Sample records for after-ripening

  1. Is gene transcription involved in seed dry after-ripening?

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    Patrice Meimoun

    Full Text Available Orthodox seeds are living organisms that survive anhydrobiosis and may display dormancy, an inability to germinate at harvest. Seed germination potential can be acquired during a prolonged period of dry storage called after-ripening. The aim of this work was to determine if gene transcription is an underlying regulatory mechanism for dormancy alleviation during after-ripening. To identify changes in gene transcription strictly associated with the acquisition of germination potential but not with storage, we used seed storage at low relative humidity that maintains dormancy as control. Transcriptome profiling was performed using DNA microarray to compare change in gene transcript abundance between dormant (D, after-ripened non-dormant (ND and after-ripened dormant seeds (control, C. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to confirm gene expression. Comparison between D and ND showed the differential expression of 115 probesets at cut-off values of two-fold change (p<0.05. Comparisons between both D and C with ND in transcript abundance showed that only 13 transcripts, among 115, could be specific to dormancy alleviation. qPCR confirms the expression pattern of these transcripts but without significant variation between conditions. Here we show that sunflower seed dormancy alleviation in the dry state is not related to regulated changes in gene expression.

  2. Physiological characteristics and related gene expression of after-ripening on seed dormancy release in rice. (United States)

    Du, W; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y; Wang, L; He, Y; Wang, Z; Zhang, H


    After-ripening is a common method used for dormancy release in rice. In this study, the rice variety Jiucaiqing (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) was used to determine dormancy release following different after-ripening times (1, 2 and 3 months). Germination speed, germination percentage and seedling emergence increased with after-ripening; more than 95% germination and 85% seedling emergence were observed following 1 month of after-ripening within 10 days of imbibition, compared with germination and 20% seedling emergence in freshly harvested seed. Hence, 3 months of after-ripening could be considered a suitable treatment period for rice dormancy release. Dormancy release by after-ripening is mainly correlated with a rapid decline in ABA content and increase in IAA content during imbibition. Subsequently, GA(1)/ABA, GA(7)/ABA, GA(12)/ABA, GA(20)/ABA and IAA/ABA ratios significantly increased, while GA(3)/ABA, GA(4)/ABA and GAs/IAA ratio significantly decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening, thereby altering α-amylase activity during seed germination. Peak α-amylase activity occurred at an earlier germination stage in after-ripened seeds than in freshly harvested seeds. Expression of ABA, GA and IAA metabolism genes and dormancy-related genes was regulated by after-ripening time upon imbibition. Expression of OsCYP707A5, OsGA2ox1, OsGA2ox2, OsGA2ox3, OsILR1, OsGH3-2, qLTG3-1 and OsVP1 increased, while expression of Sdr4 decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening. Dormancy release through after-ripening might be involved in weakening tissues covering the embryo via qLTG3-1 and decreased ABA signalling and sensitivity via Sdr4 and OsVP1. PMID:26205956

  3. Dormant and after-Ripened Arabidopsis thaliana Seeds are Distinguished by Early Transcriptional Differences in the Imbibed State (United States)

    Dekkers, Bas J. W.; Pearce, Simon P.; van Bolderen-Veldkamp, R. P. M.; Holdsworth, Michael J.; Bentsink, Leónie


    Seed dormancy is a genetically controlled block preventing the germination of imbibed seeds in favorable conditions. It requires a period of dry storage (after-ripening) or certain environmental conditions to be overcome. Dormancy is an important seed trait, which is under selective pressure, to control the seasonal timing of seed germination. Dormant and non-dormant (after-ripened) seeds are characterized by large sets of differentially expressed genes. However, little information is available concerning the temporal and spatial transcriptional changes during early stages of rehydration in dormant and non-dormant seeds. We employed genome-wide transcriptome analysis on seeds of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate transcriptional changes in dry seeds upon rehydration. We analyzed gene expression of dormant and after-ripened seeds of the Cvi accession over four time points and two seed compartments (the embryo and surrounding single cell layer endosperm), during the first 24 h after sowing. This work provides a global view of gene expression changes in dormant and non-dormant seeds with temporal and spatial detail, and these may be visualized via a web accessible tool ( A large proportion of transcripts change similarly in both dormant and non-dormant seeds upon rehydration, however, the first differences in transcript abundances become visible shortly after the initiation of imbibition, indicating that changes induced by after-ripening are detected and responded to rapidly upon rehydration. We identified several gene expression profiles which contribute to differential gene expression between dormant and non-dormant samples. Genes with enhanced expression in the endosperm of dormant seeds were overrepresented for stress-related Gene Ontology categories, suggesting a protective role for the endosperm against biotic and abiotic stress to support persistence of the dormant seed in its environment. PMID

  4. Dormant and after-Ripened Arabidopsis thaliana Seeds are Distinguished by Early Transcriptional Differences in the Imbibed State. (United States)

    Dekkers, Bas J W; Pearce, Simon P; van Bolderen-Veldkamp, R P M; Holdsworth, Michael J; Bentsink, Leónie


    Seed dormancy is a genetically controlled block preventing the germination of imbibed seeds in favorable conditions. It requires a period of dry storage (after-ripening) or certain environmental conditions to be overcome. Dormancy is an important seed trait, which is under selective pressure, to control the seasonal timing of seed germination. Dormant and non-dormant (after-ripened) seeds are characterized by large sets of differentially expressed genes. However, little information is available concerning the temporal and spatial transcriptional changes during early stages of rehydration in dormant and non-dormant seeds. We employed genome-wide transcriptome analysis on seeds of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate transcriptional changes in dry seeds upon rehydration. We analyzed gene expression of dormant and after-ripened seeds of the Cvi accession over four time points and two seed compartments (the embryo and surrounding single cell layer endosperm), during the first 24 h after sowing. This work provides a global view of gene expression changes in dormant and non-dormant seeds with temporal and spatial detail, and these may be visualized via a web accessible tool ( A large proportion of transcripts change similarly in both dormant and non-dormant seeds upon rehydration, however, the first differences in transcript abundances become visible shortly after the initiation of imbibition, indicating that changes induced by after-ripening are detected and responded to rapidly upon rehydration. We identified several gene expression profiles which contribute to differential gene expression between dormant and non-dormant samples. Genes with enhanced expression in the endosperm of dormant seeds were overrepresented for stress-related Gene Ontology categories, suggesting a protective role for the endosperm against biotic and abiotic stress to support persistence of the dormant seed in its environment. PMID

  5. After-ripening induced transcriptional changes of hormonal genes in wheat seeds: the cases of brassinosteroids, ethylene, cytokinin and salicylic acid.

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    Vijaya R Chitnis

    Full Text Available Maintenance and release of seed dormancy is regulated by plant hormones; their levels and seed sensitivity being the critical factors. This study reports transcriptional regulation of brassinosteroids (BR, ethylene (ET, cytokinin (CK and salicylic acid (SA related wheat genes by after-ripening, a period of dry storage that decays dormancy. Changes in the expression of hormonal genes due to seed after-ripening did not occur in the anhydrobiotic state but rather in the hydrated state. After-ripening induced dormancy decay appears to be associated with imbibition mediated increase in the synthesis and signalling of BR, via transcriptional activation of de-etiolated2, dwarf4 and brassinosteroid signaling kinase, and repression of brassinosteroid insensitive 2. Our analysis is also suggestive of the significance of increased ET production, as reflected by enhanced transcription of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase in after-ripened seeds, and tight regulation of seed response to ET in regulating dormancy decay. Differential transcriptions of lonely guy, zeatin O-glucosyltransferases and cytokinin oxidases, and pseudo-response regulator between dormant and after-ripened seeds implicate CK in the regulation of seed dormancy in wheat. Our analysis also reflects the association of dormancy decay in wheat with seed SA level and NPR independent SA signaling that appear to be regulated transcriptionally by phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and whirly and suppressor of npr1 inducible1 genes, respectively. Co-expression clustering of the hormonal genes implies the significance of synergistic and antagonistic interaction between the different plant hormones in regulating wheat seed dormancy. These results contribute to further our understanding of the molecular features controlling seed dormancy in wheat.

  6. Changes of Soluble Sugar Contents and Sucrose Invertase Activity and Their Relation to Fruit Hardness of Peach Fruits before and after Ripening%硬肉桃果实成熟前后可溶性糖含量和蔗糖转化酶活性的变化及其与果实硬度的关系

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    张冉冉; 段艳欣; 李培环; 董晓颖


    The fruits of crisp peach (Prunus persica) ‘Shuangjiuhong’ and ‘Kawanakajima Hakuto’ were used to study the changes in the soluble sugar and sucrose contents and sucrose invertase activity and their relation to fruit hardness during the period from 20 days before ripening to 20 days after ripening. The results showed that soluble sugar and sucrose content increased while the neutral invertase (NI) and the cell walls of acid inver-tase (CWI) activities continuously decreased. Correlation analysis showed that there was markedly positive cor-relation among the fruit ifrmness, neutral invertase and the cell walls of acid invertase activities and markedly negative correlation among the fruit ifrmness, soluble sugar and sucrose contents.%以硬肉桃新品种‘双久红’和常规品种‘川中岛白桃’果实为试材,研究了果实成熟前后20 d内两品种桃果实中可溶性糖含量、蔗糖含量及蔗糖代谢相关酶活性的变化情况,并对其与硬度的相关性做了分析。结果表明,成熟前后20 d内,两品种桃果实的可溶性糖和蔗糖含量均呈上升趋势,而蔗糖中性转化酶(NI)及细胞壁转化酶(CWI)的活性则不断下降。相关性分析结果表明,果实硬度与可溶性糖和蔗糖含量呈极显著负相关,而蔗糖中性转化酶和细胞壁转化酶的活性则呈极显著正相关。

  7. Teores de lignina e celulose em plantas de cana-de-açúcar em função da aplicação de maturadores Lignin and cellulose contents in sugarcane after ripener application

