Sample records for after-ripening

  1. Targeted mRNA oxidation regulates sunflower seed dormancy alleviation during dry after-ripening. (United States)

    Bazin, Jérémie; Langlade, Nicolas; Vincourt, Patrick; Arribat, Sandrine; Balzergue, Sandrine; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bailly, Christophe


    After-ripening is the mechanism by which dormant seeds become nondormant during their dry storage after harvest. The absence of free water in mature seeds does not allow detectable metabolism; thus, the processes associated with dormancy release under these conditions are largely unknown. We show here that sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed alleviation of dormancy during after-ripening is associated with mRNA oxidation and that this oxidation is prevented when seeds are maintained dormant. In vitro approaches demonstrate that mRNA oxidation results in artifacts in cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphim analysis and alters protein translation. The oxidation of transcripts is not random but selective, and, using microarrays, we identified 24 stored mRNAs that became highly oxidized during after-ripening. Oxidized transcripts mainly correspond to genes involved in responses to stress and in cell signaling. Among them, protein phosphatase 2C PPH1, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1, and phenyl ammonia lyase 1 were identified. We propose that targeted mRNA oxidation during dry after-ripening of dormant seeds could be a process that governs cell signaling toward germination in the early steps of seed imbibition.

  2. Arabidopsis thaliana DOF6 negatively affects germination in non-after-ripened seeds and interacts with TCP14 (United States)

    Rueda-Romero, Paloma; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Carbonero, Pilar; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis


    Seed dormancy prevents seeds from germinating under environmental conditions unfavourable for plant growth and development and constitutes an evolutionary advantage. Dry storage, also known as after-ripening, gradually decreases seed dormancy by mechanisms not well understood. An Arabidopsis thaliana DOF transcription factor gene (DOF6) affecting seed germination has been characterized. The transcript levels of this gene accumulate in dry seeds and decay gradually during after-ripening and also upon seed imbibition. While constitutive over-expression of DOF6 produced aberrant growth and sterility in the plant, its over-expression induced upon seed imbibition triggered delayed germination, abscisic acid (ABA)-hypersensitive phenotypes and increased expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene ABA1 and ABA-related stress genes. Wild-type germination and gene expression were gradually restored during seed after-ripening, despite of DOF6-induced over-expression. DOF6 was found to interact in a yeast two-hybrid system and in planta with TCP14, a previously described positive regulator of seed germination. The expression of ABA1 and ABA-related stress genes was also enhanced in tcp14 knock-out mutants. Taken together, these results indicate that DOF6 negatively affects seed germination and opposes TCP14 function in the regulation of a specific set of ABA-related genes. PMID:22155632

  3. After-ripening induced transcriptional changes of hormonal genes in wheat seeds: the cases of brassinosteroids, ethylene, cytokinin and salicylic acid.

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    Vijaya R Chitnis

    Full Text Available Maintenance and release of seed dormancy is regulated by plant hormones; their levels and seed sensitivity being the critical factors. This study reports transcriptional regulation of brassinosteroids (BR, ethylene (ET, cytokinin (CK and salicylic acid (SA related wheat genes by after-ripening, a period of dry storage that decays dormancy. Changes in the expression of hormonal genes due to seed after-ripening did not occur in the anhydrobiotic state but rather in the hydrated state. After-ripening induced dormancy decay appears to be associated with imbibition mediated increase in the synthesis and signalling of BR, via transcriptional activation of de-etiolated2, dwarf4 and brassinosteroid signaling kinase, and repression of brassinosteroid insensitive 2. Our analysis is also suggestive of the significance of increased ET production, as reflected by enhanced transcription of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase in after-ripened seeds, and tight regulation of seed response to ET in regulating dormancy decay. Differential transcriptions of lonely guy, zeatin O-glucosyltransferases and cytokinin oxidases, and pseudo-response regulator between dormant and after-ripened seeds implicate CK in the regulation of seed dormancy in wheat. Our analysis also reflects the association of dormancy decay in wheat with seed SA level and NPR independent SA signaling that appear to be regulated transcriptionally by phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and whirly and suppressor of npr1 inducible1 genes, respectively. Co-expression clustering of the hormonal genes implies the significance of synergistic and antagonistic interaction between the different plant hormones in regulating wheat seed dormancy. These results contribute to further our understanding of the molecular features controlling seed dormancy in wheat.

  4. Seed dormancy release in Arabidopsis Cvi by dry after-ripening, low temperature, nitrate and light shows common quantitative patterns of gene expression directed by environmentally specific sensing. (United States)

    Finch-Savage, William E; Cadman, Cassandra S C; Toorop, Peter E; Lynn, James R; Hilhorst, Henk W M


    The depth of seed dormancy can be influenced by a number of different environmental signals, but whether a common mechanism underlies this apparently similar response has yet to be investigated. Full-genome microarrays were used for a global transcript analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Cape Verde Island accession seeds exposed to dry after-ripening (AR), or low temperature, nitrate and light when imbibed. Germination studies showed that the sensitivity of imbibed seeds to low temperature, nitrate and light was dependent upon the length of time spent AR following harvest. Seeds had an absolute requirement for light to complete dormancy release in all conditions, but this effect required an exposure to a prior dormancy relieving environment. Principal component analyses of the expression patterns observed grouped physiological states in a way that related to the depth of seed dormancy, rather than the type of environmental exposure. Furthermore, opposite changes in transcript abundance of genes in sets associated with dormancy, or dormancy relief through AR, were also related to the depth of dormancy and common to different environments. Besides these common quantitative changes, environment-specific gene expression patterns during dormancy relief are also described. For example, higher transcript abundance for genes linked to the process of nitrate accumulation, and nitrate reduction was associated with dormancy relief. The quantity of GA3ox1 transcripts increased during dormancy relief in all conditions, in particular when dormancy relief was completed by exposure to light. This contrasts with transcripts linked to abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis, which declined. The results are consistent with a role for the ABA/gibberellic acid balance in integrating dormancy-relieving environmental signals.

  5. The size and germination of eggplant seed in relation to fruit maturity at harvest, after-ripening and ethylene application

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    Despoina MAKROGIANNI


    Full Text Available In eggplant cultivars Black Beauty, Emi, Long Negro and Tsakoniki cultivated for seed, flower induction and flower weight decreased in the presence of developing fruit on the plant. Harvesting prior to maturity (25-35 days after anthesis, aimed at increasing flower induction and fruit set, resulted in small seeds that failed to germinate or germinated poorly. When these fruit were stored for 20 days at 25±30C before seed extraction, seed size and germination increased indicating seed filling and maturation (‘after-ripening’ within the harvested fruit. In year 1, a single application of ethylene before storage increased the germination of Black Beauty and Long Negro harvested 25-35 days after anthesis, but reduced that of Emi and Tsakoniki. In year 2, ethylene application once before the storage of fruits harvested 35 days after anthesis promoted the germination of Tsakoniki and Emi, and when ethylene was applied three times germination was increased further. The possible applications of early harvest, fruit storage prior to seed extraction and ethylene treatment to eggplant seed production are discussed.

  6. Influence of cold storage prior to and after ripening on quality factors and sensory attributes of ‘Hass’ avocados (United States)

    Partially-ripened avocados are often held in cold storage in an attempt to enable the consistent delivery of ripe fruit to food service or retail outlets, although the effect on the quality of such fruit is incompletely understood. ‘Hass’ avocados were ripened to near ripeness (13.3 - 17.8 N) at 20 ...

  7. Seed dormancy release in Arabidopsis Cvi by dry after-ripening, low temperature, nitrate and light shows common quantitative patterns of gene expression directed by environment specific sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finch-Savage, W.E.; Cadman, C.S.C.; Toorop, P.E.; Lynn, J.R.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.


    The depth of seed dormancy can be influenced by a number of different environmental signals, but whether a common mechanism underlies this apparently similar response has yet to be investigated. Full-genome microarrays were used for a global transcript analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Cape Verde Isl

  8. 小麦后熟期间面筋蛋白变化机理及影响因素%Mechanism and control factors of changes of gluten during wheat after-ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞; 王晓曦; 景红娟; 马森; 范玲; 陈成


    The new harvest wheat has obvious character of after–ripening. The quality of wheat will be greatly improved during this period. And the quality of wheat is mostly determined by gluten which is an important component of wheat. The function of wheat gluten will be combined with after–ripening in this paper. The quantity,composition,and existing state of wheat gluten which has effect on wheat quality will be reviewed. Moreover,the changes occurring in gluten during the after–ripening process of wheat and the control factors of these changes will be included. The mechanism of changes of gluten during the after–ripening of wheat will be prospected on.%新收获的小麦籽粒具有明显后熟特性,其品质在后熟过程中得到很大改善。面筋蛋白作为小麦籽粒的重要组成部分,是小麦食用品质的决定性因素。该文将面筋蛋白对小麦品质的影响与小麦的后熟作用结合起来,在讨论面筋蛋白的数量、组成以及存在状态对小麦品质影响的基础上,进一步论述了面筋蛋白在小麦后熟过程中发生的变化以及影响因素,最后对面筋蛋白在小麦后熟过程中变化的机理研究作出展望。

  9. Teores de lignina e celulose em plantas de cana-de-açúcar em função da aplicação de maturadores Lignin and cellulose contents in sugarcane after ripener application

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    D.K. Meschede


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores de lignina e celulose em plantas de cana-de-açúcar após a aplicação de dois maturadores para a colheita. O experimento foi conduzido em uma área de cana-soca, cultivar SP 803280, no município de Igaraçu do Tietê/SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da aplicação de dois maturadores: sulfometuron-methyl (Curavial e glyphosate (Roundup original. As doses utilizadas foram: glyphosate a 72 g e.a. ha-1; glyphosate a 144 g e.a. ha-1 ; glyphosate a 72 g e.a. ha-1 + sulfometuron methyl a 10 g p.c. ha-1; glyphosate a 108 g e.a. ha-1 + sulfometuron-methyl a 12 g p.c. ha-1; sulfometuron-methyl a 20 g p.c. ha-1; e a testemunha sem aplicação de maturadores. As análises de lignina e celulose foram realizadas pelo método lignina em detergente ácido modificado. O glyphosate e o sulfometuron-methyl alteraram os níveis de lignina no momento da colheita, e esse efeito foi observado também durante o crescimento da cana-de-açúcar (meses após a aplicação desses produtos. O glyphosate a 72 g e.a. ha-1 promoveu reduções nos teores de lignina, na colheita e durante o crescimento da cana-de-açúcar, quando comparados com os da testemunha, enquanto o sulfometuron-methyl isolado na menor dose (10 g ha-1 promoveu aumento nos teores desse biopolímero na soqueira da cana-de-açúcar.The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of lignin and cellulose in sugarcane after application of ripeners. The experiment was carried out in a sugarcane ratoon area, variety SP803280 in Igaraçu Tietê, São Paulo, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. The treatments consisted of application of two ripeners: sulfometuron methyl (Curavial and glyphosate (Roundup Original. The doses used were: glyphosate 200 mL pc ha-1; glyphosate at 400 mL p.c. ha-1, glyphosate at 200 mL p.c. ha-1 plus sulfometuron methyl at 10 g p.c. ha-1; glyphosate at 150 mL p.c. ha-1 plus sulfometuron methyl at 12 g p.c. ha-1; sulfometuron methyl at 20 g p.c. ha-1 and the untreated control without ripener application. Lignin and cellulose analyses were made using acid detergent lignin modified. Glyphosate and sulfometuron methyl altered lignin levels at harvest and during sugarcane growth (months after application of the products. In general, glyphosate at 200 mL ha-1 promoted reductions in lignin compared to the control, while sulfometuron methyl isolated at a dose of 10 g ha-1 promoted an increase in the levels of this compound in sugarcane.

