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Sample records for after-heat

  1. After-heat removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwashige, Kengo; Otsuka, Masaya; Yokoyama, Iwao; Yamakawa, Masanori.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns an after-heat removing device for first reactors. A heat accumulation portion provided in a cooling channel of an after-heat removing device is disposed before a coil-like heat conduction pipe for cooling of the after-heat removing device. During normal reactor operation, the temperature in the heat accumulation portion is near the temperature of the high temperature plenum due to heat conduction and heat transfer from the high temperature plenum. When the reactor is shutdown and the after-heat removing device is started, coolants cooled in the air cooler start circulation. The coolants arriving at the heat accumulation portion deprive heat from the heat accumulation portion and, ion turn, increase their temperature and then reach the cooling coil. Subsequently, the heat calorie possessed in the heat accumulation portion is reduced and the after-heat removing device is started for the operation at a full power. This can reduce the thermal shocks applied to the cooling coil or structures in a reactor vessel upon starting the after-heat removing device. (I.N.)

  2. After-heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michiyoshi; Mitani, Shinji.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent contamination of suppression pool water and intrusion of corrosion products into a nuclear reactor. Constitution: Upon stop of an after-heat removing system, reactor water contained in pipelines is drained out to a radioactive wastes processing facility at the time the cooling operation mode has been completed. At the same time, water is injected from a pure water supply system to the after-heat removing system to discharge corrosion product and activated materials while cleaning the inside of the pipelines. Then, pure water is held in the pipelines and it is discharged again and replaced with pure water before entering the cooling mode operation. Thereafter, the cooling mode operation upon reactor shutdown is performed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  3. After-heat removing system in FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    The after-heat removing system of the present invention removes the after heat generated in a reactor core without using dynamic equipments such as pumps or blowers. There are disposed a first heat exchanger for heating a heat medium by the heat in a reactor container and a second heat exchanger situated above the first heat exchanger for spontaneously air-cooling the heat medium. Recycling pipeways connect the first and the second heat exchangers to form a recycling path for the heat medium. Then, since the second heat exchanger for spontaneously air-cooling the heat medium is disposed above the first heat exchanger and they are connected by the recycling pipeways, the heat medium can be circulated spontaneously. Accordingly, dynamic equipments such as pumps or blowers are no more necessary. As a result, the after-heat removing system of the FBR type reactor of excellent safety and reliability can be obtained. (I.S.)

  4. After-heat removing device in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, K [Nippon Atomic Industry Group Co. Ltd., Tokyo

    1977-01-14

    Purpose: To prevent water hammer in a BWR type reactor or the like by moving water in pipe lines having stagnant portions in an after-heat removing device. Constitution: To a reactor container, is provided a recycling pump which constitutes a closed loop type recycling system in a nuclear power plant together with a pressure vessel and pipe lines. A pump and a heat exchanger are provided outside of the reactor container and they are connected to up- and down-streams of the recycling pump to form an after-heat removing device in the plant. Upon shutdown of the nuclear power plant, since water in the stagnant portion flows to the intake port of the recycling pump and water from the reactor is spontaneously supplemented thereafter to the stagnant portion, neither pressurized water nor heated steam is generated and thus water hammer is prevented.

  5. After-heat removal system of fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Masaya; Shibata, Yoji; Ikeda, Takashi; Iwashige, Kengo; Yoneda, Yoshiyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To remove after-heat by natural convection without disposing a movable portion even in a large-scaled reactor. Constitution: The exit of a reactor wall air-cooling duct disposed to the outside of a safety vessel is connected to the secondary inlet of an air cooler that conducts heat exchange with sodium in a high temperature plenum. That is, after-heat is removed only through the natural convection by a structure in which the reactor wall air-cooling duct and the secondary side of the air cooler are connected in series. Air exhausted from the exit of the air-cooling duct by the air cooler is further heated with sodium in the high temperature plenum. The flow rate of air flowing through the air-cooling duct is increased as compared with the case where the air cooler is not present. Accordingly, the flow rate of air at low temperature flowing through the inlet of the air duct is increased to increase the heat conduction amount. In this way, after-heat can be removed only by means of natural convection without providing movable portions even in a large-scaled reactor with the thermal power in excess of 2,000 MW. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. After heat removing system of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takao; Yamada, Masao; Ohashi, Kazutaka.

    1994-01-01

    In a variable conductance heat pipe of an after heat removing system, an evaporation portion and a condensator are connected by a steam diffusing path for an operation fluid and a liquid condensate recycling path. Further, incondensible gases are sealed at the inside together with the operation fluid, and a gas reservoir for the incondensible gases is disposed at the downstream of a condensation portion. If heat input is applied to the evaporation portion of the heat pipe, the incondensible gases are separated to form a boundary between both of them. When the amount of heat applied is small, the incondensible gases partially seal the condensation portion to form a local condensation insensitive portion, so that a heat conductance can be suppressed low. On the other hand, as the amount of heat inputted is increased, the incondensible gases are compressed, the heat conduction area of the condensation portion is increased and a heat conductance is increased to conduct self-control so as to increase heat transfer performance of the heat pipe. Then, the liquid condensate is recycled to the evaporation portion by spontaneous dripping of the condensate itself without wick, thereby enabling to conduct automatic switching so as to increase the heat dissipation amount to maximum. (N.H.)

  7. Oligonol Supplementation Affects Leukocyte and Immune Cell Counts after Heat Loading in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Beom Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight form of polyphenol and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, making it a potential promoter of immunity. This study investigates the effects of oligonol supplementation on leukocyte and immune cell counts after heat loading in 19 healthy male volunteers. The participants took a daily dose of 200 mg oligonol or a placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. After each supplement, half-body immersion into hot water was made, and blood was collected. Then, complete and differential blood counts were performed. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate and phenotype lymphocyte subsets. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 in blood samples were analyzed. Lymphocyte subpopulation variables included counts of total T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK cells. Oligonol intake attenuated elevations in IL-1β (an 11.1-fold change vs. a 13.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 12.0-fold change vs. a 12.6-fold change 1h after heating and IL-6 (an 8.6-fold change vs. a 9.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 9.1-fold change vs. a 10.5-fold change 1h after heating immediately and 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. Oligonol supplementation led to significantly higher numbers of leukocytes (a 30.0% change vs. a 21.5% change immediately after heating; a 13.5% change vs. a 3.5% change 1h after heating and lymphocytes (a 47.3% change vs. a 39.3% change immediately after heating; a 19.08% change vs. a 2.1% change 1h after heating relative to those in the placebo group. Oligonol intake led to larger increases in T cells, B cells, and NK cells at rest (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.001, respectively and immediately after heating (p < 0.001 in comparison to those in the placebo group. In addition, levels of T cells (p < 0.001 and B cells (p < 0.001 were significantly higher 1 h after heating in comparison to those in

  8. Inflammatory cytokines and plasma redox status responses in hypertensive subjects after heat exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Fonseca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is characterized by a pro-inflammatory status, including redox imbalance and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may be exacerbated after heat exposure. However, the effects of heat exposure, specifically in individuals with inflammatory chronic diseases such as hypertension, are complex and not well understood. This study compared the effects of heat exposure on plasma cytokine levels and redox status parameters in 8 hypertensive (H and 8 normotensive (N subjects (age: 46.5±1.3 and 45.6±1.4 years old, body mass index: 25.8±0.8 and 25.6±0.6 kg/m2, mean arterial pressure: 98.0±2.8 and 86.0±2.3 mmHg, respectively. They remained at rest in a sitting position for 10 min in a thermoneutral environment (22°C followed by 30 min in a heated environmental chamber (38°C and 60% relative humidity. Blood samples were collected before and after heat exposure. Plasma cytokine levels were measured using sandwich ELISA kits. Plasma redox status was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP. Hypertensive subjects showed higher plasma levels of IL-10 at baseline (P<0.05, although levels of this cytokine were similar between groups after heat exposure. Moreover, after heat exposure, hypertensive individuals showed higher plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR1 and lower TBARS (P<0.01 and FRAP (P<0.05 levels. Controlled hypertensive subjects, who use angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitors, present an anti-inflammatory status and balanced redox status. Nevertheless, exposure to a heat stress condition seems to cause an imbalance in the redox status and an unregulated inflammatory response.

  9. Oligonol supplementation modulates plasma volume and osmolality and sweating after heat load in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JeongBeom; Shin, YoungOh; Murota, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-01

    Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight polyphenol that possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the effects of Oligonol supplementation on sweating response, plasma volume (PV), and osmolality (Osm) after heat load in human volunteers. We conducted a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants took a daily dose of 200 mg Oligonol or placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. As a heat load, half-body immersion into hot water (42°C±0.5°C for 30 min) was performed in an automated climate chamber. Tympanic and mean body temperature (Tty, mTb) and whole-body sweat loss volume (WBSLV) were measured. Changes in PV, Osm, and serum levels of aldosterone and sodium were analyzed. Oligonol intake attenuated increases in Tty, mTb, and WBSLV after heat load compared with the placebo (Pbody temperature and excessive sweating under heat load in healthy humans, but interpretation of the results requires caution due to the potent diuretic effect of Oligonol.

  10. Multiple independent regulatory pathways control UBI4 expression after heat shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J R; Treger, J M; McEntee, K

    1999-02-01

    Transcription of the polyubiquitin gene UBI4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is strongly induced by a variety of environmental stresses, such as heat shock, nutrient depletion and exposure to DNA-damaging agents. This transcriptional response of UBI4 is likely to be the primary mechanism for increasing the pool of ubiquitin for degradation of stress-damaged proteins. Deletion and promoter fusion studies of the 5' regulatory sequences indicated that two different elements, heat shock elements (HSEs) and stress response element (STREs), contributed independently to heat shock regulation of the UBI4 gene. In the absence of HSEs, STRE sequences localized to the intervals -264 to -238 and -215 to -183 were needed for stress control of transcription after heat shock. Site-directed mutagenesis of the STRE (AG4) at -252 to -248 abolished heat shock induction of UBI4 transcription. Northern analysis demonstrated that cells containing either a temperature-sensitive HSF or non-functional Msn2p/Msn4p transcription factors induced high levels of UBI4 transcripts after heat shock. In cells deficient in both heat stress pathways, heat-induced UBI4 transcript levels were considerably lower but not abolished, suggesting a role for another factor(s) in stress control of its expression.

  11. Network analysis of oyster transcriptome revealed a cascade of cellular responses during recovery after heat shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhang

    Full Text Available Oysters, as a major group of marine bivalves, can tolerate a wide range of natural and anthropogenic stressors including heat stress. Recent studies have shown that oysters pretreated with heat shock can result in induced heat tolerance. A systematic study of cellular recovery from heat shock may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired thermal tolerance. In this study, we performed the first network analysis of oyster transcriptome by reanalyzing microarray data from a previous study. Network analysis revealed a cascade of cellular responses during oyster recovery after heat shock and identified responsive gene modules and key genes. Our study demonstrates the power of network analysis in a non-model organism with poor gene annotations, which can lead to new discoveries that go beyond the focus on individual genes.

  12. Evolution of microstructure and hardness of AE42 alloy after heat treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Y.D.; Dieringa, H.; Hort, N.

    2008-01-01

    properties even further. It is shown that the microstructure of the squeeze-cast AE42 alloy is stable at high temperature 450 degrees C. The subsequent solution and ageing treatments have a limited effect on the hardness. The weak age-hardening is attributed to the precipitation of small amount Of Mg17Al12......The AE42 magnesium alloy was developed for high pressure die casting (HPDC) from low-aluminum magnesium alloys. In this alloy the rare earth (RE) elements were shown to increase creep resistance by forming AlxREy intermetallics along the grain boundaries. The present work investigates...... the microstructure of squeeze cast AE42 magnesium alloy and evaluates its hardness before and after heat treatments. The change in hardness is discussed based on the microstructural observations. Some suggestions are given concerning future design of alloy compositions in order to improve high temperature creep...

  13. Rehydration and microstructure of cement paste after heating at temperatures up to 300 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farage, M.C.R.; Sercombe, J.; Galle, C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the evolution of the microstructure of cementitious materials subjected to high temperatures and subsequent resaturation in the particular context of long-term storage of radioactive wastes, where diffusive and convective properties are of primary importance. Experimental results obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) are presented concerning the evolution of the pore network of ordinary portland cement (OPC) paste heated at temperatures varying between 80 and 300 deg. C. The consequences of heating on the macroscopic properties of cement paste are evaluated by measures of the residual gas permeabilities, elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio, obtained by nondestructive methods. Resaturation by direct water absorption and water vapour sorption are used to estimate the reversibility of dehydration. The results provide some evidence of the self-healing capacity of resaturated cement paste after heating at temperatures up to 300 deg. C

  14. Gender differences in pain and secondary hyperalgesia after heat/capsaicin sensitization in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Petersen, Karin Lottrup

    2006-01-01

    differences in development of secondary hyperalgesia. Cutaneous hyperalgesia was induced with the heat/capsaicin sensitization model. Outcome measures were areas of secondary hyperalgesia to brush and von Frey hair stimulation after heat and capsaicin sensitization, rating of pain during heat....../capsaicin sensitization, and heat pain detection thresholds. There was a trend toward smaller areas of secondary hyperalgesia in women. After adjusting for estimated gender differences in forearm surface area, areas to brush but not von Frey hair stimulation after capsaicin sensitization were larger in women. Peak pain......, but not total pain, during prolonged noxious thermal stimulation was higher in women. There was no gender difference in pain ratings during capsaicin sensitization or in heat pain detection thresholds. The results provided only limited support to the hypothesis that gender differences in clinical pain syndromes...

  15. Stretching After Heat But Not After Cold Decreases Contractures After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasawa, Hiroyuki; Nomura, Masato; Sakitani, Naoyoshi; Watanabe, Kosuke; Watanabe, Daichi; Moriyama, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    Contractures are a prevalent and potentially severe complication in patients with neurologic disorders. Although heat, cold, and stretching are commonly used for treatment of contractures and/or spasticity (the cause of many contractures), the sequential effects of these modalities remain unclear. Using an established rat model with spinal cord injury with knee flexion contracture, we sought to determine what combination of heat or cold before stretching is the most effective for treatment of contractures derived from spastic paralyses and investigated which treatment leads to the best (1) improvement in the loss of ROM; (2) restoration of deterioration in the muscular and articular factors responsible for contractures; and (3) amelioration of histopathologic features such as muscular fibrosis in biceps femoris and shortening of the joint capsule. Forty-two adolescent male Wistar rats were used. After spasticity developed at 2 weeks postinjury, each animal with spinal cord injury underwent the treatment protocol daily for 1 week. Knee extension ROM was measured with a goniometer by two examiners blinded to each other's scores. The muscular and articular factors contributing to contractures were calculated by measuring ROM before and after the myotomies. We quantitatively measured the muscular fibrosis and the synovial intima length, and observed the distribution of collagen of skeletal muscle. The results were confirmed by a blinded observer. The ROM of heat alone (34° ± 1°) and cold alone (34° ± 2°) rats were not different with the numbers available from that of rats with spinal cord injury (35° ± 2°) (p = 0.92 and 0.89, respectively). Stretching after heat (24° ± 1°) was more effective than stretching alone (27° ± 3°) at increasing ROM (p contractures. Although quantification of muscular fibrosis in the rats with spinal cord injury (11% ± 1%) was higher than that of controls (9% ± 0.4%) (p = 0.01), no difference was found between spinal cord

  16. Propofol alleviate oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in endothelial cells after heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the protective effect of propofol on endothelial cells during heat stress and its protective effect to mitochondra. Methods Heat stress model of human umbilical vein endothelial cell was established when cells were incubated at 43℃ for 2h, then further incubted at 37℃, 5%CO2 for 6h. The experimental group was subdivided into six groups, including 37℃ group, 37℃ plus intralipid group (negative control group, 37℃ plus propofol group, 43℃ plus propofol group, 43℃ plus intralipid group, H2O2 plus propofol group (positive control group; Pretreated with 50μmol/L propofol, 0.2ml intralipid or 25μmol/L H2O2 before heat stress at 43℃, while the cells in the control group were incubated at 37℃. Cell viability was tested by CCK-8. ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential and the changes in mitochondrial permeability transition pore were determined by flow cytometry. The level of ATP was detected by fluorescein-luciferase. The changes of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were analyzed by Caspase Activity Assay Kit. Results HUVESs cell viability and damage of mitochondra were significantly decreased after heat stress. Compared with 43℃ heat stress group, pretreatment with propofol induced the recovery of cell viability and the ROS levels were significantly decreased in HUVEC cells (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the number of cells representing the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (the proportion of JC-1 monomer was significantly decreased (P<0.05 by propofol. The average fluorescence intensity of calcein which representing the MPTP changes and intracellular ATP content was significantly increased (P<0.05. In addition, the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway mediated by caspase-9/3 was also inhibited. Conclusions Propofol have anti-oxidative, anti-apoptosis and mitochondria protective effect against endothelial cell injury during heat stress. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.06.04

  17. The foci of DNA double strand break-recognition proteins localize with γH2AX after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Mori, Eiichiro; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there have been many reports concerning proteins which can recognize DNA double strand break (DSBs), and such proteins include histone H2AX phosphorylated at serine 139 (γH2AX), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) phospho-serine 1981, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phospho-threonine 2609, Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1) phospho-serine 343, checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2), phospho-threonine 68, and structural maintenance of chromosomes 1 (SMC1) phospho-serine 966. Thus, it should be possible to follow the formation of DSBs and their repair using immunohistochemical methods with multiple antibodies to detect these proteins. When normal human fibroblasts (AG1522 cells) were exposed to 3 Gy of X-rays as a control, clearly discernable foci for these proteins were detected, and these foci localized with γH2AX foci. After heat treatment at 45.5 deg C for 20 min, these proteins are partially localized with γH2AX foci. Here we show that there were slight differences in the localization pattern among these proteins, such as a disappearance from the nucleus (phospho-ATM) and translocation to the cytoplasm (phospho-NBS1) at 30 min after heat treatment, and some foci (phospho-DNA-PKcs and phospho-CHK2) appeared at 8 h after heat treatment. These results are discussed from perspectives of heat-induced denaturation of proteins and formation of DSBs. (author)

  18. The Microstructure And Mechanical Properties Of The AlSi17Cu5 Alloy After Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piątkowski J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper results of the microstructure and mechanical properties (HB, Rm and R0,2 of AlSi17Cu5 alloy, subjected by solution heat treatment (500ºC/6h/woda and aging (200ºC/16h/piec are presented. In next step the alloy was modified and heated significantly above the Tliq temperature (separately and together. It was found that the increase in the strength properties of the tested alloy after heat treatment compared to alloys without solution heat treatment and aging was due to precipitation hardening. The applied aging treatment of ingots (preceded by solution heat treatment, causes not only increase in concentration in α(Al solid solution, but also a favorable change of the primary Si crystals morphology. During stereological measurements significant size reduction and change in the morphology of hypereutectic silicon crystals ware found. This effects can be further enhanced by overheating the alloy to a temperature of 920ºC and rapid cooling before casting of the alloy.

  19. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies of metastable intermediates of beta-lactoglobulin isolated after heat-induced aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrotta, R.; Arleth, L.; Pedersen, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering was used for studying intermediate species, isolated after heat-induced aggregation of the A variant of bovine P-lactoglobulin. The intermediates were separated in two fractions, the heated metastable dimer and heated metastable oligomers larger than the dimer. The pa...

  20. Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanorods via the Formation of Sea Urchin Structures and Their Photoluminescence after Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Mattias E; Mamie, Yann C; Calamida, Andrea; Gardner, James M; Ström, Valter; Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud; Olsson, Richard T

    2018-05-01

    A protocol for the aqueous synthesis of ca. 1-μm-long zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and their growth at intermediate reaction progression is presented, together with photoluminescence (PL) characteristics after heat treatment at temperatures of up to 1000 °C. The existence of solitary rods after the complete reaction (60 min) was traced back to the development of sea urchin structures during the first 5 s of the precipitation. The rods primarily formed in later stages during the reaction due to fracture, which was supported by the frequently observed broken rod ends with sharp edges in the final material, in addition to tapered uniform rod ends consistent with their natural growth direction. The more dominant rod growth in the c direction (extending the length of the rods), together with the appearance of faceted surfaces on the sides of the rods, occurred at longer reaction times (>5 min) and generated zinc-terminated particles that were more resistant to alkaline dissolution. A heat treatment for 1 h at 600 or 800 °C resulted in a smoothing of the rod surfaces, and PL measurements displayed a decreased defect emission at ca. 600 nm, which was related to the disappearance of lattice imperfections formed during the synthesis. A heat treatment at 1000 °C resulted in significant crystal growth reflected as an increase in luminescence at shorter wavelengths (ca. 510 nm). Electron microscopy revealed that the faceted rod structure was lost for ZnO rods exposed to temperatures above 600 °C, whereas even higher temperatures resulted in particle sintering and/or mass redistribution along the initially long and slender ZnO rods. The synthesized ZnO rods were a more stable Wurtzite crystal structure than previously reported ball-shaped ZnO consisting of merging sheets, which was supported by the shifts in PL spectra occurring at ca. 200 °C higher annealing temperature, in combination with a smaller thermogravimetric mass loss occurring upon heating the rods to 800 °C.

  1. Microstructure Changes of ZrO{sub 2}/W/Mo Coating Layers on Graphite after Heat Treatment at 2100 ℃

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Gyu Baek; Choe, Kyeong Hwan; Cho, Gue Serb [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Sub [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    A tungsten coating was deposited onto a graphite substrate using the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) technique. In order to increase the adhesion strength between the metallic tungsten(W) and graphite, a molybdenum (Mo) interlayer was pre-deposited onto the graphite surface by utilizing the APS technique. Also, after deposition of a APS-W coating, a zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) was deposited onto the W coating layer. For the APS process, argon and helium were used as the plasma-forming gases, and argon was used as the shield gas to protect the plasma from oxidation. After the APS coating process, heat exposure treatment was performed at 2100 ℃ for 360 h within a sapphire single crystal-growing furnace in order to evaluate the thermal stability of the coatings. After heat treatment, the ZrO{sub 2}/W/Mo coating layers were bound with the graphite without any peeling off. The microvickers hardness of the APS-W coating layer was increased after heat treatment due to the formation of carbides. Also, carbide phases such as Mo{sub 2}C, WC, ZrC and Mo{sub 3}C{sub 2} were identified by XRD diffraction and EDS analysis, by analyzing the depths below the coating surface. It was considered that the Mo interlayer served as a good buffer layer between the APS-W coating and the graphite after the heat exposure treatment because the lattice structure of the molybdenum carbide was similar to that of the graphite.

  2. Structural features and properties of the laser-deposited nickel alloy layer on a KhV4F tool steel after heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, V. S.; Dikova, Ts. D.; Stavrev, D. S.

    2017-07-01

    The study and application of the materials that are stable in the temperature range up to 1000°C are necessary to repair forming dies operating in this range. Nickel-based alloys can be used for this purpose. The structural state of a nickel alloy layer deposited onto a KhV4F tool steel and then heat treated is investigated. KhV4F tool steel (RF GOST) samples are subjected to laser deposition using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A nickel-based material (0.02C-73.8Ni-2.5Nb-19.5Cr-1.9Fe-2.8Mn) is employed for laser deposition. After laser deposition, the samples are subjected to heat treatment at 400°C for 5 h, 600°C for 1 h, 800°C for 1 h, and 1000°C for 1 h. The microstructure, the phase composition, and the microhardness of the deposited layer are studied. The structure of the initial deposited layer has relatively large grains (20-40 μm in size). The morphology is characterized by a cellular-dendritic structure in the transition zone. The following two structural constituents with a characteristic dendritic structure are revealed: a supersaturated nickel-based γ solid solution and a chromium-based bcc α solid solution. In the initial state and after heat treatment, the hardness of the deposited material (210-240 HV 0.1) is lower than the hardness of the base material (400-440 HV 0.1). Only after heat treatment at 600°C for 1 h, the hardness increases to 240-250 HV0.1. Structure heredity in the form of a dendritic morphology is observed at temperatures of 400, 600, and 800°C. The following sharp change in the structural state is detected upon heat treatment at 1000°C for 1 h: the dendritic morphology changes into a typical α + γ crystalline structure. The hardness of the base material decreases significantly to 160-180 HV 0.1. The low hardness of the deposited layer implies the use of the layer material in limited volume to repair the forming surfaces of dies and molds for die casting. However, the high ductility of the deposited layer of the nickel

  3. Oligonol supplementation attenuates body temperature and the circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 after heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Oh; Lee, Jeong Beom; Song, Young Ju; Min, Young Ki; Yang, Hun Mo

    2013-04-01

    Oligonol, a phenolic production from lychee, has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effect of Oligonol supplementation on circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, as well as body temperature, after heat stress in 17 healthy human male volunteers (age, 21.6±2.1 years). All experiments were performed in an automated climate chamber (26.0°C±0.5°C, relative humidity 60%±3.0%, air velocity less than 1 m/sec) between 2 and 5 p.m. Subjects ingested an Oligonol (100 mg)-containing beverage or placebo beverage before half-body immersion into hot water (42°C±0.5°C for 30 min). Tympanic and skin temperatures were measured and mean body temperatures were calculated. Serum concentrations of PGE2 and COX-2 were analyzed before, immediately after, and 60 min after immersion. Oligonol intake significantly prevented elevation of tympanic (temperature difference: 0.17°C at Post, Pbody temperatures (temperature difference: 0.18°C at Post, Pbody temperature under heat stress, and this is associated with decreases in serum levels of PGE2 and COX-2.

  4. Suppressed phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity after heat shock in transgenic Nicotiana plumbaginifolia containing an Arabidopsis HSP18.2-parsley PAL2 chimera gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, M; Yamakawa, T; Washino, T; Kodama, T; Igarashi, Y

    1999-01-01

    The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) after heat shock (HS) in leaves and buds of transgenic Nicotiana plumbaginifolia containing an Arabidopsis HSP18.2 promoter-parsley phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (HSP18.2-PAL2) chimera gene was examined. Immediately after HS treatment at 44 degrees C for 5 h, the PAL activity in both transgenic and normal (untransformed) plants was 35-38% lower than that before HS. At normal temperature (25-26 degrees C), the PAL activity recovered within 5 h of ending the HS treatment in normal plants, but not until 12-24 h in transgenic plants containing the HSP18.2-PAL2 gene. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed the presence of parsley PAL2 mRNA in transgenic plants, which remained for 8-12 h following 5-h HS at 44 degrees C; the mRNA was not observed before HS. The content of chlorogenic acid (CGA; 3-caffeoylquinic acid) decreased drastically 8-12 h after HS in transgenic plants, but only slightly in normal plants. Thus, the decrease in PAL activity accompanied by expression of the parsley PAL2 gene after HS treatment corresponded to the decrease in CGA synthesis. These results might be attributed to post-transcriptional degradation of endogenous PAL mRNA triggered by transcription of the transgene.

  5. Visualizing tissue molecular structure of a black type of canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-02-20

    Heat-related processing of cereal grains, legume seeds, and oil seeds could be used to improve nutrient availability in ruminants. However, different types of processing may have a different impact on intrinsic structure of tissues. To date, there is little research on structure changes after processing within intact tissues. The synchrotron-based molecular imaging technique enables us to detect inherent structure change on a molecular level. The objective of this study was to visualize tissue of black-type canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way using the synchrotron imaging technique. The results showed that the chemical images of protein amides were obtained through the imaging technique for the raw, wet, and dry heated black type of canola seed tissues. It seems that different types of processing have a different impact on the protein spectral profile in the black type of canola tissues. Wet heating had a greater impact on the protein α-helix to β-sheet ratio than dry heating. Both dry and wet heating resulted in different patterns in amide I, the second derivative, and FSD spectra. However, the exact differences in the tissue images are relatively difficult to be obtained through visual comparison. Future studies should focus on (1) comparing the response and sensitivity of canola seeds to various processing methods between the yellow-type and black-type of canola seeds; (2) developing a sensitive method to compare the image difference between tissues and between treatments; (3) developing a method to link images to nutrient digestion, and (4) revealing how structure changes affect nutrient absorption in humans and animals.

  6. Failures of tool steels after heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez-Gonzalez, G.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the work was to determine the most common defects occuring in tool steels of the AISI D-2, S-1, 0-1 and W-2 series during thermal treatment. Defects were evaluated by metallographic analyses, a method used to determine and recognize micro structural defects and their origin in order to be able to eliminate and correct some of the stages that are caused by heat treatment. Results show a large number of defects due to irregularities during thermal heating such as excess or lack of temperature, heating time, and atmosphere, rectifying and handling in service and, to a lesser extent, poor design. In conclusion, with the results obtained for each of the thermal treatments it is necessary to define, particularly the values each of these variables should have since they affect the material properties. (Author)

  7. Operation method for after-heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamano, Toyomi; Sakuragi, Masanori; Kogiso, Zen-ichi; Wake, Minoru.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To moderate thermal shocks applied to a feedwater pipe plate portion at the inlet of a steam generator thereby maintaining the integrity and safety of an LMFBR type plant. Method: Water with feed from the condenser to a steam generator. Steams generated in the steam generator are introduced to an air/water separator in a recycling system and a control device is actuated. Water separated by the air/water separator is recycled to the steam generator, while monitoring the temperature variation coefficient for the feedwater temperature at the inlet of the steam generator. If the temperature variation coefficient exceeds a predetermined setting value, the recycling flow rate is decreased in accordance with the deviation. This can greatly moderate the thermal shocks applied to the feedwater pipe plate portion at the inlet of the steam generator upon starting of the recycling system. (Takahashi, M.)

  8. After heat distribution of a mobile nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, W. G.; Vanbibber, L. E.; Tang, Y. S.

    1971-01-01

    A computer program was developed to analyze the transient afterheat temperature and pressure response of a mobile gas-cooled reactor power plant following impact. The program considers (in addition to the standard modes of heat transfer) fission product decay and transport, metal-water reactions, core and shield melting and displacement, and pressure and containment vessel stress response. Analyses were performed for eight cases (both deformed and undeformed models) to verify operability of the program options. The results indicated that for a 350 psi (241 n/sq cm) initial internal pressure, the containment vessel can survive over 100,000 seconds following impact before creep rupture occurs. Recommendations were developed as to directions for redesign to extend containment vessel life.

  9. Study of tokamaks carbon deposits after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richou, M.; Martin, C.; Roubin, P.; Delhaes, P.; Couzi, M.; Brosset, C.; Pegourie, B.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important problem of tokamak is the interaction plasma-wall. The wall component is the graphite. Meanwhile it is submitted to erosion phenomena, deposition and co-deposition with the hydrogen. This carbon deposits have been studied and show an oval shape. In order to obtain more information on the structure and the growth of these deposits, the authors heated them till 2500 C. Raman spectroscopy, transmission microscopy, magnetic and density measurements have been realized and compared for two types of samples: from Tore Supra and from Textor. (A.L.B.)

  10. Thermoregulatory efficiency is increased after heat acclimation in tropical natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Flávio C; Passos, Renata L F; Fonseca, Michele A; Oliveira, Kenya P M; Ferreira-Júnior, João B; Martini, Angelo R P; Lima, Milene R M; Guimarães, Juliana B; Baraúna, Valério G; Silami-Garcia, Emerson; Rodrigues, Luiz O C

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of heat acclimation on sweat rate redistribution and thermodynamic parameters, 9 tropical native volunteers were submitted to 11 days of exercise-heat exposures (40+/-0 degrees C and 45.1+/-0.2% relative humidity). Sudomotor function was evaluated by measuring total and local (forehead, chest, arm, forearm, and thigh) sweat rates, local sweat sodium concentration, and mean skin and rectal temperatures. We also calculated heat production (H), heat storage (S), heat exchange by radiation (R) and by convection (C), evaporated sweat (E(sw)), sweating efficiency (eta(sw)), skin wettedness (w(sk)), and the ratio between the heat storage and the sum of heat production and heat gains by radiation and convection (S/(H+R+C)). The heat acclimation increased the whole-body sweat rate and reduced the mean skin temperature. There were changes in the local sweat rate patterns: on the arm, forearm, and thigh it increased significantly from day 1 to day 11 (all p<0.05) and the sweat rates from the forehead and the chest showed a small nonsignificant increase (p=0.34 and 0.17, respectively). The relative increase of local sweat rates on day 11 was not different among the sites; however, when comparing the limbs (arm, forearm, and thigh) with the trunk (forehead and chest), there was a significant higher increase in the limbs (32+/-5%) in comparison to the trunk (11+/-2%, p=0.001). After the heat acclimation period we observed higher w(sk) and E(sw) and reduced S/(H+R+C), meaning greater thermoregulatory efficiency. The increase in the limb sweat rate, but not the increase in the trunk sweat rate, correlated with the increased w(sk), E(sw), and reduced S/(H+R+C) (p<0.05 to all). Altogether, it can be concluded that heat acclimation increased the limbs' sweat rates in tropical natives and that this increase led to increased loss of heat through evaporation of sweat and this higher sweat evaporation was related to higher thermoregulatory efficiency.

  11. Ultimate after-heat removal system for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, L. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns the safety region of a nuclear power plant, especially the divertor for the residual heat which keeps forming after shutdown of the reactor. According to the invention a dry cooling tower of enclosed construction is planned. The walls and roof shall be rocket-proof. Such a configuration is described and explained by means of designs. (UWI) [de

  12. Hydrogenated amorphous carbon next deposit after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salancon, E.; Durbeck, T.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Jacob, W.

    2006-01-01

    One of the main safety problems in the ITER tokamak project is the tritium adsorption in the reactor walls and in particular the deposits which appear after the plasma discharge. These deposits are amorphous hydrogenated carbon films, type polymer (soft a-C:H). The heating of these deposits with a pulse laser is a proposed solution for the tritium desorption. Meanwhile, Gibson and al show that in experimental conditions, products are deposed on the walls before entering the mass spectrometer. The authors present thermo-desorption spectra of different amorphous carbon films. (A.L.B.)

  13. After-heat removing system in FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tadashi; Inoue, Kotaro; Yamakawa, Masanori; Ikeda, Takashi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To promote more positive forcive circulation of primary circuit fluids thereby increase the heat removing amount. Constitution: The primary side of an electromagnetic flow coupler type heat exchanger is opened to the primary fluid of a reactor, while the secondary side is connected with the secondary circuit comprising an air cooler and an electromagnetic pump. Since the secondary circuit stands-by during normal operation, the electromagnetic flow coupler does not operate and does not generate force for flowing primary circuit fluid. If flow due to the external force to the primary circuit fluid should occur in the electromagnetic flow coupler type heat exchanger, an electromagnetic force tending to flow the secondary circuit fluid is exerted oppositely. However the coupler undergoes reaction inertia of the fluid or flowing resistance, to exert in the direction of suppressing the flow, thereby prevent the heat loss. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. Phase transformations of pyrophyllite clay mineral after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The termal transformation of the Pyrophyllite clay mineral, given by the equations: AL sub(2) O sub(3).4SiO sub(2).H sub(2) O → Al sub(2) O sub(3).4SiO sub(2) + H sub(2) O Pyrophyllite Anhydride Water vapour. 3 (Al sub(2) O sub(3).4SiO sub(2)) → 3 Al sub(2) O sub(3). 2SiO sub(2) + 10 (SiO sub(2)) Pyrophyllite Anhydride Mullite Cristobalite, were studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) associated to Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAD), applied to a very pure sample, colected at Diamantina, M.G. Some other tgechniques were also used, as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), applied to other different Pyrophyllite samples. A thermodynamical theoretical study was undertaken to estimate the values for the entropyu of formation, enthalpy and molar thermal capacity for the Pyrophyllite Anhydride. (author)

  15. Investigation of anodic oxide coatings on zirconium after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, Maciej; Dercz, Grzegorz; Suchanek, Katarzyna; Simka, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxide layers prepared via PEO of zirconium were subjected to heat treatment. • Surface characteristics were determined for the obtained oxide coatings. • Heat treatment led to the partial destruction of the anodic oxide layer. • Pitting corrosion resistance of zirconium was improved after the modification. - Abstract: Herein, results of heat treatment of zirconium anodised under plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) conditions at 500–800 °C are presented. The obtained oxide films were investigated by means of SEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance of the zirconium specimens was evaluated in Ringer's solution. A bilayer oxide coatings generated in the course of PEO of zirconium were not observed after the heat treatment. The resulting oxide layers contained a new sublayer located at the metal/oxide interface is suggested to originate from the thermal oxidation of zirconium. The corrosion resistance of the anodised metal was improved after the heat treatment

  16. Heterotrophy promotes the re-establishment of photosynthate translocation in a symbiotic coral after heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Gori, Andrea; Maguer, Jean François; Hoogenboom, Mia; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Symbiotic scleractinian corals are particularly affected by climate change stress and respond by bleaching (losing their symbiotic dinoflagellate partners). Recently, the energetic status of corals is emerging as a particularly important factor that determines the corals’ vulnerability to heat stress. However, detailed studies of coral energetic that trace the flow of carbon from symbionts to host are still sparse. The present study thus investigates the impact of heat stress on the nutritional interactions between dinoflagellates and coral Stylophora pistillata maintained under auto- and heterotrophy. First, we demonstrated that the percentage of autotrophic carbon retained in the symbionts was significantly higher during heat stress than under non-stressful conditions, in both fed and unfed colonies. This higher photosynthate retention in symbionts translated into lower rates of carbon translocation, which required the coral host to use tissue energy reserves to sustain its respiratory needs. As calcification rates were positively correlated to carbon translocation, a significant decrease in skeletal growth was observed during heat stress. This study also provides evidence that heterotrophic nutrient supply enhances the re-establishment of normal nutritional exchanges between the two symbiotic partners in the coral S. pistillata, but it did not mitigate the effects of temperature stress on coral calcification.

  17. The first HF table, after heat treatment and ready to be machined in HEPCO, Arak (IRAN)

    CERN Multimedia

    Tiziano Camporesi

    2003-01-01

    The first HF support table 'load' tested by the team of people who have contributed to it from design to welding. This table will support the 240 tons of 1 HF detector and will integrate the raisers which will push it up to the beam line level. It is the first Iranian contribution to an HEP experiment.

  18. Transmission electron microscopy of Ti-12Mo-13Nb Alloy aged after heat forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Nathalia Rodrigues; Baldan, Renato; Gabriel, Sinara Borborema

    2014-01-01

    Metastable β-Ti alloys possess mechanical properties, in particular a elastic modulus that depends not only on its composition but also the applied thermomechanical treatments. These alloys require high mechanical strength and a low Young’s modulus to avoid stress shielding. Preliminary studies on the development of Ti- 13Nb-12Mo alloy showed than the better properties were obtained at aged at 500 ° C / 24 h after cold forging , whose microstructure consisted of bimodal α phase in the β matrix. In this work, Ti-12Mo-13Nb alloy was heat forged and aged at 500 deg C for 24h and the microstructure was analyzed by employing X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. According to the results, while the cold forging resulted in bimodal α phase in the β matrix, hot forging resulted in a fine and homogeneous α phase in the β matrix. (author)

  19. Color and surface chemistry changes of extracted wood flour after heating at 120 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Nicole M. Stark

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of heat on color and surface chemistry of wood flour (WF), unextracted, extracted and delignified samples of commercial WF were heated at 120 °C for 24 h and analyzed by colorimetry, diffuse reflectance visible (DRV), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopies....