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    D.K. Meschede


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores de lignina e celulose em plantas de cana-de-açúcar após a aplicação de dois maturadores para a colheita. O experimento foi conduzido em uma área de cana-soca, cultivar SP 803280, no município de Igaraçu do Tietê/SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da aplicação de dois maturadores: sulfometuron-methyl (Curavial e glyphosate (Roundup original. As doses utilizadas foram: glyphosate a 72 g e.a. ha-1; glyphosate a 144 g e.a. ha-1 ; glyphosate a 72 g e.a. ha-1 + sulfometuron methyl a 10 g p.c. ha-1; glyphosate a 108 g e.a. ha-1 + sulfometuron-methyl a 12 g p.c. ha-1; sulfometuron-methyl a 20 g p.c. ha-1; e a testemunha sem aplicação de maturadores. As análises de lignina e celulose foram realizadas pelo método lignina em detergente ácido modificado. O glyphosate e o sulfometuron-methyl alteraram os níveis de lignina no momento da colheita, e esse efeito foi observado também durante o crescimento da cana-de-açúcar (meses após a aplicação desses produtos. O glyphosate a 72 g e.a. ha-1 promoveu reduções nos teores de lignina, na colheita e durante o crescimento da cana-de-açúcar, quando comparados com os da testemunha, enquanto o sulfometuron-methyl isolado na menor dose (10 g ha-1 promoveu aumento nos teores desse biopolímero na soqueira da cana-de-açúcar.The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of lignin and cellulose in sugarcane after application of ripeners. The experiment was carried out in a sugarcane ratoon area, variety SP803280 in Igaraçu Tietê, São Paulo, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. The treatments consisted of application of two ripeners: sulfometuron methyl (Curavial and glyphosate (Roundup Original. The doses used were: glyphosate 200 mL pc ha-1; glyphosate at 400 mL p.c. ha-1, glyphosate at 200 mL p.c. ha-1 plus sulfometuron methyl at 10 g p.c. ha-1; glyphosate at 150 mL p.c. ha-1 plus sulfometuron methyl at 12 g p.c. ha-1; sulfometuron methyl at 20 g p.c. ha-1 and the untreated control without ripener application. Lignin and cellulose analyses were made using acid detergent lignin modified. Glyphosate and sulfometuron methyl altered lignin levels at harvest and during sugarcane growth (months after application of the products. In general, glyphosate at 200 mL ha-1 promoted reductions in lignin compared to the control, while sulfometuron methyl isolated at a dose of 10 g ha-1 promoted an increase in the levels of this compound in sugarcane.

  8. Qualidade do suco de maracujá-amarelo em diferentes pontos de colheita e após o amadurecimento Quality of yellow passion fruit juice in different harvest points and after ripening

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    Antonione Araujo Coelho


    Full Text Available Conduziu- se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade do suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Degener com diferentes pontos de colheita e, após o completo amadurecimento em câmara de armazenamento, visando à comercialização in natura ou a industrialização. Foram determinados os teores de acidez titulável, ácido ascórbico, sólidos solúveis, açúcares redutores e não-redutores e o valor de pH. As médias foram comparadas quanto ao intervalo de confiança com 5 % de significância e 10 % de desvio em torno da média amostral de população infinita. Os resultados mostraram que o ponto adequado para a colheita dos maracujás-amarelos da safra de inverno foi identificado quando pelo menos 30,7 % da superfície da casca estavam amareladas. Nesse ponto, eles apresentaram características químicas adequadas para o consumo in natura ou para sustentar o processo fisiológico de amadurecimento do fruto durante o armazenamento.This work had as an objective to evaluate the quality of yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Degener in different harvest points and after complete ripening in a storage chamber, intended for natural consumption or sales of derived products. We determined the levels of titratable acidity, ascorbic acidy, soluble solids, reducer and non-reducer sugars and pH value. The averages were compared regarding confidence intervals with a 5% significance and 10 % deviation around the sampling average of infinite population. The results showed that an adequate harvest point of the yellow passion fruits from the winter season was identified when at least 30.7% of the peel surface was yellowish. At this point they presented appropriated chemical characteristics for consumption in natura or to support the physiological ripening process during storage.

  9. Dormancy release and germination of Echinochloa crus-galli grains in relation to galactomannan-hydrolysing enzyme activity

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    SONG Bing-yan; SHI Jin-xiao; SONG Song-quan


    Echinochloa crus-gal i, one of the world’s most serious weeds, inlfuences seriously the yield and quality of cereal crop plant. It is wel known that E. crus-gal i grain is dormant, but its dormant type, as wel as its dormancy release and germination in relation to galactomannan-hydrolysing enzyme activity were poorly understood. The cooperation of endo-β-mannanase (EC,β-mannosidase (EC andα-galactosidase (EC can hydrolyze the cel wal s rich in mannan-based polymers. In the present paper, the mature grains are used as experimental materials, we investigated the water uptake of grains, the effect of removing partial endosperm, after-ripening, stratiifcation and phytohormone on grain germination, and the change in endo-β-mannanase,β-mannosidase andα-galactosidase activities of grains during after-ripening and germination. The results showed that the freshly-col ected grains were water-permeable and had only phase I and II of water uptake, while the grains after-ripened for 150 d had an obvious phase III of water uptake. In alternating photoperiod, the germination of grains freshly-col ected was zero at 10–35°C, and that of half grains was 11%at 20°C only. The grain germination was notably promoted by after-ripening and stratiifcation, but not by gibberel ic acid and 6-benzyladenine at 0.0001–1 mmol L–1. β-Mannosidase activity increased during 0 to 300 d of after-ripening and then decreased. The activity of endo-β-mannanase andα-galactosidase of grains decreased with after-ripening. During grain germination, endo-β-man-nanase andβ-mannosidase activities obviously increased, whileα-galactosidase activity decreased. Our data showed that E. crus-gal i grain was a deep physiological dormant, the dormancy release by after-ripening was related to an increasingβ-mannosidase activity, and its germination was closely associated with an increasing endo-β-mannanase andβ-mannosi-dase activity;which have provided new knowledge

  10. Influence of atmospheric oxygen and ozone on ripening indices of normal (Rin) and ripening inhibited (rin) tomato cultivars

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    Maguire, Y.P.; Solberg, M.; Haard, N.F.


    Ethylene (10 ppm) dependent mediation of normal and mutant (rin) tomato fruit ripening was promoted by 100% oxygen, 3.7 pphm ozone, or their combination. All ripening indices studied (respiration, chlorophyll degradation, carotenoid accumulation, softening, and aroma development) were promoted by oxygen and/or ozone. Ozone also acted independent of ethylene in promoting chlorophyll degradation and aroma development in normal fruit, but did not appreciably affect these quality attributes in mutant fruit. Lycopene accumulation in normal and mutant fruit and aroma formation in normal fruit were promoted to a greater extent by ozone than were other ripening indices. Mutant (rin) fruit contained 27% of the lycopene that was present in normal (Rin) fruit after ripening in O/sub 2/ containing 10ppm ethylene and 3.7 pphm ozone, whereas they contained only 3% of the lycopene in normal fruit after ripening in air containing 10ppm ethylene.

  11. Genome-wide association mapping revealed a diverse genetic basis of seed dormancy across subpopulations in rice (Oryza sativa L.)


    Magwa, Risper Auma; Zhao, Hu; Xing, Yongzhong


    Background Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait employed by flowering plants to avoid harsh environmental conditions for the continuity of their next generations. In cereal crops, moderate seed dormancy could help prevent pre-harvest sprouting and improve grain yield and quality. We performed a genome wide association study (GWAS) for dormancy, based on seed germination percentage (GP) in freshly harvested seeds (FHS) and after-ripened seeds (ARS) in 350 worldwide accessions that were character...

  12. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) (United States)

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar


    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant (‘R’) biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the ‘R’ S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis ‘R’ biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4 to 48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible (‘S’) biotypes. Seeds of the ‘S’ biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the ‘R’ biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months’ of dry storage. The ‘R’ biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of ‘R’ and ‘S’ biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, ‘R’ seeds were significantly heavier than those of the ‘S’ seeds. Differential seed germinability between ‘S’ and ‘R’ biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination.

  13. Effect of Tocopherol Extract, Staphylococcus carnosus Culture, and Celery Concentrate Addition on Quality Parameters of Organic and Conventional Dry-Cured Sausages


    Magrinyà Navarro, Núria; Bou Novensà, Ricard; Tres Oliver, Alba; Rius Bofill, Núria; Codony Salcedo, Rafael; Guardiola Ibarz, Francesc


    The effects of the addition to sausage mix of tocopherols (200 mg/kg), a conventional starter culture with or without Staphylococcus carnosus, celery concentrate (CP) (0.23% and 0.46%), and two doses of nitrate (70 and 140 mg/kg expressed as NaNO(3)) on residual nitrate and nitrite amounts, instrumental CIE Lab color, tocol content, oxidative stability, and overall acceptability were studied in fermented dry-cured sausages after ripening and after storage. Nitrate doses were provided by nitra...

  14. Fatty acid profile, color and lipid oxidation of organic fermented sausage during chilling storage as influenced by acid whey and probiotic strains addition

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    Karolina Maria Wójciak


    Full Text Available Organic fermented sausages typically spoil during long-term storage due to oxidative rancidity. The application of natural antioxidants to meat stuffing is a major practice intended to inhibit the oxidation process and color changes. This study aimed to assess the effect of two unusual starter cultures: three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0900, Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0908 and Lactobacillus paracasei LOCK 0919 and lactic acid bacteria from acid whey on model fermented sausage type products focusing on oxidative stability by measuring instrumental color (L*, a*, b* values, conjugated dienes (CD, TBARS immediately after 21 days of ripening (0 and after 90 and 180 days of refrigerated storage (4 ºC. Determination of fatty acid composition, in meat product was performed after ripening and after 180 days of storage. At the end of the storage period, the salted sausages were characterized by the same content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA compared to cured samples. The addition of acid whey and a mixture of probiotic strains to nitrite-free sausage formulation was barely able to protect lipids against oxidation in comparison to nitrite during vacuum storage. Surprisingly, the use of acid whey has an influence on the desired red-pinkish color of organic fermented sausage after ripening and after 180 days of storage period.