  10. 嗜热链球菌产乙醛关键功能基因在发酵乳后熟期动态表达分析%Dynamic expression analysis of key functional gene of acetaldehyde production of Streptococcus thermophilus in after-ripening period of yogurt

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    乌仁图雅; 于洁; 王宏梅; 秦艳婷; 德亮亮; 刘文俊; 张和平; 孟和毕力格


    研究3株具有不同产乙醛特性的嗜热链球菌,在发酵牛乳后熟期(贮藏初期0~48 h)内,采用乙醛试剂盒测定发酵乳乙醛含量,并选取嗜热链球菌中与乙醛形成相关的功能基因pdc(Pyruvate decarboxylase)、ald(Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase)、pfl(Pyruvate formate-lyase)及lld(Lactate dehydrogenase)进行q-PCR定量分析;结合发酵乳乙醛含量的表型数据,阐明这些基因对发酵乳乙醛含量的影响.结果表明,3株嗜热链球菌中pdc、ald及pfl基因表达量随着乙醛含量的增加而升高,促进发酵乳乙醛生成;而lld基因在不同菌株中有明显的表达差异,为高、中产乙醛菌株提供了乙醛的生成前体物丙酮酸,而低产乙醛菌株中,将大量丙酮酸催化生成了乳酸,从而使得发酵乳乙醛含量较低.

  11. Integrated analysis of seed proteome and mRNA oxidation reveals distinct post-transcriptional features regulating dormancy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Rampitsch, Christof; Chitnis, Vijaya R; Humphreys, Gavin D; Jordan, Mark C; Ayele, Belay T


    Wheat seeds can be released from a dormant state by after-ripening; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still mostly unknown. We previously identified transcriptional programmes involved in the regulation of after-ripening-mediated seed dormancy decay in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, we show that seed dormancy maintenance and its release by dry after-ripening in wheat is associated with oxidative modification of distinct seed-stored mRNAs that mainly correspond to oxidative phosphorylation, ribosome biogenesis, nutrient reservoir and α-amylase inhibitor activities, suggesting the significance of post-transcriptional repression of these biological processes in regulating seed dormancy. We further show that after-ripening induced seed dormancy release in wheat is mediated by differential expression of specific proteins in both dry and hydrated states, including those involved in proteolysis, cellular signalling, translation and energy metabolism. Among the genes corresponding to these proteins, the expression of those encoding α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor and starch synthase appears to be regulated by mRNA oxidation. Co-expression analysis of the probesets differentially expressed and oxidized during dry after-ripening along with those corresponding to proteins differentially regulated between dormant and after-ripened seeds produced three co-expressed gene clusters containing more candidate genes potentially involved in the regulation of seed dormancy in wheat. Two of the three clusters are enriched with elements that are either abscisic acid (ABA) responsive or recognized by ABA-regulated transcription factors, indicating the association between wheat seed dormancy and ABA sensitivity.

  12. Dormancy release and germination of Echinochloa crus-galli grains in relation to galactomannan-hydrolysing enzyme activity

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    SONG Bing-yan; SHI Jin-xiao; SONG Song-quan


    Echinochloa crus-gal i, one of the world’s most serious weeds, inlfuences seriously the yield and quality of cereal crop plant. It is wel known that E. crus-gal i grain is dormant, but its dormant type, as wel as its dormancy release and germination in relation to galactomannan-hydrolysing enzyme activity were poorly understood. The cooperation of endo-β-mannanase (EC,β-mannosidase (EC andα-galactosidase (EC can hydrolyze the cel wal s rich in mannan-based polymers. In the present paper, the mature grains are used as experimental materials, we investigated the water uptake of grains, the effect of removing partial endosperm, after-ripening, stratiifcation and phytohormone on grain germination, and the change in endo-β-mannanase,β-mannosidase andα-galactosidase activities of grains during after-ripening and germination. The results showed that the freshly-col ected grains were water-permeable and had only phase I and II of water uptake, while the grains after-ripened for 150 d had an obvious phase III of water uptake. In alternating photoperiod, the germination of grains freshly-col ected was zero at 10–35°C, and that of half grains was 11%at 20°C only. The grain germination was notably promoted by after-ripening and stratiifcation, but not by gibberel ic acid and 6-benzyladenine at 0.0001–1 mmol L–1. β-Mannosidase activity increased during 0 to 300 d of after-ripening and then decreased. The activity of endo-β-mannanase andα-galactosidase of grains decreased with after-ripening. During grain germination, endo-β-man-nanase andβ-mannosidase activities obviously increased, whileα-galactosidase activity decreased. Our data showed that E. crus-gal i grain was a deep physiological dormant, the dormancy release by after-ripening was related to an increasingβ-mannosidase activity, and its germination was closely associated with an increasing endo-β-mannanase andβ-mannosi-dase activity;which have provided new knowledge

  13. Influence of atmospheric oxygen and ozone on ripening indices of normal (Rin) and ripening inhibited (rin) tomato cultivars

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    Maguire, Y.P.; Solberg, M.; Haard, N.F.


    Ethylene (10 ppm) dependent mediation of normal and mutant (rin) tomato fruit ripening was promoted by 100% oxygen, 3.7 pphm ozone, or their combination. All ripening indices studied (respiration, chlorophyll degradation, carotenoid accumulation, softening, and aroma development) were promoted by oxygen and/or ozone. Ozone also acted independent of ethylene in promoting chlorophyll degradation and aroma development in normal fruit, but did not appreciably affect these quality attributes in mutant fruit. Lycopene accumulation in normal and mutant fruit and aroma formation in normal fruit were promoted to a greater extent by ozone than were other ripening indices. Mutant (rin) fruit contained 27% of the lycopene that was present in normal (Rin) fruit after ripening in O/sub 2/ containing 10ppm ethylene and 3.7 pphm ozone, whereas they contained only 3% of the lycopene in normal fruit after ripening in air containing 10ppm ethylene.





    Desmanthus is a genus of forage legumes with potential to improve pastures and livestock produc-tion on clay soils of dry tropical and subtropical regions such as the existing in Brazil and Australia. Despite this patterns of natural or enforced after-ripening of Desmanthus seeds have not been well established. Four year old seed banks of nine Desmanthus genotypes at James Cook University were accessed for their patterns of seed softe-ning in response to a range of temperatures. Persistent se...

  15. The sirac - contribution to the technology knowledge, composition and quality

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    Sonja Bijelac


    Full Text Available The Sirac is traditional cheese of Bosnia and Herzegovina, produced in the area of Tomislavgrad town. The taste is mild and moderately salty. It is consumed fresh, immediately upon production, or matured, after ripening. The technology is specific and according to that the Sirac can be classified as acid coagulated cheese. Milk proteins are coagulated by use of high temperature and acidity without adding of rennet. The aim of the work was to investigate traditional technology of the Sirac in small village households and to establish an optimal technology in order to apply it to industrial production. For this purpose, a ten tries in laboratory condition were done. The chemical composition of cheese milk, whey, fresh and ripened cheese was determined. During experiments all steps in technological process were followed. Special attention was paid to temperature and acidity of milk coagulation, draining of whey and pressing. Cheese was sensory evaluated after ripening period. The sensorial quality was good. Average score for all ten cheeses was 18.3 points and 5 samples were classified as extra and 5 as 1st class. The yield ranged from 12.25 to 17.76 % and showed that distribution of components to cheese was high. The analyses of whey confirmed this finding.

  16. Roles for blue light, jasmonate and nitric oxide in the regulation of dormancy and germination in wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.). (United States)

    Jacobsen, John V; Barrero, Jose M; Hughes, Trijntje; Julkowska, Magdalena; Taylor, Jennifer M; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank


    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in seed dormancy and transcriptional regulation of genes coding for ABA biosynthetic and degradation enzymes is responsible for control of ABA content. However, little is known about signalling both before and after ABA regulation, in particular, how environmental signals are perceived and transduced. We are interested in these processes in cereal grains, particularly in relation to the development of strategies for controlling pre-harvest sprouting in barley and wheat. Our previous studies have indicated possible components of dormancy control and here we present evidence that blue light, nitric oxide (NO) and jasmonate are major controlling elements in wheat grain. Using microarray and pharmacological studies, we have found that blue light inhibits germination in dormant grain and that methyl jasmonate (MJ) and NO counteract this effect by reducing dormancy. We also present evidence that NO and jasmonate play roles in dormancy control in vivo. ABA was reduced by MJ and this was accompanied by reduced levels of expression of TaNCED1 and increased expression of TaABA8'OH-1 compared with dormant grain. Similar changes were caused by after-ripening. Analysis of global gene expression showed that although jasmonate and after-ripening caused important changes in gene expression, the changes were very different. While breaking dormancy, MJ had only a small number of target genes including gene(s) encoding beta-glucosidase. Our evidence indicates that NO and MJ act interdependently in controlling reduction of ABA and thus the demise of dormancy.

  17. Fatty acid profile, color and lipid oxidation of organic fermented sausage during chilling storage as influenced by acid whey and probiotic strains addition

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    Karolina Maria Wójciak


    Full Text Available Organic fermented sausages typically spoil during long-term storage due to oxidative rancidity. The application of natural antioxidants to meat stuffing is a major practice intended to inhibit the oxidation process and color changes. This study aimed to assess the effect of two unusual starter cultures: three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0900, Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0908 and Lactobacillus paracasei LOCK 0919 and lactic acid bacteria from acid whey on model fermented sausage type products focusing on oxidative stability by measuring instrumental color (L*, a*, b* values, conjugated dienes (CD, TBARS immediately after 21 days of ripening (0 and after 90 and 180 days of refrigerated storage (4 ºC. Determination of fatty acid composition, in meat product was performed after ripening and after 180 days of storage. At the end of the storage period, the salted sausages were characterized by the same content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA compared to cured samples. The addition of acid whey and a mixture of probiotic strains to nitrite-free sausage formulation was barely able to protect lipids against oxidation in comparison to nitrite during vacuum storage. Surprisingly, the use of acid whey has an influence on the desired red-pinkish color of organic fermented sausage after ripening and after 180 days of storage period.

  18. Morpho-colorimetric analysis and seed germination of Brassica insularis Moris (Brassicaceae) populations. (United States)

    Santo, A; Mattana, E; Grillo, O; Bacchetta, G


    Brassica insularis is a perennial plant growing on both coastal and inland cliffs. Three seed lots from Sardinia were analysed using an image analysis system to detect differences in seed morphology, both within and among populations. Germination requirements at constant (5-25 °C) and alternating temperatures (25/10 °C), both in light and in darkness, were evaluated for all populations. In addition, the effect of a dry after-ripening period (90 days at 25 °C) was also investigated. Morpho-colorimetric analysis clearly identified seeds from different populations and discriminated three chromatic categories for seeds belonging to the Isola dei Cavoli coastal population, but not for the inland Masùa and the coastal Planu Sartu. Inter-population variability was also observed in germination behaviour. B. insularis seeds germinated, with percentages up to 60%, in a wide range of temperatures (5-25 °C), and neither light nor dry after-ripening affected final germination percentages. Moisture content measurements were made for seeds of each colour, but there were no particular differences among colours. Inter-populational variability in germination behaviour may be a survival strategy for species growing under unpredictable environmental conditions, such as under Mediterranean climate, while heteromorphy may be due to independent evolutionary divergence processes of the Isola dei Cavoli population.

  19. Analysis on peptides characterization of cheese fermented of Lactobacillus acidophilus during ripen process%嗜酸乳杆菌发酵干酪成熟过程中蛋白质降解产生的肽类的性质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞香; 袁峥; 葛晓虹; 牛生洋; 段改丽; 赵丽丽


    Functional low- and full-fat cheeses were fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus. After ripening for 90d at 4℃ ,the degrees of protein degradation had been analyzed in this experiment. Electrophoretic analysis showed that the two mentioned low- and full-fat cheeses,after ripened, were degraded more sufficiently than those sold in the market. What's more,the degree of protein degradation of low-fat cheese was deeper than that of full-fat cheese,and the degradation content of the former also was more. Peptides RP-HPLC map of cheese indicated that,after ripened,there were still protein substances,as the same in milk,existed in low- and full-fat cheeses. However,degradation occurred in some of the protein and new peptides were produced. In addition,peptide components produced by low- and full-fat cheeses were different.%摘要:对嗜酸乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌发酵生产的具有功能性的低脂和全脂干酪4℃成熟90d时蛋白质的降解程度进行了研究。通过电泳分析表明,两种干酪成熟后蛋白质的降解程度比市售的普通低脂和全脂干酪要充分,且低脂干酪比全脂干酪蛋白降解程度要深,降解物含量要多;反相高效液相色谱(RP—HPLC)显示的干酪中肽图谱表明,成熟后,虽然低脂干酪和全脂干酪中仍然存在和牛奶中相同的蛋白物质,但部分发生了降解并产生了新的肽类,且两种干酪所生成的肽组分各不相同。

  20. Uptake of (2-/sup 14/C)abscisic acid and distribution of /sup 14/C in apple embryos

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    Barthe, P.; Bulard, C.


    Pyrus malus L. var. Golden delicious embryos were incubated with (+-)-(2-/sup 14/C) abscisic acid (ABA). After incubations of various durations, the radioactivity was measured in whole embryos, cotyledons, and embryonic axes. With either 48-h or 16-d incubation periods, the uptake of (/sup 14/C) ABA depended upon the mode of culture used. The lowest values corresponded to the absorption by the embryonic axis, the highest to the absorption by the distal parts of the two cotyledons. The cotyledons accumulated the main part of the radioactivity under all conditions. Dormant and almost completely after-ripened embryos cultivated for 4 d showed no significant differences in the radioactivity uptake for identical modes of culture. There was a linear relationship between exogenous ABA concentrations (0.5 to 3.10/sup -5/ M) and ABA uptake for embryos cultivated for 4 d with the distal parts of the cotyledons immersed in the medium.

  1. The role of lipases in the removal of dormancy in apple seeds. (United States)

    Zarska-Maciejewska, B; St Lewak


    It was found that the temperature optimum for apple (Malus domestica Borb.) seed acid lipase is the same as that for seed after-ripening process. The activity of the enzyme occurs between the 40th and 70th days of stratification, whereas the activity of alkaline lipase very low at that time appears about 20 days later. The changes of both enzyme activities were also studied during dark and light culture of embryos isolated from seeds after different times of stratification. Only the alkaline enzyme activity is under the control of light. It was concluded that essentially the same process, i.e. the hydrolysis of reserve fats is catalysed by two different enzymes: acid lipase acting during the cold-mediated breaking of embryo dormancy and alkaline lipase acting during the germination of dormant embryos, thus being under light control.

  2. The effect of low-dose gamma irradiation and temperature on the microbiological and chemical changes during ripening of Cheddar cheese (United States)

    Seisa, Dipuo; Osthoff, G.; Hugo, C.; Hugo, A.; Bothma, C.; Van der Merwe, J.


    The effect of 4 kGy ionisation irradiation, combined with ripening temperatures at 8°C and 16°C on the ripening of Cheddar cheese was investigated. Changes in cheeses were monitored by sensory, microbiological, and chemical analyses. Sensorically, no cheese was preferred above the other. At 16°C ripening, irradiation affected the bacterial groups, but not the psychrotrophs. The free fatty acid content of the cheeses was not affected by irradiation, but higher thiobarbituric acid-values were observed after ripening at 16°C, as well as higher water-soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen. Differences in proteolysis products were detected by urea-page and RP-HPLC.

  3. Field studies on the regulation of abscisic acid content and germinability during grain development of barley: molecular and chemical analysis of pre-harvest sprouting. (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Honda, Ichiro; Shinoda, Shoko; Kushiro, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Yuji; Nambara, Eiji; Kawakami, Naoto; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki


    To investigate whether the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) content was related to germinability during grain development, two cDNAs for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (HvNCED1 and HvNCED2) and one cDNA for ABA 8'-hydroxylase (HvCYP707A1), which are enzymes thought to catalyse key regulatory steps in ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, respectively, were cloned from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Expression and ABA-quantification analysis in embryo revealed that HvNCED2 is responsible for a significant increase in ABA levels during the early to middle stages of grain development, and HvCYP707A1 is responsible for a rapid decrease in ABA level thereafter. The change in the embryonic ABA content of imbibing grains following dormancy release is likely to reflect changes in the expression patterns of HvNCEDs and HvCYP707A1. A major change between dormant and after-ripened grains occurred in HvCYP707A1; the increased expression of HvCYP707A1 in response to imbibition, followed by a rapid ABA decrease and a high germination percentage, was observed in the after-ripened grains, but not in the dormant grains. Under field conditions, HvNCED2 showed the same expression level and pattern during grain development in 2002, 2003, and 2004, indicating that HvNCED2 expression is regulated in a growth-dependent manner in the grains. By contrast, HvNCED1 and HvCYP707A1 showed a different expression pattern in each year, indicating that the expression of these genes is affected by environmental conditions during grain development. The varied expression levels of these genes during grain development and imbibition, which would have effects on the activity of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, might be reflected, in part, in the germinability in field-grown barley.

  4. Study on Seed Germination Experiment of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus, Seem.%短梗五加种子催芽试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董立国; 董作梅


    [Objective] The aim was to study the seed sprouting of Acanthopanax sentieosus and improve the emergence rate in next year. This could solve the difficulties in breeding and irregular emergence of seedling. [Method] The temperature-accelerated stratification and seed soaking with 4 different concentrations Gibberellin were taken in the experiment. [Result]The best embryo rate with 100 mg/mL Gibberellin was the best (91.4%). And the 100 mg/mL Gibberellin could accelerate the transformation of soluble sugar, protein and decrease the content of starch. [Conclusion] The embryo must undergo two different stages of morphological after-ripening and physiological after-ripening and break the inhibition substance.With these measures, be reached. seed collecting and seedling in next spring colud be reached.%[目的]对短梗五加进行种子催芽试验,解决短梗五加种子繁育困难、当年出苗不齐等问题,提高翌春播种出苗率。[方法]采取变温层积加赤霉素浸种处理,人工控制变温层积,以4种不同浓度的赤霉素浸种。[结果]以100mg/L的赤霉素处理的胚率最佳,发芽率达91.4%,100mg/L的赤霉素可加速可溶性糖和可溶性蛋白的转化,降低种子淀粉的含量。[结论]种胚必须经过形态后熟和生理后熟2个不同阶段,种子内的抑制物质通过人为处理来打破,可以实现当年采种,次年春天播种育苗的生产需要。

  5. Metabolically active glucosides in oleaceae seeds: I. The effects of germination, growth, and hormone treatments. (United States)

    Sondheimer, E; Blank, G E; Galson, E C; Sheets, F M


    The seeds of six woody species of Oleaceae representing three genera, contain high concentrations of water-soluble glucosides, with major absorption maxima below 240 nanometers. In Fraxinus americana seeds three of these compounds, designated GL-3, GL-5, and GL-6, account for almost 10% of the dry weight. They are found in the endosperm and embryo but not in the pericarp. While the level of GL-5 is not particularly influenced by the physiological state of the embryo, that of GL-3 and GL-6 decreases as a result of germination and growth during a 10-day period. As the concentrations of GL-3 and GL-6 decrease, new ultraviolet-absorbing compounds are formed. The changes in the concentration of the ultraviolet-absorbing glucosides during cold temperature after-ripening, prior to germination, are small. When germination of dormant embryos is induced with gibberellic acid, the concentrations of GL-3 and GL-6 decrease in a manner similar to that observed with nondormant embryos. In the presence of abscisic acid no losses of GL-3 and GL-6 were observed. It is suggested that GL-3 and GL-6 fulfill some definite functions in the germination and growth of F. americana embryos, and that gibberellic acid and abscisic acid can exert a regulatory effect on the metabolism of these glucosides.

  6. 东北铁线莲种胚后熟过程中内源激素动态变化%Morphological Development of Seed Embryo in Its Post-ripening and Dynamic Changes of Endogenesis Hormone in Clematis Mandshurica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许世泉; 王振兴; 邵财; 王志清; 逄世峰; 张瑞


    用植物激素的酶联免疫吸附测定法(ELISA)测定不同时期东北铁线莲种子内源激素IAA、ABA、GA、ZR的动态变化.结果表明:低温层积初期东北铁线莲种子ABA的含量呈较明显的下降趋势;进人生理后熟期以后,GA、ZR的含量持续升高,抑制萌发物质减少及促萌物质的增加与积累,最终导致东北铁线莲种胚休眠的解除.%To investigate dynamic changes of endogenesis hormone IAA, ABA, GA, ZR in its post-ripening by ELISA in the seed embryo post-ripening. At early stage of low temperature lamination, the ABA content of the seeds was on a declining curve and quite evident. The GA, ZR content persistently increased after physiology after-ripening. The reduction of inhibitory substances, and increment and accumulation of promoting germination substances led to dormancy-release of seed embryo.

  7. Germination and Dormancy in Annual Halophyte Juncus ranarius Song & Perr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The effects of cold stratification and gibberellic acid (GA3 on dormancy breaking for seeds of the annual halophyte species Juncus ranarius were tested. Germination percentage and recovery responses of salt stressed seeds were also tested. Freshly collected seeds germinated slowly under all incubation conditions. Thus, the seeds of J. ranarius have physiological dormancy, e.g. they are water permeable, have a fully developed embryo and require cold stratification to come out of dormancy. Furthermore, promotion of germination by GA3 after-ripening in dry storage also indicated that these seeds have non-deep physiological dormancy. In general, the higher the GA3 concentration, the more germination occurred within the studied range. Juncus ranarius demonstrated a germination preference for light. The highest germination percentage and rate of germination were recorded under constant light conditions at 22 °C after 24 weeks of cold stratification. In saline solutions, the highest percentage of germination was obtained at 25 mM L-1 NaCl, and further increase in salinity resulted in a gradual decrease in germination. However, ungerminated seeds were not damaged by salt, showing a high level of recovery. The greater the reduction in salinity, the better the germination rate became. It was concluded that dormancy could be completely broken by cold stratification, indicating spring germination. Juncus ranarius can grow well at lower NaCl concentrations under constant light conditions at 22 °C.

  8. Analisis Perubahan Kualitas Pascapanen Pepaya Varietas IPB 9 pada Umur Petik yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Arifiya


    Full Text Available Papaya is generally harvested at condition of hard green mature. The maturity level depends on the market destination. Understanding the maturity level and its postharvest quality changes of papaya during storage is important in order to determine the market destination. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different picking date on the postharvest quality and shelf life of papaya cv. IPB9 during storage period. Sample of papaya fruits were harvested at 135, 131, 128, 121 and 114 days after anthesis. After harvesting, papaya fruits were ripened artificially by injecting 50ppm of ethylene during 24hand then were placed in the room temperature. The results showed that picking date of 128 has the highest starch content. After ripening, this papaya fruit has soluble solid content (SSC of 6.7°Brix. For those papaya fruits with picking date of 135 and 131 have SSC of 8.3°Brix dan 7.5°Brix at four days storage. Papaya fruit with picking days of 128 has the longest shelf life until six days. The shortest shelf life was papaya fruits with picking date of 131 and 135 until four days. These picking date of 114 and 121 showed the lowest SSC. It could be concluded that for papaya fruit cv IPB9, the picking date of 128 was the most suitable for long distance market.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the levels of carbohydrates and phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity in the pulp and peel of 15 banana cultivars in two ripening stages. Four bunches per cultivar were harvested in the pre-climacteric stage, six fruits were used by sample unit. Fruits were analyzed in the pre-climacteric stage and after ripening. Total, reducing and non-reducing soluble sugars, starch, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Cultivar and ripening stage influenced all characteristics analyzed. Unripe pulp and peel had small percentage of sugar, but high percentage of starch, especially ‘Terrinha’ and ‘Marmelo’ cultivars. AAB and ABB cultivars presented the highest percentages of starch, when compared to AA and AAA cultivars. For the phenolic compounds, the highest content was observed in ripe peel, followed by ripe pulp and unripe peel and pulp, highlighting ‘Terrinha’ cultivar in all parts and stages evaluated. The antioxidant potential was higher in ripe peel, followed by unripe peel, ripe and unripe pulp. Fruits of Terrinha, Marmelo, Maçã, Ouro and Caru-Verde cultivars showed the highest carbohydrate contents, and phenolic compounds or antioxidant activity, justifying future actions in the expansion of planting and consumption of these fruits.

  10. Rodlet Cells in the Head and Trunk Kidney of the Domestic Carp (Cyprinus carpio): Enigmatic Gland Cells or Coccidian Parasites? (United States)

    Fishelson, Lev; Becker, Klaus

    Rodlet cells have been found in the head and trunk kidneys of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). From an experimental sample of 50 carps of various ages, we detected these cells in only seven fishes, contradicting the hypothesis that they constitute a normal component of the fish epithelia. The rodlet cells have a typical structure: 12-16μm in diameter, with a basal nucleus various in form, and an encasing layer of fibrillar structure. The cells contain rodlets, composed of elongated, opaque sacs featuring dark rods in the center, which strongly elongate in ripening cells. Remarkable pseudopodia-like extensions from the apical parts of the rodlet cells penetrate into the delicate blood vessels and sinusoids of the organs. The encasing layer at the cell apex then opens to release the rodlets into the bloodstream. No junctions were found between the rodlet cells and neighboring cells. It is suggested that these cells comprise some kind of "symbiosis" between leukocyte, possible granulocyte cells, and the parasitic rodlets. The cells serve the rodlets as an incubation chamber, as well as a means of transportation into the bloodstream after ripening.

  11. Metabolism of the Fusarium Mycotoxins T-2 Toxin and HT-2 Toxin in Wheat. (United States)

    Nathanail, Alexis V; Varga, Elisabeth; Meng-Reiterer, Jacqueline; Bueschl, Christoph; Michlmayr, Herbert; Malachova, Alexandra; Fruhmann, Philipp; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Kimmo; Adam, Gerhard; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Berthiller, Franz


    To investigate the metabolic fate of HT-2 toxin (HT2) and T-2 toxin (T2) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), an untargeted metabolomics study utilizing stable isotopic labeling and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was performed. In total, 11 HT2 and 12 T2 derived in planta biotransformation products were annotated putatively. In addition to previously reported mono- and diglucosylated forms of HT2, evidence for the formation of HT2-malonyl-glucoside and feruloyl-T2, as well as acetylation and deacetylation products in wheat was obtained for the first time. To monitor the kinetics of metabolite formation, a time course experiment was conducted involving the Fusarium head blight susceptible variety Remus and the resistant cultivar CM-82036. Biotransformation reactions were observed already at the earliest tested time point (6 h after treatment), and formed metabolites showed different kinetic profiles. After ripening, less than 15% of the toxins added to the plants were determined to be unmetabolized.

  12. 菠萝蜜加工技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 易建勇; 刘璇; 吴昕烨; 钟耀广; 毕金峰


    菠萝蜜营养丰富,味道鲜美,常用作鲜食,但成熟的菠萝蜜后熟现象严重,不耐贮藏,菠萝蜜的商品价值下降较快,难以满足消费者的需求。加工利用是提高菠萝蜜经济效益的重要途径之一。综述菠萝蜜的加工利用现状,重点分析目前菠萝蜜常用的加工技术研究现状和发展趋势。%Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is a nutritional and delicious fruit that is widely consumed as a fresh fruit. However, the economic value of jackfruit decreases rapidly due to its strong after-ripening and perishable, and hardly to meet the demands of consumers. The processing and utilization of jackfruit are the effective ways to improve the economic benefit. This review presents an overview of processing status of jackfruit, as well as the researching situation of processing technology and development tendency.

  13. 核桃酸奶生产工艺条件的研究%Study on the Process Conditions of Walnut Yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Walnut syrup, milk, sugar as the main raw material, walnut yogurt can be made into nutritionol yogurt products through the deployment, sterilization, inoculation and fermentation process. Results showed that by adding 25% of the walnut paste and 8% sucrose in the milk, after heat sterilization at 95℃ for zomin, access to 4% of the lactic acid bacteria, culture for 4h at 42. 5℃, after-ripening for 12h at 4℃, high-quality walnut yogurt products could be get.%核桃酸奶是以核桃浆、牛奶、蔗糖为主要原料,通过调配、杀菌、接种及发酵等工艺制成的一种风味优良、营养丰富的酸奶制品。试验表明,在牛奶中加入25%的核桃浆、8%的蔗糖,经95℃、20min保温杀菌后,接入4%的乳酸菌,42.5℃培养4h,在4℃条件下后熟12h,即可得到优质的核桃酸奶制品。

  14. Differential Metabolic Rearrangements after Cold Storage Are Correlated with Chilling Injury Resistance of Peach Fruits (United States)

    Bustamante, Claudia A.; Monti, Laura L.; Gabilondo, Julieta; Scossa, Federico; Valentini, Gabriel; Budde, Claudio O.; Lara, María V.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Drincovich, María F.


    Reconfiguration of the metabolome is a key component involved in the acclimation to cold in plants; however, few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the overall metabolite changes after cold storage of fruits prior to consumption. Here, metabolite profiling of six peach varieties with differential susceptibility to develop mealiness, a chilling-injury (CI) symptom, was performed. According to metabolic content at harvest; after cold treatment; and after ripening, either following cold treatment or not; peach fruits clustered in distinct groups, depending on harvest-time, cold treatment, and ripening state. Both common and distinct metabolic responses among the six varieties were found; common changes including dramatic galactinol and raffinose rise; GABA, Asp, and Phe increase; and 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate decrease. Raffinose content after long cold treatment quantitatively correlated to the degree of mealiness resistance of the different peach varieties; and thus, raffinose emerges as a candidate biomarker of this CI disorder. Xylose increase after cold treatment was found only in the susceptible genotypes, indicating a particular cell wall reconfiguration of these varieties while being cold-stored. Overall, results indicate that peach fruit differential metabolic rearrangements due to cold treatment, rather than differential metabolic priming before cold, are better related with CI resistance. The plasticity of peach fruit metabolism renders it possible to induce a diverse metabolite array after cold, which is successful, in some genotypes, to avoid CI. PMID:27746802

  15. Bioactivity of water soluble extracts and some characteristics of white cheese during the ripening period as effected by packaging type and probiotic adjunct cultures. (United States)

    Erkaya, Tuba; Şengul, Mustafa


    In this study, the chemical composition, proteolysis and in vitro angiotensin-converting enzyme-(ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of white cheeses made using probiotic adjunct cultures (Bifidobacterium bifidum DSMZ 20456 and Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079) were investigated. The cheeses were ripened in a vacuum package or brine for 120 d at 4 °C. The cheese samples maintained the probiotic characteristics of the viable cells as >106 cfu/g even after ripening for 120 d. The proteolysis degrees in terms of water-soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen (WSN/TN), trichloroacetic acid-soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen (TCA-SN/TN) and phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen (PTA-SN/TN) values in the cheeses increased throughout the ripening. The highest levels of proteolysis were found in cheese made using Lb. acidophilus DSMZ 20079 and ripened in a vacuum package. ACE-inhibitory activity of the water soluble extracts (WSEs) of the cheeses increased significantly (P cheese characteristics investigated.

  16. Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese. (United States)

    Galinari, Éder; da Nóbrega, Juliana Escarião; de Andrade, Nélio José; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia


    The artisanal Minas cheese is produced from raw cow's milk and wooden utensils were employed in its manufacture, which were replaced by other materials at the request of local laws. This substitution caused changes in the traditional characteristics of cheese. Due to the absence of scientific studies indicating the microbial composition of biofilms formed on wooden forms, tables and shelves used in these cheese production, the present work evaluated the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 32 °C, yeasts, presumptive mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. in these biofilms, milk, whey endogenous culture and ripened cheese in two traditional regions: Serro and Serra da Canastra. Also, we checked for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the ripened cheeses. The ultra structure of the biofilms was also assessed. Counts above legislation (> 2 log cfu/mL) for the pathogens evaluated were found in milk samples from both regions. Only one shelf and one form from Serro were above limits proposed (5 cfu/cm(2) for S. aureus and E. coli and 25 cfu/cm(2) for coliforms) in this study for contaminants evaluated. In Canastra, few utensils presented safe counting of pathogens. There was no Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the cheeses after ripening. Thus, the quality of the cheese is related to improving the microbiological quality of milk, implementation and maintenance of good manufacturing practices, correct cleaning of wooden utensils, and not its replacement.

  17. 红梨新品种'红月梨'%A New Red Pear Cultivar'Hongyue'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊才; 刘成; 王家珍; 蔡忠民; 沙守峰


    '红月梨'是由'红茄梨'和'苹果梨'杂交育成.果实圆锥形,平均单果质量245 g.表面红色,果皮薄.果肉白色,后熟后肉质细腻多汁,风味酸甜,微香,石细胞少,含可溶性固形物14.4%,总糖10.33%,可滴定酸0.34%,维生素C 0.0248 mg·g-1,品质优.在辽宁熊岳地区9月上旬成熟,早产,旱丰,优质,易栽培管理,抗病,抗寒.%‘Hongyue’ pear is bred by the cross ‘Red Clapp's’ × ‘Apple-pear’ . Fruit is conical and single fruit weigh is 245 g with red skin. Fruit skin is thin. Flesh is white and juicy after ripening. Flavor is sour-sweet with a little aroma, and less stone cell. The soluble solids content is 14.4%, total sugar conternt is 10.33%, titratable acid content is 0.34%, vitamin C content is 0.0248 mg· g-1. Fruit quality is high. It ripens in early September in Xiongyue, Liaoning. It is a variety with high and early productive, high quality, resistance to diseases and chilling.

  18. Differentially expressed genes associated with dormancy or germination of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. (United States)

    Toorop, Peter E; Barroco, Rosa Maria; Engler, Gilbert; Groot, Steven P C; Hilhorst, Henk W M


    Differential display analysis using dormant and non-dormant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh seeds resulted in a set of genes that were associated with either dormancy or germination. Expression of the germination-associated genes AtRPL36B and AtRPL27B, encoding two ribosomal proteins, was undetectable in the dry seed, low in dormant seed, and high under conditions that allowed completion of germination. Expression of these genes was also found to be light-regulated and to correlate with germination speed. Expression of the dormancy-associated genes ATS2 and ATS4, encoding a caleosin-like protein and a protein similar to a low-temperature-induced protein respectively, was high in the dry seed and decreased during germination. Expression of ATS2 and ATS4 was high in primary and secondary dormant seed but low in after-ripened or chilled seed. The expression of both genes was also light-regulated, but no relationship with temperature-dependent germination speed was found.

  19. Survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus during the Preparation of Soy Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Liu


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a new probiotic soy cheese on the basis of chinese sufu. The soy cheese was made from soymilk fermented with soy cheese bacterial starter cultures (DH1 and GH4 and L. rhamnosus 6013. After ripening, probiotic soy cheese sensory scores (standard SB/T 10170-93 were compared to the control. The changes in pH, bacterial growth and the survivability of the potential probiotic L. rhamnosus 6013 during fermentation and storage at 10 °C were examined. After 6 h of fermentation, L. rhamnosus 6013 was capable of growing in soymilk as high as 108–109 CFU/mL. After being stored for 30 days at 10 °C, slight decrease in pH and the viable counts of the strain was noticed. The viable counts of L. rhamnosus 6013, DH1 and GH4 were 107, 106 and 106 CFU/g, respectively, after storage for 30 days. The levels of stachyose, raffinose and sucrose in soy cheese were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could utilize the soybean oligosaccharides as carbon sources. In addition, 2–4 % of NaCl had little effect on the survivability of L. rhamnosus 6013. It indicated that L. rhamnosus 6013 could withstand the technological processing of soy cheese and had no negative effect on the fermentation and the sensory properties of the soy cheese.

  20. Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese (United States)

    Galinari, Éder; da Nóbrega, Juliana Escarião; de Andrade, Nélio José; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia


    The artisanal Minas cheese is produced from raw cow’s milk and wooden utensils were employed in its manufacture, which were replaced by other materials at the request of local laws. This substitution caused changes in the traditional characteristics of cheese. Due to the absence of scientific studies indicating the microbial composition of biofilms formed on wooden forms, tables and shelves used in these cheese production, the present work evaluated the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 32 °C, yeasts, presumptive mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. in these biofilms, milk, whey endogenous culture and ripened cheese in two traditional regions: Serro and Serra da Canastra. Also, we checked for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the ripened cheeses. The ultra structure of the biofilms was also assessed. Counts above legislation (> 2 log cfu/mL) for the pathogens evaluated were found in milk samples from both regions. Only one shelf and one form from Serro were above limits proposed (5 cfu/cm2 for S. aureus and E. coli and 25 cfu/cm2 for coliforms) in this study for contaminants evaluated. In Canastra, few utensils presented safe counting of pathogens. There was no Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the cheeses after ripening. Thus, the quality of the cheese is related to improving the microbiological quality of milk, implementation and maintenance of good manufacturing practices, correct cleaning of wooden utensils, and not its replacement. PMID:25242963

  1. Cholesterol-lowering and lipid oxidation reduction potentials of traditional seasonings in Salchichon dry-fermented sausages. (United States)

    Seong, Pil-Nam; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Ga-Young; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Yoon-Seok; Kang, Sun-Moon; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Park, Beom-Young; Van-Ba, Hoa


    Five different natural/traditional seasonings including doenjang (fermented soybean paste), gochu-jang (red pepper paste), fresh medium-hot and hot peppers, and garlic were used, and 1 % (w/w) each was incorporated into formulations of Salchichon fermented sausage type. After ripening for 51 days, the products were assessed for quality parameters, lipid oxidation, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics. In general, incorporation of the seasonings did not cause color or texture defects whereas it had beneficial effects on improvement of product's quality; however the effects differed depending on each type of seasonings added. Noticeably, most treatments with the seasonings significantly reduced the lipid oxidation. Additionally, incorporating doenjang, gochu-jang, medium-hot peppers, hot peppers and garlic resulted in reduction of 32.03, 28.96, 36.30, 19.53 and 33.03 mg cholesterol/100 g sample, corresponding to 26.78, 24.21, 30.35, 16.33 and 27.61 %, respectively. Higher scores for the sensory traits such as aroma, taste, color and acceptability were also observed for the samples with seasonings. The current work demonstrated that the tested seasonings represent potentially natural ingredients for producing healthier Salchichon fermented sausages.

  2. Desmanthus GENOTYPES

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    Full Text Available Desmanthus is a genus of forage legumes with potential to improve pastures and livestock produc-tion on clay soils of dry tropical and subtropical regions such as the existing in Brazil and Australia. Despite this patterns of natural or enforced after-ripening of Desmanthus seeds have not been well established. Four year old seed banks of nine Desmanthus genotypes at James Cook University were accessed for their patterns of seed softe-ning in response to a range of temperatures. Persistent seed banks were found to exist under all of the studied ge-notypes. The largest seeds banks were found in the genotypes CPI 78373 and CPI 78382 and the smallest in the genotypes CPI’s 37143, 67643, and 83563. An increase in the percentage of softened seeds was correlated with higher temperatures, in two patterns of response: in some accessions seeds were not significantly affected by tempe-ratures below 80º C; and in others, seeds become soft when temperature rose to as little as 60 ºC. At 80 °C the heat started to depress germination. High seed production of Desmanthus associated with dependence of seeds on eleva-ted temperatures to softening can be a very important strategy for plants to survive in dry tropical regions.

  3. Optimizing of the process conditions for the probiotic yogurt added with Lactobacillus casei%添加干酪乳杆菌的益生菌酸乳生产工艺条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    药璐; 闵伟红; 姜铁民; 陈历俊


    Using the probiotic yogurt added with Lactobacillus casei in place of the traditional yogurt only including Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, and determine the optimum process conditions of main factors such as strains inoculating proportion, inoculation amount,fermentation temperature and fermentation time by using single factor and orthogonal experiment. According to the changes of the pH and the acidity in the fermentation process and after ripening,and take the texture,the sensory score and the viable count of the probiotic yogurt into consideration, determined the optimum process conditions by the range analysis and variance analysis. The optimum process conditions were as follows: lactobacillus (Streptococcus thermophilus:Lactobacillus bulgaricus = 1:1):Lactobacillus casei=2:1, inoculation amount 3%, fermentation temperature 40℃,fermentation time 9h. In the optimum process conditions the sensory score of yogurt reached 93.65 points,and firmness,consistency,cohesiveness and viscosity were 138.975g,3448.022g·s,99.018g and 299.117g·s respectively, the acidity and viable count also reached 122°T and 3.13×1011cfu/mL after ripening 24h. It was showed that the optimum technological parameters were reliable, and it had practical significance.%以添加干酪乳杆菌的益生菌酸乳代替传统的保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌发酵的酸乳,采用单因素和正交实验设计,对影响酸乳生产工艺的菌种配比、接种量、发酵温度及发酵时间等主要因素进行了优化组合实验,以发酵过程中及后熟24h后的pH、酸度变化,并结合后熟酸乳的质构测定、感官评分和活菌数为综合指标,通过极差分析和方差分析,确定最佳生产工艺条件.本实验最终确定的最佳生产工艺条件为:乳酸菌(嗜热链球菌:保加利亚乳杆菌=1∶1)∶干酪乳杆菌=2∶1,接种量3%,发酵温度40℃,发酵时间为9h,在此生产条件下得到酸乳的感官评分为93

  4. Breeding of new red pear cultivar Hongyue%红色梨新品种——红月梨的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊才; 刘成; 王家珍; 蔡忠民; 沙守峰


    红月梨是由红茄梨和苹果梨杂交育成。果实圆锥形,平均单果质量245g。表面红色,果皮薄。果肉白色,后熟后肉质细腻多汁,风味酸甜,微香,石细胞少;可溶性固形物14.4%,总糖103.3g·kg^-1,可滴定酸3.4g·L^-1,维生素C含量24.8mg·kg^-1,品质优。在辽宁熊岳地区9月上旬成熟,优质,抗病,抗寒。%Hongyue pear is bred by the cross Red Clapp's × apple-pear. Fruit is conical and single fruit weighs 245 g with red skin. Fruit skin is thin. Flesh is white and juicy after ripening. Flavor is sour-sweet with a little aroma and less stone cell. The soluble solid content is 14.4%, total sugar is 103.3 g·kg^-1, titratable acid content is 3.4 g· L^-l, Vitamin C is 24.8 mg· kg^-l. It ripens in early September in Xiongyue,Liaoning Province. It is a hardy variety with high quality, resistance to diseases.

  5. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Ross G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1, there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in ‘Royal Gala’ apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. Results PG1-suppressed ‘Royal Gala’ apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. Conclusions These findings confirm PG1’s role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  6. When should fig fruit produce volatiles? Pattern in a ripening process (United States)

    Borges, Renee M.; Ranganathan, Yuvaraj; Krishnan, Anusha; Ghara, Mahua; Pramanik, Gautam


    Ripe fruit need to signal their presence to attract dispersal agents. Plants may employ visual and/or olfactory sensory channels to signal the presence of ripe fruit. Visual signals of ripe fruit have been extensively investigated. However, the volatile signatures of ripe fruit that use olfactorily-oriented dispersers have been scarcely investigated. Moreover, as in flowers, where floral scents are produced at times when pollinators are active (diurnal versus nocturnal), whether plants can modulate the olfactory signal to produce fruit odours when dispersers are active in the diel cycle is completely unknown. We investigated day-night differences in fruit odours in two species of figs, Ficus racemosa and Ficus benghalensis. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. racemosa that are largely dispersed by bats and other mammals was dominated by fatty acid derivatives such as esters. In this species in which the ripe fig phase is very short, and where the figs drop off soon after ripening, there were no differences between day and night in fruit volatile signature. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. benghalensis that has a long ripening period, however, and that remain attached to the tree for extended periods when ripe, showed an increase in fatty acid derivatives such as esters and of benzenoids such as benzaldehyde at night when they are dispersed by bats, and an elevation of sesquiterpenes during the day when they are dispersed by birds. For the first time we provide data that suggest that the volatile signal produced by fruit can show diel differences based on the activity period of the dispersal agent.

  7. Research on Preparation Technology of Apple Vinegar Sauce%苹果醋酱制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾学东; 杨翰南; 张学明


    对苹果醋酱的制备工艺进行了研究.分析了影响苹果醋普载体苹果泥口感的三个因素:苹果皮渣破碎厚度、氽烫时间和高压蒸煮时间,确定苹果皮渣破碎厚度为0.5 mm,氽烫时间为7.5s,高压蒸煮时间为15 min;通过正交实验进行感官综合评定,确定出该产品的最佳配方:苹果醋6%,苹果泥60%,木糖醇10%;确定后熟时间为4h,保证苹果醋酱口感更加细腻.%The preparation process of apple vinegar sauce is studied.Analyze the three factors that influence the taste of apple mud,that are apple skin slag crushing thickness,blanching time and highpressure cooking time,determine that the apple skin slag crushing thickness is 0.5 mm,blanching time is 7.5 s,high-pressure cooking time is 15 min.Through the orthogonal experiments for sensory comprehensive evaluation to determine the best formula of the product:apple vinegar of 6%,apple mud of 60%,xylitol of 10% ;after ripening time is 4 h,under such conditions,the taste of apple vinegar sauce is more delicate.

  8. Research on Improving the Capacity of Bulk Curing Barn%提高密集烤房烤能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫华; 董世峰; 宋子峰; 邱军; 肖鹏; 牛柱峰; 杨宏伟; 刘洪杰


    为提高密集烤房产能,达到减工降本、提高烘烤质量、增加烟农效益的目标,对10座3层密集烤房进行了"3改4"处理。结果表明,改造后同等大小的烤房装烟容量同比提高23.5%,烤能比改造前提高30%,干烟成本由改造前的1.94元/kg降至1.76元/kg,节能效果较为可观。烘烤时间增加了24 h,有力地促进了烟叶的后熟,提高了烟叶的品质,单位产量虽略有下降,但上等烟及中上等烟的比例均有较大提高,产值比改造前提高3.8%。%To improve the capacity of bulk curing barn and baking quality, we turned three-floor into four-floor bulk curing barns, which could cut down the cost and energy consumption. The results showed that, the capacity was 23.5% higher than before, the weight of flue-cured tobacco of one barn was 30% heavier than before. In terms of energy consumption, the cost of dry tobacco fell from 1.94 yuan/kg to 1.76 yuan/kg. Baking time extended,which promoted tobacco after-ripening, and improved the quality of tobacco. Though the output was less than before, the proportion of upper class and the mid-upper class, tobacco increased, Interest increased by 3.8%.

  9. Elucidating the germination transcriptional program using small molecules. (United States)

    Bassel, George W; Fung, Pauline; Chow, Tsz-fung Freeman; Foong, Justin A; Provart, Nicholas J; Cutler, Sean R


    The transition from seed to seedling is mediated by germination, a complex process that starts with imbibition and completes with radicle emergence. To gain insight into the transcriptional program mediating germination, previous studies have compared the transcript profiles of dry, dormant, and germinating after-ripened Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. While informative, these approaches did not distinguish the transcriptional responses due to imbibition, shifts in metabolism, or breaking of dormancy from those triggered by the initiation of germination. In this study, three mechanistically distinct small molecules that inhibit Arabidopsis seed germination (methotrexate, 2, 4-dinitrophenol, and cycloheximide) were identified using a small-molecule screen and used to probe the germination transcriptome. Germination-responsive transcripts were defined as those with significantly altered transcript abundance across all inhibitory treatments with respect to control germinating seeds, using data from ATH1 microarrays. This analysis identified numerous germination regulators as germination responsive, including the DELLA proteins GAI, RGA, and RGL3, the abscisic acid-insensitive proteins ABI4, ABI5, ABI8, and FRY1, and the gibberellin receptor GID1A. To help visualize these and other publicly available seed microarray data, we designed a seed mRNA expression browser using the electronic Fluorescent Pictograph platform. An overall decrease in gene expression and a 5-fold greater number of transcripts identified as statistically down-regulated in drug-inhibited seeds point to a role for mRNA degradation or turnover during seed germination. The genes identified in our study as responsive to germination define potential uncharacterized regulators of this process and provide a refined transcriptional signature for germinating Arabidopsis seeds.

  10. 荞麦纳豆制作4艺研究%Study on Production Process of Buckwheat Natto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Natto has good health functions,but the variety is single.In order to enrich the varieties of natto,this study starts with the process and adds buckwheat as materials.The optimal production technology of natto is determined through single factor experiment and orthogonal test.The results are as follows:the soaked buckwheat and soybean that being broken into four pieces is mixed as 1∶4 at 121 ℃ for 40 min,the inoculation amount of seed liquid is 12%,being fermented for 21 h at 37 ℃. After ripening,the sensory score and physiochemical indexes of buckwheat natto are excellent.%纳豆具有很好的保健功能,但品种较单一。为丰富纳豆的品种,从纳豆的工艺入手,原料上添加了荞麦,通过单因素试验及正交试验,确定纳豆的最佳制作工艺。结果为浸泡后的荞麦和四瓣大豆1∶4混合,在121℃蒸煮40 min,晾凉后接种12%种子液,37℃发酵21 h,经后熟后制作出的荞麦纳豆感官评分和理化指标极佳。

  11. Genotyping of endosperms to determine seed dormancy genes regulating germination through embryonic, endospermic, or maternal tissues in rice. (United States)

    Gu, Xing-You; Zhang, Jinfeng; Ye, Heng; Zhang, Lihua; Feng, Jiuhuan


    Seed dormancy is imposed by one or more of the embryo, endosperm, and maternal tissues that belong to two generations and represent two ploidy levels. Many quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for seed dormancy as measured by gross effects on reduced germination rate or delayed germination in crop or model plants. This research developed an endosperm genotype-based genetic approach to determine specific tissues through which a mapped QTL regulates germination using rice as a model. This approach involves testing germination velocity for partially after-ripened seeds harvested from single plants heterozygous for a tested QTL and genotyping endosperms from individual germinated and nongerminated seeds with a codominant DNA marker located on the QTL peak region. Information collected about the QTL includes genotypic frequencies in germinated and/or nongerminated subpopulations; allelic frequency distributions during a germination period; endosperm or embryo genotypic differences in germination velocity; and genotypic frequencies for gametes involved in the double fertilization to form the sampled seeds. Using this approach, the seed dormancy loci SD12, SD1-2, and SD7-1 were determined to regulate germination through the embryo, endosperm, and maternal tissues, respectively; SD12 and SD1-2 acted additively on germination velocity in the offspring tissues; and SD12 also was associated with the preferential fertilization of male gametes in rice. This new genetic approach can be used to characterize mapped genes/QTL for tissue-specific functions in endospermic seeds and for marker-assisted selection of QTL alleles before or immediately after germination in crop breeding.

  12. 滇龙胆种子萌发特性研究%Seed germination characteristics of Gentiana rigescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨美权; 杨维泽; 赵振玲; 张霁; 张智慧; 金航; 张金渝


    Objective: To investigate the influences of temperature, lightness, storage method, storage time, and gibberellin on seed germination of Gentiana rigescens. Method: The germination rates of G. dge. scens in different treatments were observed. Resuit and Conclusion: The most suitable temperature for the seed germination was 25 ℃, at which the germination rate was 76.33%.The effect of lightness on the seeds was signifcanfiy; the germination rate of the seed was very low. Under the natural condition, the best storage method was cly storage (within 6 months), which could promote the after-ripening of the seed. 100-1 000 mg ~ L-1 gibberellic acid could significantly reduce the seed germination time, and 500 ng·L-1 gibberellic acid increased the germination rate of the seed to 95.00%.%目的:研究不同温度、不同光照、不同贮藏方式和贮藏时间以及不同赤霉素浓度处理对滇龙胆种子萌发的影响.方法:观测滇龙胆种子在不同处理条件下的发芽率.结果和结论:25℃为种子最适宜萌发温度,发芽率可达76.33%.光照对种子萌发影响显著,黑暗条件下种子发芽率极低.在自然条件下,干藏为种子最佳贮藏方式,可促进种子后熟作用,保持种子活力,但不能超过6个月.100~1000mg·L-1赤霉素处理可明显缩短滇龙胆种子萌发时间,其中500mg·L-1赤霉素处理可使种子发芽率提高至95.00%.

  13. 解除酸浆种子休眠方法的研究%Study on Breaking Dormancy of Physalis alkekengi varfranchetii Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶阳阳; 张晶晶; 王金玲; 陈典; 王勇


    采用针刺、层积、双氧水(H2O2)法、硝酸钾(KNO3)法和赤霉素(GA3)法对酸浆种子进行处理,研究不同处理对酸浆种子萌发的影响.结果表明:低温层积40天可有效地打破酸浆种子的休眠;赤霉素处理是打破酸浆种子休眠最为快速有效的方法,解除酸浆种子休眠的最佳浓度为0.08%;而针刺法、KNO3法和H2O2法对酸浆种子的解除休眠作用并不明显.说明酸浆种子休眠的主要原因是胚存在后熟作用,且种子内部可能存在萌发抑制物质,而种皮的机械束缚不是抑制酸浆种子萌发的原因.%Using acupuncture treatment, stratification treatment, H2O2 treatment. KNO3 treatment and GA3 treatment to process Physalis alkekengi var. Franchetii seeds, then compare influences of different treatment on germination of Physalis alkekengi var. Franchetii seeds. The results showed that: stratification for 40 days can break the dormancy of Physalis alkekengi var. Franchetii seeds effectively; GA3 treatment was the most rapid and effective method to break Physalis alkekengi var. Franchetii seeds dormancy, and the best concentration was 0.08%; whereas, acupuncture treatment, KNO3 treatment and H2O2 treatment had no obvious effect on breaking Physalis alkekengi var. Franchetii seeds dormancy, it turned out that the dormancy of Physalis alkekengi var. Franchetii seeds was mainly caused by the after-ripening of embryo and there maybe inhibitors in seeds, and the mechanical restraint of the seed coat wasn' t the important reason why there was a long dormancy period in Physalis alkekengi var. Franchetii seeds.

  14. Effects of supercritical fluid extraction pressure on chemical composition, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of goat cheese. (United States)

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Laubscher, A; Castro, N; Argüello, A; Jiménez-Flores, R


    The consumer trend for healthier food choices and preferences for low-fat products has increased the interest in low-fat cheese and nutraceutical dairy products. However, consumer preference is still for delicious food. Low- and reduced-fat cheeses are not completely accepted because of their unappealing properties compared with full-fat cheeses. The method reported here provides another option to the conventional cheese-making process to obtain lower fat cheese. Using CO(2) as a supercritical fluid offers an alternative to reduce fat in cheese after ripening, while maintaining the initial characteristics and flavor. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of pressure (10, 20, 30, and 40 × 10(6) Pa) of supercritical CO(2) on the amount of fat extracted, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of 2 varieties of goat cheese: Majorero, a protected denomination of origin cheese from Spain, and goat Gouda-type cheese. The amount of fat was reduced 50 to 57% and 48 to 55% for Majorero and goat Gouda-type cheeses, respectively. Higher contents (on a fat basis) of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine were found in Majorero cheese compared with control and goat Gouda-type cheeses. The microbial population was reduced after supercritical fluid extraction in both cheeses, and the lethality was higher as pressure increased in Majorero cheese, most noticeably on lactococcus and lactobacillus bacteria. The Gouda-type cheese did not contain any lactobacilli. Micrographs obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a more open matrix and whey pockets in the Majorero control cheese. This could explain the ease of extracting fat and reducing the microbial counts in this cheese after treatment with supercritical CO(2). Supercritical fluid extraction with CO(2) has great potential in the dairy industry and in commercial applications. The Majorero cheese obtained after the supercritical fluid extraction treatment was an excellent

  15. ClO2结合1-MCP处理对香蕉采后贮藏品质的影响%Effects of ClO2 and 1-MCP treatments on post-harvest storage quality of banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌宝; 李丽; 孙健; 游向荣; 李杰民; 何全光; 张娥珍


    [目的]探讨二氧化氯(ClO2)与1-甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)结合处理对香蕉贮藏品质的影响,为ClO2和1 -MCP在香蕉贮运保鲜上的应用提供参考依据.[方法]以“威廉斯”香蕉果实为对象,用200 μg/kg ClO2溶液浸泡3 min后,再经1μL/L 1-MCP处理12 h,然后分别进行室温贮藏[(25±0.5)℃]和冷藏[(13±0.5)℃],观测贮藏过程中香蕉品质的变化.[结果]无论在室温贮藏还是冷藏条件下,ClO2结合1-MCP处理均可有效减缓香蕉褪青和转黄,降低香蕉硬度下降速率及可滴定酸、可溶性总糖和还原糖的上升速率.[结论]ClO2合1-MCP处理可以显著延缓香蕉后熟,保持良好的贮运品质,是香蕉贮运过程中预防香蕉转黄,延缓后熟的有效措施.%[Objective]The experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of C1O2 and I-MCP treatment on post-harvest storage quality of bananas (variety Williams). [Method]The storage quality of bananas stored at (25±0.5)℃ and (13±0.5)℃ was observed after 3 min treatment with C1O2 (200 (μg/kg) and 12 h treatment with 1-MCP (1-methyl ring propylene) (1 μL/L). [Result]The results showed that the bananas treated with 1-MCP and C1O2 were significantly different from control. Combined application of CIO2 and 1-MCP effectively slowed down the color changes in banana from green to brown and significantly brought down decrease in hardness of banana and increasing rate of total soluble sugar, reducing sugar and soluble titrated acid. [Conclusion]C1O2, and 1-MCP treatments pronouncedly delayed banana after-ripening and maintained its good quality during post-harvest storage.

  16. Study on the Material of Blueberry Wine%蓝莓浸渍酒原料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊基胜; 吴林生; 张春龙; 王子迎


    Blueberry wine was produced by fresh blueben'ies and distilled spirits as original material, lemon and sugar as accessories. Blueberry was freezed and dipped at the room temperature, purificated, blended, after-ripened and then bottled. There is lots of factors influence the quality of blueberry wine, such as amount of blueberry, pretreatment of original material, raw liquor's alcohol degree and categories. The final plan of experiment was fixed by combined the above factors and comprehensive assessment of wine's sense, taste and nutrition function. The results show that the best method is adding 16%blueberries, blueberries were frozen before added to the 45% rice wine. 2% fresh lemon and 3% of the sugar was added to the raw liquor, dipping 30 d at the room temperature.%以新鲜的蓝莓浆果和大米酒为原料,新鲜的柠檬和冰糖为辅料,蓝莓冷冻、常温浸渍、过滤、勾兑、装瓶,生产蓝莓浸渍酒。通过蓝莓的添加量、原料的预处理、原料酒酒精度以及原料酒种类对蓝莓酒品质的影响试验,结合感官、口感及营养保健功能的综合评定,最终确定试验方案。试验结果表明蓝莓浸渍酒最佳用料为蓝莓添加量为16%左右,在原料添加前对蓝莓进行低温冷冻处理,选择酒精度为45°的大米酒,浸渍的过程中添加2%的新鲜柠檬和3%的冰糖,常温浸渍30d。

  17. Effects of 1-MCP and Its Structural Analogues Treatment on Post-harvest Storage of Tomato%1-MCP及其结构相似物处理对番茄采后贮藏效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付琳; 程顺昌; 魏宝东; 冷俊颖; 冯叙桥


    Effect of Treatments with 1-MCP and its Structural Analogues on Post-harvest Storage of Tomato was investigated.The effect of three cyclopropene compounds were used as ethylene action inhibitors on postharvest storage and senescence of tomato fruits.Green mature tomato fruits were treated with 1-MCP(1-methylcyclopropene),or its structural analogue 1-PentCP(1-pentylcyclopropene) or 1-OCP(1-octylcyclopropene) and stored at ambient temperature.Physiological and biochemical analyses related to fruit ripening and senescence were conducted every three days during fruit storage.The results indicate that treatment with 1-MCP or its structural analogues inhibited the respiration rate and ethylene production rate of tomato fruits,restrained the decline of fruit firmness remarkably,delayed the raise of soluble solid contents.The activity of POD and CAT in after-ripening stage fruits were inhibited effectively as well.Therefore,the ripening and softening of tomato fruits were postponed by treatment with the compounds.However,the effect decreased when the side chain changed from methyl to pentyl and to octyl.%为了研究环丙烯类乙烯抑制剂的作用效果,以绿熟期番茄为试材,用1-甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)、1-戊基环丙烯(1-PentCP)、1-辛基环丙烯(1-OCP)处理后,常温(18℃±2℃)贮藏,每隔3 d测定1次理化指标,研究三者对番茄果实后熟衰老和贮藏效果的影响。结果表明:1-MCP及其结构相似物处理番茄不同程度地降低了呼吸强度和乙烯释放量的峰值,抑制了番茄果实硬度的下降,延缓了可溶性固形物含量的上升,同时也有效抑制了后熟期番茄果实过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、过氧化物酶(POD)活性,延缓了果实的后熟衰老。3种试验的抑制剂中,1-MCP、1-PentCP和1-OCP处理随支链长度的增加,抑制后熟衰老的效果依次降低。

  18. 傣药倒心盾翅藤种子萌发特性初步研究%Preliminary Study on Seed Germination Characteristics of Dai Medicine Aspidopterys obcordata var.Obcordata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽霞; 牛迎凤; 李海涛; 彭朝忠; 管燕红


    目的:研究倒心盾翅藤种子的萌发特性.方法:测定倒心盾翅藤种子的形态、千粒重和含水量等指标,利用不同温度和光照、种子带翅或不带翅、不同成熟度、贮藏等处理对种子进行发芽试验,测定其发芽率、发芽势和发芽指数.结果:倒心盾翅藤种子发芽适温为25~ 35℃,其中30℃条件发芽率最高,光照或黑暗条件均可.果翅对种子的发芽率无显著影响,但会影响种子发芽速度和整齐度.不成熟种子采集后经过贮藏后熟,可显著提高发芽率.种子在室温条件下贮藏6个月,发芽率仍高达93.68%,但贮藏12个月后发芽率显著下降.结论:倒心盾翅藤种子属于高温萌发型、光中性种子;种子最适贮藏时间不超过1年.%Objective: To study seed Germination characteristics of Aspidopterys obcordata var. Obcordata. Method: The morphological characters, 1 000-grains weight and moisture content of A. Obcordata var. Obcordata seed were observed. And studied different temperature and light, seeds with or without wings, seed maturity and storage on the seed germination. Result: The optimal germination temperature of A. Obcordata var. Obcordata seeds was 25 t to 35 °C , and seed germination percentage reached a peak at 30 °C. Seeds could germinate no matter in light or dark. The fruit wings had no significant effect an seed germination percentage,but it showed significant effects on the germination energy and germination index. The germination percentages of immature seeds were evidently increased after a period of storage and after-ripening. The seed germination ratio was still as high as 93.68% after seeds were storied for 6 months at room temperature,but it dropped significantly after for 12 months. Conclusion: Aspidopterys obcordata var. Obcordata seeds belonged to the high-temperature-germinating and non-photoblastic type. The most suitable storing time for the seeds was less than 12 months.

  19. Promoting Maturation Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum SP-3 on Semi-hard Cheese and Influences on Its Flavor%植物乳杆菌SP-3对半硬质干酪的促熟作用及其对风味的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈帅; 陈卫; 赵建; 刘振民


    [ Objective ] Semi-hard cheese was manufactured with Lactobacillus plantarum SP-3 as adjunct culture. The effects of SP-3 on cheese ripening and flavor during ripening were studied. [ Method ] The constituents and microorganism of raw milk and semi- hard cheese were analyzed, water soluble nitrogen( WSN) , WSN in 12% trichloroacetic acid (12% TCA-SN) and total free amino acid content of semi-hard cheese during ripening were determined, and its electrophoretic analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out. [ Result ] Adding SP-3 had no significant effects on normal production process and indices for the manufacture of semi-hard cheeses. SP-3 concentration reached maximum (3.4 × 108 cfu/g) at ripening 60 days in the experimental cheese. SP-3 had positive effects on cheese ripening, and total free amino acids content in the experimental cheese had almost two more times higher than their corresponding controls after ripening 60 days. Sensory assessment and principal component analysis show that SP-3 makes contribution to flavor formation of cheese especially to the milk flavor and nutty flavor. [ Conclusion ] Lactobacillus plantarum SP-3 can promote maturation of semi-hard cheese and is in favour of formation of the milk flavor and nutty flavor of cheese.%[目的]以植物乳杆菌SP-3作为附属发酵剂应用于半硬质干酪的生产,研究SP-3对干酪成熟和风味的影响.[方法]分析原料乳和干酪的组成及微生物,测定干酪成熟过程中可溶性氮(WSN)、12%三氯乙酸溶液中可溶性氮(12%TCA-SN)和总游离氨基酸含量,并对于酪进行电泳分析和感官评价.[结果]添加植物乳杆菌SP-3对半硬质干酪的正常生产工艺和产品指标无显著影响;试验组干酪在成熟60d时,SP-3浓度达到最大值3.4×108cfu/g;SP-3对干酪的成熟具有促进作用,成熟60d后,添加SP-3组干酪的总游离氨基酸含量几乎是对照组的2倍;干酪产品感官评定及主成分分析

  20. 减压贮藏对番茄果实抗氧化物质和抗氧化酶的影响%Effect of hypobaric storage on antioxidant contents and antioxidant enzymes in tomato fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭润姿; 白阳; 郭文岚; 寇晓虹


    为了研究不同减压处理对番茄果实后熟过程中抗氧化性的影响,以粉冠番茄为材料,研究了在43.6、73.0kPa和常压三个压力条件下,番茄中维生素C、番茄红素和谷胱甘肽含量,以及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性变化规律.结果表明,减压贮藏显著推迟了番茄中维生素C含量的高峰,在一定程度上延迟了番茄红素和谷胱甘肽含量的高峰,并且压力越低效果越显著(p<0.05);在果实后熟过程中SOD、CAT活性逐渐下降,而减压处理可显著抑制SOD活性下降(p<0.05).POD活性在贮藏期间呈现先降后升的趋势,减压处理可以有效地保持较高的抗氧化酶活性.结论:减压处理贮藏可以显著保护番茄果实中的抗氧化物质和抗氧化酶活性,而且一定范围内压力越低效果越好.%In order to study effects of different hypobaric conditions(43.6,73.0,101.3kPa) on antioxidant capacity of tomato,the experiment mainly determined that the contents of vitamin C,lycopene,glutathione and the activity changes of superoxide dismutase(SOD),peroxidase(POD),catalase(CAT). The result showed that hypobaric storage significantly delayed the vitamin C peak of tomato fruit(p<0.05) and the peaks of lycopene and glutathione to some extent were delayed,the lower the pressure,the later of the peak appears. SOD and CAT activities in tomato declined during the storage period after-ripening,hypobaric conditions significantly inhibited the decline of SOD activity(p<0.05). The activity of POD firstly decreased and then increased during storage,hypobaric conditions could effectively maintain higher activities of antioxidant enzyme. In summary,the tomato storage quality and antioxidant activity in hypobaric conditions were better than in atmospheric pressure,and at a certain rang,the lower pressure,the better effect of the hypobaric storage.

  1. Alterações no metabolismo da cana-de-açúcar em função da aplicação de maturadores Response of sugarcane metabolism to ripener application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Meschede


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações nos níveis de ácido chiquímico e ácido salicílico em plantas de cana-de-açúcar submetidas à aplicação de maturadores. Aplicou-se glyphosate nas doses de 400 e 200 mL ha-1 e na dose de 150 mL ha-1 em mistura com sulfumeturon-methyl a 12 e 20 g ha-1 e sulfumeturon-methyl a 20 g ha-1. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 15 e 30 dias após a aplicação (DAA e aos 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a colheita da cana-de-açúcar. Os teores de ácido chiquímico e salicílico nas plantas de canade-açúcar foram determinados por cromatografia líquida e espectrometria de massas. Os resultados mostraram que as doses de glyphosate correlacionaram-se diretamente com as concentrações de ácido chiquímico na planta, sendo superiores à da testemunha. Aos 30 DAA, houve aumento na concentração de ácido salicílico em todos os tratamentos estudados, revelando um processo de senescência da planta. Maiores doses de glyphosate promoveram aumento na concentração de ácido chiquímico e ácido salicílico antes da colheita da canade-açúcar. No período de crescimento da planta, aumentos nos teores dos ácidos chiquímico e salicílico revelaram dependência da aplicação dos produtos e também dos fatores abióticos e bióticos a que a cultura foi exposta.The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of shikimic acid and salicylic acid in sugarcane plants after ripener application. Glyphosate was applied at the doses of 400 and 200 mL ha-1, with a dose of 150 mL ha-1 being mixed with sulfumeturon-methylat 12 and 20 g ha-1 and sulfumeturon-methyl at 20 g ha-1.Evaluations were performed at 15 and 30 days after application (DAA and at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days after sugarcane harvest. The shikimic acid and salicylic acid contents in sugarcane were determined by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results showed that the glyphosate doses were directly correlated with

  2. Morphology and intermittent germination characteristics of synaptospermy of Tribulus ter-rester%蒺藜集合繁殖体形态及间歇性萌发特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟雅冰; 李新蓉


    Aims Tribulus terrester is an annual plant commonly found in the suburb of Ürümqi, Xinjiang, China. One fruit of this species is composed of five synaptospermies. This study aims to explore the morphological traits and intermittent germination characteristics of synaptospermy and further investigate the adaptability of its seeds under changing enviroment. Methods Shape, color and appendage of synaptospermy, and the mass, length of burs, percentage of appendage mass, number of seeds per synaptospermy, were determined; and the vigor, water absorption and germination characteristics of synaptospermies matured at different month were compared in the laboratory. Important findings The synaptospermies became hardened after ripening, with scale-form appendages, and they are significantly different in mass, the percentage of mass of appendage, amount of seeds, vigor, water absorption rate, germination percentage and germination rate. The averages of vigor and germination percentage were in-creasing and the water absorption rate was decreasing following the order of maturing month in July, August and September. The average of vigor was positively correlated with the ripening time of fruit, as well as germination percentage, while the water absorption rate was negatively correlated with the ripening time of fruit. This suggests that the earlier the fruit ripening, the lower the vigor and germination rate and the higher the water absorption rate. Under the best germination conditions, all synaptospermies matured in September could germinate, whereas only some synaptospermies could germinate if matured in the other two months. Moreover, only those seeds located in the position of the long thorn of one synaptospermy could germinate. Part of the seeds could germinate in the season of ripening;the others retain in the dispersal unit and germinate after several weeks, months or years. This germination behavior was defined as intermittent germination. These results indicate that

  3. Ultrasound combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water treatment improves quality of immature strawberry%超声波结合弱酸性电位水处理改善商熟期草莓采后品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛枝; 刘东红; 丁甜; 徐玉亭; 钟建军


    respiratory peak appeared during storage. The TSS, TA, VC, and anthocyanin content appeared to be 10.93, 0.52%, 65.7 mg/100g, and 3.20 mg/100g immediately after harvest. In 14 storage days, anthocyanin content was gradually increased as 4.16 mg/100g, while TSS, TA, and VC content changed little for the control group. All the treatments increased the content of TSS, VC, and anthocyanin during storage. The TSS, VC, and anthocyanin levels in fruit treated by ultrasound and SAEW were 7.72%, 10.53%, and 19.28%higher, respectively, than that in the control fruit after 14 days of cold storage. It was also found that ultrasound inhibited the decrease of firmness, while SAEW had no impact on the firmness of strawberries. Overall, it was found that ultrasound and SAEW treatment could promote strawberry after-ripening during storage. Results showed that both ultrasound and SAEW have the potential to ensure the microbial safety and improve the quality of an immature strawberry during storage.%  为了进一步发展草莓贮运保鲜技术,以商熟期的草莓为原料,研究了超声波、弱酸性电位水(slightly acidic electrolyzed water,SAEW)处理对其表面微生物数目和相关品质参数的影响。结果发现:超声波、SAEW及二者结合处理10 min分别使草莓表面初始菌落总数降低了0.52、1.07、1.29 lgCFU/g,霉菌和酵母总数降低了0.30、0.93、1.18 lgCFU/g,且处理后的样品表面微生物始终维持在相对较低的水平。另外,3种处理均改变了草莓贮藏中的呼吸特性,使其出现了呼吸高峰;第14天,超声结合SAEW处理使草莓的可溶性固形物、VC及花青素的含量提高了7.72%、10.53%、19.28%,促使样品表现出一个后熟的过程。同时,试验还发现,超声波处理能抑制草莓硬度的下降,SAEW则对样品硬度无影响。研究结果表明:超声波和SAEW处理不仅能抑制草莓表面微生物的生长,还能调节其贮藏期生理代谢,改善贮藏期间的品质。

  4. 适宜机插株行距促进水稻生长提高产量%Suitable mechanical transplanting spacing promoting rice growth and increasing rice yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔思远; 曹光乔; 张文毅; 朱晓星


    In mechanical rice transplanting, hill-row spacing combination directly influenced the growth and yield of rice. To compare the effect of hill-row spacing on mechanical transplanting rice, the growth and yield of rice, we set up 2-year field experiments located in Zhangjiagang, Jingjiang and the Yellow Sea farm in Jiangsu Province, separately. The rice breed planted in Zhangjiagang, Jingjiang and the Yellow Sea farm was Wuyunjing 29, Wuyunjing24 and Lianjing 7, separately, all of which were japonica hybrid rice. There were 3 row-hill spacing treatments in—at each site, which the row spacing by hill spacing was 30 cm by 11 cm, 25 cm by 14 cm, 25 cm by 11 cm, each repeated 3 times. By the influence of the spacing, the area of 30 cm by 11 cm (row spacing by hill spacing), 25 cm by 14 cm (row spacing by hill spacing) and 25 cm by 11 cm (row spacing by hill spacing) was 135 m2, 150 m2 and 150 m2, separately. At the same site within each treatment, only the row-hill spacing differences were the mutation factors, the other factors were controlled. The effect of the mechanical transplanting rice, the tillering dynamics of rice, yield and yield composition of rice were tested. The effect of mechanical rice transplanting measured immediately after transplanting. 200 continuous points were taken in each area; the number of plants per hole, seedling injury and inverted were recorded to calculate the average number of plants per hole, drain planting rate, seedling injury rate and seedling inverted rate. To determine the tillering dynamic, the number of tillers was counted every 7 days from rice transplanting to the full panicle stage, 20 points for each plot were fixed. Actual yield of rice was determined after ripening. For each treatment, 3 m2 of rice were weighed after harvesting to calculate the actual yield, repeated 3 times. According to the average number of plants per hill, 3 hill plants were selected for testing, and then the yield component and the theoretical yield