WorldWideScience

Sample records for aftermarket fuel delivery

  1. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the ``best-case`` results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author`s experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  2. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, B. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the best-case'' results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author's experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  3. A guide to the emissions certification procedures for alternative fuel aftermarket conversions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Emissions certification is still relatively new to the aftermarket vehicle conversion industry. Many in the industry think that as soon as a vehicle is converted to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LFG), it automatically runs as clean as or cleaner than it did on the conventional fuel. However, recent studies have shown that aftermarket conversions may not always reduce emissions. To achieve emissions benefits, the conversion equipment must be designed and calibrated specifically for the engine and emissions control system on which it has been installed, and the installation and setup must be performed so as to not adversely affect the vehicle`s original emissions performance. The reason for certification, then, is to ensure that these criteria are met, that the vehicle continues to perform properly, and that it continues to satisfy all appropriate emissions standards throughout its useful life. The authors have prepared this guide to help equipment manufacturers, distributors, and installers understand the emissions certification process for aftermarket conversions. The guide gives an overview of the certification requirements established by the US EPA and by the state of California.

  4. Aftermarkets : The monopoly case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bijl, P.W.J.

    1995-01-01

    Consider a monopolist who sells a durable good, and repairs the good if it breaks down. Suppose that contracts that specify future repair prices cannot be written, so that there is an aftermarket" situation. When consumers are risk-averse, the monopolist chooses inefficiently high repair prices; if

  5. Aftermarket Power and Basic Market Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Cabral

    2008-01-01

    I revisit the relation between aftermarket power and basic market competition. I consider an infinite period model with overlapping consumers: in each period, one consumer is born and joins one of the existing installed bases, then aftermarket payoffs are received by sellers and consumers, then finally one consumer dies. I derive the unique symmetric Markov equilibrium of this game and the resulting stationary distribution over states (each firm's installed base). I show that an increase in a...

  6. Flipping Activity and Subsequent Aftermarket Trading in Malaysian IPOs

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzita Abdul Rahim; Ros Zam Zam Sapian; Othman Yong; Noor Azryani Auzairy

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the aftermarket trading volume following an initial public offering (IPO) in a sample of 243 IPOs listed on Bursa Malaysia between June 2003 and June 2008. Specifically, this study investigates the degree of flipping activity and its relationship with six ex-ante variables including IPO initial returns. Consistent with previous studies, the result of the cross-sectional multiple regression reveals a significantly strong positive relationship between initial returns and fli...

  7. Performance of miniaturized direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) devices using micropump for fuel delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Qing-Ming

    A fuel cell is a device that can convert chemical energy into electricity directly. Among various types of fuel cells, both polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) can work at low temperature (mini pumps, the size of the piezoelectric micropump is much smaller and the energy consumption is much lower. Thus, it is very viable and effective to use a piezoelectric valveless micropump for fuel delivery in miniaturized DMFC power systems.

  8. Development of wood fuel delivery logistics; Puupolttoaineiden hankintalogistiikan kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, H.

    1996-12-31

    The main aim of the project is to model the energy wood business and total logistics in a certain large region. First, wood utilisation locations inside this area are examined; the most important ones are the wood processing factories, and the heating- and power plants. After that, wood potentials in the forests of the area are evaluated in sub-areas suitable in size and sufficiently detailed for further evaluations. For that purpose, the most valuable source data are forest management plans, up to ten years forward, on which basis the wood fuel potentials can be evaluated following sustainable development. In Finland there are extensive and detailed data bases storing forest information and it is possible to collect necessary data for a data base applicable to our calculations. In logistical sense it is important to know, by which delivery chains the economically best and desired results are achieved. The software prototype based on data base is modelled and developed at VTT Energy, for facilitating these planning activities. The starting point of the planning system in delivery logistics is the implementation of an easy tool for versatile planning so that with this tool model different delivery chains can be flexiblyed, create usage scenarios, make alternative examinations, and calculate impacts of different factors on energy wood amounts yielded and delivery costs. With planning system in delivery logistics we calculate production costs and amounts delivered to different utilisation locations. The system offers tools for definitions of utilisation locations, calculation parameters, and delivery chains

  9. Enabling Accelerated Installation of Aftermarket On-Board Equipment for Connected Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    CHAN, Ching-Yao

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes previous findings and describes recent developments with regards to rapid introduction of aftermarket on-board equipment (OBE) devices for connected vehicles to the vehicle fleet. An integration assessment for aftermarket OBE devices will be discussed. An analysis of outside market forces that may affect driver adoption of connected vehicle technologies is shared. Finally, recommendations are provided for strategic approaches to foster the rapid introduction of aftermar...

  10. Combustion behaviors of a compression-ignition engine fueled with diesel/methanol blends under various fuel delivery advance angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zuohua; Lu, Hongbing; Jiang, Deming; Zeng, Ke; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Junqiang; Wang, Xibin

    2004-12-01

    A stabilized diesel/methanol blend was described and the basic combustion behaviors based on the cylinder pressure analysis was conducted in a compression-ignition engine. The study showed that increasing methanol mass fraction of the diesel/methanol blends would increase the heat release rate in the premixed burning phase and shorten the combustion duration of the diffusive burning phase. The ignition delay increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle for both the diesel fuel and the diesel/methanol blends. For a specific fuel delivery advance angle, the ignition delay increased with the increase of the methanol mass fraction (oxygen mass fraction) in the fuel blends and the behaviors were more obvious at low engine load and/or high engine speed. The rapid burn duration and the total combustion duration increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. The centre of the heat release curve was close to the top-dead-centre with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. Maximum cylinder gas pressure increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and the maximum cylinder gas pressure of the diesel/methanol blends gave a higher value than that of the diesel fuel. The maximum mean gas temperature remained almost unchanged or had a slight increase with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and it only slightly increased for the diesel/methanol blends compared to that of the diesel fuel. The maximum rate of pressure rise and the maximum rate of heat release increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle of the diesel/methanol blends and the value was highest for the diesel/methanol blends.

  11. Evaluation of Wear in Aftermarket Brake Pads for Enhancing Braking Performance in a Passenger Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zaki Bahrom

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the high demands from the independence automotive service centers; there are many aftermarket brake pads available at spare parts shops and sold at reasonable prices. Several types of brake pads are available in the market such as semi-metallic and Non-Asbestos brake pads. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the wear of after-market brake pad performance under the normal driving conditions (highway and non-highway. Three types of aftermarket brake pads that mainly used and sold by independent service shop were selected in this study.  The data of the wear in thicknesses losses and weight percentage losses were recorded. The results show that brake pad of non- Asbestos Organic type gives the highest wear loss and create a lot of dust. For semi-metallic brake pad type, the result shows the lowest mass loss. Therefore, it is important to select the suitable type of after-market brake pads in order to get balance between cost and quality.

  12. Report on the Procurement and Delivery of Fuel Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, William M.; Baacke, Clifford M.

    Annual use of fuel oil for heating schools and other facilities of the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools, Montgomery County Government, and Montgomery College exceeds four-million gallons. This report examines the processes by which purchases and distributions of fuel oil are made, makes recommendations based on the examination, and…

  13. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  14. Uma abordagem para posicionamento e dimensionamento de estoques de couros aftermarket na cadeia de suprimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pacheco Lacerda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A prática atual de gerenciamento de cadeias de abastecimento tende a forçar o encaminhamento de produtos para o varejo na cadeia de suprimentos. Esta atitude, por consequência, mantém os estoques o mais próximo possível do consumidor, contabilizando, para os fornecedores, vendas realizadas. Valendo-se dos princípios da Teoria das Restrições (TOC, para o gerenciamento de sistemas de distribuição, buscou-se definir o posicionamento e o local para manter os estoques, a fim de atender o mercado nacional de couros automotivos, denominado aftermarket. Este artigo, portanto, sugere a criação de estratégias e ações que possibilitem ofertar ao cliente os produtos desejados, na quantidade, no local e no tempo certo, evitando a falta do produto no ponto-de-venda.

  15. Approaches of Aftermarket Services for Successful Customer Relations : A Study of Volvo Trucks de México S.A. de C.V.

    OpenAIRE

    Parmbro, Anders

    2004-01-01

    It has for many businesses, especially on competitive markets, become fundamental to offer augmented services around the core product, with the aim of building lasting and mutually beneficial relationships with the customers. The author of this thesis has investigated such services offered on the Mexican truck aftermarket. The art of creating successful customer relations requires theoretical insight. Research applicable on aftermarket services has therefore been studied, and the reader will ...

  16. Study on Use of Fuel-Cell Auxiliary Power Units in Refrigerator Cars Employed for Delivery to Convenience Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Noboru; Kamiyama, Hideyuki; Kogoshi, Sumio; Kudo, Yusuke; Fukada, Takafumi; Ogawa, Makoto

    The use of fuel-cell auxiliary power units (FC-APU) in refrigerator cars employed delivery to for convenience store delivery has been studied. The delivery pattern is assumed to be a typical pattern that includes driving between convenience stores or between a delivery center and a convenience store, unloading, driver's lunch break. The M15 driving mode, which simulates the driving condition in urban areas, is used as the driving mode in the delivery pattern. The FC-APU system includes a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEFC) module, an inverter, and DC/DC converter. Bench tests of the FC-APU are performed to determine the hydrogen fuel consumption rate and the energy efficiency; these values depend on the output power of the PEFC module. The calculated relationship between the output power and fuel consumption rate of a current used system, which consists of an alternator and a secondary battery, are used to estimate the energy efficiency of the current used system. On the basis of the measurement data in this study and the results for the model proposed by Brodric et al. [C. J. Brodrick et al., Trans. Res. D, vol 7, pp. 303 (2002)], the payback period is calculated. The results indicate that the payback period would be 2.1 years when the FC-APU operates at a load of 70%.

  17. Oil fuel delivery optimization for multi product and multi depot: the case of petrol station replenishment problem (PSRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjandari, Isti; Rachman, Amar; Dianawati, Fauzia; Wibowo, R. Pramono

    2011-10-01

    With the Oil and Gas Law No. 22 of 2001, national and foreign private enterprises can invest in all sectors of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. In anticipation of this free competition, Pertamina, as a state-owned enterprises, which previously had monopolized the oil and gas business activities in Indonesia, should be able to improve services as well as the efficiency in order to compete in the free market, especially in terms of cost efficiency of fuel distribution to gas station (SPBU). To optimize the distribution activity, it is necessary to design a scheduling system and its fuel delivery routes daily to every SPBU. The determination of routes and scheduling delivery of fuel to the SPBU can be modeled as a Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PSRP) with the multi-depot, multi-product, time windows and split deliveries, which in this study will be completed by the Tabu Search algorithm (TS). This study was conducted in the area of Bandung, the capital of West Java province, which is a big city and the neighboring city of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. By using the fuel delivery data for one day, the results showed a decrease of 16.38% of the distance of the route compared to the current conditions, which impacted on the reduction of distribution costs and decrease the number of total trips by 5.22% and 3.83%.

  18. Vapor Delivery Systems for the Study of the Effects of Reformate Gas Impurities in HT-PEM Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2011-01-01

    , impurities in the reformate gas produced from methanol steam reforming can affect the performance and durability of fuel cells. In this paper different vapor delivery systems, intended to assist in the study of the effects of some of the impurities, are described and compared with each other. A system based...... on a pump and electrically heated evaporator was found to be more suitable for the typical flow rates involved in the anode feed of an H3PO4/PBI based HT-PEMFC unit cell assembly. Test stations composed of vapor delivery systems and mass flow controllers for testing the effects of methanol slip, water vapor...

  19. Evaluation of aftermarket LPG conversion kits in light-duty vehicle applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, E A [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (US)

    1993-06-01

    SwRI was contracted by NREL to evaluate three LPG conversion kits on a Chevrolet Lumina. The objective of the project was to measure the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy of these kits, and compare their performance to gasoline-fueled operation and to each other. Varying LPG fuel blends allowed a preliminary look at the potential for fuel system disturbance. The project required kit installation and adjustment according to manufacturer`s instructions. A limited amount of trouble diagnosis was also performed on the fuel systems. A simultaneous contract from the Texas Railroad Commission, in cooperation with NREL, provided funds for additional testing with market fuels (HD5 propane and industry average gasoline) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions speciation to determine the ozone-forming potential of LPG HC emissions. This report documents the procurement, installation, and testing of these LPG conversion kits.

  20. Check and After-market Performance of GEM IPO%创业板IPO审核及后市表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蕾

    2015-01-01

    本文研究拟在创业板上市的企业可能面临的IPO审核方面的问题,以及企业在IPO后业绩的表现.创业板市场是为具有创新型和成长型企业设立的一个新的融资渠道,其上市标准低于主板市场,审核发行上市时不注重当前的公司业绩,这样的"低门槛"会给投资者带来一定的风险,所以企业在成功IPO后的业绩表现如何成为应该关注的重点,即IPO的后市表现.%This paper researches the IPO check problems for GEM listing enterprises, and the business performance after IPO. GEM market is a new funding channel for innovative and growing enterprises, the listing standard of which is lower than mainboard markey. The check of listing doesn't pay attention to the present enterprise performance, which brings the risk to investors. Therefore, the focus should be the performance after IPC of enterprise, namely IPO after-market performance.

  1. The concept of the use of recycled uranium for increasing the degree of security of export deliveries of fuel for light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with investigation of the possibilities for reducing the risk of proliferation of fissionable materials by means of increasing the degree of protection of fresh fuel intended for light-water reactors against unsanctioned use in the case of withdrawal of a recipient country of deliveries from IAEA safeguards. It is shown that the use of recycled uranium for manufacturing export nuclear fuel makes transfer of nuclear material removed from the fuel assemblies for weapons purposes difficult because of the presence of isotope 232U, whose content increases when one attempts to enrich uranium extracted from fresh fuel. In combination with restricted access to technologies for isotope separation by means of establishing international centers for uranium enrichment, this technical measure can significantly reduce the risk of proliferation associated with export deliveries of fuel made of low-enriched uranium. The assessment of a maximum level of contamination of nuclear material being transferred by isotope 232U for the given isotope composition of the initial fuel is obtained. The concept of further investigations of the degree of security of export deliveries of fuel assemblies with recycled uranium intended for light-water reactors is suggested.

  2. Prospects for pipeline delivery of hydrogen as a fuel and as a chemical feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D. P.; Biederman, N. P.; Darrow, K. G., Jr.; Konopka, A. J.; Wurm, J.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of using hydrogen for storing and carrying energy obtained from nonfossil sources such as nuclear and solar energy is examined. According to the method proposed, these nonfossil raw energy sources will be used to obtain hydrogen from water by three basically distinct routes: (1) electrical generation followed by electrolysis; (2) thermochemical decomposition; and (3) direct neutron or ultraviolet irradiation of hydrogen bearing molecules. The hydrogen obtained will be transmitted in long-distance pipelines, and distributed to all energy-consuming sectors. As a fuel gas, hydrogen has many qualities similar to natural gas and with only minor modifications, it can be transmitted and distributed in the same equipment, and can be burned in the same appliances as natural gas. Hydrogen can also be used as a clean fuel (water is the only combustion product) for automobiles, fleet vehicles, and aircraft.

  3. Assessment of the effect of gaseous fuel delivery mode on thermal efficiency and fuel losses during the valve overlap period in a dual-fuel compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzek, T.

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes the effect of dual fuelling of single cylinder AVL test CI engine with the use of two ways of gas delivery to the engine manifold. The engine was fuelled diesel oil and propane. For all the tests, gas consumption was maintained at the same level. In the first mode the gas was delivered by injector located under inlet valve. In the second method, there was used a mixer fitted to the intake manifold. The paper compares the results of thermal efficiency and emissions of propane in the exhaust for both fuelling modes. Research clearly show how important it is to synchronize the injector opening time of the intake stroke. This is especially important for supercharged engines in which there is a valve overlap.

  4. Supercapacitive microbial fuel cell: Characterization and analysis for improved charge storage/delivery performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Jeremiah; Santoro, Carlo; Soavi, Francesca; Serov, Alexey; Ieropoulos, Ioannis; Arbizzani, Catia; Atanassov, Plamen

    2016-10-01

    Supercapacitive microbial fuel cells with various anode and cathode dimensions were investigated in order to determine the effect on cell capacitance and delivered power quality. The cathode size was shown to be the limiting component of the system in contrast to anode size. By doubling the cathode area, the peak power output was improved by roughly 120% for a 10ms pulse discharge and internal resistance of the cell was decreased by ∼47%. A model was constructed in order to predict the performance of a hypothetical cylindrical MFC design with larger relative cathode size. It was found that a small device based on conventional materials with a volume of approximately 21cm(3) would be capable of delivering a peak power output of approximately 25mW at 70mA, corresponding to ∼1300Wm(-3). PMID:27400393

  5. Analysis of an off road 4WD vehicle's suspension system modification - Case study of aftermarket suspension lift and modification of wheel track size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Hazrat, M. A.; Rasul, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    In this research, a four wheel drive (4WD) suspension of a vehicle has been modified by increasing the ride height to investigate stability and cornering potential of the vehicle through load transfer and variation of roll angle. Further investigation has been conducted to observe the characteristics which are deemed desirable for off road application but detrimental to the on road application. The Constant Radius Cornering Test (CRCT) was chosen as a base method for experimental investigation to observe the effect of the suspension modifications. The test was carried out by undertaking a known radius and cambered corner at a constant speed. For this test, the acceleration and gyroscopic data were measured to check and compare the accuracy of the analysis performed by OptimumDynamics model. The tests were conducted by means of negotiating the curve at the speed of 80 km/h and it was gradually achieved to allow a good consensus of the amount of body roll the vehicle experienced. Using a surveyor's wheel, the radius of the corner was estimated as 160 m and using the gyroscopic sensor, the corner camber was measured at 4 degrees. While comparing the experimental results with the simulation results, the experimental constraints led to higher values than those of the analytical results. The total load transfer reduced by 2.9% with the increased track size. It has been observed that the dynamic load transfer component is lesser than the standard suspension with the aftermarket suspension lift and the upgraded anti-roll bar (ARB). With the simulation of the fitment of the other modifications aimed to improve the characteristics of the raised vehicle, the vehicle showed a reduced tendency towards roll angle due to the stiffened anti-roll bar and the maximum increased wheel track demonstrated reduced lateral load transfer and body roll. Even with these modifications however, the decrease in load transfer is minimal in comparison to what was expected.

  6. Fuel Consumption Impacts of Auto Roof Racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche; Meier, Alan

    2016-05-01

    The after-market roof rack is one of the most common components attached to a vehicle for carrying over-sized items, such as bicycles and skis. It is important to understand these racks' fuel consumption impacts on both individual vehicles and the national fleet because they are widely used. We estimate the national fuel consumption impacts of roof racks using a bottom-up approach. Our model incorporates real-world data and vehicle stock information to enable assessing fuel consumption impacts for several categories of vehicles, rack configurations, and usage conditions. In addition, the model draws on two new data-gathering techniques, on-line forums and crowd-sourcing. The results show that nationwide, roof racks are responsible for 0.8% of light duty vehicle fuel consumption in 2015, corresponding to 100 million gallons of gasoline per year. Sensitivity analyses show that results are most sensitive to the fraction of vehicles with installed roof racks but carrying no equipment. The aerodynamic efficiency of typical roof racks can be greatly improved and reduce individual vehicle fuel consumption; however, government policies to minimize extensive driving with empty racks--if successful--could save more fuel nationally.

  7. Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team (HDTT) is to enable the development of hydrogen delivery technologies, which will allow for fuel cell competitiveness with gasoline and hybrid technologies by achieving an as-produced, delivered, and dispensed hydrogen cost of $2-$4 per gallon of gasoline equivalent of hydrogen.

  8. Hydrogen Delivery Model for H2A Analysis: A Spreadsheet Model for Hydrogen Delivery Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Joan

    2004-01-01

    As part of the H2A effort, we are developing models of hydrogen delivery systems, for use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel. The delivery system is defined as all the equipment between the hydrogen production plant and the hydrogen refueling station. This includes hydrogen compression or liquefaction, hydrogen storage, and hydrogen distribution in trucks or pipelines. The goals of the H2A delivery group are to: 1) develop a database on delivery system component cost and performance; 2) develop de...

  9. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  10. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles. PMID:26757000

  11. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of a continuously rotating detonation in the annular combustion chamber with a wide gap and separate delivery of fuel and oxidizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, S. M.; Dubrovskii, A. V.; Ivanov, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The possibility of integrating the Continuous Detonation Chamber (CDC) in a gas turbine engine (GTE) is demonstrated by means of three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations, i. e., the feasibility of the operation process in the annular combustion chamber with a wide gap and with separate feeding of fuel (hydrogen) and oxidizer (air) is proved computationally. The CDC with an upstream isolator damping pressure disturbances propagating towards the compressor is shown to exhibit a gain in the total pressure of 15% as compared with the same combustion chamber operating in the deflagration mode.

  12. The Role of Automobile Personnel Training in Higher Vocational Institutes Based on Development of Automotive Aftermarket in China%高职汽车类专业人才培养在我国汽车后市场发展中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄洁

    2015-01-01

    随着我国汽车保有量的迅速攀升,汽车后市场不断发展壮大,急需大批高素质、技能型人才。高职院校通过及时调整专业设置、深入开展教学改革、加强师资队伍建设等做法,为汽车后市场的发展培养了大批优秀人才,同时也提升了自身的社会服务能力。%With the rapid rising of car ownership in China, the automotive aftermarket continues to grow stronger, which places a large number ofhigh-quality skilled personnel in great demand. Through adjusting specialties in time, carrying out a deep teaching reform and strengthening the construction of teaching team, higher vocational institutes have cultivated a large number of outstanding personnel for the automotive aftermarket and also improved their ability in social services.

  13. Compressed natural gas fueled vehicles: The Houston experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The report describes the experience of the City of Houston in defining the compressed natural gas fueled vehicle research scope and issues. It details the ways in which the project met initial expectations, and how the project scope, focus, and duration were adjusted in response to unanticipated results. It provides examples of real world successes and failures in efforts to commercialize basic research in adapting a proven technology (natural gas) to a noncommercially proven application (vehicles). Phase one of the demonstration study investigates, develops, documents, and disseminates information regarding the economic, operational, and environmental implications of utilizing compressed natural gas (CNG) in various truck fueling applications. The four (4) truck classes investigated are light duty gasoline trucks, medium duty gasoline trucks, medium duty diesel trucks and heavy duty diesel trucks. The project researches aftermarket CNG conversions for the first three vehicle classes and original equipment manufactured (OEM) CNG vehicles for light duty gasoline and heavy duty diesel classes. In phase two of the demonstration project, critical issues are identified and assessed with respect to implementing use of CNG fueled vehicles in a large vehicle fleet. These issues include defining changes in local, state, and industry CNG fueled vehicle related codes and standards; addressing vehicle fuel storage limitations; using standardized vehicle emission testing procedures and results; and resolving CNG refueling infrastructure implementation issues and related cost factors. The report identifies which CNG vehicle fueling options were tried and failed and which were tried and succeeded, with and without modifications. The conclusions include a caution regarding overly optimistic assessments of CNG vehicle technology at the initiation of the project.

  14. Spiral cooled fuel nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Timothy; Schilp, Reinhard

    2012-09-25

    A fuel nozzle for delivery of fuel to a gas turbine engine. The fuel nozzle includes an outer nozzle wall and a center body located centrally within the nozzle wall. A gap is defined between an inner wall surface of the nozzle wall and an outer body surface of the center body for providing fuel flow in a longitudinal direction from an inlet end to an outlet end of the fuel nozzle. A turbulating feature is defined on at least one of the central body and the inner wall for causing at least a portion of the fuel flow in the gap to flow transverse to the longitudinal direction. The gap is effective to provide a substantially uniform temperature distribution along the nozzle wall in the circumferential direction.

  15. Premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  16. Auto Aftermarket Independent Brend in Need

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2008-01-01

    @@ The first vehicle was sold out due to its look or function,while the second and the third vehicles would be easily sold out due to the sound after-sales service.From this old saying,we can see the importance of the after-sales service.

  17. 基于ASP汽车产业链平台的售后配件协同系统体系结构及集成技术%AftermarketParts Collaborative System and Architecture Integration Based on ASP Automotive Industry Chain Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕妮

    2011-01-01

    对三种不同的体系结构进行分析比对,结合售后配件系统业务单位分散的具体情况,给出了基于ASP汽车产业链平台的售后配件协同系统体系结构。此结构采用了B/S与C/S相结合的一个体系结构设计。并给出了此体系的物理部署及逻辑结构。为了将C/S与B/S两部分相互协同,研究了基于WebService代理和XML数据交换规则库平台数据交换接口。通过数据交换集成的平台体系结构在汽车产业链售后配件协同工作平台中的应用,有效的解决了企业间的业务协同。%Three different architectures for analysis and comparison,combined with the aftermarket parts business units dispersed system specific circumstances,given the ASP-based platform for the automotive aflermarket parts industry chain collaboration system architecture.This structure uses the B/S and C/S combination of an architectural design.And gives the physical deployment of this system and logical structure.ln order to C/S and B/S between the two parts together, research-based agent and XML Web Service data exchange rule base platform data exchange interface.Through an integrated platform for data exchange architecture in the automotive aftermarket parts industry chain collaboration platform for the application,effective solution to the inter-enterprise business collaboration.

  18. Monitoring of bunker fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M.

    2013-03-15

    Monitoring of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping is currently under discussion at the EU level as well as at the IMO (International Maritime Organization). There are several approaches to monitoring, each with different characteristics. Based on a survey of the literature and information from equipment suppliers, this report analyses the four main methods for monitoring emissions: (1) Bunker delivery notes (i.e. a note provided by the bunker fuel supplier specifying, inter alia, the amount of fuel bunkered); (2) Tank sounding (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel in the fuel tanks); (3) Fuel flow meters (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel supplied to the engines, generators or boilers); and (4) Direct emissions monitoring (i.e. measuring the exhaust emissions in the stack). The report finds that bunker delivery notes and tank soundings have the lowest investment cost. However, unless tank sounding is automated, these systems have higher operational costs than fuel flow meters or direct emissions monitoring because manual readings have to be entered in monitoring systems. Fuel flow meters have the highest potential accuracy. Depending on the technology selected, their accuracy can be an order of magnitude better than the other systems, which typically have errors of a few percent. By providing real-time feed-back on fuel use or emissions, fuel flow meters and direct emissions monitoring provide ship operators with the means to train their crew to adopt fuel-efficient sailing methods and to optimise their maintenance and hull cleaning schedules. Except for bunker delivery notes, all systems allow for both time-based and route-based (or otherwise geographically delineated) systems.

  19. Synthetic micro/nanomotors in drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wang, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Nanomachines offer considerable promise for the treatment of diseases. The ability of man-made nanomotors to rapidly deliver therapeutic payloads to their target destination represents a novel nanomedicine approach. Synthetic nanomotors, based on a multitude of propulsion mechanisms, have been developed over the past decade toward diverse biomedical applications. In this review article, we journey from the use of chemically powered drug-delivery nanovehicles to externally actuated (fuel-free) drug-delivery nanomachine platforms, and conclude with future prospects and challenges for such practical propelling drug-delivery systems. As future micro/nanomachines become more powerful and functional, these tiny devices are expected to perform more demanding biomedical tasks and benefit different drug delivery applications.

  20. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  1. eDelivery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — eDelivery provides the electronic packaging and delivery of closed and complete OPM investigation files to government agencies, including USAID, in a secure manner....

  2. NEW DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar Biresh K; Jain Devananda; Banerjee Angshu

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating an existing medicine into a new drug delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of efficacy, safety, and improved patient compliance. The need for delivering drugs to patients efficiently and with fewer side effects has prompted pharmaceutical companies to engage in the development of new drug delivery systems. Today, drug delivery companies are engaged in the development of multiple platform technologies for controlled release, delivery of large molecule...

  3. Advanced Materials and Processing for Drug Delivery: The Past and the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Chan, Hon Fai; Leong, Kam W.

    2012-01-01

    Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of vital importance for medicine and healthcare. Materials innovation and nanotechnology have synergistically fueled the advancement of drug delivery. Innovation in material chemistry allows the generation of biodegradable, biocompatible, environment-responsive, and targeted delivery systems. Nanotechnology enables control over size, shape and multi-functionality of particulate drug delivery systems. In this review, we focus on the m...

  4. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  5. NEW DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Biresh K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating an existing medicine into a new drug delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of efficacy, safety, and improved patient compliance. The need for delivering drugs to patients efficiently and with fewer side effects has prompted pharmaceutical companies to engage in the development of new drug delivery systems. Today, drug delivery companies are engaged in the development of multiple platform technologies for controlled release, delivery of large molecules, liposome, taste-masking, oral fast- dispersing dosage forms, technology for in- soluble drugs, and delivery of drugs through intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, vaginal, colon, and transmucosal routes.

  6. Coal-fueled diesel technology development -- Fuel injection equipment for coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N.; Hayden, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the abrasive and corrosive nature of coal water slurries, the development of coal-fueled diesel engine technology by GE-Transportation Systems (GE-TS) required special fuel injection equipment. GE-Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) undertook the design and development of fuel injectors, piston pumps, and check valves for this project. Components were tested at GE-CRD on a simulated engine cylinder, which included a cam-actuated jerk pump, prior to delivery to GE-TS for engine testing.

  7. Health care delivery systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, F; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    A health care delivery system is the organized response of a society to the health problems of its inhabitants. Societies choose from alternative health care delivery models and, in doing so, they organize and set goals and priorities in such a way that the actions of different actors are effective, meaningful, and socially accepted. From a sociological point of view, the analysis of health care delivery systems implies recognition of their distinct history over time, their specific values an...

  8. Project delivery system (PDS)

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    As business environments become increasingly competitive, companies seek more comprehensive solutions to the delivery of their projects. "Project Delivery System: Fourth Edition" describes the process-driven project delivery systems which incorporates the best practices from Total Quality and is aligned with the Project Management Institute and ISO Quality Standards is the means by which projects are consistently and efficiently planned, executed and completed to the satisfaction of clients and customers.

  9. The delivery commitment schedule process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, S.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Standard Contract for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) (herein referred to as the Contract) tasked the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the development of a transportation system adequate to service both utilities and the waste management system (WMS). Due to the nature of the Contract, this development must take place prior to the utilities' final determination of the specific SNF that they will deliver during each allocation period. The Delivery Commitment Schedule (DCS) process is designed to initiate the identification of the SNF that will be delivered at a given time in order to aid in the development of the transportation system.

  10. The delivery commitment schedule process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, S.A.

    1991-07-01

    The Standard Contract for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) (herein referred to as the Contract'') tasked the Department of Energy with the development of a transportation system adequate to service both utilities and the waste management system (WMS). Due to the nature of the Contract, this development must take place prior to the utilities' final determination of the specific SNF that they will deliver during each allocation period. The Delivery Commitment Schedule (DCS) process is designed to initiate the identification of the SNF that will be delivered at a given time in order to aid in the development of the transportation system. This paper highlights the aspects of the DCS process that will be beneficial to the development of the transportation system. 4 refs.

  11. Prediction of preterm delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.F. Wilms

    2014-01-01

    Preterm delivery is in quantity and in severity an important issue in the obstetric care in the Western world. There is considerable knowledge on maternal and obstetric risk factors of preterm delivery. Of the women presenting with preterm labor, the majority is pregnant with a male fetus and in Cau

  12. Health care delivery systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, F.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    A health care delivery system is the organized response of a society to the health problems of its inhabitants. Societies choose from alternative health care delivery models and, in doing so, they organize and set goals and priorities in such a way that the actions of different actors are effective,

  13. Fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  14. Twelve-Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.

    2009-12-01

    Results of an NREL study of a parallel hybrid electric-diesel propulsion system in United Parcel Service-operated delivery vans show that the hybrids had higher fuel economy than standard diesel vans.

  15. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  16. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vishvakarama Prabhakar; Agarwal Shivendra; Sharma Ritika; Saurabh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies have been developed for the transdermal delivery of some important drugs. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery and differs from traditional topical drug delivery. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms involve...

  17. High Efficiency Direct Methane Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a defined need for energy dense and highly efficient energy storage and power delivery systems for future space missions. Compared to other fuel cell...

  18. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Bharati, Pratyush

    We investigate antecedents and contingencies of location configurations supporting global delivery models (GDMs) in global outsourcing. GDMs are a new form of IT-enabled client-specific investment promoting services provision integration with clients by exploiting client proximity and time......-zone spread allowing for 24/7 service delivery and access to resources. Based on comprehensive data we show that providers are likely to establish GDM configurations when clients value access to globally distributed talent pools and speed of service delivery, and in particular when services are highly...

  19. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Larsen, Marcus M.; Bharati, Pratyush

    2013-01-01

    This article examines antecedents and performance implications of global delivery models (GDMs) in global business services. GDMs require geographically distributed operations to exploit both proximity to clients and time-zone spread for efficient service delivery. We propose and empirically show...... that service providers who differentiate based on speed of service delivery are likely to set up GDM structures, and that these structures positively affect deal renewal rates if speed is important for clients in selecting vendors. Findings imply that, as co-location becomes less necessary for providing...... digitalized services, time zones increasingly affect....

  20. Residential fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, T. [Santa Fuel, Inc., Bridgeport, CT (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report details progress made in improving the performance of No. 2 heating oil in residential applications. Previous research in this area is documented in papers published in the Brookhaven Oil Heat Technology Conference Proceedings in 1993, 1994 and 1996. By way of review we have investigated a number of variables in the search for improved fuel system performance. These include the effect of various additives designed to address stability, dispersion, biotics, corrosion and reaction with metals. We have also investigated delivery methods, filtration, piping arrangements and the influence of storage tank size and location. As a result of this work Santa Fuel Inc. in conjunction with Mobile Oil Corporation have identified an additive package which shows strong evidence of dramatically reducing the occurrence of fuel system failures in residential oil burners. In a broad market roll-out of the additized product we have experienced a 29% reduction in fuel related service calls when comparing the 5 months ending January 1997 to the same period ending January 1996.

  1. Optimisation of fuel stocks under liberalisation of energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the influence of regional fuel stocks on the reliability of the energy sector's activities in a given region. The authors give classification of stocks by their purpose and describe their role in avoiding energy shortage situations. The fuel deficiency at a regional fuel market is shown in connection with the resulting loss for the national economy. The authors employ imitative modelling for investigation of fuel supply schemes acting in Latvia. They estimate possible expenses on the maintenance of fuels - such as gas, residual oil, and coal - for different variants of fuel delivery. (author)

  2. Fuel distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.

    1979-07-01

    Distribution of fuel is considered from a supply point to the secondary conversion sites and ultimate end users. All distribution is intracity with the maximum distance between the supply point and end-use site generally considered to be 15 mi. The fuels discussed are: coal or coal-like solids, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Although the fuel state, i.e., gas, liquid, etc., can have a major impact on the distribution system, the source of these fuels (e.g., naturally-occurring or coal-derived) does not. Single-source, single-termination point and single-source, multi-termination point systems for liquid, gaseous, and solid fuel distribution are considered. Transport modes and the fuels associated with each mode are: by truck - coal, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, and No. 6 fuel oil; and by pipeline - coal, methane, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Data provided for each distribution system include component makeup and initial costs.

  3. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  4. Project Delivery Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Describes project delivery methods that are replacing the traditional Design/Bid/Build linear approach to the management, design, and construction of new facilities. These variations can enhance construction management and teamwork. (SLD)

  5. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  6. [Transdermal Delivery of NSAIDs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Takehisa; Makino, Kimiko

    2015-11-01

    Skin has been studied as administration site of drug for its systemic effects, since systemic therapeutic agents can be delivered for long time with a controlled ratio, escaping from the first pass effect by liver by the transdermal delivery, which can decrease the dosage form. The low permeability of drug molecules through stratum corneum has been the limiting factor for developing transdermal delivery system of therapeutic agents. To enhance the permeability of drug molecules, many studies have been reported. PMID:26689064

  7. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  8. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Malinowski, M.E.; Wally, K. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a newly developed fuel cell vehicle hydride storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. An experimental test facility, the Hydride Bed Testing Laboratory (HBTL) has been designed and fabricated. The development of this facility and its use in storage system development will be reviewed. These two capabilities (analytical and experimental) form the basis of an integrated approach to storage system design and development. The initial focus of these activities has been on hydride utilization for vehicular applications.