  15. The sirac - contribution to the technology knowledge, composition and quality

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    Sonja Bijelac


    Full Text Available The Sirac is traditional cheese of Bosnia and Herzegovina, produced in the area of Tomislavgrad town. The taste is mild and moderately salty. It is consumed fresh, immediately upon production, or matured, after ripening. The technology is specific and according to that the Sirac can be classified as acid coagulated cheese. Milk proteins are coagulated by use of high temperature and acidity without adding of rennet. The aim of the work was to investigate traditional technology of the Sirac in small village households and to establish an optimal technology in order to apply it to industrial production. For this purpose, a ten tries in laboratory condition were done. The chemical composition of cheese milk, whey, fresh and ripened cheese was determined. During experiments all steps in technological process were followed. Special attention was paid to temperature and acidity of milk coagulation, draining of whey and pressing. Cheese was sensory evaluated after ripening period. The sensorial quality was good. Average score for all ten cheeses was 18.3 points and 5 samples were classified as extra and 5 as 1st class. The yield ranged from 12.25 to 17.76 % and showed that distribution of components to cheese was high. The analyses of whey confirmed this finding.

  16. The mechanisms involved in seed dormancy alleviation by hydrogen cyanide unravel the role of reactive oxygen species as key factors of cellular signaling during germination. (United States)

    Oracz, Krystyna; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Kranner, Ilse; Bogatek, Renata; Corbineau, Françoise; Bailly, Christophe


    The physiological dormancy of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) embryos can be overcome during dry storage (after-ripening) or by applying exogenous ethylene or hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during imbibition. The aim of this work was to provide a comprehensive model, based on oxidative signaling by reactive oxygen species (ROS), for explaining the cellular mode of action of HCN in dormancy alleviation. Beneficial HCN effect on germination of dormant embryos is associated with a marked increase in hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion generation in the embryonic axes. It is mimicked by the ROS-generating compounds methylviologen and menadione but suppressed by ROS scavengers. This increase results from an inhibition of catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and also involves activation of NADPH oxidase. However, it is not related to lipid reserve degradation or gluconeogenesis and not associated with marked changes in the cellular redox status controlled by the glutathione/glutathione disulfide couple. The expression of genes related to ROS production (NADPHox, POX, AO1, and AO2) and signaling (MAPK6, Ser/ThrPK, CaM, and PTP) is differentially affected by dormancy alleviation either during after-ripening or by HCN treatment, and the effect of cyanide on gene expression is likely to be mediated by ROS. It is also demonstrated that HCN and ROS both activate similarly ERF1, a component of the ethylene signaling pathway. We propose that ROS play a key role in the control of sunflower seed germination and are second messengers of cyanide in seed dormancy release.

  17. Experimental aflatoxin production in Manchego-type cheese. (United States)

    Blanco, J L; Domínguez, L; Gómez-Lucía, E; Garayzabal, J F; Goyache, J; Suárez, G


    Manchego-type cheese, a typical Spanish cheese, was inoculated in various ways with an aflatoxigenic organism, Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999, to study the production of aflatoxin. When the original milk was contaminated with a spore suspension, aflatoxin was not detected in paraffin-covered cheeses although it was present in the top layer of non-paraffin-covered cheeses after ripening at 15 degrees C for 60 d. When the cheese surface was inoculated, no aflatoxins were detected in paraffin-covered cheeses after ripening for 60 d although they were found when the cheeses were ripened for 30 d. In non-paraffin-covered cheeses aflatoxins were detected only in the top layer and in the second 10 mm layer when cheeses were incubated after the normal ripening at 28 degrees C for 30 d. When the centre of the cheese was inoculated, no aflatoxins were detected although Aspergillus grew slightly along the inoculation area. When cheese portions were inoculated, fungal growth was evident after incubation at 28 degrees and 15 degrees C for 6 d but there was no growth at 10 degrees C after 50 d. At 28 degrees C aflatoxins were detected at a concentration of 132 micrograms/g after 13 d, the highest level obtained. In cheese paste at 28 degrees and 15 degrees C, growth was intense, but the level of aflatoxins detected was lower than in cheese portions. At 10 degrees C the growth was heavy, but aflatoxins were not detected. PMID:3350782

  18. Morpho-colorimetric analysis and seed germination of Brassica insularis Moris (Brassicaceae) populations. (United States)

    Santo, A; Mattana, E; Grillo, O; Bacchetta, G


    Brassica insularis is a perennial plant growing on both coastal and inland cliffs. Three seed lots from Sardinia were analysed using an image analysis system to detect differences in seed morphology, both within and among populations. Germination requirements at constant (5-25 °C) and alternating temperatures (25/10 °C), both in light and in darkness, were evaluated for all populations. In addition, the effect of a dry after-ripening period (90 days at 25 °C) was also investigated. Morpho-colorimetric analysis clearly identified seeds from different populations and discriminated three chromatic categories for seeds belonging to the Isola dei Cavoli coastal population, but not for the inland Masùa and the coastal Planu Sartu. Inter-population variability was also observed in germination behaviour. B. insularis seeds germinated, with percentages up to 60%, in a wide range of temperatures (5-25 °C), and neither light nor dry after-ripening affected final germination percentages. Moisture content measurements were made for seeds of each colour, but there were no particular differences among colours. Inter-populational variability in germination behaviour may be a survival strategy for species growing under unpredictable environmental conditions, such as under Mediterranean climate, while heteromorphy may be due to independent evolutionary divergence processes of the Isola dei Cavoli population.

  19. Uptake of (2-/sup 14/C)abscisic acid and distribution of /sup 14/C in apple embryos

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    Barthe, P.; Bulard, C.


    Pyrus malus L. var. Golden delicious embryos were incubated with (+-)-(2-/sup 14/C) abscisic acid (ABA). After incubations of various durations, the radioactivity was measured in whole embryos, cotyledons, and embryonic axes. With either 48-h or 16-d incubation periods, the uptake of (/sup 14/C) ABA depended upon the mode of culture used. The lowest values corresponded to the absorption by the embryonic axis, the highest to the absorption by the distal parts of the two cotyledons. The cotyledons accumulated the main part of the radioactivity under all conditions. Dormant and almost completely after-ripened embryos cultivated for 4 d showed no significant differences in the radioactivity uptake for identical modes of culture. There was a linear relationship between exogenous ABA concentrations (0.5 to 3.10/sup -5/ M) and ABA uptake for embryos cultivated for 4 d with the distal parts of the cotyledons immersed in the medium.

  20. The effect of low-dose gamma irradiation and temperature on the microbiological and chemical changes during ripening of Cheddar cheese (United States)

    Seisa, Dipuo; Osthoff, G.; Hugo, C.; Hugo, A.; Bothma, C.; Van der Merwe, J.


    The effect of 4 kGy ionisation irradiation, combined with ripening temperatures at 8°C and 16°C on the ripening of Cheddar cheese was investigated. Changes in cheeses were monitored by sensory, microbiological, and chemical analyses. Sensorically, no cheese was preferred above the other. At 16°C ripening, irradiation affected the bacterial groups, but not the psychrotrophs. The free fatty acid content of the cheeses was not affected by irradiation, but higher thiobarbituric acid-values were observed after ripening at 16°C, as well as higher water-soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen. Differences in proteolysis products were detected by urea-page and RP-HPLC.

  1. Field studies on the regulation of abscisic acid content and germinability during grain development of barley: molecular and chemical analysis of pre-harvest sprouting. (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Honda, Ichiro; Shinoda, Shoko; Kushiro, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Yuji; Nambara, Eiji; Kawakami, Naoto; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki


    To investigate whether the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) content was related to germinability during grain development, two cDNAs for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (HvNCED1 and HvNCED2) and one cDNA for ABA 8'-hydroxylase (HvCYP707A1), which are enzymes thought to catalyse key regulatory steps in ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, respectively, were cloned from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Expression and ABA-quantification analysis in embryo revealed that HvNCED2 is responsible for a significant increase in ABA levels during the early to middle stages of grain development, and HvCYP707A1 is responsible for a rapid decrease in ABA level thereafter. The change in the embryonic ABA content of imbibing grains following dormancy release is likely to reflect changes in the expression patterns of HvNCEDs and HvCYP707A1. A major change between dormant and after-ripened grains occurred in HvCYP707A1; the increased expression of HvCYP707A1 in response to imbibition, followed by a rapid ABA decrease and a high germination percentage, was observed in the after-ripened grains, but not in the dormant grains. Under field conditions, HvNCED2 showed the same expression level and pattern during grain development in 2002, 2003, and 2004, indicating that HvNCED2 expression is regulated in a growth-dependent manner in the grains. By contrast, HvNCED1 and HvCYP707A1 showed a different expression pattern in each year, indicating that the expression of these genes is affected by environmental conditions during grain development. The varied expression levels of these genes during grain development and imbibition, which would have effects on the activity of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, might be reflected, in part, in the germinability in field-grown barley.

  2. 粽子蒸煮过程水分状态变化的低场核磁共振研究%Research on the Change of Moisture State in Zongzi during Cooking Process by LF-NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余瑞鑫; 顾振宇; 韩剑众


    State of moisture in three kinds of Zongzi was measured by LF-NMR. The results showed that the ripening process of Zongzi was closely related to the change of moisture state during cooking process,and it was feasible to use the moisture state as the characterization of Zongzi's quality after ripening; After cooking,compared with Baimizong.Doushazong and Darou zong had weaker water-binding capacity,higher water contents, such differences may largely affect Zongzi's texture properties and their shelf life during storage process.%对3种粽子蒸煮过程中水分状态进行低场核磁共振测定,结果表明,在蒸煮过程中,粽子的熟化过程与水分状态的变化密切相关,用粽子水分状态来表征粽子熟化后的品质具有一定的可行性;蒸煮终了,与白米粽相比,豆沙粽、大肉粽与水分的结合能力偏弱,水分含量偏高,这种差异可能是导致这3种粽子不同质构特性以及影响贮藏期的重要因素.

  3. 东北铁线莲种胚后熟过程中内源激素动态变化%Morphological Development of Seed Embryo in Its Post-ripening and Dynamic Changes of Endogenesis Hormone in Clematis Mandshurica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许世泉; 王振兴; 邵财; 王志清; 逄世峰; 张瑞


    用植物激素的酶联免疫吸附测定法(ELISA)测定不同时期东北铁线莲种子内源激素IAA、ABA、GA、ZR的动态变化.结果表明:低温层积初期东北铁线莲种子ABA的含量呈较明显的下降趋势;进人生理后熟期以后,GA、ZR的含量持续升高,抑制萌发物质减少及促萌物质的增加与积累,最终导致东北铁线莲种胚休眠的解除.%To investigate dynamic changes of endogenesis hormone IAA, ABA, GA, ZR in its post-ripening by ELISA in the seed embryo post-ripening. At early stage of low temperature lamination, the ABA content of the seeds was on a declining curve and quite evident. The GA, ZR content persistently increased after physiology after-ripening. The reduction of inhibitory substances, and increment and accumulation of promoting germination substances led to dormancy-release of seed embryo.

  4. Germination and Dormancy in Annual Halophyte Juncus ranarius Song & Perr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The effects of cold stratification and gibberellic acid (GA3 on dormancy breaking for seeds of the annual halophyte species Juncus ranarius were tested. Germination percentage and recovery responses of salt stressed seeds were also tested. Freshly collected seeds germinated slowly under all incubation conditions. Thus, the seeds of J. ranarius have physiological dormancy, e.g. they are water permeable, have a fully developed embryo and require cold stratification to come out of dormancy. Furthermore, promotion of germination by GA3 after-ripening in dry storage also indicated that these seeds have non-deep physiological dormancy. In general, the higher the GA3 concentration, the more germination occurred within the studied range. Juncus ranarius demonstrated a germination preference for light. The highest germination percentage and rate of germination were recorded under constant light conditions at 22 °C after 24 weeks of cold stratification. In saline solutions, the highest percentage of germination was obtained at 25 mM L-1 NaCl, and further increase in salinity resulted in a gradual decrease in germination. However, ungerminated seeds were not damaged by salt, showing a high level of recovery. The greater the reduction in salinity, the better the germination rate became. It was concluded that dormancy could be completely broken by cold stratification, indicating spring germination. Juncus ranarius can grow well at lower NaCl concentrations under constant light conditions at 22 °C.

  5. 菠萝蜜加工技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 易建勇; 刘璇; 吴昕烨; 钟耀广; 毕金峰


    菠萝蜜营养丰富,味道鲜美,常用作鲜食,但成熟的菠萝蜜后熟现象严重,不耐贮藏,菠萝蜜的商品价值下降较快,难以满足消费者的需求。加工利用是提高菠萝蜜经济效益的重要途径之一。综述菠萝蜜的加工利用现状,重点分析目前菠萝蜜常用的加工技术研究现状和发展趋势。%Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is a nutritional and delicious fruit that is widely consumed as a fresh fruit. However, the economic value of jackfruit decreases rapidly due to its strong after-ripening and perishable, and hardly to meet the demands of consumers. The processing and utilization of jackfruit are the effective ways to improve the economic benefit. This review presents an overview of processing status of jackfruit, as well as the researching situation of processing technology and development tendency.

  6. Integrated studies of irradiated Philippine mangoes. Part of coordinated programme in Asian Regional Cooperative Project on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of combined treatment of hot water dip (50 deg. C for 5 min.) and irradiation (0.65 kGy) on technological and sensory qualities of Carabao mangoes were investigated. Mangoes that ripen to the yellow green stage during transport may be subjected to irradiation of combined hot water dip at 50 deg. C for 5 minutes and irradiation at 0.65 kGy. When stored at the low temperature of 12-15 deg. C, shelf life is extended further. Time interval between hot water dip and irradiation must be as short as possible and fruits must be stored at ambient temperature prior to irradiation to prevent discoloration. Shelf life studies show that green fruits subjected to combined treatment and stored at ambient temperature extended shelf life by 6 days, 50% of yellow green mangoes subjected to combined treatment exhibited shelf life extension by four days. Mangoes stored at cold temperature, whether immediately after irradiation or after ripening showed considerable reduction in bacterial decay, regardless of fruit maturity, thus extending their shelf life considerably. Results of sensory evaluation showed no marked differences in color, aroma, appearance, and acceptability were observed by the taste panelists and although controls were always rated higher than the treated samples, scores higher than 5 given to the treated samples showed that they were also generally acceptable

  7. Ecophysiology of seed germination of wild Dahlia coccinea (Asteraceae) in a spatially heterogeneous fire-prone habitat (United States)

    Vivar-Evans, Susana; Barradas, Víctor L.; Sánchez-Coronado, María E.; Gamboa de Buen, Alicia; Orozco-Segovia, Alma


    Dahlia coccinea grows on fire-prone xerophilous shrubland, on a lava field located in Mexico City. Two kinds of experiments were performed to test the role of fire and environmental heterogeneity on germination. The first experiment tested the effect of environmental conditions (constant and alternating temperatures, cold stratification and light). The second one tested the effects of fire and high temperatures (dry and moist heat) on germination. Seeds of Dahlia were indifferent to light. The seeds showed physiological dormancy, which was lost by after-ripening or by gibberellins. During simulated fires, dry seeds tolerated high temperatures of short duration and also withstood prolonged exposure to 60 °C. Dry heat treatment reduced the mechanical restriction for embryo growth in dormant seeds. Ash and prolonged exposure to moist heat inhibited germination. Exogenous gibberellins reversed the deleterious effects of prolonged exposure to moist heat. The effect of cold stratification was related to the seeds' physiological stage and to light conditions; stratification in the dark reduced germination. Seeds of D. coccinea could tolerate, evade, or be slightly favored by the effects of low intensity fires occurring in their habitat. Seed responses to treatments suggest that the spatially heterogeneous lava field could provide a wide variety of micro-sites where physiological dormancy could be broken and during fires seeds could maintain their viability and subsequently germinate and/or develop a seed bank.

  8. The Effect of LAB as Probiotic Starter Culture and Green Tea Extract Addition on Dry Fermented Pork Loins Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Neffe-Skocińska


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory quality of dry fermented pork loin produced with the addition of Lb. rhamnosus LOCK900 probiotic strain, 0.2% glucose, and 1.5% green tea extract. Three loins were prepared: control sample (P0: no additives, sample supplemented with glucose and probiotic strain (P1, and sample with glucose, green tea extract, and probiotic (P2. The samples were analyzed after 21 days of ripening and 180 days of storage. The results indicated that the highest count of LAB was observed both in the samples: with probiotic and with probiotic and green tea extract (7.00 log cfu/g after ripening; 6.00 log cfu/g after storage. The oxidation-reduction potential values were lower in the probiotic loin samples. Probiotic and green tea extract have not caused color changes of study loins during storage. The study demonstrated that an addition of probiotic and green tea extract to dry fermented loins is possible and had no impact on sensory quality after product storage.

  9. 核桃酸奶生产工艺条件的研究%Study on the Process Conditions of Walnut Yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Walnut syrup, milk, sugar as the main raw material, walnut yogurt can be made into nutritionol yogurt products through the deployment, sterilization, inoculation and fermentation process. Results showed that by adding 25% of the walnut paste and 8% sucrose in the milk, after heat sterilization at 95℃ for zomin, access to 4% of the lactic acid bacteria, culture for 4h at 42. 5℃, after-ripening for 12h at 4℃, high-quality walnut yogurt products could be get.%核桃酸奶是以核桃浆、牛奶、蔗糖为主要原料,通过调配、杀菌、接种及发酵等工艺制成的一种风味优良、营养丰富的酸奶制品。试验表明,在牛奶中加入25%的核桃浆、8%的蔗糖,经95℃、20min保温杀菌后,接入4%的乳酸菌,42.5℃培养4h,在4℃条件下后熟12h,即可得到优质的核桃酸奶制品。

  10. Metabolism of the Fusarium Mycotoxins T-2 Toxin and HT-2 Toxin in Wheat. (United States)

    Nathanail, Alexis V; Varga, Elisabeth; Meng-Reiterer, Jacqueline; Bueschl, Christoph; Michlmayr, Herbert; Malachova, Alexandra; Fruhmann, Philipp; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Kimmo; Adam, Gerhard; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Berthiller, Franz


    To investigate the metabolic fate of HT-2 toxin (HT2) and T-2 toxin (T2) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), an untargeted metabolomics study utilizing stable isotopic labeling and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was performed. In total, 11 HT2 and 12 T2 derived in planta biotransformation products were annotated putatively. In addition to previously reported mono- and diglucosylated forms of HT2, evidence for the formation of HT2-malonyl-glucoside and feruloyl-T2, as well as acetylation and deacetylation products in wheat was obtained for the first time. To monitor the kinetics of metabolite formation, a time course experiment was conducted involving the Fusarium head blight susceptible variety Remus and the resistant cultivar CM-82036. Biotransformation reactions were observed already at the earliest tested time point (6 h after treatment), and formed metabolites showed different kinetic profiles. After ripening, less than 15% of the toxins added to the plants were determined to be unmetabolized.

  11. Analisis Perubahan Kualitas Pascapanen Pepaya Varietas IPB9 pada Umur Petik yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Arifiyah


    Full Text Available Papaya is generally harvested at condition of hard green mature. The maturity level depends on the market destination. Understanding the maturity level and its postharvest quality changes of papaya during storage is important in order to determine the market destination. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different picking date on the postharvest quality and shelf life of papaya cv. IPB9 during storage period. Sample of papaya fruits were harvested at 135, 131, 128, 121 and 114 days after anthesis. After harvesting, papaya fruits were ripened artificially by injecting 50ppm of ethylene during 24 hand then were placed in the room temperature. The results showed that picking date of 128 has the highest starch content. After ripening, this papaya fruit has soluble solid content (SSC of 6.7oBrix. For those papaya fruits with picking date of 135 and 131 have SSC of 8.3oBrix dan 7.5oBrix at four days storage. Papaya fruit with picking days of 128 has the longest shelf life until six days. The shortest shelf life was papaya fruits with picking date of 131 and 135 until four days. These picking date of 114 and 121 showed the lowest SSC. It could be concluded that for papaya fruit cv IPB9, the picking date of 128 was the most suitable for long distance market.

  12. Optimizing of the process conditions for the probiotic yogurt added with Lactobacillus casei%添加干酪乳杆菌的益生菌酸乳生产工艺条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    药璐; 闵伟红; 姜铁民; 陈历俊


    Using the probiotic yogurt added with Lactobacillus casei in place of the traditional yogurt only including Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, and determine the optimum process conditions of main factors such as strains inoculating proportion, inoculation amount,fermentation temperature and fermentation time by using single factor and orthogonal experiment. According to the changes of the pH and the acidity in the fermentation process and after ripening,and take the texture,the sensory score and the viable count of the probiotic yogurt into consideration, determined the optimum process conditions by the range analysis and variance analysis. The optimum process conditions were as follows: lactobacillus (Streptococcus thermophilus:Lactobacillus bulgaricus = 1:1):Lactobacillus casei=2:1, inoculation amount 3%, fermentation temperature 40℃,fermentation time 9h. In the optimum process conditions the sensory score of yogurt reached 93.65 points,and firmness,consistency,cohesiveness and viscosity were 138.975g,3448.022g·s,99.018g and 299.117g·s respectively, the acidity and viable count also reached 122°T and 3.13×1011cfu/mL after ripening 24h. It was showed that the optimum technological parameters were reliable, and it had practical significance.%以添加干酪乳杆菌的益生菌酸乳代替传统的保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌发酵的酸乳,采用单因素和正交实验设计,对影响酸乳生产工艺的菌种配比、接种量、发酵温度及发酵时间等主要因素进行了优化组合实验,以发酵过程中及后熟24h后的pH、酸度变化,并结合后熟酸乳的质构测定、感官评分和活菌数为综合指标,通过极差分析和方差分析,确定最佳生产工艺条件.本实验最终确定的最佳生产工艺条件为:乳酸菌(嗜热链球菌:保加利亚乳杆菌=1∶1)∶干酪乳杆菌=2∶1,接种量3%,发酵温度40℃,发酵时间为9h,在此生产条件下得到酸乳的感官评分为93

  13. Research on Preparation Technology of Apple Vinegar Sauce%苹果醋酱制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾学东; 杨翰南; 张学明


    对苹果醋酱的制备工艺进行了研究.分析了影响苹果醋普载体苹果泥口感的三个因素:苹果皮渣破碎厚度、氽烫时间和高压蒸煮时间,确定苹果皮渣破碎厚度为0.5 mm,氽烫时间为7.5s,高压蒸煮时间为15 min;通过正交实验进行感官综合评定,确定出该产品的最佳配方:苹果醋6%,苹果泥60%,木糖醇10%;确定后熟时间为4h,保证苹果醋酱口感更加细腻.%The preparation process of apple vinegar sauce is studied.Analyze the three factors that influence the taste of apple mud,that are apple skin slag crushing thickness,blanching time and highpressure cooking time,determine that the apple skin slag crushing thickness is 0.5 mm,blanching time is 7.5 s,high-pressure cooking time is 15 min.Through the orthogonal experiments for sensory comprehensive evaluation to determine the best formula of the product:apple vinegar of 6%,apple mud of 60%,xylitol of 10% ;after ripening time is 4 h,under such conditions,the taste of apple vinegar sauce is more delicate.

  14. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Ross G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1, there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in ‘Royal Gala’ apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. Results PG1-suppressed ‘Royal Gala’ apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. Conclusions These findings confirm PG1’s role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  15. The wheat Phs-A1 pre-harvest sprouting resistance locus delays the rate of seed dormancy loss and maps 0.3 cM distal to the PM19 genes in UK germplasm. (United States)

    Shorinola, Oluwaseyi; Bird, Nicholas; Simmonds, James; Berry, Simon; Henriksson, Tina; Jack, Peter; Werner, Peter; Gerjets, Tanja; Scholefield, Duncan; Balcárková, Barbara; Valárik, Miroslav; Holdsworth, M J; Flintham, John; Uauy, Cristobal


    The precocious germination of cereal grains before harvest, also known as pre-harvest sprouting, is an important source of yield and quality loss in cereal production. Pre-harvest sprouting is a complex grain defect and is becoming an increasing challenge due to changing climate patterns. Resistance to sprouting is multi-genic, although a significant proportion of the sprouting variation in modern wheat cultivars is controlled by a few major quantitative trait loci, including Phs-A1 in chromosome arm 4AL. Despite its importance, little is known about the physiological basis and the gene(s) underlying this important locus. In this study, we characterized Phs-A1 and show that it confers resistance to sprouting damage by affecting the rate of dormancy loss during dry seed after-ripening. We show Phs-A1 to be effective even when seeds develop at low temperature (13 °C). Comparative analysis of syntenic Phs-A1 intervals in wheat and Brachypodium uncovered ten orthologous genes, including the Plasma Membrane 19 genes (PM19-A1 and PM19-A2) previously proposed as the main candidates for this locus. However, high-resolution fine-mapping in two bi-parental UK mapping populations delimited Phs-A1 to an interval 0.3 cM distal to the PM19 genes. This study suggests the possibility that more than one causal gene underlies this major pre-harvest sprouting locus. The information and resources reported in this study will help test this hypothesis across a wider set of germplasm and will be of importance for breeding more sprouting resilient wheat varieties. PMID:27217549

  16. Proteolysis during ripening of Manchego cheese made from raw or pasteurized ewes' milk. Seasonal variation. (United States)

    Gaya, Pilar; Sánchez, Carmen; Nuñez, Manuel; Fernández-García, Estrella


    Changes in nitrogen compounds during ripening of 40 batches of Manchego cheese made from raw milk (24 batches) or pasteurized milk (16 batches) at five different dairies throughout the year were investigated. After ripening for six months, degradation of p-kappa- and beta-caseins was more intense in raw milk cheese and degradation of alpha(s2)-casein in pasteurized milk cheese. Milk pasteurization had no significant effect on breakdown of alpha(s1)-casein. Hydrophobic peptide content did not differ between raw and pasteurized milk cheese, whereas hydrophilic peptide content was higher in raw milk cheese. There were no significant differences between seasons for residual caseins, but hydrophobic peptides were at a higher level in cheese made in autumn and winter and hydrophilic peptides in cheese made in winter and spring. Raw milk cheese had a higher content of total free amino acids and of most individual free amino acids than pasteurized milk cheese. The relative percentages of the individual free amino acids were significantly different for raw milk and pasteurized milk cheeses. The relative percentages of Lys and lie increased, while those of Val, Leu and Phe decreased during ripening. There were also seasonal variations within the relative percentages of free amino acids. In raw milk cheeses, Asp and Cys were relatively more abundant in those made in autumn, Glu and Arg in cheeses made in winter, and Lys and Ile in cheeses made in spring and summer. Biogenic amines were detected only in raw milk cheese, with the highest levels of histamine, tryptamine and tyramine in cheeses made in spring, winter and spring, respectively. PMID:16174359

  17. When should fig fruit produce volatiles? Pattern in a ripening process (United States)

    Borges, Renee M.; Ranganathan, Yuvaraj; Krishnan, Anusha; Ghara, Mahua; Pramanik, Gautam


    Ripe fruit need to signal their presence to attract dispersal agents. Plants may employ visual and/or olfactory sensory channels to signal the presence of ripe fruit. Visual signals of ripe fruit have been extensively investigated. However, the volatile signatures of ripe fruit that use olfactorily-oriented dispersers have been scarcely investigated. Moreover, as in flowers, where floral scents are produced at times when pollinators are active (diurnal versus nocturnal), whether plants can modulate the olfactory signal to produce fruit odours when dispersers are active in the diel cycle is completely unknown. We investigated day-night differences in fruit odours in two species of figs, Ficus racemosa and Ficus benghalensis. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. racemosa that are largely dispersed by bats and other mammals was dominated by fatty acid derivatives such as esters. In this species in which the ripe fig phase is very short, and where the figs drop off soon after ripening, there were no differences between day and night in fruit volatile signature. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. benghalensis that has a long ripening period, however, and that remain attached to the tree for extended periods when ripe, showed an increase in fatty acid derivatives such as esters and of benzenoids such as benzaldehyde at night when they are dispersed by bats, and an elevation of sesquiterpenes during the day when they are dispersed by birds. For the first time we provide data that suggest that the volatile signal produced by fruit can show diel differences based on the activity period of the dispersal agent.

  18. 荞麦纳豆制作4艺研究%Study on Production Process of Buckwheat Natto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Natto has good health functions,but the variety is single.In order to enrich the varieties of natto,this study starts with the process and adds buckwheat as materials.The optimal production technology of natto is determined through single factor experiment and orthogonal test.The results are as follows:the soaked buckwheat and soybean that being broken into four pieces is mixed as 1∶4 at 121 ℃ for 40 min,the inoculation amount of seed liquid is 12%,being fermented for 21 h at 37 ℃. After ripening,the sensory score and physiochemical indexes of buckwheat natto are excellent.%纳豆具有很好的保健功能,但品种较单一。为丰富纳豆的品种,从纳豆的工艺入手,原料上添加了荞麦,通过单因素试验及正交试验,确定纳豆的最佳制作工艺。结果为浸泡后的荞麦和四瓣大豆1∶4混合,在121℃蒸煮40 min,晾凉后接种12%种子液,37℃发酵21 h,经后熟后制作出的荞麦纳豆感官评分和理化指标极佳。

  19. Genotyping of endosperms to determine seed dormancy genes regulating germination through embryonic, endospermic, or maternal tissues in rice. (United States)

    Gu, Xing-You; Zhang, Jinfeng; Ye, Heng; Zhang, Lihua; Feng, Jiuhuan


    Seed dormancy is imposed by one or more of the embryo, endosperm, and maternal tissues that belong to two generations and represent two ploidy levels. Many quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for seed dormancy as measured by gross effects on reduced germination rate or delayed germination in crop or model plants. This research developed an endosperm genotype-based genetic approach to determine specific tissues through which a mapped QTL regulates germination using rice as a model. This approach involves testing germination velocity for partially after-ripened seeds harvested from single plants heterozygous for a tested QTL and genotyping endosperms from individual germinated and nongerminated seeds with a codominant DNA marker located on the QTL peak region. Information collected about the QTL includes genotypic frequencies in germinated and/or nongerminated subpopulations; allelic frequency distributions during a germination period; endosperm or embryo genotypic differences in germination velocity; and genotypic frequencies for gametes involved in the double fertilization to form the sampled seeds. Using this approach, the seed dormancy loci SD12, SD1-2, and SD7-1 were determined to regulate germination through the embryo, endosperm, and maternal tissues, respectively; SD12 and SD1-2 acted additively on germination velocity in the offspring tissues; and SD12 also was associated with the preferential fertilization of male gametes in rice. This new genetic approach can be used to characterize mapped genes/QTL for tissue-specific functions in endospermic seeds and for marker-assisted selection of QTL alleles before or immediately after germination in crop breeding.

  20. Elucidating the germination transcriptional program using small molecules. (United States)

    Bassel, George W; Fung, Pauline; Chow, Tsz-fung Freeman; Foong, Justin A; Provart, Nicholas J; Cutler, Sean R


    The transition from seed to seedling is mediated by germination, a complex process that starts with imbibition and completes with radicle emergence. To gain insight into the transcriptional program mediating germination, previous studies have compared the transcript profiles of dry, dormant, and germinating after-ripened Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. While informative, these approaches did not distinguish the transcriptional responses due to imbibition, shifts in metabolism, or breaking of dormancy from those triggered by the initiation of germination. In this study, three mechanistically distinct small molecules that inhibit Arabidopsis seed germination (methotrexate, 2, 4-dinitrophenol, and cycloheximide) were identified using a small-molecule screen and used to probe the germination transcriptome. Germination-responsive transcripts were defined as those with significantly altered transcript abundance across all inhibitory treatments with respect to control germinating seeds, using data from ATH1 microarrays. This analysis identified numerous germination regulators as germination responsive, including the DELLA proteins GAI, RGA, and RGL3, the abscisic acid-insensitive proteins ABI4, ABI5, ABI8, and FRY1, and the gibberellin receptor GID1A. To help visualize these and other publicly available seed microarray data, we designed a seed mRNA expression browser using the electronic Fluorescent Pictograph platform. An overall decrease in gene expression and a 5-fold greater number of transcripts identified as statistically down-regulated in drug-inhibited seeds point to a role for mRNA degradation or turnover during seed germination. The genes identified in our study as responsive to germination define potential uncharacterized regulators of this process and provide a refined transcriptional signature for germinating Arabidopsis seeds.

  1. ClO2结合1-MCP处理对香蕉采后贮藏品质的影响%Effects of ClO2 and 1-MCP treatments on post-harvest storage quality of banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌宝; 李丽; 孙健; 游向荣; 李杰民; 何全光; 张娥珍


    [目的]探讨二氧化氯(ClO2)与1-甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)结合处理对香蕉贮藏品质的影响,为ClO2和1 -MCP在香蕉贮运保鲜上的应用提供参考依据.[方法]以“威廉斯”香蕉果实为对象,用200 μg/kg ClO2溶液浸泡3 min后,再经1μL/L 1-MCP处理12 h,然后分别进行室温贮藏[(25±0.5)℃]和冷藏[(13±0.5)℃],观测贮藏过程中香蕉品质的变化.[结果]无论在室温贮藏还是冷藏条件下,ClO2结合1-MCP处理均可有效减缓香蕉褪青和转黄,降低香蕉硬度下降速率及可滴定酸、可溶性总糖和还原糖的上升速率.[结论]ClO2合1-MCP处理可以显著延缓香蕉后熟,保持良好的贮运品质,是香蕉贮运过程中预防香蕉转黄,延缓后熟的有效措施.%[Objective]The experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of C1O2 and I-MCP treatment on post-harvest storage quality of bananas (variety Williams). [Method]The storage quality of bananas stored at (25±0.5)℃ and (13±0.5)℃ was observed after 3 min treatment with C1O2 (200 (μg/kg) and 12 h treatment with 1-MCP (1-methyl ring propylene) (1 μL/L). [Result]The results showed that the bananas treated with 1-MCP and C1O2 were significantly different from control. Combined application of CIO2 and 1-MCP effectively slowed down the color changes in banana from green to brown and significantly brought down decrease in hardness of banana and increasing rate of total soluble sugar, reducing sugar and soluble titrated acid. [Conclusion]C1O2, and 1-MCP treatments pronouncedly delayed banana after-ripening and maintained its good quality during post-harvest storage.

  2. Study on the Material of Blueberry Wine%蓝莓浸渍酒原料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊基胜; 吴林生; 张春龙; 王子迎


    Blueberry wine was produced by fresh blueben'ies and distilled spirits as original material, lemon and sugar as accessories. Blueberry was freezed and dipped at the room temperature, purificated, blended, after-ripened and then bottled. There is lots of factors influence the quality of blueberry wine, such as amount of blueberry, pretreatment of original material, raw liquor's alcohol degree and categories. The final plan of experiment was fixed by combined the above factors and comprehensive assessment of wine's sense, taste and nutrition function. The results show that the best method is adding 16%blueberries, blueberries were frozen before added to the 45% rice wine. 2% fresh lemon and 3% of the sugar was added to the raw liquor, dipping 30 d at the room temperature.%以新鲜的蓝莓浆果和大米酒为原料,新鲜的柠檬和冰糖为辅料,蓝莓冷冻、常温浸渍、过滤、勾兑、装瓶,生产蓝莓浸渍酒。通过蓝莓的添加量、原料的预处理、原料酒酒精度以及原料酒种类对蓝莓酒品质的影响试验,结合感官、口感及营养保健功能的综合评定,最终确定试验方案。试验结果表明蓝莓浸渍酒最佳用料为蓝莓添加量为16%左右,在原料添加前对蓝莓进行低温冷冻处理,选择酒精度为45°的大米酒,浸渍的过程中添加2%的新鲜柠檬和3%的冰糖,常温浸渍30d。

  3. Effects of 1-MCP and Its Structural Analogues Treatment on Post-harvest Storage of Tomato%1-MCP及其结构相似物处理对番茄采后贮藏效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付琳; 程顺昌; 魏宝东; 冷俊颖; 冯叙桥


    Effect of Treatments with 1-MCP and its Structural Analogues on Post-harvest Storage of Tomato was investigated.The effect of three cyclopropene compounds were used as ethylene action inhibitors on postharvest storage and senescence of tomato fruits.Green mature tomato fruits were treated with 1-MCP(1-methylcyclopropene),or its structural analogue 1-PentCP(1-pentylcyclopropene) or 1-OCP(1-octylcyclopropene) and stored at ambient temperature.Physiological and biochemical analyses related to fruit ripening and senescence were conducted every three days during fruit storage.The results indicate that treatment with 1-MCP or its structural analogues inhibited the respiration rate and ethylene production rate of tomato fruits,restrained the decline of fruit firmness remarkably,delayed the raise of soluble solid contents.The activity of POD and CAT in after-ripening stage fruits were inhibited effectively as well.Therefore,the ripening and softening of tomato fruits were postponed by treatment with the compounds.However,the effect decreased when the side chain changed from methyl to pentyl and to octyl.%为了研究环丙烯类乙烯抑制剂的作用效果,以绿熟期番茄为试材,用1-甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)、1-戊基环丙烯(1-PentCP)、1-辛基环丙烯(1-OCP)处理后,常温(18℃±2℃)贮藏,每隔3 d测定1次理化指标,研究三者对番茄果实后熟衰老和贮藏效果的影响。结果表明:1-MCP及其结构相似物处理番茄不同程度地降低了呼吸强度和乙烯释放量的峰值,抑制了番茄果实硬度的下降,延缓了可溶性固形物含量的上升,同时也有效抑制了后熟期番茄果实过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、过氧化物酶(POD)活性,延缓了果实的后熟衰老。3种试验的抑制剂中,1-MCP、1-PentCP和1-OCP处理随支链长度的增加,抑制后熟衰老的效果依次降低。

  4. Improving quality of some types of cheese by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ionizing radiation as a food preservation technique has been recognized for many years as a means to reduce food losses, improve food safety, and extend shelf life. Furthermore, irradiation can be an effective way of reducing the incidence of food borne disease and treating a variety of potential problems in food supplies. The treatment of food with ionizing radiation is one of the most thoroughly researched techniques available to the food processing industry. In view of the afore mentioned the objective of this study were to study the effect of irradiation time and dose on Ras cheese quality, investigate the effect of irradiation after ripening on cheese quality and possibility of prolonging the shelf-life of Ras cheese, study the effect of irradiation dose on Kareish cheese quality and its shelf- life and to monitor the chemical, microbiological and sensory changes during ripening and storage of Ras and Kareish cheeses .The results of this study will be presented in three parts: Part I: Effect of irradiation dose and time on some properties of Ras cheese:Part II: Effect of irradiation on some properties during storage of ripened Ras cheese.Part III: Effect of irradiation on the quality and shelf-life of Kareish cheese: It could be concluded that irradiation caused a significant reduction of cheese ripening indices, and count of total viable,proteolytic, lipolytic bacteria and mould and yeast. Using irradiation doses of 3 and 4 kGy were able to stop the ripening factors and these safety dose were used to prevent the ripened Ras cheese irradiation of ripened Ras cheese has been prolonged the shelf-life of Ras cheese to about 32 months compared with control cheese, which showed only 18 months. The obtained results revealed that the best irradiation treatment was at the end of ripening period. Also safety irradiation of Kareish cheese has been prolonged the shelf-life of Kareish cheese to about 54 days compared with 12 days only control cheese.

  5. 滇龙胆种子萌发特性研究%Seed germination characteristics of Gentiana rigescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨美权; 杨维泽; 赵振玲; 张霁; 张智慧; 金航; 张金渝


    Objective: To investigate the influences of temperature, lightness, storage method, storage time, and gibberellin on seed germination of Gentiana rigescens. Method: The germination rates of G. dge. scens in different treatments were observed. Resuit and Conclusion: The most suitable temperature for the seed germination was 25 ℃, at which the germination rate was 76.33%.The effect of lightness on the seeds was signifcanfiy; the germination rate of the seed was very low. Under the natural condition, the best storage method was cly storage (within 6 months), which could promote the after-ripening of the seed. 100-1 000 mg ~ L-1 gibberellic acid could significantly reduce the seed germination time, and 500 ng·L-1 gibberellic acid increased the germination rate of the seed to 95.00%.%目的:研究不同温度、不同光照、不同贮藏方式和贮藏时间以及不同赤霉素浓度处理对滇龙胆种子萌发的影响.方法:观测滇龙胆种子在不同处理条件下的发芽率.结果和结论:25℃为种子最适宜萌发温度,发芽率可达76.33%.光照对种子萌发影响显著,黑暗条件下种子发芽率极低.在自然条件下,干藏为种子最佳贮藏方式,可促进种子后熟作用,保持种子活力,但不能超过6个月.100~1000mg·L-1赤霉素处理可明显缩短滇龙胆种子萌发时间,其中500mg·L-1赤霉素处理可使种子发芽率提高至95.00%.

  6. Dormancy and germination in short-lived lepidium perfoliatu l. (brassicaceae) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand germination timing in an ecological context, the response to environmental events that effect seed dormancy is central and has to be combined with knowledge of germination responses to different ecological factors. In this study, seed dormancy, germination and seedling survival of annual short-lived clasping pepper weed Lepidium perfoliatum L. (Brassicaceae) were investigated. Three types of pre-treatments viz., various temperature dry storage, light and water stress were tested as possible dormancy and survival-affecting environmental events. Fresh mature seeds were greatly dormant. Warm (30 deg. C) dry storage more facilitated breaking dormancy, they germinated well under apt conditions (e.g. 20 deg. C and 10/20 deg. C plus periodic light, 14 h/d). For those seeds which underwent after-ripening, they could germinate at a range of constant temperatures (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 deg. C) and one alternating temperature (10/20 deg. C). Under alternating temperature regimes, the final percent germination of L. perfoliatum seeds increased from 37 deg. C to 93% when temperature altered from 4/10 deg. C to 10/20 deg. C in light, then decreased with increasing temperature. The germination pattern under constant temperature conditions was similar to that under alternating temperature and significant differences in final percent germinations and rates of germination were observed among different temperatures. Under different light treatments, final germination of showed significant differences, only with 35% of germination percentage in dark, much lower than those in red and white light (i.e. 93% and 91%, respectively). GA3 could promote the germination of non-dormant seeds in dark. When water potentials were reduced, final percent germination decreased dramatically, and few seeds germinated at -0.98 MPa (generated by PEG-8000). The changes of proline content in resultant seedlings were reverse to that of final percent germination with changing water

  7. 减压贮藏对番茄果实抗氧化物质和抗氧化酶的影响%Effect of hypobaric storage on antioxidant contents and antioxidant enzymes in tomato fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭润姿; 白阳; 郭文岚; 寇晓虹


    为了研究不同减压处理对番茄果实后熟过程中抗氧化性的影响,以粉冠番茄为材料,研究了在43.6、73.0kPa和常压三个压力条件下,番茄中维生素C、番茄红素和谷胱甘肽含量,以及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性变化规律.结果表明,减压贮藏显著推迟了番茄中维生素C含量的高峰,在一定程度上延迟了番茄红素和谷胱甘肽含量的高峰,并且压力越低效果越显著(p<0.05);在果实后熟过程中SOD、CAT活性逐渐下降,而减压处理可显著抑制SOD活性下降(p<0.05).POD活性在贮藏期间呈现先降后升的趋势,减压处理可以有效地保持较高的抗氧化酶活性.结论:减压处理贮藏可以显著保护番茄果实中的抗氧化物质和抗氧化酶活性,而且一定范围内压力越低效果越好.%In order to study effects of different hypobaric conditions(43.6,73.0,101.3kPa) on antioxidant capacity of tomato,the experiment mainly determined that the contents of vitamin C,lycopene,glutathione and the activity changes of superoxide dismutase(SOD),peroxidase(POD),catalase(CAT). The result showed that hypobaric storage significantly delayed the vitamin C peak of tomato fruit(p<0.05) and the peaks of lycopene and glutathione to some extent were delayed,the lower the pressure,the later of the peak appears. SOD and CAT activities in tomato declined during the storage period after-ripening,hypobaric conditions significantly inhibited the decline of SOD activity(p<0.05). The activity of POD firstly decreased and then increased during storage,hypobaric conditions could effectively maintain higher activities of antioxidant enzyme. In summary,the tomato storage quality and antioxidant activity in hypobaric conditions were better than in atmospheric pressure,and at a certain rang,the lower pressure,the better effect of the hypobaric storage.

  8. 傣药倒心盾翅藤种子萌发特性初步研究%Preliminary Study on Seed Germination Characteristics of Dai Medicine Aspidopterys obcordata var.Obcordata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽霞; 牛迎凤; 李海涛; 彭朝忠; 管燕红


    目的:研究倒心盾翅藤种子的萌发特性.方法:测定倒心盾翅藤种子的形态、千粒重和含水量等指标,利用不同温度和光照、种子带翅或不带翅、不同成熟度、贮藏等处理对种子进行发芽试验,测定其发芽率、发芽势和发芽指数.结果:倒心盾翅藤种子发芽适温为25~ 35℃,其中30℃条件发芽率最高,光照或黑暗条件均可.果翅对种子的发芽率无显著影响,但会影响种子发芽速度和整齐度.不成熟种子采集后经过贮藏后熟,可显著提高发芽率.种子在室温条件下贮藏6个月,发芽率仍高达93.68%,但贮藏12个月后发芽率显著下降.结论:倒心盾翅藤种子属于高温萌发型、光中性种子;种子最适贮藏时间不超过1年.%Objective: To study seed Germination characteristics of Aspidopterys obcordata var. Obcordata. Method: The morphological characters, 1 000-grains weight and moisture content of A. Obcordata var. Obcordata seed were observed. And studied different temperature and light, seeds with or without wings, seed maturity and storage on the seed germination. Result: The optimal germination temperature of A. Obcordata var. Obcordata seeds was 25 t to 35 °C , and seed germination percentage reached a peak at 30 °C. Seeds could germinate no matter in light or dark. The fruit wings had no significant effect an seed germination percentage,but it showed significant effects on the germination energy and germination index. The germination percentages of immature seeds were evidently increased after a period of storage and after-ripening. The seed germination ratio was still as high as 93.68% after seeds were storied for 6 months at room temperature,but it dropped significantly after for 12 months. Conclusion: Aspidopterys obcordata var. Obcordata seeds belonged to the high-temperature-germinating and non-photoblastic type. The most suitable storing time for the seeds was less than 12 months.

  9. Mutation induction for domestication of Cuphea: Effects of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Oils of the so called lauric acid group plants are very interesting for industries commercially because of their relatively high content of saturated medium chain triglycerides (MCT), in particular lauric acid (C12:0). Steep melting point curves and low melting points make these oils particularly suitable as fats for synthetic creams, hard butters and similar products; sodium soaps of MCT's are hard, stable to oxidation, and free lathering. Palm kernel oil from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and coconut oil from Cocos nucifera L. are the two most important commercial source of MCT's for the chemical industry. However, because of large variation in production and price, industries became interested in a continuous supply of MCT's from other species. The genus Cuphea (Lythraceae) contains a large number of herbaceous annuals adapted to temperate climate whose seed oil contains high levels of MCT's. Unfortunately, a common characteristic of the wild species is seed shattering during ripening. Seed shattering could be due to floral zygomorphy which causes the placenta to rupture the ovary wall during development, exposing the seeds; exposed seeds dry and are quickly shed. Seed dormancy is another major deterrent to the agronomic use of Cuphea. It appears to result from hard seed coats as well as from physiological factors and can be effectively broken only by prolonged after-ripening (up to a year). Natural genetic variation in Cuphea does not appear to be suitable for the development of non-shattering types. Therefore, the potential of broadening genetic variation through mutagenesis (using EMS) was investigated, first in the autogamous species C. aperta and in the allogamous species C. lanceolata, and C. procumbens. Mutants having somewhat improved seed retention were selected from all three species, however, expressivity was complete only in C. aperta. According to HIRSINGER and ROEBBELEN, the autogamous species C. tolucana Peyr. (n=12) and C. wrightii A. Gray

  10. Promoting Maturation Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum SP-3 on Semi-hard Cheese and Influences on Its Flavor%植物乳杆菌SP-3对半硬质干酪的促熟作用及其对风味的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈帅; 陈卫; 赵建; 刘振民


    [ Objective ] Semi-hard cheese was manufactured with Lactobacillus plantarum SP-3 as adjunct culture. The effects of SP-3 on cheese ripening and flavor during ripening were studied. [ Method ] The constituents and microorganism of raw milk and semi- hard cheese were analyzed, water soluble nitrogen( WSN) , WSN in 12% trichloroacetic acid (12% TCA-SN) and total free amino acid content of semi-hard cheese during ripening were determined, and its electrophoretic analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out. [ Result ] Adding SP-3 had no significant effects on normal production process and indices for the manufacture of semi-hard cheeses. SP-3 concentration reached maximum (3.4 × 108 cfu/g) at ripening 60 days in the experimental cheese. SP-3 had positive effects on cheese ripening, and total free amino acids content in the experimental cheese had almost two more times higher than their corresponding controls after ripening 60 days. Sensory assessment and principal component analysis show that SP-3 makes contribution to flavor formation of cheese especially to the milk flavor and nutty flavor. [ Conclusion ] Lactobacillus plantarum SP-3 can promote maturation of semi-hard cheese and is in favour of formation of the milk flavor and nutty flavor of cheese.%[目的]以植物乳杆菌SP-3作为附属发酵剂应用于半硬质干酪的生产,研究SP-3对干酪成熟和风味的影响.[方法]分析原料乳和干酪的组成及微生物,测定干酪成熟过程中可溶性氮(WSN)、12%三氯乙酸溶液中可溶性氮(12%TCA-SN)和总游离氨基酸含量,并对于酪进行电泳分析和感官评价.[结果]添加植物乳杆菌SP-3对半硬质干酪的正常生产工艺和产品指标无显著影响;试验组干酪在成熟60d时,SP-3浓度达到最大值3.4×108cfu/g;SP-3对干酪的成熟具有促进作用,成熟60d后,添加SP-3组干酪的总游离氨基酸含量几乎是对照组的2倍;干酪产品感官评定及主成分分析

  11. Efeitos do condicionamento na qualidade de pêssegos Maciel = Delayed cooling on the quality of Maciel peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Seibert


    Full Text Available Para avaliar o efeito do atraso na armazenagem como tratamento para evitar danos por frio, pêssegos Maciel foram colhidos nos estádios de vez e maduros e armazenados imediatamente em refrigeração ou condicionados a 20°C por dois dias (maduros ou três dias (de vez antes da armazenagem refrigerada a 0°C. Análise dos frutos ocorreu após 7, 14, 21 ou 28 dias a 0°C e após mais três dias a 20°C. Pêssegos de vez condicionados (VCD apresentaram maiores perdas de massa fresca no armazenamento e menores perdas após o amadurecimento que pêssegos não-condicionados. Pêssegos colhidos maduros não apresentaram diferenças entre tratamentos. Pêssegos VCD apresentaram menor firmeza que os de vez não-condicionados no amadurecimento a 20°C. Os pêssegos maduros condicionados (MCD foram mais firmes que osdo tratamento maduro sem condicionamento. Sintomas de lanosidade não foram observados. Escurecimento da polpa foi observado nos pêssegos que receberam tratamento de condicionamento após 21 ou 28 dias a 0°C. O distúrbio retenção de firmeza ocorreu em todos os tratamentos no amadurecimento a 20°C após 21 ou 28 dias a 0°C. O condicionamento nãoevitou a manifestação de danos por frio em pêssegos Maciel e, portanto, não é recomendado para aplicação nesta cultivar.Delayed cooling (conditioning was evaluated for effectiveness in avoiding chilling injuries of Maciel peaches harvested at two ripeness stages, mature-green or tree-ripe, and immediately thereafterplaced in cold rooms at 0°C (controls or maintained for 2 days (tree-ripe or 3 days (mature-green at 20°C before transfer to cold storage at 0°C. After 7, 14, 21 or 28 days, samples were retrieved from storage and kept for 3 more days to complete ripening at 20°C.Delayed cooling mature-green (DCMG peaches had higher weight losses compared to control mature-green fruit at retrieval from storage and more reduced fresh weight losses after ripening. Peaches harvested at the tree

  12. Germinação e emergência de plântulas para três espécies de gramíneas invasoras de cultura do gênero Digitaria Heister ex Haller Germination and seedling emergence for three weed grasses of the genus Digitaria Heister ex Haller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Barbosa


    also realized to verify the effect of depth of seed planting on seedling emergence. Results of percentage and rate of seed germination showed strong inhibition of germination caused by the bracts on the caryopsis. However, in the treatments with naked caryopsis the inhibition yet persist on germination process, indicating that these seeds may require a period of after ripening. Results of seedling emergence showed that the seeds which were planted on the surface and at 2cm depht gave best seedling emergence percentages. The interpretation of the results of germination and seedling emergence shows important aspects of the germination behaviour of these species and permits their rational control in cultivated areas.

  13. Temporary storage of jussara palm seeds: effects of time, temperature and pulp on germination and vigor Armazenamento temporário de sementes da palmeira juçara: efeitos do tempo, temperatura e polpa na germinação e vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele C. Martins


    Full Text Available Seeds of jussara palm (Euterpe edulis Mart. are recalcitrant, presenting low longevity, high sensitivity to dehydration and to low temperatures of storage. Temperature conditions for temporary preservation of those seeds, with and without pulp, were studied. Mature fruits were harvested from 24 plants belonging to the palm collection of the Instituto Agronômico (IAC located at Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil, and taken in moisture-proof containers to the Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, in Botucatu, São Paulo State. Half of the fruits were shelled and the seeds stored, with and without pulp, in sealed plastic bags (20 µm thick maintained in chambers with temperatures of 5; 10; 15 and 20-30ºC. Samples for the quality tests were taken at 0; 3; 6; 9 and 12 days after fruit harvest. Seeds stored with pulp were immediately shelled before test installation. Several characteristics were evaluated, especially seed water content, germination rate, seedling length and dry matter. There is a positive after-ripening effect on Euterpe edulis seeds. A period of storage of 9 to 12 days, after fruit harvest and before sowing, favored germination and vigor of jussara seeds. These effects were higher in shelled seeds when compared to unshelled ones. Short-term storage temperatures ranging from 5 to 20-30ºC are equally adequate for the preservation of seeds without pulp, but should not exceed 20ºC for those with pulp, since a decrease in germination and vigor, and an increase in rotted germinative button and dead seeds were observed at 20-30ºC temperature.As sementes da palmeira juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart. são recalcitrantes, apresentando baixa longevidade e sensibilidade à desidratação e ao armazenamento em temperaturas baixas. Neste trabalho foram estudadas condições de temperatura mais adequadas ao armazenamento temporário destas sementes com e sem a polpa. Frutos maduros foram colhidos em 24 plantas provenientes da coleção de palmeiras

  14. Ultrasound combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water treatment improves quality of immature strawberry%超声波结合弱酸性电位水处理改善商熟期草莓采后品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛枝; 刘东红; 丁甜; 徐玉亭; 钟建军


    respiratory peak appeared during storage. The TSS, TA, VC, and anthocyanin content appeared to be 10.93, 0.52%, 65.7 mg/100g, and 3.20 mg/100g immediately after harvest. In 14 storage days, anthocyanin content was gradually increased as 4.16 mg/100g, while TSS, TA, and VC content changed little for the control group. All the treatments increased the content of TSS, VC, and anthocyanin during storage. The TSS, VC, and anthocyanin levels in fruit treated by ultrasound and SAEW were 7.72%, 10.53%, and 19.28%higher, respectively, than that in the control fruit after 14 days of cold storage. It was also found that ultrasound inhibited the decrease of firmness, while SAEW had no impact on the firmness of strawberries. Overall, it was found that ultrasound and SAEW treatment could promote strawberry after-ripening during storage. Results showed that both ultrasound and SAEW have the potential to ensure the microbial safety and improve the quality of an immature strawberry during storage.%  为了进一步发展草莓贮运保鲜技术,以商熟期的草莓为原料,研究了超声波、弱酸性电位水(slightly acidic electrolyzed water,SAEW)处理对其表面微生物数目和相关品质参数的影响。结果发现:超声波、SAEW及二者结合处理10 min分别使草莓表面初始菌落总数降低了0.52、1.07、1.29 lgCFU/g,霉菌和酵母总数降低了0.30、0.93、1.18 lgCFU/g,且处理后的样品表面微生物始终维持在相对较低的水平。另外,3种处理均改变了草莓贮藏中的呼吸特性,使其出现了呼吸高峰;第14天,超声结合SAEW处理使草莓的可溶性固形物、VC及花青素的含量提高了7.72%、10.53%、19.28%,促使样品表现出一个后熟的过程。同时,试验还发现,超声波处理能抑制草莓硬度的下降,SAEW则对样品硬度无影响。研究结果表明:超声波和SAEW处理不仅能抑制草莓表面微生物的生长,还能调节其贮藏期生理代谢,改善贮藏期间的品质。

  15. 适宜机插株行距促进水稻生长提高产量%Suitable mechanical transplanting spacing promoting rice growth and increasing rice yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔思远; 曹光乔; 张文毅; 朱晓星


    In mechanical rice transplanting, hill-row spacing combination directly influenced the growth and yield of rice. To compare the effect of hill-row spacing on mechanical transplanting rice, the growth and yield of rice, we set up 2-year field experiments located in Zhangjiagang, Jingjiang and the Yellow Sea farm in Jiangsu Province, separately. The rice breed planted in Zhangjiagang, Jingjiang and the Yellow Sea farm was Wuyunjing 29, Wuyunjing24 and Lianjing 7, separately, all of which were japonica hybrid rice. There were 3 row-hill spacing treatments in—at each site, which the row spacing by hill spacing was 30 cm by 11 cm, 25 cm by 14 cm, 25 cm by 11 cm, each repeated 3 times. By the influence of the spacing, the area of 30 cm by 11 cm (row spacing by hill spacing), 25 cm by 14 cm (row spacing by hill spacing) and 25 cm by 11 cm (row spacing by hill spacing) was 135 m2, 150 m2 and 150 m2, separately. At the same site within each treatment, only the row-hill spacing differences were the mutation factors, the other factors were controlled. The effect of the mechanical transplanting rice, the tillering dynamics of rice, yield and yield composition of rice were tested. The effect of mechanical rice transplanting measured immediately after transplanting. 200 continuous points were taken in each area; the number of plants per hole, seedling injury and inverted were recorded to calculate the average number of plants per hole, drain planting rate, seedling injury rate and seedling inverted rate. To determine the tillering dynamic, the number of tillers was counted every 7 days from rice transplanting to the full panicle stage, 20 points for each plot were fixed. Actual yield of rice was determined after ripening. For each treatment, 3 m2 of rice were weighed after harvesting to calculate the actual yield, repeated 3 times. According to the average number of plants per hill, 3 hill plants were selected for testing, and then the yield component and the theoretical yield