  20. A Study of the Surface Quality of High Purity Copper after Heat Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Aicheler, M; Atieh, S; Calatroni, S; Riddone, G; Lebet, S; Samoshkin, A

    2011-01-01

    Themanufacturing flow of accelerating structures for the compact linear collider, based on diamond-machined high purity copper components, include several thermal cycles (diffusion bonding, brazing of cooling circuits, baking in vacuum, etc.). The high temperature cycles may be carried out following different schedules and environments (vacuum, reducing hydrogen atmosphere, argon, etc.) and develop peculiar surface topographies which have been the object of extended observations. This study presents and discusses the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy investigations.

  1. Attenuating brain inflammation, ischemia, and oxidative damage by hyperbaric oxygen in diabetic rats after heat stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Li Lee

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that, in diabetic animals, HBO2 therapy may improve outcomes of HS in part by reducing heat-induced activated inflammation and ischemic and oxidative damage in the hypothalamus and other brain regions.

  2. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of the nickel base alloy (Alloy 600) after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Stela Maria de Carvalho

    1993-01-01

    The characterization of microstructural and mechanical properties of cold rolled and heat treated alloys 600 made in Brazil were investigated. The recovery and recrystallization behavior as well as solubilization and aging have been studied using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Microhardness and tensile testing have been carried out. The recovery process of the cold rolled alloy 600 occurred until 600 deg C and the recrystallization stage was situated between 600 and 850 deg C. The primary recrystallization temperature was obtained at 850 deg C after 1 hour (isochronal heat treatments). The aged alloy 600 shows carbide precipitation on grains bu with ductility maintenance. (author)

  3. Altered association of transcriptionally active DNA with the nuclear-matrix after heat shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakkers, RJ; Brunsting, JF; Filon, AR; Kampinga, HH; Konings, AWT; Mullenders, LHF

    Purpose: Exposure of human cells to heat leads to denaturation and aggregation of proteins. Within the nucleus, it has been suggested that protein aggregation is linked to the: selective inhibition by hyperthermia of nucleotide excision repair in transcriptionally active genes. Tn this study it was

  4. Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass after heat treating and electron irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Rørdam, Troels Peter; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the formation of Ge nanoclusters in silica glass thin films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). We studied the samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy after annealing. TEM investigation shows that the Ge nanoclusters...... at two areaswere formed by different mechanisms. The Ge nanoclusters formed in a single row along the interface of a silicon substrate and the silica glass film by annealing during high-temperature heat treatment. Ge nanoclusters did not initially form in the bulk of the film but could be subsequently...... formed by the electron-beam irradiation. The interface between the silicon substrate and the silica glass film was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The shift of the Raman peaks around 286.8 cm−1 and 495 cm−1 suggests that the interface is a Si1−xGex alloy film and that the composition x varies along...

  5. Surface roughness of Ti6Al4V after heat treatment evaluated by artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altug, Mehmet [Inonu Univ., Malataya (Turkey). Dept. of Machine and Metal Technologies; Erdem, Mehmet; Bozkir, Oguz [Inonu Univ., Malataya (Turkey); Ozay, Cetin [Univ. of Firat Elazig (Turkey). Faculty of Tech. Education

    2016-05-01

    The study examines how, using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), the microstructural, mechanical and conductivity characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V are changed as a result of heat treatment and the effect they have on machinability. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD) examinations were performed to determine various characteristics and additionally related microhardness and conductivity measurements were conducted. L{sub 18} Taquchi test design was performed with three levels and six different parameters to determine the effect of such alterations on its machinability using WEDM and post-processing surface roughness (Ra) values were determined. Micro-changes were ensured successfully by using heat treatments. Results obtained with the optimization technique of artificial neural network (ANN) presented minimum surface roughness. Values obtained by using response surface method along with this equation were completely comparable with those achieved in the experiments. The best surface roughness value was obtained from sample D which had a tempered martensite structure.

  6. Microstructural characterisation of vacuum sintered T42 powder metallurgy high-speed steel after heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabadelo, V.; Gimenez, S.; Iturriza, I.

    2009-01-01

    High-speed steel powders (T42 grade) have been uniaxially cold-pressed and vacuum sintered to full density. Subsequently, the material was heat treated following an austenitising + quenching + multitempering route or alternatively austenitising + isothermal annealing. The isothermal annealing route was designed in order to attain a hardness value of ∼50 Rockwell C (HRC) (adequate for structural applications) while the multitempering parameters were selected to obtain this value and also the maximum hardening of the material (∼66 HRC). Microstructural characterisation has been carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructure consists of a ferrous (martensitic or ferritic) matrix with a distribution of second phase particles corresponding to nanometric and submicrometric secondary carbides precipitated during heat treatment together with primary carbides. The identification of those secondary precipitates (mainly M 3 C, M 6 C and M 23 C 6 carbides) has allowed understanding the microstructural evolution of T42 high-speed steel under different processing conditions

  7. Time course of primary and secondary hyperalgesia after heat injury to the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Dahl, J B; Kehlet, H

    1993-01-01

    the injury in any volunteer. These findings suggest post-injury development of secondary hyperalgesia to be a dynamic process, closely related in time to a peripheral nociceptive input, with reversal to normal when the peripheral lesion disappears. These observations may be relevant to the concept of "pre......We have examined the time course of, and relationship between, primary and secondary hyperalgesia after thermal injury to the skin in humans. Burn injuries (15 x 25 mm rectangular thermode, 49 degrees C, 5 min) were produced in eight healthy, unmedicated male volunteers, on the medial side...... of the right calf, on two occasions at least 8 days apart. Heat pain detection thresholds (HPDT), heat pain tolerance (HPT), mechanical pain detection threshold (MPDT) and the intensity of burn-injury induced erythema (skin erythema index, SEI) were assessed inside the burn injury. HPT was assessed only in one...

  8. High-resolution autoradiography of nuclear modifications during and after heat treatment of neurospora crassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ton-That, C.; Turian, G. (Geneva Univ. (Switzerland))

    1984-01-01

    The appearance of perinucleolar electron-dense spots in the nuclei of macroconidia of Neurospora crassa incubated at 46/sup 0/C and their disaggregation after shift-down to 25/sup 0/C have been investigated by high-resolution autoradiography after (5-/sup 3/H) uridine pulses with or without chase periods. The RNA of these ribonucleoprotein-rich dense spots has been found to originate mainly from the heat-sensitive nucleolus; after return to 25/sup 0/C, the nucleolar activity was recovered and the RNA material stored either in an unprocessed or a mature rRNA form in the dense spots was found to be progressively extruded into the cytoplasm.

  9. High-resolution autoradiography of nuclear modifications during and after heat treatment of neurospora crassa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ton-That, C.; Turian, G.

    1984-01-01

    The appearance of perinucleolar electron-dense spots in the nuclei of macroconidia of Neurospora crassa incubated at 46 0 C and their disaggregation after shift-down to 25 0 C have been investigated by high-resolution autoradiography after (5- 3 H) uridine pulses with or without chase periods. The RNA of these ribonucleoprotein-rich dense spots has been found to originate mainly from the heat-sensitive nucleolus; after return to 25 0 C, the nucleolar activity was recovered and the RNA material stored either in an unprocessed or a mature rRNA form in the dense spots was found to be progressively extruded into the cytoplasm. (Author)

  10. Laboratory Investigation on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Granite After Heating and Water-Cooling Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Jianjian; Hu, Dawei; Skoczylas, Frederic; Shao, Jianfu

    2018-03-01

    High-temperature treatment may cause changes in physical and mechanical properties of rocks. Temperature changing rate (heating, cooling and both of them) plays an important role in those changes. Thermal conductivity tests, ultrasonic pulse velocity tests, gas permeability tests and triaxial compression tests are performed on granite samples after a heating and rapid cooling treatment in order to characterize the changes in physical and mechanical properties. Seven levels of temperature (from 25 to 900 °C) are used. It is found that the physical and mechanical properties of granite are significantly deteriorated by the thermal treatment. The porosity shows a significant increase from 1.19% at the initial state to 6.13% for samples heated to 900 °C. The increase in porosity is mainly due to three factors: (1) a large number of microcracks caused by the rapid cooling rate; (2) the mineral transformation of granite through high-temperature heating and water-cooling process; (3) the rapid cooling process causes the mineral particles to weaken. As the temperature of treatment increases, the thermal conductivity and P-wave velocity decrease while the gas permeability increases. Below 200 °C, the elastic modulus and cohesion increase with temperature increasing. Between 200 and 500 °C, the elastic modulus and cohesion have no obvious change with temperature. Beyond 500 °C, as the temperature increases, the elastic modulus and cohesion obviously decrease and the decreasing rate becomes slower with the increase in confining pressure. Poisson's ratio and internal frictional coefficient have no obvious change as the temperature increases. Moreover, there is a transition from a brittle to ductile behavior when the temperature becomes high. At 900 °C, the granite shows an obvious elastic-plastic behavior.

  11. Detrimental Cr-rich Phases Precipitation on SAF 2205 Duplex Stainless Steels Welds After Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argelia Fabiola Miranda Pérez

    Full Text Available Abstract The austeno-ferritic Stainless Steels are commonly employed in various applications requiring structural performances with enhanced corrosion resistance. Their characteristics can be worsened if the material is exposed to thermal cycles, since the high-temperature decomposition of ferrite causes the formation of detrimental secondary phases. The Submerged Arc Welding (SAW process is currently adopted for joining DSS owing to its relatively simple execution, cost savings, and using molten slag and granular flux from protecting the seam of atmospheric gases. However, since it produces high contents of δ-ferrite in the heat affected zone and low content of γ-austenite in the weld, high-Ni filler materials must be employed, to avoid excessive ferritization of the joint. The present work is aimed to study the effect of 3 and 6 hours isothermal heat treatments at 850°C and 900°C in a SAF 2205 DSS welded joint in terms of phases precipitation. The results showed the presence of σ-phase at any time-temperature combination, precipitating at the δ/γ interphases and often accompanied by the presence of χ-phase. However, certain differences in secondary phases amounts were revealed among the different zones constituting the joint, ascribable both to peculiar elements partitioning and to the different morphology pertaining to each microstructure.

  12. Hyperalgesia and temporal summation of pain after heat injury in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Andersen, O K; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    1998-01-01

    of pain in normal skin with summation of pain in skin with primary and secondary hyperalgesia evoked by a heat injury. A heat injury was produced on the crus of 12 volunteers with a 50 x 25 mm thermode (47 degrees C, 7 min). Measurements were made before, and 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after the heat injury......, in three areas: primary and secondary mechanical hyperalgesia induced by the heat injury, and in a mirror image of the injury on the opposite leg. Temporal summation of pain was induced by repeated electrical stimuli (five stimuli at 2 Hz) and assessed by visual analog scale (VAS). Primary hyperalgesia...... was evaluated by von Frey hairs and electrical stimuli, and the areas of secondary hyperalgesia with a rigid von Frey hair (314 mN). Significant primary (P heat injury. The pain threshold to single electrical stimuli was reduced...

  13. Phase formation and microstructure evolution of arc ion deposited Cr2AlC coating after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.J.; Qian, Y.H.; Niu, D.; Zhang, M.M.; Liu, Z.M.; Li, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cr 2 AlC coating was prepared by arc ion plating combined with post annealing. ► The coating deposited by arc ion plating without heating was amorphous. ► Amorphous coating transformed to crystalline Cr 2 AlC after annealing at 620 °C in Ar. - Abstract: Due to the excellent oxidation and hot corrosion resistance and matched thermal expansion coefficient to normal alloys, Cr 2 AlC has potential applications as high-temperature protective coating. In the present work, the preparation of Cr 2 AlC coating has been achieved through cathodic arc deposition method combined with heat post-treatment. It was found that the coating, deposited from Cr 2 AlC compound target in the unintentional heating condition, was amorphous. After annealing at 620 °C in Ar for 20 h, the amorphous Cr–Al–C coating happened to crystallize and transformed to crystalline Cr 2 AlC as the major phase. It is obvious that the formation temperature of Cr 2 AlC was decreased from about 1050 °C for sintered bulk to around 620 °C for the as-deposited coating, resulting from the homogeneous mixture of the Cr, Al and C at atomic level in the Cr–Al–C coating. Apart from crystalline Cr 2 AlC, the annealed coating also contained AlCr 2 and little Cr 7 C 3 . AlCr 2 formed due to the loss of C during deposition, and little Cr 7 C 3 always existed in the sintered Cr 2 AlC compound target as impurity phase.

  14. Antigenicity of Anisakis simplex s.s. L3 in parasitized fish after heating conditions used in the canning processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Margarita; Olivares, Fabiola; de las Heras, Cristina; Careche, Mercedes; Solas, María Teresa; García, María Luisa; Fernandez, Agustín; Mendizábal, Angel; Navas, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana Isabel; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2015-03-30

    Some technological and food processing treatments applied to parasitized fish kill the Anisakis larvae and prevent infection and sensitization of consumers. However, residual allergenic activity of parasite allergens has been shown. The aim here was to study the effect of different heat treatments used in the fish canning processing industry on the antigen recognition of Anisakis L3. Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) were experimentally infected with live L3 Anisakis. After 48 h at 5 ± 1 °C, brine was added to the muscle, which was then canned raw (live larvae) or heated (90 °C, 30 min) (dead larvae) and treated at 113 °C for 60 min or at 115 °C for 90 min. Anisakis antigens and Ani s 4 were detected with anti-crude extract and anti-Ani s 4 antisera respectively. Ani s 4 decreased in all lots, but the muscle retained part of the allergenicity irrespective of the canning method, as observed by immunohistochemistry. Dot blot analysis showed a high loss of Ani s 4 recognition after canning, but residual antigenicity was present. The results indicate that heat treatment for sterilization under the conditions studied produces a decrease in Ani s 4 and suggest a potential exposure risk for Anisakis-sensitized patients. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Environment Humidity Effect on the Weight of Carbonized Na-Al-Si Glass Fabrics Recovery after Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentjuss, E; Lusis, A; Gabrusenoks, J; Bajars, G

    2015-01-01

    Na-Al-Si glass fabrics fibres contain Na + ions that diffuse to its surface and along with CO 2 and H 2 O from atmosphere create here the shell of carbonate hydrates. The heating of fabric leads to weight loss by evolving these substances. In this work the results of weight recovery study at room relative humidity (20% – 50%) and elevated humidity (near 70%) of fabrics after its heating at different temperatures (70°C – 150°C) are compared. The experiments shoved the different weight recovery kinetics. The initial exponential stages up to 0.3 h – 0.5 h of the both recoveries are associated with water absorption and differ by its levels. In a case of lower environment humidity the later weight increase are restricted by its value, but at an elevated humidity has a maximum and followed weight increase. The reasons of observed differences are discussed

  16. Phase transformation and hardness of SS 316 L steel cast alloy after heat treatment at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, S.; Prayitno, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    Heat treatment Study of SS 316 L cast alloy at high temperature was conducted. The alloy of SS 316 L was melted by arc melting furnace in argon atmosphere. Heat treatment of SS 316 L casting alloy was carried out in tube furnace at 1400 o C for period of 1/2, 1, and 2 hours. The optical microscopic characterization showed that SS 316 L cast has got dendritic micro structure with ferrite as the primary phase. After the heat treatment, the ferrite phase underwent gradual decrease followed by an increase of the austenite phase. The heat treatment process also resulted in the formation of the new grain boundary. The hardness examination revealed that for longer period of the heat treatment, the hardness of SS 316 L increased. (author)

  17. Influence of Microstructure and Composition Changes on Mechanical Characteristics of Aluminium Alloy After Heating and Cooling Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigit; Nuraini, E; Martoyo

    1998-01-01

    Influences of microstructure and chemical composition changes on mechanical characteristics of AIMg2 which were heated at 85-500 0 C and cooled with sands, water or air have been studied. Microstructure observation was carried out using optical microscope, while chemical composition determination by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). AIMg2 which has been heated at the relatively low temperature i. e, 200 0 C during 6 hours and cooled using sands showed a small change microstructure, but those will be clearly observed on the treatment at 300 0 C. The microstructure change is in agreement with the change of mechanical characteristic, I. e., the decreasing of tensile strength and hardness and increasing of elongation. After the temperature of treatment is higher than 300 0 C, the decreasing of the tensile strength was relatively constant, while the hardness increased. The microstructure of AIMg2 resulted from the heat treatment at temperature of 500 0 C was different with that of 300 0 C. Heat treatment at 500 0 C following by cooling in the sands, water or air respectively gave similar microstructure. Those also caused the change of alloying element content which was in agreement with decreasing of mechanical characteristics

  18. Aktivitas Biologis Imunoglobulin Yolk Anti Parvovirus Setelah Perlakuan Suhu (BIOLOGY ACTIVITIES OF IgY PARVOVIRUS AFTER HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Suartini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on the biological activity of various crude and precipitate specific Immunoglobulin (IgY Canine parvovirus (CPV. Hiperimun serum conducted on Isa Brown chickens injected with antigen CPV. Crude yolk Ig preparations derived from chicken serum without purification while the yolk Ig preparations precipitates obtained by the chicken serum was precipitated with ammonium sulfate and dialyzed. Both types of Ig yolk given treatment temperature 50ºC, 60ºC, 70ºC, and 80ºC for 15 minutes. To test Gel Precipitation Test (AGPT is performed to determine whether there is a specific IgY CPV in the serum of chickens. Biological activity of both types of Ig detected with Barriers Haemagglutination test (HI. The design used in this study is completely randomized design factorial. The results of this study indicate that the temperature was highly significant on the activities of IgY crude and precipitates. Activities IgY crude and precipitate down to the treatment temperature of 50ºC, 60ºC, 70ºC, and 80ºC. Geometric Mean Titer crude IgY respectively - were 26.67, 26, 25.33, and <2º Unit HI while IgY precipitates are respectively 26.33, 25.67, 24, and <2º Unit HI. Based on the results of this study concluded that the biological activity of crude IgY better than IgY precipitates after treatment of a wide range of temperatures.

  19. Effect of a Traditional Herbal Prescription, Kyung-Ok-Ko, on Male Mouse Spermatogenic Ability after Heat-Induced Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Sang Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK, a well-known traditional Korean medicinal formula, has long been used to invigorate the essential qi. This use of KOK may be associated with reproductive ability as a more modern concept. The protective effect of KOK was evaluated against deterioration of testicular function induced by heat exposure in male mice. Male fertility was disrupted by scrotal heat stress at 43°C for 5 weeks. KOK (0.25, 0.50, and 2.00 g/kg/day was administered orally at 3 h after the stress. To evaluate the protective effect of KOK, body weight, testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, and histopathological changes in the testes were evaluated. KOK-treated mice significantly recovered their general health, as evidenced by body weight. KOK-treated mice also showed significantly higher testes weights, sperm counts, and sperm motility than did the heat stress group. KOK-treated mice significantly recovered the morphological appearance of the seminiferous tubules and seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, KOK-treated mice significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced the protein expressions of apoptosis in the testes. KOK significantly protects against heat-induced damage to testicular function in male mice by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis, indicating that KOK may be an effective agent for treatment of heat-induced male infertility.

  20. Induction of thermal shock proteins and changes in radiosensitivity after heat treatment of Bombyx mori L. embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaev, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    The method of gel-electrophoresis was used to study thermal shock protein synthesis in Bombyx mori embryos exposed to a mixture of heat and gamma-radiation. Induction of thermal shock protein synthesis was not inhibited by gamma-radiation. It is suggested that thermal shock proteins are involved embryo radiosensitivity modification

  1. Aroma characterisation and retention after heat treatment and drying of fruits using extraction and GC-MS analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ráice, Rui

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the identification and characterisation of volatile components of fruits, and evaluation of the effect of heat treatment and drying on retention or loss of volatiles of fruits. The investigation included developing a procedure to extract volatile components from the fruit matrix, a purification step, separation, identification and quantification. Initial experiments with Vangueria infausta L. showed that some components, especially sugars, degrade during ...

  2. Prostaglandin E synthase interacts with inducible heat shock protein 70 after heat stress in bovine primary dermal fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Constanze; Viergutz, Torsten; Schwerin, Manfred; Weitzel, Joachim M

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to heat stress in dairy cows leads to undesired side effects that are reflected by complex alterations in endocrine parameters, such as reduced progesterone, estradiol, and thyroid hormone concentrations. These endocrine maladaptation leads to failure to resume cyclicity, a poor uterine environment and inappropriate immune responses in postpartum dairy cows. Prostaglandins (PG's) are lipid mediators, which serve as signal molecules in response to various external stimuli as well as to cell-specific internal signal molecules. A central role in PG synthesis plays prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) that catalyzes the isomerization of PGH2 to PGE2 .The present study was conducted to investigate heat stress associated PGES expression. Expression of PGES and inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), as a putative chaperonic protein, was studied in bovine primary fibroblasts under different heat shock conditions. Bovine primary fibroblasts produce PGE2 at homoiothermical norm temperature (38.5°C in bovine), but reduce PGE2 production rates under extreme heat stress (at 45°C for 6 h). By contrast, PGE2 production rates are maintained after a milder heat stress (at 41.5°C for 6 h). PGE2 synthesis is abolished by application of cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, indicating de novo synthesis. Heat stress increases HSP70 but not PGES protein concentrations. HSP70 physically interacts with PGES and the PGES-HSP70 complex did not dissociate upon heat stress at 45°C even after returning the cells to 37°C. The PGE2 production negatively correlates with the portion of PGES-HSP70 complex. These results suggest a protein interaction between HSP70 and PGES in dermal fibroblast cells. Blockage of PGES protein by HSP70 seems to interfere with the regulatory processes essential for cellular adaptive protection. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  3. Living in cold homes after heating improvements: Evidence from Warm-Front, England's Home Energy Efficiency Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, Roger; Gilbertson, Jan; Grimsley, Michael; Green, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate explanatory factors for persistent cold temperatures in homes which have received heating improvements. Design: Analysis of data from a national survey of dwellings and households (in England occupied by low-income residents) that had received heating improvements or repairs under the Warm Front Scheme. Methods: Over the winters of 2001-02 and 2002-03, householders recorded living room and main bedroom temperatures in a diary. Entries were examined for 888 households, which had received high level heating interventions. Two hundred and twenty-two households were identified as occupying cold homes, with mean bedroom temperature below 16 deg. C or mean living room temperatures below 18 deg. C. Binary logistic regression was used to model dwelling and household features and then occupants' behaviour and attitudes in the 'cold homes' sub-set compared with the remainder of the high intervention group. Seventy-nine supplementary, structured telephone interviews explored reasons given for lower temperatures. Using graphical and tabular methods, householders preferring cooler homes were distinguished from those who felt constrained in some way. Results: Cold homes predominate in pre-1930 properties where the householder remains dissatisfied with the heating system despite major improvements funded by Warm Front. Residents of cold homes are less likely to have long-standing illness or disability, but more likely to experience anxiety or depression. A small sample of telephone interviews reveals those preferring lower temperatures for health or other reasons, report less anxiety and depression than those with limited control over their home environment. Their 'thermal resistance' to higher temperatures challenges orthodox definitions of comfort and fuel poverty

  4. Zero-valent iron enhanced methanogenic activity in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge after heat and alkali pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Quan, Xie

    2015-04-01

    Heat or alkali pretreatment is the effective method to improve hydrolysis of waste sludge and then enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. However the pretreatment may inactivate the methanogens in the sludge. In the present work, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used to enhance the methanogenic activity in anaerobic sludge digester under two methanogens-suppressing conditions, i.e. heat-pretreatment and alkali condition respectively. With the addition of ZVI, the lag time of methane production was shortened, and the methane yield increased by 91.5% compared to the control group. The consumption of VFA was accelerated by ZVI, especially for acetate, indicating that the acetoclastic methanogenesis was enhanced. In the alkali-condition experiment, the hydrogen produced decreased from 27.6 to 18.8 mL when increasing the ZVI dosage from 0 to 10 g/L. Correspondingly, the methane yield increased from 1.9 to 32.2 mL, which meant that the H2-utilizing methanogenes was enriched. These results suggested that the addition of ZVI into anaerobic digestion of sludge after pretreated by the heat or alkali process could efficiently recover the methanogenic activity and increase the methane production and sludge reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Do diurnal patterns of branch carbon uptake and transpiration recover after heat waves? Results from a Mediterranean-type ecosystem experiencing seasonal and exceptional drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovaroff, A. L.; Pesqueira, A.; Sun, W.; Seibt, U.

    2016-12-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems are biodiversity hotspots, but increasing temperature and changes in precipitation will have significant impacts on vegetation, as evidenced by the current die-back of many woody species in southern California, USA, due to exceptional drought conditions. We installed flow-through chambers on four native woody plant species at Stunt Ranch, a University of California Natural Reserve System site, in order to continuously monitor fluxes of carbon and water at the branch-scale from the growing season through the annual seasonal drought period. Study species included Heteromeles arbutifolia, Malosma laurina, Salvia leucophylla, and Quercus agrifolia. Here we present the results of diurnal flux patterns before, during, and after two extreme heat waves events, when daily maximum temperatures doubled. Under typical summer conditions, which include hot, sunny days, study species exhibited two peaks in carbon assimilation during a diurnal cycle: a peak in the morning and a smaller, secondary peak in the afternoon, separated by a midday depression. During heat wave events, which generally lasted 3 days, species exhibited a small morning peak and no afternoon peak at all. All study species returned to their pre-heat wave diurnal flux patterns, which included the second afternoon peak, when weather conditions returned to normal. Since soil moisture was not affected by the short-term heat wave events, we conclude that the pronounced changes in diurnal patterns, including disappearance of the secondary afternoon peak, are the result of stomatal regulation in response to atmospheric water demand rather than root responses to soil moisture deficits. Our results demonstrate that carbon uptake of native species may be impacted under ongoing climate change when increased temperatures and drought conditions may be sustained.

  6. Sana experiments for self-acting removal of the after-heat in reactors with pebble bed fuel and their interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niessen, H.F.; Stoecker, Bernd; Amoignon, Olivier; Zuying, Gao; Jie, Liu

    1997-01-01

    For the confirmation of self-acting afterheat removal under hypothetical accident conditions from pebble bed reactors at the Research Center Juelich a test facility with an electrical heating input up to 30kW was erected and operated. A description of the test facility is given. Within the different tests the pebble diameter, the pebble material, the gas in the pebble bed, the heating-power and the arrangement of the heating were changed. Parts of the data were used within an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Program as benchmark problems for the code validation. All computer codes could simulate the test results with a sufficient good agreement, when the tests were executed with helium. For the tests with nitrogen the natural convection has to be taken into account. (author)

  7. Effect of high hydrogen content on metallurgical and mechanical properties of zirconium alloy claddings after heat-treatment at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turque, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Under hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident conditions, fuel cladding tubes made of zirconium alloys can be exposed to steam at high temperature (HT, up 1200 C) before being cooled and then quenched in water. In some conditions, after burst occurrence the cladding can rapidly absorb a significant amount of hydrogen (secondary hydriding), up to 3000 wt.ppm locally, during steam exposition at HT. The study deals with the effect, poorly studied up to date, of high contents of hydrogen on the metallurgical and mechanical properties of two zirconium alloys, Zircaloy-4 and M5, during and after cooling from high temperatures, at which zirconium is in its β phase. A specific facility was developed to homogeneously charge in hydrogen up to ∼ 3000 wt.ppm cladding tube samples of several centimeters in length. Phase transformations, chemical element partitioning and hydrogen precipitation during cooling from the β temperature domain of zirconium were studied by using several techniques, for the materials containing up to ∼ 3000 wt.ppm of hydrogen in average: in-situ neutron diffraction upon cooling from 700 C, X-ray diffraction, μ-ERDA, EPMA and electron microscopy in particular. The results were compared to thermodynamic predictions. In order to study the effect of high hydrogen contents on the mechanical behavior of the (prior-)μ phase of zirconium, axial tensile tests were performed at various temperatures between 20 and 700 C upon cooling from the β temperature domain, on samples with mean hydrogen contents up to ∼ 3000 wt.ppm. The results show that metallurgical and mechanical properties of the (prior-)β phase of zirconium alloys strongly depend on temperature and hydrogen content. (author) [fr

  8. Microstructure of Welded Joints of X5CrNiCuNb16-4 (17-4 PH Martensitic Stainlees Steel After Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziewiec A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents rezults of microstructure (LM, TEM investigation and hardness measurments of welded joints in martensitic precipitation hardened stainless steel containing copper, subjected to heat treatment. For the aging temperature up to 540 °C even for the very long times, the microstructure of the welded joints is similar to this one at lower temerature aging. After aging at 620 °C a distinct change of the microstructure was observed. Non-equilibrium solidification conditions of the weld metal, segregation and the diffusion of copper and the elements stablilizing the austenite cause the occurrence of the reverse transformation of the martensite into austenite as fast as just 1 hour at 620 °C. TEM investigations revealed the differences in dispersion of hardening copper precipitates after aging at temperature 620 °C for 1 and 4 hours.

  9. Alteration in Circulating Metabolites During and After Heat Stress in the Conscious Rat: Potential Biomarkers of Exposure and Organ-specific Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-24

    purine metabolism associated with myocardial steatosis and down-regulation of adipose triglyceride In heart [45,46] Xylonate (nucleotide sugars, pentose...isolated cardiac mitochondria: a possible cause for hepatic -derived cardiomyopathies? Cardiovasc Toxicol 2005, 5(1):63–73. 55. Gao X, Fu L, Xiao M, Xu C

  10. Bark- and wood-borer colonization of logs and lumber after heat treatment to ISPM 15 specifications: the role of residual bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2009-01-01

    Wood packaging material (WPM) is a major pathway for international movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. ISPM 15, the first international standard for treating WPM, was adopted in 2002 and first implemented in the United States in 2006. ISPM 15 allows bark to remain on WPM after treatment, raising concerns that insects could infest after treatment, especially...

  11. F-center mechanism of long-term relaxation in lead zirconate-titanate-based piezoelectric ceramics. 1. After-heating relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Ishchuk

    2015-12-01

    The oxygen vacancies-based model for description of the long-time relaxation processes is suggested. The model takes into account oxygen vacancies on the sample’s surface ends, their conversion into F+- and F0-centers under external effects (due to the liberation of the pyroelectric charge and subsequent relaxation of these centers into the simple oxygen vacancies after the actions termination. The initial sample’s state is electroneutrality one. F-center formation leads to the violation of the original sample’s electroneutrality, and generates DC electric field into the sample. Relaxation of F-centers is accompanied by decreasing of electric field, induced by them, and dielectric constant relaxation as consequent effect.

  12. Transmission electron microscopy of Ti-12Mo-13Nb Alloy aged after heat forging; Microscopia eletronica de transmissao da liga Ti-12Mo-13Nb envelhecida apos forjamento a quente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Nathalia Rodrigues [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Baldan, Renato [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Nunes, Carlos Angelo; Mei, Paulo Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gabriel, Sinara Borborema [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-06-15

    Metastable β-Ti alloys possess mechanical properties, in particular a elastic modulus that depends not only on its composition but also the applied thermomechanical treatments. These alloys require high mechanical strength and a low Young’s modulus to avoid stress shielding. Preliminary studies on the development of Ti- 13Nb-12Mo alloy showed than the better properties were obtained at aged at 500 ° C / 24 h after cold forging , whose microstructure consisted of bimodal α phase in the β matrix. In this work, Ti-12Mo-13Nb alloy was heat forged and aged at 500 deg C for 24h and the microstructure was analyzed by employing X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. According to the results, while the cold forging resulted in bimodal α phase in the β matrix, hot forging resulted in a fine and homogeneous α phase in the β matrix. (author)

  13. Measurement and Analysis of Residual MMA Monomer Concentration in OMMT Reinforced Denture Base Polymers after Heat-polymerized%有机蒙脱土增强的纳米义齿基托树脂中残留甲基丙烯酸甲酯含量的测定及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪波; 李志安; 王贻宁; 张超; 肖群

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究纳米义齿基托树脂在使用有机蒙脱土(OMMT)增强义齿基托的机械性能后,材料中OMMT的含量对固化后材料中残留甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)含量的影响,并确定合适的OMMT的混合比例,使固化后材料的机械性能得到较好提高的同时残留MMA含量也在可接受的范围内.同时对该固化材料在水中MMA的释放量进行测定.方法:材料中残留的MMA用丙酮进行抽提,材料在水中释放的MMA用氯仿萃取.抽提液和萃取液用气相色谱测定其中MMA的浓度.结果:OMMT的量对固化材料中残留MMA的量有显著性影响(P<0.05),随着固化材料中OMMT的量的增加,残留MMA的量也逐渐增加.当OMMT的混合比例为1wt%时,不仅材料的机械性能的到了较好提升,材料中的残留MMA的量也在YY0270-2003标准(最大2.2wt%)范围内.放置于37℃水中7 d后,MMA的释放量随时间的增加趋于稳定;观察3周,MMA水中释放量小于用丙酮抽提时所测得的残留MMA量.结论:固化材料中MMA的含量随着OMMT含量的增加而增加.材料在水中的MMA释放量小于用丙酮抽提时所测得的MMA量.

  14. Safety and environmental aspects of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, H.; Jensen, B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with those problems concerning safety and environmental aspects of the future fusion reactors (e.g. fuel cycle, magnetic failure, after heat disturbances, radioactive waste and magnetic field)

  15. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... suya (105 and 105/g and beef suya (102/g) before and after heating the following ... treatments in a completely randomized design of collected samples ... bacillus to differentiate between lactose and non-lactose fermenting.

  16. Effects of ship casualties on reactor safety and marine reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agena, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    Ship casualties such as collision, grounding, fire and explosions, leakage and partial flooding may severely impair the safety of the nuclear reactor plant and result in nuclear hazards to the crew and the environment. Engineered safeguards are being discussed for protection against such consequences: manoeuvrability, structural (passive) collision and fire protection, protection against external fires and pressure waves, after heat transmission in case of a casualty, and after heat transmission out off the sunk wreck. Existing requirements will be discussed, shortly

  17. Effects of heat treatment by immersion in household conditions on olive oil as compared to other culinary oils: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Nogueira-de-Almeida

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to evaluate the properties of refined (ROO and extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO in their natural state (fresh and after heating, while comparing them with each other and with refined soybean (SBO and refined sunflower seed oil (SFO. The methodology was designed to simulate, in controlled laboratory conditions, the home-frying process, while evaluating fatty acid profile (fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatography, concentration of phenolic compounds (Gallic acid dosage, antioxidant activity (DPPH, and production of polar compounds (thin layer chromatography before and after heating to 200 oC for six minutes. It was observed that, before and after heating, SBO and SFO are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA and ROO and EVOO are rich in monounsaturated FA. Fresh or heated, ROO and EVOO do not have trans FA, which are present in SBO and SFO, and increase in SBO after heating (+ 32.8%. The concentrations of phenolic compounds are always higher in olive oils, despite the decrease that occurs after heating (-7.5% in the ROO and -24.6% in EVOO. Antioxidant activity is greater when olive oils are fresh and remains present in EVOO after heating. The concentration of polar compounds was similar for all oils after heating. In conclusion, ROO and EVOO are the richest in monounsaturated FA even after heating, with no production of saturated or trans FA. Despite losing some antioxidant activity, heated EVOO remains richer in monounsaturated FA than ROO, SBO and SFO in the fresh version. All oils suffer similar rates of degradation.

  18. Flexible low-voltage organic transistors with high thermal stability at 250 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Tokuhara, Takeyoshi; Zschieschang, Ute; Klauk, Hagen; Takimiya, Kazuo; Sadamitsu, Yuji; Hamada, Masahiro; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2013-07-19

    Low-operating-voltage flexible organic thin-film transistors with high thermal stability using DPh-DNTT and SAM gate dielectrics are reported. The mobility of the transistors are decreased by 23% after heating to 250 °C for 30 min. Furthermore, flexible organic pseudo-CMOS inverter circuits, which are functional after heating to 200 °C, are demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Structural evolutions of the mechanically alloyed Al70Cu20Fe10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The i-phase was observed only for short-time milled powders after heat treatment above 600°C. The -phase was one of the major phases in the Al70Cu20Fe10 alloy. The w-Al7Cu2Fe1 phase (w-phase) was obtained only after heat treatment of the short-time milled and unmilled samples. The present investigation ...

  20. Residual stresses estimation in tubes after rapid heating of surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serikov, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented on estimation of residual stresses in tubes of steel types ShKh15, EhP836 and 12KIMF after heating by burning pyrotechnic substance inside tubes. External tube surface was heated up to 400-450 deg C under such treatment. Axial stresses distribution over tube wall thickness was determined for initial state, after routine heat treatment and after heating with the use of fireworks. Inner surface heating was shown to essentially decrease axial stresses in tubes

  1. Effects of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of Ni60/h-BN self-lubricating anti-wear composite coatings on 304 stainless steel by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Xiu-Bo; Yu, Peng-Cheng; Zhai, Yong-Jie; Qiao, Shi-Jie; Wang, Ming-Di; Wang, Yong-Guang; Chen, Yao

    2015-11-01

    Laser clad Ni60/h-BN self-lubricating anti-wear composite coating on 304 stainless steel were heat treated at 600 °C (stress relief annealing) for 1 h and 2 h, respectively. Effects of the phase compositions, microstructure, microhardness, nano-indentation and tribological properties of the composite coatings with and without heat treatment had been investigated systemically. Results indicated that three coatings mainly consist of the matrix γ-(Ni, Fe) solid solution, the CrB ceramic phases and the h-BN lubricating phases. The maximum microhardness of the coatings was first increased from 667.7 HV0.5 to 765.0 HV0.5 after heat treatment for 1 h, and then decreased to 698.3 HV0.5 after heat treatment for 2 h. The hardness of γ-(Ni, Fe) solid solution without heat treatment and after heat treatment 1 h and 2 h were 5.09 GPa, 7.20 GPa and 3.77 GPa, respectively. Compared with the coating without heat treatment, the friction coefficients of the coating after heat treatment were decreased obviously. Effects of the heat treatment time on friction coefficient were negligible, but were significant on wear volume loss. Comparatively speaking, the laser clad self-lubricating anti-wear composite coating after heat treatment for 1 h presented the best anti-wear and friction reduction properties.

  2. The use of easily debondable orthodontic adhesives with ceramic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Chiyako; Namura, Yasuhiro; Tsuruoka, Takashi; Hama, Tomohiko; Kaji, Kaori; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally produced an easily debondable orthodontic adhesive (EDA) containing heat-expandable microcapsules. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the best debondable condition when EDA was used for ceramic brackets. Shear bond strengths were measured before and after heating and were compared statistically. Temperatures of the bracket base and pulp wall were also examined during heating. Bond strengths of EDA containing 30 wt% and 40 wt% heat-expandable microcapsules were 13.4 and 12.9 MPa, respectively and decreased significantly to 3.8 and 3.7 MPa, respectively, after heating. The temperature of the pulp wall increased 1.8-3.6°C after heating, less than that required to induce pulp damage. Based on the results, we conclude that heating for 8 s during debonding of ceramic brackets bonded using EDA containing 40 wt% heat-expandable microcapsules is the most effective and safest method for the enamel and pulp.

  3. The pretective effects of heat shock protein 70 on radiation injury of V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Yongchun; Zhang Baoguo; Hong Chengjiao

    2008-01-01

    Westem blot was used to detect the expression of heat shock protein 70 in V79 cells after heat shock pretreatment; V79 cells were irradiated using γ-ray after heat shock pretreatment, survival rate was observed using Colony formation assay. Our study shows that 1) the overexpression of heat shock protein 70 was observed in cells recovering for 1 hour after heat shock pretreatment, with peak expression in cells recovering for 4 hours, and could last for 24 hours; 2) heat shock pretreatment was able to elevate survival rate of V79 cells after irradiation by 60 Co γ ray (when the irradiation dose was less than 6 Gy). The results indicate that heat shock protein 70 has protective effect on radiation induced cell death of V79 cells (when the irradiation dose was less than 6 Gy). (authors)

  4. Heat stress and recovery of photosystem II efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars acclimated to different growth temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Sabibul; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The effect of heat stress on photosystem II (PS II) efficiency and post-stress recovery was studied in four wheat cultivars using chlorophyll fluorescence. The main aim was to examine the cultivar differences in relation to inhibition and recovery of PSII functionality after heat stress...... and 25 °C) and subjected to heat stress (40 °C) for two days at early tillering and three days at anthesis and early grain development stages. The plants were returned to their original growth conditions after heat stress and recovery was observed for three days. The maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv...... heat tolerance characteristics as compared to the other three cultivars. The largest decrease in Fv/Fm and F′q/F′m after heat stress occurred in the cultivar PWS7, which did not recover completely after 72 h. All cultivars grown at 25 °C had a slightly increased heat tolerance and better recovery...

  5. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Impact Toughness of Ti-6Al-4V Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee K.-A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study manufactured Ti-6Al-4V alloy using one of the powder bed fusion 3D-printing processes, selective laser melting, and investigated the effect of heat treatment (650°C/3hrs on microstructure and impact toughness of the material. Initial microstructural observation identified prior-β grain along the building direction before and after heat treatment. In addition, the material formed a fully martensite structure before heat treatment, and after heat treatment, α and β phase were formed simultaneously. Charpy impact tests were conducted. The average impact energy measured as 6.0 J before heat treatment, and after heat treatment, the average impact energy increased by approximately 20% to 7.3 J. Fracture surface observation after the impact test showed that both alloys had brittle characteristics on macro levels, but showed ductile fracture characteristics and dimples at micro levels.

  6. Heat treatment of processing sludge of ornamental rocks: application as pozzolan in cement matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Uliana

    Full Text Available The sector of ornamental rocks produces significant volume of waste during the sawing of the blocks and demand to find ways to recycle, given its environmental impact. Considering the possibilities of use of industrial by-products as mineral admixtures, aiming at sustainable development in the construction industry, this paper aims to study the performance of the processing sludge of ornamental rocks and grinding after heat treatment, based on their potential application as partial substitute for cement. The residue was characterized, cast and milled to produce glassy material. Was analyzed the mechanical performance and pozzolanic activity with partial replacement of cement by waste in natural condition and after heat treatment in mortars for comparison. The results were promising, so it was possible to verify that after heat treatment, the treated waste is presented as a material with pozzolanic characteristics.

  7. Influência da quantidade de amônio na síntese de nanopartículas de óxido de ferro por microemulsão The influence of ammonium quantity on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles in microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Cortez Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized in microemulsion systems composed by Triton X-100/hexyl alcohol/cyclohexane/aqueous solution. The nanoparticles were synthesized in microemulsions containing different amounts of ammonium, in order to evaluate the influence of this parameter on the size of the nanoparticles and on the phase transformation after heat treatment. Powder materials were obtained after centrifugation, washing and drying, and they were analyzed as synthesized and after heating at 350, 500 and 1000 °C. It was observed that the higher amount of ammonium induced smaller particles and minor phase transformation, possibly due to a preferential nucleation process.

  8. Thermally processed titanium oxides film on Si(0 0 1) surface studied with scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, T.; Shudo, K.; Sato, K.; Ohno, S.; Tanaka, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal structural changes of TiO x films built on a Si(0 0 1) surface were investigated at the nanometer scale with scanning tunneling microscopy. Electronic properties of individual clusters were classified by means of scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The differential conductance (dI/dV) near the Fermi energy showed that nano-clusters were transformed from semiconducting Ti-silicates into metallic Ti-silicides after heating to 970 K. Peaks of normalized differential conductance (dI/dV/(I/V)) of the clusters shifted after heating to about 1070 K, indicating exclusion of oxygen from the clusters.

  9. Properties of textile grade ceramic fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudnos, E.

    1992-01-01

    The availability of textile grade ceramic fibers has sparked great interest for applications in composite reinforcement and high temperature insulation. This paper summarizes the properties of various small diameter textile grade ceramic fibers currently available. Room temperature mechanical and electrical properties of the fibers are discussed for three cases: ambient conditions, after heat aging in argon, and after heat aging in wet air. Dow Corning (R) HPZ Ceramic Fiber, a silicon nitride type fiber, is shown to have improved retention of mechanical and electrical properties above 1200 C

  10. Nanofibre growth from cobalt carbide produced by mechanosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barriga-Arceo, L; Orozco, E; Garibay-Febles, V; Bucio-Galindo, L; Mendoza Leon, H; Castillo-Ocampo, P; Montoya, A

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical alloying was used to prepare cobalt carbide. Microstructural characterization of samples was performed by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy methods. In order to produce carbon nanotubes, the cobalt carbide was precipitated after heating at 800 and 1000 deg. C for 10 min. Nanofibres of about 10-50 nm in diameter, 0.04-0.1 μm in length and 20-200 nm in diameter and 0.6-1.2 μm in length were obtained after heating at 800 and 1000 deg. C, respectively, by means of this process

  11. Nanofibre growth from cobalt carbide produced by mechanosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Barriga-Arceo, L [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Colonia San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico DF, 07730 (Mexico); Orozco, E [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364 CP 01000, DF (Mexico); Garibay-Febles, V [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Colonia San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico DF, 07730 (Mexico); Bucio-Galindo, L [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364 CP 01000, DF (Mexico); Mendoza Leon, H [FM-UPALM, IPN, Apartado Postal 75-395 CP 07300, DF (Mexico); Castillo-Ocampo, P [UAM-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-334 CP 09340, DF (Mexico); Montoya, A [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Colonia San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico DF, 07730 (Mexico)

    2004-06-09

    Mechanical alloying was used to prepare cobalt carbide. Microstructural characterization of samples was performed by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy methods. In order to produce carbon nanotubes, the cobalt carbide was precipitated after heating at 800 and 1000 deg. C for 10 min. Nanofibres of about 10-50 nm in diameter, 0.04-0.1 {mu}m in length and 20-200 nm in diameter and 0.6-1.2 {mu}m in length were obtained after heating at 800 and 1000 deg. C, respectively, by means of this process.

  12. Nanocrystallinity induced by heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Meaz, T.M.; Bender Koch, C.

    1997-01-01

    Samples of akaganeite (beta-FeOOH) and goethite (alpha-FeOOH) have been studied after heating at various temperatures up to 800 C. X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy measurements showed that slightly below the temperatures at which the samples transform to hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) the oxy......Samples of akaganeite (beta-FeOOH) and goethite (alpha-FeOOH) have been studied after heating at various temperatures up to 800 C. X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy measurements showed that slightly below the temperatures at which the samples transform to hematite (alpha-Fe2O3...

  13. Effect of using heat-inactivated serum with the Abbott human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III antibody test.

    OpenAIRE

    Jungkind, D L; DiRenzo, S A; Young, S J

    1986-01-01

    The Abbott enzyme immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) antibody was evaluated to determine the effect of using heat-inactivated (56 degrees C for 30 min) serum as the sample. Each of 58 nonreactive serum samples gave a higher A492 value when tested after heat inactivation. Ten of the samples became reactive after heating. Heat-inactivated serum should not be used in the current Abbott HTLV-III antibody test, because thi...

  14. The determination of aldehydes in the exhaust gases of LPG fuelled engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, G.A.F.M.; Burtner, C.W.J.; Visser, H.; Rijks, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The exhaust gas of a LPG fuelled engine is drawn through two bubblers in series in an ice bath, and filled with saturated 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine in 2M HCl. After heating the derivatives are extracted with toluene-cyclohexane and 1l samples injected on-column on a OV1 capillary column. Using an

  15. Fabrication process of a superconducting multifilament conductor of a cable and resulting electric conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevrier, A.; Verhaege, T.; Bonnet, P.

    1990-01-01

    Elementary conductors constituted of a plurality of superconducting filaments in a metallic matrix are prepared and then twisted. Elementary conductors with a diameter between 0.05 and 0.25 mm without electric insulation are twisted after heating with a pitch of four time the diameter, finally the conductor is insulated [fr

  16. Fabrication process of a superconducting multifilament conductor of a cable and resulting electric conductor. Procede de fabrication d'un conducteur a brins multifilamentaires supraconducteurs, et conducteur en resultant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fevrier, A; Verhaege, T; Bonnet, P

    1990-10-05

    Elementary conductors constituted of a plurality of superconducting filaments in a metallic matrix are prepared and then twisted. Elementary conductors with a diameter between 0.05 and 0.25 mm without electric insulation are twisted after heating with a pitch of four time the diameter, finally the conductor is insulated.

  17. A Ba-free sealing glass with a high CTE and excellent interface stability optimized for SOFC/SOEC stack applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritucci, Ilaria; Agersted, Karsten; Zielke, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    -mechanical properties and compositional variations are reviewed and discussed by thermal analyses and in situ XRD, in order to design and optimize the sealing profile and reduce the residual porosity. The glass after heat treatment partially devitrifies into augite and nepheline with residual glass phase of around 64...

  18. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The friction coefficient, wear (missing volume) and hardness of coatings have been studied in comparison with uncoated sample. The results demonstrate that the density of Al2O3/Ti composite coating increased considerably after heat treatment process. Moreover, wearing resistance of TiAl6V4 alloy escalated considerably ...

  19. Trehalose degradation and glucose efflux precede cell ejection during germination of heat-resistant ascospores of Talaromyces macrosporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Jan; van Driel, Kenneth G A; Sanders, Mark G; Molenaar, Douwe; Houbraken, Jos A M P; Samson, Rob A; Kets, Edwin P W

    Talaromyces macrosporus forms ascospores that survive pasteurization treatments. Ascospores were dense (1.3 g ml(-1)), relatively dry [0.6 g H(2)O (g dry weight)(-1)] and packed with trehalose (9-17% fresh weight). Trehalose was degraded to glucose monomers between 30 and 100 min after heat

  20. Trehalose degradation and glucose efflux precede cell ejection during germination of heat-resistant acospores of Talaromyces macrosporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, J.; Driel, van K.G.A.; Sanders, M.G.; Molenaar, D.; Houbraken, J.A.M.P.; Samson, R.A.; Kets, E.P.W.

    2002-01-01

    Talaromyces macrosporus forms ascospores that survive pasteurization treatments. Ascospores were dense (1.3 g ml-1), relatively dry [0.6 g H2O (g dry weight)-1] and packed with trehalose (9-17␏resh weight). Trehalose was degraded to glucose monomers between 30 and 100 min after heat activation of

  1. Defining Translational Reprogramming in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    ribosomes revealed discontinuous electron density of nascent chains after ~4 amino acids below the PTC [24], a strong indication of ribosome plasticity... plasm ids and co llected before heat shock (HS) or 2.5 h after heat shock (43 •c, 1 h). Top bands are uncleaved MRPL18 precursors. )3-actin is a I

  2. Gamma irradiation on fermentation mashes consisting mainly of cane molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, H; Shibabe, S; Ito, H

    1969-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was successfully used to pasteurize molasses. There was a 10% survival of Bacillus subtilis after irradiation with 0.3 Mrad compared to a survival of 70% after heating for 30 minutes at 80/sup 0/C. When irradiated mash was used to produce alcohol, fermentation rate and ethanol yield were higher than for heat-pasteurized mash.

  3. Experimental studies on radiation damages of CsI(Tl) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jingtang; Mao Yufang; Dong Xiaoli; Chen Duanbao; Li Zuhao

    1997-01-01

    The results of experimental studies on radiation damage of CsI(Tl) crystal were reported. There are radiation damage effects on CsI(Tl) crystal. Experimental studies on recovery of damaged CsI(Tl) crystals were made. It seems that after heating at 200 degree C for 4 hours, the damaged crystals could be recovered completely

  4. Processing–structure–property relations of chemically bonded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    different calcium phosphates (brushite, monetite and cal- ... treatment is 8 MPa and after heating to 1000°C is 11 MPa. ... figure 1. 2.1 Sample preparation. A patented phosphoric acid formulation from ... added: mechanical mixing using metallic blades resulted ... was a Desktop Micro CT-System (Skyscan 1072), run at.

  5. Rare behaviour of a catalyst pellet catalyst dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Loonen, R.A.; Martens, A.

    1986-01-01

    Temperature overshoots and undershoots were found for a Pd on alumina catalyst pellet in its course towards a new steady state after a change in concentration of one of the reactants ethylene or hydrogen. When cooling the pellet, after heat-up by reaction, with pure hydrogen a sudden temperature

  6. Nickel-aluminum diffusion: A study of evolution of microstructure and phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein; Kjartansdóttir, Cecilía Kristín; Burrows, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Microstructural and phase evolution of an aluminum deposit on nickel, after heat treatment at 883 K, is studied by means of various microscopy techniques, i.e. energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, backscattered electron imaging, electron backscatter diffraction, ion channeling contrast imaging...

  7. Final Assembly, Testing and Processing of the Rigidizable Inflatable Get-Away-Special Experiment (RIGEX) for Spaceflight Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Determined heating profile of tubes, Verified Piezo patch funtionability after heating, Full Scale Deployment Test, Pressure System Test, SERB - Moody...Ohm Resistor (Vishay Dale) 1 704.910.3 EAO Impulse Switch 1 H335111200 Current Display (Simpson) 1 MB 2061SS1W01- CA Bushing Mount Miniature

  8. Acquired Thermotolerance and Heat Shock Proteins in Thermophiles from the Three Phylogenetic Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trent, Jonathan D.; Gabrielsen, Mette; Jensen, Bo

    1994-01-01

    Thermophilic organisms from each of the three phylogenetic domains (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya) acquired thermotolerance after heat shock. Bacillus caldolyticus grown at 60 degrees C and heat shocked at 69 degrees C for 10 min showed thermotolerance at 74 degrees C, Sulfolobus shibatae grown...

  9. Tissue-specific alternative splicing and expression of ATP1B2 gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After heat-stress, the expression levels of the different transcripts were lower in different tissues; however, the expression of the ATP1B2-complete transcript increased in heart and lung tissues. The results of this research provide some useful information for further studies into the function of the bovine ATP1B2 gene.

  10. Physiological effects after exposure to heat : A brief literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Many employees are exposed to heat stress during their work. Although the direct effects of heat are well reported, the long term physiological effects occurring after heat exposure are hardly described. The present manuscript addresses these issues in the form of a brief literature review. Repeated

  11. Method of treating organic material. [addition of formate, heating under pressure, and distilling the mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, H O.V.; Cederquist, K N

    1932-02-08

    A method is given of treating organic material such as wood, peat, shale, etc. It is characterized by the addition of formate to the material, before, during, or after heating it under pressure with alkalis, earth alkalis, et cetera, and by the mass thus produced undergoing dry distillation. The patent has three more claims.

  12. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet

  13. Formation and Stability of Foams Made with Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Foam properties of a sunflower isolate (SI), as well as those of helianthinin and sunflower albumins (SFAs), were studied at various pH values and ionic strengths and after heat treatment. Less foam could be formed from helianthinin than from SFAs, but foam prepared with helianthinin was more stable

  14. Hyperthermia radiosensitization in human glioma cells comparison of recovery of polymerase activity, survival, and potentially lethal damage repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Feeley, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    DNA polymerase inactivation is compared to thermal radiosensitization and inhibition of damage recovery in human glioma cells. Two human glioma cell lines (U87MG and U373MG) were exposed to hyperthermia and irradiation. Hyperthermia was given at 43 degrees C and 45 degrees C and DNA polymerase α + δ + ε and β activities were measured. Hyperthermia was given at various times before irradiation and the degree of radiosensitization and polymerase activity was assessed at various times after heating. In addition the ability of cells to undergo repair of potentially lethal radiation damage was assessed for cells irradiated at various times after heating. Polymerase α + δ + ε and polymerase β both recovered after heating but polymerase β was faster and was complete in U373MG but not in the U87MG cell lines after 48 h incubation after heating (45 degrees C, 60 min). Incubation, between hyperthermia and irradiation resulted in a loss of radiosensitization and a loss of inhibition of repair of potentially lethal damage. These changes correlated well with recovery of polymerase β but not with polymerase α + δ + ε. The correlation of polymerase β activity and thermoradiosensitization and its recovery indicate that polymerase β may be one of the mechanisms involved in thermoradiosensitization. 35 refs., 7 figs

  15. Analysis of micro-structure in raw and heat treated meat emulsions from multimodal X-ray microtomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Nielsen, Mikkel Schou; Miklos, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a novel non-destructive X-ray technique for analyzing meat emulsions before and after heat treatment. The method is based on X-ray grating-interferometry where three complementary imaging modalities are obtained simultaneously measuring the absorption, refraction and scatterin...

  16. Effect of heat treatment temperature on microstructure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of electrochemical performance measurements for the HCSs as anode material for lithium ion batteries indicate that the discharge capacity of the HCSs is improved after heat treatment at 800°C compared with the as-prepared HCSs and have a maximum value of 357 mAh/g and still retains 303 mAh/g after 40 ...

  17. Deposition of highly oriented (K,Na)NbO3 films on flexible metal substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Thydén, Karl; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2018-01-01

    In view of developing flexible, highly textured Pb-free piezoelectric thin films, (K,Na)NbO3 was deposited by chemical solution deposition on cube-textured Ni-W alloy substrates. After heat treatment, a strong (001)pc out-of-plane preferential orientation is created in the (K,Na)NbO3 layer, which...

  18. Reconstruction of steam generators super emergency feadwater supply system (SHNC) and steam dump stations to the atmosphere system PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzma, J.

    2001-01-01

    Steam Generators Super Emergency Feadwater Supply System (SHNC) and Steam Dump Stations to the Atmosphere System (PSA) are two systems which cooperate to remove residual heat from reactor core after seismic event. SHNC assure feeding of the secondary site of steam generator (Feed) where after heat removal.from primary loops, is relieved to the atmosphere by PSA (Bleed) in form of steam. (author)

  19. Biotransformation of algal waste by biological fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... garbage contains different groups of bacteria whose number is variable: the total aerobic mesophilic ... was obtained after heating to a temperature of 550°C for. 24 h. ... solution 1 ml and made up to 1000 ml distilled water and.

  20. Method of nickel-plating large components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbuer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The invention concerns a method of nickel-plating components, according to which even large components can be provided with an adequate layer of nickel which is pore- and stress-free and such that water is not lost. According to the invention, the component is heated and, after heating, is pickled, rinsed, scoured, plated in an electrolysis process, and rinsed again. (author)

  1. Identification and molecular properties of SUMO-binding proteins in arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Hyeongcheol; Choi, Wonkyun; Park, Heejin; Cheong, Misun; Koo, Yoonduck; Shin, Gilok; Chung, Woosik; Kim, Woeyeon; Kim, Mingab; Bressan, Ray Anthony; Bohnert, Hans Jü rgen; Lee, Sangyeol; Yun, Daejin

    2011-01-01

    in Arabidopsis and to probe for biological functions of SUMO proteins, we constructed 6xHis-3xFLAG fused AtSUMO1 (HFAtSUMO1) controlled by the CaMV35S promoter for transformation into Arabidopsis Col-0. After heat treatment, an increased sumoylation pattern

  2. Acoustical-Levitation Chamber for Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Trinh, E.; Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Jacobi, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sample moved to different positions for heating and quenching. Acoustical levitation chamber selectively excited in fundamental and second-harmonic longitudinal modes to hold sample at one of three stable postions: A, B, or C. Levitated object quickly moved from one of these positions to another by changing modes. Object rapidly quenched at A or C after heating in furnace region at B.

  3. Hydrothermal syntheses and single crystal structural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Colourless. 84 lined stainless steel bomb. After heating in a pro- grammable oven at the respective temperatures and autogenous pressures for the notified time scale, cooling was carried out on a ramp of 10°C/h to room temperature. The crystals were collected by filtration, washed with, deionized water followed by diethyl-.

  4. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microhardness profile of the transverse section of the steel after heat treatment in combination with Al-Li alloy. Close to bottom region of the die container (figure 5), a crack about 3-5 um wide appears as though formed by a penetrating fluid. This crack also separates regions of ductile failure on the right (interior) and cracked ...

  5. Cooking birch pollen-related food: divergent consequences for IgE- and T cell-mediated reactivity in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohle, Barbara; Zwölfer, Bettina; Heratizadeh, Annice; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Antonia, Yuliya Dall; Alter, Mareike; Keller, Walter; Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Werfel, Thomas; Ebner, Christof

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 cross-reacts with homologous food allergens, resulting in IgE-mediated oral allergy syndromes (OASs). To avoid this food, allergy allergologists and guidebooks advise patients to consume birch pollen-related foods after heating. OBJECTIVE: We

  6. Some features of thermobaric investigations of Donbass coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babenko, V.P.; Kosinskii, V.A.; Kosourov, V.I.; Prokopov, N.S.

    1979-01-01

    The entire metamorphic series in the Donets coalfield was investigated. Since the coals fail to combust throughout the tests, it is possible to examine the sample microscopically after heat treatment, a fact which may be of interest when examining coking charges. An instrument has been designed for qualitative analysis of gases using a coupled chromatograph.

  7. Efficiency of inherent protection mechanisms for an improved HTR safety concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, K.; Buescher, R.; Gerwin, H.; Schenk, W. [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Reaktorentwicklung

    1981-01-15

    For a preliminary design of a 350 MWsub(th) annular core derived from AVR-reactor the efficiency of inherent protection mechanisms is discussed. After-heat removal and auto-shut down potential are demonstrated for intact and complete failure of core heat sinks.

  8. Cooked meat products made of coarsely ground pork: the main bacterial strains of bacterial flora, their heat resistance and effect on spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Petäjä

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the bacterial flora of the surface layer and the core of meat products made of coarsely ground pork at the moment of spoilage when stored at 7°C or 4°C. The dominating strains were isolated, their heat resistance was studied in APT-broth, on APT-agar and in coarsely ground cured pork, and their growth after heating and effect on spoilage were followed in coarsely ground cured pork. The first signs of spoilage appeared in the surface layer of the products. The strains were coccoid lactic acid bacteria with counts ranging from 3,5 to 7.8 log cfu (colony forming units/g. They survived only accidentally after heating for 15 minutes at 72°C in APT-broth. The core of the products contained only coccoid lactic acid bacteria or only pseudomonads or both as the main bacterial strains. The counts ranged from 2.6 to 6.0 log cfu/g. Most of the strains isolated from the core survived after heating for 30 minutes at 72°C in APT-broth in at least three tests out of six. The most noticeable result of the study was the occurence of heat-resistant pseudomonads in the core. It must be pointed out that all pseudomonads found survived after heating for 60 minutes at 72°C in APT-broth, and often after heating for 15 minutes at 72°C in coarsely ground cured pork (core 72°C. The cfu number of the two most heat-resistant streptococcus strains decreased only 1 log unit over 15 minutes at 72°C in coarsely ground cured pork. The numbers of inoculated pseudomonads decreased but those of streptococci rose by a maximum of 1 log unit when the experimental porks were kept at 4°C after heating. This indicates that streptococci and pseudomonads probably do not constitute a serious spoilage factor in cooked meat products, but spoilage is generally effected by bacteria which have contaminated the surface layer of the products after heat treatment.

  9. Microstructure of MCMgAl12Zn1 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the structure of the cast magnesium alloys as cast state and after heat treatment cooled with different cooling rate, depending on the cooling medium (furnace, water, air. For investigations samples in shape of 250x150x25 mm plates were used. The structure have been study in the light microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron back scattering facility. The effects of the addition of Al on the microstructure were also studied. In the analysed alloys a structure of α solid solution and fragile phase β(Mg17Al12 occurred mainly on grain borders as well as eutectic and phase with Mn, Fe and Si. Investigation are carried out for the reason of chemical composition influence and precipitation processes influence to the structure and mechanical properties of the magnesium cast alloys with different chemical composition in as cast alloys and after heat treatment.

  10. Comparison of Solid and Hollow Torque Transducer Shaft Response in a High Alloy Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby, Christopher L.; Hecox, Bryan G.; Wiewel, Joseph L.; Boley, Mark S.

    2007-03-01

    Recent investigations of the torque transducer response function (ambient field signal versus applied torque or shear stress) have been conducted in a 13% chromium and 8% nickel stainless steel alloy in both the hollow shaft and solid shaft configuration. An understanding of both is needed for applications with differing yield strength and hardness requirements. Axial hysteresis measurements conducted before and after heat treatment exhibited little difference in coercivity and retentivity between the two sample types. However, the field mapping and transducer sensitivity studies showed the hollow shaft configuration to have a far superior degree of polarization in the sensory region and to exhibit an enhanced sensitivity, especially after heat treatment. This is most likely due to its more efficient provision of closed circumferential geometry for the field lines and improved grain alignment during heat treatment.

  11. Effect of second-phase particles on the properties of W-based materials under high-heat loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao–Yue Tan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available W, W-TaC, and W-TiC materials were subjected to heat–load tests in an electron beam facility (10keV, 8kW at 100 pulses. After heat loading, severe cracks and plastic deformation were detected on the surface of pure W materials. However, plastic deformation was the primary change on the surfaces of W-TaC and W-TiC alloys. This phenomenon was due to the second-phase (TaC and TiC particles dispersed in the W matrix, which strengthened the grain boundaries and prevented crack formation and propagation. In addition, the microhardness of W and W-TiC obviously decreased, whereas that of W-TaC did not change considerably before and after heat loading.

  12. [Effect of heat treatment on the structure of a Cu-Zn-Al-Ni system dental alloy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastaldi, A C; Adorno, A T; Beatrice, C R; Mondelli, J; Ishikiriama, A; Lacefield, W

    1990-01-01

    This article characterizes the structural phases present in the copper-based metallic alloy system "Cu-Zn-Al-Ni" developed for dental use, and relates those phases to other properties. The characterization was obtained after casting (using the lost wax process), and after heat treatment. In order to obtain better corrosion resistance by changing the microstructure, the castings were submitted to 30, 45 and 60 minutes of heat treatment at the following temperatures: 750 degrees C, 800 degrees C, and 850 degrees C. The various phases were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results after heat treatment showed a phase (probably Cu3Al), that could be responsible for the improvement in the alloy's resistance to corrosion as compared to the as-cast structure.

  13. First isolation of a novel thermostable antifungal peptide secreted by Aspergillus clavatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouri-Gargouri, Houda; Gargouri, Ali

    2008-11-01

    A novel antifungal peptide produced by an indigenous fungal strain (VR) of Aspergillus clavatus was purified. The antifungal peptide was enriched in the supernatant after heat treatment at 70 degrees C. The thermostable character was exploited in the first purification step, as purified peptide was obtained after ultrafiltration and reverse phase-HPLC on C18 column application. The purified peptide named "AcAFP" for A. clavatus antifungal peptide, has molecular mass of 5773Da determined by MALDI-ToF spectrometry. The N-terminal sequence showed a notable identity to the limited family of antifungal peptides produced by ascomycetes fungi. The AcAFP activity remains intact even after heat treatment at 100 degrees C for 1h confirming its thermostability. It exhibits a strong inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of several serious human and plant pathogenic fungi: Fusariuym oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, whereas AcAFP did not affect yeast and bacterial growth.

  14. Peculiar temperature aging effects on the piezoelectric constant of Pb(Mg1sol3Nb2sol3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal near the morphotropic phase boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guisheng; Wang Xiaofeng; Yang Danfeng; Duan Ziqing; Feng Chude; Chen Kai

    2005-01-01

    After temperature aging, peculiar changes of the piezoelectric response of 0.67 Pb(Mg 1sol3 Nb 2sol3 )O 3- 0.33 PbTiO 3 crystals appeared. The piezoelectric constant d 33 of the (001)-cut crystals with T RT ∼35 deg. C abruptly rose more than 1000 pC/N in some regions after heat treatment at 65 deg. C for 12 h. For the (001)-cut crystals with T RT ∼74 deg. C, in spite of a fall of 40-100 pC/N after heat treatment at 65 deg. C for 12 h, the values of d 33 rose 50-100 pC/N unexpectedly after the subsequent heat treatment at 85 deg. C for 4 h. The structure adjustment caused by the internal stress relaxation during heat treatment at T>T RT accounted for the enhancement of d 33

  15. Electrical contacts on polyimide substrates for flexible thin film photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J

    2003-05-01

    Both frontal and back electrical contacts have been developed onto polyimide sheets (Kapton KJ[reg]) as alternative substrates to the conventional glasses, for application in lightweight and flexible thin film photovoltaic devices. Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been deposited by r.f.-magnetron sputtering as the frontal electrical contact. On the other hand, Mo, Cr and Ni layers have been prepared by e-gun evaporation for the back electrical connections. ITO films deposited onto polyimide have shown similar optical transmittance and higher electrical conductivity than onto glass substrates. The transmittance decreases and the conductivity increases after heating at 400 sign C in vacuum atmosphere. Mo, Cr and Ni layers deposited onto polyimide showed similar structure and electrical conductivity than onto conventional glasses. The properties of Mo and Cr layers remained unchanged after heating at 400 sign C in selenium atmosphere.

  16. Self-healing of cracks in Ag joining layer for die-attachment in power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuantong, E-mail: chenchuantong@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Jiu, Jinting; Zhang, Hao; Sugahara, Tohru [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Iwashige, Tomohito; Sugiura, Kazuhiko; Tsuruta, Kazuhiro [Research Division 3, Denso Corporation, Komenoki-cho, Minamiyama 500-1, Nissin, Aichi 470-0111 (Japan)

    2016-08-29

    Sintered silver (Ag) joining has attracted significant interest in power devices modules for its ability to form stable joints with a porous interconnection layer. A function for the self-healing of cracks in sintered porous Ag interlayers at high temperatures is discovered and reported here. A crack which was prepared on a Ag joining layer was closed after heating at 200 °C in air. The tensile strength of pre-cracked Ag joining layer specimens recovers to the value of non-cracked specimens after heating treatment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to probe the self-healing mechanism. TEM images and electron diffraction patterns show that a large quantity of Ag nanoparticles formed at the gap with the size less than 10 nm, which bridges the crack in the self-healing process. This discovery provides additional motivation for the application of Ag as an interconnection material for power devices at high temperature.

  17. Effects of crystallographic texture on stress-migration resistance in copper thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, J.; Wada, M.; Sanada, M.; Maruyama, K.

    2002-01-01

    The crystallographic texture of heat-treated Cu thin films and its effects on stress-migration resistance were studied as a function of film thickness within a range of 50-900 nm. All as-deposited films had (111) texture. After heat treatment at 723 K, texture transition from (111) to (100) was observed in films of thickness greater than 300 nm. The (111) texture films after heat treatment showed severe stress migration; in contrast, the (100) texture films showed no noticeable stress migration. The observed stress-migration resistance in the (100) texture films can be attributed to the absence of twins and to lower thermal stress as compared with the (111) texture films

  18. Investigation of the structure and properties of the titanium alloy of the Ti-Al-Mo-V-Fe-Cu-Zr-Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, V.N.; Dolzhanskij, Yu.M.; Zakharov, Yu.I.; Znamenskaya, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    The alloys of martensitic type in the Ti-Al-Mo-V-Fe-Cu-Zr-Sn system after heat treatment are investigated. To determine the composition of the titanium alloy methods of mathematical planning of the experiment are applied. Results of mechanical tests of the alloys are presented, as well as coefficients of models for the properties, calculated according to these data. The investigation establishes the composition of a high-strength titanium alloy of a martensitic type, containing 4.5-60 % Al, 2.0-4.0 % Mo, 0.5-1.9 % V, 0.3-1.5 % Fe, 0.3-1.5 % Cu, 1.5-3.0 % Sn, 2.0-4.0 % Zr. The semiproducts, produced by deformation in β-field, after heat treatment have an ultimate strength >=120 kg/mm 2 , satisfactory ductility and reliability. The alloy possesses rather a high heat resistance and can be operated at 400-500 deg C

  19. NMR-Based Metabonomic Investigation of Heat Stress in Myotubes Reveals a Time-Dependent Change in the Metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straadt, Ida K; Young, Jette F; Bross, Peter

    2010-01-01

    NMR-based metabonomics was applied to elucidate the time-dependent stress responses in mouse myotubes after heat exposure of either 42 or 45 degrees C for 1 h. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the gradual time-dependent changes in metabolites contributing to the clustering...... and separation of the control samples from the different time points after heat stress primarily are in the metabolites glucose, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, creatine, glutamine, and acetate. In addition, PC scores revealed a maximum change in metabolite composition 4 h after the stress exposure; thereafter......, samples returned toward control samples, however, without reaching the control samples even 10 h after stress. The results also indicate that the myotubes efficiently regulate the pH level by release of lactate to the culture medium at a heat stress level of 42 degrees C, which is a temperature level...

  20. Chaperone-Like Activity of ß-Casein and Its Effect on Residual in Vitro Activity of Food Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria

    ABSTRACT Activity of endogenous enzymes may cause browning of fruits and vegetables. These enzymes can be inactivated, for example by heat treatment, but the response of enzymes to heat treatment depends on many factors. Foods are very complex systems and the stability of enzymes......-casein on the enzymatic activity of three targets was tested by monitoring enzyme activity after heat treatment and by measuring the intensity of scattered light during and after heat treatment. β-Casein was shown to interact at elevated temperatures with three selected targets:horseradish peroxidase, tyrosinase from......, residual activity of horseradish peroxidase was lower in samples containing BSA than in samples without any addition. Horseradish peroxidase heated with BSA did not regain activity within one hour after treatment. BSA is often added to enzyme solutions to prevent enzyme adhesion to vial surfaces...

  1. Effect of post-growth annealing on secondary phase formation in low-temperature-grown Mn-doped GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, A.; Sadowski, J.; Kasama, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    The microstructures of annealed GaAs layers containing 0.1%, 0.5% and 2% Mn are studied using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy at 270 °C. After heat treatment at 400, 560 and 630 °C, they are found to contain precipitate...... in annealed GaMnAs layers doped with low Mn concentrations is proposed....

  2. Cermet Coatings for Solar Stirling Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power converter. This paper will discuss the solar absorption characteristics of as-deposited cermet coatings as well as the solar absorption characteristics of the coatings after heating. The role of diffusion and island formation, during the deposition process and during heating will also be discussed.

  3. TRACKING THE PROCESSES OF MELANODIN FORMATION IN COFFEE

    OpenAIRE

    Snezhana Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    Melanoidins are high molecular brown colored substances and products of sugar-amine reaction of Maillard. They are formed during roasting a green coffee beans under different thermal regimes of heat treatment. In the technological production of different types coffee beverages, the coffee powder is subjected to after-heat treatment. In these additional operations again become active processes of melanoidin formation and their changing their structures. This is changes of the Melanoidins have ...

  4. Wear-resistance of Aluminum Matrix Microcomposite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kandeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A procedure is developed for the study of wear of aluminum alloys AlSi7 obtained by casting, reinforced by TiC microparticles, before and after heat treatment. Tribological study is realized under conditions of friction on counterbody with fixed abrasive. Experimental results were obtained for mass wear, wear rate, wear intensity and wear-resistance of the alloys with different wt% of microparticles.

  5. Project of neural network for steel grade selection with the assumed CCT diagram

    OpenAIRE

    S. Malara; L.A. Dobrzański; J. Trzaska

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was developing a project of neural network for selection of steel grade with the specified CCT diagram – structure and of harness after heat treatment.Design/methodology/approach: The goal has been achieved in the following stages: at the first stage characteristic points of CCT diagram have been determined. At the second stage neural network has been developed and optimized.Findings: The neural network was developed in this paper, that allowed selection of stee...

  6. Surface morphology of laser superheated Pb(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.H.; Lin, B.; Elsayed-Ali, H.E.

    1999-11-01

    The change in the surface vacancy density after heating of Pb(100) with {approximately}100 ps laser pulses is investigated using reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The surface vacancy density remains unchanged when the surface is superheated without melting. However, when the laser fluence is high enough to cause surface melting, the surface vacancy density increases. This increase in vacancy density is attributed to fast diffusion of atoms in the liquid film formed on Pb(100) during laser melting.

  7. Comparison of LiV3O8 cathode materials prepared by different methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Skaarup, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Lithium trivanadate, LiV3O8, can be prepared in a finely dispersed form by dehydration of aqueous lithium vanadate gels. Two methods of dehydration, both easily adaptable to large-scale production, are described in this work: freeze drying and spray drying. After heat-treatment of the dried gels ...... is demonstrated as well as the electrochemical properties of the vanadium oxide....

  8. Penambahan Boraks Dalam Bakso Dan Faktor Pendorong Penggunaannya Bagi Pedagang Bakso Di Kota Bengkulu

    OpenAIRE

    Istiqomah, Siti; Sudarwanto, Mirnawati B; Sudarnika, Etih

    2016-01-01

    The research of using borax in meatballs which was undertaken in the Bengkulu City in 2011 showed that 10% from 100 samples of meatballs containing borax. Considering the dangers of borax for the consumer if consume continuously and increasing the number of meatball traders until 2013, it is necessary to study with more meatballs samples and widely area. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of borax in meatballs, borax content after heating, storability meatballs which containing b...

  9. Change in high field Q-slope by baking and anodizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremeev, G. [LEPP, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Padamsee, H. [LEPP, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Low temperature RF performance of two niobium cavities that underwent different chemical treatments was measured after they were heat treated at 100 deg, C for 48 h. After heat treatment cavities were anodized in ammonia hydroxide solution for sequentially increasing voltage until baking effect was gone. The thickness of niobium finally consumed is estimated to be 20 nm. The results are discussed in view of one of the current models for the baking effect on the high field Q-slope.

  10. Detection of irradiated peppers by viscosity measurement at extremely high pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko

    1996-01-01

    The viscosities of aqueous suspensions of irradiated peppers determined after heat gelatinization were influenced by the pH of the suspension to a greater degree than those of unirradiated ones. Viscosity measurement under an extremely alkaline condition (pH 13.8) resulted in a significant different between irradiated peppers and unirradiated ones, irrespective of the planting locality and storage period. All of the pepper samples irradiated at 5 kGy showed viscosity values significantly lower than unirradiated ones. (Author)

  11. Impact of sodium chloride on breakfast cereal products

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Lydie

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the amount of sodium chloride in breakfast cereals without changing their properties, it is necessary to understand the role of this salt. Hence, a model system was developed. This model, composed of native waxy maize starch, glucose and a mixture of amino-acids generated similar colour and residual volatiles after heating compared to commercial breakfast cereals. Systematically designed experiments used this model to study the influence of NaCl concentration (0 % to 5.44 %) on colo...

  12. Crystallization and Martensitic Transformation Behavior of Ti-Ni-Si Alloy Ribbons Prepared via Melt Spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju-Wan; Kim, Yeon-Wook; Nam, Tae-Hyun

    2018-09-01

    Ti-(50-x)Ni-xSi (at%) (x = 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0) alloy ribbons were prepared via melt spinning and their crystallization procedure and transformation behavior were investigated using differential scanning calorimtry, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Ti-Ni-Si alloy ribbons with Si content less than 1.0 at% were crystalline, whereas those with Si content more than 3.0 at% were amorphous. Crystallization occurred in the sequence of amorphous →B2 → B2 → Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 → B2 + Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 + TiSi in the Ti-47.0Ni-3.0Si alloy and amorphous →R → R + Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 → R + Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 + TiSi in the Ti-45.0Ni-5.0Si alloy. The activation energy for crystallization was 189 ±8.6 kJ/mol for the Ti-47Ni-3Si alloy and 212±8.6 kJ/mol for the Ti-45Ni-5Si alloy. One-stage B2-R transformation behavior was observed in Ti-49.5Ni-0.5Si, Ti-49.0Ni-1.0Si, and Ti-47.0Ni- 3.0Si alloy ribbons after heating to various temperatures in the range of 873 K to 1073 K. In the Ti-45.0Ni-5.0Si alloy, one-stage B2-R transformation occurred after heating to 893 K, two-stage B2-R-B19' occurred after heating to 973 K, and two-stage B2-R-B19' occurred on cooling and one-stage B19'-B2 occurred on heating, after heating to 1073 K.

  13. Preparation of Palladium/Silver-Coated Polyimide Nanotubes: Flexible, Electrically Conductive Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Lushi Kong; Guanchun Rui; Guangyu Wang; Rundong Huang; Ran Li; Jiajie Yu; Shengli Qi; Dezhen Wu

    2017-01-01

    A simple and practical method for coating palladium/silver nanoparticles on polyimide (PI) nanotubes is developed. The key steps involved in the process are silver ion exchange/reduction and displacement reactions between silver and palladium ions. With the addition of silver, the conductivity of the PI nanotubes is greatly enhanced. Further, the polyimide nanotubes with a dense, homogeneous coating of palladium nanoparticles remain flexible after heat treatment and show the possibility for u...

  14. Thermal Properties of Algerian Diatomite, Study of the Possibility to Its Use in the Thermal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Boualem; Hamdi, Safia

    The chemical and physical properties of a Algerian diatomite were given before and after heat treatment and chemical with an aim of a use in the heat insulation of constructions. The preliminary results obtained showed that this material is extremely porous (porosity >70 %), characterized of a low density and a very low thermal conductivity. These promising properties support the use of this local material in the thermal insulation.

  15. Reasons for service failure of an ÉKG-20 power shovel bogie wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, S. P.; Milokhin, S. E.

    1985-10-01

    Early failure of a bogie wheel is caused by the occurrence after heat treatment of a working surface structure with insufficient resistance to plastic deformation, which under the specific conditions of contact loading causes flattening of it with the formation of accumulations of material on the side surfaces. This leads to the occurrence of significant stresses on the faces of the wheel which intensify the nonuniformity of the structure obtained after machining of the side surface.

  16. Integrated Modeling of Polymer Composites Under High Energy Laser Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Toyota , K.; Fukuda, R.; Hasegawa, J.; Ishida, M.; Nakajima, T.; Honda, Y.; Kitao, O.; Nakai, H.; Vreven, T.; Montgomery, J. A., Jr.; Peralta, J. E...Resolution Mapping of Thermal History in Polymer Nanocomposites: Gold Nanorods as Microscale Temperature Sensors W. Joshua Kennedy,†,‡ Keith A. Slinker...of the AuNRs will not be strongly dependent on temperature history . Thus, the final aspect ratio of the AuNRs after heating in a given environment is

  17. Recycling positive-electrode material of a lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloop, Steven E.

    2017-11-21

    Examples are disclosed of methods to recycle positive-electrode material of a lithium-ion battery. In one example, the positive-electrode material is heated under pressure in a concentrated lithium hydroxide solution. After heating, the positive-electrode material is separated from the concentrated lithium hydroxide solution. After separating, the positive electrode material is rinsed in a basic liquid. After rinsing, the positive-electrode material is dried and sintered.

  18. Heat Treatment of Gas-Atomized Powders for Cold Spray Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, William A.; Brewer, Luke N.

    2018-02-01

    This communication demonstrates the efficacy of heat treatment on the improved deposition characteristics of aluminum alloy powders. A novel furnace was constructed for solutionizing of feedstock powders in an inert atmosphere while avoiding sintering. This furnace design achieved sufficiently high cooling rates to limit re-precipitation during powder cooling. Microscopy showed homogenization of the powder particle microstructures after heat treatment. Cold spray deposition efficiency with heat-treated powders substantially increased for the alloys AA2024, AA6061, and AA7075.

  19. Production chain of CMS pixel modules

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The pictures show the production chain of pixel modules for the CMS detector. Fig.1: overview of the assembly procedure. Fig.2: bump bonding with ReadOut Chip (ROC) connected to the sensor. Fig.3: glueing a raw module onto the baseplate strips. Fig.4: glueing of the High Density Interconnect (HDI) onto a raw module. Fig.5: pull test after heat reflow. Fig.6: wafer sensor processing, Indium evaporation.

  20. Production of titanium alloy powders by vacuum fusion-centrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decours, Jacques; Devillard, Jacques; Sainfort, G.

    1975-01-01

    This work presents a method of preparing powdered TA6V and TA6Z5D alloys by fusion-centrifugation under electron bombardment. An industrial capacity apparatus for the production of metallic powders is described and the characteristics of the powders obtained are presented. Solid parts were shaped by sintering and drawing at temperatures between 850 and 1100 deg C. The structure and mechanical properties of the cold densified products before and after heat treatment are compared [fr

  1. Flexural strength and microstructure of two lithium disilicate glass ceramics for CAD/CAM restoration in the dental clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Ho Kang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives There has been a growing interest in glass ceramic systems with good esthetics, high fracture resistance and bonding durability, and simplified fabrication techniques using CAD/CAM. The aim of this study is to compare flexural strength before and after heat treatment of two lithium disilicate CAD/CAM blocks, IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent and Rosetta SM (Hass, and to observe their crystalline structures. Materials and Methods Biaxial flexural strength was tested according to ISO 6872 with 20 disc form specimens sliced from each block before and after heat treatment. Also, the crystalline structures were observed using field-emission scanning microscopy (FE-SEM, Hitachi and x-ray diffraction (XRD, Rigaku analysis. The mean values of the biaxial flexural strength were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test at a significance level of p = 0.05. Results There were no statistically significant differences in flexural strength between IPS e.max CAD and Rosetta SM either before heat treatment or after heat treatment. For both ceramics, the initial flexural strength greatly increased after heat treatment, with significant differences (p < 0.05. The FE-SEM images presented similar patterns of crystalline structure in the two ceramics. In the XRD analysis, they also had similar patterns, presenting high peak positions corresponding to the standard lithium metasilicate and lithium disilicate at each stage of heat treatment. Conclusions IPS e.max CAD and Rosetta SM showed no significant differences in flexural strength. They had a similar crystalline pattern and molecular composition.

  2. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of the O/M ratio in MOX pellets - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This International Standard describes a method for determining the oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio in mixed uranium-plutonium oxide pellets. The (U,Pu)O 2 x sample is submitted to controlled oxidation-reduction under thermodynamic conditions designed to change the O/M ratio to a value of 2,000. The initial stoichiometric deviation, X, is determined from the sample mass difference before and after heat treatment

  3. Application and analysis of palladium vapor deposited on stainless steel for high temperature electrical contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodeh, S.

    2008-01-01

    Using electron beam evaporation. Pd thin films of 300 nm thickness have been deposited on 301 stainless steel for high temperature electrical contact studies. The structure and compost ion of the helms were studied in detail x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S) with sputter depth profiling. The contact properties such as contact resistance, fretting wear resistance, and thermal stability have been measured.The contact resistance rem ins low after heat-aging in air for 168 h at 150 and 200 deg., but increases significantly after heat-aging at 340 deg.. This increase in contact resistance is caused by the formation of about a 27 nm (1 μin.) thick Pdo. In contrast, the thickness of the Pdo is too thin to cause measurable contact resistance increases after heat-aging at 150 and 200 deg.. The fretting wear resistance of Pd coated 301 stainless steel is better than that of electroplated Sn of ser veal thousand nm thickness. Thus, vapor deposited Pd coating on 301 stainless steel may replace electroplated Sn for electrical contact application at elevated temperatures.

  4. Study on microstructure of transition zone and its strong contrast of single T700 carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xinshuang; Zhang, Kexiang [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Fan, Zhen; Feng, Zhihai [National Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Composite Materials, Aerospace Research Institute of Materials and Processing Technology, Beijing 100076 (China); He, LianLong, E-mail: llhe@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • The transition zone of T700 carbon fiber was first identified with higher density in addition to higher orientation. • The higher sample density still existed while the higher orientation disappeared after heat treatment at 2800 °C. • The strong contrast of the transition zone mainly results from its higher density. • The transition zone with higher density and orientation may exist not only in the T700 but other PAN-based carbon fibers. - Abstract: The transition zone (TZ) between the skin and core of Toray T700 carbon fiber was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The higher basal-plane orientation was identified in the TZ compared with the skin and core, but it disappeared after heat treatment at 2800 °C. Plasmon peak energy in the TZ was higher than that in the skin and core about 0.7–0.8 eV, indicating the TZ with higher density. No element concentration existed in the TZ. The TZ with strong contrast manifests itself before and after heat treatment, and formation mechanism of its strong contrast was proposed.

  5. Effect of heat treatment on the characteristics of tool steel deposited by the directed energy deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Seok; Lee, Min-Gyu; Cho, Yong-Jae; Sung, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Myeong-Sik; Lee, Sang-Kon; Choi, Yong-Jin; Kim, Da Hye

    2016-01-01

    The directed energy deposition process has been mainly applied to re-work and the restoration of damaged steel. Differences in material properties between the base and the newly deposited materials are unavoidable, which may affect the mechanical properties and durability of the part. We investigated the effect of heat treatment on the characteristics of tool steel deposited by the DED process. We prepared general tool steel materials of H13 and D2 that were deposited onto heat-treated substrates of H13 and D2, respectively, using a direct metal tooling process. The hardness and microstructure of the deposited steel before and after heat treatment were investigated. The hardness of the deposited H13 steel was higher than that of wrought H13 steel substrate, while that of the deposited D2 was lower than that of wrought D2. The evolution of the microstructures by deposition and heat treatment varied depending on the materials. In particular, the microstructure of the deposited D2 steel after heat treatment consisted of fine carbides in tempered martensite and it is expected that the deposited D2 steel will have isotropic properties and high hardness after heat treatment.

  6. No effects of acclimation to heat on immune and hormonal responses to passive heating in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Sugenoya, Junichi; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Heat acclimation results in whole body-adaptations that increase heat tolerance, and might also result in changed immune responses. We hypothesized that, after heat acclimation, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6 and the lymphocyte count would be altered. Heat acclimation was induced in 6 healthy men by 100 min of heat exposure for 9 days. Heat exposure consisted of (1) 10 min of immersion up to chest-level in water at 42°C and (2) 90 min of passive heating by a warm blanket to maintain tympanic temperature at 37.5°C. The climatic chamber was maintained at 40°C and a relative humidity of 50%. Blood samples were analyzed before and after heat acclimation for natural killer (NK) cell activity, counts of lymphocytes B and T, before and after heat acclimation for peripheral blood morphology, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and cortisol. A Japanese version of the profile of mood states questionnaire was also administered before and after acclimation. The concentrations of white blood cells, lymphocytes B and T, cortisol, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha and NK cell activity showed no significant differences between pre- and post-acclimation, but there was a significantly lower platelet count after acclimation and, with the profile of mood states questionnaire, there was a significant rise in anger after acclimation. It is concluded that heat acclimation by passive heating does not induce alterations in immune or endocrine responses.

  7. Wear Behavior of Plasma Spray Deposited and Post Heat-Treated Hydroxyapatite (HA)-Based Composite Coating on Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Renu; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2018-04-01

    The present study concerns a detailed evaluation of wear resistance property of plasma spray deposited composite hydroxyapatite (HA)-based (HA-50 wt pct TiO2 and HA-10 wt pct ZrO2) bioactive coatings developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate and studying the effect of heat treatment on it. Heat treatment of plasma spray deposited samples has been carried out at 650 °C for 2 hours (for HA-50 wt pct TiO2 coating) and at 750 °C for 2 hours (for HA-10 wt pct ZrO2 coating). There is significant deterioration in wear resistance for HA-50 wt pctTiO2 coating and a marginal deterioration in wear resistance for HA-10 wt pct ZrO2 coating in as-sprayed state (as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V) which is, however, improved after heat treatment. The coefficient of friction is marginally increased for both HA-50 wt pct TiO2 and HA-10 wt pct ZrO2 coatings in as-sprayed condition as compared to Ti-6Al-4V substrate. However, coefficient of friction is decreased for both HA-50 wt pct TiO2 and HA-10 wt pct ZrO2 coatings after heat-treated condition as compared to Ti-6Al-4V substrate. The maximum improvement in wear resistance property is, however, observed for HA-10 wt pct ZrO2 sample after heat treatment. The mechanism of wear has been investigated.

  8. Bacterial and Fungal Counts of Dried and Semi-Dried Foods Collected from Dhaka, Bangladesh, and Their Reduction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroz, Farahnaaz; Shimizu, Hiromi; Nishioka, Terumi; Mori, Miho; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

     Food is a basic necessity for human survival, but it is still the vehicle for the transmission of food borne disease. Various studies have examined the roles of spices, herbs, nuts, and semi-dried fruits, making the need for safe and convenient methods of decontamination a necessity. The current study determined the bacterial and fungal loads of 26 spices and herbs, 5 nuts, 10 semi-dried fruits and 5 other foods. Spices, herbs and semi-dried foods demonstrated the highest bacterial and fungal loads with the majority showing over 10 4 CFU/mL. Nuts and other foods showed growths ranging from 10 2 to 10 6 CFU/mL. The current study also attempted to determine the effects of heat and plasma treatment. The log reduction of bacterial growth after heat treatment (maximum: 120 min for 60℃) was between 0.08 to 4.47, and the log reduction after plasma treatment (maximum: 40 min) ranged from 2.37 to 5.75. Spices showed the lowest rates of reduction, whereas the semi-dried and other foods showed moderate to high levels of decrease after heat treatment. The log reduction of fungal growth after heat treatment ranged from 0.27 to 4.40, and log reduction after plasma treatment ranged from 2.15 to 5.91.Furthermore, we validated the sterilization effect of plasma treatment against Bacillus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. by using scanning electron microscopy. Both treatment methods could prove to be advantageous in the agriculture related fields, enhancing the quality of the foods.

  9. Microstructure, in vitro corrosion and cytotoxicity of Ca-P coatings on ZK60 magnesium alloy prepared by simple chemical conversion and heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaikai; Wang, Bing; Yan, Biao; Lu, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable materials for biomedical application. But their poor corrosion resistance may result in premature failure of implants. In this study, to solve this problem, Ca-P coatings were prepared on ZK60 magnesium alloy by a simple chemical conversion process and heat treatment. Surface characterization showed that a flake-like Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) (CaHPO₄·2H₂O) coating was formed on ZK60 alloy by the chemical conversion process. DCPD transformed into Dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPa) (CaHPO₄) and Ca₂P₂O₇ after heat treatment. Results of potentiodynamic polarization showed the corrosion potential of ZK60 was increased from -1666 mV to -1566 mV with DCPD coating, while -1515 mV was obtained after heat treatment. The corrosion current density of ZK60 was measured to be reduced from 35 µA/cm² to 3.5 µA/cm² with DCPD coating, while a further reduction to 1 µA/cm² was observed after heat treatment. This indicated that the coatings improved the substrate corrosion resistance significantly, and apparently, the heat-treated coating had a higher corrosion resistance. Immersion test demonstrated that both the coatings could provide protection for the substrate and the heat-treated coating could induce deposition of bone-like apatite. Cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that none of the samples induced toxicity to L-929 cells after 1- and 3-day culture. The cytocompatibility of ZK60 was improved by the coatings, with the following sequence: uncoated ZK60 < DCPD-coated ZK60 < heat-treated coating.

  10. Aesthetic value improvement of the ruby stone using heat treatment and its synergetic surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, Barada K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural ruby is heated at high temperature with metal oxide additives (PbO and ZnO) to enhance its aesthetic value. • Changes in surface characteristics of these natural rubies before and after heat treatment are compared. • The R-line peak splitting in the PL spectra and the contrary shift of the Al 2p peaks in the XPS spectra are explicated. - Abstract: The surface behavior of the natural ruby stones before and after heat treatment with metal oxide additives like: zinc oxide (ZnO) and lead oxide (PbO) have been studied. The surface appearance of the ruby stones processed with the metal oxides changed whereas the bulk densities of the stones remained within the range of 3.9–4.0 g/cm 3 . The cracks healing and pores filling by the metal oxides on the surface of the ruby have been examined using scanning electron microscopy. The chemical compositions based on the XPS survey scans are in good agreement with the expected composition. The phase and crystallinity of the ruby stones original and heat-treated were obtained from their X-ray diffraction patterns. The change in peak separation between R 1 and R 2 – peaks in photoluminescence spectra and the contrary binding energy shift of the Al 2p peaks in the X-ray photoelectron spectra have been explicated. Moreover, in this work we describe the change in surface chemical and physical characteristics of the ruby stone before and after heat treatment

  11. Glutamine's protection against cellular injury is dependent on heat shock factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Angela L; Dinges, Martin; Singleton, Kristen D; Odoms, Kelli; Wong, Hector R; Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2006-06-01

    Glutamine (GLN) has been shown to protect cells, tissues, and whole organisms from stress and injury. Enhanced expression of heat shock protein (HSP) has been hypothesized to be responsible for this protection. To date, there are no clear mechanistic data confirming this relationship. This study tested the hypothesis that GLN-mediated activation of the HSP pathway via heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) is responsible for cellular protection. Wild-type HSF-1 (HSF-1(+/+)) and knockout (HSF-1(-/-)) mouse fibroblasts were used in all experiments. Cells were treated with GLN concentrations ranging from 0 to 16 mM and exposed to heat stress injury in a concurrent treatment model. Cell viability was assayed with phenazine methosulfate plus tetrazolium salt, HSP-70, HSP-25, and nuclear HSF-1 expression via Western blot analysis, and HSF-1/heat shock element (HSE) binding via EMSA. GLN significantly attenuated heat-stress induced cell death in HSF-1(+/+) cells in a dose-dependent manner; however, the survival benefit of GLN was lost in HSF-1(-/-) cells. GLN led to a dose-dependent increase in HSP-70 and HSP-25 expression after heat stress. No inducible HSP expression was observed in HSF-1(-/-) cells. GLN increased unphosphorylated HSF-1 in the nucleus before heat stress. This was accompanied by a GLN-mediated increase in HSF-1/HSE binding and nuclear content of phosphorylated HSF-1 after heat stress. This is the first demonstration that GLN-mediated cellular protection after heat-stress injury is related to HSF-1 expression and cellular capacity to activate an HSP response. Furthermore, the mechanism of GLN-mediated protection against injury appears to involve an increase in nuclear HSF-1 content before stress and increased HSF-1 promoter binding and phosphorylation.

  12. Effect of thermal treatments on sputtered silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings on soda-lime glasses: ionic exchange and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, M.; Ferraris, S., E-mail: sara.ferraris@polito.it; Miola, M.; Perero, S.; Balagna, C.; Verne, E. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering (Italy); Gautier, G. [IMAMOTER Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines (Italy); Manfredotti, Ch.; Battiato, A.; Vittone, E. [University of Torino, Physics Department, NIS Excellence Centre and CNISM (Italy); Speranza, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler FBK (Italy); Bogdanovic, I. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Experimental Physics Department (Croatia)

    2012-12-15

    Silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings were deposited on both soda-lime and silica glasses by radio frequency (RF) co-sputtering. The effect of thermal treatments on the microstructure in the range of 150-450 Degree-Sign C were examined by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Time of Flight-Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. Sodium/silver ionic exchange was evidenced for coatings sputtered on soda-lime substrates after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C; presence of silver ions and/or silver nanoclusters, nanocluster size and their position inside the sputtered layers will be discussed for as-deposited and heated coatings on both substrates. The antibacterial activity of all coatings was determined against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by disk diffusion method and colonies forming units count; in agreement with microstructural results, the antibacterial activity present on all coatings was slightly reduced after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C. All coatings have been submitted to humidity plus UV ageing and sterilization by autoclave, gamma ray and ethylene oxide gas. Tape resistance (ASTM D3359-97) tests have been done on each coating before and after ageing and sterilizations, revealing a good adhesion on soda-lime substrates, except for those aged in humidity plus UV and sterilized by autoclave. Scratch tests and nanoindentation tests have been done on each coating, as-deposited and after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C. The coating hardness was improved by heating only when coatings were deposited on silica. The heating of coatings deposited on soda-lime substrates gave opposite effect on their hardness.

  13. Destabilization and recovery of a yeast prion after mild heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnam, Gary P; Birchmore, Jennifer L; Chernoff, Yury O

    2011-05-06

    Yeast prion [PSI(+)] is a self-perpetuating amyloid of the translational termination factor Sup35. Although [PSI(+)] propagation is modulated by heat shock proteins (Hsps), high temperature was previously reported to have little or no effect on [PSI(+)]. Our results show that short-term exposure of exponentially growing yeast culture to mild heat shock, followed by immediate resumption of growth, leads to [PSI(+)] destabilization, sometimes persisting for several cell divisions after heat shock. Prion loss occurring in the first division after heat shock is preferentially detected in a daughter cell, indicating the impairment of prion segregation that results in asymmetric prion distribution between a mother cell and a bud. Longer heat shock or prolonged incubation in the absence of nutrients after heat shock led to [PSI(+)] recovery. Both prion destabilization and recovery during heat shock depend on protein synthesis. Maximal prion destabilization coincides with maximal imbalance between Hsp104 and other Hsps such as Hsp70-Ssa. Deletions of individual SSA genes increase prion destabilization and/or counteract recovery. The dynamics of prion aggregation during destabilization and recovery are consistent with the notion that efficient prion fragmentation and segregation require a proper balance between Hsp104 and other (e.g., Hsp70-Ssa) chaperones. In contrast to heat shock, [PSI(+)] destabilization by osmotic stressors does not always depend on cell proliferation and/or protein synthesis, indicating that different stresses may impact the prion via different mechanisms. Our data demonstrate that heat stress causes asymmetric prion distribution in a cell division and confirm that the effects of Hsps on prions are physiologically relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interaction between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Fipronil on 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei; Wei, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.) and LC50 of fipronil, the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and fipronil on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that pretreatment of the tested insects at 30 °C for 2, 4 and 8h could somewhat decrease the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations. The LC50 values of fipronil increased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were below zero. These results indicated that real mortalities were less than theoretical ones and antagonism was found in the treatments of fipronil at 0.39 and 0.78 mg/L after heat pretreatment at 30 °C at 2, 4 and 8 h. However, pretreatment at 30 °C for 12h could increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations, the LC50 of fipronil decreased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were above zero, which indicated real mortalities were higher than theoretical ones. Pretreatment of the tested insects at 35 °C for 2, 4, 8 and 12h was found to increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations which resulted in the decrease of LC50 values of fipronil and c.f. above zero in all treatments with only one exception. Most interactions were assessed as synergism. The results indicated that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment. PMID:20877489

  15. Thermal immobilization of Cr, Cu and Zn of galvanizing wastes in the presence of clay and fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, I B; Chaturvedi, K; Yegneswaran, A H

    2007-07-01

    In the present investigation thermal treatment of galvanizing waste with clay and fly ash has been carried out to immobilize Cr, Zn, Cu and other metals of the waste at temperature range 850 degrees C to 950 degrees C. Leaching of the metals from the waste and solidified product was analyzed using toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Results indicated that the composition of waste and clay treatment temperature are the key factors in determining the stability of solidified product. After heating at 950 degrees C, the solidified specimens of 10% waste with clay have shown comparatively a high compressive strength and less water absorption. However, a decrease in compressive strength and increase in water absorption were noticed after addition of 15% of waste with clay. The leachability of all the metals present in the waste was found to reduce considerably with the increase of treatment temperature. In the case of Cr and Zn, their leachabilty was found at unacceptable levels from the treated product obtained after heating at 850 degrees C However, their leachability was reduced significantly within an acceptable level after treatment at 950 degrees C. The thermal treatment has shown an increase of re-oxidation trend of Cr (III) to Cr (VI) up to 900 degrees C of heating and this trend became almost zero after heating at 950 degrees C. Addition of fly ash did not show any improvement in strength, durability and leachability of metals from the thermally treated product. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the product confirmed the presence of mixed phases of oxides of toxic metals.

  16. Comparison of microstructure and magnetic properties of 3% Si-steel, amorphous and nanostructure Finemet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, M., E-mail: masoud_yousefi@hotmail.com; Rahmani, Kh.; Amiri Kerahroodi, M.S.

    2016-12-15

    This paper presents a comparison of microstructure and magnetic properties of polycrystalline 3%Si-steel, amorphous and nano-crystalline alloy Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9} (known as Finemet). Si-steels are industrially produced by casting, hot and cold rolling, annealing and coating. Samples of thin amorphous ribbons were prepared by the planar flow casting (PFC) method. Nano-crystalline samples are obtained after annealing in vacuum furnace at 560 °C for 1 h. The structure of specimens was investigated by XRD, SEM and FE-SEM. Also, magnetic properties were measured using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that, hysteresis losses in as-quenched and nano-crystalline ribbons were by 94.75% and 96.06% less than 3%Si-steel, respectively. After the heat treatment of amorphous specimens, hysteresis area was decreased by 25% in comparison with heat treated specimen. This decreasing is occurred due to the formation of Fe{sub 3}Si nanostructure with size of 10–17 nm and removing segregation after heat treatment. - Highlights: • The structure of specimens was investigated by XRD, SEM and FE-SEM. • Hysteresis losses of amorphous ribbon, was 94.75% less than 3% Si-steel. • After heat treatment, hysteresis losses was less than the 3% Si-steel by 96.06%. • Formation of Fe3Si nano structure with size of 10-17 nm. • Removing segregation after heat treatment.

  17. Heating Quality and Stability of Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Fatty Acid-Balanced Oil in Comparison with Other Blended Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The heating performance of enzyme-assisted aqueous processing-extracted blended oil (EAEPO, hexane-extracted blended oil (HEBO, and three kinds of blended oils was investigated by varying the heating times. Oil degradation was monitored by analysis of the acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, color, and trans-fatty acid composition. The fatty acid ratios of EAEPO, HEBO, and the three kinds of blended oils were very similar (0.27 : 1.03 : 0.96, 0.27 : 1.08 : 1.16, 0.27 : 0.65 : 0.8, 0.27 : 0.6 : 0.84, and 0.27 : 0.61 : 0.79, resp.. The AV and color increased in proportion to the heating time for all the oils. There was a rapid increase in the PV and p-AV of EAEPO and HEBO after heating for only 1 h, whereas the other three blended oils showed a rapid increase after heating for 2 h or 6 h. Despite the highest trans-fatty acid content found for HEBO, this content was relatively low and remained low up to a heating time of 8 h. It was found that after heating, a fatty acid ratio relatively close to its ideal value (0.27 : 0.48 : 0.49 was maintained by EAEPO, which indicates that EAEPO is tolerant to heat treatment and is suitable for maintaining a healthy diet.

  18. Thermal hydraulic tests of a liquid hydrogen cold neutron source. NISTIR 5026

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegwarth, J.D.; Olson, D.A.; Lewis, M.A.; Rowe, J.M.; Williams, R.E.; Kopetka, P.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen cold neutron source designed at NBSR contains neutron moderator chamber. The NIST-B electrically heated glass moderator chamber used to test the NBSR chamber testing showed the following results: Stable operation possible up to at least 2200 watts with two-phase flow; LH 2 mass quickly reaches new, stable value after heat load change; Void fraction well below 20 at anticipated power and pressure; Restart of H 2 flow verified after extending supply line; Visual inspection showed no dryout or unexpected voids

  19. Self-sealing multilayer coating for SiC/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraris, M.; Appendino Montorsi, M.; Salvo, M.; Isola, C.; Kohyama, A.

    1997-01-01

    A double layer coating for SiC/SiC for fusion applications is proposed: the first layer consists in a homogeneous, crack free, glass-ceramic with high characteristic temperatures and thermal expansion coefficient compatible to the composite one; the second layer is amorphous and shows self-sealing properties above 700degC. The glass and the glass-ceramic materials used for this double layer coating do not contain lithium and boron oxide, making them particularly interesting for thermonuclear fusion applications. The self-sealing property of the double layer coating was valued by inducing cracks on the coatings and observing their reparation after heating. (author)

  20. Heat treatment effect on the properties and structure of welded joints of Al-30Be-5Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, M.A.; Lobzhanidze, A.V.; Smirnova, A.I.; Gitarskij, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    The variation is studied of structure properties, and of the phase composition of compounds of the Al-30 Be-5Mg alloy system obtained by arc welding in a controlled-atmosphere chamber by a non-consumable tungsten electrode without additions. Once welded, the specimens are heat treated. The variation of the viscosity, hardness and strengths of joints are studied after heating in the interval of temperatures from 100 to 550 deg C for 2 to 16 h. The structure is studied with the aid of optical and electron microscopes

  1. Effect of Mg and Cu on mechanical properties of high-strength welded joints of aluminum alloys obtained by laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annin, B. D.; Fomin, V. M.; Karpov, E. V.; Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Results of experimental investigations of welded joints of high-strength aluminum-lithium alloys of the Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li systems are reported. The welded joints are obtained by means of laser welding and are subjected to various types of processing for obtaining high-strength welded joints. A microstructural analysis is performed. The phase composition and mechanical properties of the welded joints before and after heat treatment are studied. It is found that combined heat treatment of the welded joint (annealing, quenching, and artificial ageing) increases the joint strength, but appreciably decreases the alloy strength outside the region thermally affected by the welding process.

  2. Dislocation density evolution in the process of high-temperature treatment and creep of EK-181 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vershinina, Tatyana, E-mail: vershinina@bsu.edu.ru [Belgorod State National Research University, Pobedy street 85, Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation); Leont' eva-Smirnova, Maria, E-mail: smirnova@bochvar.ru [Bochvar High-Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, ul. Rogova 5, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    X-ray diffraction has been used to study the dislocation structure in ferrite-martensite high-chromium steel EK-181 in the states after heat treatment and high-temperature creep. The influence of heat treatment and stress on evolution of lath martensite structure was investigated by and electron back-scattered diffraction. The effect of nitrogen content on the total dislocation density, fraction of edge and screw dislocation segments are analyzed. - Highlights: •Fraction of edge dislocation in quenched state depends on nitrogen concentration. •Nitrogen affects the character of dislocation structure evolution during annealing. •Edge dislocations fraction influences on dislocation density after aging and creep.

  3. Off-design temperature effects on nuclear fuel pins for an advanced space-power-reactor concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory out-of-reactor investigation was made of the effects of short-time temperature excursions above the nominal operating temperature of 990 C on the compatibility of advanced nuclear space-power reactor fuel pin materials. This information is required for formulating a reliable reactor safety analysis and designing an emergency core cooling system. Simulated uranium mononitride (UN) fuel pins, clad with tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) showed no compatibility problems after heating for 8 hours at 2400 C. At 2520 C and above, reactions occurred in 1 hour or less. Under these conditions free uranium formed, redistributed, and attacked the cladding.

  4. Improvement to the gas cycle energy generating installations with heat recuperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Zephyr.

    1977-01-01

    Improvement to the gas cycle energy generating installations with heat recuperation, comprising a heat source, supplying a fluid at high temperature and pressure, an expansion turbine, at least one recuperator fitted to the turbine outlet, a cooler and compressor in series, the compressor returning the high pressure fluid to the source after heat exchange in the recuperator with the low pressure fluid from the turbine. It is characterised in that at least one steam generator is connected to the low pressure end of the recuperator [fr

  5. The breeder reactors or how surely take profit from world uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucenet, Georges.

    1976-01-01

    The principles of breeder reactors are first briefly reviewed with their consequences as for technological options (extraction of the heat produced, safety); the fallout of the principles in practice at the level of a specified project - Creys-Malville - are then detailed: sodium fires, sodium-water reactions, gaseous and liquid wastes during power operation, after-heat removal and emergency systems, core monitoring; determination of the maximum credible accident allowing the probabilistic computation of the confinement, and the protection against external agressions [fr

  6. Study of interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium copper, lead nitrates solutions with sodium oxalate solution with the aim of HTSC synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, V.P.; Krasnobaeva, O.N.; Nosova, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of developing a new technique for HTSC oxides synthesis on the base of combined sedimentation of hydroxy salts and their heat treatment is studied interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium, copper and lead nitrates with alkali solution of sodium oxalate. Conditions for total sedimentation of all five metals from the solution are found. The phase composition of interaction products is determined. It is established that they are high-dispersed homogeneous mixture of three phases of variable composition: twin hydroxalate of copper-bismuth, lead hydroxalate and twin oxalate of strontium-calcium. After heat treatment of the phases are obtained the HTSC oxides

  7. Joint statement by the chairmen of the Standing Committee on Reactors and the Reactor Safety Commission on safety-related documents drawn up under the Franco-German Commission on Safety Questions for Nuclear Installations (DFK). August 29, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The report contains: 1. The present situation regarding hints and recommendations in the safety declaration by the TUEV Baden on the subject of Cattenom nuclear power station in June 1982. 2. The present situation regarding hints and recommendations in the declaration by the TUEV Rhineland in February 1982 on the subject of radiological aspects and features of the Cattenom site for the nuclear power plant. 3. Answers to press allegations about the safety of Cattenom NPP: scram system, safety cooling system, heat sink for after-heat removal, emergency power supplies, load-follow operation, air crashes, susceptibility to failures. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Improving the conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes films by heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiaping [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Superfine Microstructures, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Sun Jing, E-mail: jingsun@mail.sic.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Superfine Microstructures, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Gao Lian, E-mail: liangaoc@online.sh.c [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Superfine Microstructures, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu Yangqiao; Wang Yan; Zhang Jing [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Superfine Microstructures, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Kajiura, Hisashi; Li Yongming; Noda, Kazuhiro [Advanced Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Atsugi Tec. No. 2, 4-16-1 Okata Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0021 (Japan)

    2009-10-19

    A simple heat treatment method was applied to remove surfactants remaining in the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) films at 300 deg. C for 5 h in air. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and reflected light interference microscope (RLIM) were employed to verify the elimination of surfactants. The comprehensive performance, especially the conductivity, could be improved by more than one order after heat treatment. For example, using SDBS as dispersant, the sheet resistance decreased from 782,600 OMEGA/square to 40,460 OMEGA/square with the transmittance of about 99.5% at 550 nm.

  9. Corrosion Protection Mechanisms of Rare-Earth Compounds Based on Cerium and Praseodymium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    CO3 )3•xH2O (D) as-received and after heat treatment to various temperatures. The texture, crystal structure, and chemistry of Pr6O11, Pr2O3, Pr(OH...scribe (Figure 114D). A single Pr-hydroxycarbonate phase, Pr( CO3 )(OH)1.68 (00-045-0217) along with Pr(OH)3 and PrO2 were detected after salt spray...4   iv List of Acronyms A–Hexagonal crystal structure AA–Aluminum alloy AES—Auger

  10. Creep and long-term strength of heat-resistant steels with different structures with the account taken of the type of stress deviator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giginyak, F.F.; Dragunov, Yu.G.; Mozharovskaya, T.N.; Titov, V.F.

    1993-01-01

    The results of the experimental investigations into creep and long-term strength of heat-resistant steels 15Kh2MFA and 15Kh2NMFA in the initial state and after heat-treatment simulating the metal irradiation embrittlement at the end of the product service date under static loading at the complex stress state and at high temperatures are presented. The experimentally substantiated equations of state describing creep and long-term stability of materials taking into account the type of the stress state are derived. (author)

  11. The effect of sporulation medium on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris guaiacol production in apple juice

    OpenAIRE

    Molva, Çelenk; Baysal, Ayşe Handan

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of sporulation medium on guaiacol formation from vanillin and vanillic acid by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 in the reconstituted apple juice (pH 3.82, °Brix 11.3). For sporulation, potato dextrose agar and Bacillus acidoterrestris agar were used. After heat-activation, spores were turned into vegetative cells and inoculated into juice samples to a final concentration of 103 or 105 CFU/mL. Samples were incubated at 37 °C for 264 h and guaiaco...

  12. Experience in melting of high-quality chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel in oxygen converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosoi, L F; Yaburov, S I; Shul' kin, M L; Vedernikov, G G; Bragin, E D; Filork' yan, B K

    1978-10-01

    Technology of melting high-quality medium-carbon constructional chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel has been developed and tested in 130-t converters. The technology envisages metal refinement in a casting laddle using synthetic lime-aluminous slag and argon blowing, as well as liquid ferroallys (master alloys) for steel deoxidation and alloying. Due to a smaller content of sulfur, phosphorus, arsenic and sulphide inclusions, and to a smaller grain size (N 11-12), the steel, produced according to this technology possesses higher plastic properties and impact strength than conventional open-hearth furnace metal after heat treatment for the same strength.

  13. Refining of cast intermetallic alloy Ti - 43 % Al - X (Nb, Mo, B) microstructure using heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaev, R.M.; Imaev, V.M.; Khismatullin, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties are studied in a cast alloy Ti - 43 % Al - X (Nb, Mo, B) using methods of optical and scanning electron microscopy, X ray spectrum microanalysis and differential thermal analysis. The alloy belongs to a new class of β-solidifying γ-TiAl+α 2 -Ti 3 Al alloys. The alloy is investigated as cast and after heat treatment that promotes grain refinement. Mechanical properties are determined on tensile tests at 1000 and 1100 deg C in the air [ru

  14. Penambahan Boraks dalam Bakso dan Faktor Pendorong Penggunaannya Bagi Pedagang Bakso di Kota Bengkulu

    OpenAIRE

    Istiqomah, Siti; Sudarwanto, Mirnawati B; Sudarnika, Etih

    2017-01-01

    The research of using borax in meatballs which was undertaken in the Bengkulu City in 2011 showed that 10% from 100 samples of meatballs containing borax. Considering the dangers of borax for the consumer if consume continuously and increasing the number of meatball traders until 2013, it is necessary to study with more meatballs samples and widely area. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of borax in meatballs, borax content after heating, storability meatballs which containing b...

  15. On the hydrogenation mechanism in magnesium I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.S.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent

    1985-01-01

    The first time hydriding of spherical magnesium particles covered by a thin oxide layer and sieve-fractionated into narrow size distributions within the range 40–90 μm was followed by microgravimetry. The size distributions of the fractions were determined by semiautomatic image analysis....... The hydridings were run at 402°C and 3 MPa hydrogen pressure after heating in helium. A dependence of the rate of hydriding on the heat treatment prior to reaction was observed and it is proposed that the heat treatment causes oxygen atoms to diffuse into the bulk metal and thereby break up the protective oxide...... generalizing results from the hydriding of magnesium powders....

  16. Some remarks on the analysis of stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless-steel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupka, I.; Nrkous, P.

    1977-01-01

    Stress-corrosion cracking is greatly influenced by tensile stresses in the material. The occurrence of tensile stresses in the material under consideration results from residual stresses brought about during manufacturing processes and from stress caused by operation. In the case of an austenitic steel cladding the residual stresses arise in the course of welding and thermal treatment. The technique of residual stress measurement in austenitic cladding materials is described and the results are given. Both the longitudinal and transverse components of the stresses show in all cases similar behaviour not only prior to, but also after heat treatment. (J.B.)

  17. Physical and mechanical properties of gamma radiation cross-linked polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria E.; Romero, G.; Smolko, Eduardo E.

    1999-01-01

    Granulated LDPE 2003 polyethylene was extruded and irradiated under nitrogen with 150, 200 and 300 kGy gamma rays doses to produce cross-linking. The study of the physical and mechanical properties shows that the product has a high degree of molecular cross-linking, can be heated up to 200 C for 2 hours without deformation and that the mechanical properties improve. Preliminary aging tests indicate that after heating at 60 C for 4 weeks no physical or mechanical deterioration can be observed. (author)

  18. Thin and thick target benchmark investigations to validate spallation physics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filges, D.; Neef, R.D.; Goldenbaum, F.; Nuenighoff, K.; Galin, J.; Letourneau, A.; Lott, B.; Patois, Y.; Schroeder, W.N.

    1999-01-01

    In the ESS (European Spallation Source) study report several areas have been identified where further spallation physics research and code validation is urgently needed: Neutron and charged particle production and multiplicities above one GeV incident protons, energy deposition and heating, material damage parameters, radioactivity and after heat, and high energy source shielding. All simulation calculations will be done using the Juelich HERMES code system. For this purpose various collaborations were organised. One of the collaborations is NESSI (Neutron Scintillator Silicon Detector), which concerns fundamental data as cross-section measurements on neutron multiplicities and charged particles for different ESS relevant materials. (author)

  19. Properties of Nanostructure Bismuth Telluride Thin Films Using Thermal Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth telluride has high thermoelectric performance at room temperature; in present work, various nanostructure thin films of bismuth telluride were fabricated on silicon substrates at room temperature using thermal evaporation method. Tellurium (Te and bismuth (Bi were deposited on silicon substrate in different ratio of thickness. These films were annealed at 50°C and 100°C. After heat treatment, the thin films attained the semiconductor nature. Samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM to show granular growth.

  20. Papers presented as part of the status report of the Nuclear Safety Research Project of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Center on 23 March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1994-05-01

    The ten papers deal with the state of safety requirements on future LWR plants and with nuclear safety research with regard to fast reactors and future PWR plants. In particular, passive after-heat removal, core disruptive accidents, and actinide burning in fast reactors are analysed. For PWR type plants the fuel element behaviour in the event of accidents, hydrogen distribution and hydrogen fires, and the origin and effects of steam explosions on the reactor pressure vessel and the containment are examined. Core meltdown cooling systems are suggested. (DG) [de

  1. Temperature dependence of structural and optical properties of GeSbTe alloy thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabli, A. E-mail: achabli@cea.fr; Vergnaud, C.; Bertin, F.; Gehanno, V.; Valon, B.; Hyot, B.; Bechevet, B.; Burdin, M.; Muyard, D

    2002-09-01

    Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films sandwiched by ZnS-SiO{sub 2} layers were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry from room temperature up to 800 deg. C. An irreversible modification of both materials is pointed out. ZnS cubic phase precipitation occurs after heating at 650 deg. C, shown by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Chemical modification in phase change material is observed above 300 deg. C, revealed by a typical behavior of a transparent layer.

  2. Diffusion of cesium in sodium-borosilicate glasses for nuclear waste immobilisation. Diffusie van cesium in natrium borosilicaat glazen voor het immobiliseren van radioaktief afval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Sengers, E.G.F. (Keuring van Electrotechnische Materialen NV, Arnhem (Netherlands)); Waal, H. de (TPD-TNO-Glass technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands))

    1989-09-26

    Diffusion of cesium in borosilicate glass for high-level radioactive waste is discussed. For this purpose model glasses with non-radioactive elements are being made, in accordance with the specifications of the reprocessing plants, from which concentration couples are composed. A concentration couple consists of two cylinders of borosilicate glass which contain different amounts of cesium. After heat treatment the couples are studied by means of the scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. The model study will provide a basis for predictions of the containment achieved over a longer period of time. (author). 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs.

  3. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 16, Maximum hypothetical accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Fault tree analysis of the maximum hypothetical accident covers the basic elements: accident initiation, phase development phases - scheme of possible accident flow. Cause of the accident initiation is the break of primary cooling pipe, heavy water system. Loss of primary coolant causes loss of pressure in the primary circuit at the coolant input in the reactor vessel. This initiates safety protection system which should automatically shutdown the reactor. Separate chapters are devoted to: after-heat removal, coolant and moderator loss; accident effects on the reactor core, effects in the reactor building, and release of radioactive wastes [sr

  4. Cat's claw oxindole alkaloid isomerization induced by common extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat's claw oxindole alkaloids are prone to isomerization in aqueous solution. However, studies on their behavior in extraction processes are scarce. This paper addressed the issue by considering five commonly used extraction processes. Unlike dynamic maceration (DM and ultrasound-assisted extraction, substantial isomerization was induced by static maceration, turbo-extraction and reflux extraction. After heating under reflux in DM, the kinetic order of isomerization was established and equations were fitted successfully using a four-parameter Weibull model (R² > 0.999. Different isomerization rates and equilibrium constants were verified, revealing a possible matrix effect on alkaloid isomerization.

  5. Nanostructures obtained from a mechanically alloyed and heat treated molybdenum carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barriga Arceo, L.; Orozco, E.; Mendoza-Leon, H.; Palacios Gonzalez, E.; Leyte Guerrero, F.; Garibay Febles, V.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical alloying was used to prepare molybdenum carbide. Microstructural characterization of samples was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Molybdenum carbide was heated at 800 o C for 15 min in order to produce carbon nanotubes. Nanoparticles of about 50-140 nm in diameter and nanotubes with diameters of about 70-260 nm and 0.18-0.3 μm in length were obtained after heating at 800 o C, by means of this process

  6. Novel processing of bioglass ceramics from silicone resins containing micro- and nano-sized oxide particle fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocco, L; Bernardo, E; Colombo, P; Cacciotti, I; Bianco, A; Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

    2014-08-01

    Highly porous scaffolds with composition similar to those of 45S5 and 58S bioglasses were successfully produced by an innovative processing method based on preceramic polymers containing micro- and nano-sized fillers. Silica from the decomposition of the silicone resins reacted with the oxides deriving from the fillers, yielding glass ceramic components after heating at 1000°C. Despite the limited mechanical strength, the obtained samples possessed suitable porous architecture and promising biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics, as testified by preliminary in vitro tests. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Corrosion behaviour of the welded steel 1.4313/CA6-NM

    OpenAIRE

    Lovíšek, Martin; Liptáková, Tatiana; Pešlová, Františka

    2014-01-01

    The stainless steel 1.4313/CA6-NM (EN X3CrNiMo13-4) is used for turbine production. The weld joints are therefore very sensitive localities from mechanical and corrosion point of view. The subject of the work is corrosion studying of the steel welded by TIG method with consequent heat treatment. Corrosion resistance of the weld joints and base material are evaluated through potentiodynamic polarization test measured on the surface after heat treatment and on the surface cleaned by grinding an...

  8. Adsorption characteristics of heat-treated fullerene nano-whiskers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z-M [Energy Storage Materials Group, Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Kato, R; Hotta, K; Miyazawa, K [Fullerene Engineering Group, Advanced Nano Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)], E-mail: zm-wang@aist.go.jp

    2009-04-01

    Fullerene nanowhiskers (FNWs) were synthesized by the liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation method and the adsorption properties of their heat-treated samples were characterized. It was found that vacuum-annealed FNWs at a high temperature are of microporous materials and, especially, ultramicropores are highly developed in these materials. Porosities even remain in samples after heat treatment at a temperature higher than 2273 K. The presence of ultramicroporosity is indicative of the molecular sieving properties of the vacuum-annealed FNW materials, suggesting the possibilities of their application as new materials for gas separation and gas storage.

  9. On the assessment of hydroxyapatite fluoridation by means of Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, M.; Valiente, M.; Lacharmoise, P. D.; Reparaz, J. S.; Goni, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is the main mineral component of bones and teeth. Fluorapatite, a bioceramic that can be obtained from hydroxyapatite by chemical substitution of the hydroxide ions with fluoride, exhibits lower mineral solubility and larger mechanical strength. Despite the widespread use of fluoride against caries, a reliable technique for unambiguous assessment of fluoridation in in vitro tests is still lacking. Here we present a method to probe fluorapatite formation in fluoridated hydroxyapatite by combining Raman scattering with thermal annealing. In synthetic minerals, we found that effectively fluoride substituted hydroxyapatite transforms into fluorapatite only after heat treatment, due to the high activation energy for this first order phase transition.

  10. Influence of heat treatment on the high temperature oxidation mechanisms of an Fe-TiCN cermet

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaredo Olmos, Paula; Abajo Clemente, Carolina; Tsipas, Sophia Alexandra; Gordo Odériz, Elena

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the oxidation behaviour of an iron matrix cermet containing 50 % vol. Ti(C,N) was investigated before and after heat treatment by oxidation tests performed in static air at temperatures between 500 °C and 1000 °C. The oxidation mechanism for this type of composite materials was established and it was found that the heat treated material presents lower mass gain than the as-sintered material at the early stages of the oxidation, due to the volatilization of oxides. The oxidation...

  11. Fabrication of MgAl2O4 spinel/niobium laminar composites by plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncoeur, M.; Lochet, N.; Miomandre, F.; Schnedecker, G.

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of plasma spray manufacturing of laminar ceramic matrix composites made of alternate thin layers of a ceramic oxide and a metal is demonstrated with a composite made of 7 layers, each 0.2 mm thick, of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel and niobium. Microstructure and mechanical characteristics have been studied with both as-sprayed and heat-treated under vacuum at 1400 C conditions. It is shown that the as-sprayed composite is brittle but becomes pseudo-plastic after heat treatment. These laminar composites are very attractive for the manufacturing of large surface, few millimeter thick components. (from authors). 4 figs., 4 refs

  12. slice of LEP beamtube with getter strip

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    A section of the LEP beam pipe. This is the chamber in which LEP's counter-rotating electron and positron beams travel. It is made of lead-clad aluminium. The beams circulate in the oval cross-section part of the chamber. In the rectangular cross-section part, LEP's innovative getter-strip vacuum pump is installed. After heating to purify the surface of the getter, the strip acts like molecular sticky tape, trapping any stray molecules left behind after the accelerator's traditional vacuum pumps have done their job.

  13. High temperature indentation of helium-implanted tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, James S.K.-L., E-mail: james.gibson@materials.ox.ac.uk [Oxford University, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Roberts, Steve G. [Oxford University, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Armstrong, David E.J. [Oxford University, Department of Materials, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-11

    Nanoindentation has been performed on tungsten, unimplanted and helium-implanted to ~600 appm, at temperatures up to 750 °C. The hardening effect of the damage was 0.90 GPa at 50 °C, but is negligible above 450 °C. The hardness value at a given temperature did not change on re-testing after heating to 750 °C. This suggests that the helium is trapped in small vacancy complexes that are stable to at least 750 °C, but which can be bypassed due to increased dislocation mobility (cross slip or climb) above 450 °C.

  14. Pelleted waste form for high-level ICPP wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, K.M.; Priebe, S.J.; Cole, H.S.; Taki, B.D.

    1979-01-01

    Simulated zirconia type calcined waste is pelletized on a 41-cm dia disc pelletizer using 5% bentonite, 2% metakaolin, and 2% boric acid as a solid binder and 7M phosphoric plus 4M nitric acid as a liquid binder. After heat treatment at 800 0 C for 2 hours, the pellets are impact resistant and have a leach resistance of 10 -4 g/cm 2 /day, based on Soxhlet leaching for 100 hours at 95 0 C with distilled water. An integrated pilot plant is being fabricated to verify the process. 1 figure, 4 tables

  15. Pelleted waste form for high-level ICPP wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, K.M.; Priebe, S.J.; Cole, H.S.; Taki, B.d.

    1979-01-01

    Simulated zirconia-type calcined waste is pelletized on a 41-cm diameter disc pelletizer using 5% bentonite, 2% metakaolin, and 2% boric acid as a solid binder and 7M phosphoric plus 4M nitric acid as a liquid binder. After heat treatment at 800 0 C for 2 hours the pellets are impact resistant and have a leach resistance of 10 -4 g/cm 2 . day, based on Soxhlet leaching for 100 hours at 95 0 C with distilled water. An integrated pilot plant is being fabricated to verify the process. 1 figure, 4 tables

  16. Effect of impurities on structural and electrochemical properties of the Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karin Vels; Wallenberg, R.; Chorkendorff, I.

    2003-01-01

    . The results were compared to earlier investigations of a less pure nickel/YSZ interface. The pure interface developed different structures depending on whether or not the samples were polarised. Despite,the purity of the nickel, impurities were found in the interfacial region. The pure electrodes......The changes in interface structure and chemical composition of a 99.995% pure nickel/yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) interface were examined after heat treatment at 1000degreesC in 97% H-2/3% H2O with and without polarisation. Impedance spectroscopy was used for electrochemical characterisation...

  17. Evaluation method of radiation stability of hardened cement paste with chemical additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, Vyacheslav; Pustovgar, Andrey [National Research Univ. ' Moscow State Univ. of Civil Engineering' (MSUCE), Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Univ. ' Moscow State Univ. of Civil Engineering' (MSUCE), Moscow (Russian Federation). Scientific Research Inst. of Constructional Materials and Technologies; Denisov, Alexander; Soloviev, Vitaly [National Research Univ. ' Moscow State Univ. of Civil Engineering' (MSUCE), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    The influence of additives on the radiation resistance of the concrete will occur through the influence of radiation changes of hardened cement paste on radiation changes of concrete and can be quite significant. The test sequence was produced according to the modified method. The samples were prepared in the form of prisms with the following dimensions: 10 mm x 10 mm, 30 mm long. Measurement series were produced after each heating and cooling sequence. Then the difference between the values before and after heating was calculated. (orig.)

  18. Retention of Rotavirus Infectivity in Mussels Heated by Using the French Recipe Moules Marinières.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Miura, Takayuki; Le Mennec, Cécile; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the persistence of infectious virus after heating, mussels contaminated with a rotavirus strain were prepared following the French recipe moules marinières (mariner's mussels). Rotavirus was then quantified by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and a cell culture infectivity assay. Results showed the persistence of infectious virus after 3 min of cooking. After 5 min, when no infectious virus could be detected, the RT-qPCR approach showed a 1-log decrease compared with concentrations detected after 1 min of cooking.

  19. Radioactive gas solidification treatment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Ryokichi; Watanabe, Yu; Seki, Eiji.

    1992-01-01

    In a radioactive gas solidification treatment device by using sputtering, spiral pipelines are disposed with a gap therebetween for cooling an ion injection electrode by passing cooling water during operation of the solidification treatment. During the operation of the solidification treatment, cooling water is passed in the pipelines to cool the ion injection electrode. During storage, a solidification vessel is cooled by natural heat dissipation from an exposed portion at the surface of the solidification vessel. Accordingly, after-heat of radioactive gas solidified in a metal accumulation layer can be removed efficiently, safely and economically to improve the reliability. (N.H.)

  20. Nanostructures obtained from a mechanically alloyed and heat treated molybdenum carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Barriga Arceo, L. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, I.M.P. Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 D.F. Mexico (Mexico) and ESIQIE-UPALM, IPN Apdo Postal 118-395, C.P. 07051 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: luchell@yahoo.com; Orozco, E. [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Apdo Postal 20-364, C.P. 01000 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: eorozco@fisica.unam.mx; Mendoza-Leon, H. [ESIQIE-UPALM, IPN Apdo Postal 118-395, C.P. 07051 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: luchell@yahoo.com; Palacios Gonzalez, E. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, I.M.P. Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: epalacio@imp.mx; Leyte Guerrero, F. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, I.M.P. Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: fleyte@imp.mx; Garibay Febles, V. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, I.M.P. Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: vgaribay@imp.mx

    2007-05-31

    Mechanical alloying was used to prepare molybdenum carbide. Microstructural characterization of samples was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Molybdenum carbide was heated at 800 {sup o}C for 15 min in order to produce carbon nanotubes. Nanoparticles of about 50-140 nm in diameter and nanotubes with diameters of about 70-260 nm and 0.18-0.3 {mu}m in length were obtained after heating at 800 {sup o}C, by means of this process.

  1. Application of artificial intelligence methods for prediction of steel mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jančíková

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The target of the contribution is to outline possibilities of applying artificial neural networks for the prediction of mechanical steel properties after heat treatment and to judge their perspective use in this field. The achieved models enable the prediction of final mechanical material properties on the basis of decisive parameters influencing these properties. By applying artificial intelligence methods in combination with mathematic-physical analysis methods it will be possible to create facilities for designing a system of the continuous rationalization of existing and also newly developing industrial technologies.

  2. Studies of glasses by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, G.; Boden, G.

    1981-04-01

    Investigations of silica glasses, pyrocerams and metallic glasses by positron annihilation (lifetime, Doppler broadening) are presented. The measurements on silica glasses showed, that silica glass fused from naturally occuring quartz exhibits a higher order than that one produced from SiCl 4 . Furthermore it was found that the order of silica glasses increases after heat treatment above 900 0 C. Thus the X-amorphous state of silica glasses could be characterized by positron annihilation what is impossible at present by diffraction methods. (author)

  3. Colorimetric determination of a paracetamole in raw material and in pharmaceutical dosage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usifoh, C.O; Adelusi, S.A.; Adebambo, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid, accurate and simple method is proposed for the determination of p-acetaminophen (paracetamole) in raw material, tablets and syrups. The method is based on measuring the intensity of the yellow color that developed when acute acetaminophen is allowed to react with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in 2M HCl after heating. The color which absorbs in the visible region of gamma 450 nm is stable for several hours and the intensity is directly proportional to the concentration of the drug, that is, Beer lambert law is obeyed. The method can be used to analyse paracetamole in raw material and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. (author)

  4. Application of zinc oxide fiber in the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerchman, D.; Alves, A.K.; Berutti, F.A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, zinc oxide fibers were obtained by electrospinning using polyvinylbutyral and zinc nitrate as precursors. After the synthesis, the material was heat treated at different temperatures to evaluate the effect of microstructure on its photocatalytic activity. The fibers obtained after heat treatment were characterized for morphology, phases, crystallinity and photocatalytic activity. The photocatalysis reaction was accompanied by the degradation of methyl orange in the presence of zinc oxide under UV illumination. It was observed that the crystallinity of zincite is a fundamental factor for the control of the photocatalytic activity of this material. (author)

  5. Thermal degradation of polymer systems having liquid crystalline oligoester segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Matroniani

    Full Text Available Abstract Block copolymers and blends comprised by liquid crystalline oligoester and polystyrene were prepared and their thermal stability were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The samples have shown three main decomposition temperatures due to (1 lost of flexible chain and decomposition of mesogenic segment, (2 decomposition of polystyrene and (3 final decomposition of oligoester rigid segment. Both copolymers and polymer blends presented lower thermal stability compared to polystyrene and oligoester. The residual mass after heating at 600 °C in copolymers and polymer blends were lower than those found in the oligoesters. A degradative process of aromatic segments of oligoester induced by decomposition of polystyrene is suggested.

  6. The factors influencing microstructure and mechanical properties of ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vaško

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of different conditions of isothermal heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of austempered ductile iron (ADI. Different temperature of isothermal transformation of austenite and different holding time at this temperature were used for heat treatment of specimens. The microstructure of specimens after casting and after heat treatment was evaluated by STN EN ISO 945 and by image analysis (using Lucia software. Mechanical properties were evaluated by the tensile test, the Rockwell hardness test and fatigue tests.

  7. Investigation of the phase formation from nickel coated nanostructured silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilyaeva, Yulia I.; Pyatilova, Olga V.; Berezkina, Alexandra Yu.; Sysa, Artem V.; Dudin, Alexander A.; Smirnov, Dmitry I.; Gavrilov, Sergey A.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the influence of the conditions of chemical and electrochemical nickel plating of nanostructured silicon and subsequent heat treatment on the phase composition of Si/Ni structures with advanced interface is studied. Nanostructured silicon formed by chemical and electrochemical etching was used for the formation of a developed interphase surface. The resulting Si/Ni samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray phase analysis. The experiments have revealed the differences in phase composition of the Si/Ni structures obtained by different methods, both before and after heat treatment.

  8. Reversible Surface Properties of Polybenzoxazine/Silica Nanocomposites Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the reversible surface properties (hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity of a polybenzoxazine (PBZ thin film through simple application of alternating UV illumination and thermal treatment. The fraction of intermolecularly hydrogen bonded O–H⋯O=C units in the PBZ film increased after UV exposure, inducing a hydrophilic surface; the surface recovered its hydrophobicity after heating, due to greater O–H⋯N intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Taking advantage of these phenomena, we prepared a PBZ/silica nanocomposite coating through two simple steps; this material exhibited reversible transitions from superhydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity upon sequential UV irradiation and thermal treatment.

  9. Long-term thermal stability of nanoclusters in ODS-Eurofer steel: An atom probe tomography study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilnyk, K. D.; Pradeep, K. G.; Choi, P.; Sandim, H. R. Z.; Raabe, D.

    2017-08-01

    Oxide-dispersion strengthened materials are important candidates for several high-temperature structural applications in advanced nuclear power plants. Most of the desirable mechanical properties presented by these materials are due to the dispersion of stable nanoparticles in the matrix. Samples of ODS-Eurofer steel were annealed for 4320 h (6 months) at 800 °C. The material was characterized using atom probe tomography in both conditions (prior and after heat treatment). The particles number density, size distribution, and chemical compositions were determined. No significant changes were observed between the two conditions indicating a high thermal stability of the Y-rich nanoparticles at 800 °C.

  10. Time-dependent recovery from Hell film boiling: confined geometry case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, Yu.P.; Sergeev, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    Experiment results for transient cooldown of a solid in saturated superfluid helium after heat load switch-off are reported. The fluid space restriction in the vicinity of a heater is a specific feature of the tested heat transfer configuration. In this case the recovery duration is found to be set as ≅70% by the stage of film boiling received by the end of heat generation, as ≅20% -by the value of bulk fluid temperature, as ≅15% - by the confinement degree. The sample orientation does not affect the recovery time directly. The investigation has been performed at the Particle Physics Laboratory, JINR

  11. Questions concerning safety and risk after the nuclear accidents in Japan. Deepened accident analysis for the Fukushima Daiichi power plant; Sicherheits- und Risikofragen im Nachgang zu den nuklearen Stoer- und Unfaellen in Japan. Vertiefte Ereignisanalyse zur Anlage Fukushima-Daini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistner, Christoph; Englert, Matthias [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-02-25

    The study questions concerning safety and risk in Japanese power plants following the disastrous nuclear accident covers the following issues: the nuclear facility Fukushima Daiichi, site characterization, important technical equipment, important electro-technical equipment, personal; description of the accident progression in the Fukushima nuclear power plant: impact of the earthquake, impact of the tsunami, short-term measures of the operating personnel, pressure and temperature situation in the containments, restoration of the after-heat cooling system in the units 1/2 and 4, fuel element storage pool, summarized parameters during the accident progress; comparative analysis of the accident progression at the Fukushima Daiichi site.

  12. Behavior of Concrete Cylinders Strengthened with a Basalt-FRP and Subjected to Mechanical Loads and Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulendinov, T.; Zesers, A.; Tamužs, V.

    2017-09-01

    Concrete samples were manufactured and strengthened with a basalt FRP (BFRP) using two kinds of winding patterns (spiral and tight). The efficiency of common and temperature-resistant epoxy binders were studied. Some of the samples were encased in an external concrete shell for an additional protection of the FRP reinforcement during heating. Both plain and polypropylene-microfiber-reinforced concretes were used for the external casing. Stress-strain relations of the samples before and after heating were obtained. The effects of high temperatures on the integrity of concrete samples with a BFRP reinforcement was investigated.

  13. La_2O_3-TiO_2系多孔質ガラスセラミックスの湿度センサーへの応用

    OpenAIRE

    清水, 康博; 岡田, 英昭; 荒井, 弘通

    1987-01-01

    The sodium borate glass system containing La2O3 and TiO2 shows a marked trend toward microphase separation after heat treatment, resulting in water-soluble sodium borate and water-insoluble La2O3-TiO2 ceramic phases. Then La2O3-TiO2-rich skeletons can be obtained by leaching out the sodium borate phase. The application of thus obtained porous glass-ceramics with interconnected pores to a humidity sensor is of interest. Microstructure, such as surface area and pore size distibution, of the ...

  14. Sub-10 ohm resistance gold films prepared by removal of ligands from thiol-stabilized 6 nm gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Mark W; Richardson, Tim H; Leggett, Graham

    2010-03-16

    The optical and electrical properties of dodecanethiol-stabilized nanoparticles (6 nm diameter gold core) have been investigated over a range of film thicknesses and temperatures. The surface plasmon resonance absorbance is found to be dependent on temperature. Heating of the nanoparticle film causes desorption of the thiol from the surface of the gold nanoparticle, resulting in irreversible changes to the absorption spectra of the nanoparticle film. Atomic force microscopy images of the samples before and after heating for different film thicknesses reveal structural changes and increased domain connectivity for thicker films leading to sub-10 ohm resistances measured for the 15-layer film.

  15. An Assessment of Subsurface Residual Stress Analysis in SLM Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mishurova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V bridges were additively fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM under different scanning speed conditions, to compare the effect of process energy density on the residual stress state. Subsurface lattice strain characterization was conducted by means of synchrotron diffraction in energy dispersive mode. High tensile strain gradients were found at the frontal surface for samples in an as-built condition. The geometry of the samples promotes increasing strains towards the pillar of the bridges. We observed that the higher the laser energy density during fabrication, the lower the lattice strains. A relief of lattice strains takes place after heat treatment.

  16. On the assessment of hydroxyapatite fluoridation by means of Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, M.; Lacharmoise, P. D.; Reparaz, J. S.; Goñi, A. R.; Valiente, M.

    2010-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite is the main mineral component of bones and teeth. Fluorapatite, a bioceramic that can be obtained from hydroxyapatite by chemical substitution of the hydroxide ions with fluoride, exhibits lower mineral solubility and larger mechanical strength. Despite the widespread use of fluoride against caries, a reliable technique for unambiguous assessment of fluoridation in in vitro tests is still lacking. Here we present a method to probe fluorapatite formation in fluoridated hydroxyapatite by combining Raman scattering with thermal annealing. In synthetic minerals, we found that effectively fluoride substituted hydroxyapatite transforms into fluorapatite only after heat treatment, due to the high activation energy for this first order phase transition.

  17. People’s Republic of China Scientific Abstracts No. 158

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-23

    mosquitoes [ wigglers ] is reduced about 80$. The fish eat the wigglers [continuation of CHUNG-HUA NEI-K»0 TSA-CHIH No 3, 1976 pp 1^2-1^6] and some...respiratory symptoms. In some patients, vermifuges were given 12-47 days after heat therapy, young worms were found in the stool in only a few. 20 AUTHOR...Operation on the knee joint revealed over 100 ml. of red fluid. The synovium was rough and covered with villi. Biopsy diagnosis was villonodular

  18. High field tests of 1.3 GHz niobium superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kako, Eiji; Noguchi, Shuichi; Ono, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    Four single-cell cavities prepared by various surface treatments have been tested repeatedly since 1991. A maximum accelerating gradient of 25.1 MV/m with a high Q 0 value of ∼10 10 was successfully achieved after heat treatment at 1400degC. A temperature mapping system with a high thermal sensitivity under superfluid helium was developed to understand phenomena limiting a maximum accelerating gradient. The cavity performances and the phenomena at high fields are reported in this paper. (author)

  19. 17-β-Estradiol Upregulates the Stress Response in Candida albicans: Implications for Microbial Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    C. O’Connor; M. Essmann; B. Larsen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The influence of 17-β-estradiol on the stress response of Candida albicans was studied.Methods: The survival of clinical isolates of C. albicans treated with 17-β-estradiol after heat and oxidative stress was measured by viable plate counts. Cellular proteins were analyzed via SDSPAGE.Results: The heat stress response induced by 17-β-estradiol in C. albicans grown at 25 ℃ protected the organisms against the lethal temperature of 48.5 ℃, as shown by viable plate counts. 17-β-estradi...

  20. 17-beta-estradiol upregulates the stress response in Candida albicans: implications for microbial virulence.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, C; Essmann, M; Larsen, B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The influence of 17-beta-estradiol on the stress response of Candida albicans was studied. METHODS: The survival of clinical isolates of C. albicans treated with 17-beta-estradiol after heat and oxidative stress was measured by viable plate counts. Cellular proteins were analyzed via SDS-PAGE. RESULTS: The heat stress response induced by 17-beta-estradiol in C. albicans grown at 25 degrees C protected the organisms against the lethal temperature of 48.5 degrees C, as shown by viabl...

  1. Immunogenicity of ascites tumor cells following in vitro hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, J.A.; Jasiewicz, M.L.; Simpson, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The concept that host immunization may be achieved by heat-induced antigenic modifications of cancer cells and/or the release of immunogenic products by dead or dying tumor cells following in vitro heating was examined. Ehrlich ascites cells were used, inasmuch as it was claimed that in vitro hyperthermia increased the immunogenicity of these cells. Tumor cell populations of different viability were obtained by heating Ehrlich cells at 42.5 degrees, 45 degrees, or 60 degrees C. Viable and nonviable cells were separated by Ficoll-Hypaque density centrifugation; viable nonreplicating cells were obtained by treatment with mitomycin C. Cell populations of different viability after heating were left to die slowly over 3 days at 37 degrees C. Swiss TO mice were then given injections of the treated cells and/or medium. No survival benefit occurred in mice inoculated with any of these different components and then challenged with viable tumor cells. Injection of irradiated cells, however, did produce host immunity. Similarly, D23 rat hepatoma ascites cells produced host immunity after 15,000 rad but not after heating. The claim that in vitro hyperthermia increases the immunogenicity of tumor cells was not confirmed

  2. Mechanism of bonding and debonding using surface activated bonding method with Si intermediate layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kai; Fujino, Masahisa; Matsumoto, Yoshiie; Suga, Tadatomo

    2018-04-01

    Techniques of handling thin and fragile substrates in a high-temperature process are highly required for the fabrication of semiconductor devices including thin film transistors (TFTs). In our previous study, we proposed applying the surface activated bonding (SAB) method using Si intermediate layers to the bonding and debonding of glass substrates. The SAB method has successfully bonded glass substrates at room temperature, and the substrates have been debonded after heating at 450 °C, in which TFTs are fabricated on thin glass substrates for LC display devices. In this study, we conducted the bonding and debonding of Si and glass in order to understand the mechanism in the proposed process. Si substrates are also successfully bonded to glass substrates at room temperature and debonded after heating at 450 °C using the proposed bonding process. By the composition analysis of bonding interfaces, it is clarified that the absorbed water on the glass forms interfacial voids and cause the decrease in bond strength.

  3. Inhibition of replicon initiation and DNA elongation in Chinese hamster ovary cells by treatment at 45.5 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, R.S.; Dewey, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Heat treatment of Chinese hamster ovary cells at 45.5 degrees C for 15 minutes resulted in the inhibition of both the replicon initiation and the DNA elongation processes. Analysis of the DNA made after treatment showed that for up to 30 minutes after hyperthermia, there was a significant increase (45-80% above control level) in the amount of labeled DNA less than or equal to 40S in size and having a distinct peak of 20S. Therefore, elongation of 20S molecules into larger molecules was inhibited or slowed down. These small molecules did not accumulate when recovery times were longer than 30 minutes. The DNA made after 120 and 240 minutes postheat incubation was larger than control size and indicated that, although replicon initiation was still inhibited, elongation between replicons into 120S molecules could take place. However, their subsequent elongation into parental-size molecules was inhibited. The same delay in DNA elongation seen in cells examined immediately after treatment was still observed in cells heated and allowed to recover for 30 minutes. Also, after 30 minutes of recovery, heated cells still had more newly synthesized DNA in the single-stranded fraction than did control cells, which indicates that DNA elongation within a replicon is delayed for at least 30 minutes after heating. Furthermore, at 4 hours after heating, the inhibition of elongation of clusters of replicons into parental molecules prevailed

  4. Nuclear reactor, its cooling facility, nuclear power plant, and method of operating the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, Hitoshi; Tominaga, Kenji; Fujii, Tadashi.

    1993-01-01

    The upper surface of inner structural materials in a container is partitioned by concrete structural walls to form an upper space portion. A pressure relief plate is disposed on the concrete structural walls. If an accident occurs, the pressure relief plate is operated to form a circulation path for a gas to return to the upper space portion again from the upper space portion. The temperature of cooling water in a pressure suppression chamber, that is, a wet well liquid phase portion is elevated by after heat of a reactor core. Evaporated steams transfer from the wet well gas phase portion to the upper space portion passing through pipelines and are mixed with N 2 gas present in the upper space portion. The mixed gas is cooled by a container inner wall cooled by air passing through an air cooling duct, flows downward by way of the pressure relief plate and reaches the wet well gas phase portion again. Since the gases in the upper space circulate by a driving force caused by the after heat, reliability of cooling performance can be improved upon occurrence of an accident without using an active driving force. (I.N.)

  5. Llama-Derived Single Domain Antibodies Specific for Abrus Agglutinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ellen R.; Anderson, George P.; Zabetakis, Dan; Walper, Scott; Liu, Jinny L.; Bernstein, Rachael; Calm, Alena; Carney, James P.; O’Brien, Thomas W.; Walker, Jennifer L.; Garber, Eric A. E.

    2011-01-01

    Llama derived single domain antibodies (sdAb), the recombinantly expressed variable heavy domains from the unique heavy-chain only antibodies of camelids, were isolated from a library derived from llamas immunized with a commercial abrin toxoid preparation. Abrin is a potent toxin similar to ricin in structure, sequence and mechanism of action. The selected sdAb were evaluated for their ability to bind to commercial abrin as well as abrax (a recombinant abrin A-chain), purified abrin fractions, Abrus agglutinin (a protein related to abrin but with lower toxicity), ricin, and unrelated proteins. Isolated sdAb were also evaluated for their ability to refold after heat denaturation and ability to be used in sandwich assays as both capture and reporter elements. The best binders were specific for the Abrus agglutinin, showing minimal binding to purified abrin fractions or unrelated proteins. These binders had sub nM affinities and regained most of their secondary structure after heating to 95 °C. They functioned well in sandwich assays. Through gel analysis and the behavior of anti-abrin monoclonal antibodies, we determined that the commercial toxoid preparation used for the original immunizations contained a high percentage of Abrus agglutinin, explaining the selection of Abrus agglutinin binders. Used in conjunction with anti-abrin monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, these reagents can fill a role to discriminate between the highly toxic abrin and the related, but much less toxic, Abrus agglutinin and distinguish between different crude preparations. PMID:22174977

  6. Effect of Quenching Media on Mechanical Properties of Medium Carbon Steel 1030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khansaa Dawood Salman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims to study the effect of quenching media (water, oil, Poly Vinyl Chloride PVC on mechanical properties of 1030 steel. The applications of this steel include machinery parts where strength and hardness are requisites. The steel is heated to about 950  and soaked for 1hr in electrical furnace and then quenched in different quenching medium such as water, oil and poly vinyl chloride. After heat treatment by quenching, the specimens are tempered at 250  for 1hr and then cooling in air. The mechanical properties of the specimens are determined by using universal tensile testing machine for tensile test, Vickers hardness apparatus for hardness testing, measuring the grain size of the phases and examine the microstructure of the specimens before and after heat-treatment. The results of this work showed that improving the mechanical properties of medium carbon 1030 steel, which is quenching by water gives the preferred results as the following: Quenching by water leads to increase σy, σu.t.s, K and hardness, but at the same time quenching by water leads to decrease E and n. Also the quenching by water and followed by tempering leads to improve the microstructure and decreasing (refining of the grain size of ferrite and pearlite phases of the steel used in this work.

  7. The Effect of Adding PET (Polyethylen Terephthalate) Plastic Waste on SCC (Self-Compacting Concrete) to Fresh Concrete Behavior and Mechanical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswatama W, K.; Suyoso, H.; Meyfa U, N.; Tedy, P.

    2018-01-01

    To study the effect PET waste plastics on SCC then PET plastic waste content for SCC is made into 2.5%; 5%; 7.5%; and 10%. As reference concrete is made SCC with 0% PET level. The results on all fresh concrete test items indicate that for all PET waste levels made are meeting the criteria as SCC. The effect of adding PET to fresh concrete behavior on all test items shows that the filling ability and passing ability of concrete work increases with increasing of PET. However, the increase in PET will decrease its mechanical properties. The result of heat test shows that the mechanical properties of concrete (compressive strength, splitting, and elastic modulus) after heating at 250°C temperature has not changed, while at 600°C has significant capacity decline. To clarify the differences between SCC before and after heating, microstructure analysis was done in the form of photo magnification of specimen using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope).

  8. Application of EPR spectroscopy to examine free radicals evolution during storage of the thermally sterilized Ungentum ophthalmicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2016-06-24

    Free radicals formed during thermal sterilization of the Ungentum ophthalmicum were examined by an X-band EPR spectroscopy. The influence of storage time (15 min; 1, 2 and 3 days after heating) on free radical properties and concentrations in this sample was determined. Thermal sterilization was done according to the pharmaceutical norms. The first-derivative EPR spectra with g-values about 2 were measured with magnetic modulation of 100 kHz in the range of microwave power 2.2-70 mW. The changes of amplitudes (A) and linewidths (ΔB pp ) with microwave powers were evaluated. Free radicals in concentration ∼10 17 spin/g were formed during heating of the tested Ungentum. Free radical concentration decreased with increase in storage time, and reached values ∼10 17 spin/g after 3 days from sterilization. The tested U. ophthalmicum should not be sterilized at a temperature of 160 °C because of the free radicals formation, or it should be used 3 days after heating, when free radicals were considerably quenched. Free radical properties remain unchanged during storage of the Ungentum. The EPR lines of the U. ophthalmicum were homogeneously broadened and their linewidths (ΔB pp ) increased with increase in microwave power. EPR spectroscopy is useful to examine free radicals to optimize sterilization process and storage conditions of ophthalmologic samples.

  9. Obtention, machining and wear of sintered alloys for automotive applications; Processamento, usinagem e desgaste de ligas sinterizadas para aplicacoes automotivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus Filho, Edson Souza de

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this work was the development of materials for automotive applications, in particular, valve seat inserts for gasoline combustion engines. The development involved the following activities: processing by powder metallurgy techniques, heat treatment, mechanical and microstructural characterization, machining and wear of materials. This work was undertaken aiming cost reduction of this component by the use of cheaper and less pollutant elements, eliminating the presence of Co and Pb due to their high cost and toxicological effects, respectively. The accomplishment of a thorough research into patents revealed that the materials studied here present particular compositions and were not yet produced. The results of hardness measurements and the transverse radial strength of the studied materials, after heat treatment, revealed superior properties than the commercial alloys applied at the moment. The machining tests of the material without heat treatment indicated a similar behaviour in comparison to the commercial alloy, suggesting that the new alloy chemistry composition was not deleterious in this sense. After heat treatment, the obtained alloys presented a cutting force increase in relation to the commercial alloy. Wear tests results of heat treated materials presented smaller friction coefficient and mass loss than the commercial alloy, in ali cases. This was especially achieved due to the advantages offered by heat treatment allied to the addition of NbC and Ti/W carbides. The materials obtained here showed to be potential candidates to substitute with advantages, valve seat inserts made of Fe-Co alloys for gasoline combustion engines. (author)

  10. Modification of the heat response and thermotolerance by cycloheximide, hydroxyurea, and lucanthone in CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henle, K.J.; Leeper, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary cells to cycloheximide for 2 hr immediately prior to 45 0 C hyperthemia increased cell survival by a factor of 1.8. The increase in cell survival was independent of the heating time for heat treatments longer than 10 min at 45 0 C and was similar with cycloheximide concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/ml. Thermotolerance was induced by an initial treatment of 10 min at 45 0 C (conditioning), developed during a 7-hr incubation period at 37 0 C, and was defined by the hyperthermia dose response with a second 45 0 C heat treatment. When cycloheximide (1μg/ml) was added to the medium after heat conditioning and removed prior to the second heat treatment, the degree of thermotolerance was 50% less than that in medium controls. A 3-hr exposure to 10 μg/ml cycloheximide at 37 0 C by itself did not result in the progressive development of thermotolerance which occurs after a conditioning heat treatment. In contrast to the effects of cycloheximide, hydroxyurea (1 mM) and lucanthone (5 μg/ml) showed little effect on the heat sensitivity and the development of thermotolerance after heat conditioning. Although the results can be interpreted that the development of thermotolerance requires the synthesis of new proteins, but not that of DNA and RNA, alternate interpretations are possible based on known cycloheximide effects aside from its primary inhibition of protein synthesis

  11. Combustion Synthesis of Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-x and La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-x Nanopowders for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhong, zhimin

    2005-01-01

    Nanopowders of Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO(3-x) (SSC) and La0.6Sr0.4CoO(3-x) (LSC) compositions, which are being investigated as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells, were synthesized by a solution-combustion method using metal nitrates and glycine as fuel. Development of crystalline phases in the as-synthesized powders after heat treatments at various temperatures was monitored by x-ray diffraction. Perovskite phase in LSC formed more readily than in SSC. Single phase perovskites were obtained after heat treatment of the combustion synthesized LSC and SSC powders at 1000 and 1200 C, respectively. The as-synthesized powders had an average particle size of 12 nm as determined from x-ray line broadening analysis using the Scherrer equation. Average grain size of the powders increased with increase in calcination temperature. Morphological analysis of the powders calcined at various temperatures was done by scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Robust heat-inducible gene expression by two endogenous hsp70-derived promoters in transgenic Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenetti, Tiffany L. G.; Aryan, Azadeh; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.

    2011-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is an important vector of the viruses that cause dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and yellow fever. Reverse genetic approaches to the study of gene function in this mosquito have been limited by the lack of a robust inducible promoter to allow precise temporal control over a protein-encoding or hairpin RNA transgene. Likewise, investigations into the molecular and biochemical basis of vector competence would benefit from the ability to activate an anti-pathogen molecule at specific times during infection. We have characterized the ability of genomic sequences derived from two Ae. aegypti hsp70 genes to drive heat-inducible expression of a reporter in both transient and germline transformation contexts. AaHsp70-luciferase transcripts accumulated specifically after heat shock, and displayed a pattern of rapid induction and decay similar to endogenous AaHsp70 genes. Luciferase expression in transgenic Ae. aegypti increased by ∼25-50 fold in whole adults by four hours after heat-shock, with significant activity (∼20 fold) remaining at 24 hr. Heat-induced expression was even more dramatic in midgut tissues, with one strain showing a ∼2500-fold increase in luciferase activity. The AaHsp70 promoters described could be valuable for gene function studies as well as for the precise timing of the expression of anti-pathogen molecules. PMID:22142225

  13. Relationship between proportion and composition of albumins, and in vitro protein digestibility of raw and cooked pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sei Joon; Kim, Tae Wan; Baik, Byung-Kee

    2010-08-15

    Peas provide an excellent plant protein resource for human diets, but their proteins are less readily digestible than animal proteins. To identify the relationship between composition and in vitro digestibility of pea protein, eight pea varieties with a wide range of protein content (157.3-272.7 g kg(-1)) were determined for the proportion of albumins and globulins, their compositions using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) before and after heat treatment using a multi-enzyme (trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase) method. The proportion of albumins based on total seed protein content decreased from 229 to 147 g kg(-1) as seed protein content increased from 157.3 to 272.7 g kg(-1), while the proportion of globulins increased from 483 to 590 g kg(-1). The IVPDs of eight raw pea seeds were 79.9-83.5%, with significant varietal variations, and those were improved to 85.9-86.8% by cooking. Albumins, including (pea albumins 2) PA2, trypsin inhibitor, lectin and lipoxygenase, were identified as proteolytic resistant proteins. Globulins were mostly digested by protease treatment after heating. The quantitative ratio of albumins and globulins, and the quantitative variations of albumin protein components, including lipoxygenase, PA2, lectins and trypsin inhibitors, appear to influence the protein digestibility of both raw and cooked pea seeds. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 2. Some properties of the radioprotective substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonezawa, M.; Katoh, N.; Takeda, A. (Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    Some properties of the radioprotective substances in a ginseng extract that increased the 30-day survival ratio in irradiated mice were studied. Methanol-soluble fraction of the extract did not protect the irradiated animals. Acid or alkali (0.12 N) inactivated the extract at 60/sup 0/C. But the radioprotective activity was stable after heating the ginseng extract in physiological saline at pH 7 in a boiling-water bath for 15 min. The ginseng extract was separated into two fractions by CM-cellulose column chromatography. One of them (CM-A) was significantly efficacious at 5% level, and the other (CM-B) at 0.1% level with the doses proportional to their yields. CM-B, not containing saponin, was subjected to further purification, UV spectrum and a biuret test suggested the presence of protein in this fraction. The supernatant obtained after heating CM-B solution at pH 7 was separated into three fractions, namely G-I, G-II and G-III, by gel-chromatography with a Sephadex G-75 column. Both G-I (0.44 mg per animal) and G-III (0.84 mg, calculated dose) were significantly efficacious, but G-II (0.47 mg) was not.

  15. THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE CHEMICAL AND COLOR CHANGE OF BLACK LOCUST (ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA WOOD FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chen,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen and moisture content (MC on the chemical and color changes of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia wood during heat treatment. The wood flour was conditioned to different initial MCs and heated for 24 h at a constant temperature of 120ºC in either oxygen or nitrogen atmosphere. The pH values and chromaticity indexes were examined. Diffuse reflectance UV-Vis (DRUV and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra were used to characterize the changes of chromophores upon heating. The study demonstrated that the pH values decreased after heat treatment, and it was lower when the heat treated was in oxygen than in nitrogen. The L* decreased significantly, while a* and b* increased. The total color difference ΔE* increased with increasing initial MC until a plateau was reached after 30% MC. The color change was greater in oxygen than in nitrogen. The hydroxyl groups decreased after heat treatment. The releases of acid and formation of quinoid compounds and carboxylic groups during heat treatment were confirmed. Discoloration of wood is due mainly to the condensation and oxidation reactions, which are accelerated by oxygen. Higher MCs are required to obtain the greatest color change of wood in inert atmosphere.

  16. Differential Targeting of Hsp70 Heat Shock Proteins HSPA6 and HSPA1A with Components of a Protein Disaggregation/Refolding Machine in Differentiated Human Neuronal Cells following Thermal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Brown

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (Hsps co-operate in multi-protein machines that counter protein misfolding and aggregation and involve DNAJ (Hsp40, HSPA (Hsp70, and HSPH (Hsp105α. The HSPA family is a multigene family composed of inducible and constitutively expressed members. Inducible HSPA6 (Hsp70B' is found in the human genome but not in the genomes of mouse and rat. To advance knowledge of this little studied HSPA member, the targeting of HSPA6 to stress-sensitive neuronal sites with components of a disaggregation/refolding machine was investigated following thermal stress. HSPA6 targeted the periphery of nuclear speckles (perispeckles that have been characterized as sites of transcription. However, HSPA6 did not co-localize at perispeckles with DNAJB1 (Hsp40-1 or HSPH1 (Hsp105α. At 3 h after heat shock, HSPA6 co-localized with these members of the disaggregation/refolding machine at the granular component (GC of the nucleolus. Inducible HSPA1A (Hsp70-1 and constitutively expressed HSPA8 (Hsc70 co-localized at nuclear speckles with components of the machine immediately after heat shock, and at the GC layer of the nucleolus at 1 h with DNAJA1 and BAG-1. These results suggest that HSPA6 exhibits targeting features that are not apparent for HSPA1A and HSPA8.

  17. Obtention, machining and wear of sintered alloys for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus Filho, Edson Souza de

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was the development of materials for automotive applications, in particular, valve seat inserts for gasoline combustion engines. The development involved the following activities: processing by powder metallurgy techniques, heat treatment, mechanical and microstructural characterization, machining and wear of materials. This work was undertaken aiming cost reduction of this component by the use of cheaper and less pollutant elements, eliminating the presence of Co and Pb due to their high cost and toxicological effects, respectively. The accomplishment of a thorough research into patents revealed that the materials studied here present particular compositions and were not yet produced. The results of hardness measurements and the transverse radial strength of the studied materials, after heat treatment, revealed superior properties than the commercial alloys applied at the moment. The machining tests of the material without heat treatment indicated a similar behaviour in comparison to the commercial alloy, suggesting that the new alloy chemistry composition was not deleterious in this sense. After heat treatment, the obtained alloys presented a cutting force increase in relation to the commercial alloy. Wear tests results of heat treated materials presented smaller friction coefficient and mass loss than the commercial alloy, in ali cases. This was especially achieved due to the advantages offered by heat treatment allied to the addition of NbC and Ti/W carbides. The materials obtained here showed to be potential candidates to substitute with advantages, valve seat inserts made of Fe-Co alloys for gasoline combustion engines. (author)

  18. Trace-level determination of polar flavour compounds in butter by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adahchour, M; Vreuls, R J; van der Heijden, A; Brinkman, U A

    1999-06-04

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aromas of butter. A simple technique for the determination of these components is described which is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) after melting of the butter and separation of the aqueous phase from the fat. Volatile flavours present in the water fraction are collected by off-line SPE on cartidges packed with a copolymer sorbent. After desorption with 500 microliters of methyl acetate, 1-microliter aliquots are quantified and/or identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The procedure was tested with respect to recovery, linearity and limit of detection in real-life samples using five polar model analytes. It allows the characterisation of polar flavour compounds in butter prior to and after heat treatment at 170 degrees C. From the five model compounds, vanillin, traces of diacetyl and maltol were found to be present in the butter samples. After heat treatment 500-1000-fold increased concentration of maltol, and substantial amounts of furaneol were detected.

  19. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei

    2017-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm 3 /g) ( p sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  20. Short-term heat shock affects the course of immune response in Galleria mellonella naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertyporokh, Lidiia; Taszłow, Paulina; Samorek-Pieróg, Małgorzata; Wojda, Iwona

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate how exposition of infected insects to short-term heat shock affects the biochemical and molecular aspects of their immune response. Galleria mellonella larvae were exposed to 43°C for 15min, at the seventy second hour after natural infection with entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. As a result, both qualitative and quantitative changes in hemolymph protein profiles, and among them infection-induced changes in the amount of apolipophorin III (apoLp-III), were observed. Heat shock differently affects the expression of the tested immune-related genes. It transiently inhibits expression of antifungal peptides gallerimycin and galiomicin in both the fat body and hemocytes of infected larvae. The same, although to a lesser extent, concerned apoLp-III gene expression and was observed directly after heat shock. Nevertheless, in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, apoLp-III expression was higher in comparison to unshocked larvae in the fat body but not in hemocytes, which was consistent with the higher amount of this protein detected in the hemolymph of the infected, shocked larvae. Furthermore, lysozyme-type activity was higher directly after heat shock, while antifungal activity was significantly higher also in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, in comparison to the respective values in their non-shocked, infected counterparts. These results show how changes in the external temperature modulate the immune response of G. mellonella suffering from infection with its natural pathogen B. bassiana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciesla, K.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Le Tien, C.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and β-sheets, in particular from increase of β-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling

  2. Spent nuclear fuel assembly storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagishita, Takuya

    1998-01-01

    The vessel of the present invention promotes an effect of removing after heat of spent nuclear fuel assemblies so as not to give force to the storage vessel caused by expansion of heat removing partitioning plates. Namely, the vessel of the present invention comprises a cylinder body having closed upper and lower portions and a plurality of heat removing partitioning cylinders disposed each at a predetermined interval in the circumferential direction of the above-mentioned cylinder body. The heat removing partitioning cylinders comprises (1) first heat removing partitioning plates extended in the radial direction of the cylinder body and opposed at a predetermined gap in the circumferential direction of the cylinder body, and having the base ends on the side of the inner wall of the cylinder body being secured to the inner wall of the cylinder body and (2) a second heat removing plate for connecting the top ends of both opposed heat removing partitioning plates on the central side of the cylinder body with each other. Spent nuclear fuel assemblies are contained in a plurality of closed spaces surrounded by the first heat removing partitioning plates and the second heat removing partitioning plate. With such constitution, since after heat is partially transferred from the heat removing partitioning plates to the cylindrical body directly by heat conduction, the heat removing effect can be promoted compared with the prior art. (I.S.)

  3. Stress Responses to Heat Exposure in Three Species of Australian Desert Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shangzhe; Romero, L Michael; Htut, Zaw Win; McWhorter, Todd J

    Birds need to respond to weather changes quickly and appropriately for their own well-being and survival. The inability to respond appropriately to heat waves can be fatal to individual birds and can translate into large-scale mortality events. We investigated corticosterone (CORT) and heterophil∶lymphocyte (H∶L) ratio responses of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), and diamond doves (Geopelia cuneata) to heat exposures. The birds were exposed to a temperature similar to what they experience during a typical summer day (35°C) and a higher temperature (45°C) similar to that experienced during a heat wave. There were no significant increases between the CORT concentrations before and after heat exposure in zebra finches and budgerigars at 35° and 45°C, but there was a significant increase in CORT concentrations in diamond doves after exposure to 45°C. The H∶L ratios increased significantly after heat exposure in budgerigars at 35° and 45°C and in diamond doves at 35°C. No significant correlation was found between the changes in CORT and H∶L ratios. The data suggest that there are species differences in birds' stress responses to heat exposure that may reflect their ability to detect and adapt to high temperatures. There appear to be differences between the two types of stress measurements, which may reflect differences in the timescales of these responses.

  4. Facile synthesis of main-chain degradable block copolymers for performance enhanced dismantlable adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Eriko; Hagihara, Takashi; Matsumoto, Akikazu

    2012-04-01

    Block copolymers consisting of readily degradable polyperoxides and non-degradable vinyl polymers as the block segments were successfully synthesized by reversible chain transfer catalyzed polymerization, which is one of living radical polymerization techniques. The block copolymers showed characteristic morphology and wettability being different from the polymer blends. When block copolymers containing polyperoxide and polymethacrylate blocks were heated below 150 °C, the polyperoxide blocks were completely degraded and the polymethacrylate blocks were recovered without degradation. Block copolymers containing a poly(2-ethylhexyl methacrylate) block were then investigated as a dismantlable adhesion material, which requires adequate bonding strength during use and easy debonding on demand. Among the several block copolymers, the one consisting of poly(2-ethylhexyl methacrylate) and polyperoxide from methyl sorbate (PPMS) (M(n) = 4900) exhibited good performance as a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA). After heating the test specimens in a temperature range from 60 to 100 °C, PSA performance, which was evaluated by 180° peel strength and shear holding power measurements, was significantly diminished. Especially, after heating at 100 °C for 1 h, spontaneous debonding of some test specimens was observed because of the evolution of volatile acetaldehyde from PPMS.

  5. Characters of alloy Zr-0.4%Mo-0.5%Fe-0.5%Cr post heat treatment and cold rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sungkono; Siti Aidah

    2014-01-01

    Research and development of Zr-Mo-Fe-Cr alloys aimed to obtain PWR fuel element structure material with high burn up. In this study of the Zr-0.4%Mo-0.5%Fe-0.5%Cr alloys was prepared from zirconium sponge, molybdenum, iron and chromium powder. The alloy were heat treated at varying temperatures of 650 and 750 °C and retention time of 1, 1.5 and 2 hours. The objectives of this research was to obtain effect of thickness reduction on the character of Zr-0.4%Mo-0.5%Fe-0.5%Cr alloy. The results of this experiment showed that the microstructures of Zr-0.4%Mo-0.5%Fe-0.5%Cr alloy after heat treatment and cold rolling exhibits that the higher of the thickness reduction has applied on the alloy caused the microstructure to evolve from deformed equiaxial grains into flat bar grains and then into deformed flat bar grains. However, the higher of the temperature and the retention time then the larger grain structures so that the cold rolling causes the shape of the grains structure into a flat bar with a relatively larger size which affects the lower hardness. The Zr-0.4%Mo-0.5%Fe-0.5%Cr alloy after heat treatment (650-750°C; 1.5-2 hours) can undergo cold deformation without cracking at a thickness reduction between 5 to 15%. (author)

  6. Exploring the potential of acquisition curves of the anhysteretic remanent magnetization as a tool to detect subtle magnetic alteration induced by heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Lennart V.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Mullender, Tom A. T.

    2012-03-01

    Recently, many new methods and improved protocols to determine the absolute paleointensity of lavas reliably have been proposed. Here we study eight recent flows from three different volcanic edifices (Mt. Etna, La Palma and Hawaii) with the so-called multispecimen parallel differential pTRM (MSP) method including the recently proposed domain-state correction (MSP-DSC) (Fabian and Leonhardt, 2010). Surprisingly, apart from approximately correct paleointensity values, we observe major underestimates of the paleofield. These deviations are possibly related to alteration that is not revealed by rock-magnetic analysis. We explore the potential of high-resolution acquisition curves of the anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) to detect subtle alteration in the samples. It appears that assessing changes in the ARM acquisition properties before and after heating to the desired MSP temperature discriminates between underestimates and approximately correct estimations of the paleofield in the outcomes of the MSP-DSC protocol. By combining observations from the domain-state corrected MSP protocol and ARM acquisition experiments before and after heating, an extended MSP protocol is suggested which makes it possible to assess the best set temperature for the MSP-DSC protocol and to label MSP results as being approximately correct, or an underestimate of the paleofield.

  7. Identification of proteins sensitive to thermal stress in human neuroblastoma and glioma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilian Xu

    Full Text Available Heat-shock is an acute insult to the mammalian proteome. The sudden elevation in temperature has far-reaching effects on protein metabolism, leads to a rapid inhibition of most protein synthesis, and the induction of protein chaperones. Using heat-shock in cells of neuronal (SH-SY5Y and glial (CCF-STTG1 lineage, in conjunction with detergent extraction and sedimentation followed by LC-MS/MS proteomic approaches, we sought to identify human proteins that lose solubility upon heat-shock. The two cell lines showed largely overlapping profiles of proteins detected by LC-MS/MS. We identified 58 proteins in detergent insoluble fractions as losing solubility in after heat shock; 10 were common between the 2 cell lines. A subset of the proteins identified by LC-MS/MS was validated by immunoblotting of similarly prepared fractions. Ultimately, we were able to definitively identify 3 proteins as putatively metastable neural proteins; FEN1, CDK1, and TDP-43. We also determined that after heat-shock these cells accumulate insoluble polyubiquitin chains largely linked via lysine 48 (K-48 residues. Collectively, this study identifies human neural proteins that lose solubility upon heat-shock. These proteins may represent components of the human proteome that are vulnerable to misfolding in settings of proteostasis stress.

  8. Preparation of an anionic azo pigment-pillared layered double hydroxide and the thermo- and photostability of the resulting intercalated material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shengchang; Li, Dianqing; Zhang, Weifeng; Pu, Min; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2004-12-01

    A large anionic pigment has been intercalated into a layered double hydroxide (LDH) host by ion-exchange of an Mg/Al LDH-nitrate precursor with a solution of C.I. Pigment Red 48:2 (the calcium salt of 4-((5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulfophenyl)azo)-3-hydroxy-2-naphthalene-carboxylic acid), in ethane-1,2-diol. After intercalation of the pigment, the interlayer distance in the LDH increases from 0.86 to 1.72 nm. Infrared spectra and TG-DTA curves reveal the presence of a complex system of supramolecular host-guest interactions. The UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra of C.I. Pigment Red 48:2 show marked changes after heating at 200 °C and above, whereas there are no significant changes in the spectra of the intercalated pigment after heating at temperatures up to 300 °C, showing that the thermostability is markedly enhanced by intercalation in the LDH host. The pigment-intercalated LDHs exhibits much higher photostability to UV light than the pristine pigment, in the case of both the pure solids and their composites with polypropylene, as shown by measurement of CIE 1976 L*a*b* color difference ( ΔE) values.

  9. Effect of grain orientation and heat treatment on mechanical properties of pure W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noto, Hiroyuki, E-mail: noto_hiroyuki@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan); Taniguchi, Shuichi [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kurishita, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Satoru [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Ukita, Takashi; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi [Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Kimura, Akihiko [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    The effect of grain orientation, heat-treatment temperature and test temperature on the mechanical properties of tungsten (W), which vary depending on plastic working and fabrication process, was investigated by mechanical testing of tensile or bending. Heavily worked W samples (1.5–2.0 mm in the final thickness) exhibit degradation of fracture strength due to recrystallization embrittlement after heat-treatment at 1240 °C (temperature of diffusion bonding between W and a candidate material of the Fe base support structure). On the other hand, W samples with lower thickness reduction rates do not suffer degradation of fracture strength after heating up to around 1300 °C, and show somewhat higher fracture strength by heat-treatment below 1300 °C than the samples in the as-received state. The observed behavior is a reflection of recovery of dislocations introduced by plastic working. High temperature tensile testing of ITER grade W with an anisotropic grain structure and S-TUN with an equiaxed grain structure revealed that both W grades exhibit plastic elongation at temperatures higher than 200 °C with essentially the same temperature dependence of yield strength, which is relatively insensitive to grain orientation in the structure at 200–1300 °C.

  10. Effect of grain orientation and heat treatment on mechanical properties of pure W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Satoru; Ukita, Takashi; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Kimura, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    The effect of grain orientation, heat-treatment temperature and test temperature on the mechanical properties of tungsten (W), which vary depending on plastic working and fabrication process, was investigated by mechanical testing of tensile or bending. Heavily worked W samples (1.5–2.0 mm in the final thickness) exhibit degradation of fracture strength due to recrystallization embrittlement after heat-treatment at 1240 °C (temperature of diffusion bonding between W and a candidate material of the Fe base support structure). On the other hand, W samples with lower thickness reduction rates do not suffer degradation of fracture strength after heating up to around 1300 °C, and show somewhat higher fracture strength by heat-treatment below 1300 °C than the samples in the as-received state. The observed behavior is a reflection of recovery of dislocations introduced by plastic working. High temperature tensile testing of ITER grade W with an anisotropic grain structure and S-TUN with an equiaxed grain structure revealed that both W grades exhibit plastic elongation at temperatures higher than 200 °C with essentially the same temperature dependence of yield strength, which is relatively insensitive to grain orientation in the structure at 200–1300 °C

  11. Effect of heating on the behaviors of hydrogen in C-TiC films with auger electron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Y.; Wang, L.W.; Huang, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    C-TiC films with a content of 75% TiC were prepared with magnetron sputtering deposition followed by Ar + ion bombardment. Effect of heating on the behaviors of hydrogen in C-TiC films before and after heating was studied with Auger Electron Spectroscopy and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) analyses. SIMS depth profiles of hydrogen after H + ion implantation and thermal treatment show different hydrogen concentrations in C-TiC coatings and stainless steel. SIMS measurements show the existence of TiH, TiH 2 , CH 3 , CH 4 , C 2 H 2 bonds in the films after H + ion irradiation and the changes in the Ti LMM, Ti LMV and C KLL Auger line shape reveal that they have a good hydrogen retention ability after heating up to the temperature 393 K. All the results show that C-TiC coatings can be used as a hydrogen retainer or hydrogen permeable barrier on stainless steel to protect it from hydrogen brittleness

  12. Tritium permeation barrier based on self-healing composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jifeng; Zhang Dan; Suo Jinping

    2010-01-01

    Pores and cracks in ceramic coatings is one of the most important problems to be solved for the thermally sprayed tritium permeation barriers (TPBs) in fusion reactor. In this work, we developed a self-healing composite coating to address this problem. The coating composed of TiC + mixture(TiC/Al 2 O 3 ) + Al 2 O 3 was deposited on martensitic steels by means of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). Before and after heat treatment, the morphology and phase of the coating were comparatively investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In the experiment, NiAl + Al 2 O 3 , mixture(TiC/Al 2 O 3 ) + Al 2 O 3 and NiAl + TiC + mixture(TiC/Al 2 O 3 ) + Al 2 O 3 films were also fabricated and studied, respectively. The results showed that the TiC + mixture(TiC/Al 2 O 3 ) + Al 2 O 3 coating exhibited the best self-healing ability and good thermal shock resistance among the four samples after heat treatment under normal atmosphere. The SEM images analyzed by Image Pro software indicated that the porosity of the TiC + mixture(TiC/Al 2 O 3 ) + Al 2 O 3 coating decreased more than 90% in comparison with the sample before heat treatment. This self-healing coating made by thermal spraying might be a good candidate for tritium permeation barrier in fusion reactors.

  13. Partial Characterisation of Bacteriocins Produced by Bacillus cereus Isolates from Milk and Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Bogović Matijašić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one (19.2 % out of 161 Bacillus cereus isolates from raw milk and milk products were found to produce proteinaceous substances which inhibit the growth of other B. cereus isolates. The detection of antibacterial activity depended on medium and method used. Bactericidal activity was detected in 23 (14 % or 19 (12 % of the tested strains on the triptic soya agar and brain-heart infusion with glucose, respectively, while 11 (7 % of the strains produced bactericidal substances on both media. Nineteen percent of isolates from raw milk and 20 % of isolates from milk products were found to produce bacteriocins. Four B. cereus isolates inhibited the growth of individual test strains belonging to B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus helveticus and L. casei species. The bacteriocins of four B. cereus isolates were studied in more detail. The production and activity of these substances were detected in stationary- phase of bacterial culture. Two of them were stable after heating at 60 °C, while only one was stable after heating at 75 °C for 15 minutes. All of them were active over a range of pH=3–10. The apparent molecular weights of four bacteriocins detected by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis were in the range of 1 to 8 kDa.

  14. Phenylnaphthalene as a Heat Transfer Fluid for Concentrating Solar Power: High-Temperature Static Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Joseph III, Robert Anthony [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) may be an alternative to generating electricity from fossil fuels; however, greater thermodynamic efficiency is needed to improve the economics of CSP operation. One way of achieving improved efficiency is to operate the CSP loop at higher temperatures than the current maximum of about 400 C. ORNL has been investigating a synthetic polyaromatic oil for use in a trough type CSP collector, to temperatures up to 500 C. The oil was chosen because of its thermal stability and calculated low vapor and critical pressures. The oil has been synthesized using a Suzuki coupling mechanism and has been tested in static heating experiments. Analysis has been conducted on the oil after heating and suggests that there may be some isomerization taking place at 450 C, but the fluid appears to remain stable above that temperature. Tests were conducted over one week and further tests are planned to investigate stabilities after heating for months and in flow configurations. Thermochemical data and thermophysical predictions indicate that substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons may be useful for applications that run at higher temperatures than possible with commercial fluids such as Therminol-VP1.

  15. FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuoki, Akira; Yamakawa, Masanori.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety and reliable after-heat removal from a reactor core. Constitution: During ordinary operation of a FBR type reactor, sodium coolants heated to a high temperature in a reactor core are exhausted therefrom, collide against the reactor core upper mechanisms to radially change the flowing direction and then enter between each of the guide vanes. In the case if a main recycling pump is failed and stopped during reactor operation and the recycling force is eliminated, the swirling stream of sodium that has been resulted by the flow guide mechanism during normal reactor operation is continuously maintained within a plenum at a high temperature. Accordingly, the sodium recycling force in the coolant flow channels within the reactor vessel can surely be maintained for a long period of time due to the centrifugal force of the sodium swirling stream. In this way, since the reactor core recycling flow rate can be secured even after the stopping of the main recycling pump, after-heat from the reactor core can safely and surely be removed. (Seki, T.)

  16. Micro-FTIR and EPMA Characterisation of Charoite from Murun Massif (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lacalamita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA were performed on a single crystal of charoite from Murun Massif (Russia in order to get a deeper insight into the vibrational features of crystals with complex structure and chemistry. The micro-FTIR study of a single crystal of charoite was collected in the 6000–400 cm−1 at room temperature and after heating at 100°C. The structural complexity of this mineral is reflected by its infrared spectrum. The analysis revealed a prominent absorption in the OH stretching region as a consequence of band overlapping due to a combination of H2O and OH stretching vibrations. Several overtones of the O-H and Si-O stretching vibration bands were observed at about 4440 and 4080 cm−1 such as absorption possibly due to the organic matter at about 3000–2800 cm−1. No significant change due to the loss of adsorbed water was observed in the spectrum obtained after heating. The occurrence of well-resolved water bending vibration bands at about 1595 and 1667 cm−1 accounts for more than one structural water molecule as expected by charoite-90 polytype structure model from literature. The chemical composition of the studied crystal is close to the literature one.

  17. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesla, K. E-mail: kciesla@orange.ichtj.waw.pl; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Le Tien, C

    2004-10-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and {beta}-sheets, in particular from increase of {beta}-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling.

  18. Formation of Diastereoisomeric Piperazine-2,5-dione from dl-Alanine in the Presence of Olivine and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchida, Shigeshi; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Masuda, Harue

    2017-03-01

    dl-Alanine (Ala) was heated with/without powdered olivine and water at 120 °C for 8 days to investigate the formation of the diastereoisomers of piperazine-2,5-dione (diketopiperazine, DKP). When only dl-Ala was heated with a small amount of water, 3.0 % of dl-Ala changed to cis- and trans-DKP after 8 days. DKPs were not detected after heating when no water was added. The presence of a small amount of water is important factor controlling peptide production rates under thermal conditions. When DL-Ala was heated with olivine powder for 8 days, the yields of cis- and trans-DKP were 6.8 and 4.9 %, respectively. The high yield of cis-DKP compared with trans-DKP was attributed to greater thermal stability of cis-DKP. After heating for 8 days, the diastereoisomeric excess of cis-DKP without olivine was 7.3 %, whereas a much higher value of 16.3 % was obtained in the presence of olivine. Taken together, these results show that olivine is not only an efficient catalyst for the formation of DKPs but that it also play a significant role in determining the diastereoisomer selectivity of these cyclic dipeptides.

  19. Evaluation of a fully automated treponemal test and comparison with conventional VDRL and FTA-ABS tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongjung; Park, Younhee; Joo, Shin Young; Park, Myoung Hee; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2011-11-01

    We evaluated analytic performances of an automated treponemal test and compared this test with the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS). Precision performance of the Architect Syphilis TP assay (TP; Abbott Japan, Tokyo, Japan) was assessed, and 150 serum samples were assayed with the TP before and after heat inactivation to estimate the effect of heat inactivation. A total of 616 specimens were tested with the FTA-ABS and TP, and 400 were examined with the VDRL. The TP showed good precision performance with total imprecision of less than a 10% coefficient of variation. An excellent linear relationship between results before and after heat inactivation was observed (R(2) = 0.9961). The FTA-ABS and TP agreed well with a κ coefficient of 0.981. The concordance rate between the FTA-ABS and TP was the highest (99.0%), followed by the rates between FTA-ABS and VDRL (85.0%) and between TP and VDRL (83.8%). The automated TP assay may be adequate for screening for syphilis in a large volume of samples and can be an alternative to FTA-ABS.

  20. Heat shock-induced interactions among nuclear HSFs detected by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pack, Chan-Gi, E-mail: changipack@amc.seoul.kr [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Dept. of Pathology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    The cellular response to stress is primarily controlled in cells via transcriptional activation by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 is well-known to form homotrimers for activation upon heat shock and subsequently bind to target DNAs, such as heat-shock elements, by forming stress granules. A previous study demonstrated that nuclear HSF1 and HSF2 molecules in live cells interacted with target DNAs on the stress granules. However, the process underlying the binding interactions of HSF family in cells upon heat shock remains unclear. This study demonstrate for the first time that the interaction kinetics among nuclear HSF1, HSF2, and HSF4 upon heat shock can be detected directly in live cells using dual color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). FCCS analyses indicated that the binding between HSFs was dramatically changed by heat shock. Interestingly, the recovery kinetics of interaction between HSF1 molecules after heat shock could be represented by changes in the relative interaction amplitude and mobility. - Highlights: • The binding interactions among nuclear HSFs were successfully detected. • The binding kinetics between HSF1s during recovery was quantified. • HSF2 and HSF4 strongly formed hetero-complex, even before heat shock. • Nuclear HSF2 and HSF4 bound to HSF1 only after heat shock.

  1. Decreased thermal sweating of central sudomotor mechanism in African and Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Beom; Kim, Jeong Ho

    2018-05-01

    Tropical natives sweat less and preserve more body fluid than temperate natives, tolerating heat stress. However, the mechanisms involved in such sweating reduction have not been fully elucidated. We examined the sudomotor responses of men of African (n = 36) and Korean (n = 41) ancestry during hot water (43 °C) leg immersion (central sudomotor response). Correlations between mean body temperature, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and sweat rate were also examined. All procedures were done in an automated climate chamber. Local skin temperatures and BMR were measured and mean body temperature was calculated. Sweating activities which include evaporative loss rate, sweat onset time, sweat rate, sweat volume, and whole-body sweat loss volume were examined. In the heat load test, Africans showed lower mean body and local skin temperatures than Koreans before and after heating. Before and after heating, BMR declined significantly in Africans, while that of Koreans declined less. Local sweat onset time increased more in Africans than in Koreans. Local evaporative loss rate, local sweat volume, local sweat rate, and whole body sweat loss volume were reduced in Africans compared with Koreans. There were positive associations of mean body temperature and resting BMR with mean sweat rate. In conclusion, we observed a larger reduction of sudomotor activity in tropical Africans than in temperate Koreans, which was associated with their lower mean body temperature and lower resting BMR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effect of cooking or handling conditions on the furan levels of processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T-K; Lee, Y-K; Park, Y S; Lee, K-G

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of cooking or handling conditions on the concentration of furan in processed foods. The analytical method used to analyse furan levels in foods was optimized based on solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). In baby soups, the concentration of furan decreased by up to 22% after opening a lid for 10 min. In the baby food in retort packaging, the level of furan was reduced by 15-33% after heating the foods at 50 degrees C without a lid. Furan in rice seasonings was evaporated completely after heating the foods at 60 degrees C. Regarding powered milk, the levels of furan were too low to be compared under various conditions. The levels of furan decreased to 58% in beverage products for babies, after storing them at 4 degrees C for 1 day without a lid. The levels of furan in canned foods such as cereal and vegetable were reduced by zero to 52% when they were stored without stirring in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C for 1 day. When we boiled canned fish, the furan present was almost completely evaporated. It is recommended that canned meats be heated up to 50-70 degrees C for the reduction (26-46%) of furan levels. The levels of furan in instant and brewed coffee samples were significantly reduced after storing for 11 to 20 min at room temperature without a lid (p < 0.05).

  3. Antioxidants Inhibit Formation of 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol Esters in Model Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang; Jia, Hanbing; Shen, Mingyue; Wang, Yuting; Nie, Shaoping; Chen, Yi; Zhou, Yongqiang; Wang, Yuanxing; Xie, Mingyong

    2015-11-11

    The capacities of six antioxidants to inhibit the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2 diol (3-MCPD) esters were examined in this study. Inhibitory capacities of the antioxidants were investigated both in chemical models containing the precursors (tripalmitoyl glycerol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol, monopalmitoyl glycerol, and sodium chloride) of 3-MCPD esters and in oil models (rapeseed oil and sodium chloride). Six antioxidants, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA), tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), propyl gallate (PG), L-ascorbyl palmitate (AP), and α-tocopherol (VE), were found to exhibit inhibiting capacities on 3-MCPD ester formation both in chemical models and in oil models. TBHQ provided the highest inhibitory capacity both in chemical models and in oil models; 44% of 3-MCPD ester formation was inhibited in the presence of TBHQ (66 mg/kg of oil) after heating of rapeseed oil at 230 °C for 30 min, followed by PG and AP. BHT, BHA, and VE appeared to have weaker inhibitory abilities in both models. VE exhibited the lowest inhibition rate; 22% of 3-MCPD esters were inhibited in the presence of VE (172 mg/kg of oil) after heating of rapeseed oil at 230 °C for 30 min. In addition, the inhibition rates of PG and VE decreased dramatically with an increase in temperature or heating time. The results suggested that some antioxidants, such as TBHQ, PG, and AP, could be the potential inhibitors of 3-MCPD esters in practice.

  4. Serum erythropoietin levels by radioimmunoassay in polycythaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgegaard, G.; Miller, O.; Caro, J.; Erslev, A. (Cardeza Foundation for Hematological Research, Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pa.)

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for erythropoietin (Epo) was developed and validated against the polycythaemic mouse assay. The correlation was good, with a r=0.94. Several other criteria of specificity were also filled by the RIA, which had a lower detection limit of 5 mU/ml. The mean serum-Epo level in 6 patients with secondary polycythaemia, 50.2 +- 26.2 mU/ml, was significantly higher than in a group of 11 normal subjects, 28.7 +- 7.2 mU/ml (P<0.0002). However, the Epo level in 31 polycythaemia vera (PV) patients, M = 21.9 +- 6.6 mU/ml, was not significantly different from normal (P = 0.006). Since previous studies with bioassay of heat-treated and concentrated plasma samples have shown a decreased serum-Epo level in PV, Epo levels were measured before and after heat treatment and concentration of samples from normals and polycythaemics. It was found that the levels of immunoreactive material increased after heat treatment and 40 times concentration in samples from normals and patients with secondary polycythaemias, but decreased in PV. We conclude that the Epo levels in serum in the low range measured by our and previous RIA:s probably are not true Epo levels but are partly due to an unspecific serum effect, that was removed by heat treatment.

  5. Volatile profile of Madeira wines submitted to traditional accelerated ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanda; Cacho, Juan; Marques, José C

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of monovarietal fortified Madeira wines forced-aged by traditional thermal processing (estufagem) were studied in terms of volatiles. SPE extracts were analysed by GC-MS before and after heating at 45 °C for 3 months (standard) and at 70 °C for 1 month (overheating). One hundred and ninety volatile compounds were identified, 53 of which were only encountered in baked wines. Most chemical families increased after standard heating, especially furans and esters, up to 61 and 3-fold, respectively. On the contrary, alcohols, acetates and fatty acids decreased after heating. Varietal aromas, such as Malvasia's monoterpenic alcohols were not detected after baking. The accelerated ageing favoured the development of some volatiles previously reported as typical aromas of finest Madeira wines, particularly phenylacetaldeyde, β-damascenone and 5-ethoxymethylfurfural. Additionally, ethyl butyrate, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, ethyl caproate, ethyl isovalerate, guaiacol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and γ-decalactone were also found as potential contributors to the global aroma of baked wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a potential cellular system to understand differential heat shock response across native cattle (Bos indicus), exotic cattle (Bos taurus), and riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Amit; Sodhi, Monika; Kumari, Parvesh; Mohanty, A K; Sadana, D K; Kapila, Neha; Khate, K; Shandilya, Umesh; Kataria, R S; Mukesh, M

    2014-09-01

    Circulating leukocytes can be used as an effective model to understand the heat stress response of different cattle types and buffaloes. This investigation aimed to determine the temporal profile of HSPs (HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) expression in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Murrah buffaloes, Holstein-Friesian (HF), and Sahiwal cows in response to sublethal heat shock at 42 °C. The viability data indicated HF PBMCs to be the most affected to the heat shock, whereas Sahiwal PBMCs were least affected, indicating its better survivability during the heat stress condition. The qRT-PCR expression data showed significant increase in mRNA expression of the analyzed HSPs genes after heat stimuli to the PBMCs under in vitro condition. In each case, the HSPs were most upregulated at 2 h after the heat stress. Among the HSPs, HSP70 was relatively more expressed followed by HSP60 indicating the action of molecular chaperones to stabilize the native conformation of proteins. However, PBMCs from different cattle types and buffaloes showed difference in the extent of transcriptional response. The level of expression of HSPs throughout the time period of heat stress was highest in buffaloes, followed by HF and Sahiwal cows. The higher abundance of HSP70 mRNA at each time point after heat stress showed prolonged effect of heat stress in HF PBMCs. The data presented here provided initial evidence of transcriptional differences in PBMCs of different cattle types and buffaloes and warrant further research.

  7. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Morio; Katoh, Norio; Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1981-01-01

    Some properties of the radioprotective substances in a ginseng extract that increased the 30-day survival ratio in irradiated mice were studied. Methanol-soluble fraction of the extract did not protect the irradiated animals. Acid or alkali (0.12 N) inactivated the extract at 60 0 C. But the radioprotective activity was stable after heating the ginseng extract in physiological saline at pH 7 in a boiling-water bath for 15 min. The ginseng extract was separated into two fractions by CM-cellulose column chromatography. One of them (CM-A) was significantly efficacious at 5% level, and the other (CM-B) at 0.1% level with the doses proportional to their yields. CM-B, not containing saponin, was subjected to further purification, UV spectrum and a biuret test suggested the presence of protein in this fraction. The supernatant obtained after heating CM-B solution at pH 7 was separated into three fractions, namely G-I, G-II and G-III, by gel-chromatography with a Sephadex G-75 column. Both G-I (0.44 mg per animal) and G-III (0.84 mg, calculated dose) were significantly efficacious, but G-II (0.47 mg) was not. (author)

  8. Microwave preparation of Li-zeolite directly from alumatrane and silatrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathupunya, Mathavee; Gulari, Erdogan; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra

    2004-01-01

    Li-zeolites were successfully synthesized in a one-step sol-gel process and microwave technique using silatrane and alumatrane as precursors and lithium hydroxide as the hydrolytic agent. Many types of Li-zeolites were obtained by controlling synthesis parameters. Perfect crystalline zeolite, EDI type zeolite, was obtained at 90 deg. C after heating for 60 min while ABW type zeolite was produced after heating for 300 min at 110 deg. C. With increasing temperature, a higher packing density product was generated. Changing Si/Al loading ratio highly influenced the morphology of the synthesized product. With increasing Al loading, more irregular morphology products were obtained. Changing Li 2 O/SiO 2 ratio, led to changes in the unit cell structure and crystal morphology. Lowering the Li 2 O/SiO 2 ratio to one produced FAU type zeolite at 110 deg. C for 240 min. The thermal stability of EDI and ABW were very low while that of FAU was higher which might come from the effect of low ring strain construction of FAU

  9. Heat-Treated TiO2 Plasma Spray Deposition for Bioactivity Improvement in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Renu; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, titanium di-oxide (TiO2) coating has been developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by plasma spray deposition. Followed by plasma spraying, heat treatment of the sprayed sample has been carried out by isothermally holding it at 823 K (550 °C) for 2 h. Microstructural analysis shows the presence of porosity and unmelted particles on the as-sprayed surface, the area fraction of which reduces after heat treatment. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the phase transformation from anatase (in precursor powder) to rutile (in as-sprayed coating and the same after heat treatment). There is an improvement in nano-hardness, "Young's modulus" and wear resistance in plasma-sprayed TiO2 coating (as-sprayed as well as post-heat-treated condition) as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V, though post-heat treatment offers a superior hardness, "young's modulus" and wear resistance as compared to as-sprayed coating. The corrosion behavior in "hank's solution" shows decrease in corrosion resistance after plasma spraying and post-heat treatment as compared to as-received substrate. A significant decrease in contact angle and improvement in bioactivity (in terms of apatite deposition) were observed in TiO2-coated surface as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V.

  10. Possible mechanism of structural incorporation of Al into diatomite during the deposition process I. Via a condensation reaction of hydroxyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Yu, Wenbin; Deng, Liangliang; Yuan, Weiwei; Ma, Lingya; Yuan, Peng; Du, Peixin; He, Hongping

    2016-01-01

    The structural incorporation of aluminium (Al) into diatomite is investigated by preparing several Al-diatomite composites by loading an Al precursor, hydroxyl aluminum polymer (Al13), onto the surface of diatomite and heating at various temperatures. The results indicate that Al was incorporated and implanted into the structure of diatomite by the condensation reaction of the hydroxyl groups of Al13 and diatomite, and the Si-O-Al(OH) groups were formed during the condensation reaction. Al incorporation by the condensation reaction of hydroxyl groups of Al13 with single silanols of diatomite occurred more readily than that with geminal silanols. The Al incorporation increased solid acidity of diatomite after Al incorporation. The acidity improvement was various for different types of acid sites, depending on the preparation temperature of the Al-incorporated diatomite. Both Brønsted and Lewis acid sites increased greatly after heating at 250 and 350 °C, but only L acid sites significantly improved after heating at 500 °C. These results demonstrate that the structural incorporation of Al(3+) ions into diatomite can occur by the condensation reaction of the hydroxyl groups of the Al precursors and diatomite. Moreover, the rich solid acid sites of Al-incorporated diatomite show its promising application as a solid acid catalyst. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Heat Treatment on the Microstructures and High Temperature Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic Al-14Si-Cu-Mg Alloy Manufactured by Liquid Phase Sintering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Joon-Young; Gwon, Jin-Han; Park, Jong-Kwan; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2018-05-01

    Hypereutectic Al-Si alloy is an aluminum alloy containing at least 12.6 wt.% Si. It is necessary to evenly control the primary Si particle size and distribution in hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. In order to achieve this, there have been attempts to manufacture hypereutectic Al-Si alloy through a liquid phase sintering. This study investigated the microstructures and high temperature mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al-14Si-Cu-Mg alloy manufactured by liquid phase sintering process and changes in them after T6 heat treatment. Microstructural observation identified large amounts of small primary Si particles evenly distributed in the matrix, and small amounts of various precipitation phases were found in grain interiors and grain boundaries. After T6 heat treatment, the primary Si particle size and shape did not change significantly, but the size and distribution of CuAl2 ( θ) and AlCuMgSi ( Q) changed. Hardness tests measured 97.36 HV after sintering and 142.5 HV after heat treatment. Compression tests were performed from room temperature to 300 °C. The results represented that yield strength was greater after heat treatment (RT 300 °C: 351 93 MPa) than after sintering (RT 300 °C: 210 89 MPa). Fracture surface analysis identified cracks developing mostly along the interface between the primary Si particles and the matrix with some differences among temperature conditions. In addition, brittle fracture mode was found after T6 heat treatment.

  12. Alternative water injection device to reactor equipment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masahiro.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention injects water to the reactor and the reactor container continuously for a long period of time for preventing occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR type reactor and maintaining the integrity of the reactor container even if the accident should occur. Namely, diesel-driven pumps disposed near heat exchangers of a reactor after-heat removing system (RHR) are operated before the reactor is damaged by the after heat to cause reactor melting. A sucking valve disposed to a pump sucking pipeline connecting a secondary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and the diesel driving pump is opened. A discharge valve disposed to a pump discharge pipeline connecting a primary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and the diesel driving pump is opened. With such procedures, sea water is introduced from a sea water taking port through the top end of the secondary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and water is injected into the inside of the pressure vessel or the reactor container by way of the primary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger. As a result, the reactor core is prevented from melting even upon occurrence of a severe accident. (I.S.)

  13. Microencapsulation of alginate-immobilized bagasse with Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442: enhancement of survivability and thermotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharuddin, Shahrulzaman; Muhamad, Ida Idayu

    2015-03-30

    The aim of this research was to enhance the survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442 against heat exposure via a combination of immobilization and microencapsulation processes using sugarcane bagasse (SB) and sodium alginate (NaA), respectively. The microcapsules were synthesized using different alginate concentration of 1, 2 and 3% and NaA:SB ratio of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:1.5. This beneficial step of probiotic immobilization before microencapsulation significantly enhanced microencapsulation efficiency and cell survivability after heat exposure of 90°C for 30s. Interestingly, the microcapsule of SB-immobilized probiotic could obtain protection from heat using microencapsulation of NaA concentration as low as 1%. SEM images illustrated the incorporation of immobilized L. rhamnosus within alginate matrices and its changes after heat exposure. FTIR spectra confirmed the change in functional bonding in the presence of sugarcane bagasse, probiotic and alginate. The results demonstrated a great potential in the synthesis of heat resistant microcapsules for probiotic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using thermal and spectroscopic data to investigate the thermal behavior of epinephrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannach, Gilbert; Cervini, Priscila [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos - IQSC/USP, C.P. 780, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Cavalheiro, Eder Tadeu Gomes, E-mail: cavalheiro@iqsc.usp.br [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos - IQSC/USP, C.P. 780, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Ionashiro, Massao [Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, C.P. 355, CEP 14801-970, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2010-02-20

    Epinephrine is a neurotransmitter of the catecholamine class that acts in the mammalian central nervous system. The TG-DTA curves of epinephrine showed that the anhydrous compound starts decomposition at 165 {sup o}C, under the conditions used in this work. The reflectance FTIR spectra and X-ray powder diffraction patterns of epinephrine before and after heating up to 210 {sup o}C, as well as the TG-FTIR spectra of sample heated between 30 and 600 {sup o}C, were obtained and reveled that after heating, structural changes occurred in the sample. At temperatures higher than 205 {sup o}C the thermal decomposition took place with elimination of methylamine in agreement with the first mass loss observed in the TG curve in both air and N{sub 2} atmospheres (TG = 17.0%, calcd. = 17.0%). The melting was observed at 205 {sup o}C (DTA) or 203 {sup o}C (DSC) but this process occurred overlapped with decomposition characteristic of an incongruent melting process.

  15. Yogurt made from milk heated at different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Tulay; Horne, David S; Lucey, John A

    2015-10-01

    Milk for yogurt manufacture is subjected to high heat treatment to denature whey proteins. Low milk pH values (≤ 6.5) at heating result in most denatured whey proteins becoming associated with casein micelles, whereas high milk pH values (≥ 7.0) at heating result in the formation of mostly soluble (nonmicellar) denatured whey protein complexes. There are conflicting reports on the relative importance of soluble and casein-bound whey protein aggregates on the properties of acid gels. Prior studies investigating the effect of pH of milk at heating used model gels in which milk was acidified by glucono-δ-lactone; in this study, we prepared yogurt gels using commercial starter cultures. Model acid gels can have very different texture and physical properties from those made by fermentation with starter cultures. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pH values of milk at heating on the rheological, light backscatter, and microstructural properties of yogurt gels. Reconstituted skim milk was adjusted to pH values 6.2, 6.7, and 7.2 and heated at 85°C for 30 min. A portion of the heated milk samples was readjusted back to pH 6.7 after heating. Milks were inoculated with 3% (wt/wt) yogurt starter culture and incubated at 40°C until pH 4.6. Gel formation was monitored using dynamic oscillatory rheology, and parameters measured included the storage modulus (G') and loss tangent (LT) values. Light-backscattering properties, such as the backscatter ratio (R) and the first derivative of light backscatter ratio (R'), were also monitored during fermentation. Fluorescence microscopy was used to observe gel microstructure. The G' values at pH 4.6 were highest in gels made from milk heated at pH 6.7 and lowest in milk heated at pH 6.2, with or without pH adjustment after heating. The G' values at pH 4.6 were lower in samples after adjustment back to pH 6.7 after heating. No maximum in the LT parameter was observed during gelation for yogurts made from milk

  16. Effect of heat treatment on antimycotic activity of Sahara honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of the temperature on honey colour, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters. Methods: Sahara honey were heated up to 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min, and their colour intensity, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenol contents (TPC. The antimycotic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Candida albicans (C. albicans and Candida glabrata (C. glabrata. Results: Initial values for TPC in Sahara honey ranged from 0.55 to 1.14 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey, with the average value of 0.78 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey. The TPC values after heat-treatment were 0.54 to 1.54 with the average value of 1.49 mg. The minimal inhibitory concentrations before heat-treatment of Sahara honey against C. albicans and C. glabrata ranged from 3.06%-12.5% and 50% respectively. After heat-treatment the minimal inhibitory concentrations between 12.5% and 50% for C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively. The diameters of inhibition zones of Sahara honey with 50% concentration varied from (12.67-15.00 mm by C. albicans to (14.33-15.67 mm by C. glabrata. The diameters of inhibition zones after heat-treatment at 25 and 50 °C for 15.30 and 60 min ranged from (2.00-18.67 mm by C. albicans to (8.00-16.67 mm by C. glabrata. Statistically significant relations between the TPC and the colour intensity of Sahara honey (r=0.99, P<0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that the TPC and colour is not correlated with the antimycotic capacity. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first report on the antimycotic capacity of Sahara honey.

  17. The effect of thermal treatment on antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated betalain fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Pawlak, Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables significantly reduces the risk of cardio-vascular disease. This beneficial effect on the human organism is ascribed to the antioxidant compounds these foods contain. Unfortunately, many products, particularly vegetables, need to be subjected to thermal processing before consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of such thermal treatment on the antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated fractions of violet pigments (betacyanins) and yellow pigments (betaxanthins and betacyanins). Fractions of violet and yellow pigments were obtained by separation of betalain pigments from fresh roots of 3 red beet cultivars using column chromatography and solid phase extraction (SPE). The betalain pigment content was determined in all samples before and after thermal treatment (90°C/30 min) by spectrophotometry, according to Nilsson's method [1970] and antioxidant capacity was assessed based on ABTS. Betalain pigments in the separated fractions were identified using HPLC-MS. After thermal treatment of betacyanin fractions a slight, but statistically significant degradation of pigments was observed, while the antioxidant capacity of these fractions did not change markedly. Losses of betacyanin content amounted to 13-15% depending on the cultivar, while losses of antioxidant capacity were approx. 7%. HPLC/MS analyses showed that before heating, betanin was the dominant pigment in the betacyanin fraction, while after heating it was additionally 15-decarboxy-betanin. Isolated fractions of yellow pigments in red beets are three times less heat-resistant than betacyanin fractions. At losses of yellow pigment contents in the course of thermal treatment reaching 47%, antioxidant capacity did not change markedly (a decrease by approx. 5%). In the yellow pigment fractions neobetanin was the dominant peak in the HPLC chromatogram, while vulgaxanthin was found in a much smaller area, whereas after heating

  18. Method and apparatus for extracting tritium and preparing radioactive waste for disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for heating an object such as a nuclear target bundle to release and recover hydrogen and contain the disposable residue for disposal. The apparatus comprises an inverted furnace, a sleeve/crucible assembly for holding and enclosing the bundle, conveying equipment for placing the sleeve onto the crucible and loading the bundle into the sleeve/crucible, a lift for raising the enclosed bundle into the furnace, and hydrogen recovery equipment including a trap and strippers, all housed in a containment having negative internal pressure. The crucible/sleeve assembly has an internal volume that is sufficient to enclose and hold the bundle before heating; the crucible's internal volume is sufficient by itself to hold and enclose the bundle's volume after heating. The crucible can then be covered and disposed of; the sleeve, on the other hand, can be reused.

  19. Structure changes of Co-Ni-Al ferromagnetic shape memory alloys after vacuum annealing and hot rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziarz, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    The structure changes of vacuum annealed and hot rolled Co 35+x -Ni 40-x -Al 25 (x = 0, 2.5, 5.0) ferromagnetic shape memory alloys were examined by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. Almost the same content of γ phase was observed in alloys after vacuum annealing. The change of grains morphology from dendrite in to equiaxed ones appeared after vacuum annealing. The hot rolling process was applied after annealing at 900 deg. C with thickness reduction up to about 90%. The structure of hot rolled samples revealed elongated grains of different phases. The hardness changes after heat treatment and plastic deformation processes have reflected the solution hardening and work hardening, respectively

  20. Influence of laser shock peening on irradiation defects in austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiaofeng; Su, Qing; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Chenfei; Lu, Yongfeng; Nastasi, Michael; Cui, Bai

    2017-06-01

    The laser shock peening process can generate a dislocation network, stacking faults, and deformation twins in the near surface of austenitic stainless steels by the interaction of laser-driven shock waves with metals. In-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) irradiation studies suggest that these dislocations and incoherent twin boundaries can serve as effective sinks for the annihilation of irradiation defects. As a result, the irradiation resistance is improved as the density of irradiation defects in laser-peened stainless steels is much lower than that in untreated steels. After heating to 300 °C, a portion of the dislocations and stacking faults are annealed out while the deformation twins remain stable, which still provides improved irradiation resistance. These findings have important implications on the role of laser shock peening on the lifetime extension of austenitic stainless steel components in nuclear reactor environments.

  1. The characteristics of rapid detection of irradiated foods by photostimulated luminescence (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Yamazaki, Masao; Mizuno, Hiroaki; Goto, Michiko; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Honda, Katsunori

    2007-01-01

    The Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method offered a rapid, convenient and sensitive way for detecting irradiated food. We developed a new PSL system with the tree classification modes for identifying irradiated foods. The present study reports the changes of the signal intensities and the typical decay curves of PSL for irradiated the powdered leaf products and several kinds of silicate minerals under dark storage. Any of powdered leaf products under dark storage at 4-50degC showed the typical decay curves of PSL even after 5 months, and irradiated paprika and yellow ocher could be still identify after heat-treatment at 120degC. PSL intensities of silicate minerals increased with the increase of radiation dose and show a linear relationship up to a about 1 kGy, but varied among silicate minerals. (author)

  2. Effective survival of immobilized Lactobacillus casei during ripening and heat treatment of probiotic dry-fermented sausages and investigation of the microbial dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidira, Marianthi; Karapetsas, Athanasios; Galanis, Alex; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2014-02-01

    The aim was the assessment of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat in the production of probiotic dry-fermented sausages and the investigation of the microbial dynamics. For comparison, sausages containing either free L. casei ATCC 393 or no starter culture were also prepared. During ripening, the numbers of lactobacilli exceeded 7 log cfu/g, while a drastic decrease was observed in enterobacteria, staphylococci and pseudomonas counts. Microbial diversity was further studied applying a PCR-DGGE protocol. Members of Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Carnobacterium, Brochothrix, Bacillus and Debaryomyces were the main microbial populations detected. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis confirmed that the levels of L. casei ATCC 393 in the samples after 66 days of ripening were above the minimum concentration for conferring a probiotic effect (≥ 6 log cfu/g). However, after heat treatment, this strain was detected at the above levels, only in sausages containing immobilized cells. © 2013.

  3. High temperature phase transition of Tm2Ti2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlyakhtina, A.V.; Shcherbakova, L.G.; Knot'ko, A.V.; Larina, L.L.; Borichev, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    A high temperature phase transition type order-disorder is investigated in Tm 2 Ti 2 O 7 at t>1600 Deg C. It is shown that this transformation is irreversible. Ion conductivity of synthesized at 1670 Deg C nanocrystalline Tm 2 Ti 2 O 7 constitutes 2x10 -3 S/cm at 740 Deg C and remains constant after heat treatment at 860 Deg C for 240 h in the air. It is revealed that the conductivity of specimens (grain size of 20-30 nm) on the basis of Tm 2 Ti 2 O 7 high temperature modification with a structure of disordered pyrochlore is independent of grain size [ru

  4. Acoustic emission characterization of fracture toughness for fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Hui; Sun, Yuyao; Zhang, Lidong; Wang, Hongqin; Cheng, Laifei

    2013-01-01

    The fracture toughness of a carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composite was investigated relating to classical critical stress intensity factor K IC , work of fracture, and acoustic emission energy. The K IC was obtained by the single edge notch beam method and the work of fracture was calculated using the featured area under the load–displacement curves. The K IC , work of fracture, and acoustic emission energy were compared for the composites before and after heat treatment and then analyzed associated with toughening microstructures of fiber pullout. It indicates that the work of fracture and acoustic emission energy can be more suitable to reflect the toughness rather than the traditional K IC , which has certain limitation for the fracture toughness characterization of the crack tolerant fiber ceramic composites.

  5. Sorption and desorption of tritiated water vapor on piping materials of nuclear fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Ohmori, Rumi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Sorption and desorption of D{sub 2}O on Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, SS316 powders were studied at ambient temperature. When D{sub 2}O were contacted with samples after drying at 303K, broad peak was observed at 2100-2700cm{sup -1} on Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO. Sorption and desorption rate depended on wave numbers. Isotope exchange rate with H{sub 2}O vapor was faster than dry desorption rate. By heating pretreatment, sorption amount and desorption rate for Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO decreased. For SS316, broad peak was observed only after heating pretreatment at 673K. (author)

  6. Performance of Nb3Sn multifilamentary superconductors in solenoidal magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, W.B.; Suenaga, M.; Robins, K.E.

    High current Nb 3 Sn multifilamentary conductors have been formed by heat treating cables braided from three types of composite wire. In the simplest configuration, these wires contain niobium filaments in a pure copper matrix. After braiding the conductor is coated with a layer of tin which diffuses through the copper during heat treatment to form Nb 3 S n filaments. The second configuration is made from wires containing niobium filaments in a copper-tin alloy and requires only heat treatment to form the Nb 3 Sn filaments. The third type of braid has wires which consist of groups of niobium filaments in the bronze matrix which are in turn in a copper matrix. Tantalum barriers surround each group of filaments to prevent the tin from contaminating the pure copper matrix. The cables have been wound into solenoids after heat treatment and the effect of mechanical handling was studied by monitoring the resistive voltage distribution in the coils. (U.S.)

  7. Microstructural evolution of castable during firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.M.B.; Ribeiro, S.

    2011-01-01

    Castable are materials used for high temperature industrial applications, containing one or more binding agents, aggregates and additives. Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) is one of the most used binding agents, mainly due to his abundance, low cost, refractoriness and high mechanical and chemical resistance. During high temperature processes, these materials exhibit microstructural evolution that changes their properties and affect the performance. The purpose of this work was to study the microstructural changes presented by a castable, containing CAC and alumina aggregates, during heat treatment. For that, was used X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses, electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy to characterize concretes after heat treatment up to 1000 deg C. The results allowed to understand the microstructural changes at high temperature and its influence in mechanical properties of the castable. (author)

  8. High temperature behaviour of self-consolidating concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, Hanaa; Remond, Sebastien; Noumowe, Albert; Cousture, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) subjected to high temperature. Two SCC mixtures and one vibrated concrete mixture were tested. These concrete mixtures come from the French National Project B-P. The specimens of each concrete mixture were heated at a rate of 1 deg. C/min up to different temperatures (150, 300, 450 and 600 deg. C). In order to ensure a uniform temperature throughout the specimens, the temperature was held constant at the maximum temperature for 1 h before cooling. Mechanical properties at ambient temperature and residual mechanical properties after heating have already been determined. In this paper, the physicochemical properties and the microstuctural characteristics are presented. Thermogravimetric analysis, thermodifferential analysis, X-ray diffraction and SEM observations were used. The aim of these studies was in particular to explain the observed residual compressive strength increase between 150 and 300 deg. C.

  9. The development of joining doped graphite to copper for first wall application in HT-7 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Zhangjian, E-mail: zhouzhj@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhong Zhihong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Junling [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Ge Changchun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Two joining methods have been developed for joining carbon based plasma facing material to copper based heat sink material for the potential application in HT-7 and EAST tokamak. The first joining method is based on brazing technique by using a rapidly solidified foil-type Ti-Zr based amorphous filler with a melting temperature of 850 deg. C. The other joining method is direct active metal casting-casting the premixed powders of copper and active transition metals on the mechanical machined carbon surface directly. SEM observations demonstrate high quality of joining surface for both joints. The brazing technique is more promising for fabrication joint with larger size compared with the direct active alloy casting method. High heat flux test using an e-beam device was performed on the actively cooled C/Cu joint fabricated by brazing method. There has no damage occurred on the joint after heat loading at 6 MW/m{sup 2}.

  10. Weak light emission of soft tissues induced by heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello E.; Durando, Giovanni; Boschi, Federico

    2018-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to show that soft tissue interaction with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or direct heating leads to a weak light emission detectable using a small animal optical imaging system. Our results show that the luminescence signal is detectable after 30 min of heating, resembling the time scale of delayed luminescence. The imaging of a soft tissue after heating it using an HIFU field shows that the luminescence pattern closely matches the shape of the cone typical of the HIFU beam. We conclude that heating a soft tissue using two different sources leads to the emission of a weak luminescence signal from the heated region with a decay half-life of a few minutes (4 to 6 min). The origin of such light emission needs to be further investigated.

  11. The thermal stability of magnetically exchange coupled MnBi/FeCo composites at electric motor working temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ye; Wang, Hongying; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Wanhui; Bao, Ilian

    2018-04-01

    The magnetically exchange coupled MnBi/FeCo composites were synthesized through a magnetic self-assembly process. The MnBi/FeCo composites were then hot pressed in a magnetic field to form magnets. The thermal stability of the magnets were tested by annealing at electric motor working temperature of 200 °C for 20, 40 and 60 h, respectively. It was found that after heating for 20 h, there was negligible change in its hysteresis loop. However, when the heating time was increased 40 and 60 h, the magnetic hysteresis loops presented two-phase magnetic behaviors, and the maximum energy products of the magnet were decreased. This research showed that the magnetically exchange coupled MnBi/FeCo composites had low thermal stability at electric motor working temperature.

  12. Synthesis of nanostructured LiTi2(PO4)3 powder by a Pechini-type polymerizable complex method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariappan, C.R.; Galven, C.; Crosnier-Lopez, M.-P.; Le Berre, F.; Bohnke, O.

    2006-01-01

    The nanostructured NASICON-type LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (LTP) material has been synthesized by Pechini-type polymerizable complex method. The use of water-soluble ammonium citratoperoxotitanate (IV) metal complex instead of alkoxides as precursor allows to prepare monophase material. Thermal analyses have been carried out on the powder precursor to check the weight loss and synthesis temperature. X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) has been performed on the LTP powder obtained after heating the powder precursor over a temperature range from 550 to 1050 deg. C for 2 h. By varying the molar ratio of citric acid to metal ion (CA/Ti) and citric acid to ethylene glycol (CA/EG), the grain size of the LTP powder could be modified. The formation of small and well-crystalline grains, in the order of 50-125 nm in size, has been determined from the XRD patterns and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy

  13. Synthesis and electrical characterization of Li0.30Ca0.35TaO3 perovskite synthesized via a polymerized complex route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quoc Nghi Pham; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Bohnke, Claude; Bohnke, Odile

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of Li 0.30 Ca 0.35 TaO 3 perovskite by a Pechini-type polymerizable precursor method is carefully described. The thermal decomposition of the precursor and the formation of a pure perovskite phase were investigated by means of differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA) and XRD techniques. A pure and well-crystallized phase has been obtained at a lower temperature and with a much shorter synthesis time than the phase obtained by conventional solid-state reaction method. The morphology of the powder after heating at 1300 deg. C was observed by laser granulometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Impedance spectroscopy data allowed us to determine the electrical properties, i.e., permittivity and dc-conductivity, of the bulk and grain boundaries. The results are discussed on the assumption of the brick layer model

  14. Promotion of Crystal Growth on Biomass-based Carbon using Phosphoric Acid Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Yu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phosphoric acid treatments on graphitic microcrystal growth of biomass-based carbons was investigated using X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Although biomass-based carbons are believed to be hard to graphitize even after heat treatments well beyond 2000 °C, we found that graphitic microcrystals of biomass-based carbons were significantly promoted by phosphoric acid treatments above 800 °C. Moreover, twisted spindle-like whiskers were formed on the surface of the carbons. This suggests that phosphorus-containing groups turn graphitic microcrystalline domains into graphite during phosphoric acid treatments. In addition, the porous texture of the phosphoric acid-treated carbon has the advantage of micropore development.

  15. Inter-diffusion of carbon into niobium coatings deposited on graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzilai, S.; Raveh, A.; Frage, N.

    2006-01-01

    The inter-diffusion of carbon (originating from a graphite substrate) into a niobium coating and the fabrication of its carbides by heat treatment in the temperature range of 1073-1773 K was studied. The thickness of the Nb 2 C and Nbc phases formed after heat treatment as well as the inter-diffusion coefficients for the formation of the carbide layers were also studied. It was found that the carbide layer growth displayed parabolic behavior patterns inherent in the growth rate constants (K) of Nb 2 C and NbC layers. By assuming that the inter-diffusion coefficients are independent of concentration, it was possible to determine the inter-diffusion coefficients of carbon D c into Nb 2 C and NbC layers as a function of temperature

  16. Influence of heating temperature on bainite transformation proceeding in chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaletin, Yu.M.; Kaletin, A.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the effect of heating and cooling from austenization temperature on development of bainite transformation in 37KhN3MFA and 18Kh2N4MA structural alloyed steels. The metallographical analysis of specimens has revealed that first crystals of bainite under slow heating up to 770-790 deg C appear at the temperature of about 500 deg C and at 475 deg C there has been much bainite over the whole cross section of the specimen. It is revealed that an increase of heating temperature and cooling rate replace the starting point of bainite transformation upwards. The strongest displacement of the point Bsub(S) into hogh-temperature range takes place after heating steel with the initial bainite structure in intercritical temperature range

  17. TRACKING THE PROCESSES OF MELANODIN FORMATION IN COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhana Ivanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanoidins are high molecular brown colored substances and products of sugar-amine reaction of Maillard. They are formed during roasting a green coffee beans under different thermal regimes of heat treatment. In the technological production of different types coffee beverages, the coffee powder is subjected to after-heat treatment. In these additional operations again become active processes of melanoidin formation and their changing their structures. This is changes of the Melanoidins have different effects on human health. It is therefore important to know their chemical structures and changes. Previous studies have shown that polysaccharides, proteins and chlorogenic acids are included in the formation of these melanoidins. However, the precise structures of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms involved in the formation are not yet clarified. This article systematize available information and provides an overview of research obtained so far on the structure of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms of their formation and potential health effects.

  18. Ostrich eggshell as calcium source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.R.M.; Louro, L.H.L.; Costa, A.M.; Silva, M.H. Prado da; Campos, J.B. de

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite and Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized using ostrich eggshell as a calcium source. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the present phases, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative chemical analysis of the synthesized and heat treated powders. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was used before and after heat treatments at 700, 900 and 1100 °C in order to identify the functional groups present, as an additional technique to the XRD analysis. The results presented in this study represent a promising method for synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc, since the results showed no undesirable phases or impurities in the produced powders. It was observed that Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite showed higher thermal stability, when compared to pure hydroxyapatite. (author)

  19. Synthesis of Nanometer-Sized Poly (methyl methacrylate) Polymer Network by Gold Nanoparticle Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Ken; Hsieh, Shang-Yu; Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Dai, Bau-Tong

    2003-06-01

    Gold nanoparticle/polymer composites have been produced using a one-system polymer synthesis. The linear polymer, poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, MW = 15,000 g/mol) is applied for the stabilization of gold nanoparticles. The Fourier transfer infrared (FT-IR) analysis data and transition electron microscopy (TEM) image reveal that the core shell structure of gold/PMMA nanocomposite has been synthesized. The ratio of the concentration of the capping polymer material to the concentration of the gold precursor could control the sizes of gold nanoparticles. With specific concentration of the reductant, the core-shell nanostructure could be fluctuated in order. After heating treatment, the network structure of PMMA capped gold nanoparticles could be synthesized as confirmed by the TEM image. The result indicates that PMMA not only acts as the stabilizer, but also as the bridge of the neighboring gold nanoparticles.

  20. Ostrich eggshell as calcium source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, J.R.M.; Louro, L.H.L.; Costa, A.M.; Silva, M.H. Prado da [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campos, J.B. de, E-mail: josericardo@r-crio.com, E-mail: louro@ime.eb.br, E-mail: andrea@r-crio.com, E-mail: brantjose@gmail.com, E-mail: marceloprado@ime.eb.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite and Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized using ostrich eggshell as a calcium source. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the present phases, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative chemical analysis of the synthesized and heat treated powders. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was used before and after heat treatments at 700, 900 and 1100 °C in order to identify the functional groups present, as an additional technique to the XRD analysis. The results presented in this study represent a promising method for synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc, since the results showed no undesirable phases or impurities in the produced powders. It was observed that Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite showed higher thermal stability, when compared to pure hydroxyapatite. (author)

  1. EFFECT OF THE HEAT AND SURFACE LASER TREATMENT ON THE CORROSION DEGRADATION OF THE Mg-Al ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek A. Dobrzański

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there is presented the corrosion behavior of the cast magnesium alloys as cast state, after heat and laser treatment. Pitting corrosion resistance of the analyzed alloys was carried out using the potentiodynamic electrochemical method (direct current, based on a anodic polarization curve. On the basis of the achieved anodic polarization curves, using the Tefel extrapolation method near to the corrosion potential, the quantitative data were determined, which describe the electrochemical corrosion process of the investigated alloys: value of the corrosion potential Ecorr (mV, polarization resistance RP (kohm.cm2, corrosion current density icorr (10-6A/cm2, corrosion rate Vcorr (mm/year as well the mass loss Vc (g/m2<.

  2. Method and apparatus for emergency cooling of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Masanori; Chino, Koichi; Sato, Chikara; Inoue, Hisamichi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the cooling effect of spray water by eliminating the flow control effect for spray water due to increase in the steam pressure and flowing the entire spray water into the reactor core. Constitution: Upon emergency cooling of a reactor core by spraying coolants from above at the loss of coolant accident in a nuclear power plant, coolant is sprayed in a state where the temperature upon flowing into the reactor core is below the saturated temperature after heat exchange with vapors rising from the core. This enables to apply spray water always at a temperature and a flow rate in the range of whole volume falling irrespective of the water temperature in a pressure suppression pool. (Furukawa, Y.)

  3. Study of heat treatment parameters for large-scale hydraulic steel gate track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-zhou Cao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance external hardness and strength, a large-scale hydraulic gate track should go through heat treatment. The current design method of hydraulic gate wheels and tracks is based on Hertz contact linear elastic theory, and does not take into account the changes in mechanical properties of materials caused by heat treatment. In this study, the heat treatment parameters were designed and analyzed according to the bearing mechanisms of the wheel and track. The quenching process of the track was simulated by the ANSYS program, and the temperature variation, residual stress, and deformation were obtained and analyzed. The metallurgical structure field after heat treatment was predicted by the method based on time-temperature-transformation (TTT curves. The results show that the analysis method and designed track heat treatment process are feasible, and can provide a reference for practical projects.

  4. Determination of cholesterol and four phytosterols in foods without derivatization by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Zong Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a method for determination of cholesterol and four phytosterols by gas chromatography coupled with electron impact ionization mode–tandem mass spectrometry without derivatization in general food was developed. The sample was saponified with 7.5% KOH in methanol. After heating on hot plate and reflux for 60 minutes, the saponified portion was extracted with n-hexane/petroleum ether (50:50, v/v. The extracts were evaporated with rotary evaporator and then redissolved with tetrahydrofuran. The tetrahydrofuran layer was transferred into an injection vial and analyzed by gas chromatography on a 30 m VF-5 column. Limit of quantification was 2 mg/kg. Recoveries of cholesterol and four phytosterols from general food were between 91% and 100%.

  5. Exploration of the viscosity temperature dependences and microstructure of magnesium-based commercial alloy AZ91D with small additions of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaturov, I S; Popel, P S; Brodova, I G; Astafiev, V V; Li Peijie

    2008-01-01

    The technique of rotating oscillation damping of a crucible filled in with the melt under investigation was used for measurement of viscosity of the Mg-based AZ91D commercial alloy with various additions of calcium. The viscosity was measured in liquid state in temperature interval from 600 up to 840 deg. C. The comparative metallographic investigation of the structure of samples with calcium content of 0.0, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 wt.% which were crystallized just after re-melting at the temperature of 640 deg. C and after heating in liquid state up to 850 deg. C were made. It was shown that the thermal treatment of samples in liquid state is accompanied by considerable changes in the cast structure that forms after the crystallization of the samples

  6. Impact of localized microwave hyperthermia on the pH-distribution in malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaupel, P.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of localized microwave hyperthermia (2.45 GHz) on the tissue pH-distribution was investigated in C3H mause mammary tumors. The measurements were performed in microareas of the tissue using pH-microelectrodes with tip diameters of approximately 1 μm. pH-readings during localized heating revealed that tissue temperatures exceeding 42 0 C were followed by a pronounced pH-drop in tumors with a negligible amount of necrosis. Tissue pH-values measured immediately after heating (43 0 C for 60 min) were lowered by an average of 0.54 +- 0.19 pH-units as compared with preheating data (2p [de

  7. Synthesis Of NiCrAlC alloys by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.K.; Pereira, J.I.; Vurobi Junior, S.; Cintho, O.M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is the synthesis of nickel alloys (NiCrAlC), which has been proposed like a economic alternative to the Stellite family Co alloys using mechanical alloying, followed by sintering heat treatment of milled material. The NiCrAlC alloys consist of a chromium carbides dispersion in a Ni 3 Al intermetallic matrix, that is easily synthesized by mechanical alloying. The use of mechanical alloying enables higher carbides sizes and distribution control in the matrix during sintering. We are also investigated the compaction of the processed materials by compressibility curves. The milling products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and the end product was featured by conventional metallography and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), that enabled the identification of desired phases, beyond microhardness test, which has been shown comparable to alloys manufactured by fusion after heat treating. (author)

  8. Hyperfine Interactions and Some Magnetic Properties of Nanocrystalline Co40Fe50Ni10 and Co50Fe45Ni5 Alloys Prepared by Mechanical Synthesis and Subsequently Heat Treated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikula, T.; Oleszak, D.; Pekala, M.

    2011-01-01

    Co 40 Fe 50 Ni 10 and Co 50 Fe 45 Ni 5 ternary alloys were prepared by mechanical alloying method. To check the stability of their structure thermal treatment was applied subsequently. As X-ray diffraction studies proved the final products of milling were the solid solutions with bcc lattice and the average grain sizes ranged of tens of nanometers. After heating of the Co 50 Fe 45 Ni 5 alloy up to 993 K the mixture of two solid solutions with bcc and fcc lattices was formed. In other cases thermal treatment did not change the type of the crystalline lattice. Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed hyperfine magnetic field distributions which reflected the different possible atomic surroundings of 57 Fe isotopes. Results of the macroscopic magnetic measurements proved that both investigated alloys had relatively good soft magnetic properties. (authors)

  9. Microstructural characterization of titanium dental implants by electron microscopy and mechanical tests; Caracterizacao microestrutural de implantes dentarios de titanio por microscopia eletronica e ensaios mecanicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfenstein, B.; Muniz, N.O.; Dedavid, B.A., E-mail: bruhelfenstein@hotmail.co [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (FE/PUC/RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia; Gehrke, S.A. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (FE/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia; Vargas, A.L.M. [Parque Tecnologico da PUCRS (TECNOPUC/GEPSI), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos de Propriedades de Superficies e Interfaces

    2010-07-01

    Mini screw types for titanium implants, with differentiated design, were tested for traction and torsion for behavior analysis of the shape relative to the requirements of ASTM F136. All implants showed mechanical tensile strength above by the standard requirement, being that 83.3% of them broke above the doughnut, in support of the prosthesis. Distinct morphologies in ruptured by mechanical tests, were obtained. However, both fracture surfaces showed fragile comportments. Metallographic tests, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and microhardness were used for microstructural characterization of material, before and after heat treatment. The presences of {beta} phase in screw surface after quenching treatment proves that the thermal treatment can contribute for mechanical resistance in surface implants. (author)

  10. Utilization of FEM model for steel microstructure determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kešner, A.; Chotěborský, R.; Linda, M.; Hromasová, M.

    2018-02-01

    Agricultural tools which are used in soil processing, they are worn by abrasive wear mechanism cases by hard minerals particles in the soil. The wear rate is influenced by mechanical characterization of tools material and wear rate is influenced also by soil mineral particle contents. Mechanical properties of steel can be affected by a technology of heat treatment that it leads to a different microstructures. Experimental work how to do it is very expensive and thanks to numerical methods like FEM we can assumed microstructure at low cost but each of numerical model is necessary to be verified. The aim of this work has shown a procedure of prediction microstructure of steel for agricultural tools. The material characterizations of 51CrV4 grade steel were used for numerical simulation like TTT diagram, heat capacity, heat conduction and other physical properties of material. A relationship between predicted microstructure by FEM and real microstructure after heat treatment shows a good correlation.

  11. Investigations on the conditions for obtaining high density boron carbide by sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kislyj, P.S.; Grabtschuk, B.L.

    1975-01-01

    The results of investigations on kinetics of condensation and mechanisms of mass transfer in the process of sintering of technical, chemically pure and synthesized boron carbide are generalized. Laws on boron carbide densification depending upon temperature, time of isothermic endurance, thermal speed, size of powder particles and variable composition in homogeneity are determined. From the results obtained on condensation kinetics and special experiments on studying the changes in properties after heating under different conditions, the role of dislocation and diffusion processes in mass transfer during boron carbide sintering is exposed. The properties of sintered boron carbide are 15-20% lower than the properties of high-pressed one, that is conditioned by intercrystallite distortion of the first one and transcrystallite of the second one

  12. Oesophageal heat transfer properties indication of segmental blood flow changes during distension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Donghua; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Brock, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The pain perception to distension of the oesophagus can be explained by activation of receptors responding to mechanical deformation or to distension-induced ischaemia. The aim of this study was to develop a new method for detection of changes in segmental blood flow during distension based...... on measurement of heat transfer. A bag was distended in the distal oesophagus of six healthy subjects followed by cooling or heating of the bag fluid to 5 or 60 degrees C. After equilibrium, the temperature was allowed to change back to body temperature. The temperature was recorded together with intraluminal...... ultrasound imaging, allowing assessment of the heat transfer properties at different bag volumes. The heat transfer constants were higher after heating the bag than after cooling the bag (Tukey, P

  13. Temperature-Responsive Luminescent Solar Concentrators: Tuning Energy Transfer in a Liquid Crystalline Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol, Jeroen A H P; Dehm, Volker; Hecht, Reinhard; Würthner, Frank; Schenning, Albertus P H J; Debije, Michael G

    2018-01-22

    Temperature-responsive luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) have been fabricated in which the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a donor-acceptor pair in a liquid crystalline solvent can be tuned. At room temperatures, the perylene bisimide (PBI) acceptor is aggregated and FRET is inactive; while after heating to a temperature above the isotropic phase of the liquid crystal solvent, the acceptor PBI completely dissolves and FRET is activated. This unusual temperature control over FRET was used to design a color-tunable LSC. The device has been shown to be highly stable towards consecutive heating and cooling cycles, making it an appealing device for harvesting otherwise unused solar energy. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. Kinetics of carbide formation in the molybdenum-tungsten coatings used in the ITER-like Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, H.; Rasinski, M.; von Toussaint, U.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Balden, M.; Elgeti, S.; Ruset, C.; Matthews, G. F.

    2016-02-01

    The kinetics of tungsten carbide formation was investigated for tungsten coatings on carbon fibre composite with a molybdenum interlayer as they are used in the ITER-like Wall in JET. The coatings were produced by combined magnetron sputtering and ion implantation. The investigation was performed by preparing focused ion beam cross sections from samples after heat treatment in argon atmosphere. Baking of the samples was done at temperatures of 1100 °C, 1200 °C, and 1350 °C for hold times between 30 min and 20 h. It was found that the data can be well described by a diffusional random walk with a thermally activated diffusion process. The activation energy was determined to be (3.34 ± 0.11) eV. Predictions for the isothermal lifetime of this coating system were computed from this information.

  15. Oxidation in air of two refractory alloys (Nicral D and Hastelloy X) at 900 and 1100 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannier, J.; Dominget, R.; Darras, R.

    1960-01-01

    The oxidation in air of two refractory alloys (Nicral D and Hastelloy X) has been studied at 900 and 1100 deg. C, by means of recording thermo-balances and microscopic cross section examination. At 900 deg. C, the surface oxidation rates of the two alloys are quite similar, but at 1100 deg. C the alloy Nicral D oxidizes faster than the alloy Hastelloy X. On the other hand, after heating at 1100 deg. C for 150 hours, Nicral D shows both intergranular oxidation and a small amount of internal oxidation, whereas Hastelloy X is especially subject to internal oxidation. In addition, two descaling methods were compared: an electrolytic method, in a sodium hydroxide-sodium carbonate bath, and a chemical method using a sodium nitrate-sodium peroxide bath; the latter appears suitable only for Hastelloy X. Reprint of a paper published in Journal of nuclear materials, 3, p. 213-225, 1959 [fr

  16. Reactively sputtered TeOx optical recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giulio, M.; Manno, D.; Micocci, G.; Rella, R.; Rizzo, A.; Tepore, A.

    1987-01-01

    Telluriom suboxide (TeO x ) thin films have been obtained by R.F. reactive sputtering deposition by using a Te target and an Ar-O 2 gas mixture. This technique of preparation has been shown to be a valid method because it is possible to easily obtain films with desired characteristics by an appropriate selection of the deposition conditions. Different samples were prepared by changing both the R.F. power (80-300 Watt) and the oxygen concentration in the sputtering gas. The films were analyzed in order to study their optical characteristics and the morphology before and after heat treatment. In particular, transmissivity and reflectivity have been found to change markedly by thermal treatment and critical temperatures in the range 120-150 grades centigrade. This property makes these films suitable for optical recording with a low output power laser diode

  17. Synthesis of modified calcium aluminate with lanthanum manganite (LSM) for possible use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, F.C.T.; Jurado, J.; Sousa, V.C. de

    2016-01-01

    The fuel cells solid oxide (SOFC) is made up of three basic elements: two electrodes, the anode and cathode and a conductive electrolyte ions. The objective of this work consists of calcium aluminate synthesis modified LSM in a 1: 1 by combustion synthesis method with a view to its use as a cathode in SOFC. The characterization of the post was carried out by the methods of XRD, TEM and EIS. After heat treatment at 1200°C/4 hours it was possible to obtain Ca0.5Sr1.5MnO4 and CaMnO2.56 phases. The material showed a semiconductor characteristics because with increasing temperature the electrical resistance value tends to decrease obtaining electrical conductivity greater than 10-6S / cm featuring an extrinsic semiconductor with an activation energy of 0.12. Therefore, with an activation energy value within the range of materials used for a SOFC cathodes. (author)

  18. Palladium and ruthenium supported silver migration in 3C–silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Connell, Jacques Herman, E-mail: jacques.oconnell@gmail.com [Center for High Resolution Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Neethling, Johannes Henoch [Center for High Resolution Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2015-01-15

    Surrogate TRISO particles were infiltrated with a Pd Ag mixture and heat treated at 1000 °C to investigate the effect of Pd on Ag transport through current state of the art TRISO coatings for use in HTGRs. The experiment was repeated with Ru instead of Pd because of the similarities in the reaction between Pd and Ru with SiC. It was found that both Pd and Ru form their respective silicides after heat treatment together with the simultaneous precipitation of graphite. In both cases Ag was concentrated along the leading edge of the reaction zone which itself was concentrated along grain boundaries. However, the effect of Pd was much more pronounced than that of Ru making Ru at most a secondary contributor to Ag migration through SiC in TRISO fuel.

  19. Reactor container facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takashi; Nagasaka, Hideo.

    1990-01-01

    A dry-well pool for spontaneously circulating stored pool water and a suppression pool for flooding a pressure vessel by feeding water, when required, to a flooding gap by means of spontaneous falling upto the flooding position, thereby flooding the pressure vessel are contained at the inside of a reactor container. Thus, when loss of coolant accidents such as caused by main pipe rupture accidents should happen, pool water in the suppression pool is supplied to the flooding gap by spontaneously falling. Further, if the flooding water uprises exceeding a predetermined level, the flooding gap is in communication with the dry-well pool at the upper and the lower portions respectively. Accordingly, flooding water at high temperature heated by the after-heat of the reactor core is returned again into the flooding gap to cool the reactor core repeatedly. (T.M.)

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of selective laser melted Ti6Al4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losertová, M.; Kubeš, V.

    2017-11-01

    The present work was focused on the properties of porous Ti6Al4V specimens processed by selective laser melting (SLM) and tested in tension and compression before and after heat treatment. The SLM samples were annealed at 955 °C, water quenched and aged at 600 °C with following air cooling. The values of the mechanical tests showed that the samples exhibited high mechanical properties. The anisotropy of tensile and compressive strength was observed, which was related to the occurrence of voids. The plastic properties of specimens were improved by means of the heat treatment that led to the transformation of martensitic to lamellar structure composed of α + β phases. The microstructure of SLM samples were evaluated before and after the heat treatment. The brittle nature of failures of non-heat treated samples can be explained by synergy of martensite presence, microcracks and residual stresses produced by SLM.

  1. 2.2. Chlorination of pre-baked danburite with reducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Safiev, Kh.S.

    2013-01-01

    According to conducted studied it was found that increasing of reactivity of danburite rock with gaseous chlorine after heat treatment connected with danburite decomposition: Ca O·B 2 O 3 ·2SiO 2 →Ca O·B 2 O 3 +2SiO 2 . The dependence of extraction rate of boron oxide on temperature, process duration, reducer (coal) and size of particles of danburite rock is defined. By means of X-ray analysis method the composition of danburite rock before and after pre-baking was defined as well. The impact of pre-baking on danburite chlorination was studied at 400-800 deg C during 60 minutes with reducer. The optimal parameters for chlorination of burned danburite are: temperature - 700 deg C, process duration - 120 minutes, and reducer containing - 30%.

  2. Adsorption of CO on, and S poisoning of, a perfect Ni(111) single crystal and a Ni(111) crystal with small angle boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, G A; Freeman, G B; Chao, J L.R.

    1980-01-01

    A Ni(111) crystal with small angle boundaries was used to examine the adsorption of CO. The adsorption of CO on a perfect Ni(111) single crystal was used for reference. Auger spectra show that the boundary lines on the sample surface provide favorable sites for the adsorbed CO to dissociate at temperatures as low as 25/sup 0/C. The post-dissociation carbon appears mostly in the form of a nickel carbide on the surface. After heating the crystal to 850/sup 0/C, sulfur diffused to the surface and blocked the surface adsorption sites uniformly. The boundary-enhanced dissociation of absorbed CO is no longer observed after the diffusion of sulfur to the crystal surface. AES depth profiling of sulfur concentration at different positions on the crystal with respect to the boundary lines show no evidence that the boundary lines provide an enhanced path for sulfur diffusion. 7 figures.

  3. Effects of heat treatment on optical absorption properties of Ni-P/AAO nano-array composite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi-Fan; Wang, Feng-Hua; Guo, Dong-Lai; Huang, Sheng-You; Zou, Xian-Wu [Wuhan University, Department of Physics, Wuhan (China); Sang, Jian-Ping [Wuhan University, Department of Physics, Wuhan (China); Jianghan University, Department of Physics, Wuhan (China)

    2009-11-15

    Ni-P/AAO nano-array composite structure assemblies with Ni and P grown in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were prepared by electroless deposition. The results of SEM, TEM and SAED show that as-deposited Ni-P nanowires have an amorphous structure and a few nanocrystallites form after annealing. The optical absorption spectra reveal that, as the annealing temperature increases, the absorption band edge of the Ni-P/AAO composite structure is obviously blue shifted, which is attributed to a decrease of the internal pressure after heat treatment. Meanwhile, the annealed Ni-P/AAO nano-array composite structure exhibits the absorption behavior of a direct band gap semiconductor. Details of this behavior are discussed together with the implications for potential device applications. (orig.)

  4. The ARIES-RS power core - recent development in Li/V designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze Dai-Kai; Billone, M.C.; Hua, T.Q.; Tillack, M.; Najmabadi, F.; Wang Xueren; Malang, S.; El-Guebaly, L.A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Blanchard, J.P.; Crowell, J.A.; Khater, H.Y.; Mogahed, E.A.; Waganer, L.M.; Lee, D.; Cole, D.

    1998-01-01

    The ARIES-RS fusion power plant design study is based on reversed-shear (RS) physics with a Li/V (lithium breeder and vanadium structure) blanket. The reversed-shear discharge has been documented in many large tokamak experiments. The plasma in the RS mode has a high beta, low current, and low current drive requirement. Therefore, it is an attractive physics regime for a fusion power plant. The blanket system based on Li/V has high temperature operating capability, good tritium breeding, excellent high heat flux removal capability, long structural life time, low activation, low after heat and good safety characteristics. For these reasons, the ARIES-RS reactor study selected Li/V as the reference blanket. The combination of attractive physics and attractive blanket engineering is expected to result in a superior power plant design. This paper summarizes the power core design of the ARIES-RS power plant study. (orig.)

  5. Effect of rare earth and titanium additions on the microstructures and properties of low carbon Fe-B cast steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Hanguang; Xiao Qiang; Kuang Jiacai; Jiang Zhiqiang; Xing Jiandong

    2007-01-01

    A new type of wear resistant low carbon Fe-B cast steel with granular borides can be obtained by alloying with titanium and cerium rare earth (RE). As a result, the as-cast eutectic boride structures of Fe-B cast steel are greatly refined and a blocky, less interconnected boride network is obtained from continuous ledeburite. After heat treatment, the boride eutectic in the modified Fe-B cast steel is in the form of a granular boride structure that appears to be isolated particles The guide rollers made of modified low carbon Fe-B cast steel show excellent wear resistance and thermal fatigue resistance in high speed wire mills

  6. Effect of Heat Treatment on Commercial AlSi12Cu1(Fe) and AlSi12(b) Aluminum Alloy Die Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, E.; Bonollo, F.; Ferro, P.; Fabrizi, A.

    2018-03-01

    High-pressure die castings (HPDCs) cannot normally be heat-treated at a high temperature because of the presence of inner air/gas- or shrinkage-porosity that may lead to the formation of undesired surface blisters. In this paper, an unconventional heat treatment is proposed. Two secondary Al-Si alloys, AlSi12(b) and AlSi12Cu1(Fe), were stabilization heat-treated at 624 K (350 °C) with soaking times ranging from 1 to 8 hours. Enhancement of both static and dynamic mechanical properties was found to be related to the fragmentation of interconnected eutectic Si particles and the smoothing of coarser crystals. Increased ductility after heat treatment was correlated with a decrease in hardness and Si particle roundness. The formation of Si precipitates within the α-Al matrix was also observed.

  7. 3D reconstruction and characterization of carbides in Ni-based high carbon alloy in a FIB-SEM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Piotr [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Academic Centre of Materials and Nanotechnology, Krakow (Poland); Tsyrulin, Katja; Jaksch, Heiner [Carl-Zeiss, Oberkochen (Germany); Stepien, Milena [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Academic Centre of Materials and Nanotechnology, Krakow (Poland)

    2015-07-15

    Dual beam focused ion beam scanning electron microscopes (FIB-SEMs) are well suited for characterizing micron and submicron size microstructural features in three dimensions throughout a serial-sectioning experiment. In this article, a FIB-SEM instrument was used to collect morphological, crystallographic, and chemical information for an Ni-Ta-Al-Cr alloy of high carbon content. The alloy has been designed to have excellent tribological properties at elevated temperatures. The morphology, spatial distribution, scale, and degree of interconnection of primary carbides in the Ni-Ta-Al-Cr-C alloy was assessed via serial sectioning in a casting cross-section. The 3D reconstructions showed that the primary carbides and dendrites were forming a dendrite surrounded by primary carbide network over the entire cross-section. Additionally, the morphology and spatial distribution of secondary carbides after heat treatment was determined.

  8. The development and mechanical characterization of aluminium copper-carbon fiber metal matrix hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, M. U.; Feroze, M.; Ahmad, T.; Kamran, M.; Butt, M. T. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) come under advanced materials that can be used for a wide range of industrial applications. MMCs contain a non-metallic reinforcement incorporated into a metallic matrix which can enhance properties over base metal alloys. Copper-Carbon fiber reinforced aluminium based hybrid composites were prepared by compo casting method. 4 weight % copper was used as alloying element with Al because of its precipitation hardened properties. Different weight compositions of composites were developed and characterized by mechanical testing. A significant improvement in tensile strength and micro hardness were found, before and after heat treatment of the composite. The SEM analysis of the fractured surfaces showed dispersed and embedded Carbon fibers within the network leading to the enhanced strength.

  9. Research on hardness and tensile properties of A390 alloy with tin addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yi

    2018-03-01

    The effect of tin content on hardness and tensile properties of A390 alloys has been discussed. The microstructure of the A390 alloy with tin addition has been surveyed by OM and investigated by SEM. Research showed that β-Sn in the alloy precipitation forms were mainly small blocks and thin strips, particles within the Al2Cu network or large blocks consisting of β-Sn and Al2Cu on Al/Si interfaces or α-Al grain boundaries. Spheroidization of the primary and eutectic silicon was improved due to Sn accretion. With the augment of element tin, hardness of casting alloy is much higher than that of alloy after heat treatment. The elongation and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) were increased in Sn addition from 0 to 1%, which is attributed to the multiple action of Sn.

  10. Hardness and Microstructure of Binary and Ternary Nitinol Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    The hardness and microstructure of twenty-six binary and ternary Nitinol (nickel titanium, nickel titanium hafnium, nickel titanium zirconium and nickel titanium tantalum) compounds were studied. A small (50g) ingot of each compound was produced by vacuum arc remelting. Each ingot was homogenized in vacuum for 48 hr followed by furnace cooling. Specimens from the ingots were then heat treated at 800, 900, 1000 or 1100 degree C for 2 hr followed by water quenching. The hardness and microstructure of each specimen was compared to the baseline material (55-Nitinol, 55 at.% nickel - 45 at.% titanium, after heat treatment at 900 degC). The results show that eleven of the studied compounds had higher hardness values than the baseline material. Moreover, twelve of the studied compounds had measured hardness values greater 600HV at heat treatments from 800 to 900 degree C.

  11. Facility with a nuclear district heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, H.

    1988-01-01

    The district heating reactor has a pressure vessel which contains the reactor core and at least one coolant conducting primary heat carrier surrounded by a heat sink. The pressure vessel has two walls with a space between them. This space is connected with a container which contains air as heat isolating medium and water as heat conducting medium. During the normal reactor operation the space is filled by air from the container with the aid of a blower, whereas in the case of a break-down of the cooling system it is filled by water which flows out of the container by gravity after the blower has been switched off. The after-heat, generated in the reactor core during cooling break-down, is removed into the heat sink surrounding the pressure vessel in a safe and simple way. 6 figs

  12. Thermal oxidation of cesium loaded Prussian blue as a precaution for exothermic phase change in extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parajuli, Durga; Tanaka, Hisashi; Takahashi, Akira; Kawamoto, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    Cesium adsorbed Prussian blue is studied for the thermal oxidation. The TG-DTA shows exothermic phase change of micro aggregates of nano-PB at above 270°C. For this reason, Cs loaded PB was heated between 180 to 260°C. Heating at 180 removed only the water. Neither the oxidation of Iron nor the removal of cyanide is observed at this temperature. Oxidation of cyanide is observed upon heating above 200°C while loaded Cs is released after heating at >250°C followed by washing with water. Thermal oxidation between 200 to 220°C for more than 2 h showed control on exothermic phase change and loaded Cs is also not solubilized. (author)

  13. Experimental results on performance improvement of doped carbon-base materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zengyu

    2002-01-01

    Carbon-base materials is one of candidate plasma facing materials and have been widely used in current tokamak facilities in the world. But some defect properties are presented on high yield of chemical sputtering , high yield of radiation enhancement sublimate (RES), cracking after heat flux and so on. It can be improved by doped some little other elements into the carbon-base materials, such as boron, silicon, titanium and so on. Experimental results indicate that it is feasible and successful to improve thermo-physics and chemical properties of carbon-base materials by multi-element doped. Doped 12 % silicon can strained RES and chemical sputtering yield do not changed. It is the same level of chemical sputtering yield for B 4 C from 3 % to 10 % , but their resistance thermal shock properties ability increases with B 4 C increases

  14. Thermoresponsive Magnetic Nano-Biosensors for Rapid Measurements of Inorganic Arsenic and Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Maeda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Green fluorescent protein-tagged sensor proteins, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, have been produced as biosensors for simple and low-cost quantification of As(III or Cd(II. In this study, the sensor protein-promoter DNA complexes were reconstructed on the surfaces of magnetic particles of different sizes. After the surface modification all the particles could be attracted by magnets, and released different amounts of GFP-tagged protein, according to the metal concentrations within 5 min, which caused significant increases in fluorescence. A detection limit of 1 µg/L for As(III and Cd(II in purified water was obtained only with the nanoparticles exhibiting enough magnetization after heat treatment for 1 min. Therefore, thermoresponsive magnetic nano-biosensors offer great advantages of rapidity and sensitivity for the measurement of the toxic metals in drinking water.

  15. Thermoresponsive magnetic nano-biosensors for rapid measurements of inorganic arsenic and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiki, Mohammad Shohel Rana; Shimoaoki, Shun; Ueda, Shunsaku; Maeda, Isamu

    2012-10-18

    Green fluorescent protein-tagged sensor proteins, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, have been produced as biosensors for simple and low-cost quantification of As(III) or Cd(II). In this study, the sensor protein-promoter DNA complexes were reconstructed on the surfaces of magnetic particles of different sizes. After the surface modification all the particles could be attracted by magnets, and released different amounts of GFP-tagged protein, according to the metal concentrations within 5 min, which caused significant increases in fluorescence. A detection limit of 1 µg/L for As(III) and Cd(II) in purified water was obtained only with the nanoparticles exhibiting enough magnetization after heat treatment for 1 min. Therefore, thermoresponsive magnetic nano-biosensors offer great advantages of rapidity and sensitivity for the measurement of the toxic metals in drinking water.

  16. Modification of the original color of the Eucalyptus grandis wood by heat treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilei Aparecida Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the modification of original color of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood after heat-treatment. Wood samples were heat-treated under different temperatures (180, 200, 215 and 230ºC and time conditions (15 minutes, 2 and 4 hours. Color analysis were performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using a Color Eye XTH-X-Rite 200d spectrophotometer. All heat treatments promoted an alteration of the original color of wood. Heat-treated woods presented lower L* (lightness values than untreated wood (control, characterizing the wood darkness, mainly for more severe conditions of temperature and time. Chromatic coordinates (a* and b* showed different behaviors depending on the temperature-time combination. The modification of the original color of the wood allowed the creation of new color patterns, which can add greater value to the studied wood.

  17. In situ changes in the moisture content of heated, welded tuff based on thermal neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Carlson, R.C.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1991-07-01

    Thermal neutron logs were collected to monitor changes in moisture content within a welded tuff rock mass heated from a borehole containing an electrical heater which remained energized for 195 days. Thermal neutron measurements were made in sampling boreholes before, during and after heating. The results generally corroborated our conceptual understanding of hydrothermal flow as well as most of the numerical modeling conducting for this study. Conceptual models have been developed in conjunction with the numerical model calculations to explain differences in the drying and re-wetting behavior above and below the heater. Numerical modeling indicated that the re-wetting of the dried-out zone was dominated by the binary diffusion of water vapor through fractures. Saturation gradients in the rock matrix resulted in relative humidity gradients which drove water vapor (primarily along fractures) back to the dried-out zone where it condensed along the fracture walls and was imbibed by the matrix. 4 refs., 28 figs

  18. Accelerator based synthesis of hydroxyapatite by MeV ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautray, Tapash R.; Narayanan, R.; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator based MeV ion implantation of Ca 2+ and P 2+ into the titanium substrate to form hydroxyapatite (HA) has been carried out. Calcium hydroxide was formed after heating the calcium implanted titanium in air at 80 o C for 3 h. Upon subsequent annealing for 5 min at 600 o C HA was formed on the surface. Penetration depth of the HA layer in this method is much higher as compared to keV ion implantation. By elemental analysis, Ca/P ratio of the HA was found to be 1.76 which is higher than the ideal 1.67. This higher Ca/P ratio is attributed to the higher penetration depth of the MeV technique used.

  19. Synthesis of modified calcium aluminate with lanthanum manganite (LSM) for possible use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Sintese de aluminato de calcio modificado com manganita de lantanio (LSM) para possivel utilizacao em celula combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, F.C.T.; Jurado, J.; Sousa, V.C. de, E-mail: faili.cintia@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Materiais; Cava, S.S. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The fuel cells solid oxide (SOFC) is made up of three basic elements: two electrodes, the anode and cathode and a conductive electrolyte ions. The objective of this work consists of calcium aluminate synthesis modified LSM in a 1: 1 by combustion synthesis method with a view to its use as a cathode in SOFC. The characterization of the post was carried out by the methods of XRD, TEM and EIS. After heat treatment at 1200°C/4 hours it was possible to obtain Ca0.5Sr1.5MnO4 and CaMnO2.56 phases. The material showed a semiconductor characteristics because with increasing temperature the electrical resistance value tends to decrease obtaining electrical conductivity greater than 10-6S / cm featuring an extrinsic semiconductor with an activation energy of 0.12. Therefore, with an activation energy value within the range of materials used for a SOFC cathodes. (author)

  20. Method of processing radioactive liquid wastes by solidification with cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Keijiro; Matsuura, Hiroyuki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To subject radioactive liquid wastes to a cement solidification treatment after heating and drying it by a thin film scrape-off drier to render it into the form of power, and then molding it into pellets for the treatment. Structure: Radioactive liquid wastes discharged from a nuclear power plant or nuclear reactor are supplied through a storage tank into a thin film scrape-off drier. In the drier, the radioactive liquid wastes are heated to separate the liquid, and the residue is taken out as dry powder from the scrape-off apparatus. The powder obtained in this way is molded into pellets of a desired form. These pellets are then packed in a drum can or similar container, into which cement paste is then poured for solidification. (Moriyama, K.)

  1. Investigation of Cr-Ni duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Shiying

    1985-01-01

    At temperatures of 450 - 750 0 C, a laminate-shaped intermetallic phase Fe3Cr3Mo2Si2 has been observed. Intergranular brittle fracture is due to the precipitation of the Fe3Cr3Mo2SI2 phase, but quasi-cleavage fracture is connected with the precipitation of chi and σ phases. The formation of chi and σ during aging at 750 - 900 0 C results in a drastic decrease of the SCC resistance of Cr18Ni5 steel. In order to avoid a fully ferritic microstructure in Cr18Ni5 duplex steel after heating at high temperature or welding, the K value must be kept to 0.42 for thin wall tube. The decrease in SCC resistance after cold deformation is not due to the formation of strain-induced martensite but is connected with significant reduction in the resistance to pitting corrosion. (author)

  2. The Effect of Surface Preparation on the Precipitation of Sigma During High Temperature Exposure of S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Mark A. E.; Rowlett, Matthew; Higginson, Rebecca L.

    2017-03-01

    Although the formation of sigma phase in duplex stainless steels is reasonably well documented, the effect of surface finish on its formation rate in surface regions has not been previously noted. The growth of the sigma phase precipitated in the subsurface region (to a maximum depth of 120 μm) has been quantified after heat treatment of S32205 duplex stainless steel at 1073 K (800 °C) and 1173 K (900 °C) after preparation to two surface finishes. Here, results are presented that show that there is a change in the rate of sigma phase formation in the surface region of the material, with a coarser surface finish leading to a greater depth of precipitation at a given time and temperature of heat treatment. The growth rate and morphology of the precipitated sigma has been examined and explored in conjunction with thermodynamic equilibrium phase calculations.

  3. Precipitation-hardening stainless steels with a shape-memory effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaradze, V. V.; Afanasiev, S. V.; Volkova, E. G.; Zavalishin, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of obtaining the shape-memory effect as a result of the γ → ɛ → γ transformations in aging stainless steels strengthened by VC carbides has been investigated. Regimes are given for strengthening aging (at 650 and 720°C) for stainless steels that predominantly contain (in wt %) 0.06-0.45C, 1-2V, 2-5Si, 9 and 13-14Cr. The values of reversible deformation e (amount of shape-memory effect) determined after heating to 400°C in samples preliminarily deformed to 3.5-4% vary from 0.15 to 2.7%, depending on the composition of the steels and regimes of stabilizing and destabilizing aging.

  4. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kiyoshi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Murase, Michio; Fujii, Tadashi; Susuki, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    A wet well space above a pressure suppression pool is divided into a first wet well on the side in contact with the pressure suppression pool and a second wet well on the side not in contact with the pool. Cooling water is contained in the second wet well and it is in communication with the first wet well by pipelines. Since steams flown into the second well are condensed in the cooling water, they continuously transfer from the first wet well to the second wet well, thereby capable of eliminating the effects of incondensible gases in the first wet well. With such procedures, the effect of the incondensible gases can be eliminated even without cooling from the outside of the reactor. Heat accumulation can be increased in a container of any material, so that thermal load on cooling circuits for removing after-heat can be mitigated. (T.M.)

  5. Manganese in silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnarsson, M.K., E-mail: marga@kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology, P.O. Box E229, SE-16440 Kista-Stockhom (Sweden); Hallen, A. [Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology, P.O. Box E229, SE-16440 Kista-Stockhom (Sweden)

    2012-02-15

    Structural disorder and relocation of implanted Mn in semi-insulating 4H-SiC has been studied. Subsequent heat treatment of Mn implanted samples has been performed in the temperature range 1400-2000 Degree-Sign C. The depth distribution of manganese is recorded by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry has been employed for characterization of crystal disorder. Ocular inspection of color changes of heat-treated samples indicates that a large portion of the damage has been annealed. However, Rutherford backscattering shows that after heat treatment, most disorder from the implantation remains. Less disorder is observed in the [0 0 0 1] channel direction compared to [112{sup Macron }3] channel direction. A substantial rearrangement of manganese is observed in the implanted region. No pronounced manganese diffusion deeper into the sample is recorded.

  6. Facile preparation of monodisperse, impurity-free, and antioxidation copper nanoparticles on a large scale for application in conductive ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Pengli; Li, Gang; Zhao, Tao; Fu, Xianzhu; Sun, Rong; Zhou, Feng; Wong, Ching-ping

    2014-01-08

    Monodisperse copper nanoparticles with high purity and antioxidation properties are synthesized quickly (only 5 min) on a large scale (multigram amounts) by a modified polyol process using slightly soluble Cu(OH)2 as the precursor, L-ascorbic acid as the reductant, and PEG-2000 as the protectant. The resulting copper nanoparticles have a size distribution of 135 ± 30 nm and do not suffer significant oxidation even after being stored for 30 days under ambient conditions. The copper nanoparticles can be well-dispersed in an oil-based ink, which can be silk-screen printed onto flexible substrates and then converted into conductive patterns after heat treatment. An optimal electrical resistivity of 15.8 μΩ cm is achieved, which is only 10 times larger than that of bulk copper. The synthesized copper nanoparticles could be considered as a cheap and effective material for printed electronics.

  7. Efecto de la naturaleza del precursor sobre las caracteristicas de las nanoparticulas de SnO2 sintetizadas Effect of the precursor's nature on characteristics of synthesized SnO2 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Ararat-Ibarguen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide (SnO2 is widely used in industry as raw material for electronic devices, plating of different types of materials, for dyes and pigments, for electroplating, heterogeneous catalysis, etc. In this work SnO2 was obtained by a controlled precipitation method with special attention to the effects the tin precursor has on the microstructure of the final product. The most appropriate pH for obtaining SnO2 with the rutile structure as the main phase is 6.25 for SnCl2 and 6.40 for SnSO4. After heat treatment at 600 °C, particles of nanometric order (~10 - 30 nm approx were obtained. The characterization of the solid phase was made by X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermal analysis (DTA/TG, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR.

  8. Synthesis Of NiCrAlC alloys by mechanical alloying; Sintese de ligas NiCrAlC por moagem de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.K.; Pereira, J.I.; Vurobi Junior, S.; Cintho, O.M., E-mail: alissonkws@gmail.co [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is the synthesis of nickel alloys (NiCrAlC), which has been proposed like a economic alternative to the Stellite family Co alloys using mechanical alloying, followed by sintering heat treatment of milled material. The NiCrAlC alloys consist of a chromium carbides dispersion in a Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic matrix, that is easily synthesized by mechanical alloying. The use of mechanical alloying enables higher carbides sizes and distribution control in the matrix during sintering. We are also investigated the compaction of the processed materials by compressibility curves. The milling products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and the end product was featured by conventional metallography and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), that enabled the identification of desired phases, beyond microhardness test, which has been shown comparable to alloys manufactured by fusion after heat treating. (author)

  9. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of food processing on degradation of hexachlorocyclohexane and its isomers in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sujatha; Nelapati, Krishnaiah

    2017-03-01

    To study the effect of different food processing techniques on the degradation of organochlorine compounds (α, β, ɣ and δ hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH)) residues in both natural and fortified samples of milk. Raw milk samples are collected from the local areas of Hyderabad, India. Naturally and fortified milk samples (HCH) were subjected to various food processing techniques, pasteurization (63ºC for ½ h), sterilization (121ºC for 15 min) and boiling for 5 min and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for multiresidue analysis of pesticides in milk with slight modification. The final mean residual concentration of pesticide in milk after heat processing and percentage of degradation were calculated with respective treatments. Heat treatments are highly effective on reduction of mean residual concentration of HCH in milk. In which Sterilization and boiling proved to be more effective in degradation of HCH isomers.

  11. Reuse of waste foundry sand through interaction with sodium silicate binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.C.; Chinelatto, A.S.A.; Chinelatto, A.L.; Oliveira, I.L.

    2012-01-01

    Green sand molds are used in metal casting process. However, after heating, activated bentonite present in green sand lose the binding properties, and part of the foundry sand has to be discarded from the process. The ABNT NBR 15.984/2011 establishes the management of waste foundry sand (WFS) avoiding disposal in landfills. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility of reusing the WFS from the study of their interaction with sodium silicate binder. Studies with silica sand and new green sand was performed to compare the results obtained with the WFS. The characterizations of the samples were performed by measures the compressive strength, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that there is interaction of the sodium silicate with the WFS as well as with the silica sand and green sand. (author)

  12. Induction of heat shock-like proteins in Vigna sinensis seedlings growing under ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm) enhanced radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedunchezhian, N.; Annamalainathan, K.; Kulandaivelu, G.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) enhanced fluorescent radiation on protein profile and protein synthesis has been investigated in Vigna sinensis L. cv. Walp seedlings growing at various temperatures. In seedlings growing at 30°C, UV-B radiation decreased the level of several proteins as seen in Coomassie brilliant blue stained gel. However, fluorography of the same gel indicates induction of three sets of proteins in the range of 70. 53 and 16 k Da. Such induction under UV-B enhanced radiation resembled that found after heat shock treatments. In seedlings at 10 and 20°C, induction of such proteins varied both qualitatively and quantitatively. At 40°C. UV-B enhanced radiation caused a cumulative effect with temperature. Strong induction of specific proteins by UV-B radiation in seedlings growing under normal temperature indicates a possible protective role

  13. Preparation of Palladium/Silver-Coated Polyimide Nanotubes: Flexible, Electrically Conductive Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lushi; Rui, Guanchun; Wang, Guangyu; Huang, Rundong; Li, Ran; Yu, Jiajie; Qi, Shengli; Wu, Dezhen

    2017-11-02

    A simple and practical method for coating palladium/silver nanoparticles on polyimide (PI) nanotubes is developed. The key steps involved in the process are silver ion exchange/reduction and displacement reactions between silver and palladium ions. With the addition of silver, the conductivity of the PI nanotubes is greatly enhanced. Further, the polyimide nanotubes with a dense, homogeneous coating of palladium nanoparticles remain flexible after heat treatment and show the possibility for use as highly efficient catalysts. The approach developed here is applicable for coating various noble metals on a wide range of polymer matrices, and can be used for obtaining polyimide nanotubes with metal loaded on both the inner and outer surface.

  14. Preparation of Palladium/Silver-Coated Polyimide Nanotubes: Flexible, