine effects of partial sleep restriction in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, Amanda; Wright, Lisa; Perrot, Tara; Rusak, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    There is extensive evidence that sleep restriction alters endocrine function in healthy young men, increasing afternoon cortisol levels and modifying levels of other hormones that regulate metabolism. Recent studies have confirmed these effects in young women, but have not investigated whether menstrual cycle phase influences these responses. The effects on cortisol levels of limiting sleep to 3h for one night were assessed in two groups of women at different points in their menstrual cycles: mid-follicular and mid-luteal. Eighteen healthy, young women, not taking oral contraceptives (age: 21.8±0.53; BMI: 22.5±0.58 [mean±SEM]), were studied. Baseline sleep durations, eating habits and menstrual cycles were monitored. Salivary samples were collected at six times of day (08:00, 08:30, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00) during two consecutive days: first after a 10h overnight sleep opportunity (Baseline) and then after a night with a 3h sleep opportunity (Post-sleep restriction). All were awakened at the same time of day. Women in the follicular phase showed a significant decrease (p=0.004) in their cortisol awakening responses (CAR) after sleep restriction and a sustained elevation in afternoon/evening cortisol levels (p=0.008), as has been reported for men. Women in the luteal phase showed neither a depressed CAR, nor an increase in afternoon/evening cortisol levels. Secondary analyses examined the impact of sleep restriction on self-reported hunger and mood. Menstrual cycle phase dramatically altered the cortisol responses of healthy, young women to a single night of sleep restriction, implicating effects of spontaneous changes in endocrine status on adrenal responses to sleep loss. PMID:25051527

  2. High resolution NO2 remote sensing from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX imaging spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Buchmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present and evaluate the retrieval of high spatial resolution maps of NO2 vertical column densities (VCD from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX imaging spectrometer. APEX is a novel instrument providing airborne measurements of unique spectral and spatial resolution and coverage as well as high signal stability. In this study, we use spectrometer data acquired over Zurich, Switzerland, in the morning and late afternoon during a flight campaign on a cloud-free summer day in June 2010. NO2 VCD are derived with a two-step approach usually applied to satellite NO2 retrievals, i.e. a DOAS analysis followed by air mass factor calculations based on radiative transfer computations. Our analysis demonstrates that APEX is clearly sensitive to NO2 VCD above typical European tropospheric background abundances (>1 × 1015 molec cm−2. The two-dimensional maps of NO2 VCD reveal a very plausible spatial distribution with strong gradients around major NOx sources (e.g. Zurich airport, waste incinerator, motorways and low NO2 in remote areas. The morning overflights resulted in generally higher NO2 VCD and a more distinct pattern than the afternoon overflights which can be attributed to the meteorological conditions prevailing during that day (development of the boundary layer and increased wind speed in the afternoon as well as to photochemical loss of NO2. The remotely sensed NO2 VCD are also highly correlated with ground-based in-situ measurements from local and national air quality networks (R=0.73. Airborne NO2 remote sensing using APEX will be valuable to detect NO2 emission sources, to provide input for NO2 emission modeling, and to establish links between in-situ measurements, air quality models, and satellite NO2 products.

  3. Daily Variation of Heavy Carbon Dioxide in Mars Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, T. A.; Kostiuk, Th; Kolasinski, J.; Hewagama, T.; Henning, W. G.; Sornig, M.; Stangier, T.; Krause, P.; Sonnabend, G.

    2015-10-01

    The atmosphere of Mars is significantly enriched in C and O heavy isotopes, detected by ground based high-resolution infrared spectroscopy as well as in situ measurements by the Phoenix lander and Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. Heavy isotope enrichment is consistent with the preferential loss of light isotopes in eroding Mars' primordial atmosphere. Infrared spectroscopy of Mars collected in May 2012 as well as in March and May of 2014 from the NASA IRTF resolves rovibrational transitions of normal-isotope carbon dioxide as well as singly-substituted minor isotopologues, enabling remote measurements of carbon and oxygen isotope ratios as a function of latitude and local time of day. Earlier measurements obtained in October 2007 demonstrated that the relative abundance of O-18 increased linearly with increasing surface temperature over a relatively warm early-afternoon temperature range, but did not extend far enough to inspect the effect of late-afternoon cooling. These results imply that isotopically enriched gas is sequestered overnight when surface temperature is minimum and desorbs through the course of the day as temperature increases. Current spectroscopic constants indicate that the peak isotopic enrichment could be significantly greater than what has been measured in situ, apparently due to sampling the atmosphere at different time of day and surface temperature. The observing runs in 2012 and 2014 measured O-18 enrichment at several local times in both morning and afternoon sectors as well as at the subsolar, equatorial, and anti-subsolar latitudes. The two runs in 2014 have additionally observed O-17 and C-13 transitions in the morning sector, from local dawn to noon. These observations include a limited sampling of measurements over Gale Crater, which can be compared with contemporary in situ measurements by the Curiosity rover to investigate the degree of agreement between in situ and remote methods and potentially to calibrate the

  4. Midweek Increase in U.S. Summer Rain and Storm Heights, Suggests Air Pollution Invigorates Rainstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Yoo, Jung-Moon; Hahnenberger, Maura

    2007-01-01

    Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data show a significant midweek increase in summertime rainfall over the southeast U.S., due to afternoon intensification. TRMM radar data show a significant midweek increase in rain area and in the heights reached by afternoon storms. Weekly variations in model-reanalysis wind patterns over the region and in rain-gauge data are consistent with the satellite data. A midweek decrease of rainfall over the nearby Atlantic is also seen. EPA measurements of particulate concentrations show a midweek peak over much of the U.S. These observations are consistent with the theory that anthropogenic air pollution suppresses cloud-drop coalescence and early rainout during the growth of thunderstorms over land, allowing more water to be carried above the 0 C isotherm, where freezing yields additional latent heat, invigorating the storms--most dramatically evidenced by the shift in the midweek distribution of afternoon-storm heights--and producing large ice hydrometeors. The enhanced convection induces regional convergence, uplifting and an overall increase of rainfall. Compensating downward air motion suppresses convection over the adjacent ocean areas. Pre-TRMM-era data suggest that the weekly cycle only became strong enough to be detectable beginning in the 1980's. Rain-gauge data also suggest that a weekly cycle may have been detectable in the 1940's, but with peak rainfall on Sunday or Monday, possibly explained by the difference in composition of aerosol pollution at that time. This "weekend effect" may thus offer climate researchers an opportunity to study the regional climate-scale impact of aerosols on storm development and monsoon-like circulation.

  5. Emission and chemistry of organic carbon in the gas and aerosol phase at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March 2006 during the MILAGRO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. de Gouw

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs and carbonaceous aerosol were measured at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March of 2006 during the MILAGRO study (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Objectives. Diurnal variations of hydrocarbons, elemental carbon (EC and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA were dominated by a high peak in the early morning when local emissions accumulated in a shallow boundary layer, and a minimum in the afternoon when the emissions were diluted in a significantly expanded boundary layer and, in case of the reactive gases, removed by OH. In comparison, diurnal variations of species with secondary sources such as the aldehydes, ketones, oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC stayed relatively high in the afternoon indicating strong photochemical formation. Emission ratios of many hydrocarbon species relative to CO were higher in Mexico City than in the US, but we found similar emission ratios for most oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol. Secondary formation of acetone may be more efficient in Mexico City than in the US, due to higher emissions of alkane precursors from the use of liquefied petroleum gas. Secondary formation of organic aerosol was similar between Mexico City and the US. Combining the data for all measured gas and aerosol species, we describe the budget of total observed organic carbon (TOOC, and find that the enhancement ratio of TOOC relative to CO is conserved between the early morning and mid afternoon despite large compositional changes. Finally, the influence of biomass burning is investigated using the measurements of acetonitrile, which was found to correlate with levoglucosan in the particle phase. Diurnal variations of acetonitrile indicate a contribution from local burning sources. Scatter plots of acetonitrile versus CO suggest that the contribution of biomass burning to the enhancement of most gas and aerosol species was not dominant and perhaps not

  6. Anomalous propagation conditions of electromagnetic wave observed over Bosten Lake, China in July and August, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sun; Hui, Ning; Jing, Tang; Yong-Jie, Xie; Peng-Fei, Shi; Jian-Hua, Wang; Ke, Wang

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric duct is a common phenomenon over large bodies of water, and it can significantly affect the performance of many radio systems. In this paper, a two-month (in July and August, 2014) sounding experiment in ducting conditions over Bosten Lake was carried out at a littoral station (41.89° N, 87.22° E) with high resolution GPS radiosondes, and atmospheric ducts were observed for the first time in this area. During the two months, surface and surface-based ducts occurred frequently over the Lake. Strong diurnal variations in ducting characteristics were noticed in clear days. Ducting occurrence was found at its lowest in the early morning and at its highest (nearly 100%) in the afternoon. Duct strength was found increasing from early morning to forenoon, and reaching its maximum in the afternoon. But contrarily, duct altitude experienced a decrease in a clear day. Then the meteorological reasons for the variations were discussed in detail, turbulent bursting was a possible reason for the duct formation in the early morning and the prevailing lake-breeze front was the main reason in the afternoon. The propagation of electromagnetic wave in a ducting environment was also investigated. A ray-tracing framework based on Runge-Kutta method was proposed to assess the performance of radio systems, and the precise critical angle and grazing angle derived from the ray-tracing equations were provided. Finally, numerical investigations on the radar performance in the observed ducting environments have been carried out with high accuracy, which demonstrated that atmospheric ducts had made great impacts on the performance of radio systems. The range/height errors for radar measurement induced by refraction have also been presented, too, which shows that the height errors were very large for trapped rays when the total range was long enough.

  7. Diurnal variation in the concentration of air ions of different mobility classes in a rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hõrrak, Urmas; Salm, Jaan; Tammet, Hannes

    2003-10-01

    Analyzed data consist of 8900 hourly average mobility distributions measured in the mobility range of 0.00041-3.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 (diameter range 0.36-79 nm) at Tahkuse Observatory, Estonia, in 1993-1994. The average diurnal variation in the concentration of cluster ions is typical for continental stations: the maximum in the early morning hours and the minimum in the afternoon. This is explained by variations in radon concentration. The diurnal variation for big cluster ions (0.5-1.3 cm2 V-1 s-1) differs from that for small cluster ions (1.3-3.14 cm2 V-1 s-1). The size distribution of intermediate and light large ions in the range of 1.6-22 nm is strongly affected by nucleation bursts of nanometer particles. On the burst days, the maximum concentration of intermediate ions (1.6-7.4 nm) is about the noontime and that of light large ions (7.4-22 nm) about 2 hours later. The concentration of heavy large ions (charged Aitken particles of diameters of 22-79 nm) is enhanced in the afternoon and this is explained by the bursts of nanometer particles and the subsequent growth of particles by condensation and coagulation. If the burst days are excluded, then in the warm season the concentration of Aitken particles increases during night. In the cold season, the diurnal variation is different and all the classes of aerosol ions (2.1-79 nm) show similar variation with the minimum at 0600 LT and the maximum in the afternoon; exceptions are the rare nucleation burst days.

  8. POPQ EXAMINATION: DOES THE TIME OF EXAMINATION INTERFERE WITH POPQ MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF GENITAL PROLAPSE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madkar Chandrakant

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM To testify the fact about generalised untested belief that genital prolapse is more severe in the late afternoon as compared to the morning with the help of POPQ classification system. METHOD There is a generalised belief that prolapse is more severe at the end of the day as compared to the morning. We have planned this study to know whether this belief is correct or wrong. It is not possible to do this study with the help of old classification. So we decided to do it with the help of new classification, that is POPQ system. This is prospective study undertaken with permission of ethical committee consisting 48 patients attending gynec OPD of Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical Hospital. Each patient was examined with POPQ system twice, i.e. two visits and two sessions per visit, morning 9 am to 10 am and late afternoon 4 pm to 5 pm, which are our OPD timings. She was again called after one week and re-examined by the same person twice in a day as mentioned above. Findings were noted in different files and at the end of study data was analysed by applying statistical test of significance. RESULTS The study consisted of 48 patients. The POPQ exam stages were 47% stage II, 50% stage III, and 3% stage IV. There was no significant difference for the 9 POPQ exam measures between morning and afternoon exams. There was good agreement between AM and PM POPQ ordinal stages (Weighted Kappa value 0.76. CONCLUSION There is no difference between AM and PM POPQ exam results.

  9. High-resolution NO2 remote sensing from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, C.; Brunner, D.; Damm, A.; Van Roozendael, M.; Fayt, C.; Buchmann, B.

    2012-09-01

    We present and evaluate the retrieval of high spatial resolution maps of NO2 vertical column densities (VCD) from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer. APEX is a novel instrument providing airborne measurements of unique spectral and spatial resolution and coverage as well as high signal stability. In this study, we use spectrometer data acquired over Zurich, Switzerland, in the morning and late afternoon during a flight campaign on a cloud-free summer day in June 2010. NO2 VCD are derived with a two-step approach usually applied to satellite NO2 retrievals, i.e. a DOAS analysis followed by air mass factor calculations based on radiative transfer computations. Our analysis demonstrates that APEX is clearly sensitive to NO2 VCD above typical European tropospheric background abundances (>1 × 1015 molec cm-2). The two-dimensional maps of NO2 VCD reveal a very convincing spatial distribution with strong gradients around major NOx sources (e.g. Zurich airport, waste incinerator, motorways) and low NO2 in remote areas. The morning overflights resulted in generally higher NO2 VCD and a more distinct pattern than the afternoon overflights which can be attributed to the meteorological conditions prevailing during that day with stronger winds and hence larger dilution in the afternoon. The remotely sensed NO2 VCD are also in reasonably good agreement with ground-based in-situ measurements from air quality networks considering the limitations of comparing column integrals with point measurements. Airborne NO2 remote sensing using APEX will be valuable to detect NO2 emission sources, to provide input for NO2 emission modelling, and to establish links between in-situ measurements, air quality models, and satellite NO2 products.

  10. High-resolution NO2 remote sensing from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX imaging spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Buchmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We present and evaluate the retrieval of high spatial resolution maps of NO2 vertical column densities (VCD from the Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX imaging spectrometer. APEX is a novel instrument providing airborne measurements of unique spectral and spatial resolution and coverage as well as high signal stability. In this study, we use spectrometer data acquired over Zurich, Switzerland, in the morning and late afternoon during a flight campaign on a cloud-free summer day in June 2010. NO2 VCD are derived with a two-step approach usually applied to satellite NO2 retrievals, i.e. a DOAS analysis followed by air mass factor calculations based on radiative transfer computations. Our analysis demonstrates that APEX is clearly sensitive to NO2 VCD above typical European tropospheric background abundances (>1 × 1015 molec cm−2. The two-dimensional maps of NO2 VCD reveal a very convincing spatial distribution with strong gradients around major NOx sources (e.g. Zurich airport, waste incinerator, motorways and low NO2 in remote areas. The morning overflights resulted in generally higher NO2 VCD and a more distinct pattern than the afternoon overflights which can be attributed to the meteorological conditions prevailing during that day with stronger winds and hence larger dilution in the afternoon. The remotely sensed NO2 VCD are also in reasonably good agreement with ground-based in-situ measurements from air quality networks considering the limitations of comparing column integrals with point measurements. Airborne NO2 remote sensing using APEX will be valuable to detect NO2 emission sources, to provide input for NO2 emission modelling, and to establish links between in-situ measurements, air quality models, and satellite NO2 products.

  11. Effects of isoprene production on the photosynthetic performance of Poplars (Populus sp.) under thermal and moisture stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, E. A.; McFarland, E.; Minor, R. L.; Heard, M. M.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2015-12-01

    Poplars are an important agro-forestry product used for both biofuel and paper production. Importantly, all poplars are not created equal - some have the potential to produce isoprene, a compound thought to aid plants under temperatures and water stress conditions. Isoprene production, then, would be an important feature in a plant's response to projected climatic changes of warmer temperatures and longer inter-storm periods of drought. Our project observed how drought conditions modulated photosynthetic rates in two lineages of Populus trees, those that produce isoprene and those that have had isoprene gene knocked out. We measured leaf-level photosynthesis and thermal sensitivity from the two lineages under high and low soil water conditions in a common garden experiment. We found that both lines had similar photosynthetic rates over the range of temperatures and water exposure levels measured. However, we wondered if some of the variation we found in our data was due to the time of day of the measurements. Subsequent measurements of photosynthetic rates in the morning and afternoon on the same leaves illustrated that poplars reached higher rates of photosynthesis in the morning, but ultimately decreased faster than observed in the afternoon measurements (indicative of an eased thermal sensitivity in the afternoon). Also, we used measures of soil moisture and leaf water potential to determine that the "drought" treatment we had induced didn't actually yield any differences in the moisture status among the trees. Ultimately, our experiment showed that isoprene did not aid in photosynthesis under heat stressed conditions and that the common garden setting was not able to currently induce a water stress condition in the plants. We have begun exploring the use of low-altitude remote sensing by an unmanned aerial vehicles outfitted with thermal and multi-spectral cameras to quantify patterns of transpirational water loss, NDVI, leaf browning due to moisture stress

  12. Peregrination To the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacques; Fourrier

    2015-01-01

    As I walk out of the busy Birmingham New Street train station on this unusually shiny Saturday afternoon, I can make out thefamiliar sound of Chinese smartphone chat- ter next to me. Ni zai nar Cnere are you73 screams a young Chinese woman trudging through the crowd, apparently exhausted and displeased. Outside, a group of equally youthful Chinese is waiting at the taxi rank with oversized bright suitcases and bulging rucksacks. They are about to embark on one of the most thrilling adventures of their lives, the student experience abroad.

  13. Come and see our new high-tech products!

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Since 1977, GMP has been active in the fields of laser, spectroscopy, electro-optics and micropositioning. Its mission is to link between suppliers of high tech products with the end users. On Wednesday 26 May between 10 and 12 a.m. - Room A, Main Building, (Bldg. 61/1-017) - you will be able to touch and try out our new laser products. Our specialized engineers will also be on hand to answer all your questions. A drink will be offered at the end of the presentation. There will also be the opportunity to plan meetings in the afternoon to further discuss and complicated questions.

  14. How consistent are top-down hydrocarbon emissions based on formaldehyde observations from GOME-2 and OMI?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavrakou, T. [Belgium Inst. for Space Aeronomy, Brussels (Belgium); Muller, J. F. [Belgium Inst. for Space Aeronomy, Brussels (Belgium); Bauwens, M. [Belgium Inst. for Space Aeronomy, Brussels (Belgium); De Smedt, I. [Belgium Inst. for Space Aeronomy, Brussels (Belgium); Van Roozendael, M. [Belgium Inst. for Space Aeronomy, Brussels (Belgium); De Maziere, M. [Belgium Inst. for Space Aeronomy, Brussels (Belgium); Vigouroux, C. [Belgium Inst. for Space Aeronomy, Brussels (Belgium); Hendrick, F. [Belgium Inst. for Space Aeronomy, Brussels (Belgium); George, M. [UPMC Univ., Paris (France); Clerbaux, C. [UPMC Univ., Paris (France); Free University of Brussels (Germany); Coheur, P-F [Free University of Brussels (Germany); Guenther, Alex B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    The vertical columns of formaldehyde (HCHO) retrieved from two satellite instruments, the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument-2 (GOME-2) on Metop-A and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura, are used to constrain global emissions of HCHO precursors from open fires, vegetation and human activities in the year 2010. To this end, the emissions are varied and optimized using the ad-joint model technique in the IMAGESv2 global CTM (chem-ical transport model) on a monthly basis and at the model res-olution. Given the different local overpass times of GOME- 2 (09:30 LT) and OMI (13:30 LT), the simulated diurnal cy-cle of HCHO columns is investigated and evaluated against ground-based optical measurements at seven sites in Europe, China and Africa. The modeled diurnal cycle exhibits large variability, reflecting competition between photochemistry and emission variations, with noon or early afternoon max-ima at remote locations (oceans) and in regions dominated by anthropogenic emissions, late afternoon or evening max-ima over fire scenes, and midday minima in isoprene-rich re-gions. The agreement between simulated and ground-based columns is generally better in summer (with a clear after-noon maximum at mid-latitude sites) than in winter, and the annually averaged ratio of afternoon to morning columns is slightly higher in the model (1.126) than in the ground-based measurements (1.043).The anthropogenic VOC (volatile organic compound) sources are found to be weakly constrained by the inversions on the global scale, mainly owing to their generally minor contribution to the HCHO columns, except over strongly pol-luted regions, like China. The OMI-based inversion yields total flux estimates over China close to the bottom-up inven-tory (24.6 vs. 25.5 TgVOC yr-1 in the a priori) with, how-ever, pronounced increases in the northeast of China and re-ductions in the south. Lower fluxes are estimated based on GOME-2 HCHO columns (20.6 TgVOC yr-1), in

  15. Tit for Tat--American Election%针锋相对的美国大选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Back Into Battle 重回战场的约翰·克里 JOHN KERRY is weary. His day began shortly after dawn with a visit to coal miners in Moundsville, West Virginia, then moved on to a speech before workers at a cookware factory in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Throughout the afternoon, as his"Jobs Tour"campaign bus rolled through Rust Belt country, Kerry stopped to exhort(告诫,劝勉) roadside crowds and grasp out-stretched hands. Now,with evening near, he's headed down the highway toward Youngstown, Ohio,and an outdoor rally with steelworkers angered by job losses.

  16. History and Chronicle: Raul Pompeia and the series "Da Capital"

    OpenAIRE

    RUBENS ARANTES CORREA

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the charts of a larger study in which we investigate the trajectory, the militancy and Raul Pompeia’s political ideals (1863-1895) placing him in the Brazilian context in late nineteenth century. We highlight, particularly, Raul Pompeia’s chronicals for the newspaper “O Estado de São Paulo in a series which the author titled "Da Capital" and was published by an afternoon newspaper from São Paulo between 1891 and 1893. We have tried to understand, through this work, how t...

  17. From Dust Devil to Sustainable Swirling Wind Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Mingxu Zhang; Xilian Luo; Tianyu Li; Liyuan Zhang; Xiangzhao Meng; Kiwamu Kase; Satoshi Wada; Chuck Wah Yu; Zhaolin Gu

    2015-01-01

    Dust devils are common but meteorologically unique phenomena on Earth and on Mars. The phenomenon produces a vertical vortex motion in the atmosphere boundary layer and often occurs in hot desert regions, especially in the afternoons from late spring to early summer. Dust devils usually contain abundant wind energy, for example, a maximum swirling wind velocity of up to 25 m/s, with a 15 m/s maximum vertical velocity and 5 m/s maximum near-surface horizontal velocity can be formed. The occurr...

  18. Introductory remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past day and a half we have all heard some excellent presentations that have provided suggestions on ways to improve our risk communications and how to better define our regulatory expectations. It is with those thoughts in mind that we are now looking forward to this afternoon's session: Experiences in Stakeholder Involvement in Radiological Risk. As you can see from the list of upcoming speakers, we will be hearing their stakeholder involvement experiences from each of their country's perspectives. Before I introduce the first speaker, let me share with you a few of the NRC's public outreach experiences and my vision for the future of regulatory success in this area. (author)

  19. 5. (Sort of) Economic Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinstein, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Beginning When I was a boy, I strolled every afternoon from my home through Shabbat Square toward the Workers’ Library at the top of Strauss Street. Half-way up the hill was a kiosk that displayed all the daily newspapers, attached by clothes pegs to the wide-open metal window shutters. As a curious child, I would stop and read the newspapers, peeking under the corners of the pages until I had my fill, and then continuing on my way. My favorite two newspapers were always on the lower-left sid...

  20. Conference on enrichment services marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Purpose of the meeting was to discuss the draft terms and conditions of DOE's Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract, which was developed to implement the United States nuclear power policy objective of assured nuclear fuel supply on attractive terms and conditions. Nine presentations were made by representatives of both DOE Headquarters and DOE's Oak Ridge Operations Office which co-sponsored the meeting. A question and answer session was held during the afternoon, and these are also presented in this document. Separate abstracts were prepared for eight of the presentations. (DLC)

  1. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  2. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Cern Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after the use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  3. The restriction of grazing duration does not compromise lamb meat colour and oxidative stability

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano, G.; L. Biondi; Pagano, R. I.; M. Scerra; Vasta, V.; López-Andrés, P.; Valenti, B.; Lanza, M.; A. Priolo; Avondo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Over 72 days, 33 lambs were fed: concentrates in stall (S), grass at pasture for 8 hours (8 h), or grass at pasture for 4 hours in the afternoon (4 h-PM). The 4 h-PM treatment did not affect the carcass yield compared to the 8 h treatment. Meat colour development after blooming was unaffected by the treatments. The 4 h-PM treatment increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; Pb0.0005) and of the highly peroxidizable fatty acids (HP-PUFA; Pb0.001) in meat compared to the 8 h...

  4. MSEB SERVICE RESTORATION USING WEB BASED SCADA

    OpenAIRE

    Kurhe P. S.*, Madhuri Unde

    2016-01-01

    In our day today life electricity may be interrupted due to afternoon storms, snow storms and natural disasters. When these events occur we may think that it is due to some MSEB technical fault & the power will come after some time. If it is not coming, then we are calling to MSEB operator. Then the available tools and analytic techniques are applied to locate the fault, isolate the faulted area, complete repairs and restore service to the faulted area. This is done by the control room st...

  5. Dick Feynman—The Guy in the Office Down the Hall

    OpenAIRE

    Gell-Mann, Murray

    1986-01-01

    When I think of Richard, I often recall a chilly afternoon in Altadena shortly after his marriage to the charming Gweneth. My late wife, Margaret, and I had returned in September 1960 from a year in Paris, London and East Africa; Richard had greeted me with the news that he was “catching up with me”—he too was to have an English wife and a small brown dog. The wedding soon took place, and it was a delightful occasion. We also met the dog (called Venus, I believe) and found that Richard was go...

  6. Jointly addressing the challenge: Developing a sustainable energy system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ An energy report entitled Lighting the Way. Toward a Sustainable Energy Future by the InterAcademy Council (IAC), and the other one entitled Addressing the Challenge: Developing a Sustainable Energy System by CAS, were jointly released recently. The Sustainable Energy Forum: Panel Discussions on IAC/CAS Energy Reports, organized by CAS and held in Beijing on the afternoon of 22 October 2007, attracted around 50 distinguished participants, including senior governmental leaders, experts, and industrial representatives from both domestic and foreign energyrelated organizations.

  7. Communication's management in crisis and conflict situations. Application of communication's skills in maritime industry

    OpenAIRE

    Imashova Zhulduz; Karzhaubayeva Onaichan; Surugiu Felicia; Mina Simona

    2013-01-01

    Which are the purposes for Communication courses regarding the professional training in maritime industry? As such, here there are some certain hypotheses and objectives regarding the needs of communication skills in maritime domain. Why do we need communication’s skills? One of the main objectives is to know our interlocutor: we need to relate in order to know our interlocutor within the first 5 minutes of relating. Eric Berne in “What do say after we say Good Afternoon (Hello), considers th...

  8. Equine-assisted therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara MacLean, LCAT, MT-BC

    2011-01-01

    Since 2008, the Samuel S. Stratton Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center in Albany, New York, has offered the Equine-Assisted Therapy Program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The first year, the program ran for 7 weeks, and in 2009 and 2010, we were able to run 12-week programs in the summers and a 9-week program in the fall of 2010. Also in 2010, veterans from the VA's Adaptive Sports Program enjoyed a 3-hour "sampler" afternoon. In 2011, we are holding tw...

  9. 24 Hours of Meaty Torture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Palesa; Temaswati; Mthethwa

    2011-01-01

    VEGETARIAN for a week! That was the plan.But it’s funny how side effects start kicking in so early when trying to let go of an everyday habit.The first morning of my experiment,I felt like I hadn’t eaten poultry in months(I had devoured a bucket of KFC the night before).Lunch was a disaster.I didn’t know whether to cook or spend an hour searching for a restaurant. That afternoon I received the worst phone call a first-time vegetarian can get:

  10. 国际交流(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chinese and Foreign Women Together ——Celebrating 96th Anniversary of International Women's Day 中外妇女共庆“三八” On the afternoon of March 7, 2006, a grand reception to celebrate the 96th anniversary of International Women's Day was held by the All-China Women's Federation (ACWF) in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. About 1,500 people-including Chinese women from all walks of life, foreign women diplomats, foreign diplomats' wives, foreign women experts and foreign experts'

  11. Indoor air quality and occupant satisfaction in five mechanically and four naturally ventilated open-plan office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelgaard, J.; Juhl, P.; Saebjornsson, K.O.;

    2007-01-01

    Occupant responses and indoor environment characteristics were recorded and compared in five mechanically and four naturally ventilated open-plan office buildings by using a simple approach that enabled us to survey many buildings simultaneously. All occupant responses were obtained during one...... afternoon. In a pre-experiment, temperature and the concentration Of CO2 were monitored in 2-10 locations/office to evaluate the variation throughout the offices. A representative measurement point was subsequently selected and measurements of the same parameters were made during one week. All offices were...

  12. 女性动态(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Website of Women Labor's Transfer and Employment Opens in Beijing 中国妇女劳动力转移就业网在北京开通On the afternoon of May 25, www.womenldl.com.cn, a new website for Chinese women labor's transfer and employment, formally opened in Beijing. Sponsored by the All-China Women's Federation, supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Labor and Social Security, the Ministry of Agriculture and the All-China Federation of Industry & Commerce, this website aims at facilitating exchange and interaction a...

  13. A Brief Aerial Survey in the Vicinity of Sellafield in September 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, D.C.W; Allyson, J.D.; Cairns, K.J.; MACDONALD, P.

    1990-01-01

    A two day survey exercise was conducted by SURRC from 25th-26th September 1990 with the joint aims of demonstrating the potential of helicopters for emergency response and beginning the definition of baseline levels in the immediate vicinity of Sellafield. The aircraft used for this work was a twin engined AS 355 "Squirrel" helicopter chartered from Dollar Helicopters. It was loaded with an 8 litre NaI gamma spectrometry system at SURRC in East Kilbride on the afternoon of 24th September and ...

  14. A Music Therapy Story From Eersterust, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Lotter

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available As music therapist I work at YDO one afternoon per week with an open group, with adolescents involved in assault cases. This story grew out of a process of the group constructing a story through listening to a series of CDs - music that I had chosen. I had a flip chart on which I transcribed the story as they presented different aspects of it. Before playing the CDs I asked the group what our story should be based on, and they decided that the story would be about Eersterust, their home-town.

  15. Comparative soil CO2 flux measurements and geostatistical estimation methods on masaya volcano, nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Lewicki, J. L.; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Earth Sciences Division; Bergfeld, D.; U.S. Geological Survey; Cardellini, C.; Università di Perugia, Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia,; Chiodini, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Granieri, D.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Varley, N.; Universidad de Colima, Colima, México; Werner, C.; Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, New Zealand

    2004-01-01

    We present a comparative study of soil CO2 flux ( ) measured by five groups (Groups 1–5) at the IAVCEI-CCVG Eighth Workshop on Volcanic Gases on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Groups 1–5 measured using the accumulation chamber method at 5-m spacing within a 900 m2 grid during a morning (AM) period. These measurements were repeated by Groups 1–3 during an afternoon (PM) period. Measured ranged from 218 to 14,719 g m–2 day–1. The variability of the five measurements made at each grid point range...

  16. Impact of ventilation rates on SBS symptoms and productivity in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    Perceived air quality, Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms and productivity were studied in a normally furnished office space ventilated with an outdoor air flow of 3, 10 and 30 L/s per person (corresponding to aiur changes of 0.6, 2.0 and 6 h-1, respectively), while all other environmental...... subjects occupied the office for 4.6 hours in the afternoon, six subjects at a time; they remained thermally neutral by adjusting their clothing. Subjects assessed perceived air quality and SBS symptoms, and performed simulated office work so that their productivity could be assessed. Increasing the supply...

  17. Relocation of the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Dosimetry Service is moving from Building 24 to Building 55 and will therefore be closed on Friday, 30 March. From Monday, 2 April onwards you will find us in Building 55/1-001. Please note that we cannot exclude problems with Internet connections on that day and are therefore unable to guarantee normal service. The Service's opening hours and telephone number will not change as a result of the move: Open from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. Tel. 7 2155

  18. Relocation of Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Dosimetry Service is moving from Building 24 to Building 55 and will therefore be closed on Friday, March 30. From Monday, April 2 onwards you will find us in building 55/1-001. Please note that during that day we might still have some problems with the internet connections and cannot fully guarantee normal service procedures. The service's opening hours and telephone number will not change as a result of the move 8.30 - 12.00, afternoons closed Tel. 72155

  19. Wini Breines Speaks on The Trouble Between Us

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Mignon R.

    2006-01-01

    Wini Breines, you are a brave woman.” I shared this sentiment with her during the Q&A portion of the talk she gave on her November 6th visit to UCLA. Dr. Winifred Breines, Professor of Sociology and Women’s Studies at Northeastern University, had come to speak about her new book The Trouble Between Us: An Uneasy History of White and Black Women in the Feminist Movement. The crowd in Royce Hall that afternoon was a diverse mixture of students, young faculty, more seasoned feminist scholars, an...

  20. Celebrating 25 Years of Student Mentoring | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most employees of NCI at Frederick have heard of the Werner H. Kirsten Student Intern Program (WHK SIP). The reason is simple—it has been wildly successful. And on Friday, April 22, the program will celebrate 25 years of mentoring and learning at the WHK SIP 25th Anniversary Symposium and Awards Ceremony. During the morning session, several former interns will talk about the impact that the WHK program has had on their lives. The afternoon session will begin with a panel of current and former mentors who will answer questions from students interested in the program and staff members interested in becoming mentors. Read more...

  1. Composition and abundance of fishes in the interface between open water and macrophyte banks, and the dynamics of this interface during morning and evening twilight, in lake Catalão, Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Igor David da Costa; Ana Carolina Prado Valladares da Rocha; Mariana do Amaral Camara Lima; Jansen Alfredo Sampaio Zuanon

    2011-01-01

    This work studied the composition and abundance of the fishes that move between macrophyte banks and open water during the morning twilight (CM) and afternoon twilight (CV). The collections were made using gillnets, along banks of Paspalum repens, at Catalão lake, in Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 222 individuals and 37 species were collected. Of these, 130 individuals were collected during the CM and 92 during the CV; 80 individuals were leaving during the CM and 40 individuals were leaving du...

  2. Trends of Ozone in Switzerland since 1992 (TROZOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the trends of the daily afternoon (noon to midnight) maximum ozone concentrations at 15 of the 16 stations of the Swiss air quality monitoring network (NABEL) during the period 1992-2002. The use of numerous meteorological parameters and additional data allowed a detailed seasonal analysis of the influence of the weather on the ozone maxima at the different stations. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed separately for each station and season in order to detect the parameters which best explain the variability of the daily ozone maximum concentrations. During the warm seasons (summer and spring) the most explanatory parameters are those related to the ozone production, in particular the afternoon temperature. In winter, the most explanatory variables are the ones influencing the vertical mixing and thus the ozone destruction by titration with NO and dry deposition, like the afternoon global radiation. The trends of both the measured and meteorologically corrected ozone maxima were calculated. The year-to-year variability in the ozone maxima was lowered by a factor of 3 by the meteorological correction. Significantly positive trends of corrected ozone maxima of 0.3 - 1.1 ppb/year were found at the low altitude stations in winter and autumn as well as at Lausanne - urban station - in all the seasons, mainly due to the lower loss of ozone by reaction with NO as a consequence of the decreased emissions of primary pollutants during the 90s. This could be partially confirmed by the lower trends of OX (sum O3 of and NO2) maxima compared to the trends in ozone maxima. The absence of negative trends of the median or mean ozone maxima north of the Alps in summer suggests that the decrease in the emissions of ozone precursors did not have a strong impact on the afternoon maximum ozone concentrations during the last decade. In contrast to the project TOSS (Trends of Ozone in Southern Switzerland), no significantly negative trends of ozone maxima

  3. Malignant Hemangioendothelioma of the Liver: a Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Lin; Changnan Jin; Yisheng Zhong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Amale patient, 50 years old, was hospitalized in our department because of repeated vague pain under the right rib for more than 3 months. Two weeks prior to his hospitalization the pain became severe accompanied by fever. The right subcostal vague pain and discomfort occurred 3 months before admission, with no radiating pain elsewhere, no vomiting, no diarrhea or jaundice but with chills and pyrexia. In the afternoon the fever intensified, with a body temperature of about 38.5℃. There was the vague pain and discomfort under the right rib, which was paroxysmally intensified.

  4. Comparisons of measured and modelled ozone deposition to forests in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touvinen, J.P.; Simpson, D.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2001-01-01

    Denmark) and one deciduous forest (mountain birch in Finland). On average, themodel performs well for the Scots pine forest, if local inputdata are used. The daytime deposition rates are somewhat over-predicted at the Danish site, especially in the afternoon. The mountain birch data indicate that the......The performance of a new dry deposition module, developedfor the European-scale mapping and modelling of ozone flux to vegetation, was tested against micrometeorological ozone and water vapour flux measurements. The measurement data are for twoconiferous (Scots pine in Finland, Norway spruce in...

  5. Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial on the immunomodulating activities of low- and high-dose bromelain after oral administration - new evidence on the antiinflammatory mode of action of bromelain

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Silke; März, Reinhard; Schmolz, Manfred; Drewelow, Bernd; Eschmann, Klaus; Meiser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In a randomized controlled multiple cross-over trial, the effect of a single application of 1000 and 3000 F.I.P. bromelain on 6 cytokines, of male healthy volunteers was studied. The analysis of cytokines (Interferon gamma, IL-2, IL-6, IL8, IL-10, IL13 and MCP-1) was performed with the TrueCulture(tm) whole-blood culture system (EDI GmbH). With a single dose of 3000 F. I. P. bromelain, IFNgamma was found to be significantly stimulated in the afternoon hours compared to placebo (p = 0.043; Mix...

  6. 食品及食品添加剂出口美国应注意的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾约翰

    2005-01-01

    Good afternoon. I am extremely happy and delighted to be addressing you again this year as a resident of China. I was fortunate to be able to address you the past two years as a visitor from my home, Washington, DC. But in the summer of 2004, my family and I arrived in Shanghai and on December 1, 2004, Keller and Heckman LLP formally opened its office in Shanghai. Together with our offices in Washington, Brussels, and San Francisco, we are now global in our highly specialized practice of food and drug law.

  7. Multiple facets of anoxic metabolism and hydrogen production in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Arthur R; Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Dubini, Alexandra; Magneschi, Leonardo; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Posewitz, Matthew C; Seibert, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Many microbes in the soil environment experience micro-oxic or anoxic conditions for much of the late afternoon and night, which inhibit or prevent respiratory metabolism. To sustain the production of energy and maintain vital cellular processes during the night, organisms have developed numerous pathways for fermentative metabolism. This review discusses fermentation pathways identified for the soil-dwelling model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, its ability to produce molecular hydrogen under anoxic conditions through the activity of hydrogenases, and the molecular flexibility associated with fermentative metabolism that has only recently been revealed through the analysis of specific mutant strains. PMID:21563367

  8. An Aerial Gamma Ray Survey of Chapelcross and its Surroundings in February 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Allyson, J.D.; Tyler, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    A short aerial gamma ray survey was conducted in the vicinity of the Chapelcross site from 4th-7th February 1992 to define existing background radiation levels, against which any future changes can be assessed. A twin engine AS 355 "Squirrel" helicopter chartered from Dollar Helicopters was used for this work. It was loaded with a 16 litre NaI gamma spectrometry system at SURRC in East Kilbride on the afternoon of 3rd February and flown to an off-site operational base at Lockerbie that evenin...

  9. Multitudes attend the Night of Science

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Night of Science, which took place in the Parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30 000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.

  10. Public outreach: Multitudes attend the Night of Science

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Night of Science, which took place in the parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.

  11. Daily balance of leaf sugars and amino acids as indicators of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) metabolic response and drought intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Mauro Guida; Pimentel, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Leaf soluble sugar, starch and free amino acid amounts were evaluated in two bean genotypes, Carioca and Ouro Negro, grown in 10 L pots in a greenhouse. This was realized during a single day for Carioca and during ten days of water deficit for both genotypes, at 06:00 and 18:00 h. During the day, an increase in all parameters occurred up to midday, while in the afternoon, carbohydrate amounts varied in opposition to amino acids amounts. Under water deficit, the leaf soluble sugars at 18:00 an...

  12. Derivation of canopy resistance for water vapour fluxes over a spruce forest, using a new technique for the viscous sublayer resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.O.; Hummelshøj, P.

    The paper reports on some evaporation measurements made above a spruce forest (Picea abies) during late August and the beginning of September 1991. The period was dry, and the response of the trees to this condition is clearly seen in the form of the diurnal course of the evapotranspiration. The...... trees close their stomata to limit the water loss. This is also shown through a calculation of the canopy resistance to water vapour exchange. During periods around noon and in the afternoon the resistance becomes very high. The calculations are carried out by using a novel theory for the viscous...

  13. Lilies of the Field%原野中的百合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Quindlen

    2004-01-01

    @@ I'm a novelist. My work is human nature. Real life is all I know. Don't ever confuse the two, your life and your work. You will walk out of here this afternoon with only one thing that no one else has. There will be hundreds of people out there with your same degree; there will be thousands of people doing what you want to do for a living. But you will be the only person alive who has sole custody1 of your life.

  14. First Atmospheric Science Results from the Mars Exploration Rovers Mini-TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Spanovich, Nicole; Banfield, Don; Budney, Charles J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Ghosh, Amitabha; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Smith, Peter; Whitney, Barbara; Christensen, Philip R.; Squyres, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal infrared spectra of the martian atmosphere taken by the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) were used to determine the atmospheric temperatures in the planetary boundary layer and the column-integrated optical depth of aerosols. Mini-TES observations show the diurnal variation of the martian boundary layer thermal structure, including a near-surface superadiabatic layer during the afternoon and an inversion layer at night. Upward-looking Mini-TES observations show warm and cool parcels of air moving through the Mini-TES field of view on a time scale of 30 seconds. The retrieved dust optical depth shows a downward trend at both sites.

  15. Evaluation of the adaptability of dairy goats in the Brazilian semiarid region with the aid of infrared thermography

    OpenAIRE

    Elisângela Maria Nunes da Silva; Bonifácio Benicio de Souza; Gustavo de Assis Silva; Maria Dalva Bezerra de Alcântara; Maria das Graças Gomes Cunha; Bênio Alexandre de Assis Marques

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptability of dairy goats with aid of infrared thermography in the environmental conditions of the Brazilian semiarid region. Were used 36 female goats, with a mean of 2.5 years and an average weight of 45 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design 2 x 2 in a factorial arrangement; two genotypes (Anglo Nubian and Alpine Brown) and two shifts (morning and afternoon), with 18 repetitions. Analysis of variance showed that the shift had sig...

  16. Observed and predicted measurements of photosynthesis in a phytoplankton culture exposed to natural irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) curves were produced (using artificial illumination) from samples taken at one or more times per day from a continuous culture illuminated with sunlight. The continuous culture housed an oxygen electrode used to measure photosynthesis semi-continuously. Rates of photosynthesis predicted from P-I curves agreed with photosynthesis observed in the culture only for days of low irradiance. For sunny days or for days of variable irradiance, P-I curves predicted neither the morning photosynthesis maximum nor the afternoon depression. Daily integrals of predicted and observed photosynthesis, however, were probably within the possible errors of measurement. (orig.)

  17. EFFECTS OF SPORTS SCHOOL ON SOME ANTHROPOMETRIC AND FUNCTIONAL TESTS OF YOUNG ADULT MEN

    OpenAIRE

    Saka, Tolga; Yildiz, Yavuz; Tekbaş, Ömer Faruk; Taner AYDIN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of a six-week-training course in the sports school on some physical characteristics of male subjects aged 23-30 years in an experimental manner. 51 male subjects (age: 25.7± 1.9years, height: 174±5.8 cm, weight: 72.1 9.7 kg) consented to participate in the study. Subjects did practical exercises five days a week for two hours each in the morning and the afternoon during the six-week physical education program. The pre-course and post-course bo...

  18. The temporal and spatial variations of low frequency geomagnetic pulsations at polar cusp and cap latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bitterly

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic field measurements at two Antarctic stations are compared during two weeks in the local summer (January 1-15, 1992. Low frequency (0.6-6 mHz pulsations are observed at each station near local magnetic noon. The same wave packets appear in some cases also at the other station, although with a significant attenuation, more clearly in the morning sector; the waves show a near noon reversal of the polarization sense from counter-clockwise in the morning to clockwise in the afternoon indicating a westward and an eastward propagation, respectively.

  19. A New Start in Copenhagen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG GUOGUANG

    2010-01-01

    @@ The UN Climate Change Conference concluded on the afternoon of December 19 in Copenhagen,Denmark. The scale of the meeting and the attention it has attracted speak to its great importance. After strenuous negotiations, the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)and the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol passed documents, decided to continue negotiations along the Bali Roadmap and commissioned the two working groups of the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol to produce an outcome by the end of 2010.

  20. Quark Matter 2001 - Final report [Program and list of poster presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Michael D.

    2002-02-01

    The Fifteenth International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (QM2001) was held on Long Island, New York on January 15-20, 2001. The main site of the conference was the campus of the State University of New York at Stony Brook. The conference included an afternoon of parallel sessions and tours of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. There were nearly 700 paid attendees. The conference program and a list of poster exhibits is included.

  1. Physics of Plasmas in Thermonuclear Regimes. Proceedings of the 1979 Workshop, International School of Plasma Physics, Varenna, Italy, 27 August - 8 September 1979. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppi, B.; Sadowski, W. [eds.

    1979-08-27

    The workshop was run concurrently with the International School of Plasma Physics and was organized as a sequence of afternoon meetings concerning a set of topics that correspond to the individual chapters of these proceedings. The workshop consisted of both individual presentations and moderated discussions among the participants. A selected group of topics that were found to deserve a more in-depth analysis, such as the question of anomalous particle transport and the theory of collective modes induced by alpha-particles were discussed in separate Working Groups.

  2. Equine-assisted therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara MacLean, LCAT, MT-BC

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008, the Samuel S. Stratton Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Medical Center in Albany, New York, has offered the Equine-Assisted Therapy Program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The first year, the program ran for 7 weeks, and in 2009 and 2010, we were able to run 12-week programs in the summers and a 9-week program in the fall of 2010. Also in 2010, veterans from the VA's Adaptive Sports Program enjoyed a 3-hour "sampler" afternoon. In 2011, we are holding two 10-week sessions.

  3. Inter- and size-specific patterns of fish seasonal migration between a shallow lake and its streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Brodersen, J.; Nilsson, P.A.; Hansson, L.A.; Brönmark, C.

    2008-01-01

    cues. The cyprinid fishes generally entered the streams in late afternoon or in the morning, depending on season, but overall migration patterns varied between the three streams. We suggest and discuss that our results have great implications for lake management as well as for the interpretation of...... perch (Perca fluviatilis (L.))) between a shallow lake and its streams. Migration patterns were investigated from October to June, and a substantial part of the roach (40%) and white bream (55%) populations tagged in the lake during autumn migrated during winter into the streams, whereas only very few...... seasonal trophic dynamics in shallow lakes....

  4. Online versus Face-to-Face: Students’ Preferences for College Course Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, John T.; Henneberry, Shida R.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this article were to determine: 1) students’ preferences for college course attributes; and 2) how the amount of course attribute information impacts enrollment. Results indicate students had the highest preferences for face-to-face (F2F) courses offered late morning and early afternoon and two to three days per week. Students selected online over F2F courses depending on course makeup; for example, course topic, online course design technology, and when the F2F version wa...

  5. Where did you park your car? Analysis of a naturalistic long-term recency effect

    OpenAIRE

    Amâncio da Costa Pinto; Baddeley, A

    1991-01-01

    In Exp 1, 41 members (aged 20-64 yrs) of Applied Psychology Unit (APU) attempted to recall where they had parked during the morning and afternoon of each of the previous 12 working days. A marked recency effect was observed. In Exp 2, 80 members (aged 28-71 yrs) of the APU subject panel were asked where they had parked after a delay of 2 hrs, 1 wk, or 1 mo. Recall was excellent and did not differ as a function of delay. Exp 3 invited 63 25-71 yr olds to attend on 2 occasions separated by a 2-...

  6. Access and the Changing Mission of Research Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Wätjen

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The session of this morning deals with the coming century. But I am not a prophet foreseeing the future. I agree with the economist Edgar Fiedler who said in his Law of Prediction, „Forecasting is very difficult, especially if it’s about the future.” And Mirjam Foot is on the right side too. In the afternoon she will talk about change as the only certainty. Or in other words: today we live in an age of uncertainty and it will increase in the future!

  7. Exotic rodent species threatens many U.S. wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    As a sole canoe navigated the lazy flatwater bends of Maryland's Blackwater River on a perfect summer afternoon last June, fish jumped, dragonflies zigged across the open water and through the tall grass in the brackish tidal marshland, and in the distance several young eagles drifted in the blue sky. On the way back to the boat landing, a furry mammal casually paddled across the water: too big for a muskrat and not quite a beaver, the creature slinked into the marsh vegetation bordering the river. Then another appeared and perhaps a half-dozen more that day, an abundance of wildlife.

  8. Comprehending Texts and Pictures: Interactions Between Linguistic and Visual Processes in Children and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Engelen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ On Monday morning, the birthday boy was walking to school with another boy. They were passing a bag of potato chips back and forth and the birthday boy was trying to find out what his friend intended to give him for his birthday that afternoon. Without looking, the birthday boy stepped off the curb at an intersection and was immediately knocked down by a car. He fell on his side with his head in the gutter and his legs out in the road. His eyes were closed, but hi...

  9. Long-term system adjustment to traffic restrictions: the example of Milan

    OpenAIRE

    P C Cheshire; Evans, A.W.; G Gorla

    1998-01-01

    In order to reduce congestion and improve the environment in Milan, a policy of restricting the entry of private vehicles to the historic centre of the city was initiated in 1985. The evidence on the effects of this policy is reviewed. There appears to have been increased use of taxis and commercial vehicles, as a substitute for cars. In addition, in the early years of the policy, when the restrictions only operated in the morning, there was a transfer of some car trips to the afternoon. The ...

  10. Seawifs Technical Report Series. Volume 2: Analysis of Orbit Selection for Seawifs: Ascending Versus Descending Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Gregg, Watson W.

    1992-01-01

    Due to range safety considerations, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color instrument may be required to be launched into a near-noon descending node, as opposed to the ascending node used by the predecessor sensor, the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). The relative importance of ascending versus descending near-noon orbits was assessed here to determine if descending node will meet the scientific requirements of SeaWiFS. Analyses focused on ground coverage, local times of coverage, solar and viewing geometries (zenith and azimuth angles), and sun glint. Differences were found in the areas covered by individual orbits, but were not important when taken over a 16 day repeat time. Local time of coverage was also different: for ascending node orbits the Northern Hemisphere was observed in the morning and the Southern Hemisphere in the afternoon, while for descending node orbits the Northern Hemisphere was observed in the afternoon and the Southern in the morning. There were substantial differences in solar azimuth and spacecraft azimuth angles both at equinox and at the Northern Hemisphere summer solstice. Negligible differences in solar and spacecraft zenith angles, relative azimuth angles, and sun glint were obtained at the equinox. However, large differences were found in solar zenith angles, relative azimuths, and sun glint for the solstice. These differences appeared to compensate across the scan, however, an increase in sun glint in descending node over that in ascending node on the western part of the scan was compensated by a decrease on the eastern part of the scan. Thus, no advantage or disadvantage could be conferred upon either ascending node or descending node for noon orbits. Analyses were also performed for ascending and descending node orbits that deviated from a noon equator crossing time. For ascending node, afternoon orbits produced the lowest mean solar zenith angles in the Northern Hemisphere, and morning orbits produced

  11. Variáveis meteorológicas em ambiente degradado na Amazônia durante a transição da estação seca para a chuvosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Moisés Santos e Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal cycle of the meteorological variables over a pasture site (Fazenda Nossa Senhora, Rondonia, Brazil during the transition of the dry to wet seasons were studied. A comprehensive dataset collected in “Dry to Wet 2002” campaign of Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazônia (LBA was used. A typical diurnal cycle with maximum rainfall during mid to late afternoon and sporadic nocturnal rainfall events were observed. Unlike the dry season, the transition season does not present intensive chill events; however, it was observed that meteorological large scale systems and biomass burning activities modulate the diurnal cycle of the variables.

  12. Proceedings of the School for Young High Energy Physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1991 School for Young High Energy Physicists was attended by 44 first year graduate students - probably the largest number since it was started in 1972. It took place in September, at the Cosener's House, Abingdon, and was organised and funded by Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Published here are the lectures that were given in the mornings. These were supplemented and reinforced by the work in the afternoons, which were devoted to problems and tutorials. At the end of the intensive two week course the students emerged exhausted, but with a thorough grounding in the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics, on which most of them are performing their experimental work. (Author)

  13. Pupil and Salivary Indicators of Autonomic Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Christa J.; Colombo, John; Unruh, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated tonic pupil size has been reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Among the possible sources of this dysregulation are disruptions in the feedback loop between norepinephrine (NE) and hypothalamic systems. In the current study, we examined afternoon levels of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA, a putative correlate of NE) and cortisol (used to assess stress-based responses) in two independent samples of children with ASD. We found a larger pupil size and lower sAA levels in ASD, com...

  14. Ganztagsschulen und Erwerbsbeteiligung von Müttern : eine Mikrosimulationsstudie für Deutschland (All-day schools and labour force participation of mothers * a micro-simulation study for Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Beblo, Miriam; Lauer, Charlotte; Wrohlich, Katharina

    2005-01-01

    "The expansion of all-day schools is currently enjoying a high priority in the political agenda. One of the reasons for this is the poor results of German pupils in the PISA study. This paper is to examine what effect the expansion of all-day schools will have on the labour force participation of mothers of primary-school children. For this we estimate a structural labour supply model in which the costs of the care of children in the afternoons is explicitly taken into account. Our policy sim...

  15. Circadian and diurnal variation of circulating immune complexes, complement-mediated solubilization, and the complement split product C3d in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ivan; Baatrup, Gunnar; Brandslund, I;

    1986-01-01

    with low CMS and increased IC levels in the morning, and vice versa in the afternoon. Bed rest and exercise did not influence these fluctuations. The C3d concentration in plasma was increased but showed no diurnal or circadian periodic fluctuations when the levels were corrected for fluctuations in......Nine patients with active classical rheumatoid arthritis (ARA criteria) were studied with reference to circadian variation of immunological and clinical parameters. Complement-mediated solubilization (CMS) of immune complexes (IC) and the level of circulating IC were found to be inversely related...

  16. Rapid regulation of leaf photosynthesis, carbohydrate status and leaf area expansion to maintain growth in irregular light environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    Protected plant productions in northern latitudes rely heavily on supplemental light use to extend the number of light hours during the day. To conserve electricity and lower costs, a low-energy input system use supplemental lights preferable during less expensive off-peak hours and turn lighting...... off during peak load periods in the afternoon and in the morning. This system, though more cost-effective than conventional lighting methods, create irregular lighting patterns of natural sunlight interrupted with supplemental lighting. Despite being disturbed in their circadian activity, plants grown...

  17. Thomas Moran in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrom, Gaell

    1983-01-01

    On July 9, 1873, Thomas Moran wrote to his wife Mary from Salt Lake City: "In the afternoon Powell and I went to Brigham Young's house and I was introduced to all the leading Mormons. There was Brig[ham] Young. Geo. A. Smith second man in power. Bishop Nusser [Musser]. Bishop Cannon. The editor of the Mormon paper and delegate to Congress. Bishop Hooper and some other Mormon high priests. They are very much like the rest of mankind and all smart fellows."l Moran came to Salt Lake via the Unio...

  18. Tektite 2 habitability research program: Day-to-day life in the habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlis, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Because it is widely agreed that the field of environmental psychology is quite young, it was determined that a sample of recorded observations from a representative mission should be included in the report on Tektite to give the professional reader a better feeling of normal day-to-day life in the isolated habitat. Names of the crew members have been replaced with numbers and some off-color words have been replaced by more acceptable slang; some remarks have been omitted that might lead to easy identification of the subjects. Otherwise, the following pages are exactly as transcribed during the late afternoons and the evenings of the mission.

  19. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program — Quarterly Review Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD-NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD-NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD-NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL/RXQF), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Phillips, Jason J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-12-05

    On November 9 and 10, 2011 the IDCA had the annual quarterly meeting. The meeting started the afternoon of the first day with a tour of the NSWC IHD explosives safety testing and analysis facilities. The meeting on the second day addressed the formal sponsor review and further technical issues for the IDCA. Examination of the IHD equipment during the tour, lead to a long discussion on liquid test methods. The discussion resulted in revision of liquid test methods in the impact test and selection of a new liquid test standard. In addition, modifications to friction, spark and thermal test methods were discussed.

  20. Experiences with Cascara-Salax preparating children for barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    30 children prepared for barium enema using Cascara-Salax are reported on. The results are: 1. A satisfactory preparation is possible in out-patient children older than ten years. 2. For children aged 6 to 10 years only the half dose early in the afternoon before the X-ray examination is necessary. 3. In most cases the colon is completely clear, if not, the X-ray study is generally not influenced by rests of stool. 4. It should be considered that other - and often unreliable - cleaning manoevers aren't necessary, the Cascara-Salax - method ist time - saving and side-effects are not of value. (orig.)

  1. Hygiene Sanitasi dan Keluhan Kesehatan Kulit Penghuni Rumah Kost Kelurahan Padang Bulan Selayang I Kecamatan Medan Selayang Tahun 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Hawa, Moris Delmi

    2015-01-01

    Complaints of skin health is one thing that is very often experienced by boarder, residents of the boarding school, boarding house residents and also in the form of a typical hives (morning, afternoon, evening or night) and the emergence of full-red swollen bumps on the surface of the skin and itch. Faizal research (2011), in the men's dormitory USU percentage who experience health complaints of skin by 72,4%, the impact of the use of water sourced from the well bore, the behavior of self hyg...

  2. PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHER

    CERN Multimedia

    Madeleine Dittus

    2002-01-01

    For January 2003, the A.P.E.G. has an opening for a primary school teacher in the German national language program. The position requires one afternoon of teaching (13:30 till 16:30) every Tuesday at the Collège in Prévessin. The candidate should be a native speaker of German and have some knowledge of French. If you are interested, please send your CV, a copy of your diploma, and a short letter of motivation, until December 9th, to the following address. Madeleine Dittus Présidente A.P.E.G. 5, La vie Destraz 01630 St. Genis-Pouilly (France)

  3. Analysis of Summer Thunderstorms in Central Alabama Using the NASA Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Robert; Case, Jonathan; Molthan, Andrew; Jedloved, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Forecasters have difficulty predicting "random" afternoon thunderstorms during the summer months. Differences in soil characteristics could be a contributing factor for storms. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) may assist forecasters in predicting summer convection by identifying boundaries in land characteristics. This project identified case dates during the summer of 2009 by analyzing synoptic weather maps, radar, and satellite data to look for weak atmospheric forcing and disorganized convective development. Boundaries in land characteristics that may have lead to convective initiation in central Alabama were then identified using LIS.

  4. Program for the Division of Chemical Education: Chicago, March 25 29, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlecamp, Catherine H.; Bodner, George M.; Jones, Wayne E., Jr.

    2007-03-01

    Program for the Division of Chemical Education March 2007 meeting in Chicago. All CHED technical sessions including the High School Program will be held in the McCormick Place Convention Complex North, 2301 South Lake Shore Drive. Exceptions are the Undergraduate Program (in the Westin Hotel Michigan Avenue), the Undergraduate Research Poster Sessions (in the Sheraton Chicago Hotel), and any evening programs. Unless otherwise noted, morning sessions begin at 8:30 a.m., afternoon sessions at 1:30 p.m.

  5. Urinary excretion of the metabolites of n-hexane and its isomers during occupational exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Perbellini, L; Brugnone, F; Faggionato, G

    1981-01-01

    Environmental exposure to commercial hexane (n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, and 3-methylpentane) was tested in several work places in five shoe factories by taking three grap-air samples during the afternoon shift. Individual exposure ranges were 32-500 mg/m3 for n-hexane, 11-250 mg/m3 for 2-methylpentane, and 10-204 mg/m3 for 3-methylpentane. The metabolites of commercial hexane in the urine of 41 workers were measured at the end of the work shift. 2-Hexanol, 2,5-hexanedione, 2,5-dimethylfuran, ...

  6. High-latitude ionospheric convection during strong interplanetary magnetic field B-y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, C.S.; Sofko, G.J.; Murr, D.;

    1999-01-01

    An unusual high-latitude ionospheric pattern was observed on March 23, 1995. ionospheric convection appeared as clockwise merging convection cell focused at 84 degrees magnetic latitude around 1200 MLT. No signature of the viscous convection cell in the afternoon sector was observed. The...... interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions corresponding to the occurrence of the ionospheric convection were B-x approximate to 1 nT, B-y approximate to 10 nT, and B-z <0 (\\B-z\\ much less than B-y). We have compared our observations with statistical patterns and MHD numerical models for similar IMF...

  7. EISCAT Observations of Main Ionization Troughs in the High-Latitude Ionosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    F-region electron density depletions associated with main ionization troughs in the high-latitude ionosphere are studied using EISCAT CP3 data of meridian scanning experiments. The troughs in our observations are found to appear mainly in dusk sector, extending from late afternoon to pre-midnight, with higher occurrence rate during equinox and winter. Simultaneous ion drift velocity in F-region shows that the main trough minimm is mostly located at the equator ward edge of the plasma convection flow, rather than in the r~ion where the largest ion flow are observed.

  8. POPQ EXAMINATION: DOES THE TIME OF EXAMINATION INTERFERE WITH POPQ MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF GENITAL PROLAPSE?

    OpenAIRE

    Madkar Chandrakant; Deshpande Hemant; Trivedi Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    AIM To testify the fact about generalised untested belief that genital prolapse is more severe in the late afternoon as compared to the morning with the help of POPQ classification system. METHOD There is a generalised belief that prolapse is more severe at the end of the day as compared to the morning. We have planned this study to know whether this belief is correct or wrong. It is not possible to do this study with the help of old classification. So we decided ...

  9. Hurricane Ivan Photographed by Expedition 9 Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Except for a small portion of the International Space Station (ISS) in the foreground, Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, fills this image over the northern Gulf of Mexico. As the downgraded category 4 storm approached landfall on the Alabama coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the ISS at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  10. Eye of Hurricane Ivan Photographed by Expedition 9 Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image hosts a look into the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm approached landfall on the central Gulf coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph as the downgraded category 4 storm approached the Alabama coast. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  11. Diurnal trends in responses of blood plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide following high- and low-fat meals and their relation to fat metabolism in healthy middle-aged volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Frape, D. L.; Williams, N. R.; Scriven, A J; Palmer, C. R.; OSullivan, K.; Fletcher, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in twelve healthy middle-aged volunteers, six of each sex, with a mean BMI of 27 kg/m(2) to detect differences between morning and afternoon in postprandial blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations. These responses were measured following the consumption of isoenergetic meals that were high or low in fat content, at breakfast and at lunch. Over 4d each subject received the high-carbohydrate (L, 5.5 g mixed fat/meal) and moderately high-fat (M, 33 g mixed...

  12. Site testing at astronomical sites: seeing evaluation from satellite based data

    CERN Document Server

    Ortolani, Stefano Cavazzani Sergio

    2011-01-01

    We present for the first time a new method to estimate the seeing using remote sounding from the IR night time data of the GOES 12 satellite. We discuss the derived correlation between the ground data and the satellite derived values from the analysis of the sites located at Cerro Paranal (Chile) and Roque de los Muchachos (Canary Islands, Spain). We get a ground-satellite correlation percentage of about 90%. Finally, studying the correlation between the afternoon data and the following night, we are able to provide a forecast of the photometric night quality.

  13. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 to 12.00 and is closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  14. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00, and closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  15. CERN Accelerator School: Registration open for Advanced Accelerator Physics course

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Registration is now open for the CERN Accelerator School’s Advanced Accelerator Physics course to be held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.   The course will be of interest to physicists and engineers who wish to extend their knowledge of accelerator physics. The programme offers core lectures on accelerator physics in the mornings and a practical course with hands-on tuition in the afternoons.  Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Poland2015/Warsaw-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/361988/

  16. CERN Accelerator School: Registration open for Advanced Accelerator Physics course

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Registration is now open for the CERN Accelerator School’s Advanced Accelerator Physics course to be held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.   The course will be of interest to physicists and engineers who wish to extend their knowledge of Accelerator Physics. The programme offers core lectures on accelerator physics in the mornings and a practical course with hands-on tuition in the afternoons.  Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Poland2015/Warsaw-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/361988/

  17. Clever Enough to Tell the Truth

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffle, Bradley; Tobol, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    We conduct a field experiment on 427 Israeli soldiers who each rolled a six-sided die in private and reported the outcome. For every point reported, the soldier received an additional half-hour early release from the army base on Thursday afternoon. We find that the higher a soldier's military entrance score, the more honest he is on average. We replicate this finding on a sample of 156 civilians paid in cash for their die reports. Furthermore, the civilian experiments reveal that two measure...

  18. Effects of Cyperin 10 EC and Neem extract on pollinator abundance, fruit setting and quality of mango

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAN.S; Nahar, N.; K.S. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Effects of cyperin 10 EC and neem extract on pollinators, fruit setting and fruit quality of mango was investigated. Number of pollinators visited mango inflorescences was higher in morning in comparison to noon and afternoon. In control plants, average 25.67 pollinators visited within 30 minutes which was higher than cyperin 10 EC (20.00) and neem extract treated (24.34) plants. The pollinators were under the order Hymenoptera (26.31%), Diptera (52.42%), Odonata (5.26%) and unidentified (10....

  19. Spousal caregiving when the adult day services center is closed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campell, D D; Travis, S S

    1999-08-01

    Of those spousal caregivers who identified a time when they most needed assistance, morning or afternoon time periods appeared to be most problematic. Spousal caregivers who reported receiving respite time on the weekends identified adult children as the informal support person most often available. However, more than half of the caregivers reported having no respite time during the weekend. Differences in the ways spousal caregivers spent their respite time on the weekends, if available, varied by gender, length of tenure as a caregiver, and age. PMID:10461273

  20. Observational analysis of the interaction between a baroclinic boundary and supercell storms on 27 April 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrer, Adam Thomas

    A thermal boundary developed during the morning to early afternoon hours on 27 April as a result of rainfall evaporation and shading from reoccurring deep convection. This boundary propagated to the north during the late afternoon to evening hours. The presence of the boundary produced an area more conducive for the formation of strong violent tornadoes through several processes. These processes included the production of horizontally generated baroclinic vorticity, increased values in storm-relative helicity, and decreasing lifting condensation level heights. Five supercell storms formed near and/or propagated alongside this boundary. Supercells that interacted with this boundary typically produced significant tornadic damage over long distances. Two of these supercells formed to the south (warm) side of the boundary and produced a tornado prior to crossing to the north (cool) side of the boundary. These two storms exhibited changes in appearance, intensity, and structure. Two other supercells formed well south of the boundary. These two storms remained relatively weak until they interacted with the boundary. These storms then rapidly intensified and produced tornadoes. Supercells that formed well into the cool side of the boundary either did not produce tornadoes or the tornadoes were determined to be weak in nature.

  1. Associations between psychiatric symptoms and cortisol levels in Nicaraguan young school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Johan; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-06-30

    The regulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with its end product cortisol seems to be affected in several psychiatric disorders. Although findings are not conclusive, internalizing symptoms have primarily been associated with higher diurnal cortisol levels and externalizing symptoms with lower cortisol levels. In this study on nine-year-olds in Nicaragua (n=111), we investigated associations between child psychiatric symptoms, using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL), and saliva cortisol levels collected in the morning and afternoon, also adjusting for potential confounders. In line with previous findings, internalizing symptoms were significantly associated with higher morning, but not afternoon cortisol levels. Surprisingly, externalizing symptoms were also significantly associated with higher morning cortisol levels. Possibly, this association between externalizing symptoms and cortisol levels may be characteristic of early ages, representing a higher exposure to external stressors. The study highlights the need for prospective studies, following the development of the HPA-axis and its association with psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27138834

  2. [Microbiological quality of the air in "small gastronomy point"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Stopczyńska, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was the estimation of microbial contamination of the air in "small gastronomy point". The study included three places, which have been separated on the ground of their function: 1. area of subsidiaries, 2. area of distribution (sale and serving meal), 3. area of consumption. The total numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds were determined by sedimentation method. Taxonomy units of fungal aerosol were also estimated. The samples of air were collected in 16 investigation points in the morning (8-8.30) and in the afternoon (14-14.30). Four series of measurements were carried out and in general 128 of air samples were tested. The results showed that numbers of bacteria, yeasts and moulds were variable and received respectively 30-3397, 0-254 and 0-138 cfu x m(-3). Microbial contamination of air changed depending on area character (the highest average count of bacteria occurred in the air of consumption area and fungi in subsidiaries area), time of a day (contamination of the air increased in the afternoon) and determination date. Only in single samples the numbers of bacteria and fungi were higher than recommended level. Pigmentary bacteria had high participation in total count of bacteria and filamentous fungi were represented mostly by Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. PMID:16900858

  3. Unobtrusive ambulatory EEG using a smartphone and flexible printed electrodes around the ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debener, Stefan; Emkes, Reiner; De Vos, Maarten; Bleichner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study presents first evidence that reliable EEG data can be recorded with a new cEEGrid electrode array, which consists of ten electrodes printed on flexible sheet and arranged in a c-shape to fit around the ear. Ten participants wore two cEEGrid systems for at least seven hours. Using a smartphone for stimulus delivery and signal acquisition, resting EEG and auditory oddball data were collected in the morning and in the afternoon six to seven hours apart. Analysis of resting EEG data confirmed well-known spectral differences between eyes open and eyes closed conditions. The ERP results confirmed the predicted condition effects with significantly larger P300 amplitudes for target compared to standard tones, and a high test-retest reliability of the P300 amplitude (r > = .74). Moreover, a linear classifier trained on data from the morning session revealed similar performance in classification accuracy for the morning and the afternoon sessions (both > 70%). These findings demonstrate the feasibility of concealed and comfortable brain activity acquisition over many hours. PMID:26572314

  4. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration on dynamics of leaf photosynthesis in Fagus sylvatica is modulated by sky conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that atmospheric CO2 concentration and frequency of cloud cover will increase in future. It remains unclear, however, how elevated CO2 influences photosynthesis under complex clear versus cloudy sky conditions. Accordingly, diurnal changes in photosynthetic responses among beech trees grown at ambient (AC) and doubled (EC) CO2 concentrations were studied under contrasting sky conditions. EC stimulated the daily sum of fixed CO2 and light use efficiency under clear sky. Meanwhile, both these parameters were reduced under cloudy sky as compared with AC treatment. Reduction in photosynthesis rate under cloudy sky was particularly associated with EC-stimulated, xanthophyll-dependent thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy. Under clear sky, a pronounced afternoon depression of CO2 assimilation rate was found in sun-adapted leaves under EC compared with AC conditions. This was caused in particular by stomata closure mediated by vapour pressure deficit. -- Highlights: • Sky conditions affect the relative impact of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis. • Cloudy skies reduce light use efficiency and carbon gain when CO2 is elevated. • Stimulation of photosynthesis by high CO2 may decline with increasing cloud cover. • High CO2 leads to marked afternoon photosynthesis depression in sun-adapted leaves. -- The stimulatory effect of elevated CO2 concentration on photosynthetic carbon assimilation can be expected to diminish as cloud cover increases

  5. Surface-Atmosphere Moisture Interactions in the Frozen Ground Regions of Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Trent W.; Frauenfeld, Oliver W.

    2016-01-01

    Climate models simulate an intensifying Arctic hydrologic cycle in response to climatic warming, however the role of surface-atmosphere interactions from degrading frozen ground is unclear in these projections. Using Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data in high-latitude Eurasia, we examine long-term variability in surface-atmosphere coupling as represented by the statistical relationship between surface evaporative fraction (EF) and afternoon precipitation. Changes in EF, precipitation, and their statistical association are then related to underlying permafrost type and snow cover. Results indicate significant positive trends in July EF in the Central Siberian Plateau, corresponding to significant increases in afternoon precipitation. The positive trends are only significant over continuous permafrost, with non-significant or negative EF and precipitation trends over isolated, sporadic, and discontinuous permafrost areas. Concurrently, increasing EF and subsequent precipitation are found to coincide with significant trends in May and June snowmelt, which potentially provides the moisture source for the observed enhanced latent heating and moisture recycling in the region. As climate change causes continuous permafrost to transition to discontinuous, discontinuous to sporadic, sporadic to isolated, and isolated permafrost disappears, this will also alter patterns of atmospheric convection, moisture recycling, and hence the hydrologic cycle in high-latitude land areas.

  6. Investors’ Behavior Placing Orders in Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazali Syamni

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze the behavior pattern of trading volume at opening and closing of market in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The behaviors pattern is structured by investors' decision in placing buy and sell orders. This research used intraday data transaction history-corporate edition demand and order history stock which included in pre-opening and LQ-45 in Indonesia Stock Exchange on March, April, and Mei 2005. The result of this research is investor place bigger order on the opening and closing markets than period trading. This shows that they are more carefully and more conservative in doing trades on the opening session. This can occur because of the large orders at the market opening is not necessarily for investors to execute the transaction order status match. Research has found that the pattern of investors in making orders morning session has a reverse J pattern and a pattern of J at afternoon session. Reverse J pattern in the morning session subject to lunch time and most of these patterns of behavior are driven by more dominant sell orders in comparison to buy orders, while the afternoon session or the closing of the market is caused by of investors who want to realize higher transaction match. Other implication is investors must be more active in observing all of the information in doing trading on pre opening, during, and closing of market.

  7. Long period study of outdoor radon concentration in Milan and correlation between its temporal variations and dispersion properties of atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a survey of outdoor radon concentrations in Milan are reported. Measurements were performed hourly over a continuous four year period from January 1997 to December 2000. Radon concentration was obtaine by two means: both direct measurement of radon; and measurement of its decay products. The average daily pattern of radon concentration featured a minimum in the late afternoon and a maximum in the early hours of the morning.A seasonal pattern with higher concentrations in winter than in summer (fro around 15 Bq m-3 in winter to around 5 Bq m-3 in summer) was also observed. Similar average annual values of around 10 Bq m-3 were obtained. The annual effective outdoor radon dose was found to be 0.12 mSv. The variation from minimum in the afternoon to maximum the following morning was found to be a good indicator of the height of the nocturnal mixing layer. The variation between maximum and minimum levels on the same day is an index of the maximum height of the mixing layer. Furthermore, our long term measurements of radon have permitted us to examine the dispersion characteristics of the atmosphere over Milan, and to establish the frequency of conditions unfavourable to the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants

  8. Release of dissolved organic carbon from submersed aquatic macrophytes: diel, seasonal, and community relationships. [Najas flexilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, R.A.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    Release of dissolved organic carbon from aquatic macrophytes was measured simultaneously with release of carbon dioxide in a /sup 14/C-assay for photorespiration (glycolate metabolism) developed for use in the laboratory and in situ. Release of organic carbon from axenic Najas flexilis was somewhat more rapid in the dark than in the light, and temporarily so by a factor of over 2 following sudden darkness. Rates of organic release were largely independent of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration both in the light and in the dark, although the post-illumination surge was somewhat enhanced by high oxygen concentration. The kinetics of release suggested that glycolate was not excreted extensively by N. flexilis, but rather was oxidized in photorespiration. Organic carbon release from N. flexilis cultures was greater in presence of epiphytic diatoms than in axenic controls, whereas release in presence of a mixed bacterial microflora was similar to that in axenic controls, although the post-illumination surge was somewhat diminished in presence of the bacteria. Release of organic carbon in situ was relatively low in N. flexilis in summer, but increased 4-fold in the fall during senescence. Rates of release in early afternoon were over 2 fold those in the morning and late afternoon. Release of organic carbon by Scirpus subterminalis was lowest in the fall and highest in the spring.

  9. Daytime descending intermediate layers observed over a sub-tropical Indian station Waltair during low-solar activity period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Niranjan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Study on daytime descending intermediate layer over subtropical Indian station Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E geographic, 6.4° N, 10° E geomagnetic, 20° N dip located in the equatorial anomaly transition region, using an IPS 42 Digital Ionosonde during the low solar activity year 2004 showed that the layers occur in the altitude range of 140–160 km with maximum occurrence during winter solstice. The layers observed during daytime occur with a double peak variation throughout the year with less occurrence probability and shorter duration presence during forenoon hours. The morning layer descent was associated with a density increase where as during afternoon hours a decrease in density was observed. The downward drift velocity was about 8 km/h during morning hours and between 7–11 km/h during afternoon hours, with a low descent rate of around 4.5 km/h during summer morning hours. The results indicate the presence of a 6 h tide at this location as observed from the characteristics of the descending layers, unlike at majority of locations where a significant semi diurnal trend is observed. The study brings out the complex nature of the tidal interaction at different locations.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Organic Aerosol Using Nanospray Desorption/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: CalNex 2010 field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Rachel E.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Liu, Shang; Weber, Robin; Russell, Lynn; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2013-04-01

    Aerosol samples from the CalNex 2010 field study were analyzed using high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) coupled to a nanospray-desorption/electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) source. The samples were collected in Bakersfield, CA on June 22-23, 2010. The chemical formulas of over 1300 unique molecular species were detected in the mass range of 50-800 m/z. Our analysis focused on identification of two main groups: compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO only), and nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOC). The NOC accounted for 35% (by number) of the compounds observed in the afternoon, and for 59% in the early morning samples. By comparing plausible reactant-product pairs, we propose that over 50% of the NOC in each sample could have been formed through reactions transforming carbonyls into imines. The CHO only compounds were dominant in the afternoon suggesting a photochemical source. The average O:C ratios of all observed compounds were fairly consistent throughout the day, ranging from 0.34 in the early morning to 0.37 at night. We conclude that both photooxidation and ammonia chemistry play important roles in forming the compounds observed in this mixed urban-rural environment.

  11. Molecular characterization of organic aerosol using nanospray desorption/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: CalNex 2010 field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Rachel E.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Liu, Shang; Weber, Robin; Russell, Lynn M.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2013-04-01

    Aerosol samples from the CalNex 2010 field study were analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) coupled to a nanospray desorption/electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) source. The samples were collected in Bakersfield, CA on June 22-23, 2010. The chemical formulas of over 850 unique molecular species were detected in the mass range of 50-400 m/z using positive mode ESI of aerosol samples in the 0.18-0.32 μm size range. Our analysis focused on identification of two main groups: compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO), and nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOC). The NOC accounted for 40% (by number) of the compounds observed in the afternoon, and for 52% in the early morning samples. By comparing plausible reactant-product pairs, we propose that over 50% of the NOC in each sample could have been formed through reactions transforming carbonyls into imines. The CHO only compounds were dominant in the afternoon suggesting a photochemical source. The average O/C ratios of all observed compounds were fairly consistent throughout the day, ranging from 0.33 in the morning to 0.37 at night. We conclude that both photooxidation and ammonia chemistry may play a role in forming the compounds observed in this mixed urban-rural environment.

  12. Guard cell zeaxanthin tracks photosynthetically active radiation and stomatal apertures in Vicia faba leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin and violaxanthin concentrations in guard cells from sonicated abaxial epidermal peels of Vicia faba were measured from dawn to dusk, and compared with concentrations in mesophyll tissue of the same leaves. Measured changes in guard cell zeaxanthin and violaxanthin concentrations indicate that guard cells operate the xanthophyll cycle throughout the day. Mesophyll tissue had no detectable zeaxanthin at dawn, whereas guard cells had 30–50 mmol mol−1 chlorophyll a+b. On a chlorophyll basis, maximal zeaxanthin levels were 3–4 fold higher in guard cells than in mesophyll cells. Zeaxanthin concentrations tracked levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in both mesophyll and guard cells. In the mesophyll, most of the zeaxanthin changes occurred in mid-morning and mid-afternoon. In guard cells, zeaxanthin concentrations changed nearly linearly with PAR in the early morning and late afternoon, and closely tracked PAR levels throughout the day. Guard cell zeaxanthin concentrations were also closely correlated with stomatal apertures. The close relationship between zeaxanthin concentrations and PAR levels in guard cells indicates that zeaxanthin is well suited to function as a molecular photosensor in stomatal movements. (author)

  13. FASEB Summer Research Conference. Genetic Recombination and Chromosome Rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2002-02-01

    The 2001 meeting entitled ''Genetic Recombination and Genome Rearrangements'' was held July 21-26 in Snowmass, Colorado. The goal of the meeting was to bring together scientists using diverse approaches to study all aspects of genetic recombination. This goal was achieved by integrating talks covering the genetics, biochemistry and structural biology of homologous recombination, site-specific recombination, and nonhomologous recombination. The format of the meeting consisted of a keynote address on the opening evening, two formal plenary sessions on each of the four full meeting days, a single afternoon workshop consisting of short talks chosen from among submitted abstracts, and afternoon poster sessions on each of the four full meeting days. The eight plenary session were entitled: (1) Recombination Mechanisms, (2) Prokaryotic Recombination, (3) Repair and Recombination, (4) Site-specific Recombination and Transposition, (5) Eukaryotic Recombination I, (6) Genome Rearrangements, (7) Meiosis, and (8) Eukaryotic Recombination II. Each session included a mix of genetic, biochemical and structural talks; talks were limited to 20 minutes, followed by 10 minutes of very lively, general discussion. Much of the data presented in the plenary sessions was unpublished, thus providing attendees with the most up-to-date knowledge of this rapidly-moving field.

  14. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Joint PVSS JCOP Framework : 9 - 13.8.2004 (5 days) Outlook (I): E-mail : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (II): Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming : 1 - 3.9.2004 (3 days - free course) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (III): Meetings and Delegation : 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE : 7 & 8.9.2004 (2 jours) Joint PVSS JCOP Framework : 13 - 17.9.2004 (5 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 13, 14, 23, 24.9.2004 (4 jours) Programmation STEP7 niveau 1 : 14 - 17.9.2004 (4 jours) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 1 : 20 & 21.9.2004 (2 jours) ANSYS: Thermal Analysis : 22 - 24.9.2004 (3 days) ANSYS: Advanced Topics : 27.9...

  15. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Joint PVSS JCOP Framework : 9 - 13.8.2004 (5 days) Introduction à Outlook : 19.8.2004 (1 jour) Outlook (Short Course I): E-mail: 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (Short Course II): Calendar, Tasks and Notes: 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications: 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (Short Course III): Meetings and Delegation: 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) I...

  16. Places disponibles/Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Etant donné le délai d'impression du Bulletin, ces places peuvent ne plus être disponibles au moment de sa parution. Veuillez consulter notre site Web pour avoir la dernière mise à jour. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Des places sont disponibles dans les cours suivants : / Places are available in the following courses : Introduction à Outlook : 19.8.2004 (1 journée) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (short course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE : 7 & 8.9.2004 (2 jours) Joint PVSS JCOP Framework : 13 - 17.9.2004 (5 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 13, 14, 23, 24.9.2004 (4 jours) Programmation S...

  17. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Introduction à Outlook : Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (short course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur ...

  18. Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Places available The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses : Introduction à Outlook : 19.8.2004 (1 journée) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 31.8.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WBTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 7.9.2004 (morning) Outlook (short course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 7.9.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Introduction ...

  19. 150 Student Questions on Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, R. E.; Gross, N. A.; Knipp, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) holds a two-week Space Weather Summer School for introductory graduate students and space weather professionals to gain a system level understanding of the space environment and the effects of space weather. A typical day in the summer school consists of three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. After the morning lectures, the participants are each asked to submit a question about the mornings topics on a question card. The lecturers then take the time to answer these questions prior to afternoon sessions. In the last 5 years over 1000 such question cards have been collected and cataloged. Despite detailed lectures by experts similar questions appear every year. We have analyzed over 150 questions related to the introductory lectures on solar physics and solar activity. Questions content was categorized using the AGU Index, and question sophistication was categorized using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Specific analysis results along with lists of questions will be presented. We hope that these results can be used to improve the lecture and classroom content and allow students to move beyond low level education objectives and ask more sophisticated questions.

  20. Diurnal variations of circulation and precipitation in the vicinity of the Tibetan Plateau in early summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, K.C. [City University of Hong Kong, CityU-IAP Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Atmospheric Research Center, HKUST Fok Ying Tung Graduate School, Nansha IT Park, Nansha, Guangzhou (China); Chan, Johnny C.L. [City University of Hong Kong, CityU-IAP Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Hong Kong (China)

    2009-01-15

    A regional climate model (RCM) has been applied to simulate the diurnal variations of the Asian summer monsoon during the early summer period. The ERA40 reanalysis data and the TRMM precipitation data are used to evaluate the performance of the model. The 5-year simulations show that the RCM could simulate well the diurnal cycle of the monsoon circulation over the region. A strong diurnal variation of circulation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) can be observed at the 500-hPa level, with strong convergence and upward motion in the late afternoon. The diurnal variation of the 500-hPa relative vorticity over the TP associated with the corresponding diurnal variation of convergence may lead to the formation of a prominent plateau-scale cyclonic circulation over the TP during the evening to midnight period. The simulated diurnal variation of precipitation over land is generally better than that over the ocean, particularly over the regions close to the TP such as the Bangladesh region in the southern flank of the TP, where the well-known nocturnal maximum in precipitation is well captured by the RCM. However, the late-afternoon maximum in precipitation over the Southeast Asia region is not well simulated by the RCM. The model results suggest that the diurnal variation of precipitation over the southern flank of the TP is associated with the strong diurnal variation in the circulation over the TP. (orig.)

  1. Seismo-ionospheric GPS TEC anomalies observed before the 12 May 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The global ionospheric map (GIM) is used to observe variations in the total electron content (TEC) of the global positioning system (GPS) associated with 35 M?6.0 earthquakes occurred in China during a 10-year period of 1 May 1998-30 April 2008. The statistical results indicate that the GPS TEC above the epicenter often pronouncedly decreases on day 3-5 before 17 M?6.3 earthquakes. The GPS TEC of the GIM and electron density profiles probed by six micro satellites of FORMOSAT3/COSMIC (F3/C) are further employed to simultaneously observe seismo-ionospheric anomalies during an Mw 7.9 earthquake near Wenchuan, China on 12 May 2008. It is found that GPS TEC above the forthcoming epicenter anomalously decrease in the afternoon period of day 6 to 4 and in the late evening period of day 3 before the earthquake, but enhance in the afternoon of day 3 before the earthquake. The spatial distributions of the anomalous and extreme reductions and enhancements indicate that the earthquake preparation area is about 1650km and 2850km from the epicenter in the latitudinal and longitudinal directions, respectively. The F3/C results further show that the ionospheric F2-peak electron density NmF2 and height hmF2 significantly decreases approximately 40% and descends about 50-80km, respectively, when the GPS TEC anomalously reduces.

  2. Environmental conditions associated with repetitive behavior in a group of African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenjager, Matthew J; Bergl, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive movement patterns are commonly observed in zoo elephants. The extent to which these behaviors constitute a welfare concern varies, as their expression ranges from stereotypies to potentially beneficial anticipatory behaviors. Nevertheless, their occurrence in zoo animals is often viewed negatively. To better identify conditions that prompt their performance, observations were conducted on six African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the North Carolina Zoo. Individuals spent most of their time engaged in feeding, locomotion, resting, and repetitive behavior. Both generalized estimating equation and zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to identify factors associated with increased rates of repetitive behavior. Time of day in conjunction with location on- or off-exhibit best explained patterns of repetitive behavior. Repetitive behaviors occurred at a lower rate in the morning when on-exhibit, as compared to afternoons on-exhibit or at any time of day off-exhibit. Increased repetitive behavior rates observed on-exhibit in the afternoon prior to the evening transfer and feeding were possibly anticipatory responses towards those events. In contrast, consistently elevated frequencies of repetitive behavior off-exhibit at all times of day could be related to differences in exhibit complexity between off-exhibit and on-exhibit areas, as well as a lack of additional foraging opportunities. Our study contributes valuable information on captive elephant behavior and represents a good example of how behavioral research can be employed to improve management of zoo animals. PMID:25919392

  3. Effects of simulated domestic and international air travel on sleep, performance, and recovery for team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, P; Duffield, R; Vaile, J

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined effects of simulated air travel on physical performance. In a randomized crossover design, 10 physically active males completed a simulated 5-h domestic flight (DOM), 24-h simulated international travel (INT), and a control trial (CON). The mild hypoxia, seating arrangements, and activity levels typically encountered during air travel were simulated in a normobaric, hypoxic altitude room. Physical performance was assessed in the afternoon of the day before (D - 1 PM) and in the morning (D + 1 AM) and afternoon (D + 1 PM) of the day following each trial. Mood states and physiological and perceptual responses to exercise were also examined at these time points, while sleep quantity and quality were monitored throughout each condition. Sleep quantity and quality were significantly reduced during INT compared with CON and DOM (P  0.05). Compared with baseline, physiological and perceptual responses to exercise, and mood states were exacerbated following the INT trial (P < 0.05). Attenuated intermittent-sprint performance following simulated international air travel may be due to sleep disruption during travel and the subsequent exacerbated physiological and perceptual markers of fatigue. PMID:24750359

  4. First survey of seasonal abundance and daily activity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) in Kamphaengsaen Campus, Nakornpathom province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmeatathip, R; Gilles, J; Ketavan, C; Duvallet, G

    2006-09-01

    The seasonal changes and the daily activity of Stomoxyine species (Diptera: Muscidae) were examined, using Vavoua traps, in a dairy and a beef cattle farm in Nakhonpathom province, Thailand during July 2004 to June 2005. Over this period, Stomoxys calcitrans was the most commonly trapped species, followed by S. sitiens and S. indica. For the later species, this is the first report of its presence in Thailand. A total of 80 % of flies were captured during the rainy season from May to October and 20 % during the dry season from November to April. No major difference of fly density was observed between the dairy and the beef cattle farm. The activity pattern of S. calcitrans was diurnal with a peak between 08:00 am to 10:00 am and another less marked one in the afternoon. The activity pattern of S. sitiens and S. indica was mainly crepuscular with 2 peaks, early in the morning (06:00 a.m.) and late in the afternoon (6:00 p.m.). Those species are important pests of livestock in Thailand, where they are known as a mechanical vector of trypanosomes. A better knowledge of their ecology is a prerequisite for more efficient control measures. PMID:17007217

  5. Aspects of sleep in centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadafora, F L; Curti, A; Teti, R; Belmonte, M; Castagna, A; Mercurio, M; Infusino, P; Tavernese, G; Iannazzo, P S; Iorio, C; Mattace, R

    1996-01-01

    Sleeping habits of 48 Calabrian centenarians (12 males, 36 females) were evaluated. Their average age was 102 +/- 1.87 years (range 100-107 years). Quantitative and qualitative aspects of sleep were recorded, such as the length of sleeping (hrs), the time of falling asleep (regular or variable) and the time of awakening (regular or variable). Moreover, we recorded and included in the global hours an eventual afternoon sleeping, during a 24-hour-period. The quality of sleeping was classified as: night sleeping, and morning sleeping; and for the subjects were grouped as short sleepers (subjects that fall asleep easily), and long sleepers (subjects with problems to fall asleep). We also considered if sleeping was uninterrupted or interrupted during the night and if the subjects followed particular habits to facilitate the sleeping (sleeping pills, alcohol, etc.). This study demonstrated that all the examined centenarians go to sleep early in the evening, have no problems in falling asleep, wake up early in the morning, take a nap in the afternoon and do not take pills before going to bed. Among the environmental factors, the quality, the quantity and the habits of sleeping might have great influence for longevity. PMID:18653070

  6. Diurnal, weekly and monthly spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Tang, Hongzhao; Zhao, Haimeng

    2015-10-01

    Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standard released in 2012 (NAAQS-2012), Beijing began to publicize hourly Air Quality Index as well as real time concentrations of 6 pollutants in its web platform to provide detailed information for air quality assessment from 2013. In this study, hourly air quality monitoring data from May 2014 to April 2015 were collected for all 35 monitoring stations in Beijing to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of air pollutants and air quality. It is found that in spatial pattern, the air qualities in southern and northern Beijing are totally different. The association between heavy pollution concentrations and wind situations suggested that neighboring area's air quality has an important role in the air quality of Beijing combining with air quality attainment rates in all 35 monitoring stations and northern China. For temporal variations, late night and early morning are the most polluted time while afternoon is the least polluted time for all pollutants except O3 with most polluted time in afternoon. Summer time in Beijing has the best air quality while winter time has the worst air quality coinciding with the heating season in the winter.

  7. International Nuclear Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    We are pleased to announce that the 26th International Nuclear Physics Conference (INPC2016) will take place in Adelaide (Australia) from September 11-16, 2016. The 25th INPC was held in Firenze in 2013 and the 24th INPC in Vancouver, Canada, in 2010. The Conference is organized by the Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter at the University of Adelaide, together with the Australian National University and ANSTO. It is also sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and by a number of organisations, including AUSHEP, BNL, CoEPP, GSI and JLab. INPC 2016 will be held in the heart of Adelaide at the Convention Centre on the banks of the River Torrens. It will consist of 5 days of conference presentations, with plenary sessions in the mornings, up to ten parallel sessions in the afternoons, poster sessions and a public lecture. The Conference will officially start in the evening of Sunday 11th September with Registration and a Reception and will end late on the afternoon of ...

  8. A study of airborne Ulmaceae pollen in Modena (northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, P; Accorsi, C A; Bandini Mazzanti, M; Zagni, A M

    1997-01-01

    We examined Ulmaceae airborne pollen at the Modena-Geophysical Observatory monitoring station in 1993. The pollen trap was placed 15 m above the ground. 365 daily slides were fully analyzed to obtain daily and bi-hourly pollen concentrations. Morphological analysis on native and introduced Ulmaceae pollen was also conducted between February 3rd and May 17th. Five pollen types were identified: Celtis cf. australis, Ulmus glabra, Ulmus cf. laevis, Ulmus cf. minor, and Ulmus minor/laevis. Pollen concentrations and percentages showed that the Elm family contributed little pollen to the air (about 1% of the total pollen recorded), Ulmus and Celtis being 0.9% and 0.04%, respectively. The maximum levels were 30 p/m3/24 hr and 118 p/m3/ 2 hr (Ulmus) and 4 p/m3/24 hr and 13 p/m3/2 hr (Celtis). The highest levels of Ulmus were during the morning and afternoon, while the afternoon was highest for Celtis. In general, Ulmaceae trees appear worth planting in urban areas, but Celtis pollen should also be monitored at human height. PMID:9276007

  9. Aircraft vertical profiling of variation of CO2 over a Canadian Boreal Forest Site: a role of advection in the changes in the atmospheric boundary layer CO2 content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period of July 8-13, 2002, we collected vertical profiles by aircraft of meteorological variables and atmospheric CO2 over the OBS (old black spruce) site located in Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Sites in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada. We have used the data from the morning and afternoon flights to calculate the regional daily afternoon CO2 flux for the days July 8-11. These daily fluxes were then compared to those obtained by the boundary layer budget method and by the eddy covariance measurements on the tower at the OBS site. We identified the importance of changes in the CO2 concentration by advection to the flux estimates. In addition, we provide arguments to suggest that subseasonal temporal averaging might not, at least in some cases, eliminate advective bias contribution to the flux estimates. Because the advective influence is large and highly directional, even on seasonal and interannual timescales, it is advisable that flux estimates based on CO2 concentration change at a site contain dynamic description of an air parcel transport history

  10. A Preliminary Study of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) in the Endangered Aquatic Quillwort Isoetes sinensis Palmer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pang Xin-an; Wang Qing-feng; Gituru W.Robert; Liu Hong; Yang Xiao-lin; Liu Xing

    2003-01-01

    Isoetes sinensis Palmer (Isoetaceae) is an aquatic or amphibious plant that is critically endangered in China. Previous studies have revealed the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-like photosynthetic pathway occurs com-monly in submerged leaves in genus Isoetes. Water chemistry parameters and the titratable acidity content of the plant extract were measured from samples obtained in the early morning (7:00) and late afternoon (15:00) from two I.sinensis populations in China. One population occurs in the eulittoral zone of a freshwater tidal river at low elevation (134 m) and another occurs in a densely vegetated, high elevation (1 100 m) alpine shallow pool. Significant differences in pH and titratable acidity of the plant extract were detected between the morning and afternoon samples. These changes are associated with diurnalchanges in water chemistry. Our results provide the first evidence for the exist-ence of the CAM pathwa in the East Asian endemic Isoetes sinensis Palmer.The magnitude of fluctuations in the titratable acidity of the plant extract mayb e correlated with the severe carbon limitation imposed on the plants by its aquatic habitat.

  11. A Preliminary Study of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) in the Endangered Aquatic Quillwort Isoetes sinensis Palmer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PangXin-an; WangQing-feng; GituruW.Robert; LiuHong; YangXiao-lin; LiuXing

    2003-01-01

    Isoetes sinensis Palmer (Isoetaceae) is an aquatic or amphibious plant that is critically endangered in China. Previous studies have revealed the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-like photosynthetic pathway occurs commonly in submerged leaves in genus Isoetes. Water chemistry parameters and the titratable acidity content of the plant extract were measured from samples obtained in the early morning (7:00) and late afternoon (15=00) from two I.sinensis populations in China. One population occurs in the eulittoral zone of a freshwater tidal river at low elevation (134 m) and another occurs in a densely vegetated, high elevation (1 100 m) alpine shallow pool. Significant difference sin pH and titratable acidity of the plant extract were detected between the morning and afternoon samples. These changes are associated with diurnal changes in water chemistry. Our results provide the first evidence for the existence of the CAM pathway in the East Asian endemic Isoetes sinensis Palmer.The magnitude of fluctuations in the titratable acidity of the plant extract may be correlated with the severe carbon limitation imposed on the plants by its aquatic habitat.

  12. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: FileMaker - niveau 1 : 18 & 19.10.2004 (2 jours) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 22.10.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes: 22.10.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Excel 2003 - niveau 1 : 4 & 5.11.2004 (2 jours) LabVIEW Intermediate I : 8 - 10.11.2004 (3 days) Instructor-led WTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 9.11.2004 (morning) Hands-On Object Oriented Design and Programming with C++ : 9 - 11.11.2004 (3 days) Outlook (Short Course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 9.11.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) LabVIEW Intermediate II : 11 & 12.11.2004 (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 11, 12, 18, 19.11.2004 (4 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 15 - 19.11.2004 (6 X 3 hours sessions) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 2 : 18 &a...

  13. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: LabVIEW - Basics 2 : 30.9 & 1.10.2004 (2 days) Introduction à Windows XP au CERN : 4.10.2004 (matin) The EDMS MTF in practice : 4.10.2004 (afternoon) The CERN EDMS for Engineers : 6.10.2004 (1 day) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 1 : 7 & 8.10.04 (2 jours) Hands-On Object Oriented Design and Programming with C++ : 9 - 12.11.2004 (3 days) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 18 & 19.10.2004 (2 jours) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 22.10.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes: 22.10.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Excel 2003 - niveau 1 : 4 & 5.11.2004 (2 jours) Instructor-led WTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 9.11.2004 (morning) Outlook (Short Course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 9.11...

  14. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 22.10.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes: 22.10.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Excel 2003 - niveau 1 : 4 & 5.11.2004 (2 jours) LabVIEW Intermediate I : 8 - 10.11.2004 (3 days) Instructor-led WTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 9.11.2004 (morning) Hands-On Object Oriented Design and Programming with C++ : 9 - 11.11.2004 (3 days) Outlook (Short Course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 9.11.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) LabVIEW Intermediate II : 11 & 12.11.2004 (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 11, 12, 18, 19.11.2004 (4 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 15 - 19.11.2004 (6 X 3 hours sessions) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 2 : 18 & 19.11.2004 (2 jours) Word 2003 - niveau 1 : 22 &a...

  15. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: The CERN EDMS for Engineers : 6.10.2004 (1 day) FileMaker - niveau 1 : 18 & 19.10.2004 (2 jours) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 22.10.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes: 22.10.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Excel 2003 - niveau 1 : 4 & 5.11.2004 (2 jours) LabVIEW Intermediate I : 8 - 10.11.2004 (3 days) Instructor-led WTechT Study or Follow-up for Microsoft Applications : 9.11.2004 (morning) Hands-On Object Oriented Design and Programming with C++ : 9 - 11.11.2004 (3 days) Outlook (Short Course III) : Meetings and Delegation : 9.11.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) LabVIEW Intermediate II : 11 & 12.11.2004 (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 : 11, 12, 18, 19.11.2004 (4 jours) C++ for Particle Physicists : 15 - 19.11.2004 (6 X 3 hours sessions...

  16. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  17. Prediction of Optimal Daily Step Count Achievement from Segmented School Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D. Burns

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity in childhood is needed for prevention of disease and for healthy social and psychological development. There is limited research examining how segmented school physical activity patterns relate to a child achieving optimal physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive relationship between step counts during specific school segments and achieving optimal school (6,000 steps/day and daily (12,000 steps/day step counts in children. Participants included 1,714 school-aged children (mean age = 9.7±1.0 years recruited across six elementary schools. Physical activity was monitored for one week using pedometers. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to determine the adjusted odds ratios (ORs of achieving both school and daily step count standards for every 1,000 steps taken during each school segment. The school segment that related in strongest way to a student achieving 6,000 steps during school hours was afternoon recess (OR = 40.03; P<0.001 and for achieving 12,000 steps for the entire day was lunch recess (OR = 5.03; P<0.001. School segments including lunch and afternoon recess play an important role for optimizing daily physical activity in children.

  18. Unexpected seasonality in quantity and composition of Amazon rainforest air reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölscher, A. C.; Yañez-Serrano, A. M.; Wolff, S.; de Araujo, A. Carioca; Lavrič, J. V.; Kesselmeier, J.; Williams, J.

    2016-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) removes most atmospheric pollutants from air. The loss frequency of OH radicals due to the combined effect of all gas-phase OH reactive species is a measureable quantity termed total OH reactivity. Here we present total OH reactivity observations in pristine Amazon rainforest air, as a function of season, time-of-day and height (0-80 m). Total OH reactivity is low during wet (10 s-1) and high during dry season (62 s-1). Comparison to individually measured trace gases reveals strong variation in unaccounted for OH reactivity, from 5 to 15% missing in wet-season afternoons to mostly unknown (average 79%) during dry season. During dry-season afternoons isoprene, considered the dominant reagent with OH in rainforests, only accounts for ~20% of the total OH reactivity. Vertical profiles of OH reactivity are shaped by biogenic emissions, photochemistry and turbulent mixing. The rainforest floor was identified as a significant but poorly characterized source of OH reactivity.

  19. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available on the following courses: Hands-on Introduction to Python Programming: 28 - 30.6.2005 (3 days) Introduction to ANSYS: 21 - 24.6.2005 (4 days) IT3T/3 - Working remotely with Windows XP: 28.6.2005 (IT Technical Training Tutorial, free of charge) IT3T/4 - Editing Websites with Frontpage 2003: 30.6.2005 (IT Technical Training Tutorial, free of charge) Utilisation des fichiers PDF avec ACROBAT 7.0 : 5.7.2005 (1 jour) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 1 : 6-7.7.2005 (2 jours) LabVIEW base 1 : 4 - 6.7.2005 (3 jours) LabVIEW Basics 2: 7 - 8.7.2005 (2 days) WORD 2003 (Short Course I) - HowTo... Work with repetitive tasks /AutoText, AutoFormat, AutoCorrect, Find/Replace) : 4.7.2005 (afternoon) WORD 2003 (Short Course II) - HowTo... Mail merge: 5.7.2005 (afternoon) WORD 2003 (Short Course III) - HowTo (4 mornings) EXCEL 2003 (Short Course I) - HowTo... Work ...

  20. Climatology of lightning activity in South China and its relationships to precipitation and convective available potential energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Yijun; Meng, Qing; Chen, Luwen; Dan, Jianru

    2016-03-01

    This study examined lightning activity and its relationship to precipitation and convective available potential energy (CAPE) in South China during 2001-12, based on data from the Guangdong Lightning Location System, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite, and the ERA-Interim dataset. Two areas of high lightning density are identified: one over the Pearl River Delta, and the other to the north of Leizhou Peninsula. Large peak-current cloud-to-ground (LPCCG) lightning (>75 kA) shows weaker land-offshore contrasts than total CG lightning, in which negative cloud-to-ground (NCG) lightning occurs more prominently than positive cloud-to-ground (PCG) lightning on land. While the frequency of total CG lightning shows a main peak in June and a second peak in August, the LPCCG lightning over land shows only a single peak in June. The ratio of positive LPCCG to total lightning is significantly greater during February-April than during other times of the year. Diurnally, CG lightning over land shows only one peak in the afternoon, whereas CG lightning offshore shows morning and afternoon peaks. The rain yield per flash is on the order of 107-108 kg per flash across the analysis region, and its spatial distribution is opposite to that of lightning density. Our data show that lightning activity over land is more sensitive than that over offshore waters to CAPE. The relationships between lightning activity and both precipitation and CAPE are associated with convection activity in the analysis region.

  1. Telemonitoring of Daily Activity and Symptom Behavior in Patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Tabak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study investigated the activity behavior of patients with COPD in detail compared to asymptomatic controls, and the relationship between subjective and objective activities (awareness, and readiness to change activity behavior. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with COPD (66.0 years; FEV1% predicted: 44.9% and 21 healthy controls (57.0 years participated. Objective daily activity was assessed by accelerometry and expressed as amount of activity in counts per minute (cpm. Patients' baseline subjective activity and stage of change were assessed prior to measurements. Results. Mean daily activity in COPD patients was significantly lower compared to the healthy controls ( cpm versus  cpm, . COPD patients showed a temporary decrease in objective activities in the early afternoon. Objective and subjective activities were significantly moderately related and most patients (55.3% were in the maintenance phase of the stages of change. Conclusions. COPD patients show a distinctive activity decrease in the early afternoon. COPD patients are moderately aware of their daily activity but regard themselves as physically active. Therefore, future telemedicine interventions might consider creating awareness of an active lifestyle and provide feedback that aims to increase and balance activity levels.

  2. Temporal specificity of training: intra-day effects on biochemical responses and Olympic-Weightlifting performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Achraf; Chtourou, Hamdi; Trabelsi, Khaled; Padulo, Johnny; Turki, Mouna; El Abed, Kais; Hoekelmann, Anitta; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an Olympic-Weightlifting session training at three times of the day on the performance related to biochemical responses. Nine weightlifters (21 ± 0.5 years) performed, in randomised order, on three Olympic-Weightlifting training (snatch, clean and jerk) sessions (08:00 a.m., 02:00 p. m., 06:00 p. m.). Blood samples were collected: before, 3 min and 48 h after each training session. Haematological parameters and markers of muscle injury were assessed. Resting oral temperature and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also assessed during each session. ANOVA showed that the performance was better (P < 0.001) at 02:00 p. m. with a less RPE (P < 0.01) compared to the morning and the evening sessions while there was higher (P < 0.05) oral temperature at 06:00 p. m. versus 08:00 a.m. and 02:00 p. m. Muscle damage changed immediately (without significant effect after 48 h) after the training sessions with lower values ​​in the evening compared to the morning. In conclusion, the afternoon training is more effective than morning or evening sessions for weightlifters. Therefore, coaches and weightlifters should be advised to schedule their training session in the afternoon hour. PMID:25117722

  3. Two beams circulating in the LHC! First collisions in four detectors! Monday 23 November 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2009-01-01

    Geneva, 23 November 2009. Today the LHC circulated two beams simultaneously for the first time, allowing the operators to test the synchronization of the beams and giving the experiments their first chance to look for proton-proton collisions. With just one bunch of particles circulating in each direction, the beams can be made to cross in up to two places in the ring. From early in the afternoon, the beams were made to cross at points 1 and 5, home to the ATLAS and CMS detectors, both of which were on the lookout for collisions. Later, beams crossed at points 2 and 8, ALICE and LHCb. “It’s a great achievement to have come this far in so short a time,” said CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “But we need to keep a sense of perspective – there’s still much to do before we can start the LHC physics programme.” Beams were first tuned to produce collisions in the ATLAS detector, which recorded its first candidate for collisions at 14:22 this afternoon. Later, the beams were optimised for CMS. In the ...

  4. An evidence for prompt electric field disturbance driven by changes in the solar wind density under northward IMF Bz condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Diptiranjan; Chakrabarty, D.; Sekar, R.; Reeves, G. D.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Pant, Tarun K.; Veenadhari, B.; Shiokawa, K.

    2016-05-01

    Before the onset of a geomagnetic storm on 22 January 2012 (Ap = 24), an enhancement in solar wind number density from 10/cm3 to 22/cm3 during 0440-0510 UT under northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz) condition is shown to have enhanced the high-latitude ionospheric convection and also caused variations in the geomagnetic field globally. Conspicuous changes in ΔX are observed not only at longitudinally separated low-latitude stations over Indian (prenoon), South American (midnight), Japanese (afternoon), Pacific (afternoon) and African (morning) sectors but also at latitudinally separated stations located over high and middle latitudes. The latitudinal variation of the amplitude of the ΔX during 0440-0510 UT is shown to be consistent with the characteristics of prompt penetration electric field disturbances. Most importantly, the density pulse event caused enhancements in the equatorial electrojet strength and the peak height of the F layer (hmF2) over the Indian dip equatorial sector. Further, the concomitant enhancements in electrojet current and F layer movement over the dip equator observed during this space weather event suggest a common driver of prompt electric field disturbance at this time. Such simultaneous variations are found to be absent during magnetically quiet days. In absence of significant change in solar wind velocity and magnetospheric substorm activity, these observations point toward perceptible prompt electric field disturbance over the dip equator driven by the overcompression of the magnetosphere by solar wind density enhancement.

  5. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: November 2002   LabView hands-on (bilingue/bilingual): 5.11.02 (matin/morning) LabView DAQ hands-on (bilingue/bilingual):  5.11.02  (après-midi afternoon) PCAD Schémas - Débutants :  5 & 6.11.02  (2 jours) PCAD PCB - Débutants :  9 - 11.11.02  (3 jours) Introduction au PC et Windows 2000 au CERN :  6 & 7.11.02  (2 jours) Oracle 8i : Access the Database with Java :  7 & 8.11.02  (2 days) Introduction to PVSS (free of charge):  11.11.2002 pm  (1/2 day) Basic PVSS:  12 - 14.11.02  (3 days) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1 :  12 & 13.11.02  (2 jours) CLEAN-2002: Working in a Cleanroom (English, free of charge):  13.11.2002  (afternoon) LabView Base 1 :  13 - 15.11.02  (3 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 1 :  14, 15, 21, 22.11.02  (4 jours) LabVIEW - Advanced:  18 - 20.11.02  (3 days) Hands-on Object-Oriented Design and Programming with C++ :  19 - 21.11.02  (3 days)  LabVIEW - Basics 2:  21 - 22.11.02 ...

  6. PLACES AVAILABLE

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2002-01-01

    Places are available in the following courses: LabView hands-on (bilingue/bilingual): 5.11.02 (matin/morning) LabView DAQ hands-on (bilingue/bilingual):  5.11.02  (après-midi afternoon) Introduction au PC et Windows 2000 au CERN:  6 & 7.11.02  (2 jours) Oracle 8i : Access the Database with Java:  7 & 8.11.02  (2 days) AutoCAD 2002 - niveau 2:  7 & 8.11.02  (2 jours) Introduction to PVSS (free of charge):  11.11.2002 pm  (1/2 day) Basic PVSS:  12 - 14.11.02  (3 days) EXCEL 2000 - niveau 1:  12 & 13.11.02  (2 jours) CLEAN-2002: Working in a Cleanroom (English, free of charge):  13.11.2002  (afternoon) LabView Base 1 :  13 - 15.11.02  (3 jours) AutoCAD 2002 - Level 1:  14, 15, 21, 22.11.2002  (4 days) LabVIEW - Advanced:  18 - 20.11.02  (3 days) Auto...

  7. Hydrogen peroxide and methyl hydroperoxide over the Northern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Bae, B.; Lee, M.

    2003-04-01

    H2O2 and CH3OOH were measured during the cruise sponsored by Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC). Experiments were made from Osaka to Honolulu covering the North Pacific on the research vessel MelVill belonging to Scripps Institution of Oceanography in May - June 2002. Gaseous hydroperoxides were extracted onto aqueous solution using a continuous glass coil. Collected samples were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector using postcolumn enzyme derivatization. It was the first measurement of species specific hydroperoxides on the ship, particularly CH_3OOH. The concentration of H_2O_2 and CH_3OOH increased from 0.93 ±0.48 ppbv and 0.27±0.40 ppbv at higher latitudes (˜50^oN) to 2.05±0.87 ppbv and 2.47±0.76 ppbv at low latitudes (˜24^oN). Hydroperoxides showed a typical diurnal variation with maximum in the late afternoon and minimum right before sunrise. In general, hydroperoxide and ozone concentrations were negatively correlated, particularly in the afternoon. There was no clear minimum and concentrations were higher than 1 ppbv during the night. Moreover, H_2O_2 concentrations were gradually increased even after the sunset. Consequently, other source than known photochemical production was proposed that hydroperoxides could be generated from the ozonlysis of alkene emitted from the ocean.

  8. On the diurnal cycle of deep moist convection in the southern side of the Alps analysed through cloud-to-ground lightning activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladich, I.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Stel, F.

    2011-06-01

    In this work, eight years of cloud-to-ground lightning data are used as a proxy observable to describe the hourly frequency of deep moist convection occurrence over an area characterized by complex geography in the southern side of the Alps (Friuli Venezia Giulia). The study area is divided in eight sub-zones, defined according to the climatic differences of the southern side of the Alps, in particular those related to the precipitation regime. In the eight sub-zones, the hourly frequency of cloud-to-ground lightning shows two different behaviours: bimodal and single-mode. Single-mode hourly frequencies, in turn, can be divided into two more classes: afternoon maximum and evening maximum. A conceptual model for the explanation of the observed features is proposed. This conceptual model takes into account the atmospheric instability, which has a maximum during afternoon, and the convection forcing represented by the switch in the breezes regime, which is stronger in the late morning and evening. The proposed conceptual model is coherent with the complementary meteorological parameters taken into account (hourly rain, temperature and wind distribution and speed) and it is capable to describe, at least qualitatively, the observed behaviours in cloud-to-ground lightning hourly distribution.

  9. Honey Bee Location- and Time-Linked Memory Use in Novel Foraging Situations: Floral Color Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Amaya-Márquez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning facilitates behavioral plasticity, leading to higher success rates when foraging. However, memory is of decreasing value with changes brought about by moving to novel resource locations or activity at different times of the day. These premises suggest a foraging model with location- and time-linked memory. Thus, each problem is novel, and selection should favor a maximum likelihood approach to achieve energy maximization results. Alternatively, information is potentially always applicable. This premise suggests a different foraging model, one where initial decisions should be based on previous learning regardless of the foraging site or time. Under this second model, no problem is considered novel, and selection should favor a Bayesian or pseudo-Bayesian approach to achieve energy maximization results. We tested these two models by offering honey bees a learning situation at one location in the morning, where nectar rewards differed between flower colors, and examined their behavior at a second location in the afternoon where rewards did not differ between flower colors. Both blue-yellow and blue-white dimorphic flower patches were used. Information learned in the morning was clearly used in the afternoon at a new foraging site. Memory was not location-time restricted in terms of use when visiting either flower color dimorphism.

  10. Ammonia volatilization from nitrogen fertilizers in no-till wheat and maize in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Viero

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop residues on the soil surface of no-till systems can intensify ammonia volatilization from N fertilizers applied to cereal crops. This study assessed the magnitude of N losses through ammonia volatilization from urea applied to no-till winter (wheat and summer crops (maize on a Typic Hapludox in the south-central region of Paraná, southern Brazil. In addition, the potential of alternative N sources (urea with urease inhibitor, liquid fertilizer, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate and different urea managements (fertilizer applied in the morning or afternoon were evaluated. Two experiments with maize and wheat were carried out for two years, arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Nitrogen volatilization losses were assessed with a semi-open static collector until 21 days after fertilization. In winter, the losses were low (<5.5 % of applied N for all N sources, which were not distinguishable, due to the low temperatures. In the summer, volatilization rates from urea were higher than in the winter, but did not exceed 15 % of applied N. The main factor decreasing N losses in the summer was the occurrence of rainfall in the first five days after fertilization. Urea with urease inhibitor, nitrate and ammonium sulfate were efficient to decrease ammonia volatilization in maize, whereas the application time (morning or afternoon had no influence.

  11. Observations of cold magnetospheric ions at geosynchronous orbit during times of high activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowing, cold magnetospheric ions have been observed in conjunction with geosynchronous orbit magnetopause crossings since the earliest ATS and OGO missions. The authors have reported on the occurrence and convection of low-energy (10-100 eV) ions seen by multiple satellites in association with geosynchronous orbit magnetopause and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) encounters. More generally, Los Alamos 3-D plasma instruments observe these ions following storm sudden commencements (SSCs), when activity levels are high. The ions appear to be convecting radially outward and usually westward at speeds of a few to several tens of kilometers per second. Often the energy spectra reveal peaks at energies appropriate for cold convecting H+, He+ and O+. The occurrence frequency distribution of these dense cold ions is peaked near 1400 LT, with an overall range from 1000 to beyond 1800 LT. This local time distribution is greatly skewed from the overall plasmaspheric distribution, which peaks closer to 1800 LT. Multisatellite observations show that the ions are seen first at late afternoon local times and then at progressively earlier and earlier local times (though usually no earlier than 1000 LT). This apparent evolution in local time suggests that the late-afternoon plasmaspheric plasma moves out and dawnward during times of increased magnetospheric activity. The three-satellite observations also allow the authors to track cold plasma convection at multiple points in the magnetosphere, and potentially provide a glimpse of the large-scale convection pattern

  12. Impact of land convection on temperature diurnal variation in the tropical lower stratosphere inferred from COSMIC GPS radio occultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Khaykin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following recent studies evidencing the influence of deep convection on the chemical composition and thermal structure of the tropical lower stratosphere, we explore its impact on the temperature diurnal variation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using the high-resolution COSMIC GPS radio-occultation temperature measurements spanning from 2006 through 2011. The temperature in the lowermost stratosphere over land during summer displays a marked diurnal cycle characterized by an afternoon cooling. This diurnal cycle is shown collocated with most intense land convective areas observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM precipitation radar and in phase with the maximum overshooting occurrence frequency in late afternoon. Two processes potentially responsible for that are identified: (i non-migrating tides, whose physical nature is internal gravity waves, and (ii local cross-tropopause mass transport of adiabatically cooled air by overshooting turrets. Although both processes can contribute, only the lofting of adiabatically cooled air is well captured by models, making it difficult to characterize the contribution of non-migrating tides. The impact of deep convection on the temperature diurnal cycle is found larger in the southern tropics, suggesting more vigorous convection over clean rain forest continents than desert areas and polluted continents in the northern tropics.

  13. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: ANSYS : Thermal Analysis : 22 - 24.9.2004 (3 days) LabVIEW Migration 6 à 7 : 23.9.2004 (one day) ANSYS : Advanced Topics : 27.9 - 1.10.2004 (5 days) Word 2003 - niveau 2 : 27 & 28.9.2004 (2 jours) LabVIEW - Basics 1 : 27 - 29.9.2004 (3 days) LabVIEW - Basics 2 : 30.9 & 1.10.2004 (2 days) Introduction à Windows XP au CERN : 4.10.2004 (matin) The EDMS MTF in practice : 4.10.2004 (afternoon) The CERN EDMS for Engineers : 6.10.2004 (1 day) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 1 : 7 & 8.10.04 (2 jours) Outlook (short course I) : E-mail : 22.10.2004 (2 hours, morning) Outlook (short course II) : Calendar, Tasks and Notes: 22.10.2004 (2 hours, afternoon) Instructor-led WTechT Study or Fo...

  14. Accuracy of near-surface aerosol extinction determined from columnar aerosol optical depth measurements in Reno, NV, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loría-Salazar, S. Marcela; Arnott, W. Patrick; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present work is a detailed analysis of aerosol columnar optical depth as a tool to determine near-surface aerosol extinction in Reno, Nevada, USA, during the summer of 2012. Ground and columnar aerosol optical properties were obtained by use of in situ Photoacoustic and Integrated Nephelometer and Cimel CE-318 Sun photometer instruments, respectively. Both techniques showed that seasonal weather changes and fire plumes had enormous influence on local aerosol optics. The apparent optical height followed the shape but not magnitude of the development of the convective boundary layer when fire conditions were not present. Back trajectory analysis demonstrated that a local flow known as the Washoe Zephyr circulation often induced aerosol transport from Northern California over the Sierra Nevada Mountains that increased the aerosol optical depth at 500 nm during afternoons when compared with mornings. Aerosol fine mode fraction indicated that afternoon aerosols in June and July and fire plumes in August were dominated by submicron particles, suggesting upwind urban plume biogenically enhanced evolution toward substantial secondary aerosol formation. This fine particle optical depth was inferred to be beyond the surface, thereby complicating use of remote sensing measurements for near-ground aerosol extinction measurements. It is likely that coarse mode depletes fine mode aerosol near the surface by coagulation and condensation of precursor gases.

  15. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, Christof; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, Ines; Goldstein, Allen H.; Gu, Lianhong; Guenther, Alex B.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; Holst, Thomas; Hortnagl, Lukas; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Neftel, Albrecht; McKinney, Karena; Munger, William; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Schade, Gunner W.; Seco, Roger; Schoon, N.

    2015-07-09

    We present field observations made in June 2011 downwind of Dallas-Fort Worth, TX, and evaluate the role of stabilized Criegee radicals (sCIs) in gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) production. Zero-dimensional model calculations show that sCI from BVOCs composed the majority of the sCIs. The main uncertainty associated with an evaluation of H2SO4 production from the sCI reaction channel is the lack of experimentally determined reaction rates for sCIs formed from isoprene ozonolysis with SO2. In general, the maximum of H2SO4 production from the sCI channel is found in the late afternoon as ozone increases towards the late afternoon. The sCI channel, however, contributes minor H2SO4 production compared with the conventional OH channel. Finally, The production and the loss rates of H2SO4 are compared. The application of the recommended mass accommodation coefficient causes significant overestimation of H2SO4 loss rates compared with H2SO4 production rates. On the other hand, the application of a lower experimental value for the mass accommodation coefficient provides good agreement between the loss and production rates of H2SO4. The results suggest that the recommended coefficient for the H2O surface may not be suitable for this relatively dry environment.

  16. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are ...

  17. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are r...

  18. Analysis of global Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes distribution and special focus on AGILE detections over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabró, Ferran; Montanyà, Joan; Marisaldi, Martino; van der Velde, Oscar A.; Fuschino, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Global distribution of the Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) detected by AGILE and RHESSI for the period from March 2009 to July 2012 has been analysed. A fourth TGF production region has been distinguished over the Pacific. It is confirmed that TGF occurrence follows the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) seasonal migration and prefers afternoons. TGF/lightning ratio appears to be lower over America than other regions suggesting that meteorological regional differences are important for the TGF production. Diurnal cycle of TGFs peaks in the afternoon suggesting that Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) and convection are important for TGF production. Moreover all AGILE passages over South America in the same period have been analysed to find meteorological preferences for TGF occurrence. In each passage the analysis of Cloud Top Altitude (CTA), CAPE, number of strokes, number of storms and coverage area of clouds with temperatures below -70 °C (Cloud Top Coverage area, CTC) are computed. On average, AGILE has been exposed to 19,100 strokes between each TGF representing ∼68 h of exposure over active storms. High CAPE values, high cloud tops and high stroke occurrence suggest that meteorological conditions conducive to vigorous and electrically active storms are important for TGF production. It is shown that a high number of thunderstorms is preferable for TGF production which may be explained by a greater chance of the presence of a thunderstorm in the best development stage for TGF production. High tropopause altitude seems to be important but not primordial for TGF production.

  19. Food selectivity and diet switch can explain the slow feeding of herbivorous coral-reef fishes during the morning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Khait

    Full Text Available Most herbivorous coral-reef fishes feed slower in the morning than in the afternoon. Given the typical scarcity of algae in coral reefs, this behavior seems maladaptive. Here we suggest that the fishes' slow feeding during the morning is an outcome of highly selective feeding on scarcely found green algae. The rarity of the food requires longer search time and extended swimming tracks, resulting in lower bite rates. According to our findings by noon the fish seem to stop their search and switch to indiscriminative consumption of benthic algae, resulting in apparent higher feeding rates. The abundance of the rare preferable algae gradually declines from morning to noon and seems to reach its lowest levels around the switch time. Using in situ experiments we found that the feeding pattern is flexible, with the fish exhibiting fast feeding rates when presented with ample supply of preferable algae, regardless of the time of day. Analyses of the fish's esophagus content corroborated our conclusion that their feeding was highly selective in the morning and non-selective in the afternoon. Modeling of the fishes' behavior predicted that the fish should perform a diel diet shift when the preferred food is relatively rare, a situation common in most coral reefs found in a warm, oligotrophic ocean.

  20. Preliminary investigation of residual-limb fluid volume changes within one day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan E. Sanders, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate rates of residual-limb fluid volume change within one day for people with transtibial limb loss. Rates of fluid volume change during 30 min test sessions of sitting, standing, and walking activities were measured twice a day, once in the morning and once in the afternoon, on 12 regular prosthesis users with the use of bioimpedance analysis. Between test sessions, all subjects consumed food and drink, and subject activity ranged from low to high. The rate of fluid volume change within sessions ranged from −8.5 to 5.9 %/h (median: −2.2 %/h. The rate of fluid volume change between sessions ranged from −2.7 to 0.9 %/h (median: −1.0 %/h. The between-session rate of fluid volume change correlated highly with afternoon within-session rates of change (r = 0.9 but was not well correlated with morning within-session rates of change (r = 0.8. Subjects with peripheral arterial complications showed greater fluid volume loss rates during test sessions than between sessions. Rate of fluid volume change may be affected by sitting, standing, and walking activities; presence of peripheral arterial complications; being female; time since amputation; and wearing the socket without doffing for extended periods.