  9. Nuclear Fusion Fuel Cycle Research Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, we at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and our National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) colleagues are investigating nuclear fusion fuel cycle hardware including a nuclear fusion fuel Storage and Delivery System (SDS). To have a better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we present our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). To have better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we presented our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). Our efforts to enhance the tritium confinement will be continued for the development of cleaner nuclear fusion power plants

  10. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  11. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.)

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-48a - Oil fuel unit-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil fuel unit-TB/ALL. 30.10-48a Section 30.10-48a...-48a Oil fuel unit—TB/ALL. The term oil fuel unit means the equipment used for the preparation of oil fuel for delivery to an oil fired boiler, the equipment used for the preparation of heated oil fuel...

  13. A Direct DME High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng;

    2012-01-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been identified as an alternative to methanol for use in direct fuel cells. It combines the advantages of hydrogen in terms of pumpless fuel delivery and high energy density like methanol, but without the toxicity of the latter. The performance of a direct dimethyl ether ...

  14. 2015 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-23

    The 2015 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2015 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production; hydrogen delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; systems analysis; and market transformation.

  15. Potentiality of the Usage of Compressed Natural Gas for Competitiveness in Service Delivery Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Mohammad Hasan Jamil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. With the rising costs of gasoline, many vehicle owners are looking for alternatives of it. Compressed natural gas (CNG has been tested for this very purpose in some countries and found as a better alternative so far. CNG comes from country’s natural resources and it is clean and less costly to use. This paper is mainly an analysis of the potential benefits of using natural gas as a transportation fuel by the service delivery industries. It will examine CNG’s potential contribution in reducing delivery and vehicle maintenance cost, saving money in the long run projects, improving fuel efficiency, enhancing physical safety and assuring environment friendly emissions of carbon monoxide or reactive gases for the service delivery industries.Keywords: Compressed natural gas (CNG, Service Delivery, Fossil fuel, Global warming, Competitiveness

  16. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  17. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will reach 49 million kW in 1985 and 129 million kW in 1995, and the nuclear fuel having to be supplied and processed will increase in proportion to these values. The technical problems concerning nuclear fuel are presented on the basis of the balance between the benefit for human beings and the burden on the human beings. Recently, especially the downstream of nuclear fuel attracts public attention. Enriched uranium as the raw material for light water reactor fuel is almost monopolized by the U.S., and the technical information has not been published for fear of the diversion to nuclear weapons. In this paper, the present situations of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal and the future problems are described according to the path of nuclear fuel cycle. The demand and supply of enriched uranium in Japan will be balanced up to about 1988, but afterwards, the supply must rely upon the early establishment of the domestic technology by centrifugal separation method. No problem remains in the fabrication of light water reactor fuel, but for the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel, the mechanization of the production facility and labor saving are necessary. The solution of the capital risk for the construction of the second reprocessing plant is the main problem. Japan must develop waste disposal techniques with all-out efforts. (Kako, I.)

  18. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Bharati, Pratyush M.

    2015-01-01

    Global delivery models (GDMs) are transforming the global IT and business process outsourcing industry. GDMs are a new form of client-specific investment promoting service integration with clients by combining client proximity with time-zone spread for 24/7 service operations. We investigate...... antecedents and contingencies of setting up GDM structures. Based on comprehensive data we show that providers are likely to establish GDM location configurations when clients value access to globally distributed talent and speed of service delivery, in particular when services are highly commoditized...

  19. Recent advances in fuel product and manufacturing process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses advancements in commercial nuclear fuel products and manufacturing made by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in response to the commercial nuclear fuel industry's demand for high reliability, increased plant availability and improved operating flexibility. The features and benefits of Westinghouse's most advanced fuel products--VANTAGE 5 for PWR plants and QUAD+ for BWR plants--are described, as well as high performance fuel concepts now under development for delivery in the late 1980s. The paper also discusses the importance of in-process quality control throughout manufacturing towards reducing product variability and improving fuel reliability

  20. Recent advances in fuel product and manufacturing process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses advancements in commercial nuclear fuel products and manufacturing made by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in response to the commercial nuclear fuel industry's demand for high reliability, increased plant availability and improved operating flexibility. The features and benefits of Westinghouse's most advanced fuel products--VANTAGE 5 for PWR plants and QUAD+ for BWR plants--are described, as well as 'high performance' fuel concepts now under development for delivery in the late 1980s. The paper also disusses the importance of in-process quality control throughout manufacturing towards reducing product variability and improving fuel reliability. (author)

  1. Service Delivery Indicators : Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gayle H.; Pimhidzai, Obert

    2013-01-01

    Without consistent and accurate information on the quality of services, it is difficult for citizens or politicians (the principal) to assess how service providers (the agent) are performing and to take corrective action. The service delivery indicators (SDI) provide a set of metrics to benchmark the performance of schools and health clinics in Africa. The indicators can be used to track p...

  2. A Medical Delivery Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a medical delivery device comprising at least two membrane electrode assembly units each of which comprises three layers: an upper and a lower electrode and a selective ionic conductive membrane provided there-between. At least one of the three layers are shared...

  3. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems for oral insulin delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ping; Tan, Angel; Prestidge, Clive A;

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the combination of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) and enteric-coated capsules as a potential delivery strategy for oral delivery of insulin. The SNEDDS preconcentrates, loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex at different levels (0, 2.5 and 10% w...

  4. MEMS: Enabled Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Angelica; Sheybani, Roya; Meng, Ellis

    2015-05-01

    Drug delivery systems play a crucial role in the treatment and management of medical conditions. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies have allowed the development of advanced miniaturized devices for medical and biological applications. This Review presents the use of MEMS technologies to produce drug delivery devices detailing the delivery mechanisms, device formats employed, and various biomedical applications. The integration of dosing control systems, examples of commercially available microtechnology-enabled drug delivery devices, remaining challenges, and future outlook are also discussed.

  5. Microprocessor controlled transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramony, J Anand; Sharma, Ashutosh; Phipps, J B

    2006-07-01

    Transdermal drug delivery via iontophoresis is reviewed with special focus on the delivery of lidocaine for local anesthesia and fentanyl for patient controlled acute therapy such as postoperative pain. The role of the microprocessor controller in achieving dosimetry, alternating/reverse polarity, pre-programmed, and sensor-based delivery is highlighted. Unique features such as the use of tactile signaling, telemetry control, and pulsatile waveforms in iontophoretic drug delivery are described briefly.

  6. Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Srivastava

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of development of fuel cells as potential power sources is reviewed. Applications in special fields with particular reference to military requirements are pointed out.

  7. Fuel cell power system for utility vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, M.; Barbir, F.; Marken, F.; Nadal, M. [Energy Partners, Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Based on the experience of designing and building the Green Car, a fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, and Genesis, a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell powered transporter, Energy Partners has developed a fuel cell power system for propulsion of an off-road utility vehicle. A 10 kW hydrogen/air fuel cell stack has been developed as a prototype for future mass production. The main features of this stack are discussed in this paper. Design considerations and selection criteria for the main components of the vehicular fuel cell system, such as traction motor, air compressor and compressor motor, hydrogen storage and delivery, water and heat management, power conditioning, and control and monitoring subsystem are discussed in detail.

  8. Report of the Production and Delivery Subgroup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R; Zalesky, R

    2004-11-01

    The Production and Delivery Subgroup was tasked with evaluating the various options that could be used for hydrogen production and delivery in terms of availability/industry readiness, technical and economic barriers, and environmental considerations. Hydrogen can be produced using a variety of feedstocks and conversion technologies. The feedstock options include water, natural gas, coal, petroleum, methanol, ethanol, biomass, and organic waste streams. Ultimately, using these domestic resources we will be able to produce all the hydrogen we will need for the complete conversion of our transportation infrastructure. The various conversion technologies include electrolysis, reforming (principally of natural gas, but also ethanol and methanol), photobiological and photoelectrochemical, biofermentation, pyrolysis and gasification of biomass and coal, high temperature thermochemical, and catalytic membranes. All of these production technologies are being actively researched by DOE's Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT); and other offices within DOE support work that complements the HFCIT Program activities. In addition, private industry is also dedicating significant resources to these efforts. In establishing the California Hydrogen Highway Network (CA H2 Net) we must utilize both distributed (that is, hydrogen that is produced at the point of use) as well as centralized production of hydrogen. Because of technical and economic barriers, most of the technologies for hydrogen production listed above will not become practical for either mode of hydrogen production in large quantities until at least the 2015-2030 timeframe. In the near term, that is, the transitional period between now and 2010 when we will establish a widely available hydrogen fueling infrastructure in California, the distributed production options of reforming and electrolysis will play the dominant role. In addition, production of hydrogen at centralized plants

  9. Flexible fuel engine based on multi-combustion control technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaolu; HUANG Zhen; QIAO Xinqi; SONG Jun; FANG Junhua; XIA Huimin

    2005-01-01

    A combustion control strategy is proposed for diesel engine to reduce PM and NOx emissions significantly, which adopts some technologies including internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), split spray, adjustable fuel delivery advance angle and the application of alternative fuels. Based on this strategy, a flexible fuel engine has been developed. The experimental results show that this engine can be fueled with diesel fuel, alcohol, dimethyl carbonate (DMC), etc. It works with extremely low levels of particulate matter (PM) and NOx, 2~3% higher effective thermal efficiency on moderate and high loads when alternative fuels are used. This engine not only has lower exhaust emissions, but also can be fueled with those alternative fuels, which are difficult to be ignited by compression.

  10. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To reconstruct a BWR type reactor into a high conversion reactor with no substantial changes for the reactor inner structure such as control rod structure. Constitution: The horizontal cross sectional shape of a channel box is reformed into a square configuration and the arrangement of fuel rods is formed as a trigonal lattice-like configuration. As a method of improving the conversion ratio, there is considered to use a dense lattice by narrowing the distance between fuel rods and trigonal lattice arrangement for fuel rod is advantageous therefor. A square shape cross sectional configuration having equal length both in the lateral and longitudinal directions is suitable for the channel box as a guide upon movement of the control rod. Fuel rods can be arranged with no loss by the trigonal lattice configuration, by which it is possible to improve the neutron moderation, increase the reactor core reactivity and conduct effective fuel combustion. In this way, it is possible to attain the object by inserting the follower portion of the control rod at the earier half and extracting the same at the latter half during the operation period in the reactor core comprising fuel assemblies suitable to a high conversion BWR type reactor having average conversion ratio of about 0.8. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. An overview of Ball Aerospace cryogen storage and delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, J.; Keller, J.; Mills, G.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Starting on the Gemini program in the 1960s, Beech Aircraft (now Ball Aerospace) has been designing and manufacturing dewars for a variety of cryogens including liquid hydrogen and oxygen. These dewars flew on the Apollo, Skylab and Space Shuttle spacecraft providing fuel cell reactants resulting in over 150 manned spaceflights. Since Space Shuttle, Ball has also built the liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for the Boeing Phantom Eye unmanned aerial vehicle. Returning back to its fuel cell days, Ball has designed, built and tested a volume-constrained liquid hydrogen and oxygen tank system for reactant delivery to fuel cells on unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs). Herein past history of Ball technology is described. Testing has been completed on the UUV specific design, which will be described.

  12. Effect of aftermarket automobile window tinting films on driver vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, J; Ridder, W; Yeung, K; De Land, P

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the level of automobile window tint that causes a significant reduction of vision for automobile drivers. Contrast sensitivity was measured on 20 participants, of whom 10 were age 20 to 29 years and 10 were age 60 to 69 years, through a stock automobile window (control) and two windows darkened with plastic film. For the younger drivers, a car window with 37% transmittance did not significantly reduce contrast sensitivity, but a darker tint of 18% transmittance reduced contrast sensitivity at higher spatial frequencies. For the older drivers, a tint of 37% transmittance significantly reduced mid-to- high spatial frequency contrast sensitivity. The typical state standard (no tint with less than 35% transmittance) would thus seem to be appropriate for younger drivers; however, further examination of the standard may be necessary in regard to older drivers. Actual or potential applications of this research include guidelines and regulations regarding tinting of automobile windows. PMID:11022888

  13. Integrated After-Market Solar Panel Antennas for Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Turpin, Timothy; Mahmoud, Mahmoud; Baktur, Reyhan; Furse, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    The majority of surface area on a small satellite is taken up by solar panels for power. Integrating antennas with solar panels, would save a valuable amount of satellite surface area, and thus directly contribute to the size reduction and multi-functionality of solar panel. Furthermore, such integration does not require deployed mechanism and therefore is cost-friendly design.Two types of integrations are presented in this paper. The first type is to place optically transparent antennas dire...

  14. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamatullah Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.

  15. Compact SPS - Power delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospisil, M.; Pospisilova, L.

    1982-09-01

    The power deliverable by a compact solar Space Power Station (SPS) is a function of its outer surface shape. Methods of fitting the power delivery curve of such a system to different patterns of daily power demand are considered that involve the appropriate choice of the number of satellites, their maximal power, height to width ratio and the shift of longitude with respect to the receiving station. Changes in the daily delivery curve can be made by altering the longitudes and orientations of the satellites. Certain limitations to the choice of parameters exist, such as: the height to width ratio should be near 1.2, and the sum of longitude and orientation changes will probably not be greater than 50 deg. The optimization of the peak to average power ratio is also discussed.

  16. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  17. Pyomyositis after vaginal delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaughan, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Pyomyositis is a purulent infection of skeletal muscle that arises from haematogenous spread, usually with abscess formation. It can develop after a transient bacteraemia of any cause. This type of infection has never been reported before in the literature after vaginal delivery. A 34-year-old woman had progressive severe pain in the left buttock and thigh and weakness in the left lower limb day 1 post spontaneous vaginal delivery. MRI showed severe oedema of the left gluteus, iliacus, piriformis and adductor muscles of the left thigh and a small fluid collection at the left hip joint. She was diagnosed with pyomyositis. She had fever of 37.9°C immediately postpartum and her risk factors for bacteraemia were a mild IV cannula-associated cellulitis and labour itself. She required prolonged treatment with antibiotics before significant clinical improvement was noted.

  18. Identifying the potential CO2-efficiency for the Deutsche Post DHL delivery fleet based on vehicle technology scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Propfe, Bernd; Schlaghecken, Georg; Jüchter, Achim; Schmid, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    In order to identify the CO2-reduction potential of the German delivery fleet of Deutsche Post DHL, this study analyzes 3 different fleet scenarios. Based on a newly developed driving cycle that matches the specific requirements of delivery trucks, fuel consumptions for 6 different types of powertrains have been simulated. Subsequently, 3 fleet scenarios up to 2020 have been calculated with VECTOR21. A comparison of potential CO2-reductions and corresponding costs for the entire delivery f...

  19. Nanovehicular intracellular delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Ales; Davidson, Jeffrey M

    2008-09-01

    This article provides an overview of principles and barriers relevant to intracellular drug and gene transport, accumulation and retention (collectively called as drug delivery) by means of nanovehicles (NV). The aim is to deliver a cargo to a particular intracellular site, if possible, to exert a local action. Some of the principles discussed in this article apply to noncolloidal drugs that are not permeable to the plasma membrane or to the blood-brain barrier. NV are defined as a wide range of nanosized particles leading to colloidal objects which are capable of entering cells and tissues and delivering a cargo intracelullarly. Different localization and targeting means are discussed. Limited discussion on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is also presented. NVs are contrasted to micro-delivery and current nanotechnologies which are already in commercial use. Newer developments in NV technologies are outlined and future applications are stressed. We also briefly review the existing modeling tools and approaches to quantitatively describe the behavior of targeted NV within the vascular and tumor compartments, an area of particular importance. While we list "elementary" phenomena related to different level of complexity of delivery to cancer, we also stress importance of multi-scale modeling and bottom-up systems biology approach. PMID:18200527

  20. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the neutron flux distribution and the power distribution of a fuel assembly in which short fuel rods vary greatly in the vicinity of a boundary where the distribution of uranium amount is different, the reading value of local power range monitors, having the detectors positioned in the vicinity of the boundary is varied. Then in the present invention, the upper end of the effective axial length of fuel rod is so made as not approaching with the detection position of the local power range monitor in a reactor core. Further, the upper end of the effective axial length of fuel rods in a 4 x 4 fuel rod lattice positioned at the corner on the side of the local power range monitor is so made as not approaching the detection position of the local power range monitor. As a result, the change of the neutron flux distribution and power distribution in the vicinity of the position where the detector of the local power range monitor is situated can be extremely reduced. Accordingly, there is no scattering and fluctuation for the reading value by the local power range monitor, to improve the monitoring performance for thermal characteristics in the reactor core. (N.H.)

  1. Fuel flowmeters - measurements of fuel consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nešpor, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This work is devoted to measuring the fuel consumption. Generally deals with factors affecting consumption and fuels. Furthermore, it describes methods of measuring fuel consumption under the driving modes. Finally, the paper deals with the calculations, the actual selection of fuel gauge, economy and efficiency evaluation of fuel consumption. The conclusion of this work summarizes the above findings.

  2. Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Applications Imaging, Targeting, and Delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This book clearly demonstrates the progression of nanoparticle therapeutics from basic research to applications. Unlike other books covering nanoparticles used in medical applications, Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Applications presents the medical challenges that can be reduced or even overcome by recent advances in nanoscale drug delivery. Each chapter highlights recent progress in the design and engineering of select multifunctional nanoparticles with topics covering targeting, imaging, delivery, diagnostics, and therapy.

  3. Construyendo a Natural Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Vélez, Andrés Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Natural Delivery es una compañía creada por un grupo de jóvenes emprendedores de la Universidad EAFIT quienes identificaron en el mercado local de Medellín la oportunidad de replicar un modelo de negocio totalmente nuevo para la ciudad, pero exitoso en otras partes del mundo: Una propuesta de comida saludable a domicilio con la cual el consumidor puede comprar desde uno hasta 120 platos que le permiten llevar un estilo de vida saludable -- La propuesta de valor radica en una alimentación gour...

  4. Web Content Delivery Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Bayat Pour, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Milliseconds matters, when they’re counted. If we consider the life of the universe into one single year, then on 31 December at 11:59:59.5 PM, “speed” was transportation’s concern, and now after 500 milliseconds it is web’s, and no one knows whose concern it would be in coming milliseconds, but at this very moment; this thesis proposes an optimization method, mainly for content delivery on slow connections. The method utilizes a proxy as a middle box to fetch the content; requested by a clie...

  5. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  6. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar;

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  7. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  8. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wiedmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  9. Delivery methods for LVSD systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasner, James H.; Brower, Bernard V.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we present formats and delivery methods of Large Volume Streaming Data (LVSD) systems. LVSD systems collect TBs of data per mission with aggregate camera sizes in the 100 Mpixel to several Gpixel range at temporal rates of 2 - 60 Hz. We present options and recommendations for the different stages of LVSD data collection and delivery, to include the raw (multi-camera) data, delivery of processed (stabilized mosaic) data, and delivery of user-defined region of interest windows. Many LVSD systems use JPEG 2000 for the compression of raw and processed data. We explore the use of the JPEG 2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) for interactive client/server delivery to thick-clients (desktops and laptops) and MPEG-2 and H.264 to handheld thin-clients (tablets, cell phones). We also explore the use of 3D JPEG 2000 compression, defined in ISO 15444-2, for storage and delivery as well. The delivery of raw, processed, and region of interest data requires different metadata delivery techniques and metadata content. Beyond the format and delivery of data and metadata we discuss the requirements for a client/server protocol that provides data discovery and retrieval. Finally, we look into the future as LVSD systems perform automated processing to produce "information" from the original data. This information may include tracks of moving targets, changes of the background, snap shots of targets, fusion of multiple sensors, and information about "events" that have happened.

  10. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  11. SCENARIO OF WOOD-FUEL PROCUREMENT FOR A NEW BOILER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimov Y. Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the results of computer simulation of wood harvesting in the North Ladoga region with wood-fuel production and delivery of its part to the new boiler plant in Suojarvi being under construction

  12. Fuel trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first part of this report proposes an overview of trends and predictions. After a synthesis on the sector changes and trends, it indicates and comments the most recent predictions for the consumption of refined oil products and for the turnover of the fuel wholesale market, reports the main highlights concerning the sector's life, and gives a dashboard of the sector activity. The second part proposes the annual report on trends and competition. It presents the main operator profiles and fuel categories, the main determining factors of the activity, the evolution of the sector context between 2005 and 2015 (consumptions, prices, temperature evolution). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity and indicators (sales, turnovers, prices, imports). Financial performances of enterprises are presented. The economic structure of the sector is described (evolution of the economic fabric, structural characteristics, French foreign trade). Actors are then presented and ranked in terms of turnover, of added value, and of result

  13. Fuel injection and mixing systems and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John

    2010-08-03

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided. The system includes an injector body having a fuel inlet and a fuel outlet, and defines a fuel flow path between the inlet and outlet. The fuel flow path may include a generally helical flow passage having an inlet end portion disposed proximate the fuel inlet of the injector body. The flow path also may include an expansion chamber downstream from and in fluid communication with the helical flow passage, as well as a fuel delivery device in fluid communication with the expansion chamber for delivering fuel. Heating means is also provided in thermal communication with the injector body. The heating means may be adapted and configured for maintaining the injector body at a predetermined temperature to heat fuel traversing the flow path. A method of preheating and delivering fuel is also provided.

  14. Rhythmomimetic drug delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Calderer, M Carme; Siegel, Ronald A; Yao, Lingxing

    2015-01-01

    We present modeling, analysis and numerical simulation of a prototype glucose driven drug delivery device based on chemomechanical interactions and volume phase transitions in polyelectrolyte gels. The device consists of two fluid compartments, an external cell (I) mimicking the physiological environment, and a closed chamber (II), separated by a hydrogel membrane. Cell I, which is held at constant pH and ionic strength, provides a constant supply of glucose to cell II, and also serves as clearance station for reaction products. Cell II contains the drug to be delivered to the body, an enzyme that catalyzes conversion of glucose into hydrogen ions, and a piece of marble to remove excess hydrogen ions that would otherwise overwhelm the system. When the membrane is swollen, glucose flux into Cell II is high, leading to rapid production of hydrogen ions. However, the hydrogen ions are not immediately released to Cell I but react, instead, with the negatively charged carboxyl groups of the membrane, which collaps...

  15. Drug delivery goes supercritical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Ginty

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In the field of drug delivery, the ability to control the size, morphology, and release of drug particles is fundamental to good targeting, but is often hampered by harsh processing conditions or inadequate methods; likewise for the processing of polymeric controlled-release systems. However, the use of supercritical fluids such as supercritical CO2 (scCO2 has provided a ‘clean’ and effective alternative to traditional methods of drug and polymer processing. In particular, scCO2 has a number of unique properties that make it possible to process both bioactive molecules and amorphous polymers without using toxic organic solvents or elevated temperatures. Here, we review the positive impact that supercritical fluids have had on the micronization, encapsulation, and impregnation of molecules of interest to both the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  16. Buccal delivery of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Jacobsen, Jette

    2013-01-01

    The oral cavity is considered an attractive site of drug administration. Metformin is currently, used in oral diabetes treatment. The aim of the current study was to study the feasibility of metformin, to permeate the buccal epithelium applying a bioadhesive and permeation enhancing drug delivery...... system. The in vitro TR146 cell culture model was used to study the effect of drug concentration (5-100mM) and the impact of a bioadhesive chitosan formulation (discs) and chitosan in solution (0-20mg/mL) acting as a permeation enhancer. The permeation of metformin occurred by passive diffusion via...... the paracellular pathway driven by the concentration gradient, yet with a possibility of increasing the metformin transport by using higher, donor concentrations. When using floating baskets, as a new application of the TR146 cell culture model, it was possible to observe a time-dependent effect of the bioadhesive...

  17. Fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provide a fuel rod used in a BWR type reactor, preventing the occurrence of defects of weld portions and improving the operationability of test and assembling operation to improve the quality of weld portions. Namely, the fuel rod is formed by loading a plurality of fuel pellets in a cladding tube. The outer diameter of a groove portion of a tightly sealing end plug to be inserted and welded to the open end of the cladding tube is made substantially identical with the inner diameter of the cladding tube. A neck portion having a diameter smaller than the outer diameter of the groove portion is disposed between an end plug main body and the groove portion. As a result, since the outer diameter of the groove portion is substantially identical with the inner diameter of the cladding tube, the positioning is facilitated. Since the neck portion having a smaller diameter than the outer diameter of the groove portion is disposed in the groove portion, a gap is formed in the welded portion thereby enabling to facilitate the confirmation of weld sag for confirming integrity of the weld by a non-destructive test. (I.S.)

  18. NEWER STRATEGIES FOR INSULIN DELIVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Nisha; Lokwani Priyanka; Kaushik Avinash Yogendraji; Sharma Ritu

    2011-01-01

    Insulin is a proteinaceous hormone produced in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas and used as a treatment in the diabetes mellitus. Successful oral insulin delivery involves overcoming the enzymatic and physical barriers and taking steps to conserve bioactivity during formulation processing. Newer strategies for insulin delivery include insulin pen injector, Refillable insulin injection pen, Insulin Syringe, Transfersome and Implantable insulin pumps.

  19. Decationized polyplexes for gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novo, L.; Mastrobattista, E.; Nostrum, van C.F.; Lammers, T.G.G.M.; Hennink, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy has received much attention in the field of drug delivery. Synthetic, nonviral gene delivery systems have gained increasing attention as vectors for gene therapy mainly due to a favorable immunogenicity profile and ease of manufacturing as compared to viral vectors. The great majority o

  20. Local Service Delivery in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of public service delivery depends in large part on the capability, resources and inputs, and the motivation of frontline service providers at the local level. In Nepal a combination of de-concentrated line agencies and local bodies at the district, municipal, and village level provides inputs which are translated into delivery of service outputs and outcomes. Yet the rel...

  1. Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Service Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Virginia Rehabilitation Research and Training Center, Dunbar.

    This volume consisting of state of the art reviews, suggestions and guidelines for practitioners, and program descriptions deals with the current and potential applications of computers in the delivery of services for vocational rehabilitation (VR). Discussed first are current applications of computer technology in rehabilitative service delivery.…

  2. Effects of Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel on combustion and emissions of direct injection diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcheng HUANG; Shangxue WANG; Longbao ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    Effects of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel fuel on the combustion and emission characteristics of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine under different fuel delivery advance angles were investigated. The experi-mental results show that F-T diesel fuel exhibits shorter ignition delay, lower peak values of premixed burning rate, lower combustion pressure and pressure rise rate, and higher peak value of diffusion burning rate than con-ventional diesel fuel when the engine remains unmodified. In addition, the unmodified engine with F-T diesel fuel has lower brake specific fuel consumption and higher effective thermal efficiency, and presents lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions than conventional diesel fuel. When fuel delivery advance angle is retarded by 3 crank angle degrees, the combustion duration is obviously shor-tened; the peak values of premixed burning rate, the com-bustion pressure and pressure rise rate are further reduced; and the peak value of diffusion burning rate is further increased for F-T diesel fuel operation, Moreover, the retardation of fuel delivery advance angle results in a further significant reduction in NOx emissions with no penalty on specific fuel consumption and with much less penalty on HC, CO and smoke emissions.

  3. LMFBR fuel component costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant portion of the cost of fabricating LMFBR fuels is in the non-fuel components such as fuel pin cladding, fuel assembly ducts and end fittings. The contribution of these to fuel fabrication costs, based on FFTF experience and extrapolated to large LMFBR fuel loadings, is discussed. The extrapolation considers the expected effects of LMFBR development programs in progress on non-fuel component costs

  4. Generation of synthesis gas for fuels and chemicals production

    OpenAIRE

    Tunå, Per

    2013-01-01

    Many scientists believe that the oil production will peak in the near future, if the peak has not already occurred. Peak oil theories and uncertain future oil deliveries have stimulated interest in alternative sources of fuel and chemicals. This interest has been enhanced by concerns about energy security and about the climate change caused by emissions of carbon dioxide. The result has been increased interest in substituting fossil fuels with renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and ...

  5. Design and performance of a prototype fuel cell powered vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P.A.; Chamberlin, C.E. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) is now engaged in the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project. The Project involves a consortium which includes the City of Palm Desert, SERC, the U.S. Department of Energy, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and Sandia and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Its goal to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community will be accomplished by producing a fleet of fuel cell vehicles, installing a refueling infrastructure utilizing hydrogen generated from solar and wind power, and developing and staffing a fuel cell service and diagnostic center. We will describe details of the project and performance goals for the fuel cell vehicles and associated peripheral systems. In the past year during the first stage in the project, SERC has designed and built a prototype fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle (PUV). These steps included: (1) Designing, building, and testing a 4.0 kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a power plant for the PUV. (2) Designing, building and testing peripherals including the air delivery, fuel storage/delivery, refueling, water circulation, cooling, and electrical systems. (3) Devising a control algorithm for the fuel cell power plant in the PUV. (4) Designing and building a test bench in which running conditions in the PUV could be simulated and the fuel cell and its peripheral systems tested. (5) Installing an onboard computer and associated electronics into the PUV (6) Assembling and road testing the PUV.

  6. Magnetically Modulated Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyavati S, Koppisetti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic drug delivery is a novel approach to delivery drug using engineered ’smart’ micro carriers which appears to overcome a number of limitations facing current methods of delivering medicines. The drug and a suitable ferrofluid are formulated into a pharmaceutically stable formulation which is usually injected through the artery that supplies the target organ or tumor in the presence of an external magnetic field. Depending on the fabrication method, particle size and nature they are named as magnetic microspheres, magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic liposomes etc. This review gives the information regarding the all possible formulations that can be designed using magnetism as the drug delivery mode.

  7. Proceedings of the 5th International workshop on hydrogen and fuel cells WICaC 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The 5th International Workshop on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells - WICaC 2010 aims to bring the most recent advances on fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. The conference will address the trends on hydrogen production, distribution, delivery, storage and infrastructure as well as fuel cell research, development, demonstration and commercialization. Some of the issues addressed at WICaC 2010 are: the official Brazilian hydrogen and fuel cell programs and its participation in the international programs and partnerships such as the IPHE (The International Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Economy); the integration of renewable energy sources with hydrogen and fuel cell systems; the challenges to deploy the commercialization and use of fuel cells and hydrogen; distributed generation of energy; fuel cell uses in portable devices and in vehicles; life-cycle assessment of fuel cells and hydrogen technologies; environmental aspects; energy efficiency.

  8. 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  9. 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  10. 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 9-13, 2011, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  11. 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 13-17, 2013, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  12. 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2012, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  13. Oral delivery of anticancer drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanki, Kaushik; Gangwal, Rahul P; Sangamwar, Abhay T;

    2013-01-01

    The present report focuses on the various aspects of oral delivery of anticancer drugs. The significance of oral delivery in cancer therapeutics has been highlighted which principally includes improvement in quality of life of patients and reduced health care costs. Subsequently, the challenges...... incurred in the oral delivery of anticancer agents have been especially emphasized. Sincere efforts have been made to compile the various physicochemical properties of anticancer drugs from either literature or predicted in silico via GastroPlus™. The later section of the paper reviews various emerging...... trends to tackle the challenges associated with oral delivery of anticancer drugs. These invariably include efflux transporter based-, functional excipient- and nanocarrier based-approaches. The role of drug nanocrystals and various others such as polymer based- and lipid based...

  14. Continuous Delivery and Quality Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    After introducing Continuous Delivery, I will switch the topic and try to answer the question how much should we invest in quality and how to do it efficiently. My observations reveal that software quality is often considered as the slo...

  15. Bioresponsive matrices in drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye George JC

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For years, the field of drug delivery has focused on (1 controlling the release of a therapeutic and (2 targeting the therapeutic to a specific cell type. These research endeavors have concentrated mainly on the development of new degradable polymers and molecule-labeled drug delivery vehicles. Recent interest in biomaterials that respond to their environment have opened new methods to trigger the release of drugs and localize the therapeutic within a particular site. These novel biomaterials, usually termed "smart" or "intelligent", are able to deliver a therapeutic agent based on either environmental cues or a remote stimulus. Stimuli-responsive materials could potentially elicit a therapeutically effective dose without adverse side effects. Polymers responding to different stimuli, such as pH, light, temperature, ultrasound, magnetism, or biomolecules have been investigated as potential drug delivery vehicles. This review describes the most recent advances in "smart" drug delivery systems that respond to one or multiple stimuli.

  16. Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-09-01

    A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

  17. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  18. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  19. KMRR fuel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KMRR fuel rod design criteria on fuel swelling, blistering and oxide spallation have been reexamined. Fuel centerline temperature limit of 250deg C in normal operation condition and fuel swelling limit of 12 % at the end of life have been proposed to prevent fuel failure due to excessive fuel swelling. Fuel temperature limit of 485deg C has been proposed to exclude the possibility of fuel failures during transients or under accident condition. Further analyses are needed to decide the fuel cladding temperature limit to preclude the oxide spallation. Design changes in fuel assembly structure and their effects on related systems have been reviewed from a structural integrity viewpoint. The remained works in fuel mechanical design area have been identified and further efforts of fuel design group will be focused on these aspects. (Author)

  20. Discrimination in Online Ad Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Latanya

    2013-01-01

    A Google search for a person's name, such as "Trevon Jones", may yield a personalized ad for public records about Trevon that may be neutral, such as "Looking for Trevon Jones?", or may be suggestive of an arrest record, such as "Trevon Jones, Arrested?". This writing investigates the delivery of these kinds of ads by Google AdSense using a sample of racially associated names and finds statistically significant discrimination in ad delivery based on searches of 2184 racially associated person...

  1. Electroporation-mediated gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer L; Dean, David A

    2015-01-01

    Electroporation has been used extensively to transfer DNA to bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells in culture for the past 30 years. Over this time, numerous advances have been made, from using fields to facilitate cell fusion, delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to cells and tissues, and most importantly, gene and drug delivery in living tissues from rodents to man. Electroporation uses electrical fields to transiently destabilize the membrane allowing the entry of normally impermeable macromolecules into the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, at the appropriate field strengths, the application of these fields to tissues results in little, if any, damage or trauma. Indeed, electroporation has even been used successfully in human trials for gene delivery for the treatment of tumors and for vaccine development. Electroporation can lead to between 100 and 1000-fold increases in gene delivery and expression and can also increase both the distribution of cells taking up and expressing the DNA as well as the absolute amount of gene product per cell (likely due to increased delivery of plasmids into each cell). Effective electroporation depends on electric field parameters, electrode design, the tissues and cells being targeted, and the plasmids that are being transferred themselves. Most importantly, there is no single combination of these variables that leads to greatest efficacy in every situation; optimization is required in every new setting. Electroporation-mediated in vivo gene delivery has proven highly effective in vaccine production, transgene expression, enzyme replacement, and control of a variety of cancers. Almost any tissue can be targeted with electroporation, including muscle, skin, heart, liver, lung, and vasculature. This chapter will provide an overview of the theory of electroporation for the delivery of DNA both in individual cells and in tissues and its application for in vivo gene delivery in a number of animal models.

  2. Magnetically Modulated Drug Delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vidyavati S, Koppisetti; Sahiti. B

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic drug delivery is a novel approach to delivery drug using engineered ’smart’ micro carriers which appears to overcome a number of limitations facing current methods of delivering medicines. The drug and a suitable ferrofluid are formulated into a pharmaceutically stable formulation which is usually injected through the artery that supplies the target organ or tumor in the presence of an external magnetic field. Depending on the fabrication method, particle size and nature they are nam...

  3. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  4. 2014 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2014 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  5. 2011 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, Sunita [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2011 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  6. 2013 Annual Progress Report: DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Annual Progress Report summarizes fiscal year 2013 activities and accomplishments by projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  7. "Bronchial Artery Delivery of Viral Vectors for Gene delivery in Cystic Fibrosis; Superior to Airway Delivery?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutelle Charles C

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts at gene therapy for the pulmonary manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis have relied mainly on airway delivery. However the efficiency of gene transfer and expression in the airway epithelia has not reached therapeutic levels. Access to epithelial cells is not homogenous for a number of reasons and the submucosal glands cannot be reached via the airways. Presentation We propose to inject gene delivery vectors directly into bronchial arteries combined with pre-delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor to increase vascular endothelial permeability and post-delivery flow reduction by balloon occlusion. Thus it may be possible to reach mucous secreting cells of the bronchial luminal epithelium and the submucosal glands in an increased and homogenous fashion. Testing This combination of techniques to the best of our knowledge has not previously been investigated, and may enable us to overcome some of the current limitations to gene therapy for Cystic Fibrosis.

  8. Neonatal outcomes and operative vaginal delivery versus cesarean delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Contag, Stephen A

    2010-06-01

    We compared outcomes for neonates with forceps-assisted, vacuum-assisted, or cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial in laboring, low-risk, nulliparous women at >or=36 weeks\\' gestation. Neonatal outcomes after use of forceps, vacuum, and cesarean were compared among women in the second stage of labor at station +1 or below (thirds scale) for failure of descent or nonreassuring fetal status. Nine hundred ninety women were included in this analysis: 549 (55%) with an indication for delivery of failure of descent and 441 (45%) for a nonreassuring fetal status. Umbilical cord gases were available for 87% of neonates. We found no differences in the base excess (P = 0.35 and 0.78 for failure of descent and nonreassuring fetal status) or frequencies of pH below 7.0 (P = 0.73 and 0.34 for failure of descent and nonreassuring fetal status) among the three delivery methods. Birth outcomes and umbilical cord blood gas values were similar for those neonates with a forceps-assisted, vacuum-assisted, or cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor. The occurrence of significant fetal acidemia was not different among the three delivery methods regardless of the indication.

  9. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Deepika

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human skin is a readily accessible surface for drug delivery. Skin of an average adult body covers a surface of approximately 2 m2 and receives about one-third of the blood circulating through the body. Over the past decades, developing controlled drug delivery has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. The human skin surface is known to contain, on an average, 10- 70 hair follicles and 200-250 sweat ducts on every square centimeters of the skin area. It is one of the most readily accessible organs of the human body. There is considerable interest in the skin as a site of drug application both for local and systemic effect. However, the skin, in particular the stratum corneum, poses a formidable barrier to drug penetration thereby limiting topical and transdermal bioavailability. Skin penetration enhancement techniques have been developed to improve bioavailability and increase the range of drugs for which topical and transdermal delivery is a viable option. During the past decade, the number of drugs formulated in the patches has hardly increased, and there has been little change in the composition of the patch systems. Modifications have been mostly limited to refinements of the materials used. The present review article explores the overall study on transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS which leads to novel drug delivery system (NDDS.

  10. Delivery Time Reliability Model of Logistics Network

    OpenAIRE

    Liusan Wu; Qingmei Tan; Yuehui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Natural disasters like earthquake and flood will surely destroy the existing traffic network, usually accompanied by delivery delay or even network collapse. A logistics-network-related delivery time reliability model defined by a shortest-time entropy is proposed as a means to estimate the actual delivery time reliability. The less the entropy is, the stronger the delivery time reliability remains, and vice versa. The shortest delivery time is computed separately based on two different assum...

  11. Instrumentation of fuel elements and fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When controlling the behaviour of a reactor or developing a new fuel concept, it is of utmost interest to have the possibility to confirm the thermohydraulic calculations by actual measurements in the fuel elements or in the fuel plates. For years, CERCA has developed the technology and supplied its customers with fuel elements equipped with pressure or temperature measuring devices according to the requirements. Recent customer projects have lead to the development of a new method to introduce thermocouples directly into the fuel plate meat instead of the cladding. The purpose of this paper is to review the various instrumentation possibilities available at CERCA. (author)

  12. Instrumentation of fuel elements and fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When controlling the behaviour of a reactor or developing a new fuel concept, it is of utmost interest to have the possibility to confirm the thermohydraulic calculations by actual measurements in the fuel elements or in the fuel plates. For years, CERCA has developed the technology and supplied its customers with fuel elements equipped with pressure or temperature measuring devices according to the requirements. Recent customer projects have led to the development of a new method to introduce thermocouples directly into the fuel plate meat instead of the cladding. The purpose of this paper is to review the various instrumentation possibilities available at CERCA. (author)

  13. Activity-based costing for integrated delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J J

    1995-01-01

    The paradigm shift toward managed care is fueling new cost-finding demands. More sophisticated methods are emerging to meet these demands. Foremost among the new methods is activity-based costing (ABC). ABC is designed to eliminate cross-subsidies between products or services. Because costs are traced by activities across departments and cost centers, costs can also be traced by activities across integrated delivery systems (IDSs). The methodology makes ABC very applicable to combinations of providers including chains, affiliated groups, and IDS participants. PMID:8820298

  14. Activity-based costing for integrated delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J J

    1995-01-01

    The paradigm shift toward managed care is fueling new cost-finding demands. More sophisticated methods are emerging to meet these demands. Foremost among the new methods is activity-based costing (ABC). ABC is designed to eliminate cross-subsidies between products or services. Because costs are traced by activities across departments and cost centers, costs can also be traced by activities across integrated delivery systems (IDSs). The methodology makes ABC very applicable to combinations of providers including chains, affiliated groups, and IDS participants.

  15. Dynamics and control: energy conversion, delivery, and demand analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, K.C.

    1979-04-01

    Techniques of mathematical modeling and modern control theory, using microprocessors and advanced measurement and control devices, are extensively applied to components and systems for the conversion and delivery of energy. The projection of energy demands, as a function of economic growth and energy price, is also the subject of active research and analysis. This position paper reviews the current state-of-the-art of analysis in these areas dealing with the planning and operation of energy systems that deliver fuels and electric power. Future research directions are also discussed. 25 references.

  16. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  17. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotts, A.L.; Coobs, J.H.

    1976-08-01

    The status of fuel and fuel cycle technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is reviewed. The all-ceramic core of the HTGRs permits high temperatures compared with other reactors. Core outlet temperatures of 740/sup 0/C are now available for the steam cycle. For advanced HTGRs such as are required for direct-cycle power generation and for high-temperature process heat, coolant temperatures as high as 1000/sup 0/C may be expected. The paper discusses the variations of HTGR fuel designs that meet the performance requirements and the requirements of the isotopes to be used in the fuel cycle. Also discussed are the fuel cycle possibilities, which include the low-enrichment cycle, the Th-/sup 233/U cycle, and plutonium utilization in either cycle. The status of fuel and fuel cycle development is summarized.

  18. Optimised transdermal delivery of pravastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Cornel; Gerber, Minja; du Preez, Jan L; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-12-30

    Wiechers' programme "Formulating for Efficacy" initiated a new strategy to optimise the oil phase of topical formulations in order to achieve optimal transdermal drug delivery. This new approach uses the "Delivery Gap Theory" on any active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to test if it could enhance transdermal drug delivery. The aim of the study was to formulate six different semi-solid formulations (three creams and three emulgels) with 2% pravastatin as the API in order to investigate the "Delivery Gap Principle", by determining which formulation would deliver pravastatin best to the target-site (system circulation). The three cream- and three emulgel formulations had different polarities, i.e. a formulation with polarity equal to that of the stratum corneum (optimised), a non-polar (lipophilic)- and a polar (hydrophilic)-formulation. Franz cell diffusion studies were executed over 12h and the optimised emulgel (2.578μg/cm(2)) had the highest median amount per area obtained. Tape stripping followed the diffusion studies and in the stratum corneum-epidermis, the hydrophilic emulgel (1.448μg/ml) contained the highest median pravastatin concentration and the epidermis-dermis the optimised emulgel (0.849μg/ml) depicted the highest pravastatin concentration. During this study, it was observed that when both emulgel and cream formulations were compared; the emulgels enhanced the delivery of pravastatin more than the creams. PMID:26505148

  19. Fuel element design handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merckx, K.R.

    1958-09-01

    The economic development of nuclear reactors depends upon the integrated progress in the fields of reactor design, fuel element design, reactor operation, and fuel production and separation. Broad criteria, which restrict the fuel element design, are determined by the mutual consideration of the problems encountered in all the above fields. Hence, no stage of reactor design or operation is independent of the fuel element problem, nor can the fuel element designer disregard the interest of any one field. As an introduction to the fuel element design problem, this chapter describes how the general criteria for a fuel element are determined.

  20. Recent advances in vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ana S; Alonso, María J

    2016-01-01

    The field of vaccination is moving from the use of attenuated or inactivated pathogens to safer but less immunogenic protein and peptide antigens, which require stronger adjuvant compositions. Antigen delivery carriers appear to play an important role in vaccine development, providing not only antigen protection and controlled release but also an intrinsic adjuvant potential. Among them, carriers based on polymers and lipids are the most representative ones. Patent applications in this area have disclosed, either the design and preparation methods for new biocompatible antigen delivery systems or the application of the previously developed systems for the delivery of novel antigens. Some of them have also reported the use of these technologies for modern therapeutic vaccination approaches. PMID:26667309

  1. Albumin-based drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke;

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand...... binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent...... conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform....

  2. Responsive foams for nanoparticle delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Christina; Xiao, Edward; Sinko, Patrick J; Szekely, Zoltan; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2015-09-01

    We have developed responsive foam systems for nanoparticle delivery. The foams are easy to make, stable at room temperature, and can be engineered to break in response to temperature or moisture. Temperature-responsive foams are based on the phase transition of long chain alcohols and could be produced using medical grade nitrous oxide as a propellant. These temperature-sensitive foams could be used for polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based nanoparticle delivery. We also discuss moisture-responsive foams made with soap pump dispensers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based nanoparticles or PMMA latex nanoparticles were loaded into Tween 20 foams and the particle size was not affected by the foam formulation or foam break. Using biocompatible detergents, we anticipate this will be a versatile and simple approach to producing foams for nanoparticle delivery with many potential pharmaceutical and personal care applications. PMID:26091943

  3. Economics of National Waste Terminal Storage Spent Fuel Pricing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    The methodology for equitably pricing commercial nuclear spent fuel management is developed, and the results of four sample calculations are presented. The spent fuel management program analyzed places encapsulated spent fuel in bedded salt while maintaining long-term retrievability. System design was reasonable but not optimum. When required, privately-owned Away From Reactor (AFR) storage is provided and the spent fuel placed in AFR storage is eventually transported to final storage. Applicable Research and Development and Government Overhead are included. The cost of each component by year was estimated from the most recent applicable data source available. These costs were input to the pricing methodology to establish a one-time charge whose present value exactly recovered the present value of the expenditure flow. The four cases exercised were combinations of a high and a low quantity of spent fuel managed, with a single repository (venture) or a multiple repository (campaign) approach to system financial structure. The price for spent fuel management calculated ranged from 116 to 152 dollars (1978) per kilogram charged initially to the reactor. The effect of spent fuel receiving rate on price is illustrated by the fact that the extremes of price did not coincide with the cases having the extremes of undiscounted cost. These prices for spent fuel management are comparable in magnitude to other fuel cycle costs. The range of variation is small because of compensating effects, i.e., additional costs for high early deliveries (AFR and transportation) versus lower present value of future revenue for later delivery cases. The methodology contains numerous conservative assumptions, provisions for contingencies, and covers the complete set of spent fuel management expenses.

  4. Economics of National Waste Terminal Storage Spent Fuel Pricing Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology for equitably pricing commercial nuclear spent fuel management is developed, and the results of four sample calculations are presented. The spent fuel management program analyzed places encapsulated spent fuel in bedded salt while maintaining long-term retrievability. System design was reasonable but not optimum. When required, privately-owned Away From Reactor (AFR) storage is provided and the spent fuel placed in AFR storage is eventually transported to final storage. Applicable Research and Development and Government Overhead are included. The cost of each component by year was estimated from the most recent applicable data source available. These costs were input to the pricing methodology to establish a one-time charge whose present value exactly recovered the present value of the expenditure flow. The four cases exercised were combinations of a high and a low quantity of spent fuel managed, with a single repository (venture) or a multiple repository (campaign) approach to system financial structure. The price for spent fuel management calculated ranged from 116 to 152 dollars (1978) per kilogram charged initially to the reactor. The effect of spent fuel receiving rate on price is illustrated by the fact that the extremes of price did not coincide with the cases having the extremes of undiscounted cost. These prices for spent fuel management are comparable in magnitude to other fuel cycle costs. The range of variation is small because of compensating effects, i.e., additional costs for high early deliveries (AFR and transportation) versus lower present value of future revenue for later delivery cases. The methodology contains numerous conservative assumptions, provisions for contingencies, and covers the complete set of spent fuel management expenses

  5. BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: THE CURRENT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Mitul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the several advantages of buccal drug delivery system (BDDS over the conventional and systemic formulation majorly. It helps to enhance bioavailability through bypassing the first pass metabolism. On this drug delivery system the formulation keeps in contact with the mucosal surface resulting in better absorption and prolonged resident time. Though all drugs are not suitable for this drug delivery system yet is useful for most of the drugs. Bioadhesive polymers roles a major part in this drug delivery system because the extent of Mucoadhesion is a very important phenomena for the buccal drug delivery system. This review covers merits and demerits of buccal drug delivery system, anatomy of oral mucosa, mechanism of drug permeation, polymers and permeation enhancer used in buccal drug delivery system. This review also covers available marketed product as buccal drug delivery system and future aspects of buccal drug delivery system.

  6. Preparing and evaluating delivery systems for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L; Moeller, E H; van de Weert, M;

    2006-01-01

    From a formulation perspective proteins are complex and therefore challenging molecules to develop drug delivery systems for. The success of a formulation depends on the ability of the protein to maintain the native structure and activity during preparation and delivery as well as during shipping...... and long-term storage of the formulation. Therefore, the development and evaluation of successful and promising drug delivery systems is essential. In the present review, some of the particulate drug delivery systems for parenteral delivery of protein are presented and discussed. The challenge...... for incorporation of protein in particulate delivery systems is exemplified by water-in-oil emulsions....

  7. LVRF fuel bundle manufacture for Bruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, A. [Zircatec Precision Industries, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    In response to the Power Uprate program at Bruce Power, Zircatec has committed to introduce, by Spring 2006 a new manufacturing line for the production of 43 element Bruce LVRF bundles containing Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) with a centre pin of blended dysprosia/urania (BDU). This is a new fuel design and is the first change in fuel design since the introduction of the current 37-element fuel over 20 years ago. Introduction of this new line has involved the introduction of significant changes to an environment that is not used to rapid changes with significant impact. At ZPI we have been able to build on our innovative capabilities in new fuel manufacturing, the strength and experience of our core team, and on our prevailing management philosophy of 'support the doer'. The presentation will discuss some of the novel aspects of this fuel introduction and the mix of innovative and classical project management methods that are being used to ensure that project deliveries are being met. Supporting presentations will highlight some of the issues in more detail. (author)

  8. Distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Kempen, C.; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sunjian

    2013-05-01

    With the increase worldwide demand for hydrocarbon fuels and the vast development of new fuel production and delivery infrastructure installations around the world, there is a growing need for reliable fuel leak detection technologies to provide safety and reduce environmental risks. Hydrocarbon leaks (gas or liquid) pose an extreme danger and need to be detected very quickly to avoid potential disasters. Gas leaks have the greatest potential for causing damage due to the explosion risk from the dispersion of gas clouds. This paper describes progress towards the development of a fast response, high sensitivity, distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection (HySensTM) system based on the use of an optical fiber that uses a hydrocarbon sensitive fluorescent coating to detect the presence of fuel leaks present in close proximity along the length of the sensor fiber. The HySenseTM system operates in two modes, leak detection and leak localization, and will trigger an alarm within seconds of exposure contact. The fast and accurate response of the sensor provides reliable fluid leak detection for pipelines, tanks, airports, pumps, and valves to detect and minimize any potential catastrophic damage.

  9. The ElectroDynamic Delivery Experiment (EDDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jerome; Levin, Eugene; Oldson, John; Carroll, Joseph

    2001-02-01

    The ElectroDynamic Delivery Experiment (EDDE) is proposed for a space demonstration. EDDE consists of an autonomous space vehicle powered by lightweight solar arrays, a bi-directional electrodynamic tether, and batteries for power leveling. The EDDE vehicle can modify its orbit repeatedly without rocket fuel, and can change all six orbital parameters by modulating and reversing the current flow in the conducting tether. The base spacecraft is connected to the service module by a 6-km-long electrodynamic tether, and is designed for 2 kW of power and a total mass of 180 kg. Tether lifetime of several years is achieved with a two-strand caduceus, with the strands connected every few meters. Tether libration is minimized by mass distribution and by active current control. The vehicle and tether system concepts are developed, the operational envelopes are examined, and potential applications are evaluated. The EDDE vehicle is about twice as fast as ion rockets for high-inclination orbital plane changes, and has much higher maximum delta-V capability. A proof-of-concept experiment is proposed for a low-cost space demonstration. This on-orbit experiment could include additional secondary payloads; for example, EDDE could place low-ΔV, free-flying inspectors into arbitrary orbits from which they could approach selected objects without concern for tether dynamics or interference. .

  10. Analytical fuel property effects: Small combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The study performed in Phase 1 of this program applies only to a T700/CT7 engine family type combustor functioning in the engine as defined and does not necessarily apply to other cycles or combustors of differing stoichiometry. The study was not extended to any of the fuel delivery accessories such as pumps or control systems, nor was there any investigation of potential systems problems which might arise as a consequence of abnormal properties such as density which might affect delivery schedules or aromatics content which might affect fuel system seals. The T700/CT7 engine is a front drive turboshaft or turboprop engine in the 1500-1800 shp (1120-1340 kW) class as currently configured with highpower core flows of about 10 lb/sec (4.5 kg/sec). It employs a straight-through annular combustion system less than 5 in. (12.5 cm) in length utilizing a machined ring film cooled construction and twelve low-pressure air blast fuel injectors. Commercial and Naval versions employ two 0.5 Joule capacitive discharge surface gap ignitors.

  11. Multifunctional nanorods for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Aliasger K.; Searson, Peter C.; Leong, Kam W.

    2003-10-01

    The goal of gene therapy is to introduce foreign genes into somatic cells to supplement defective genes or provide additional biological functions, and can be achieved using either viral or synthetic non-viral delivery systems. Compared with viral vectors, synthetic gene-delivery systems, such as liposomes and polymers, offer several advantages including ease of production and reduced risk of cytotoxicity and immunogenicity, but their use has been limited by the relatively low transfection efficiency. This problem mainly stems from the difficulty in controlling their properties at the nanoscale. Synthetic inorganic gene carriers have received limited attention in the gene-therapy community, the only notable example being gold nanoparticles with surface-immobilized DNA applied to intradermal genetic immunization by particle bombardment. Here we present a non-viral gene-delivery system based on multisegment bimetallic nanorods that can simultaneously bind compacted DNA plasmids and targeting ligands in a spatially defined manner. This approach allows precise control of composition, size and multifunctionality of the gene-delivery system. Transfection experiments performed in vitro and in vivo provide promising results that suggest potential in genetic vaccination applications.

  12. Software Build and Delivery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, Robert W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-10

    This presentation deals with the hierarchy of software build and delivery systems. One of the goals is to maximize the success rate of new users and developers when first trying your software. First impressions are important. Early successes are important. This also reduces critical documentation costs. This is a presentation focused on computer science and goes into detail about code documentation.

  13. HTGR Fuel performance basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 16000C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 26600C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents

  14. BWR fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The General Electric experience base on BWR fuel includes over 29,000 fuel assemblies which contain 1,600,000 fuel rods. Over the last five years, design, process and operating changes have been introduced which have had major effects in improving fuel performance. Monitoring this fuel performance in BWRs has been accomplished through cooperative programs between GE and utilities. Activities such as plant fission product monitoring, fuel sipping and fuel and channel surveillance programs have jointly contributed to the value of this extensive experience base. The systematic evaluation of this data has established well-defined fuel performance trends which provide the assurance and confidence in fuel reliability that only actual operating experience can provide

  15. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The Phase II study of this project includes the analysis of impact on the reactor safety, the development of core design technology, the development of fuel supply technology of optimal composition, and feasibility analysis on localization and license of DUPIC fuel. From the reactor safety analysis results, it is known that DUPIC fuel satisfies the safety limit of reactor containment and public dose for single failure. But, the safety limit may be exceeded for dual failure. Therefore, more analysis is needed for the removal of excessive conservatism in accident analysis methodology and modification of transient fuel behavior analysis methodology. The results of the validation calculations of core design methodology have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of compatibility and fuel fabrication have shown that DUPIC fuel is technically feasible. For practical use and licensing, however, more research items required in the practical use, fuel rod and bundle design and fuel loading are should be performed. When these items are performed and resolved, the compatibility of the DUPIC fuel is achieved, and, eventually, the possibility of DUPIC fuel licensing can be confirmed

  16. Delivery systems for intradermal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y C; Jarrahian, C; Zehrung, D; Mitragotri, S; Prausnitz, M R

    2012-01-01

    Intradermal (ID) vaccination can offer improved immunity and simpler logistics of delivery, but its use in medicine is limited by the need for simple, reliable methods of ID delivery. ID injection by the Mantoux technique requires special training and may not reliably target skin, but is nonetheless used currently for BCG and rabies vaccination. Scarification using a bifurcated needle was extensively used for smallpox eradication, but provides variable and inefficient delivery into the skin. Recently, ID vaccination has been simplified by introduction of a simple-to-use hollow microneedle that has been approved for ID injection of influenza vaccine in Europe. Various designs of hollow microneedles have been studied preclinically and in humans. Vaccines can also be injected into skin using needle-free devices, such as jet injection, which is receiving renewed clinical attention for ID vaccination. Projectile delivery using powder and gold particles (i.e., gene gun) have also been used clinically for ID vaccination. Building off the scarification approach, a number of preclinical studies have examined solid microneedle patches for use with vaccine coated onto metal microneedles, encapsulated within dissolving microneedles or added topically to skin after microneedle pretreatment, as well as adapting tattoo guns for ID vaccination. Finally, technologies designed to increase skin permeability in combination with a vaccine patch have been studied through the use of skin abrasion, ultrasound, electroporation, chemical enhancers, and thermal ablation. The prospects for bringing ID vaccination into more widespread clinical practice are encouraging, given the large number of technologies for ID delivery under development. PMID:21472533

  17. Materials for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossina M Haile

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells are attractive for their modular and distributed nature, and zero noise pollution. They will also play an essential role in any future hydrogen fuel economy.

  18. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  19. VESICULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A NOVEL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    KALPESH CHHOTALAL ASHARA; Jalpa S. Paun; M. M. Soniwala; J.R.CHAVDA; S. V. NATHAWANI; NITIN M. MORI; Mendapara, Vishal P.

    2014-01-01

    A novel drug delivery system is that delivers drug at predetermined rate decided as per the requirement, pharmacological aspects, drug profile, physiological conditions of body etc. In current conditions not a single novel drug delivery system behaves ideally those high goals with fewer side effects. A Vesicular drug delivery system (VDDS) is the system in which encapsulation of active moieties in vesicular structure, which bridges gap between ideal and available of novel drug delivery system...

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 101-26.602-3 Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents. (a... requirements call will be accomplished by mailing a computer-produced record of the file data for each delivery... estimates on DFSC Form 15:18 to the Defense Fuel Supply Center, Cameron Station, Alexandria, VA 22314....

  1. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  2. Fuel Assembly Damping Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summary the fuel assembly damping data in air/in still water/under flow, released from foreign fuel vendors, compared our data with the published data. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping measurement testing are also briefly discussed. Understanding of each fuel assembly damping mechanisms according to the surrounding medium and flow velocity can support the fuel design improvement in fuel assembly dynamics and structural integrity aspect. Because the upgraded requirements of the newly-developed advanced reactor system will demands to minimize fuel design margin in integrity evaluation, reduction in conservatism of fuel assembly damping can contribute to alleviate the fuel design margin for sure. Damping is an energy dissipation mechanism in a vibrating mechanical structure and prevents a resonant structure from having infinite vibration amplitudes. The sources of fuel assembly damping are various from support friction to flow contribution, and it can be increased by the viscosity or drag of surrounding fluid medium or the average velocity of water flowing. Fuel licensing requires fuel design evaluation in transient or accidental condition. Dynamic response analysis of fuel assembly is to show fuel integrity and requires information on assembly-wise damping in dry condition and under wet or water flowing condition. However, damping measurement test for the full-scale fuel assembly prototype is not easy to carry out because of the scale (fuel prototype, test facility), unsteadiness of test data (scattering, random sampling and processing), instrumentation under water flowing (water-proof response measurement), and noise. LWR fuel technology division in KAERI is preparing the infra structure for damping measurement test of full-scale fuel assembly, to support fuel industries and related research activities. Here is a preliminary summary of fuel assembly damping, published in the literature. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping

  3. Gas deliveries from Haltenbanken/North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference paper relates to the development and delivery of natural gas from the Haltenbanken area and the North Sea on the Norwegian continental shelf. Alternatives of field developments and pipelines together with the allocation of contracts for securing the contractual delivery of natural gas to the European continent in future and an alternative delivery to the Scandinavian countries, are discussed. 2 figs

  4. Viral and nonviral delivery systems for gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri Nayerossadat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is the process of introducing foreign genomic materials into host cells to elicit a therapeutic benefit. Although initially the main focus of gene therapy was on special genetic disorders, now diverse diseases with different patterns of inheritance and acquired diseases are targets of gene therapy. There are 2 major categories of gene therapy, including germline gene therapy and somatic gene therapy. Although germline gene therapy may have great potential, because it is currently ethically forbidden, it cannot be used; however, to date human gene therapy has been limited to somatic cells. Although numerous viral and nonviral gene delivery systems have been developed in the last 3 decades, no delivery system has been designed that can be applied in gene therapy of all kinds of cell types in vitro and in vivo with no limitation and side effects. In this review we explain about the history of gene therapy, all types of gene delivery systems for germline (nuclei, egg cells, embryonic stem cells, pronuclear, microinjection, sperm cells and somatic cells by viral [retroviral, adenoviral, adeno association, helper-dependent adenoviral systems, hybrid adenoviral systems, herpes simplex, pox virus, lentivirus, Epstein-Barr virus] and nonviral systems (physical: Naked DNA, DNA bombardant, electroporation, hydrodynamic, ultrasound, magnetofection and (chemical: Cationic lipids, different cationic polymers, lipid polymers. In addition to the above-mentioned, advantages, disadvantages, and practical use of each system are discussed.

  5. Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2010-01-01

    -fuel process and focuses particularly on the combustion fundamentals, i.e. flame temperatures and heat transfer, ignition and burnout, emissions, and fly ash characteristics. Knowledge is currently available regarding both an entire oxy-fuel power plant and the combustion fundamentals. However, several...

  6. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize the plasma membrane, escape from the endosomal compartment, unpackage the gene at some point and have no detrimental effects. In comparison to viruses, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to synthesize, less immunogenic, low in cost, and have no limitation in the size of a gene that can be delivered. Significant progress has been made in the basic science and applications of various nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, the majority of nonviral approaches are still inefficient and often toxic. To this end, two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were optimized for gene delivery by varying particle surface chemistry using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (˜200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for two weeks. After a delay, moderate levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least two weeks. In contrast, gene expression mediated by polyethyleneimine (PEI) ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. On the other hand, a more simple method to synthesize 50-200 nm complexes capable of high transfection efficiency or high gene knockdown was

  7. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells for IT Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer

    2016-03-09

    With the increased push for carbon-free and sustainable data centers, data center operators are increasingly looking to renewable energy as a means to approach carbon-free status and be more sustainable. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a world leader in hydrogen research and already has an elaborate hydrogen infrastructure in place at the Golden, Colorado, state-of-the-art data center and facility. This presentation will discuss hydrogen generation, storage considerations, and safety issues as they relate to hydrogen delivery to fuel cells powering IT equipment.

  8. Fuel cycle data survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the fuel cycle cost data published during 1977 and 1978 is presented in tabular and graphical form. Cost trends for the period 1965 onwards are presented for yellow cake, conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication and reprocessing

  9. Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn combustion for fuel-flexible operation with ultra low emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.L.; Karim, H.; Castaldi, M.J.; Etemad, S.; Pfefferle, W.C. [Precision Combustion, Inc., 410 Sackett Point Rd, North Haven, CT 06473 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    A Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{sup (R)}) combustion system was developed for operation on natural gas, but also provides significant advantages for fuel-flexible operation on non-methane fuels. Most notably, fuel-rich operation limits the extent of catalyst-stage reaction based on available oxygen, regardless of the fuel's intrinsic reactivity on the catalyst. Thus, similar catalyst and reactor performance can be obtained for widely varying fuel types. In addition, catalytic pre-reaction extends the combustor's lean flammability limit for all fuels, allowing low-temperature combustion of both conventional and low-heating-value fuels, with concomitant low NO{sub x} emissions. This paper presents test results for RCL{sup (R)} combustion with various fuel types, including gaseous, pre-vaporized liquid, and simulated low-Btu fuels. Although these fuels have widely varying properties, a single type of catalytic reactor was successfully tested for all of these fuels by modifying only the fuel delivery system upstream of the reactor. Test results show similar reactor performance for all fuels tested. (author)

  10. The logistics and the supply chain in the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describe the logistics and the supply chain in the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Plant, located in Juzbado in the province of Salamanca. In the the article are described the principal elements in the supply chain and the difficulties of its management derived from the short period for the manufacturing of the nuclear fuel. It's also given a view in relation to the transportation by land sea of the nuclear components, uranium oxide powder and the manufactured fuel. The characteristics of the supply chain are determined by the plant production forecast, by the origin and high technology of the raw materials and by nuclear fuel delivery site locations. (Author)

  11. Fakir fuel pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    1922-01-01

    In designing the Fakir fuel pump, the fundamental idea was to obtain a simple and reliable method of conveying the fuel from a low tank to the carburetor, with the avoidance of the faults of all former methods and the simultaneous warming of the fuel by means of the heat of compression generated. The principle of the Fakir fuel pump rests on the well-known principle of the diaphragm pump, which must be suitably adapted to the present purpose.

  12. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  13. Cellular Delivery of RNA Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlea, Lorena; Puri, Anu; Kasprzak, Wojciech; Bindewald, Eckart; Zakrevsky, Paul; Satterwhite, Emily; Joseph, Kenya; Afonin, Kirill A; Shapiro, Bruce A

    2016-09-12

    RNA nanostructures can be programmed to exhibit defined sizes, shapes and stoichiometries from naturally occurring or de novo designed RNA motifs. These constructs can be used as scaffolds to attach functional moieties, such as ligand binding motifs or gene expression regulators, for nanobiology applications. This review is focused on four areas of importance to RNA nanotechnology: the types of RNAs of particular interest for nanobiology, the assembly of RNA nanoconstructs, the challenges of cellular delivery of RNAs in vivo, and the delivery carriers that aid in the matter. The available strategies for the design of nucleic acid nanostructures, as well as for formulation of their carriers, make RNA nanotechnology an important tool in both basic research and applied biomedical science. PMID:27509068

  14. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the development of the (UPu)C sphere-pac fuel project during 1978. In particular, the problems encountered in obtaining good fuel quality in the fabrication process and their solution is discussed. The development of a fabrication pilot plant is considered, and the post-irradiation examination of fuel pins is presented. (Auth.)

  15. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975 was the first of two years planned to allow the fuel development project to move from lab-scale fuel production and scouting irradiation tests to larger scale production supplying fuel for parameter testing. The first stages of this re-direction are reported. (Auth.)

  16. Modeling: driving fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Francis

    2002-05-01

    Fuel cells were invented in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and gentleman scientist, as a result of his experiments on the electrolysis of water. To put it simply, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that take hydrogen gas from fuel, combine it with oxygen from the air, and generate electricity and heat, with water as the only by-product.

  17. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) are topically administered medicaments in the form of patches that deliver drugs for systemic effects at a predetermined and controlled rate. It works very simply in which drug is applied inside the patch and it is worn on skin for long period of time. By this constant concentration of drug remain in blood for long time. Polymer matrix, drug, permeation enhancers are the main components of TDDS; polymers includes Zein, Shellac (as a natural) to syntheti...

  18. Efficient Delivery of Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ouzzani, Mourad

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation addresses issues for the efficient access to Web databases and services. We propose a distributed ontology for a meaningful organization of and efficient access to Web databases. Next, we dedicate most of our work on presenting a comprehensive query infrastructure for the emerging concept of Web services. The core of this query infrastructure is to enable the efficient delivery of Web services b...

  19. Nanoparticle delivery in infant lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Schulz, Holger; Takenaka, Shinji; James P Butler; Henry, Frank S.; Tsuda, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The lung surface is an ideal pathway to the bloodstream for nanoparticle-based drug delivery. Thus far, research has focused on the lungs of adults, and little is known about nanoparticle behavior in the immature lungs of infants. Here, using nonlinear dynamical systems analysis and in vivo experimentation in developing animals, we show that nanoparticle deposition in postnatally developing lungs peaks at the end of bulk alveolation. This finding suggests a unique paradigm, consistent with th...

  20. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  1. An overview of clinical and commercial impact of drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Aaron C; Mitragotri, Samir

    2014-09-28

    Drug delivery systems are widely researched and developed to improve the delivery of pharmaceutical compounds and molecules. The last few decades have seen a marked growth of the field fueled by increased number of researchers, research funding, venture capital and the number of start-ups. Collectively, the growth has led to novel systems that make use of micro/nano-particles, transdermal patches, inhalers, drug reservoir implants and antibody-drug conjugates. While the increased research activity is clearly an indication of proliferation of the field, clinical and commercial translation of early-stage research ideas is critically important for future growth and interest in the field. Here, we will highlight some of the examples of novel drug delivery systems that have undergone such translation. Specifically, we will discuss the developments, advantages, limitations and lessons learned from: (i) microparticle-based depot formulations, (ii) nanoparticle-based cancer drugs, (iii) transdermal systems, (iv) oral drug delivery systems, (v) pulmonary drug delivery, (vi) implants and (vii) antibody-drug conjugates. These systems have impacted treatment of many prevalent diseases including diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases, among others. At the same time, these systems are integral and enabling components of products that collectively generate annual revenues exceeding US $100 billion. These examples provide strong evidence of the clinical and commercial impact of drug delivery systems.

  2. Mucoadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acartürk, Füsun

    2009-11-01

    Vaginal delivery is an important route of drug administration for both local and systemic diseases. The vaginal route has some advantages due to its large surface area, rich blood supply, avoidance of the first-pass effect, relatively high permeability to many drugs and self-insertion. The traditional commercial preparations, such as creams, foams, gels, irrigations and tablets, are known to reside in the vaginal cavity for a relatively short period of time owing to the self-cleaning action of the vaginal tract, and often require multiple daily doses to ensure the desired therapeutic effect. The vaginal route appears to be highly appropriate for bioadhesive drug delivery systems in order to retain drugs for treating largely local conditions, or for use in contraception. In particular, protection against sexually-transmitted diseases is critical. To prolong the residence time in the vaginal cavity, bioadhesive therapeutic systems have been developed in the form of semi-solid and solid dosage forms. The most commonly used mucoadhesive polymers that are capable of forming hydrogels are synthetic polyacrylates, polycarbophil, chitosan, cellulose derivatives (hydroxyethycellulose, hydroxy-propylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose), hyaluronic acid derivatives, pectin, tragacanth, carrageenan and sodium alginate. The present article is a comprehensive review of the patents related to mucoadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems. PMID:19925443

  3. Cyclodextrins in delivery systems: Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Tiwari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins (CDs are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic outer surface and a lipophilic central cavity. CD molecules are relatively large with a number of hydrogen donors and acceptors and, thus in general, they do not permeate lipophilic membranes. In the pharmaceutical industry, CDs have mainly been used as complexing agents to increase aqueous solubility of poorly soluble drugs and to increase their bioavailability and stability. CDs are used in pharmaceutical applications for numerous purposes, including improving the bioavailability of drugs. Current CD-based therapeutics is described and possible future applications are discussed. CD-containing polymers are reviewed and their use in drug delivery is presented. Of specific interest is the use of CD-containing polymers to provide unique capabilities for the delivery of nucleic acids. Studies in both humans and animals have shown that CDs can be used to improve drug delivery from almost any type of drug formulation. Currently, there are approximately 30 different pharmaceutical products worldwide containing drug/CD complexes in the market.

  4. Combined cycles and cogeneration with natural gas and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1985 there has been a sharp increase world-wide in the sales of gas turbines. The main reasons for this are: the improved designs allowing better gas turbine and, thus, combined cycle efficiencies; the good fuel use indices in the the case of cogeneration; the versatility of the gas turbines even with poly-fuel plants; greatly limited exhaust emissions; and lower manufacturing costs and delivery times with respect to conventional plants. This paper after a brief discussion on the evolution in gas turbine applications in the world and in Italy, assesses their use and environmental impacts with fuels other than natural gas. The paper then reviews Italian efforts to develop power plants incorporating combined cycles and the gasification of coal, residual, and other low calorific value fuels

  5. Incorporation of Integral Fuel Burnable Absorbers Boron and Gadolinium into Zirconium-Alloy Fuel Clad Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, K.; Renk, T.J.; Lahoda, E.J.; Corradini, M.L

    2004-12-14

    Long-lived fuels require the use of higher enrichments of 235U or other fissile materials. Such high levels of fissile material lead to excessive fuel activity at the beginning of life. To counteract this excessive activity, integral fuel burnable absorbers (IFBA) are added to some rods in the fuel assembly. The two commonly used IFBA elements are gadolinium, which is added as gadolinium-oxide to the UO2 powder, and boron, which is applied as a zirconium-diboride coating on the UO2 pellets using plasma spraying or chemical vapor deposition techniques. The incorporation of IFBA into the fuel has to be performed in a nuclear-regulated facility that is physically separated from the main plant. These operations tend to be very costly because of their small volume and can add from 20 to 30% to the manufacturing cost of the fuel. Other manufacturing issues that impact cost and performance are maintaining the correct levels of dosing, the reduction in fuel melting point due to gadolinium-oxide additions, and parasitic neutron absorption at fuel's end-of-life. The goal of the proposed research is to develop an alternative approach that involves incorporation of boron or gadolinium into the outer surface of the fuel cladding material rather than as an additive to the fuel pellets. This paradigm shift will allow for the introduction of the IFBA in a non-nuclear regulated environment and will obviate the necessity of additional handling and processing of the fuel pellets. This could represent significant cost savings and potentially lead to greater reproducibility and control of the burnable fuel in the early stages of the reactor operation. The surface alloying is being performed using the IBEST (Ion Beam Surface Treatment) process developed at Sandia National Laboratories. IBEST involves the delivery of energetic ion beam pulses onto the surface of a material, near-surface melting, and rapid solidification. The non-equilibrium nature of such processing allows for

  6. A REVIEW ON OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnish Patel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional oral drug delivery systems supply an instantaneous release of drug, which cannot control the release of the drug and effective concentration at the target site. This kind of dosing pattern may result in constantly changing, unpredictable plasma concentrations. Drugs can be delivered in a controlled pattern over a long period of time by the process of osmosis. Osmotic devices are the most promising strategy based systems for controlled drug delivery. They are the most reliable controlled drug delivery systems and could be employed as oral drug delivery systems. Various patents available for osmotic drug delivery system like Rose-Nelson pump, Higuchi leeper pump, Higuchi Theeuwes pump, Elementary Osmotic pump etc. ODDS are useful for poorly soluble drug, for pulsatile drug release, zero order release. Various techniques available for preparation of ODDS include push pull osmotic Pump, osmotic Brusting osmotic pump, liquid oral osmotic system, sandwiched osmotic tablets , delayed delivery osmotic device, monolithic osmotic System and controlled porosity osmotic Pump. Osmotically controlled oral drug delivery systems utilize osmotic pressure for controlled delivery of active agents. These systems can be utilized for systemic as well as targeted delivery of drugs. The release of drugs from osmotic systems is governed by various formulation factors such as solubility and osmotic pressure of the core components, size of the delivery orifice, and nature of the rate-controlling membrane. In this Paper mainly focused on the Osmotic System with example, the basic component of osmotic system and evaluation parameter of the osmotic drug delivery system.

  7. Resuscitation of newborn in high risk deliveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High risk deliveries are usually associated with increased neonatal mortality and morbidity. Neonatal resuscitation can appreciably affect the outcome in these types of deliveries. Presence of personnel trained in basic neonatal resuscitation at the time of delivery can play an important role in reducing perinatal complications in neonates at risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of newborn resuscitation on neonatal outcome in high risk deliveries. Methods: This descriptive case series was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Ninety consecutive high risk deliveries were included and attended by paediatricians trained in newborn resuscitation. Babies delivered by elective Caesarean section, normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries and still births were excluded. Neonatal resuscitation was performed in babies who failed to initiate breathing in the first minute after birth. Data was analyzed using SPSS-16.0. Results: A total of 90 high risk deliveries were included in the study. Emergency caesarean section was the mode of delivery in 94.4% (n=85) cases and spontaneous vaginal delivery in 5.6% (n=5). Preterm pregnancy was the major high risk factor. Newborn resuscitation was required in 37.8% (n=34) of all high risk deliveries (p=0.013). All the new-borns who required resuscitation survived. Conclusion: New-born resuscitation is required in high risk pregnancies and personnel trained in newborn resuscitation should be available at the time of delivery. (author)

  8. Delivery Time Reliability Model of Logistics Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liusan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters like earthquake and flood will surely destroy the existing traffic network, usually accompanied by delivery delay or even network collapse. A logistics-network-related delivery time reliability model defined by a shortest-time entropy is proposed as a means to estimate the actual delivery time reliability. The less the entropy is, the stronger the delivery time reliability remains, and vice versa. The shortest delivery time is computed separately based on two different assumptions. If a path is concerned without capacity restriction, the shortest delivery time is positively related to the length of the shortest path, and if a path is concerned with capacity restriction, a minimax programming model is built to figure up the shortest delivery time. Finally, an example is utilized to confirm the validity and practicality of the proposed approach.

  9. VESICULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A NOVEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALPESH CHHOTALAL ASHARA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel drug delivery system is that delivers drug at predetermined rate decided as per the requirement, pharmacological aspects, drug profile, physiological conditions of body etc. In current conditions not a single novel drug delivery system behaves ideally those high goals with fewer side effects. A Vesicular drug delivery system (VDDS is the system in which encapsulation of active moieties in vesicular structure, which bridges gap between ideal and available of novel drug delivery system.Varrious types of vesicular drug delivery system like liposome, niosome, archeosome, transferosome etc. were developed. Advances have since been made in vesicular drug delivery system. Focus of this review is to bring about a brief of vesicular drug delivery system as novel approach.

  10. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary Reliability and Availability and Maintainability Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, maintainability analysis performed for delivery of waste feed from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105 to British Nuclear Fuels Limited, inc. under the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Contract. The operational schedule delay risk is estimated and contributing factors are discussed

  11. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary Reliability and Availability and Maintainability Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1999-11-11

    The document presents updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, maintainability analysis performed for delivery of waste feed from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105 to British Nuclear Fuels Limited, inc. under the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Contract. The operational schedule delay risk is estimated and contributing factors are discussed.

  12. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: bio-pok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Samples of flash pyrolysis liquid produced by Union Fenosa, Spain from pine and straw and samples produced by Ensyn of Canada from mixed hardwoods were combusted with simple pressure atomization equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system improvements but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: refractory section between burner and boiler, acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher liquid preheat temperature and higher pressure than for light fuel oils. The main problems with pyrolysis liquids concerns their instability or reactivity. At temperatures above 100 deg C they begin to coke, their viscosity increases during storage and oxygen from air causes skin formation. This requires that special handling procedures are developed for fuel storage, delivery and combustion systems. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear fuel lease accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of nuclear fuel lease accounting is a controversial one that has received much attention over the years. This has occurred during a period when increasing numbers of utilities, seeking alternatives to traditional financing methods, have turned to leasing their nuclear fuel inventories. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current accounting treatment of nuclear fuel leases as prescribed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) Uniform System of Accounts. Cost accounting for leased nuclear fuel during the fuel cycle is also discussed

  14. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work of the project Fuel Development in 1976 was marked by three important developments. Firstly, the reproduceability of the process to produce sphere pac carbide fuel by a gelation process was established. Secondly, in the post irradiation examination of the fuel pins from the BR-2 reactor, the fuel reached approximately 5.5% FIMA without failure. Thirdly, outside interest in sphere pac material became more apparent. These developments are discussed, and plans to construct a fuel pilot plant to go into operation in the 1980's are revealed. (Auth.)

  15. Fuel nozzle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Lacey, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2011-08-30

    A fuel nozzle assembly is provided. The assembly includes an outer nozzle body having a first end and a second end and at least one inner nozzle tube having a first end and a second end. One of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel plenum and a fuel passage extending therefrom, while the other of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel injection hole slidably aligned with the fuel passage to form a fuel flow path therebetween at an interface between the body and the tube. The nozzle body and the nozzle tube are fixed against relative movement at the first ends of the nozzle body and nozzle tube, enabling the fuel flow path to close at the interface due to thermal growth after a flame enters the nozzle tube.

  16. Vaginal delivery versus cesarean section for term breech delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The optimal method of delivery for breech presentation at term still remains a matter of controversy. This is probably due to the fact that the skills of vaginal breech delivery are being lost. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors: mother's age, parity, labor's duration, estimated neonatal birth weight for the mode of breech presentation delivery at term as well as the influence of the delivery mode on neonatal outcome. Methods. A retrospective study of 401 terms (more than 37 week's gestation breech deliveries at the Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Belgrade, from 2007 to 2008 was made. The following groups with respect to mode of delivery were included: the group I - vaginal delivery (VD in 139 patients; the group II - urgent cesarean section (UCS in 128 patients; and the group III - elective cesarean section (ECS in 134 patients. Mother's age, parity, duration of VD, neonatal birth weight (BW, the Apgar score at 5th minute, and duration of stay in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU vere determined. Neonatal mortality and major neonatal morbidity were compared according to the route of delivery. Fetuses and neonates with hemolytic disease and fetal and neonatal anomalies were excluded from the study. For statistical analyses we performed Student's t test, χ2 likelihood ratio, Kruskall-Wallis test, Mann Whitney test, and ANOVA. Results. The mean age of patients in the group I was 28.29 ± 4.97 years, in the group II 29.68 ± 5.92 years and in the group III 30.06 ± 5.41 years. Difference in mother's age between the group I and III was significant (p = 0.022. In the group III there were 73.9% nuliparous similarly to the gropu II (73.4%. We performed ECS in 54.6% of the nuliparous older than 35 years, and 54.4% multiparous younger than 35 years were delivered by VD. The use of oxytocin for stimulation of vaginal labor was not associated with its duration (p = 0.706. Lowset maneuver was performed in 88.5% of

  17. Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    > Find Us On Facebook Twitter Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  18. Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Enthusiasm greeted the development of synthetic organic insecticides in the mid-twentieth century, only to see this give way to dismay and eventually scepticism and outright opposition by some. Regardless of how anyone feels about this issue, insecticides and other pesticides have become indispensable, which creates something of a dilemma. Possibly as a result of the shift in public attitude towards insecticides, genetic engineering of microbes was first met with scepticism and caution among ...

  19. Fuel cells for vehicle applications in cars - bringing the future closer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panik, Ferdinand

    Among all alternative drive systems, the fuel cell electric propulsion system has the highest potential to compete with the internal combustion engine. For this reason, Daimler-Benz AG has entered into a co-operative alliance with Ballard Power Systems, with the objectives of bringing fuel cell vehicles to the market. Apart from the fuel cell itself, fuel cell vehicles require comprehensive system technology to provide fuel and air supply, cooling, energy management, electric and electronic functions. The system technology determines to a large extent the cost, weight, efficiency, performance and overall customer benefit of fuel cell vehicles. Hence, Daimler-Benz and Ballard are pooling their expertise in fuel cell system technology in a joint company, with the aim of bringing their fuel cell vehicular systems to the stage of maturity required for market entry as early as possible. Hydrogen-fuelled zero-emission fuel cell transit `buses' will be the first market segment addressed, with an emphasis on the North American and European markets. The first buses are already scheduled for delivery to customers in late 1997. Since a liquid fuel like methanol is easier to handle in passenger cars, fuel reforming technologies are developed and will shortly be demonstrated in a prototype, as well. The presentation will cover concepts of fuel cell vehicles with an emphasis on system technology, the related testing procedures and results as well as an outline of market entry strategies.

  20. Fuel safety research 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-07-01

    In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a result of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The laboratory was organized by combining three laboratories, the Reactivity Accident Laboratory, the Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of the Sever Accident Research Laboratory. Consequently, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is now in charge of all the fuel safety research in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of five research groups corresponding to each research fields. They are; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 1999 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  1. UNIQUE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael M. Ottenbrite; ZHAO Ruifeng; Sam Milstein

    1995-01-01

    An oral drug delivery system using proteinoid microspheres is discussed with respect to its unique dependence on pH. It has been found that certain drugs such as insulin and heparin can be encapsulated in proteinoid spheres at stomach pH's (1-3). These spheres also dissemble at intestinal pH's (6-7) releasing the drug for absorption. Using this technique low molecular weight heparin and human growth hormone have been orally delivered successfully to several animal species. Future work has been proposed to study the interaction and binding of the specific drugs with synthesized oligopeptides.

  2. Content delivery network and regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jiu-sheng; LIANG Xiong-jian

    2006-01-01

    First, this article provides an introduction to the content delivery network (CDN), which has wide prospects but is still in its early stages in China. Second, this article depicts the present situation and the developing characteristics of CDN in China. Elaborating on the above-mentioned two points, this article identifies the numerous problems that are encountered during the development of CDN, such as indistinct service positioning and the hidden troubles of information security.Finally, this article presents several countermeasures for handling the problems, such as opening the market widely,making a rational service positioning, strengthening the regulation on information security, and punishing illegal operations and unfair competition.

  3. Evaluation of Retrofit Delivery Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2013-07-01

    Residential energy retrofit activities are a critical component of efforts to increase energy efficiency in the U.S. building stock; however, retrofits account for a small percentage of aggregate energy savings at relatively high per unit costs. This report by Building America research team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), describes barriers to widespread retrofits and evaluates opportunities to improve delivery of home retrofit measures by identifying economies of scale in marketing, energy assessments, and bulk purchasing through pilot programs in portions of Sonoma, Los Angeles, and San Joaquin Counties, CA. These targeted communities show potential and have revealed key strategies for program design, as outlined in the report.

  4. Innovation in Health Care Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-02-01

    As reimbursement transitions from a volume-based to a value-based system, innovation in health care delivery will be needed. The process of innovation begins with framing the problem that needs to be solved along with the strategic vision that has to be achieved. Similar to scientific testing, a hypothesis is generated for a new solution to a problem. Innovation requires conducting a disciplined form of experimentation and then learning from the process. This manuscript will discuss the different types of innovation, and the key steps necessary for successful innovation in the health care field.

  5. Fuel related risks; Braenslerisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from

  6. European opportunities for fuel cell commercialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, C. E.; Steel, M. C. F.

    1992-01-01

    developing European sub-systems, others have chosen to develop their own novel cell technology. This paper will survey the extent of the fuel cell activities in Europe and emphasise the particular markets which fuel cell manufacturers are targeting. Demand for fuel cells in defence and military applications will be the first sector to be commercially viable — European companies such as Siemens, Elenco and VSEL are already marketing AFC or PEM systems for naval and aerospace applications. The small-scale CHP sector is also a likely early market for fuel cell plant. Co-generation fuel cells are of great interest to gas companies like ENAGAS and British Gas looking to promote sales of gas by installing on-site gas-fired generators on their customers' premises. The market for utility scale fuel cell plants is expected to develop later in the decade. The largest demonstration planned for Europe is the 1 MW PAFC for Milan, due to come onstream in 1992. MBB GmbH is considering developing MW-scale MCFC plants with the US company ERC — a 2 MW demonstration is planned for the end of 1993. The potential market for utility fuel cells is large — installation rates could reach 500-1000 MW/year by the turn of the century. Fuel cells will probably not achieve significant use in transport applications in Europe until after the turn of the century unless very stringent emissions legislation for vehicles is introduced. The likely early markets for fuel cells in the transport sector seem to be for delivery and fleet vehicles. Examples of European projects in this area include the Amsterdam city bus project which will use Elenco's AFC technology and Siemens' fork lift truck which will incorporate a PEM fuel cell. Fuel cells also link conveniently with renewable energy systems — coupled with an electrolyser a fuel cell can store solar, wind or wave power. The electrolysis proces is used to generate hydrogen from water at times of surplus energy while the fuel cell consumes hydrogen fuel

  7. Transportation of fresh nuclear fuel from OAO 'Mashinostroitelny Zavod'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: OAO 'MSZ' is one of the biggest Russian companies involved in production and transportation of nuclear fuel by means of land transportation (railway, motor and water transport) as well as by air and sea vessels. Since 1966 OAO 'MSZ' has been developing design documentation for transport packages (TYK) and supervising the process of manufacturing and operating transport packages (TYK). The following types of fuel were transported based on the designed documentation: a) fuel assemblies for research reactors; b.) fuel assemblies for VVER-440 reactor; c) fuel assemblies, control and scram rods for RBMK-1000 and RBMK-1500, BN-350 and BN-600, EGP-6, VK-50; d) fuel assemblies for VVER-1000 reactor ; e) PWR and BWR cores for the marine force. Safety and reliability of TYK design during transportation is confirmed by strength calculations and tests performed at a specialized test area of OAO MSZ in accordance with the requirements of IAEA Regulations-96 and OPBZ-83. Based on test results conclusions and substantiations are prepared and sent to FGUP 'GI' VNIPIET (Federal state unitary enterprise 'Leading research institute' All Russian scientific and research institute of power engineering technologies, Saint Petersburg) or RFNC VNIIEF (Russian Federal Nuclear Center All Russian scientific research institute of experimental physics, Sarov) for issuing release certificates for TYK design and transportation. By the present moment OAO MSZ has been granted 77 release certificates by the competent authority of Russia. OAO 'MSZ' prepares all the necessary documents for fresh fuel deliveries. (author)

  8. Improved Flow-Field Structures for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurau, Bogdan

    2013-05-31

    The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is ideal if high energy-density liquid fuels are required. Liquid fuels have advantages over compressed hydrogen including higher energy density and ease of handling. Although state-of-the-art DMFCs exhibit manageable degradation rates, excessive fuel crossover diminishes system energy and power density. Although use of dilute methanol mitigates crossover, the concomitant lowering of the gross fuel energy density (GFED) demands a complex balance-of-plant (BOP) that includes higher flow rates, external exhaust recirculation, etc. An alternative approach is redesign of the fuel delivery system to accommodate concentrated methanol. NuVant Systems Inc. (NuVant) will maximize the GFED by design and assembly of a DMFC that uses near neat methanol. The approach is to tune the diffusion of highly concentrated methanol (to the anode catalytic layer) to the back-diffusion of water formed at the cathode (i.e. in situ generation of dilute methanol at the anode layer). Crossover will be minimized without compromising the GFED by innovative integration of the anode flow-field and the diffusion layer. The integrated flow-field-diffusion-layers (IFDLs) will widen the current and potential DMFC operating ranges and enable the use of cathodes optimized for hydrogen-air fuel cells.

  9. Microspheres and Nanotechnology for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannesson, Gauti; Stefánsson, Einar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2016-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye can be accomplished by invasive drug injections into different tissues of the eye and noninvasive topical treatment. Invasive treatment involves the risks of surgical trauma and infection, and conventional topical treatments are ineffective in delivering drugs to the posterior segment of the eye. In recent years, nanotechnology has become an ever-increasing part of ocular drug delivery. In the following, we briefly review microspheres and nanotechnology for drug delivery to the eye, including different forms of nanotechnology such as nanoparticles, microparticles, liposomes, microemulsions and micromachines. The permeation barriers and anatomical considerations linked to ocular drug delivery are discussed and a theoretical overview on drug delivery through biological membranes is given. Finally, in vitro, in vivo and human studies of x03B3;-cyclodextrin nanoparticle eyedrop suspensions are discussed as an example of nanotechnology used for drug delivery to the eye. PMID:26501994

  10. Microspheres and Nanotechnology for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannesson, Gauti; Stefánsson, Einar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2016-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye can be accomplished by invasive drug injections into different tissues of the eye and noninvasive topical treatment. Invasive treatment involves the risks of surgical trauma and infection, and conventional topical treatments are ineffective in delivering drugs to the posterior segment of the eye. In recent years, nanotechnology has become an ever-increasing part of ocular drug delivery. In the following, we briefly review microspheres and nanotechnology for drug delivery to the eye, including different forms of nanotechnology such as nanoparticles, microparticles, liposomes, microemulsions and micromachines. The permeation barriers and anatomical considerations linked to ocular drug delivery are discussed and a theoretical overview on drug delivery through biological membranes is given. Finally, in vitro, in vivo and human studies of x03B3;-cyclodextrin nanoparticle eyedrop suspensions are discussed as an example of nanotechnology used for drug delivery to the eye.

  11. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  12. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY: A TECHNICAL WRITEUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Yadav

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery is another system which provides controlled and continuous delivery of the drug through the skin into the systemic circulation. Topical application which involves drug transport to viable epidermal and/or dermal tissues of the skin for local therapeutic effect while a very major fraction of drug is transported into the systemic blood circulation. Transdermal route provides many advantages over conventional oral and invasive methods of drug delivery such as avoids first pass metabolism, improve patient compliance, maintance steady state plasma concentration. This article provides an overview of skin permeation pathways, types of transdermal drug delivery system, methods of preparation with different methods of evaluation, and the recent advancement in transdermal drug delivery, which includes Transfersomes, Magnetophoresis, Controlled Heat Aided Drug Delivery System, Laser Radiation, Medicated Tattoos, Laser radiation.

  13. Mode of delivery in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuele D’Amico; Silvia Messina; Francesco Patti

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system, affecting women of childbearing age. Little is known about the possible association between mode of delivery and the risk of MS in offspring. Delivery represents a unique event in a woman’s lifetime, with complex mechanisms controlling human parturition. Concurrent with the trend of increasing numbers of caesarean deliveries (CD), there has been an increasing frequency of autoimmune diseases such as M...

  14. Microemulsion: As Excellent Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Pathan Maksud; Zikriya Abrar; Quazi Aamer

    2012-01-01

    Today though the oral drug delivery system is dominant still it is found to be need of ideal transdermal drug delivery system. “A micro emulsion is a system of water, oil and an amphiphile which is a single optically isotropic and thermodynamically stable liquid solution”. Microemulsions offer several advantages as drug delivery systems as these are thermodynamically stable and stability allows for self emulsification of the system with microemulsion acting as supersolvent of the drugs which...

  15. Nanoliposomal minocycline for ocular drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, James M.; Imai, Hisanori; Haakenson, Jeremy K.; Robert M Brucklacher; Fox, Todd E.; Shanmugavelandy, Sriram S.; Unrath, Kellee A.; Pedersen, Michelle M.; Dai, Pingqi; Freeman, Willard M.; Bronson, Sarah K.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Kester, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Nanoliposomal technology is a promising drug delivery system that could be employed to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of clearance and distribution in ocular drug delivery to the retina. We developed a nanoscale version of an anionic, cholesterol-fusing liposome that can encapsulate therapeutic levels of minocycline capable of drug delivery. We demonstrate that size extrusion followed by size-exclusion chromatography can form a stable 80-nm liposome that encapsulates minocycline at a ...

  16. Multifunctional Delivery Systems for Cancer Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    McErlean, Emma M.; McCrudden, Cian M; McCarthy, Helen O.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines key concepts with respect to cancer gene therapy and the current issues with respect to non-viral delivery. The biological and molecular barriers that need to be overcome before effective non-viral delivery systems can be appropriately designed for oncology applications are highlighted and ways to overcome these are discussed. Strategies developed to evade the immune response are also described and targeted gene delivery is examined with the most effective strategies hig...

  17. BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: THE CURRENT INTEREST

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Mitul; Karigar Asif; Savaliya Pratik; Ramana MV; Dubal Ashwini

    2011-01-01

    This review highlights the several advantages of buccal drug delivery system (BDDS) over the conventional and systemic formulation majorly. It helps to enhance bioavailability through bypassing the first pass metabolism. On this drug delivery system the formulation keeps in contact with the mucosal surface resulting in better absorption and prolonged resident time. Though all drugs are not suitable for this drug delivery system yet is useful for most of the drugs. Bioadhesive polymers roles a...

  18. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY: A TECHNICAL WRITEUP

    OpenAIRE

    Vandana Yadav; Sipai Altaf Bhai. M; Mamatha Y; Prasanth V.V

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery is another system which provides controlled and continuous delivery of the drug through the skin into the systemic circulation. Topical application which involves drug transport to viable epidermal and/or dermal tissues of the skin for local therapeutic effect while a very major fraction of drug is transported into the systemic blood circulation. Transdermal route provides many advantages over conventional oral and invasive methods of drug delivery such as avoids fir...

  19. Transdermal drug delivery: approaches and significance

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, SATHYANARAYANA

    2012-01-01

    S Narasimha MurthyDepartment of Pharmaceutics, The University of Mississippi, USATransdermal drug delivery systems deliver drugs through the skin as an alternative to oral, intravascular, subcutaneous, and transmucosal routes. Potential advantages of transdermal delivery include, but are not limited to, elimination of first-pass metabolism, steady delivery/blood levels, better patient compliance, reduced systemic drug interactions, possible dose intervention, avoidance of medically assisted d...

  20. CURRENT TRENDS IN PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    S. R. Tajane et al.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose for this review on pulsatile drug delivery systems (PDDS) is to compile the recent literatures with special focus on the different types and approaches involved in the development of the formulation. Pulsatile drug delivery system is the most interesting time and site-specific system. This system is designed for chronopharmacotherapy. Thus, to mimic the function of living systems and in view of emerging chronotherapeutic approaches, pulsatile delivery, which is meant to release a ...

  1. Solid electrolytic fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Masayasu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kamisaka, Mitsuo; Notomi, Kei.

    1989-04-21

    Concerning a solid electrolytic fuel cell with a gas permeable substrate pipe, a fuel electrode installed on this substrate pipe and an air electrode which is laminated on this fuel electrode with the electrolyte in between, the existing fuel cell of this kind uses crystals of CaMnO3, etc. for the material of the air electrode, but its electric resistance is big and in order to avert this, it is necessary to make the film thickness of the air electrode big. However, in such a case, the entry of the air into its inside worsens and the cell performance cannot develop satisfactorily. In view of the above, in order to obtain a high performance solid electrolytic fuel cell which can improve electric conductivity without damaging diffusion rate of the air, this invention proposes with regard to the aforementioned solid electrolytic fuel cell to install a heat resistant and conductive member inside the above air electrode. 6 figs.

  2. Spent fuel assembly hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When spent nuclear fuel is disposed of in a repository, the waste package will include the spent fuel assembly hardware, the structural portion of the fuel assembly, and the fuel pins. The spent fuel assembly hardware is the subject of this paper. The basic constituent parts of the fuel assembly will be described with particular attention on the materials used in their construction. The results of laboratory analyses performed to determine radionuclide inventories and trace impurities also will be described. Much of this work has been incorporated into a US Department of Energy (DOE) database maintained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This database is documented in DOE/RW-0184 and can be obtained from Karl Notz at ORNL. The database provides a single source for information regarding wastes that may be sent to the repository

  3. Characterization of ethylene/JP-10 fuel injection profiles for a valveless pulse detonation engine

    OpenAIRE

    Danaher, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Practical use of the pulse detonation engine as a form of propulsion for future aircraft and missile platforms depends upon the ability to reliably detonate a fuel air mixture at high frequencies in order to produce an acceptable level of thrust, and to take advantage of the higher thermodynamic efficiency available from the pulse detonation engine combustion cycle. This research thesis focused on improving and mapping fuel fraction delivery profiles for a valveless pulse detonation engine. T...

  4. Transungual delivery: deliberations and creeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatai, P; Sapra, B

    2014-10-01

    Although considered as trifling illness, nail diseases have a reasonably high occurrence and a noteworthy impact on the patients' quality of life. Furthermore, there is a need to improve the topical treatment for nail diseases to avoid drug interactions and to reduce side effects associated with oral therapy. Topical drug delivery to the nails has established amplified consideration lately. Strategies (such as chemical enhancers, formulation strategies, physical and mechanical methods) are being investigated in order to improve drug permeability across the nail plate. The rationale of this review is to present contemporary information on the structure of human nail along with its comparison with animal hooves. Precincts of nail permeability have been briefly discussed with respect to factors like permeant's molecular size, hydrophilicity, charge and the nature of the vehicle. These factors affect drug uptake and permeation through the nail. Formulations like nail lacquers which mimic cosmetic varnish and colloidal carriers along with nail substitutes that can be utilized for transungual delivery have also been discussed. PMID:24888698

  5. Ungual and transungual drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, H N; Juluri, Abhishek; Desai, B G; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2012-08-01

    Topical therapy is desirable in treatment of nail diseases like onychomycosis (fungal infection of nail) and psoriasis. The topical treatment avoids the adverse effects associated with systemic therapy, thereby enhancing the patient compliance and reducing the treatment cost. However the effectiveness of the topical therapies has been limited due to the poor permeability of the nail plate to topically applied therapeutic agents. Research over the past one decade has been focused on improving the transungual permeability by means of chemical treatment, penetration enhancers, mechanical and physical methods. The present review is an attempt to discuss the different physical and chemical methods employed to increase the permeability of the nail plate. Minimally invasive electrically mediated techniques such as iontophoresis have gained success in facilitating the transungual delivery of actives. In addition drug transport across the nail plate has been improved by filing the dorsal surface of the nail plate prior to application of topical formulation. But attempts to improve the trans-nail permeation using transdermal chemical enhancers have failed so far. Attempts are on to search suitable physical enhancement techniques and chemical transungual enhancers in view to maximize the drug delivery across the nail plate. PMID:22149347

  6. Aptamers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Ray

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are a class of therapeutic oligonucleotides that form specific three-dimensional structures that are dictated by their sequences. They are typically generated by an iterative screening process of complex nucleic acid libraries employing a process termed Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX. SELEX has traditionally been performed using purified proteins, and cell surface receptors may be challenging to purify in their properly folded and modified conformations. Therefore, relatively few aptamers have been generated that bind cell surface receptors. However, improvements in recombinant fusion protein technology have increased the availability of receptor extracellular domains as purified protein targets, and the development of cell-based selection techniques has allowed selection against surface proteins in their native configuration on the cell surface. With cell-based selection, a specific protein target is not always chosen, but selection is performed against a target cell type with the goal of letting the aptamer choose the target. Several studies have demonstrated that aptamers that bind cell surface receptors may have functions other than just blocking receptor-ligand interactions. All cell surface proteins cycle intracellularly to some extent, and many surface receptors are actively internalized in response to ligand binding. Therefore, aptamers that bind cell surface receptors have been exploited for the delivery of a variety of cargoes into cells. This review focuses on recent progress and current challenges in the field of aptamer-mediated delivery.

  7. Ungual and transungual drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, H N; Juluri, Abhishek; Desai, B G; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2012-08-01

    Topical therapy is desirable in treatment of nail diseases like onychomycosis (fungal infection of nail) and psoriasis. The topical treatment avoids the adverse effects associated with systemic therapy, thereby enhancing the patient compliance and reducing the treatment cost. However the effectiveness of the topical therapies has been limited due to the poor permeability of the nail plate to topically applied therapeutic agents. Research over the past one decade has been focused on improving the transungual permeability by means of chemical treatment, penetration enhancers, mechanical and physical methods. The present review is an attempt to discuss the different physical and chemical methods employed to increase the permeability of the nail plate. Minimally invasive electrically mediated techniques such as iontophoresis have gained success in facilitating the transungual delivery of actives. In addition drug transport across the nail plate has been improved by filing the dorsal surface of the nail plate prior to application of topical formulation. But attempts to improve the trans-nail permeation using transdermal chemical enhancers have failed so far. Attempts are on to search suitable physical enhancement techniques and chemical transungual enhancers in view to maximize the drug delivery across the nail plate.

  8. Transungual delivery: deliberations and creeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatai, P; Sapra, B

    2014-10-01

    Although considered as trifling illness, nail diseases have a reasonably high occurrence and a noteworthy impact on the patients' quality of life. Furthermore, there is a need to improve the topical treatment for nail diseases to avoid drug interactions and to reduce side effects associated with oral therapy. Topical drug delivery to the nails has established amplified consideration lately. Strategies (such as chemical enhancers, formulation strategies, physical and mechanical methods) are being investigated in order to improve drug permeability across the nail plate. The rationale of this review is to present contemporary information on the structure of human nail along with its comparison with animal hooves. Precincts of nail permeability have been briefly discussed with respect to factors like permeant's molecular size, hydrophilicity, charge and the nature of the vehicle. These factors affect drug uptake and permeation through the nail. Formulations like nail lacquers which mimic cosmetic varnish and colloidal carriers along with nail substitutes that can be utilized for transungual delivery have also been discussed.

  9. Pulmonary delivery of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchall, James

    2007-11-01

    The lung is an appropriate present and future target for gene therapy approaches designed to treat inherited monogenic diseases, eradicate bronchial tumours, transfer pharmacologically active products to the general circulation, express enzymes to catabolise toxins, manage pulmonary hypertension and lung injury and vaccinate against infection. Despite 35 years of gene therapy research and some significant milestones in molecular biology, the clinical potential of gene therapy has yet to be realised. In pulmonary gene therapy the nucleic acid cargo needs to be delivered to cells in the target region of the lung, and even in cases when these targets are well defined this is severely limited by the pulmonary architecture, clearance mechanisms, immune activation, the presence of respiratory mucus and the availability of a truly representative biological model. The challenge from a drug delivery perspective is to consider the suitability of conventional nebulisers and inhalers for delivering DNA to the lung and design and apply integrated formulation and device solutions specific to nucleic acid delivery. PMID:17970661

  10. Integrin Targeted Delivery of Chemotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics is defined in the sense, that is, to maximize the therapeutic index of a chemotherapeutic agent by strictly localizing its pharmacological activity to the site or tissue of action. Integrins are a family of heterodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins involved in a wide range of cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM and cell-to-cell interactions. As cell surface receptors, integrins readily interact with extracellular ligands and play a vital role in angiogenesis, leukocytes function and tumor development, which sets up integrins as an excellent target for chemotherapy treatment. The peptide ligands containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD, which displays a strong binding affinity and selectivity to integrins, particularly to integrin αvβ3, have been developed to conjugate with various conventional chemotherapeutic agents, such as small molecules, peptides and proteins, and nanoparticle-carried drugs for integtrin targeted therapeutic studies. This review highlights the recent advances in integrin targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents with emphasis on target of integrin αvβ3, and describes the considerations for the design of the diverse RGD peptide-chemotherapeutics conjugates and their major applications.

  11. "Programmed packaging" for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, M; Sakurai, Y; Akita, H; Harashima, H

    2014-11-10

    We report on the development of a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) based on our packaging concept "Programmed packaging" to control not only intracellular trafficking but also the biodistribution of encapsulated compounds such as nucleic acids/proteins/peptides. Our strategy for achieving this is based on molecular mechanisms of cell biology such as endocytosis, vesicular trafficking, etc. In this review, we summarize the concept of programmed packaging and discuss some of our recent successful examples of using MENDs. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) was applied as a new methodology for identifying a new ligand toward cell or mitochondria. The delivery of siRNA to tumors and the tumor vasculature was achieved using pH sensitive lipid (YSK05), which was newly designed and optimized under in vivo conditions. The efficient delivery of pDNA to immune cells such as dendritic cells has also been developed using the KALA ligand, which can be a breakthrough technology for DNA vaccine. Finally, ss-cleavable and pH-activated lipid-like surfactant (ssPalm) which is a lipid like material with pH-activatable and SS-cleavable properties is also introduced as a proof of our concept. PMID:24780263

  12. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS are topically administered medicaments in the form of patches that deliver drugs for systemic effects at a predetermined and controlled rate. It works very simply in which drug is applied inside the patch and it is worn on skin for long period of time. By this constant concentration of drug remain in blood for long time. Polymer matrix, drug, permeation enhancers are the main components of TDDS; polymers includes Zein, Shellac (as a natural to synthetic ones (Polybutadiene, Polysiloxane, Polyvinyl chloride, Polyvinyl alcohol etc.. TDDS are of many types varying from single layer drug in adhesive to multi layer drug in adhesive and others are reservoir and the matrix systems. The market value of TDDS products are increasing with rapid rate, more than 35 products have now been approved for sale in US, and approximately 16 active ingredients are approved globally for use as a TDDS. Transdermal drug delivery is a recent technology which promises a great future it has a potential to limit the use of needles for administering wide variety of drugs but cost factor is a important thing to consider since developing nations like INDIA have second highest population, but due to higher cost TDDS are the hidden part of therapy used in general population.

  13. Delivery Commitments in Stochastic Service Networks: Case of Automobile Service

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Dulluri; Ganesh Muthusamy

    2013-01-01

    Service firms have become highly competitive in terms of providing the delivery. The delivery quality in terms of delivery commitments. Delivery commitments impact the customer in deciding for the service. Computing the delivery commitments in stochastic service systems is a real challenge. Delivery commitment forms a key parameter in formulating the service level agreements in B2B markets. In our current work we propose a queuing theoretic approach for computing the delivery commitments. The...

  14. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.; Zhang, Gong

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  15. Microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are a promising technology for sustainable production of alternative energy and waste treatment. A microbial fuel cell transformation chemical energy in the chemical bonds in organic compounds to electrical energy through catalytic reactions of microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. It has been known for many years that it is possible to generate electricity directly by using bacteria to break down organic substrates. Key words: microbial fuel cells (MFC), biosensor, wastewater treatment

  16. Liquid fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  17. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project is concerned with developing an advanced method to produce nuclear reactor fuels. Since 1968 EIR has worked successfully on the production of uranium-plutonium mixed carbide using wet gelation chemistry. An important part of the development is irradiating the fuel in materials test reactors and evaluating its performance. During 1979 the programme continued with principal activities of fuel fabrication development, preparation for irradiation testing, performance evaluation, and modelling and plant engineering. (Auth.)

  18. Spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To begin with, the author explains the reasons for intermediate storage of fuel elements in nuclear power stations and in a reprocessing plant and gives the temperature and radioactivity curves of LWR fuel elements after removal from the reactor. This is followed by a description of the facilities for fuel element storage in a reprocessing plant and of their functions. Futher topics are criticality and activity control, the problem of cooling time and safety systems. (HR)

  19. Transport of MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory framework which governs the transport of MOX fuel is set out, including packages, transport modes and security requirements. Technical requirements for the packages are reviewed and BNFL's experience in plutonium and MOX fuel transport is described. The safety of such operations and the public perception of safety are described and the question of gaining public acceptance for MOX fuel transport is addressed. The paper concludes by emphasising the need for proactive programmes to improve the public acceptance of these operations. (Author)

  20. Power Systems Without Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Joshua Adam; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Callaway, Duncan S.

    2015-01-01

    The finiteness of fossil fuels implies that future electric power systems may predominantly source energy from fuel-free renewable resources like wind and solar. Evidently, these power systems without fuel will be environmentally benign, sustainable, and subject to milder failure scenarios. Many of these advantages were projected decades ago with the definition of the soft energy path, which describes a future where all energy is provided by numerous small, simple, and diverse renewable sourc...

  1. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising a column of vibration compacted fuel which is retained in consolidated condition by a thimble shaped plug. The plug is wedged into gripping engagement with the wall of the sheath by a wedge. The wedge material has a lower coefficient of expansion than the sheath material so that at reactor operating temperature the retainer can relax sufficient to accommodate thermal expansion of the column of fuel. (author)

  2. Fuel safety research 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is in charge of research activity which covers almost research items related to fuel safety of water reactor in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are being conducted by using some unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) of JAERI. The research to confirm the safety of high burn-up fuel and MOX fuel under accident conditions is the most important item among them. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). Research group of radionuclides release and transport behavior from irradiated fuel under severe accident conditions (VEGA group). The research conducted in the year 2001 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, the fuel behavior data under BWR power oscillation conditions in the NSRR, the data on failure-bearing capability of hydrided cladding under LOCA conditions and the FP release data at very high temperature in steam which simulate the reactor core condition during severe accidents. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2001 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  3. A perfect fuel supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WWER fuel market is dominated by the Russian fuel vendor JSC TVEL. There have been attempts to open up the market also for other suppliers, such as BNFL/Westinghouse for Finland, Czech Republic, and Ukraine. However, at the moment it seems that JSC TVEL is the only real alternative to supply fuel to WWER reactors. All existing fuel suppliers have certified quality management systems which put a special emphasis on the customer satisfaction. This paper attempts to define from the customer's point of view, what are the important issues concerning the customer satisfaction. (author)

  4. FUEL ASSAY REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinrad, B.I.; Sandmeier, H.A.; Martens, F.H.

    1962-12-25

    A reactor having maximum sensitivity to perturbations is described comprising a core consisting of a horizontally disposed, rectangular, annular fuel zone containing enriched uranium dioxide dispersed in graphite, the concentration of uranium dioxide increasing from the outside to the inside of the fuel zone, an internal reflector of graphite containing an axial test opening disposed within the fuel zone, an external graphite reflector, means for changing the neutron spectrum in the test opening, and means for measuring perturbations in the neutron flux caused by the introduction of different fuel elements into the test opening. (AEC)

  5. HTGR fuel performance basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 16000C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 26600C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents. The slow release of fission products over hundreds of hours allows for decay of short-lived isotopes. The slow and limited release of fission products under HTGR accident conditions results in very low off-site doses. The slow nature of the accident provides more time for operator action to mitigate the accident and for local and state authorities to respond. These features can be used to take advantage of close-in siting for process applications, flexibility in site selection, and emergency planning

  6. Data feature: Fuel procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a review of the effect of fuel costs on the procurement strategies of a utility and a conjecture that the same strategies may have an effect on the price of fuel. Factors affecting fuel costs are reviewed, and a number of procurement strategies taken to trim fuel costs are reviewed. The major trend is away from long-term enrichment contracts and into such strategies as: (1) Spot market purchases, (2) Inventory reduction, (3) Purchase of CIS material, and (4) Market-related contracts instead of base-escalated contracts

  7. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  8. Fuel Cells: Reshaping the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toay, Leo

    2004-01-01

    In conjunction with the FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Fuel Initiative, President George W. Bush has pledged nearly two billion dollars for fuel cell research. Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors have unveiled fuel cell demonstration vehicles, and all three of these companies have invested heavily in fuel cell research. Fuel cell…

  9. Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Possible changes in fuel properties are identified based on current trends and projections. The effect of those changes with respect to the aircraft fuel system are examined and some technological approaches to utilizing those fuels are described.

  10. BEHAVE : Fire Behavior Prediction and Fuel Modeling System -- FUEL Subsystem

    OpenAIRE

    Burgan, Robert E; Rothermel, Richard C

    1984-01-01

    This manual documents the fuel modeling procedures of BEHAVE - a state-of-the-art wildland fire behavior prediction system. Described are procedures for collecting fuel data, using the data with the program, and testing and adjusting the fuel model.

  11. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium-zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with GA's standard commercial warranty

  12. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with General Atomic's standard commercial warranty

  13. Fuel safety research 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a part of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The new laboratory was organized by combining three pre-existing laboratories, Reactivity Accident Laboratory, Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of Severe Accident Research Laboratory. The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory becomes to be in charge of all fuel safety research in JAERI. Various experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). The research activities in year 2000 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, failure of high burnup BWR fuel rod under RIA conditions, data on the behavior of hydrided Zircaloy cladding under LOCA conditions and FP release data from VEGA experiments at very high temperature/pressure condition. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2000 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  14. G2 Autonomous Control for Cryogenic Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dito, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    The Independent System Health Management-Autonomous Control (ISHM-AC) application development for cryogenic delivery systems is intended to create an expert system that will require minimal operator involvement and ultimately allow for complete autonomy when fueling a space vehicle in the time prior to launch. The G2-Autonomous Control project is the development of a model, simulation, and ultimately a working application that will control and monitor the cryogenic fluid delivery to a rocket for testing purposes. To develop this application, the project is using the programming language/environment Gensym G2. The environment is an all-inclusive application that allows development, testing, modeling, and finally operation of the unique application through graphical and programmatic methods. We have learned G2 through training classes and subsequent application development, and are now in the process of building the application that will soon be used to test on cryogenic loading equipment here at the Kennedy Space Center Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL). The G2 ISHM-AC application will bring with it a safer and more efficient propellant loading system for the future launches at Kennedy Space Center and eventually mobile launches from all over the world.

  15. Role of Nanotechnology in Delivery of Protein and Peptide Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sushilkumar; Vhora, Imran; Amrutiya, Jitendra; Lalani, Rohan; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2015-01-01

    The advent of recombinant DNA technology and computational designing has fueled the emergence of proteins and peptides as a new class of modern therapeutics such as vaccines, antigens, antibodies and hormones. Demand for such therapeutics has increased recently due to their distinct pharmacodynamic characteristics of specificity of action and high potency. However, their potential clinical applications are often hindered by involvement of factors which impact their therapeutic potential negatively. Large size, low permeability, conformational fragility, immunogenicity, metabolic degradation and short half-life results in poor bioavailability and inferior efficacy. These challenges have encouraged researchers to devise strategies for effective delivery of proteins and peptides. Recent advances made in nanotechnology are being sought to overcome aforesaid problems and to offer advantages such as higher drug loading, improved stability, sustained release, amenability for non-parenteral administration and targeting through surface modifications. This review focuses on elaborating the role of nanotechnology based formulations and associated challenges in protein and peptide delivery, their clinical outlook and future perspective. PMID:26323432

  16. Role of Nanotechnology in Delivery of Protein and Peptide Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sushilkumar; Vhora, Imran; Amrutiya, Jitendra; Lalani, Rohan; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2015-01-01

    The advent of recombinant DNA technology and computational designing has fueled the emergence of proteins and peptides as a new class of modern therapeutics such as vaccines, antigens, antibodies and hormones. Demand for such therapeutics has increased recently due to their distinct pharmacodynamic characteristics of specificity of action and high potency. However, their potential clinical applications are often hindered by involvement of factors which impact their therapeutic potential negatively. Large size, low permeability, conformational fragility, immunogenicity, metabolic degradation and short half-life results in poor bioavailability and inferior efficacy. These challenges have encouraged researchers to devise strategies for effective delivery of proteins and peptides. Recent advances made in nanotechnology are being sought to overcome aforesaid problems and to offer advantages such as higher drug loading, improved stability, sustained release, amenability for non-parenteral administration and targeting through surface modifications. This review focuses on elaborating the role of nanotechnology based formulations and associated challenges in protein and peptide delivery, their clinical outlook and future perspective.

  17. TRIGA spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage of spent fuel elements is a step preliminary to final radioactive waste disposal operation. The spent fuel issue will have a common solution for both spent fuel from Cernavoda NPP and research TRIGA reactors currently operated in Romania. For the case of TRIGA reactor spent fuel this will be an alternative solution to the now functioning alternative of 'on site' storing solution adopted so far at INR Pitesti. For the time being the short term storage requirements for TRIGA spent fuel are adequately fulfilled by the pool of a multizonal reactor, the construction of which was definitively stopped. On the other hand the HEU - LEU conversion of the 14 MW TRIGA reactor which will be completed till May 2006, will pose not spent fuel problems as the TRIGA HEU fuel (612 elements) will be transferred in US (not later than May 2009). Consequently, the needs for intermediate storage will be associated only with the LEU spent fuel from TRIGA LEU-SSR and TRIGA LEU-ACPR reactors. In the latter case the maximum number of elements will be 167. For the stationary 14 MW (SSR) reactor but the amount of fuel elements to be stored on a intermediate term will be a function of service span of this reactor as well of the degree of request. Totally, some 1,750 SSR-LEU fuel elements will require intermediate storage. There is a preliminary agreement with 'NUCLEARELECTRICA -S.A.' Company regarding LEU TRIGA spent fuel storage at the intermediate storage facility for spent fuel of Cernavoda NPP.. A safety investigation is underway to determine the impact of LEU spent fuel upon the dry environment containing spent CANDU fuel. To fulfil the requirements imposed by CANDU storage technology the LEU spent fuel will be correspondingly conditioned. Then adequate containers will be used for transportation of fuel to Cernavoda's storage cell. Subcriticality condition in the storage cell loaded with LEU was checked by calculating the multiplication factor for an infinite lattice. The

  18. Delivery systems for gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Mali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of DNA was unraveled by Watson and Crick in 1953, and two decades later Arber, Nathans and Smith discovered DNA restriction enzymes, which led to the rapid growth in the field of recombinant DNA technology. From expressing cloned genes in bacteria to expressing foreign DNA in transgenic animals, DNA is now slated to be used as a therapeutic agent to replace defective genes in patients suffering from genetic disorders or to kill tumor cells in cancer patients. Gene therapy provides modern medicine with new perspectives that were unthinkable two decades ago. Progress in molecular biology and especially, molecular medicine is now changing the basics of clinical medicine. A variety of viral and non-viral possibilities are available for basic and clinical research. This review summarizes the delivery routes and methods for gene transfer used in gene therapy.

  19. Industrial Biotechnology: Discovery to Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotani, Gopal K.; Dodge, Timothy C.; Gaertner, Alfred L.; Arbige, Michael V.

    Fermentation products have penetrated almost every sector of our daily lives. They are used in ethical and generic drugs, clinical and home diagnostics, defense products, nutritional supplements, personal care products, food and animal feed ingredients, cleaning and textile processing, and in industrial applications such as fuel ethanol production. Even before knowing about the existence of microorganisms, for thousands of years ancient people routinely used them for making cheese, soy sauces, yogurt, and bread. Although humans have used fermentation as the method of choice for manufacturing for a long time, it is only now being recognized for its potential towards sustainable industrial development.

  20. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise

  1. Framing car fuel efficiency : linearity heuristic for fuel consumption and fuel-efficiency ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, T.M.; Bolderdijk, J.W.; Steg, L.

    2014-01-01

    People are sensitive to the way information on fuel efficiency is conveyed. When the fuel efficiency of cars is framed in terms of fuel per distance (FPD; e.g. l/100 km), instead of distance per units of fuel (DPF; e.g. km/l), people have a more accurate perception of potential fuel savings. People

  2. Fuel cells: Operating flexibly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Moo

    2016-09-01

    Fuel cells typically function well only in rather limited temperature and humidity ranges. Now, a proton exchange membrane consisting of ion pair complexes is shown to enable improved fuel cell performance under a wide range of conditions that are unattainable with conventional approaches.

  3. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  4. Nuclear fuel manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

  5. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklesimer, M.L.; Thurber, W.C.

    1961-01-01

    A chemically nonreactive fuel composition for incorporation in aluminum- clad, plate type fuel elements for neutronic reactors is described. The composition comprises a mixture of aluminum and uranium carbide particles, the uranium carbide particles containing at least 80 wt.% UC/sub 2/.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  8. Bioethanol: fuel or feedstock?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Falsig, Hanne; Jørgensen, Betina;

    2007-01-01

    Increasing amounts of bioethanol are being produced from fermentation of biomass, mainly to counteract the continuing depletion of fossil resources and the consequential escalation of oil prices. Today, bioethanol is mainly utilized as a fuel or fuel additive in motor vehicles, but it could also...

  9. International fuel bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group discusses the establishment of an international bank for nuclear fuels. The statements by representatives of seven countries discuss the specific features of a bank of this kind which is set up to facilitate access to nuclear fuels but also to permit a more rigid control in the sense of the non-proliferation philosophy

  10. Are Solar Fuels Sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Summary The combined problems of too little fossil fuels to supply the world’s future energy needs and the possible negative environmental effects of carbon dioxide emissions which are coupled to their usage has led to the development of fuels based on s

  11. Nondestructive measurements on spent fuel for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive measurements on spent fuel are being developed to meet safeguards and materials managment requirements at nuclear facilities. Spent-fuel measurement technology and its applications are reviewed

  12. Polyester Dendrimers: Smart Carriers for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean–d’Amour K. Twibanire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyester dendrimers have been shown to be outstanding candidates for biomedical applications. Compared to traditional polymeric drug vehicles, these biodegradable dendrimers show excellent advantages especially as drug delivery systems because they are non-toxic. Here, advances on polyester dendrimers as smart carriers for drug delivery applications have been surveyed. Both covalent and non-covalent incorporation of drugs are discussed.

  13. 78 FR 15797 - Service Delivery Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... provide the best possible service. (77 FR 44306 (2012)). We have incorporated those suggestions into this... ADMINISTRATION Service Delivery Plan AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are requesting public input as we finalize our Service Delivery Plan (SDP)....

  14. 77 FR 44306 - Service Delivery Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Service Delivery Plan AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are requesting public input as we develop our Service Delivery Plan (SDP). We recently completed our Agency Strategic Plan (ASP) for 2013-2016. The ASP identifies four goals:...

  15. Reoccurrence of retained placenta at vaginal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Bergholt, Thomas; Nikolajsen, Sys

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery.......To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery....

  16. International Document Delivery: The ADONIS Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Barrie; Campbell, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development of a project to test whether publishers can gain copyright revenue by supplying their journals in machine readable form for document delivery centers. Areas discussed include technical considerations; document delivery centers involved; workstation development; and statistical analyses to be reported at the end of the…

  17. Association Between Sexual Health and Delivery Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihyon Song, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: This study suggests that routine episiotomies at delivery should be avoided to improve postpartum maternal sexual function. Maternal age and cesarean section were found to affect postpartum sexual health. Song M, Ishii H, Toda M, Tomimatsu T, Katsuyama H, Nakamura T, Nakai Y, and Shimoya K. Association between sexual health and delivery mode. Sex Med 2014;2:153–158.

  18. Evaluating Student Perceptions of Course Delivery Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramorski, Tom; Madan, Manu S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate effectiveness of course delivery mode on three dimensions: values, networking opportunities and learning. While students and their future employers are two important customers for the business program, we focus on the perception of students regarding the effectiveness of course delivery mode on program performance. The…

  19. Toward Effective Science Delivery among Recreation Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Arielle; Schneider, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Effective science delivery to practitioners can improve recreation experiences and environmental educational outcomes. This project explored U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service recreation personnel's research-based information sources, constraints to access and use of research, and opinions about how to improve science delivery to…

  20. Polyester Dendrimers: Smart Carriers for Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Jean–d’Amour K. Twibanire; T. Bruce Grindley

    2014-01-01

    Polyester dendrimers have been shown to be outstanding candidates for biomedical applications. Compared to traditional polymeric drug vehicles, these biodegradable dendrimers show excellent advantages especially as drug delivery systems because they are non-toxic. Here, advances on polyester dendrimers as smart carriers for drug delivery applications have been surveyed. Both covalent and non-covalent incorporation of drugs are discussed.

  1. Puerperal endometritis after abdominal twin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suonio, S; Huttunen, M

    1994-04-01

    The infectious complications of 122 consecutive abdominal twin deliveries over the period 1984-1989 were analyzed in a prospective clinical study, comparing them with 761 singleton abdominal deliveries over the period 1984-1986. The incidence of endometritis was nearly three-fold after twin deliveries and the incidence of abdominal wound infections nearly two-fold compared with singleton abdominal pregnancies (13.1/4.7% and 5.6/3.0%). The risk of amnionitis was increased ten-fold, 6 hours after rupture of the membranes in abdominal twin delivery, but no connection was found between amnionitis and endometritis, as in singleton abdominal deliveries. Multiple regression analysis indicated only two risk factors as regards puerperal endometritis after abdominal twin delivery: age under 25 years (odds ratio 6.9, 95% confidence limits 1.9-24.8), an association also seen in singleton abdominal deliveries, and a period of more than 6 hours from rupture of membranes to delivery (odds ratio 7.8, 95% confidence limits 2.1-28.5). Multiple pregnancy appears to be associated with an increased risk of endometritis. The etiological factors remain unknown, but a large placental bed and/or immunological factors may be implicated. PMID:8160537

  2. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  3. Organized Athletics as a Leisure Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Thomas R.; Mendell, Ron

    1980-01-01

    Athletic programs are leisure time delivery systems for the athletes, spectators, and the local community as long as scholarships and extensive media coverage are not involved. College administration should make sure that sports and athletics do not become a delivery sytem for public relations and finance. (CJ)

  4. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by...

  5. Fuel cells: Problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Ramesh, KV; Kannan, AM

    1986-01-01

    n recent years, fuel cell technology has advanced significantly. Field trials on certain types of fuel cells have shown promise for electrical use. This article reviews the electrochemistry, problems and prospects of fuel cell systems.

  6. Hydrogen Fuel Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-16

    For the past 6 years, open discussions and/or meetings have been held and are still on-going with OEM, Hydrogen Suppliers, other test facilities from the North America Team and International collaborators regarding experimental results, fuel clean-up cost, modeling, and analytical techniques to help determine levels of constituents for the development of an international standard for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12). Significant progress has been made. The process for the fuel standard is entering final stages as a result of the technical accomplishments. The objectives are to: (1) Determine the allowable levels of hydrogen fuel contaminants in support of the development of science-based international standards for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12); and (2) Validate the ASTM test method for determining low levels of non-hydrogen constituents.

  7. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To increase the fuel assembly rigidity while making balance in view of the dimension thereby improving the earthquake proofness. Constitution: In a nuclear fuel assembly having a control rod guide thimble tube, the gap between the thimble tube and fuel insert (inner diameter of the guiding thimble tube-outer diameter of the fuel insert) is made greater than 1.0 mm. Further, the wall thickness of the thimble tube is made to about 4 - 5 % of the outer diameter, while the flowing fluid pore cross section S in the thimble tube is set as: S = S0 x A0/A where S0: cross section of the present flowing fluid pore, A: effective cross section after improvement, = Π/4(d2 - D2) in which d is the thimble tube inner diameter and the D is the fuel insert outer diameter. A0: present effective cross section. (Seki, T.)

  8. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grid-shaped spacer for PWR fuel elements consists of flat, upright metal bars at right angles to the fuel rods. In one corner of a grid mesh it has a spring with two end parts for the fuel rod. The cut-outs for the end parts start from an end edge of the metal bar parallel to the fuel rods. The transverse metal bar is one of four outer metal bars. Both end parts of the spring have an extension parallel to this outer metal arm, which grips a grid mesh adjacent to this grid mesh at the side in one corner of the spacer and forms an end part of a spring for the fuel rod there on the inside of the outer metal bar. (HP)

  9. Uranium plutonium oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium plutonium oxide is the principal fuel material for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's) throughout the world. Development of this material has been a reasonably straightforward evolution from the UO2 used routinely in the light water reactor (LWR's); but, because of the lower neutron capture cross sections and much lower coolant pressures in the sodium cooled LMFBR's, the fuel is operated to much higher discharge exposures than that of a LWR. A typical LMFBR fuel assembly is shown. Depending on the required power output and the configuration of the reactor, some 70 to 400 such fuel assemblies are clustered to form the core. There is a wide variation in cross section and length of the assemblies where the increasing size reflects a chronological increase in plant size and power output as well as considerations of decreasing the net fuel cycle cost. Design and performance characteristics are described

  10. NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Bhagwat* and I.S. Vaidhya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evolution of an existing drug molecule from a conventional form to a novel delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of patient compliance, safety and efficacy. In the form of a Novel Drug Delivery System an existing drug molecule can get a new life. An appropriately designed Novel Drug Delivery System can be a major advance for solving the problems related towards the release of the drug at specific site with specific rate. The need for delivering drugs to patients efficiently and with fewer side effects has prompted pharmaceutical companies to engage in the development of new drug delivery system. This article covers the basic information regarding Novel Drug Delivery Systems and also different types of the same.

  11. Securing Video Delivery to the Android Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimund K. Ege

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Android smartphone platform has gained significant market share among mobile devices with high-speed network connectivity. In this paper we describe Oghma, which is an Android application to make multimedia data, i.e. video, easily accessible. It uses a peer-to-peer content delivery model to ensure efficient delivery to a large audience. However, the openness of delivery demands adaptive and robust management of intellectual property rights. In this paper we describe a framework and its implementation to address the central issues in content delivery: a scalable peerto- peer-based content delivery model, paired with a secure access control model that enables data providers to maintain control over their original content available. Our prototype implementation for the Android platform for mobile phones is described in detail.

  12. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition. PMID:27580019

  13. Cyclodextrins in non-viral gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wing-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are naturally occurring cyclic oligosaccharides. They consist of (α-1,4)-linked glucose units, and possess a basket-shaped topology with an "inner-outer" amphiphilic character. Over the years, substantial efforts have been undertaken to investigate the possible use of CDs in drug delivery and controlled drug release, yet the potential of CDs in gene delivery has received comparatively less discussion in the literature. In this article, we will first discuss the properties of CDs for gene delivery, followed by a synopsis of the use of CDs in development and modification of non-viral gene carriers. Finally, areas that are noteworthy in CD-based gene delivery will be highlighted for future research. Due to the application prospects of CDs, it is anticipated that CDs will continue to emerge as an important tool for vector development, and will play significant roles in facilitating non-viral gene delivery in the forthcoming decades. PMID:24103652

  14. Controlled delivery of antibodies from injectable hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Nathan A; Babcock, Lyndsey R; Murray, Ellen A; Krebs, Melissa D

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are currently used for the treatment of various diseases, but large doses delivered systemically are typically required. Localized controlled delivery techniques would afford major benefits such as decreasing side effects and required doses. Injectable biopolymer systems are an attractive solution due to their minimally invasive potential for controlled release in a localized area. Here, alginate-chitosan hydrogels are demonstrated to provide controlled delivery of IgG model antibodies and also of Fab antibody fragments. Also, an alternate delivery system comprised of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres loaded with antibodies and encapsulated in alginate was shown to successfully provide another level of control over release. These biopolymer systems that offer controlled delivery for antibodies and antibody fragments will be promising for many applications in drug delivery and regenerative medicine.

  15. Targeted Drug Delivery in Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianjun; Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Li, Min

    2009-01-01

    Effective drug delivery in pancreatic cancer treatment remains a major challenge. Because of the high resistance to chemo and radiation therapy, the overall survival rate for pancreatic cancer is extremely low. Recent advances in drug delivery systems hold great promise for improving cancer therapy. Using liposomes, nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes to deliver cancer drugs and other therapeutic agents such as siRNA, suicide gene, oncolytic virus, small molecule inhibitor and antibody has been a success in recent pre-clinical trials. However, how to improve the specificity and stability of the delivered drug using ligand or antibody directed delivery represent a major problem. Therefore, developing novel, specific, tumor-targeted drug delivery systems is urgently needed for this terrible disease. This review summarizes the current progress on targeted drug delivery in pancreatic cancer, and provides important information on potential therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:19853645

  16. Mucus as a Barrier to Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Marie; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    Viscoelastic mucus lines all mucosal surfaces of the body and forms a potential barrier to mucosal drug delivery. Mucus is mainly composed of water and mucins; high-molecular weight glycoproteins forming an entangled network. Consequently, mucus forms a steric barrier and due to its negative char...... in the development of future oral drug delivery systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......Viscoelastic mucus lines all mucosal surfaces of the body and forms a potential barrier to mucosal drug delivery. Mucus is mainly composed of water and mucins; high-molecular weight glycoproteins forming an entangled network. Consequently, mucus forms a steric barrier and due to its negative charge...... barrier to drug delivery. Current knowledge of mucus characteristics and barrier properties, as achieved by state-of-the-art methodologies, is the topic of this MiniReview emphasizing the gastrointestinal mucus and an overall focus on oral drug delivery. Cell culture-based in vitro models are well...

  17. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  18. Oral delivery of proteins: progress and prognostication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rakhi B; Ahsan, Fakhrul; Khan, Mansoor A

    2002-01-01

    The delivery of proteins has gained momentum with the development of biotechnology sector that provided large-scale availability of therapeutic proteins. The availability is mostly due to the advances in recombinant DNA technology. The low oral bioavailability, however, continues to be a problem for several proteins because of their large molecular size, low permeation through biological membranes, and susceptibility to molecular changes in both biological and physical environments. The demand for effective delivery of proteins by the oral route has brought a tremendous thrust in recent years both in the scope and complexity of drug delivery technology. The important therapeutic proteins and peptides being explored for oral delivery include insulin, calcitonin, interferons, human growth hormone, glucagons, gonadotropin-releasing hormones, enkephalins, vaccines, enzymes, hormone analogs, and enzyme inhibitors. This article reviews the progress in oral delivery of these proteins, provides comments on the strategies to improve their oral bioavailability, and highlights their current market trends. PMID:12197608

  19. Multi-channel gas-delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T.; Beese, Steven C.

    2016-09-13

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a gas-delivery system for delivering reaction gas to a reactor chamber. The gas-delivery system includes a main gas-inlet port for receiving reaction gases and a gas-delivery plate that includes a plurality of gas channels. A gas channel includes a plurality of gas holes for allowing the reaction gases to enter the reactor chamber from the gas channel. The gas-delivery system further includes a plurality of sub-gas lines coupling together the main gas-inlet port and the gas-delivery plate, and a respective sub-gas line is configured to deliver a portion of the received reaction gases to a corresponding gas channel.

  20. Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan; Joshi, Sachin; Reynolds, Adam

    2008-03-04

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  1. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. Nuclear reprocessing is the chemical treatment of spent fuel involving separation of its various constituents. Principally, it is used to recover useful actinides from the spent fuel. Radioactive waste that cannot be re-used is separated into streams for consolidation into waste forms. The first known application of nuclear reprocessing was within the Manhattan Project to recover material for nuclear weapons. Currently, reprocessing has a peaceful application in the nuclear fuel cycle. A variety of chemical methods have been proposed and demonstrated for reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The two most widely investigated and implemented methods are generally referred to as aqueous reprocessing and pyroprocessing. Each of these technologies is described in detail in Section 3 with numerous references to published articles. Reprocessing of nuclear fuel as part of a fuel cycle can be used both to recover fissionable actinides and to stabilize radioactive fission products into durable waste forms. It can also be used as part of a breeder reactor fuel cycle that could result in a 14-fold or higher increase in energy utilization per unit of natural uranium. Reprocessing can also impact the need for geologic repositories for spent fuel. The volume of waste that needs to be sent to such a repository can be reduced by first subjecting the spent fuel to reprocessing. The extent to which volume reduction can occur is currently under study by the United States Department of Energy via research at various national laboratories and universities. Reprocessing can also separate fissile and non-fissile radioactive elements for transmutation.

  2. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  3. Seasonality of Diesel Fuel Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Ibendahl, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    Diesel fuel is a major expense for most farmers. Diesel fuel prices do exhibit some seasonality so farmers can try to lower their fuel expenses by buying their fuel in months when prices are lower. However, purchasing fuel before it is needed results in a carrying charge to the farmer. This paper examines the optimal purchase month for diesel fuel for both spring planting and fall harvest. Both risk neutral and risk-averse farmers are considered. Higher interest rates discourage advance purch...

  4. FUEL CELLS IN ENERGY PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study fuel cells. They convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emmission of pollutants. This thesis provides an overview of fuel cell technology.The basic working principle of fuel cells and the basic fuel cell system components are introduced in this thesis. The properties, advantages, disadvantages and applications of six different kinds of fuel cells are introduced. Then the efficiency of each fuel cell is p...

  5. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Zhu, Yimin; Kahn, Zakia; Man, Malcolm

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  6. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  7. The hydrogen village: building hydrogen and fuel cell opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation addressed the progress the Hydrogen Village Program has made in its first 24 months of existence and will provide an understanding of the development of new markets for emerging Hydrogen and Fuel Cell technologies based on first hand, real world experience. The Hydrogen Village (H2V) is an End User driven, Market Development Program designed to accelerate the sustainable commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies through awareness, education and early deployments throughout the greater Toronto area (GTA). The program is a collaborative public-private partnership of some 35 companies from a broad cross section of industry administered through Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada and funded by the Governments of Canada and Ontario. The intent of the H2V is to develop markets for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell technologies that benefit the local and global community. The following aspects of market development are specifically targeted: 1) Deployments: of near market technologies in all aspects of community life (stationary and mobile). All applications must be placed within the community and contact peoples in their day-to-day activity. End user involvement is critical to ensure that the applications chosen have a commercial justification and contribute to the complementary growth of the market. 2) Development: of a coordinated hydrogen delivery and equipment service infrastructure. The infrastructure will develop following the principles of conservation and sustainability. 3) Human and societal factors: - Public and Corporate policy, public education, Codes/ Standards/ Regulations - Opportunity for real world implementation and feedback on developing codes and standards - Build awareness among regulatory groups, public, and the media. The GTA Hydrogen Village is already well under way with strategically located projects covering a wide range of hydrogen and fuel cell applications including: Residential heat and power generation using solid oxide

  8. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  9. Pulsatile drug delivery systems: An approach for controlled drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Shweta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsatile systems are gaining a lot of interest as they deliver the drug at the right site of action at the right time and in the right amount, thus providing spatial and temporal delivery and increasing patient compliance. These systems are designed according to the circadian rhythm of the body. The principle rationale for the use of pulsatile release is for the drugs where a constant drug release, i.e., a zero-order release is not desired. The release of the drug as a pulse after a lag time has to be designed in such a way that a complete and rapid drug release follows the lag time. Various systems like capsular systems, osmotic systems, single- and multiple-unit systems based on the use of soluble or erodible polymer coating and use of rupturable membranes have been dealt with in the article. It summarizes the latest technological developments, formulation parameters, and release profiles of these systems. Products available as once-a-daily formulation based on Pulsatile release like Pulsincap ®, Ritalin ®, and Pulsys ® are also covered in the review. These systems are beneficial for the drugs having chronopharmacological behaviour where night time dosing is required and for the drugs having high first-pass effect and having specific site of absorption in GIT. Drugs used in asthmatic patients and patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis are also discussed along with many other examples.

  10. 77 FR 10529 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Delivery Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Delivery Schedules AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning delivery schedules. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this...- 0043, Delivery Schedules by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  11. Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery - 12507

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Thomas; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. Our discussion of the Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery will cover progress made to date with Base and Recovery Act funding in reducing the risk posed by tank waste and in preparing for the initiation of waste treatment at Hanford. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The underground storage tanks range in capacity from 55,000 gallons to more than 1 million gallons. The tanks were constructed with carbon steel and reinforced concrete. There are eighteen groups of tanks, called 'tank farms', some having as few as two tanks and others up to sixteen tanks. Between 1943 and 1964, 149 single-shell tanks were built at Hanford in the 200 West and East Areas. Heat generated by the waste and the composition of the waste caused an estimated 67 of these single-shell tanks to leak into the ground. Washington River Protection Solutions is the prime contractor responsible for the safe management of this waste. WRPS' mission is to reduce the risk to the environment that is posed by the waste. All of the pumpable liquids have been removed from the single-shell tanks and transferred to the double-shell tanks. What remains in

  12. Fuel element development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In capsule irradiation tests the influence was studied which is exerted by high power densities on thin oxide fuel rods. Cladding expansions have been observed which are not attributable to creep but to plastic strains. Power jumps during load cycling resulted in stress to the cladding through fuel pressure due to thermal differential strain. - Changes in geometry of oxide fuel pellets during cycling were investigated theoretically using models. The test group 5b was also studied with a view to plutonium redistribution. A very high plutonium enrichment was found at the central channel, and outer zones nearly free from plutonium soon after the beginning of irradiation, which might be due to the high specific power and central temperature and the high PuO2-content (35%) of the fuel. Two contributions include as subjects the porosity of fuel in the context of structural analyses and creep caused by irradiation. The plutonium content itself does not seem to increase substantially the creep rate. Further results of post-examinations are available from the oxide irradiation tests Mol-7B and DFR-435. The zone of maximum damage of the Mol-7B-rods occurs at the upper end of the fuel column; even here the structure of the rod has essentially remained unchanged. The amount of fuel escaping is not as great as at the damaged points of DFR-435. (orig.)

  13. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  14. Evolution of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel is the primary energy source for sustaining the nuclear fission chain reactions in a reactor. The fuels in the reactor cores are exposed to highly aggressive environment and varieties of advanced fuel materials with improved nuclear properties are continuously being developed to have optimum performance in the existing core conditions. Fabrications of varieties of nuclear fuels used in diverse forms of reactors are mainly based on two naturally occurring nuclear source elements, uranium as fissile 235U and fertile 238U, and thorium as fertile 232Th species. The two metals in the forms of alloys with specific elements, ceramic oxides like MOX and ceramic non-oxide as mixed carbide and nitride with suitable nuclear properties like higher metal density, thermal conductivity, etc. are used as fuels in different reactor designs. In addition, efficiency of various advanced fuels in the forms of dispersion, molten salt and other types are also under investigations. The countries which have large deposits of thorium but limited reserves of uranium, are trying to give special impetus on the development of thorium-based fuels for both thermal and fast reactors in harnessing nuclear energy for peaceful uses of atomic energy. (author)

  15. Fuel assembly supporting structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For use in forming the core of a pressurized-water reactor, a fuel assembly supporting structure for holding a bundle of interspaced fuel rods, is formed by interspaced end pieces having holes in which the end portions of control rod guide tubes are inserted, fuel rod spacer grids being positioned by these guide tubes between the end pieces. The end pieces are fastened to the end portions of the guide tubes, to integrate the supporting structure, and in the case of at least one of the end pieces, this is done by means which releases that end piece from the guide tubes when the end pieces receive an abnormal thrust force directed towards each other and which would otherwise place the guide tubes under a compressive stress that would cause them to buckle. The spacer grids normally hold the fuel rods interspaced by distances determined by nuclear physics, and buckling of the control rod guide tubes can distort the fuel rod spacer grids with consequent dearrangement of the fuel rod interspacing. A sudden loss of pressure in a pressurized-water reactor pressure vessel can result in the pressurized coolant in the vessel discharging from the vessel at such high velocity as to result in the abnormal thrust force on the end pieces of each fuel assembly, which could cause buckling of the control rod guide tubes when the end pieces are fixed to them in the normal rigid and unyielding manner

  16. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  17. Lipid Based Vesicular Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vesicular drug delivery system can be defined as highly ordered assemblies consisting of one or more concentric bilayers formed as a result of self-assembling of amphiphilic building blocks in presence of water. Vesicular drug delivery systems are particularly important for targeted delivery of drugs because of their ability to localize the activity of drug at the site or organ of action thereby lowering its concentration at the other sites in body. Vesicular drug delivery system sustains drug action at a predetermined rate, relatively constant (zero order kinetics, efficient drug level in the body, and simultaneously minimizes the undesirable side effects. It can also localize drug action in the diseased tissue or organ by targeted drug delivery using carriers or chemical derivatization. Different types of pharmaceutical carriers such as polymeric micelles, particulate systems, and macro- and micromolecules are presented in the form of novel drug delivery system for targeted delivery of drugs. Particulate type carrier also known as colloidal carrier system, includes lipid particles, micro- and nanoparticles, micro- and nanospheres, polymeric micelles and vesicular systems like liposomes, sphingosomes, niosomes, transfersomes, aquasomes, ufasomes, and so forth.

  18. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Wally, K.; Raber, T.N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. The purpose of this project is to develop a platform for the engineering evaluation of hydrogen storage and delivery systems with an added focus on lightweight hydride utilization. Hybrid vehicles represent the primary application area of interest, with secondary interests including such items as existing vehicles and stationary uses. The near term goal is the demonstration of an internal combustion engine/storage/delivery subsystem. The long term goal is optimization of storage technologies for both vehicular and industrial stationary uses. In this project an integrated approach is being used to couple system operating characteristics to hardware development. A model has been developed which integrates engine and storage material characteristics into the design of hydride storage and delivery systems. By specifying engine operating parameters, as well as a variety of storage/delivery design features, hydride bed sizing calculations are completed. The model allows engineering trade-off studies to be completed on various hydride material/delivery system configurations. A more generalized model is also being developed to allow the performance characteristics of various hydrogen storage and delivery systems to be compared (liquid, activated carbon, etc.). Many of the features of the hydride storage model are applicable to the development of this more generalized model.

  19. Permeation enhancer strategies in transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwah, Harneet; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Today, ∼74% of drugs are taken orally and are not found to be as effective as desired. To improve such characteristics, transdermal drug delivery was brought to existence. This delivery system is capable of transporting the drug or macromolecules painlessly through skin into the blood circulation at fixed rate. Topical administration of therapeutic agents offers many advantages over conventional oral and invasive techniques of drug delivery. Several important advantages of transdermal drug delivery are prevention from hepatic first pass metabolism, enhancement of therapeutic efficiency and maintenance of steady plasma level of the drug. Human skin surface, as a site of drug application for both local and systemic effects, is the most eligible candidate available. New controlled transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) technologies (electrically-based, structure-based and velocity-based) have been developed and commercialized for the transdermal delivery of troublesome drugs. This review article covers most of the new active transport technologies involved in enhancing the transdermal permeation via effective drug delivery system. PMID:25006687

  20. Finessing fuel fineness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, R.F. [Storm Technologies Inc. (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Most of today's operating coal plants began service at least a generation ago and were designed to burn eastern bituminous coal. A switch to Powder River Basin coal can stress those plants' boiler systems, especially the pulverisers, beyond their design limits and cause no end of operational and maintenance problems. Many of those problems are caused by failing to maintain good fuel fineness when increasing fuel throughput. This article concerns the proper management of the fuel component of the combustion equation in an eight step plan. 8 figs.

  1. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor...... cells through experimental studies and mathematical modelling. These studies all revolve around the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) characterisation method. EIS is performed by applying a sinusoidal current or voltage signal to the fuel cell and calculating the impedance from the response...

  2. Developments in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL has a long tradition of willingness to embrace technological challenge and a dedication to quality. This paper describes advances in the overall manufacturing philosophy at BNFL's Fuel Business Group and then covers how some new technologies are currently being employed in BNFL Fuel Business Group's flagship oxide complex (OFC), which is currently in its final stages of commissioning. This plant represents a total investment of some Pound 200 million. This paper also describes how these technologies are also being deployed in BNFL's MOX plant now being built at Sellafield and, finally, covers some new processes being developed for advanced fuel manufacture. (author)

  3. Biochemical fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, E.; Richter, G.

    1978-03-30

    Until now, biochemical fuel cells have suffered a reduction of capacity in operation due to omission of internal contact between the electrodes and the diaphragm. This disadvantage is remedied by the invention by connecting the oxygen electrode with a rigid electrode frame and providing means for pressing the fuel electrode to the diaphragm and the diaphragm to the oxygen electrode on the side of the fuel electrode away from the diaphragm. The means of exerting pressure can be metal springs, but preferably elastomers, particularly silicon rubber, or springy gels are used.

  4. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  5. Fuel Pond Sludge - Lessons Learned from Initial De-sludging of Sellafield's Pile Fuel Storage Pond - 12066

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, Derek; Adamson, Kate [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    site facilities to allow the fuel to be reprocessed or conditioned for long term storage. - Sludge Retrieval: In excess of 300 m{sup 3} of sludge has accumulated in the pond over many years and is made up of debris arising from fuel and metallic corrosion, wind blown debris and bio-organic materials. The Sludge Retrieval Project has provided the equipment necessary to retrieve the sludge, including skip washer and tipper machines for clearing sludge from the pond skips, equipment for clearing sludge from the pond floor and bays, along with an 'in pond' corral for interim storage of retrieved sludge. Two further projects are providing new plant processing routes, which will initially store and eventually passivate the sludge. - Metal Fuel Retrieval: Metal Fuel from early Windscale Pile operations and various other sources is stored within the pond; the fuel varies considerably in both form and condition. A retrieval project is planned which will provide fuel handling, conditioning, sentencing and export equipment required to remove the metal fuel from the pond for export to on site facilities for interim storage and disposal. - Solid Waste Retrieval: A final retrieval project will provide methods for handling, retrieval, packaging and export of the remaining solid Intermediate Level Waste within the pond. This includes residual metal fuel pieces, fuel cladding (Magnox, aluminium and zircaloy), isotope cartridges, reactor furniture, and miscellaneous activated and contaminated items. Each of the waste streams requires conditioning to allow it to be and disposed of via one of the site treatment plants. - Pond Dewatering and Dismantling: Delivery of the above projects will allow operations to progressively remove the radiological inventory, thereby reducing the hazard/risk posed by the plant. This will then allow subsequent dewatering of the pond and dismantling of the structure. (authors)

  6. GENUSA Fuel Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GNF ENUSA Nuclear Fuel S.A. (GENUSA) was formed in Madrid in May 1996. GENUSA is a corporation organized and existing under the laws of Spain, jointly owned by GNF-A and ENUSA. GENUSA consolidates all European BWR fuel marketing activities of GNF-A and ENUSA, primarily providing marketing and project management. In its standard way of operating, it will obtain engineering, components and conversion from GNF-A and engineering, fabrication and fuel related services from ENUSA. GENUSA's development philosophy over the past decades has been to introduce evolutionary designs, supported by our global experience base, that deliver the performance needed by our customers to meet their operating strategies. GENUSA considers, as one of our strengths, the ever-increasing experience base that provides the foundation for such evolutionary changes. This experience is supported and complemented with an even greater GNF experience. Over the last 40 years, GNF and ENUSA have designed, fabricated, and placed in operation over 144,000 BWR fuel bundles containing over 9.7 million fuel rods. This experience base represents the widest range of operating conditions of any BWR fuel vendor, reflecting varying reactor power densities, operating strategies, and water chemistry environments. It covers operating periods of up to ∼10 years and bundle average exposures up to 68 MWd/kgU.. It provides the confirmation of our understanding and ability to model fuel performance behavior, and has been instrumental in the identification and characterization of each encountered failure mechanism. With the knowledge gained from this extensive experience base, mitigating actions have been developed and progressively implemented by GENUSA as part of a continuous program toward improved fuel reliability and performance. GENUSA's evolutionary product introduction strategy has been extremely successful. There has been a continuous stream of new products/processes that were developed to deliver improved

  7. Protease-mediated drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Eva F.; Goyan, Rebecca L.; Kennedy, James C.; Mackay, M.; Mendes, M. A. K.; Pottier, Roy H.

    2003-12-01

    Drugs used in disease treatment can cause damage to both malignant and normal tissue. This toxicity limits the maximum therapeutic dose. Drug targeting is of high interest to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug without increasing systemic toxicity. Certain tissue abnormalities, disease processes, cancers, and infections are characterized by high levels of activity of specific extracellular and/or intracellular proteases. Abnormally high activity levels of specific proteases are present at sites of physical or chemical trauma, blood clots, malignant tumors, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, gingival disease, glomerulonerphritis, and acute pancreatitis. Abnormal protease activity is suspected in development of liver thrombosis, pulmonary emphysema, atherosclerosis, and muscular dystrophy. Inactiviating disease-associated proteases by the administration of appropriate protease inhibitors has had limited success. Instead, one could use such proteases to target drugs to treat the condition. Protease mediated drug delivery offers such a possibility. Solubilizing groups are attached to insoluble drugs via a polypeptide chain which is specifically cleavable by certian proteases. When the solubilized drug enounters the protease, the solubilizing moieties are cleaved, and the drug precipitates at the disease location. Thus, a smaller systemic dosage could result in a therapeutic drug concentration at the treatment site with less systemic toxicity.

  8. Monitoring and delivery of sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, C G; Mathews, D M

    2014-12-01

    Sedation for medical procedures is provided in a variety of clinical settings by medical personnel with differing levels of education and training. Although generally a safe practice, there is a degree of morbidity and mortality associated with sedation practice. Monitoring standards continue to be refined by professional societies with the goal of improving care. The depth of sedation should be monitored with clinical criteria. Processed electroencephalographic monitors currently do not contribute significantly to sedation care. Monitoring ventilation using pulse oximetry should be abandoned for more direct methods, such as capnography-transcutaneous carbon dioxide, respiratory acoustical and thoracic impedance monitoring could also play a role. Propofol has become widely utilized for sedation, although there are concerns about its margin of safety and synergistic interactions with other agents. Dexmedetomidine and propofol/ketamine also have utility. Patient-controlled sedation pumps and target-controlled infusion devices have been developed to improve patient care and satisfaction. A computer-assisted propofol sedation device to be used by non-anaesthesiologists has been approved in the USA by the Food and Drug Administration. More computer-assisted sedation delivery devices are likely to be developed, but their clinical utility is unclear. PMID:25498581

  9. Cationic Bolaamphiphiles for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amelia Li Min; Lim, Alisa Xue Ling; Zhu, Yiting; Yang, Yi Yan; Khan, Majad

    2014-05-01

    Advances in medical research have shed light on the genetic cause of many human diseases. Gene therapy is a promising approach which can be used to deliver therapeutic genes to treat genetic diseases at its most fundamental level. In general, nonviral vectors are preferred due to reduced risk of immune response, but they are also commonly associated with low transfection efficiency and high cytotoxicity. In contrast to viral vectors, nonviral vectors do not have a natural mechanism to overcome extra- and intracellular barriers when delivering the therapeutic gene into cell. Hence, its design has been increasingly complex to meet challenges faced in targeting of, penetration of and expression in a specific host cell in achieving more satisfactory transfection efficiency. Flexibility in design of the vector is desirable, to enable a careful and controlled manipulation of its properties and functions. This can be met by the use of bolaamphiphile, a special class of lipid. Unlike conventional lipids, bolaamphiphiles can form asymmetric complexes with the therapeutic gene. The advantage of having an asymmetric complex lies in the different purposes served by the interior and exterior of the complex. More effective gene encapsulation within the interior of the complex can be achieved without triggering greater aggregation of serum proteins with the exterior, potentially overcoming one of the great hurdles faced by conventional single-head cationic lipids. In this review, we will look into the physiochemical considerations as well as the biological aspects of a bolaamphiphile-based gene delivery system.

  10. Starch Applications for Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant and economical renewable biopolymers in nature. Starch molecules are high molecular weight polymers of D-glucose linked by α-(1,4) and α-(1,6) glycosidic bonds, forming linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) structures. Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches (OSA-starch) are designed by carefully choosing a proper starch source, path and degree of modification. This enables emulsion and micro-encapsulation delivery systems for oil based flavors, micronutrients, fragrance, and pharmaceutical actives. A large percentage of flavors are encapsulated by spray drying in today's industry due to its high throughput. However, spray drying encapsulation faces constant challenges with retention of volatile compounds, oxidation of sensitive compound, and manufacturing yield. Specialty OSA-starches were developed suitable for the complex dynamics in spray drying and to provide high encapsulation efficiency and high microcapsule quality. The OSA starch surface activity, low viscosity and film forming capability contribute to high volatile retention and low active oxidation. OSA starches exhibit superior performance, especially in high solids and high oil load encapsulations compared with other hydrocolloids. The submission is based on research and development of Ingredion

  11. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel ...

  12. Therapeutic gas delivery via microbubbles and liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Samantha M; Borden, Mark A; Dayton, Paul A

    2015-07-10

    Gaseous molecules including nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide and oxygen mediate numerous cell signaling pathways and have important physiological roles. Several noble gasses have been shown to elicit biological responses. These bioactive gasses hold great therapeutic potential, however, their controlled delivery remains a significant challenge. Recently, researchers have begun using microbubbles and liposomes to encapsulate such gasses for parenteral delivery. The resultant particles are acoustically active, and ultrasound can be used to stimulate and/or image gas release in a targeted region. This review provides a summary of recent advances in therapeutic gas delivery using microbubbles and liposomes.

  13. Implantable Devices for Sustained, Intravesical Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In clinical settings, intravesical instillation of a drug bolus is often performed for the treatment of bladder diseases. However, it requires repeated instillations to extend drug efficacy, which may result in poor patient compliance. To alleviate this challenge, implantable devices have been developed for the purpose of sustained, intravesical drug delivery. In this review, we briefly summarize the current trend in the development of intravesical drug-delivery devices. We also introduce the most recently developed devices with strong potential for intravesical drug-delivery applications. PMID:27377941

  14. Reduced active thyroid hormone levels after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banovac, K; Kekić, M; Bzik, L; Skreb, F; Sekso, M

    1981-01-01

    The effect of delivery on the serum concentration of thyroid hormones was studied in 25 euthyroid women. After delivery serum free and total T3 and T4 fell transiently with a simultaneous increase in reverse T3 while serum TSH and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) concentrations showed no significant variation. These data suggest that i) similar to what happens in other stressful situations, delivery influences peripheral T4 metabolism, and ii) an elevation of TBG in serum in the early puerperium does not prevent these changes. PMID:6798093

  15. Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

  16. Magnetic nanoparticles for gene and drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart C McBain

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Stuart C McBain, Humphrey HP Yiu, Jon DobsonInstitute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Thornburrow Drive, Hartshill, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, ST4 7QB, U.K.Abstract: Investigations of magnetic micro- and nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery began over 30 years ago. Since that time, major progress has been made in particle design and synthesis techniques, however, very few clinical trials have taken place. Here we review advances in magnetic nanoparticle design, in vitro and animal experiments with magnetic nanoparticle-based drug and gene delivery, and clinical trials of drug targeting.Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, gene delivery, biotechnology

  17. Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John W.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Joyner, Claude R., III; Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm. It builds on the work of the previous paper "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System". The scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility and capability to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive and also affordable. A clear and revolutionary approach, including advanced propulsion systems (advanced LOX rich booster engine concept having independent LOX and fuel cooling systems, thrust augmentation with LOX rich boost and fuel rich operation at altitude), improved vehicle concepts (autogeneous pressurization, turbo alternator for electric power during ascent, hot gases to purge system and keep moisture out), and ground delivery systems, was examined. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper continues the previous work by exploring the propulsion technology aspects in more depth and how they may enable the vehicle designs from the previous paper. Subsequent papers will explore the vehicle design, the ground support system, and the operations aspects of the new delivery paradigm in greater detail.

  18. Second International Conference on CANDU Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-four papers were presented at this conference in sessions dealing with international experience and programs relating to CANDU fuel; fuel manufacture; fuel behaviour; fuel handling, storage and disposal; and advanced CANDU fuel cycles. (L.L.)

  19. Features of fuel performance at high fuel burnups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some features of fuel behavior at high fuel burnups, in particular, initiation and development of rim-layer, increase in the rate of fission gas release from the fuel and increase in the inner gas pressure in the fuel rod are briefly described. Basing on the analysis of the data of post-irradiation examinations of fuel rods of WWER-440 working FA and CR fuel followers, that have been operated for five fuel cycles and got the average fuel burnup or varies as 50MW-day/kgU, a conclusion is made that the WWER-440 fuel burnup can be increased at least to average burnups of 55-58 MW-day/kgU per fuel assembly (Authors)

  20. Fuel cell cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, J.G. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States); Archer, D.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) sponsors the research and development of engineered systems which utilize domestic fuel supplies while achieving high standards of efficiency, economy, and environmental performance. Fuel cell systems are among the promising electric power generation systems that METC is currently developing. Buildings account for 36 percent of U.S. primary energy consumption. Cogeneration systems for commercial buildings represent an early market opportunity for fuel cells. Seventeen percent of all commercial buildings are office buildings, and large office buildings are projected to be one of the biggest, fastest-growing sectors in the commercial building cogeneration market. The main objective of this study is to explore the early market opportunity for fuel cells in large office buildings and determine the conditions in which they can compete with alternative systems. Some preliminary results and conclusions are presented, although the study is still in progress.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL COMPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, W.C.

    1961-01-10

    Uranium-aluminum alloys in which boron is homogeneously dispersed by adding it as a nickel boride are described. These compositions have particular utility as fuels for neutronic reactors, boron being present as a burnable poison.

  2. North Korea's corroding fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The roughly 8,000 irradiated or open-quotes spentclose quotes fuel rods recently discharged from the North Korean 25 megawatt (thermal) reactor are difficult to store safely under the conditions in the spent fuel ponds near the reactor. The magnesium alloy jacket, or open-quotes cladding,close quotes around the fuel elements is corroding. If the corrosion creates holes in the cladding, radionuclides may be released. In addition, the uranium metal underneath the cladding may begin to corrode, possibly creating uranium hydride which can spontaneously ignite in air. Unless the storage conditions are improved, North Korea may use the risk posed by the corrosion as an argument for reprocessing this fuel, a violation of its June 1994 pledge to the United States to freeze its nuclear program. North Korea, however, can take several steps to slow dramatically the rate of corrosion. Using available techniques, it can extend safe storage times by months or even years

  3. Fuels and Lubricants Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Modern naval aircraft and turbine-powered craft require reliable and high-quality fuels and lubricants to satisfy the demands imposed upon them for top performance...

  4. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

    2010-02-01

    This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

  5. PEM regenerative fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swette, Larry L.; Laconti, Anthony B.; McCatty, Stephen A.

    1993-11-01

    This paper will update the progress in developing electrocatalyst systems and electrode structures primarily for the positive electrode of single-unit solid polymer proton exchange membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cells. The work was done with DuPont Nafion 117 in complete fuel cells (40 sq cm electrodes). The cells were operated alternately in fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode at 80 C. In fuel cell mode, humidified hydrogen and oxygen were supplied at 207 kPa (30 psi); in electrolysis mode, water was pumped over the positive electrode and the gases were evolved at ambient pressure. Cycling data will be presented for Pt-Ir catalysts and limited bifunctional data will be presented for Pt, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Na(x)Pt3O4 catalysts as well as for electrode structure variations.

  6. Fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programs are being conducted in the following areas: advanced solvent extraction techniques, accident consequences, fuel cycles for nonproliferation, pyrochemical and dry processes, waste encapsulation, radionuclide transport in geologic media, hull treatment, and analytical support for LWBR

  7. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  8. ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Bergin

    2004-10-18

    The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: SFP Construction and Fuel Production, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Fleet Testing at WMATA and Denali National Park, Demonstration of Clean Diesel Fuels in Diesel Electric Generators in Alaska, and Economic Analysis. ICRC provided overall project organization and budget management for the project. ICRC held meetings with various project participants. ICRC presented at the Department of Energy's annual project review meeting. The plant began producing fuel in October 2004. The first delivery of finished fuel was made in March of 2004 after the initial start-up period.

  9. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Ha, Su; Adams, Brian

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  10. Fuel Prices and New Vehicle Fuel Economy in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Klier, Thomas; Linn, joshua

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of fuel prices on new vehicle fuel economy in the eight largest European markets. The analysis spans the years 2002–2007 and uses detailed vehicle registration and specification data to control for policies, consumer preferences, and other potentially confounding factors. Fuel prices have a statistically significant effect on new vehicle fuel economy in Europe, but this estimated effect is much smaller than that for the United States. Within Europe, fuel econom...

  11. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  12. Surface Power Fission System Fuels: Technology Readiness and Qualification Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of fuel form for an initial U.S space reactor for surface power applications is significant for a timely, cost effective development program through flight system delivery. While minimizing fuel system development effort and cost is key to achieving a successful practical application, performance and reliability of that fuel system must be predictably understood to insure that the integrated mission requirements are achieved. Performance and reliability predictions depend on understanding the fundamental irradiated material properties for any fuel system (fuel meat plus clad), including thermal conductivity, thermal mechanical and irradiation-induced (constrained and unconstrained) swelling as functions of temperature, burnup and time, and fission gas release. Qualification tasks may include in-pile irradiations and associated post irradiation examinations (PIE) for thermally and spectrally representative operating environments, for intended operational fission rates. Additionally, simplification of the qualification tasks may result from the use of available database information from prior representative in-pile experiments. While available data is compelling, current manufacturing processes may differ from those employed to facilitate previous experiments, and assessing the pedigree of previous processes relative to current ones may be difficult at best. Considered fuel meats include UN, UO2, UZrH and metal fuels. This paper will examine the state of the current qualification basis for each of these fuel materials, and assess each as appropriate for use with a low cost initial surface power fission system. A low cost system can not bear the cost of expensive material development programs, necessitated by the lack of high temperature irradiated material property data. As such, a low cost system limits clad and coolant temperatures to < 900 K. (authors)

  13. Vibrating fuel grapple. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertock, A.J.; Fox, J.N.; Weissinger, R.B.

    A reactor refueling method is described which utilizes a vibrating fuel grapple for removing spent fuel assemblies from a reactor core. It incorporates a pneumatic vibrator in the grapple head which allows additional withdrawal capability without exceeding the allowable axial force limit. The only moving part in the vibrator is a steel ball, pneumatically driven by a gas, such as argon, around a track, with centrifugal force created by the ball being transmitted through the grapple to the assembly handling socket.

  14. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constitution: A square cylinder for containing spent fuels is made of hafnium plates. Welding for the hafnium plates are conducted under vacuum or in inert gases by using electron beams or laser beams. By using hafnium as described above, neutron absorption is improved and square cylinders incorporating the spent fuels can be accumulated at a high density. Furthermore, by welding the hafnium plates under vacuum, embrittlement of the welded portions can be prevented. (Ikeda, J.)

  15. Solar fuels generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan S.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.

    2016-10-25

    The solar fuels generator includes an ionically conductive separator between a gaseous first phase and a second phase. A photoanode uses one or more components of the first phase to generate cations during operation of the solar fuels generator. A cation conduit is positioned provides a pathway along which the cations travel from the photoanode to the separator. The separator conducts the cations. A second solid cation conduit conducts the cations from the separator to a photocathode.

  16. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic elements of the ex-reactor part of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling and transportation) are described. Possible technical and proliferation measures are evaluated, including current methods of accountability, surveillance and protection. The reference oxide based cycle and advanced cycles based on carbide and metallic fuels are considered utilizing conventional processes; advanced nonaqueous reprocessing is also considered. This contribution provides a comprehensive data base for evaluation of proliferation risks

  17. Nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  18. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NETL

    2004-11-01

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  19. Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2012-11-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

  20. Pickering irradiated fuel transfer conveyor isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering A NGS has been in operation for 25 years and is one of the longest in service CANDU stations. Some underwater fuel handling equipment, notably the conveyor stops, have been without maintenance throughout that time. This paper describes the concept of a conveyor isolation system that permits draining of a single or multiple elevator columns and also the early stages of a development program for the elastomeric sealing element. The prototype seal element has been proven in lab tests to be capable of limiting leakage to 0.5 IGPM (imperial gallons per minute) at the design pressure of 6.5 psi. The design of a sealing element is particularly interesting because the conveyor tube is a square cross-section which contains an additional obstruction , a conveyor drive cable. A seal delivery, actuating and positioning system has been conceptually laid out and the design is proceeding, with projected implementation in 1998. (author). 8 figs

  1. Fuel system design concepts for broad property fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaw, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a study assessing the impact of using jet fuel with relaxed specification properties on an aircraft fuel system are given. The study objectives were to identify credible values for specific fuel properties which might be relaxed, to evolve advanced fuel system designs for airframe and engines which would permit use of the specified relaxed properties fuels, and to evaluate performance of the candidate advanced fuel systems and the relaxed property fuels in a typical transport aircraft. The study used, as a baseline, the fuel system incorporated in the Lockheed Tristar. This aircraft is powered by three RB.211-524 Rolls-Royce engines and incorporates a Pratt and Whitney ST6C-421 auxiliary power unit for engine starting and inflight emergency electrical power. The fuel property limits examined are compared with commercial Jet A kerosene and the NASA RFP fuel properties. A screening of these properties established that a higher freezing point and a lower thermal stability would impact fuel system design more significantly than any of the other property changes. Three candidate fuel systems which combine the ability to operate with fuels having both a high freeze point and a low thermal stability are described. All candidates employ bleed air to melt fuel freeze-out prior to starting the APU or an inoperable engine. The effects of incorporating these systems on aircraft weight and engine specific fuel consumption are given.

  2. Fuel rod plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent the formation of voids to the inside of welded portion in fuel rod plugs. Constitution: A fuel rod is tightly sealed by welding end plugs at both ends of a fuel can charged with nuclear fuel material. For the welding of the end plug, laser welding has now been employed with the reason of increasing the welding efficiency and reducing the welding heat distortion. However, if the end plug is laser-welded to the end of the fuel can in the conventional form, there is a problem that voids are liable to be formed near the deepest penetration in the welding portion. That is, gases evolved near the deepest penetration remains in a key-hole like welded metal portion to result in voids there. Accordingly, grooves capable of passing the laser beam key hole therethrough are disposed along the circumferential direction of the pipe at the end plug welded portion in the fuel can. In this way, since gases generating near the deepest penetration are discharged into the grooves, the key hole-like welded metal is completely filled and voids are not formed. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Nalco Fuel Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalak, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Nalco Fuel Tech with its seat at Naperville (near Chicago), Illinois, is an engineering company working in the field of technology and equipment for environmental protection. A major portion of NALCO products constitute chemical materials and additives used in environmental protection technologies (waste-water treatment plants, water treatment, fuel modifiers, etc.). Basing in part on the experience, laboratories and RD potential of the mother company, the Nalco Fuel Tech Company developed and implemented in the power industry a series of technologies aimed at the reduction of environment-polluting products of fuel combustion. The engineering solution of Nalco Fuel Tech belong to a new generation of environmental protection techniques developed in the USA. They consist in actions focused on the sources of pollutants, i.e., in upgrading the combustion chambers of power engineering plants, e.g., boilers or communal and/or industrial waste combustion units. The Nalco Fuel Tech development and research group cooperates with leading US investigation and research institutes.

  4. Cermet fuel reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, C.L.; Palmer, R.S.; Van Hoomissen, J.E.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Barner, J.O.

    1987-09-01

    Cermet fueled nuclear reactors are attractive candidates for high performance space power systems. The cermet fuel consists of tungsten-urania hexagonal fuel blocks characterized by high strength at elevated temperatures, a high thermal conductivity and resultant high thermal shock resistance. Key features of the cermet fueled reactor design are (1) the ability to achieve very high coolant exit temperatures, and (2) thermal shock resistance during rapid power changes, and (3) two barriers to fission product release - the cermet matrix and the fuel element cladding. Additionally, thre is a potential for achieving a long operating life because of (1) the neutronic insensitivity of the fast-spectrum core to the buildup of fission products and (2) the utilization of a high strength refractory metal matrix and structural materials. These materials also provide resistance against compression forces that potentially might compact and/or reconfigure the core. In addition, the neutronic properties of the refractory materials assure that the reactor remains substantially subcritical under conditions of water immersion. It is concluded that cermet fueled reactors can be utilized to meet the power requirements for a broad range of advanced space applications. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Cermet fuel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermet fueled nuclear reactors are attractive candidates for high performance space power systems. The cermet fuel consists of tungsten-urania hexagonal fuel blocks characterized by high strength at elevated temperatures, a high thermal conductivity and resultant high thermal shock resistance. Key features of the cermet fueled reactor design are (1) the ability to achieve very high coolant exit temperatures, and (2) thermal shock resistance during rapid power changes, and (3) two barriers to fission product release - the cermet matrix and the fuel element cladding. Additionally, thre is a potential for achieving a long operating life because of (1) the neutronic insensitivity of the fast-spectrum core to the buildup of fission products and (2) the utilization of a high strength refractory metal matrix and structural materials. These materials also provide resistance against compression forces that potentially might compact and/or reconfigure the core. In addition, the neutronic properties of the refractory materials assure that the reactor remains substantially subcritical under conditions of water immersion. It is concluded that cermet fueled reactors can be utilized to meet the power requirements for a broad range of advanced space applications. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  7. Fuel cell; Nenryo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-20

    More than 100 sets of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) have been installed by now, and accumulated operation performance exceeding 40 thousand hours, which is regarded as a development target, has been achieved. Further, there are also PAFCs that have achieved continuous operation performance exceeding 9,000 hours, thus being most approachable to practical use. On the other hand, developments of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and the molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), which operate at high temperatures, have high power generation efficiencies due to the capability of operating associatively with gas turbines or vapor turbines, and may use coal gasified gases as fuels, are carried out for an aim of realizing the practical use at the begging of the 21st century. Further, in recent years, researches and developments of the polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) have been accelerated mainly in vehicle business for the purpose of using PEFC as power sources for movable bodies, and researches and development for accelerative development of cell stacks and power generation systems are executed. In this paper, situations of the researches and developments in respect to the above-mentioned four kinds of fuel cells are summarily introduced. (NEDO)

  8. Alternative Fuels: Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Pollutant Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Biofuel/Diesel Blends in Laminar and Turbulent Gas Jet Flames. R. N. Parthasarathy, S. R. Gollahalli Chapter 2: Sustainable Routes for The Production of Oxygenated High-Energy Density Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Juan A. Melero, Jose Iglesias, Gabriel Morales, Marta Paniagua Chapter 3: Optical Investigations of Alternative-Fuel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine. T. Huelser, M. Jakob, G. Gruenefeld, P. Adomeit, S. Pischinger Chapter 4: An Insight into Biodiesel Physico-Chemical Properties and Exhaust Emissions Based on Statistical Elaboration of Experimental Data. Evangelos G. Giakoumis Chapter 5: Biodiesel: A Promising Alternative Energy Resource. A.E. Atabani Chapter 6: Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines: An Overview of the Current Research. Ahmed A. Taha, Tarek M. Abdel-Salam, Madhu Vellakal Chapter 7: Investigating the Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends as a Fuel in Internal Combustion Engine. ?lker YILMAZ Chapter 8: Conversion of Bus Diesel Engine into LPG Gaseous Engine; Method and Experiments Validation. M. A. Jemni , G. Kantchev , Z. Driss , R. Saaidia , M. S. Abid Chapter 9: Predicting the Combustion Performance of Different Vegetable Oils-Derived Biodiesel Fuels. Qing Shu, ChangLin Yu Chapter 10: Production of Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, and Fuel Oil Range Fuels from Polypropylene and Polystyrene Waste Plastics Mixture by Two-Stage Catalytic Degradation using ZnO. Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid

  9. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    OpenAIRE

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-01-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefor...

  10. EPRI fuel cladding integrity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the EPRI fuel program is to supplement the fuel vendor research to assure that utility economic and operational interests are met. To accomplish such objectives, EPRI has conducted research and development efforts to (1) reduce fuel failure rates and mitigate the impact of fuel failures on plant operation, (2) provide technology to extend burnup and reduce fuel cycle cost. The scope of R&D includes fuel and cladding. In this paper, only R&D related to cladding integrity will be covered. Specific areas aimed at improving fuel cladding integrity include: (1) Fuel Reliability Data Base; (2) Operational Guidance for Defective Fuel; (3) Impact of Water Chemistry on Cladding Integrity; (4) Cladding Corrosion Data and Model; (5) Cladding Mechanical Properties; and (6) Transient Fuel Cladding Response.

  11. Liposomal Drug Delivery of Anticancer Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Palle Jacob

    In the first part of the thesis the work towards a new generation of liposomal drug delivery systems for anticancer agents is described. The drug delivery system takes advantage of the elevated level of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) IIA in many tumors and the enhanced permeability......-trans retinoic acid, α-tocopheryl succinate and calcitriol were examined for their ability to be incorporated into the investigated drug delivery system and syntheses of the phospholipid prodrugs are described. The majority of the phospholipid prodrugs were able to form particles with diameters close to 100 nm...... that upon sPLA2 triggering the formulated phospholipid prodrugs displayed IC50 values in range from 3–36 μM and complete cell death was observed when higher drug concentrations were applied. Promising for the drug delivery system the majority of the phospholipid prodrugs remain non-toxic in the absence...

  12. 78 FR 16753 - Service Delivery Plan; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Service Delivery Plan; Correction AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice; request for comments; Correction. SUMMARY: The Social Security Administration published a document in the..., Office of Regulations, Social Security Administration. BILLING CODE 4191-02-P...

  13. 7 CFR 46.44 - Good delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Good Delivery...

  14. Functional Cyclodextrin Polyrotaxanes for Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Nobuhiko; Katoono, Ryo; Yamashita, Atsushi

    The mobility of cyclodextrins (CDs) threaded onto a linear polymeric chain and the dethreading of the CDs from the chain are the most fascinating features seen in polyrotaxanes. These structural characteristics are very promising for their possible applications in drug delivery. Enhanced multivalent interaction between ligand-receptor systems by using ligand-conjugated polyrotaxanes would be just one of the excellent properties related to the CD mobility. Gene delivery using cytocleavable polyrotaxanes is a more practical but highly crucial issue in drug delivery. Complexation of the polyrotaxanes with DNA and its intracellular DNA release ingeniously utilizes both CD mobility and polyrotaxane dissociation to achieve effective gene delivery. Such a supramolecular approach using CD-containing polyrotaxanes is expected to exploit a new paradigm of biomaterials.

  15. Influence of microemulsions on cutaneous drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads

    2002-01-01

    In attempt to increase cutaneous drug delivery, microemulsion vehicles have been more and more frequently employed over recent years. Microemulsion formulations have been shown to be superior for both transdermal and dermal delivery of particularly lipophilic compounds, but also hydrophilic...... compounds appear to benefit from application in microemulsions compared to conventional vehicles, like hydrogels, emulsions and liposomes. The favourable drug delivery properties of microemulsions appear to mainly be attributed to the excellent solubility properties. However, the vehicles may also act...... as penetration enhancers depending on the oil/surfactant constituents, which involves a risk of inducing local irritancy. The correlation between microemulsion structure/composition and drug delivery potential is not yet fully elucidated. However, a few studies have indicated that the internal structure...

  16. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  17. New Delivery Systems and Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Dolovich

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC propellants from industrial and household products has been agreed to by over 165 countires of which more than 135 are developing countries. The timetable for this process is outlined in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer document and in several subsequent amendments. Pressured metered dose inhalers (pMDIs for medical use have been granted temporary exemptions until replacement formulations, providing the same medication via the same route, and with the same efficacy and safety profiles, are approved for human use. Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs are the alternative propellants for CFCs-12 and -114. Their potential for damage to the ozone layer is nonexistent, and while they are greenhouse gases, their global warming potential is a fraction (one-tenth of that of CFCs. Replacement formulations for almost all inhalant respiratory medications have been or are being produced and tested; in Canada, it is anticipated that the transition to these HFA or CFC-free pMDIs will be complete by the year 2005. Initially, an HFA pMDI was to be equivalent to the CFC pMDI being replaced, in terms of aerosol properties and effective clinical dose. However, this will not necessarily be the situation, particularly for some corticosteroid products. Currently, only one CFC-free formulation is available in Canada – Airomir, a HFA salbutamol pMDI. This paper discusses the in vitro aerosol characteristics, in vivo deposition and clinical data for several HFA pMDIs for which there are data available in the literature. Alternative delivery systems to the pMDI, namely, dry powder inhalers and nebulizers, are briefly reviewed.

  18. Gastro Retentive Drug Delivery System: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Harshna; Solanki N S

    2012-01-01

    IN recent years several advancement has been made in research and development of Oral Drug Delivery System. Concept of Novel Drug Delivery System arose to overcome the certain aspect related to physicochemical properties of drug molecule and the related formulations. Purpose of this review is to compile the recent literature with special focus on various gastro retentive approaches that have recently become leading methodologies in the field of site-specific orally administered controlled rel...

  19. FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Kataria Sahil; Middha Akanksha; Bhardwaj Sudeep; Sandhu Premjeet

    2011-01-01

    The recent scientific and patented literature concluded that an increased interest in novel dosage forms which retained in the stomach for prolong and predictable period of time has been shown. Various technological attempts have been made in the research and development of rate-controlled oral drug delivery systems to overcome physiological diversities, as short gastric residence times and unpredictable gastric emptying times using gastro retentive drug delivery system. It is a well known fa...

  20. Topical and transdermal delivery of caffeine.

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, L.; Lane, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is administered topically and transdermally for a variety of pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications and it is also used as a model hydrophilic compound in dermal risk assessment studies. This review considers the physicochemical and permeation properties of caffeine with reference to its delivery to and through the skin. Since it has been used as a model compound the findings have implications for the delivery of many hydrophilic compounds having similar properties. Various passive...

  1. PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil Faraz; Singh Arjun; Kumar Sunil; Sharma Ritika

    2012-01-01

    The purpose for this review on pulsatile drug delivery systems (PDDS) is to compile the recent literatures with special focus on the different types and approaches involved in the development of the formulation. Pulsatile drug delivery system is the most interesting time and site-specific system. Diseases wherein PDDS are promising include asthma, peptic ulcer, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis,attention deficit syndrome in children, and hypercholesterolemia. PDDS can be classified into time...

  2. Role of microemuslsions in advanced drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aman Kumar; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-06-01

    Microemulsions have gained significant attention from formulation scientists since the time they have been discovered, because of their excellent properties related to their stability, solubility, simplicity, and formulation aspects. The application of microemulsions is not limited to drug delivery via the oral, topical or ocular routes, but may also be seen in cosmetics, immunology, sensor devices, coating, textiles, analytical chemistry, and spermicide. Finally, the objective of this review is to discuss briefly the applications of microemulsions in advanced drug delivery. PMID:25711493

  3. Chrono pharmacotherapy: A pulsatile Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Huma Hameed; Arwa Khalid; Fazala Khalid; Rabeea Khan; Akhtar Rasul

    2015-01-01

    Chronopharmacotherapy refers to a treatment in which controlled drug delivery is achieved according to circadian rhythms of disease by enhancing therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects. Colon targeting has gained great importance not only for the treatment of local diseases such as Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis but also very important in systemic delivery of proteins/peptides, antiasthmatic drugs, antidiabetic agents and antihypertensive drugs, wh...

  4. PHARMACOSOMES: A POTENTIAL VESICULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    De Pintu Kumar; De, Arnab

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacosome is a potential approach in the vesicular drug delivery system which exhibit several advantages over conventional vesicular drug delivery systems. Pharmacosomes are amphiphilic lipid vesicular system possessing phospholipid complexes of drugs. Drugs bearing active hydrogen atom can be esterified to the lipid. This type of vesicular system improves permeation of drugs across the biomembranes and thus results in an improvement in the bioavailability and can also improve the pharmaco...

  5. DRUG DELIVERY METHODS RANKING ADDICTION POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sujatha*, T. Arundathi, S. Rubina, B.V. Ramana, G. Nagarajan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Substance abusers and drug addicts generally seek the fastest and most effective methods of getting high this means that drug delivery methods are important to users, and typically an addict will prefer one method over another. However, because there are a wide variety of drug delivery methods, substance abusers will often fluctuate between these techniques when the need arises. Understanding the different ways that people use drugs can aid in creating awareness and recognition skil...

  6. Emerging hydrogel designs for controlled protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ki Hyun; Kurisawa, Motoichi

    2016-08-19

    Hydrogels have evolved into indispensable biomaterials in the fields of drug delivery and regenerative medicine. This minireview aims to highlight the recent advances in the hydrogel design for controlled release of bioactive proteins. The latest developments of enzyme-responsive and externally regulated drug delivery systems are summarized. The design strategies and applications of phase-separated hydrogel systems are also described. We expect that these emerging approaches will enable expanded use of hydrogels in biomedicine and healthcare. PMID:27374633

  7. Toward the redesign of nutrition delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamppa, John W; Horn, Greg; Edwards, David

    2014-09-28

    In the facilitation of widespread access to low-cost, good tasting food, the global food system has relied on the use of fat, sugar, chemical processing aids and plastics, among other elements potentially detrimental to human health and the environment. This contrasts starkly with the strategies of natural nutrition delivery systems. Rich in vitamins, minerals, and other substances of functional benefit to human health, natural delivery systems, such as fruits and vegetables, retain their physical and chemical stability in a range of conditions over relatively long times through protective skins and shells that can either be eaten or degrade rapidly and fully in nature. Frequently natural foods can be delivered in small (even extremely small) portions, as with berries, insects, plankton and krill, permitting portion control and the rapid and efficient delivery of functional nutrition in inherently mobile circumstances. These and other qualities, which have insured the sustainable and healthy nourishment of animals and humans for at least tens of thousands of years, are often absent from today's man-made food and beverage delivery systems. With growing awareness of the liabilities to maintaining the food system of today, efforts are now underway to redesign nutrition delivery so as to provide the contemporary benefits of global access while retrieving the health and environmental benefits associated with natural delivery systems. We review these here, with special attention to recently commercialized nutritional delivery systems emerging from the drug delivery field aimed at reducing waste in food and beverage (nutritional aerosols) and eliminating waste in food and beverage packaging (edible skins). We briefly discuss the potential ramifications to how we will eat tomorrow. PMID:24878187

  8. Emulsomes: An emerging vesicular drug delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Bhawandeep Gill; Jatinder Singh; Vikas Sharma; S L Hari Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The oral route is the easiest, cost effective, and most vital method for drug administration. Therefore, improvement of dosage forms mainly for the prolonged release purpose has been a challenge for scientists. Vesicular drug delivery systems are developed with a purpose to overcome problems coupled with the drugs such a poor bioavailability, protection from harsh gastric environment, and from gastric enzymes, which degrade the drug. Vesicular drug delivery systems such as liposomes, emulsion...

  9. A REVIEW ON OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Harnish Patel; Upendra Patel; Hiren Kadikar; Bhavin Bhimani; Dhiren Daslaniya; Ghanshyam Patel

    2012-01-01

    Conventional oral drug delivery systems supply an instantaneous release of drug, which cannot control the release of the drug and effective concentration at the target site. This kind of dosing pattern may result in constantly changing, unpredictable plasma concentrations. Drugs can be delivered in a controlled pattern over a long period of time by the process of osmosis. Osmotic devices are the most promising strategy based systems for controlled drug delivery. They are the most reliable con...

  10. ELASTIC LIPOSOME: DRUG DELIVERY ACROSS HUMAN SKIN

    OpenAIRE

    Vardhan Harsh; Kumari Annu; Bhaskar Rahul; Jha Vandana

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery is hardly an old technology, since 1800’s and the technology is no longer just adhesive patches. Due to recent advances in technology and the ability to apply the drug to the site of action without rupturing the skin membrane, transdermal route is becoming a widely accepted route of drug administration. Recently, various strategies have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. Mainly, they include iontophoresis, electrophoresis, sonophoresis, chem...

  11. TRANSCUTANEOUS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu Premjeet; Kataria Sahil; Bilandi Ajay; Jain Sonam; Rathore Devashish

    2011-01-01

    Conventional drug delivery systems are often not suitable for new protein based and other Therapeutic compounds produced by modern technology. Therefore an alternative Approach to deliver these drugs can be achieved through the skin in the form of transcutaneous drug delivery system. Modern medicine has responded with the development of methods to deliver drug transcutanously (through) the skin for therapeutic use as an alternative to traditional route including oral, intravascular, intramusc...

  12. Percutaneous penetration enhancement in transdermal drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Inderjeet; Sri Prasanthi

    2010-01-01

    The transdermal route has numerous advantages over the more traditional drug delivery routes. These include high bioavailability, absence of first pass hepatic metabolism, steady drug plasma concentrations, and the fact that therapy is non-invasive. The main obstacle to permeating drug molecules is the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum. Consequently, research into enhancing transdermal drug delivery (TDD) by overcoming this layer, is an area of prime interest. This review artic...

  13. Revolutionary Impact of Nanodrug Delivery on Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Khanbabaie, Reza; Jahanshahi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Brain research is the most expanding interdisciplinary research that is using the state of the art techniques to overcome limitations in order to conduct more accurate and effective experiments. Drug delivery to the target site in the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most difficult steps in neuroscience researches and therapies. Taking advantage of the nanoscale structure of neural cells (both neurons and glia); nanodrug delivery (second generation of biotechnological products) has ...

  14. LECITHINISED MICROEMULSIONS FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY OF TRETINOIN

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna Surabhi; Katare O P; Drabu Sushma

    2010-01-01

    Tretinoin is indicated for the management of acne, photoaged skin, psoriasis and other skin disorders and also for severe conditions like acute promyelocytic anaemia and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The potential of tretinoin in these conditions is limited due to want of a proper delivery vehicle. In order to develop alternate formulations for the topical administration of tretinoin, lecithinsed microemulsions were prepared and evaluated as delivery vehicles. These systems were prepar...

  15. The evolution of the international nuclear fuel markets in a favorable political environment: New challenges and new chances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent few years the nuclear fuel market has changed dramatically. With the new freedoms in east European countries and the former Soviet Union the uranium production capabilities and potential deliveries of these countries attracted a lot of attention in western markets. However, with the gradual decline of the uranium production in eastern Europe and the steadily increasing marketing activities of the former Soviet Union the attention of the western market participants shifted more and more to the Soviets with their delivery potentials and marketing practices. More recently, in the course of 1991, the nuclear disarmament measures triggered discussions on the potential recycling of military material into the civil nuclear fuel cycle and the potential impacts on the market. Now, after the Soviet Union has been replaced by the Commonwealth of Independent States, many questions concerning the prospects for fuel supply from Russian and the Central Asian uranium producing republics to the Western World stir the nuclear fuel market

  16. Two-phase Flow of Liquid-gas in Diesel Fuel Injection System and Their Effect on Engine Performances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongling He; Zhihe Zhao; Jianxin Liu; Huiyong Du; Min Li; Yongping Zong

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, by using high-speed camera, CCD camera, signal and graph acquisition system, and other experimental instruments, investigation on liquid-gas two-phase flow in diesel fuel injection system and their effect on engine performances were made. Emerging and bursting of cavitation in the cavity above pump delivery valve, in injection pipe, and in fuel trough of injector of the fuel injection system were observed and mechanism of cavitation were discussed. Effects of liquid-gas two-phase flow on propagation velocity of pressure wave of the system and on irregular injection were analyzed. Two types of cavitation, long living time cavitation and short living time cavitation, in the cavity above pump delivery valve of diesel fuel injection system were observed.

  17. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  19. Fuel Cell Testing - Degradation of Fuel Cells and its Impact on Fuel Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pfrang, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in the future energy supply, especially polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells could become an integral part in future cars. Reduction of degradation of fuel cell performance while keeping fuel cell cost under control is the key for an introduction into mass markets.

  20. Nanoparticles - A paradigm for topical drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh S Chaudhari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical drug delivery is still a challenge due to the difficulties in controlling the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API fate within the skin. Due to the safety of the component material and controlled release abilities, nanoparticles offer an excellent opportunity for the rational delivery of drugs to the desired target site and hence these carrier systems are effectively used for topical delivery of variety of active principles for both pharmaceutical as well as cosmetic purposes. Recently, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs have shown a great potential as carriers for topical administration of active substances, principally owing to the possible targeting effect and controlled release in different skin strata. Also, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs are a new type of topical delivery system offering improved performance in terms of drug loading and long-term stability with the ability to form highly concentrated dispersions. Another invention in the field of topical drug delivery is the use of micellar nanoparticles (MNPs that offer a potentially fast and inexpensive pharmaceutical development model by using drugs already proven safe and effective to create new proprietary formulations. These novel drug delivery systems have gained much interest as they combine both the technology of lipid sciences and nanosciences, and hence may be better alternative carriers.

  1. Gastro Retentive Drug Delivery System: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Harshna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available IN recent years several advancement has been made in research and development of Oral Drug Delivery System. Concept of Novel Drug Delivery System arose to overcome the certain aspect related to physicochemical properties of drug molecule and the related formulations. Purpose of this review is to compile the recent literature with special focus on various gastro retentive approaches that have recently become leading methodologies in the field of site-specific orally administered controlled release drug delivery. Technological attempts have been made in the research and development of ratecontrolled oral drug delivery systems to overcome physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence times (GRT and unpredictable gastric emptying times (GET. Therefore, gastro retentive drug delivery systems (GRDDS have been developed, which prolong the gastric emptying time. Several techniques such as floating drug delivery system, low density systems, raft systems, mucoadhesive systems, high density systems, super porous hydro gels and magnetic systems, have been employed. This review on GRDDS attempts to compile the available information with all the possible mechanism used to achieve gastric retention.

  2. RECENT TRENDS IN DENTAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Nishu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release local drug delivery systems offer advantages compared to systemic dosage forms for many dental diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis. The objective of this literature survey was to gain knowledge about various dental drug delivery systems for targeted delivery of the drug. The polymer ethyl cellulose was used in the formulation of dental films. The dental film was then evaluated for various parameters like thickness, folding endurance and weight variation and content uniformity, in vitro and in vivo study. There has been a great attention in using iontophoretic technique for the transdermal drug delivery of medications, both ionic and non ionic. This technique of facilitated movement of ions across a membrane under the influence of an externally applied electric potential difference is one of the most promising physical skin penetrations enhancing method. Another novel approach is the use of lasers in dentistry. Lasers can be used in both hard and soft tissue applications including laser bleaching, frenectomy, gingivectomy, caries removal etc. Drugs delivery via the buccal routs using bio adhesive dosage forms offers such a novel route of drugs administration. This route has been used successfully for the systematic delivery of number of drugs candidates. Problems such as high first pass metabolisms and drugs degradation in the gastrointestinal tract can be circumvented by administrating the drug buccal routes.

  3. Ultrasound-mediated gastrointestinal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhammer, Carl M; Schroeder, Avi; Maa, Ruby; Lauwers, Gregory Yves; Swiston, Albert; Zervas, Michael; Barman, Ross; DiCiccio, Angela M; Brugge, William R; Anderson, Daniel G; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2015-10-21

    There is a significant clinical need for rapid and efficient delivery of drugs directly to the site of diseased tissues for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies, in particular, Crohn's and ulcerative colitis. However, complex therapeutic molecules cannot easily be delivered through the GI tract because of physiologic and structural barriers. We report the use of ultrasound as a modality for enhanced drug delivery to the GI tract, with an emphasis on rectal delivery. Ultrasound increased the absorption of model therapeutics inulin, hydrocortisone, and mesalamine two- to tenfold in ex vivo tissue, depending on location in the GI tract. In pigs, ultrasound induced transient cavitation with negligible heating, leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the delivery of mesalamine, as well as successful systemic delivery of a macromolecule, insulin, with the expected hypoglycemic response. In a rodent model of chemically induced acute colitis, the addition of ultrasound to a daily mesalamine enema (compared to enema alone) resulted in superior clinical and histological scores of disease activity. In both animal models, ultrasound treatment was well tolerated and resulted in minimal tissue disruption, and in mice, there was no significant effect on histology, fecal score, or tissue inflammatory cytokine levels. The use of ultrasound to enhance GI drug delivery is safe in animals and could augment the efficacy of GI therapies and broaden the scope of agents that could be delivered locally and systemically through the GI tract for chronic conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  4. Drug Delivery Research: The Invention Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kinam

    2016-07-01

    Controlled drug delivery systems have been successful in introducing improved formulations for better use of existing drugs and novel delivery of biologicals. The initial success of producing many oral products and some injectable depot formulations, however, reached a plateau, and the progress over the past three decades has been slow. This is likely due to the difficulties of formulating hydrophilic, high molecular weight drugs, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for targeting specific cells, month-long sustained delivery, and pulsatile release. Since the approaches that have served well for delivery of small molecules are not applicable to large molecules, it is time to develop new methods for biologicals. The process of developing future drug delivery systems, termed as the invention cycle, is proposed, and it starts with clearly defining the problems for developing certain formulations. Once the problems are well-defined, creative imagination examines all potential options and selects the best answer and alternatives. Then, innovation takes over to generate unique solutions for developing new formulations that resolve the previously identified problems. Ultimately, the new delivery systems will have to go through a translational process to produce the final formulations for clinical use. The invention cycle also emphasizes examining the reasons for success of certain formulations, not just the reasons for failure of many systems. Implementation of the new invention cycle requires new mechanisms of funding the younger generation of scientists and a new way of identifying their achievements, thereby releasing them from the burden of short-termism. PMID:26962897

  5. FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataria Sahil

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent scientific and patented literature concluded that an increased interest in novel dosage forms which retained in the stomach for prolong and predictable period of time has been shown. Various technological attempts have been made in the research and development of rate-controlled oral drug delivery systems to overcome physiological diversities, as short gastric residence times and unpredictable gastric emptying times using gastro retentive drug delivery system. It is a well known fact that differences in gastric physiology, such as, gastric pH and motility exhibit both intra as well as inter-subject variability demonstrating significant impact on gastric retention time and drug delivery behavior. Various attempts have been made to develop Gastro retentive delivery systems. Several approaches are currently utilized in the prolongation of the GRT, including floating drug delivery systems, swelling and expanding systems, polymeric bio adhesive systems, high-density systems, modified-shape systems and other delayed gastric emptying devices. Floating dosage forms are emerging as a promising dosage forms. Floating dosage form can be prepared as tablets, capsules by adding suitable ingredients as well as by adding gas generating agent. In this review various techniques used in floating dosage forms along with current & recent developments of stomach specific floating drug delivery system for gastro retention are discussed.

  6. CYCLODEXTRINS: AN EXCIPIENT TOOL IN DRUG DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nasir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins (CDs are a family of compounds consist of glucose monomers arranged in a donut shape ring. They are non-reducing, crystalline cyclic oligosaccharides which proximate a truncated core generating a hydrophilic outer surface and a lipophilic interior cavity that offers interaction with appropriately sized molecules to result in the formation of inclusion complex. Cyclodextrins are able to form host-guest complexes with hydrophobic molecules given the unique nature imparted by their structure. As a result, these molecules have found a number of applications in a wide range of fields. The proposed review explores the various techniques used and advantages for the formation of inclusion complex. The CDs have a wide range of applications in different areas of drug delivery and pharmaceutical industry due to their use as complexing agent to increase the aqueous solubility of poor soluble drugs and to increase their bioavailability and stability. The article also highlights extensive use of CDs as a polymer in the design of various novel delivery systems like liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles that can be expected to improve the therapeutic efficacy of drug and patient compliance. The objective of this contribution is to point out the inherent use of chemically modified cyclodextrins as high performance drug carriers in drug delivery systems with emphasis on the current developments. Thus, CDs because of their continuing ability to find several novel applications in drug delivery are expected to solve many problems associated with the delivery of different novel drugs through different delivery routes.

  7. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Baljit

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. In this review we discussed recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery. To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. To achieve efficient drug delivery it is important to understand the interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, targeting cell-surface receptors, drug release, multiple drug administration, stability of therapeutic agents and molecular mechanisms of cell signalling involved in pathobiology of the disease under consideration. Several anti-cancer drugs including paclitaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and dexamethasone have been successfully formulated using nanomaterials. Quantom dots, chitosan, Polylactic/glycolic acid (PLGA and PLGA-based nanoparticles have also been used for in vitro RNAi delivery. Brain cancer is one of the most difficult malignancies to detect and treat mainly because of the difficulty in getting imaging and therapeutic agents past the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Anti-cancer drugs such as loperamide and doxorubicin bound to nanomaterials have been shown to cross the intact blood-brain barrier and released at therapeutic concentrations in the brain. The use of nanomaterials including peptide-based nanotubes to target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor and cell adhesion molecules like integrins, cadherins and selectins, is a new approach to control disease progression.

  8. Normal Range of Head-to-body Delivery Interval by Two-step Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The average time of head-to-body delivery interval was longer than 60 s by two-step delivery. Majority shoulders were delivered at the first contraction. Majority shoulders emerged from perineum rather from under pubic arch. The routine one-step method of shoulder delivery where the downward force applied is not necessary and is not the right direction. Baby's breath, making faces, sucking, bubble from noses and mouth, and the light blue color of the faces, all those signs during shoulder delivery indicated a normal live birth.

  9. Outcome of deliveries in healthy but obese women: obesity and delivery outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan-Sturk Rebecka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity among fertile women is a global problem. 25% of pregnant Swedish women are overweight at admission to the antenatal clinic and 12% of them are considered as obese. Previous studies have shown an increased risk of delivery complications with an elevated maternal BMI. The aim of this study was to evaluate delivery outcomes in relation to maternal BMI on admission to the antenatal clinic. A healthy group of 787 women with full-term pregnancies and spontaneous onset of labor were included in the study. Delivery outcome was assessed in relation to maternal BMI when attending the antenatal clinic. Results The results indicated that in deliveries where the maternal BMI was >30 a high frequency of abnormal CTG trace during the last 30 minutes of labor was shown. A blood sample for evaluation of risk of fetal hypoxia was performed in only eight percent of these deliveries. A spontaneous vaginal delivery without intervention was noted in 85.7%, and 12% of neonates were delivered with an adverse fetal outcome compared to 2.8% in the group with a maternal BMI Conclusion These results indicate an increased risk at delivery for healthy, but obese women in labor. Furthermore, the delivery management may not always be optimal in these deliveries.

  10. Advanced fuels for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In addition to traditional fast reactor fuels that contain Uranium and Plutonium, the advanced fast reactor fuels are likely to include the minor actinides [Neptunium (Np), Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm)]. Such fuels are also referred to as transmutation fuels. The goal of transmutation fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a traditional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. Oxide, metal, nitride, and carbide fuels are candidates under consideration for this application, based on historical knowledge of fast reactor fuel development and specific fuel tests currently being conducted in international transmutation fuel development programs. Early fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high density and potential for breeder operation. The focus of pressurized water reactor development on oxide fuel and the subsequent adoption by the commercial nuclear power industry, however, along with early issues with low burnup potential of metal fuel (now resolved), led later fast reactor development programs to favor oxide fuels. Carbide and nitride fuels have also been investigated but are at a much lower state of development than metal and oxide fuels, with limited large scale reactor irradiation experience. Experience with both metal and oxide fuels has established that either fuel type will meet performance and reliability goals for a plutonium fueled fast spectrum test reactor, both demonstrating burnup capability of up to 20 at.% under normal operating conditions, when clad with modified austenitic or ferritic martensitic stainless steel alloys. Both metal and oxide fuels have been shown to exhibit sufficient margin to failure under transient conditions for successful reactor operation. Summary of selected fuel material properties taken are provided in the paper. The main challenge for the development of transmutation fast reactor

  11. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  12. Acceptance of failed SNF [spent nuclear fuel] assemblies by the Federal Waste Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of a series of eight prepared by E. R. Johnson Associates, Inc. (JAI) under ORNL's contract with DOE's OCRWM Systems Integration Program and in support of the Annual Capacity Report (ACR) Issue Resolution Process. The report topics relate specifically to the list of high priority technical waste acceptance issues developed jointly by DOE and a utility-working group. JAI performed various analyses and studies on each topic to serve as starting points for further discussion and analysis leading eventually to finalizing the process by which DOE will accept spent fuel and waste into its waste management system. The eight reports are concerned with the conditions under which spent fuel and high level waste will be accepted in the following categories: failed fuel; consolidated fuel and associated structural parts; non-fuel-assembly hardware; fuel in metal storage casks; fuel in multi-element sealed canisters; inspection and testing requirements for wastes; canister criteria; spent fuel selection for delivery; and defense and commercial high-level waste packages. This document discusses acceptance of failed spent fuel assemblies by the Federal Waste Management System. 18 refs., 7 figs., 25 tabs

  13. Technology clinic for wood fuel technologies; Puupolttoaineklinikka - PUUY07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D.; Nikku, P. [Jyvaeskylaen Teknologiakeskus Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    Jyvaeskylae Science Park runs the wood fuel technology clinic, funded by the Technology Development Centre Tekes. The clinic assists the entrepreneurs in starting a project, offers funding and expert services. The services of the woof fuel technology clinic are designed for SM Enterprises, which develop new components or equipment for production or utilisation of wood fuels. In the beginning the services of the clinic were connected to the production of wood fuels. In 2000 the services of the clinic expanded to consist the projects related to small-scale utilisation of wood fuels. These mean development projects related to fireplaces, small and large real estate boilers, district heating and small-scale power plants. Development objectives can include all the components and services related to delivery of a boiler plant. The clinic creates a flexible funding system for the projects of small and medium sized companies, which develop and constructs partial solutions or components. A Company can get expert services needed in the development work. Technology development services include e.g. measuring and reporting services. (orig.)

  14. TRANSFEROSOMES: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Ravi; Manvir Singh; Rajni bala; Nimrata seth; A C Rana

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system appears to be most promising delivery system due to their merits over conventional delivery systems. Recently, various strategies have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. Mainly, they include iontophoresis, electrophoresis, sonophoresis, chemical permeation enhancers, microneedles, and vesicular system (liposomes, niosomes, elastic liposomes such as ethosomes and transfersomes). Among these strategies transferosomes appear promising. T...

  15. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  16. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  17. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  18. Liquid fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various options for Danish production of liquid motor fuels from biomass have been studied in the context of the impact of EEC new common agricultural policy on prices and production quantities of crops, processes and production economy, restraints concerning present and future markets in Denmark, environmental aspects, in particular substitution of fossil fuels in the overall production and end-use, revenue loss required to assure competition with fossil fuels and national competence in business, industry and research. The options studied are rapeseed oil and derivates, ethanol, methanol and other thermo-chemical conversion products. The study shows that the combination of fuel production and co-generation of heat and electricity carried out with energy efficiency and utilization of surplus electricity is important for the economics under Danish conditions. Considering all aspects, ethanol production seems most favorable but in the long term, pyrolyses with catalytic cracking could be an interesting option. The cheapest source of biomass in Denmark is straw, where a considerable amount of the surplus could be used. Whole crop harvested wheat on land otherwise set aside to be fallow could also be an important source for ethanol production. Most of the options contribute favorably to reductions of fossil fuel consumption, but variations are large and the substitution factor is to a great extent dependent on the individual case. (AB) (32 refs.)

  19. Vegetation Fuel Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Volokitina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available All vegetation sites as objects of burning are structural complexes of various fuels. Especially complex are forest biogeoceonoses. For practical use, pyrological characteristics of vegetation are reflected on plans and maps showing both general one-sided estimations with site descriptions (for example, their fire hazard and detailed multi-sided characteristics of all compounds in the vegetation fuel complexes. The latter become basic maps for obtaining various pyrological estimations and are called vegetation fuel maps. Vegetation fuel (VF mapping can be made using two methodological approaches: first, by distinguishing pyrological vegetation categories as standard complexes; second, by individually characterizing each vegetation site in terms of VF. Obviously, the standard VF characteristic of sites can be only approximate and rough, since the possible number of studied site categories is limited. For large-scale mapping, the detailed individual characteristic of vegetation sites in terms of VF is more preferable and precise but more expensive. Therefore, historically, the first approach to VF mapping got its development, i. e. distinguishing and mapping of certain vegetation categories with standard characteristics. Foreign and Russian methodical approaches to vegetation fuel (VF classification and mapping are considered. Examples of VF mapping at different scales and guidelines for their use are given.

  20. Dry Process Fuel Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Song, K. C.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2005-04-15

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

  1. Fuel Pumping System And Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng

    2005-12-13

    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  2. Technology watch of fuel cells for vehicles in 2012; Teknikbevakning av braensleceller foer fordon 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, Hans

    2013-03-15

    The report presents results from an international survey covering the status and development of tractionary fuel cells. Interviews, study visits, reports, journals, media coverage and participation in IEA Advanced Fuel Cells Annex 26 have served as main sources of information. The development in Korea has been devoted particular attention this period. The report covers the development during the second part of 2011 and the whole 2012. The transport sector must change to provide mobility for people and goods in a long-term sustainable way. Fuel cell technology offers an important opportunity for the vehicle manufacturer and the vehicle user to maintain the same level of performance, comfort and versatility without compromising the sustainability requirements. Fuel cell vehicles typically use polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) and pressurized hydrogen. They also use tractionary batteries for about the same reasons as other hybrid electric vehicles. For commercial vehicles fuel cells are developed for the production of auxiliary power, to be used when the vehicles are parked, for example. Until 2015, Hyundai aims at making up to 1,000 fuel cell vehicles. After 2015 the plan is for several thousand every year. Until 2025, Hyundai aims at a total delivery of more than 100,000 fuel cell vehicles and the technology is then expected to be fully competitive. A roadmap shows that Korea until 2015 has established 43 and until 2030, a total of 500 hydrogen refuelling stations are indicated. The Skaane Region has carried out the first Swedish procurement of fuel cell vehicles. Two Hyundai iX35 FCEV were purchased for delivery 2013. In addition, the city of Copenhagen has purchased 15 such vehicles. During the next few years three hydrogen refuelling stations will be established in the Copenhagen area. January 2012, the California Air Resources Board decided the new set of regulations Advanced Clean Cars. It comprises three parts; tailpipe emissions and greenhouse gases, Zero

  3. Micro- and nanoparticulates for DNA vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Eric; Brown, Deborah M; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Pannier, Angela K

    2016-05-01

    DNA vaccination has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional protein-based vaccines for the induction of protective immune responses. DNA vaccines offer several advantages over traditional vaccines, including increased stability, rapid and inexpensive production, and flexibility to produce vaccines for a wide variety of infectious diseases. However, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines delivered as naked plasmid DNA is often weak due to degradation of the DNA by nucleases and inefficient delivery to immune cells. Therefore, biomaterial-based delivery systems based on micro- and nanoparticles that encapsulate plasmid DNA represent the most promising strategy for DNA vaccine delivery. Microparticulate delivery systems allow for passive targeting to antigen presenting cells through size exclusion and can allow for sustained presentation of DNA to cells through degradation and release of encapsulated vaccines. In contrast, nanoparticle encapsulation leads to increased internalization, overall greater transfection efficiency, and the ability to increase uptake across mucosal surfaces. Moreover, selection of the appropriate biomaterial can lead to increased immune stimulation and activation through triggering innate immune response receptors and target DNA to professional antigen presenting cells. Finally, the selection of materials with the appropriate properties to achieve efficient delivery through administration routes conducive to high patient compliance and capable of generating systemic and local (i.e. mucosal) immunity can lead to more effective humoral and cellular protective immune responses. In this review, we discuss the development of novel biomaterial-based delivery systems to enhance the delivery of DNA vaccines through various routes of administration and their implications for generating immune responses.

  4. Micro- and nanoparticulates for DNA vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Eric; Brown, Deborah M; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Pannier, Angela K

    2016-05-01

    DNA vaccination has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional protein-based vaccines for the induction of protective immune responses. DNA vaccines offer several advantages over traditional vaccines, including increased stability, rapid and inexpensive production, and flexibility to produce vaccines for a wide variety of infectious diseases. However, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines delivered as naked plasmid DNA is often weak due to degradation of the DNA by nucleases and inefficient delivery to immune cells. Therefore, biomaterial-based delivery systems based on micro- and nanoparticles that encapsulate plasmid DNA represent the most promising strategy for DNA vaccine delivery. Microparticulate delivery systems allow for passive targeting to antigen presenting cells through size exclusion and can allow for sustained presentation of DNA to cells through degradation and release of encapsulated vaccines. In contrast, nanoparticle encapsulation leads to increased internalization, overall greater transfection efficiency, and the ability to increase uptake across mucosal surfaces. Moreover, selection of the appropriate biomaterial can lead to increased immune stimulation and activation through triggering innate immune response receptors and target DNA to professional antigen presenting cells. Finally, the selection of materials with the appropriate properties to achieve efficient delivery through administration routes conducive to high patient compliance and capable of generating systemic and local (i.e. mucosal) immunity can lead to more effective humoral and cellular protective immune responses. In this review, we discuss the development of novel biomaterial-based delivery systems to enhance the delivery of DNA vaccines through various routes of administration and their implications for generating immune responses. PMID:27048557

  5. Towards Network-Failure-Tolerant Content Delivery for Web Content

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wen; Wang, Zhi; Sun, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    Popularly used to distribute a variety of multimedia content items in today Internet, HTTP-based web content delivery still suffers from various content delivery failures. Hindered by the expensive deployment cost, the conventional CDN can not deploy as many edge servers as possible to successfully deliver content items to all users under these delivery failures. In this paper, we propose a joint CDN and peer-assisted web content delivery framework to address the delivery failure problem. Dif...

  6. Metadata and API Based Environment Aware Content Delivery Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the limitations of current content delivery networks is lack of support for environment aware content delivery. This paper first discusses the requirements of such support, and proposes a new metadata gateway based environment aware content delivery architecture. The paper discusses in some details key functions and technologies of environment aware content delivery architecture, including its APIs and control policies. Finally the paper presents an application to illustrate advantages of environment aware content delivery architecture in the context of next generation network.

  7. A Comprehensive Review on: Transdermal drug delivery systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Kharat, Rekha; Bathe, Ritesh Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system was introduced to overcome the difficulties of drug delivery through oral route. Despite their relatively higher costs, transdermal delivery systems have proved advantageous for delivery of selected drugs, such as estrogens, testosterone, clonidine and nitro-glycerine. Transdermal delivery provides a leading edge over injectable and oral routes by increasing patient compliance and avoiding first pass metabolism respectively. Topical  administration  of  therap...

  8. Transdermal Patches: A Complete Review on Transdermal Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Patel DS; Patel MV; Patel KN; Patel BA; Patel PA

    2012-01-01

    Today about 70% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improvesuch characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Transdermal drug delivery system(TDDS) provides a means to sustain drug release as well as reduce the intensity of action and thusreduce the side effects associated with its oral therapy and differs from traditional topical drug delivery.Transdermal Drug Delivery System is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients o...

  9. HTGR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the spring of 1987, the HTGR fuel cycle project has been existing for ten years, and for this reason a status seminar has been held on May 12, 1987 in the Juelich Nuclear Research Center, that gathered the participants in this project for a discussion on the state of the art in HTGR fuel element development, graphite development, and waste management. The papers present an overview of work performed so far and an outlook on future tasks and goals, and on taking stock one can say that the project has been very successful so far: The HTGR fuel element now available meets highest requirements and forms the basis of today's HTGR safety philosophy; research work on graphite behaviour in a high-temperature reactor has led to complete knowledge of the temperature or neutron-induced effects, and with the concept of direct ultimate waste disposal, the waste management problem has found a feasible solution. (orig./GL)

  10. Fuel assemblies chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP Paks found a thermal-hydraulic anomaly in the reactor core during cycle 14 that was caused by corrosion product deposits on fuel assemblies (FAs) that increased the hydraulic resistance of the FAs. Consequently, the coolant flow through the FAs was insufficient resulting in a temperature asymmetry inside the reactor core. Based on this fact NPP Paks performed differential pressure measurements of all fuel assemblies in order to determine the hydraulic resistance and subsequently the limit values for the hydraulic acceptance of FAs to be used. Based on the hydraulic investigations a total number of 170 FAs was selected for cleaning. The necessity for cleaning the FAs was explained by the fact that the FAs were subjected to a short term usage in the reactor core only maximum of 1,5 years and had still a capacity for additional 2 fuel cycles. (authors)

  11. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  12. Particle fuel bed tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H2 for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss

  13. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  14. Fuel rod bowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the extent of fuel rod bowing in Westinghouse pressurized water reactors and to assess the effects of fuel rod bowing on plant safety and reliability. An empirical bow correlation was developed based on data from irradiated assemblies. Analyses conducted with these conservative empirical predictions show that: (1) generically identified DNBR margins are adequate to offset DNBR reductions due to rod bow, (2) the present design practice of increasing the highest calculated core peaking factor is sufficient to account for all deviations, including the effects of rod bow, and (3) fretting and corrosion of bowed rods are negligible. These conclusions indicate that fuel rod bowing results in no impact on plant safety or reliability

  15. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  16. CO{sub 2} mitigation and fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.

    1997-07-07

    Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel appears to be an effective intermediate agent, for reducing CO{sub 2} from the utility power and the transportation sectors. On the utilization side, methanol as a liquid fuel fits in well with the current infrastructure for storage and delivery to the automotive sector with better efficiency. On the production side, CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel plants together with natural gas and biomass can be used as feedstocks for methanol synthesis with reduced CO{sub 2}. Over the past several years, processes have emerged which have varying degrees of CO{sub 2} emission reduction depending on the feedstocks used for methanol synthesis process. This paper reviews the methanol processes from the point of view of production efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions reduction. The processes include: (1) the Hydrocarb Process which primarily utilizes coal and natural gas and stores carbon, and (2) the Hynol Process which utilizes biomass (including carbonaceous wastes, municipal solid waste (MSW)) or coal and natural gas, and (3) the Carnol Process which utilizes natural gas and CO{sub 2} recovered from fossil fuel fired powered plant stacks, especially coal fired plants. The Carnol System consists of power generation, methanol production and methanol utilization as an automotive fuel. The efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions for the entire system are compared to the conventional system of petroleum derived automotive fuel (gasoline) and coal fired power generation plants. CO{sub 2} reduction by as much as 56% and 77% can be achieved when methanol is used in internal combustion and fuel cell automotive vehicles, respectively.

  17. Effect of induction-delivery and uterine-delivery on apgar scoring of the newborn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamat S

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Very short or prolonged induction-delivery interval (i.e. less than 5 minutes or more than 15 minutes and uterine-delivery interval of more than 90 seconds has a definite effect on the apgar scoring of a newborn especially when general anaesthesia is administered as compared to regional anaesthesia for caesarean section.

  18. Crowdsourced Delivery: A Dynamic Pickup and Delivery Problem with Ad-hoc Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Arslan (Alp); N.A.H. Agatz (Niels); L.G. Kroon (Leo); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe trend towards shorter delivery lead-times reduces operational efficiency and increases transportation costs for internet retailers. Mobile technology, however, creates new opportunities to organize the last-mile. In this paper, we study the concept of crowdsourced delivery that aims

  19. Learning to Learn: towards a Relational and Transformational Model of Learning for Improved Integrated Care Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Diamond

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Health and social care systems are implementing fundamental changes to organizational structures and work practices in an effort to achieve integrated care. While some integration initiatives have produced positive outcomes, many have not. We reframe the concept of integration as a learning process fueled by knowledge exchange across diverse professional and organizational communities. We thus focus on the cognitive and social dynamics of learning in complex adaptive systems, and on learning behaviours and conditions that foster collective learning and improved collaboration. We suggest that the capacity to learn how to learn shapes the extent to which diverse professional groups effectively exchange knowledge and self-organize for integrated care delivery.

  20. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  1. Transfer of fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel assemblies of a nuclear reactor are transferred during fueling or refueling or the like by a crane. The work-engaging fixture of the crane picks up an assembly, removes it from this slot, transfers it to the deposit site and deposits it in its slot at the deposit site. The control for the crane includes a strain gauge connected to the crane line which raises and lowers the load. The strain gauge senses the load on the crane. The signal from the strain gauge is compared with setpoints; a high-level setpoint, a low-level setpoint and a slack-line setpoint. If the strain gauge signal exceeds the high-level setpoint, the line drive is disabled. This event may occur during raising of a fuel assembly which encounters resistance. The high-level setpoint may be overridden under proper precautions. The line drive is also disabled if the strain gauge signal is less than the low-level setpoint. This event occurs when a fuel assembly being deposited contacts the bottom of its slot or an obstruction in, or at the entry to the slot. To preclude lateral movement and possible damage to a fuel assembly suspended from the crane line, the traverse drive of the crane is disabled once the strain-gauge exceets the lov-level setpoint. The traverse drive can only be enabled after the strain-gauge signal is less than the slack-line set-point. This occurs when the lines has been set in slack-line setting. When the line is tensioned after slack-li ne setting, the traverse drive remains enabled only if the line has been disconnected from the fuel assembly

  2. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  3. Fuels from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, L.; Schnell, C.; Gieseler, G.

    Consideration is given to fuel substitution based on regenerative plants. Methanol can be produced from regenerative plants by gasification followed by the catalytic hydration of carbon oxides. Ethanol can be used as a replacement fuel in gasoline and diesel engines and its high-knock rating allows it to be mixed with lead-free gasoline. Due to the depletion of oil and gas reserves, fermentation alcohol is being considered. The raw materials for the fermentation process can potentially include: (1) sugar (such as yeasts, beet or cane sugar); (2) starch (from potatoes or grain) and (3) cellulose which can be hydrolized into glucose for fermentation.

  4. Clean fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  5. Fuels for Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Fredholm, Bertil B.; Nordén, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to reduce the amount of fossil energy used for transport, both because of the easily available fossil fuel is becoming sparser and because of climate concerns. In this article, the concept of “peak oil” is briefly presented. Second, a practical approach to reduction of fossil fuel use for transport elaborated by two British commissions is presented. A key feature is the introduction of electric cars. This raises the third issue covered in this article: namely, how battery tech...

  6. Linseed as renewable fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cultivation of renewable fuels is a way of reducing excess food production and of opening up alternatives of labour and income on the agricultural sector. Industry takes an interest in renewable fuels because of the ecological aspect. Vegetable oils may be used as lubricants (e.g. for chainsaws, hydraulic systems and two-stroke engines), while starck may be utilized as biodegradable packaging material. The report therefore investigates the chances for linseed production in Germany. The economic efficiency of linseed production may be improved by utilizing the slow-degradable linseed stran as mulding material in gardening and landscaping and for erosion protection. (orig.)

  7. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work of the Project-Fuel Development reached the apex of its current programme during the course of the year. Notable success was recorded in the area of irradiation testing with the completion of the examination of the MFBS-7 irradiation. The irradiation group also prepared the seventh Filos experiment and this, as well as the DIDO-III test, began irradiation at the end of the year. Consideration was given and plans prepared for a revised pin filling line for bundle tests. Work also began on the conceptual design study for a pilot production line having a nominal capacity of 500 kg fuel per year. (Auth.)

  8. Fuel cell engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sundmacher

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cells are attractive electrochemical energy converters featuring potentially very high thermodynamic efficiency factors. The focus of this volume of Advances in Chemical Engineering is on quantitative approaches, particularly based on chemical engineering principles, to analyze, control and optimize the steady state and dynamic behavior of low and high temperature fuel cells (PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC) to be applied in mobile and stationary systems. * Updates and informs the reader on the latest research findings using original reviews * Written by leading industry experts and scholars * Review

  9. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold F. McFarlane; Terry Todd

    2013-11-01

    Reprocessing is essential to closing nuclear fuel cycle. Natural uranium contains only 0.7 percent 235U, the fissile (see glossary for technical terms) isotope that produces most of the fission energy in a nuclear power plant. Prior to being used in commercial nuclear fuel, uranium is typically enriched to 3–5% in 235U. If the enrichment process discards depleted uranium at 0.2 percent 235U, it takes more than seven tonnes of uranium feed to produce one tonne of 4%-enriched uranium. Nuclear fuel discharged at the end of its economic lifetime contains less one percent 235U, but still more than the natural ore. Less than one percent of the uranium that enters the fuel cycle is actually used in a single pass through the reactor. The other naturally occurring isotope, 238U, directly contributes in a minor way to power generation. However, its main role is to transmute into plutoniumby neutron capture and subsequent radioactive decay of unstable uraniumand neptuniumisotopes. 239Pu and 241Pu are fissile isotopes that produce more than 40% of the fission energy in commercially deployed reactors. It is recovery of the plutonium (and to a lesser extent the uranium) for use in recycled nuclear fuel that has been the primary focus of commercial reprocessing. Uraniumtargets irradiated in special purpose reactors are also reprocessed to obtain the fission product 99Mo, the parent isotope of technetium, which is widely used inmedical procedures. Among the fission products, recovery of such expensive metals as platinum and rhodium is technically achievable, but not economically viable in current market and regulatory conditions. During the past 60 years, many different techniques for reprocessing used nuclear fuel have been proposed and tested in the laboratory. However, commercial reprocessing has been implemented along a single line of aqueous solvent extraction technology called plutonium uranium reduction extraction process (PUREX). Similarly, hundreds of types of reactor

  10. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  11. Pharmacosomes: A Potential Vesicular Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nagasamy Venkatesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipid based drug delivery systems have been examined in various studies and exhibited their potential in controlled and targeted drug delivery. Pharmacosomes, a novel vesicular drug delivery system, offering a unique advantage over liposomes and niosomes, and serve as potential alternative to these conventional vesicles. They constitute an amphiphilic phospholipid complex with drug bearing an active hydrogen atom covalently that bind to phospholipids. They provide an efficient delivery of drug required at the site of action, which ultimately reduces the drug toxicity with reduced adverse effects and also reduces the cost of therapy by imparting better biopharmaceutical properties to the drug, resulting in increases bioavailability, especially in case of poorly soluble drugs. As the system is formed by binding the drug (pharmakon to carrier (soma, they are termed as pharmacosomes. Depending upon the chemical structure of the drug lipid complex they may exist as ultrafine vesicular, micellar and hexagonal aggregate. Drug having active hydrogen group such as carboxyl, hydroxyl group can be esterified to lipids, resulting in amphiphilic compound. Pharmacosomes are widely used as carriers for various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proteins, cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs. The release of drug from pharmacosomes is generally governed by the process of enzymatic reaction and acid hydrolysis. Here, in the present review paper we have discussed the potential of pharmacosomes as a controlled and targeted drug delivery system and highlighted the method of preparation and characterization.

  12. NOVEL APPROACH: MICROSPONGE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sunder Mandava et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery system (TDS is not practically for delivery of materials whose final target is skin itself. Application topical agents generally offer many problems such as rashes, skin irritancy and burning sensation etc due to higher percutaneous absorption of drugs on the skin. Some conventional dosage e.g., gels and ointments. Which are often aesthetically unappealing, greasiness and stickiness etc. that often result into lack of patient compliance. For reduce this side effects, microsponge technology offers many advantage over the conventional drug delivery. The microsponge based drug delivery system is a unique technology for controlled release and enhanced drug deposition in the skin while minimizing transdermal penetration of topically active agents. Drug loaded microsponge consist of microporous beads, typically 10-25 μm in diameter. Microsponge delivery system (MDS can provide increased efficacy for topically active agents with enhanced safety, extended product stability, enhanced formulation flexibility, reduced side effects and improved aesthetic properties in an efficient and novel manner. In addition these are non-irritating, non-allergenic, non-mutagenic, and non-toxic. MDS technology is being used currently in cosmetics, over-the-counter skin care, sunscreen and prescription products.

  13. A pulsed mode electrolytic drug delivery device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the design of a proof-of-concept drug delivery device that is actuated using the bubbles formed during electrolysis. The device uses a platinum (Pt) coated nickel (Ni) metal foam and a solid drug in reservoir (SDR) approach to improve the device’s performance. This electrochemically-driven pump has many features that are unlike conventional drug delivery devices: it is capable of pumping periodically and being refilled automatically; it features drug release control; and it enables targeted delivery. Pt-coated metal foam is used as a catalytic reforming element, which reduces the period of each delivery cycle. Two methods were used for fabricating the Pt-coated metal: sputtering and electroplating. Of these two methods, the sputtered Pt-coated metal foam has a higher pumping rate; it also has a comparable recombination rate when compared to the electroplated Pt-coated metal foam. The only drawback of this catalytic reformer is that it consumes nickel scaffold. Considering long-term applications, the electroplated Pt metal foam was selected for drug delivery, where a controlled drug release rate of 2.2 μg  ±  0.3 μg per actuation pulse was achieved using 4 mW of power. (paper)

  14. The delivery of BCNU to brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C C; Li, J; Teo, C S; Lee, T

    1999-08-27

    This paper reports the development of three-dimensional simulations to study the effect of various factors on the delivery of 1-3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) to brain tumors. The study yields information on the efficacy of various delivery methods, and the optimal location of polymer implantation. Two types of drug deliveries, namely, systemic administration and controlled release from polymers, were simulated using fluid dynamics analysis package (FIDAP) to predict the temporal and spatial variation of drug distribution. Polymer-based delivery provides higher mean concentration, longer BCNU exposure time and reduced systemic toxicity than bolus injection. Polymer implanted in the core gives higher concentration of drug in both the core and viable zone than the polymer in the viable zone case. The penetration depth of BCNU is very short. This is because BCNU can get drained out of the system before diffusing to any appreciable distance. Since transvascular permeation is the dominant means of BCNU delivery, the interstitial convection has minor effect because of the extremely small transvascular Peclet number. The reaction of BCNU with brain tissues reduces the drug concentration in all regions and its effect increases with rate constant. The implantation of BCNU/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVAc) matrix at the lumen of the viable zone immediately following the surgical removal of 80% of the tumor may be an effective treatment for the chemotherapy of brain tumors. The present study provides a quantitative examination on the working principle of Gliadel wafer for the treatment of brain tumors.

  15. Mode of delivery in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele D’Amico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system, affecting women of childbearing age. Little is known about the possible association between mode of delivery and the risk of MS in offspring. Delivery represents a unique event in a woman’s lifetime, with complex mechanisms controlling human parturition. Concurrent with the trend of increasing numbers of caesarean deliveries (CD, there has been an increasing frequency of autoimmune diseases such as MS. Several theories have emerged suggesting that environmental influences are contributing to this phenomenon. The data available in literature seem reassuring for women with MS, suggesting that the disease is not associated with adverse pregnancy or birth outcomes. On the other hand, there is little information in the literature regarding the role of mode of delivery in predicting the postpartum disease activity, pregnancy, and birth outcomes in women with MS. The aim of our review is to provide a brief summary of the available data on the role of mode of delivery in MS, and the eventual correlation with disease outcome.

  16. Emulsomes: An emerging vesicular drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawandeep Gill

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral route is the easiest, cost effective, and most vital method for drug administration. Therefore, improvement of dosage forms mainly for the prolonged release purpose has been a challenge for scientists. Vesicular drug delivery systems are developed with a purpose to overcome problems coupled with the drugs such a poor bioavailability, protection from harsh gastric environment, and from gastric enzymes, which degrade the drug. Vesicular drug delivery systems such as liposomes, emulsions, niosomes, proniosomes, solid lipid-nano particles, ethosomes, nanoparticles, and pharmacosomes, etc have gained much attention, but emulsomes have rouse as system, which bypasses many disadvantages associated with other systems, developed as novel lipoidal vesicular system with internal solid fat core surrounded by phospholipid bilayer. This technology is designed to act as vehicle for poorly soluble drugs. The drug is enclosed in the emulsomes and provide prolong existence of drug in systemic circulation. Furthermore, emulsomal-based formulations of genetic drugs such as antisense oligonucleotides and plasmids for gene therapy that have clear potential for systemic utility are increasingly available. This review addresses the concept of emulsomal drug delivery system, summarizes the success of emulsomes for the delivery of small molecules, and special attention has been paid to its formulation design, advantages, biopharmaceutical aspects, stability aspects, and various aspects related to drug delivery including future aspects.

  17. PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Faraz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose for this review on pulsatile drug delivery systems (PDDS is to compile the recent literatures with special focus on the different types and approaches involved in the development of the formulation. Pulsatile drug delivery system is the most interesting time and site-specific system. Diseases wherein PDDS are promising include asthma, peptic ulcer, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis,attention deficit syndrome in children, and hypercholesterolemia. PDDS can be classified into time controlled systems wherein the drug release is controlled primarily by the delivery system; stimuli induced PDDS in which release is controlled by the stimuli, like the pH or enzymes present in the Intestinal tract or enzymes present in the drug delivery system and externally regulated system where release is programmed by external stimuli like magnetism, ultrasound, electrical effect and irradiation. Marketed product like Pulsicap®, Ritalin® and Pulsys® are based on pulsatile release system. The aim of this review is to describe several types of drug delivery systems. This review also summarizes some current PDDS already available in the market. These systems are useful to several problems encountered during the development of a pharmaceutical dosage form.

  18. Transdermal Delivery of Nisoldipine: Refinement of Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maghraby, Gamal M; Ahmed, Amal A; Osman, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    Nisoldipine is used for the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris. However, it has very low bioavailabil-ty, which is attributed to extensive pre-systemic metabolism. In addition, nisol-ipine is highly potent (used at a low dose). Taking into consideration the fact that transdermal delivery avoids the pre-systemic metabolism and is only suit-ble for potent drugs, nisoldipine can be considered as an excellent candidate for transdermal delivery. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to optimize nisoldipine transdermal delivery. That was achieved initially by investigating the effect of vehicles on skin penetration. The tested vehicles were ranked with respect to transdermal flux of nisoldipine as isopropyl myristate > oleic acid > propylene glycol > water > polyethylene glycol 400. A combination of oleic acid with propylene glycol was synergistic with a ratio of 1:2 w/w being the best. These results were taken further to develop microemulsion systems using either oleic acid or isopropyl myristate as the oil phase. Both cases employed polyoxy-thylene sorbitan monooleate as a surfactant with propylene glycol being uti-ized as a cosurfactant in the case of oleic acid and ethanol in the case of isopropyl myristate. The developed microemulsions produced significant enhancement in nisoldipine transdermal delivery with the flux being even greater than that obtained from the corresponding pure vehicles. This achieve-ent was recorded in optimum microemulsion formulations which contained a cosurfactant. The study provided stepwise optimization of a vehicle for trans-ermal delivery of nisoldipine.

  19. Recent fuel handling experience in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, good operation of the fuel handling system at Ontario Hydro's nuclear stations has been taken for granted with the unavailability of the station arising from fuel handling system-related problems usually contributing less than one percent of the total unavailability of the stations. While the situation at the newer Hydro stations continues generally to be good (with the specific exception of some units at Pickering B) some specific and some general problems have caused significant loss of availability at the older plants (Pickering A and Bruce A). Generally the experience at the 600 MWe units in Canada has also continued to be good with Point Lepreau leading the world in availability. As a result of working to correct identified deficiencies, there were some changes for the better as some items of equipment that were a chronic source of trouble were replaced with improved components. In addition, the fuel handling system has been used three times as a delivery system for large-scale non destructive examination of the pressure tubes, twice at Bruce and once at Pickering and performing these inspections this way has saved many days of reactor downtime. Under COG there are several programs to develop improved versions of some of the main assemblies of the fuelling machine head. This paper will generally cover the events relating to Pickering in more detail but will describe the problems with the Bruce Fuelling Machine Bridges since the 600 MW 1P stations have a bridge drive arrangement that is somewhat similar to Bruce

  20. A new memetic algorithm for solving split delivery vehicle routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bozorgi-Amiri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Split delivery vehicle routing problem is one of the traditional types of routing problems in which the demand of different points can be divided among vehicles and the objective is to minimize the path length, which vehicles travel. In this paper, fuel cost of vehicles which is assumed to be dependent on their traveled path and load is considered as the objective functions. Namely, the cost of the consumed fuel is proportionate to the unit of load carried per unit of distance. In order to solve the proposed model a new memetic algorithm is developed which has two rows. The performance of the proposed algorithm for 21 standard problems is compared with the optimum solutions obtained from mathematical programming standard solver and the solutions of the same algorithm with single row solution representation. The results express the efficiency of developed algorithm.

  1. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  2. Blending biodiesel in fishing boat fuels for improved fuel characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherng-Yuan eLin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable, clean, alternative energy source with advantages such as excellent lubricity, superior biodegradability and high combustion efficiency. Biodiesel is considered for mixing with fishing boat fuels to adjust their fuel characteristics so that toxic pollutants and greenhouse-effect gas emissions from such shipping might be reduced. The effects of blending fishing boat fuels A and B with various weight proportions of biodiesel are experimentally investigated in this study. The results show that biodiesel blending can significantly improve the inferior fuel properties of both fishing boat fuels and particularly fuel B. The flash points of both of these fuels increases significantly with the addition of biodiesel and thus enhances the safety of transporting and storing these blended fuels. The flash point of fishing boat fuel B even increases by 16% with 25 wt% biodiesel blending. The blending of biodiesel with no sulfur content is found to be one of the most effective ways to reduce the high sulfur content of fishing boat fuel, resulting in a reduction in the emission of sulfur oxides. The addition of only 25 wt% biodiesel decreased the sulfur content of the fishing boat fuel by 37%. The high kinematic viscosity of fishing boat fuel B was also observed to be reduced by 63% with the blending of just 25 wt% biodiesel. However, biodiesel blending caused a slight decrease in heating value around 1% to 4.5%.

  3. Transdermal delivery: product and patent update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu; Babu, R J

    2013-12-01

    Transdermal drug delivery is an attractive alternative to the oral and parenteral drug delivery. Drugs which are prone to first-pass metabolism can be delivered easily in small doses with sustained blood levels through this method. An update to available products along with a review of clinical trials and patents are discussed in this study. In this review, we have compiled 16 drugs, i.e. Buprenorphine, Clonidine, Estradiol, Fentanyl, Granisetron, Lidocaine, Methylphenidate, Nicotine, Nitroglycerin, Oxybutynin, Rivastigmine, Rotigotine, Scopolamine, Selegiline, Testosterone, Influenza virus vaccine (Microneedle) and covering about 22 marketed products on the transdermal system. We present instrumental information on them along with the compilation of current clinical trials on transdermal systems. We summarize the contents of patents granted in last 5 years under different pharmacological categories. This article serves, accordingly as a source of available information focused on transdermal drug delivery research. PMID:24025130

  4. Ultrasound triggered image-guided drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Marcel R. [Philips Research Europe, Biomolecular Engineering, HTC11, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Cardiology and Angiology, University Hospital Muenster, Albert Schweitzerstrasse 33, 48149 Muenster (Germany)], E-mail: marcel.bohmer@philips.com; Klibanov, Alexander L. [Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Cobb Hall, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Hospital Drive, Cobb Hall RM 1026, Charlottesville, VA 22908-158 (United States); Tiemann, Klaus [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, University Hospital Muenster, Albert Schweitzerstrasse 33, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Hall, Christopher S. [Philips Research North America, Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy, 345 Scarborough Road, Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510 (United States); Gruell, Holger; Steinbach, Oliver C. [Philips Research Europe, Biomolecular Engineering, HTC11, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    The integration of therapeutic interventions with diagnostic imaging has been recognized as one of the next technological developments that will have a major impact on medical treatments. Important advances in this field are based on a combination of progress in guiding and monitoring ultrasound energy, novel drug classes becoming available, the development of smart delivery vehicles, and more in depth understanding of the mechanisms of the cellular and molecular basis of diseases. Recent research demonstrates that both pressure sensitive and temperature sensitive delivery systems hold promise for local treatment. The use of ultrasound for the delivery of drugs has been demonstrated in particular the field of cardiology and oncology for a variety of therapeutics ranging from small drug molecules to biologics and nucleic acids.

  5. Ultrasound triggered image-guided drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integration of therapeutic interventions with diagnostic imaging has been recognized as one of the next technological developments that will have a major impact on medical treatments. Important advances in this field are based on a combination of progress in guiding and monitoring ultrasound energy, novel drug classes becoming available, the development of smart delivery vehicles, and more in depth understanding of the mechanisms of the cellular and molecular basis of diseases. Recent research demonstrates that both pressure sensitive and temperature sensitive delivery systems hold promise for local treatment. The use of ultrasound for the delivery of drugs has been demonstrated in particular the field of cardiology and oncology for a variety of therapeutics ranging from small drug molecules to biologics and nucleic acids.

  6. Barriers to drug delivery in solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Shravan Kumar; Aryasomayajula, Bhawani; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in the field of drug delivery. The advent of engineered nanoparticles has allowed us to circumvent the initial limitations to drug delivery such as pharmacokinetics and solubility. However, in spite of significant advances to tumor targeting, an effective treatment strategy for malignant tumors still remains elusive. Tumors possess distinct physiological features which allow them to resist traditional treatment approaches. This combined with the complexity of the biological system presents significant hurdles to the site-specific delivery of therapeutic drugs. One of the key features of engineered nanoparticles is that these can be tailored to execute specific functions. With this review, we hope to provide the reader with a clear understanding and knowledge of biological barriers and the methods to exploit these characteristics to design multifunctional nanocarriers, effect useful dosing regimens and subsequently improve therapeutic outcomes in the clinic. PMID:25068098

  7. Prevention of preterm delivery in twin pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Tabor, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of twin gestation has increased markedly over the past decades, mostly because of increased use of assisted reproductive technologies. Twin pregnancies are at increased risk of preterm delivery (i.e. birth before 37 weeks of gestation). Multiple gestations therefore account for 2......-3% of all pregnancies but constitute at least 10% of cases of preterm delivery. Complications from preterm birth are not limited to the neonatal period, such as in retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular haemorrhage, necrotising enterocolitis, respiratory disorder and sepsis; they can also constitute......, it is mandatory to evaluate the proposed treatments in randomised trials of multiple gestations. In this chapter, we describe the results of trials to prevent preterm delivery in twin pregnancies....

  8. Optimizing Cancer Care Delivery through Implementation Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather B Neuman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2013 Institute of Medicine report investigating cancer care concluded that the cancer care delivery system is in crisis due to an increased demand for care, increasing complexity of treatment, decreasing work force and rising costs. Engaging patients and incorporating evidence-based care into routine clinical practice are essential components of a high quality cancer delivery system. However, a gap currently exists between the identification of beneficial research findings and application in clinical practice. Implementation research strives to address this gap. In this review, we discuss key components of high quality implementation research. We then apply these concepts to a current cancer care delivery challenge in women’s health, specifically the implementation of a surgery decision aid for women newly diagnosed with breast cancer.

  9. Brain drug delivery systems for neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbayo, E; Ansorena, E; Blanco-Prieto, M J

    2012-09-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) are rapidly increasing as population ages. However, successful treatments for NDs have so far been limited and drug delivery to the brain remains one of the major challenges to overcome. There has recently been growing interest in the development of drug delivery systems (DDS) for local or systemic brain administration. DDS are able to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of conventional drugs and reduce their side effects. The present review provides a concise overview of the recent advances made in the field of brain drug delivery for treating neurodegenerative disorders. Examples include polymeric micro and nanoparticles, lipidic nanoparticles, pegylated liposomes, microemulsions and nanogels that have been tested in experimental models of Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Overall, the results reviewed here show that DDS have great potential for NDs treatment. PMID:23016644

  10. Computational Amphiphilic Materials for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh eThota

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic materials can assemble into a wide variety of morphologies and have emerged as a novel class of candidates for drug delivery. Along with a large number of experiments reported, computational studies have been also conducted in this field. At an atomistic/molecular level, computations can facilitate quantitative understanding of experimental observations and secure fundamental interpretation of underlying phenomena. This review summarizes the recent computational efforts on amphiphilic copolymers and peptides for drug delivery. Atom-resolution and time-resolved insights are provided from bottom-up to microscopically elucidate the mechanisms of drug loading/release, which are indispensable in the rational screening and design of new amphiphiles for high-efficacy drug delivery.

  11. Analysis, Retrieval and Delivery of Multimedia Content

    CERN Document Server

    Cavallaro, Andrea; Leonardi, Riccardo; Migliorati, Pierangelo

    2013-01-01

    Covering some of the most cutting-edge research on the delivery and retrieval of interactive multimedia content, this volume of specially chosen contributions provides the most updated perspective on one of the hottest contemporary topics. The material represents extended versions of papers presented at the 11th International Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services, a vital international forum on this fast-moving field. Logically organized in discrete sections that approach the subject from its various angles, the content deals in turn with content analysis, motion and activity analysis, high-level descriptors and video retrieval, 3-D and multi-view, and multimedia delivery. The chapters cover the finest detail of emerging techniques such as the use of high-level audio information in improving scene segmentation and the use of subjective logic for forensic visual surveillance. On content delivery, the book examines both images and video, focusing on key subjects including an efficient p...

  12. Targeted Delivery of Immunomodulators to Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Azzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Active-targeted delivery to lymph nodes represents a major advance toward more effective treatment of immune-mediated disease. The MECA79 antibody recognizes peripheral node addressin molecules expressed by high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. By mimicking lymphocyte trafficking to the lymph nodes, we have engineered MECA79-coated microparticles containing an immunosuppressive medication, tacrolimus. Following intravenous administration, MECA79-bearing particles showed marked accumulation in the draining lymph nodes of transplanted animals. Using an allograft heart transplant model, we show that targeted lymph node delivery of microparticles containing tacrolimus can prolong heart allograft survival with negligible changes in tacrolimus serum level. Using MECA79 conjugation, we have demonstrated targeted delivery of tacrolimus to the lymph nodes following systemic administration, with the capacity for immune modulation in vivo.

  13. Nucleic acid delivery with microbubbles and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychak, Joshua J; Klibanov, Alexander L

    2014-06-01

    Nucleic acid-based therapy is a growing field of drug delivery research. Although ultrasound has been suggested to enhance transfection decades ago, it took a combination of ultrasound with nucleic acid carrier systems (microbubbles, liposomes, polyplexes, and viral carriers) to achieve reasonable nucleic acid delivery efficacy. Microbubbles serve as foci for local deposition of ultrasound energy near the target cell, and greatly enhance sonoporation. The major advantage of this approach is in the minimal transfection in the non-insonated non-target tissues. Microbubbles can be simply co-administered with the nucleic acid carrier or can be modified to carry nucleic acid themselves. Liposomes with embedded gas or gas precursor particles can also be used to carry nucleic acid, release and deliver it by the ultrasound trigger. Successful testing in a wide variety of animal models (myocardium, solid tumors, skeletal muscle, and pancreas) proves the potential usefulness of this technique for nucleic acid drug delivery. PMID:24486388

  14. OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES IN TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Deshwal et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug technology specialists are continuing to search for new methods that can effectively and painlessly deliver larger molecules in therapeutic quantities to overcome the difficulties associated with the oral route. Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients of the drug occurs by the means of skin. Skin is an effective medium from which absorption of the drug takes place and enters in to circulatory system. Various types of transdermal patches are used to incorporate the active ingredients into the circulatory system via skin. The patches have been proved effective because of its large advantages over other controlled drug delivery systems. This review article covers a brief outline of various components of transdermal patch, applications of transdermal patch, their advantages, disadvantages, when the transdermal patch are used and when their use should be avoided, types of transdermal patch, recent techniques for enhancing TDDS

  15. Aerial Delivery Systems and Technologies (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Gupta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment (ADRDE was started at Kanpur during latter part of 1950's consisting of two Aerial Delivery Sections primarily for the indigenisation of Parachutes and related equipment for Para-dropping of men and materials. Today, the charter of ADRDE includes design & development of parachutes, Aerostat Systems, Aircraft Arrester Barrier Systems and Heavy-Drop Systems for both military and civilian applications. The technological competence built in Aeronautical, Textile, Mechanical and Electronics engineering has imparted ADRDE, a unique combination of know-how and capabilities to evolve new solutions in these fields, with emphasis on quality assurance. This paper highlights the design and development of technologies developed by ADRDE to stengthen the India's aerial delivery system and its future plans.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.124-136, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.326

  16. FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM - CHRONOTHERAPEUTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kalal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of writing this review on the floating drug delivery systems (FDDS was to compile the recent literature with special focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. FDDS is one of the approaches in chronotherapeutic drug delivery. In the past reviews of FDDS the physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention, approaches to design single-unit and multiple-unit floating systems, their classification and formulation aspects have been covered. This review summarizes the special focus on chronotherapeutics, diseases affected by biological rhythm, its importance, advantages, various approaches in Chronotherapeutic drug delivery and applications of FDDS. These systems are useful for several problems encountered during the development of a pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  17. Microemulsion: As Excellent Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathan Maksud

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Today though the oral drug delivery system is dominant still it is found to be need of ideal transdermal drug delivery system. “A micro emulsion is a system of water, oil and an amphiphile which is a single optically isotropic and thermodynamically stable liquid solution”. Microemulsions offer several advantages as drug delivery systems as these are thermodynamically stable and stability allows for self emulsification of the system with microemulsion acting as supersolvent of the drugs which are poorly or insoluble in water. They are preferred more as compared to conventional emulsions due stability. The dispersed phase mainly acts as the solvent for the water insoluble drug. Microemulsions have been proved to increase the cutaneous absorption of both lipophilic and hydrophilic API’s when compared to conventional vehicles.

  18. Integrated fuel processor development challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the absence of a hydrogen-refueling infrastructure, the success of the fuel cell system in the market will depend on fuel processors to enable the use of available fuels, such as gasoline, natural gas, etc. The fuel processor includes several catalytic reactors, scrubbers to remove chemical species that can poison downstream catalysts or the fuel cell electrocatalyst, and heat exchangers. Most fuel cell power applications seek compact, lightweight hardware with rapid-start and load- following capabilities. Although packaging can partially address the size and volume, balancing the performance parameters while maintaining the fuel conversion (to hydrogen) efficiency requires careful integration of the unit operations and processes. Argonne National Laboratory has developed integrated fuel processors that are compact and light, and that operate efficiently. This paper discusses some of the difficulties encountered in the development process, focusing on the factors/components that constrain performance, and areas that need further research and development

  19. Fuel Cell Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Fuel Cell Technical Team promotes the development of a fuel cell power system for an automotive powertrain that meets the U.S. DRIVE Partnership (United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) goals.

  20. Fuel-cladding chemical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of the nuclear fuel is very complex. Its chemical composition changes with time due to the formation of fission products and depends on the temperature level history within the fuel pellet and the clad during operation. Firstly, in thermal reactors, zircaloy oxidation from reaction with UO2 fuel under high-temperature conditions will be addressed. Then other fuel-cladding interaction phenomena occurring in fast reactors will be described. Large thermal gradients existing between the centre and the periphery of the pellet induce the radial redistribution of the fuel constituents. The fuel pellet can react with the clad by different corrosion processes which can involve actinide and/or fission product transport via gas, liquid or/and solid phases. All these phenomena are briefly described in the case of different kinds of fuels (oxide, carbide, nitride, metallic) to be used in fast reactors. The way these phenomena are taken into account in fuel performance codes is presented. (authors)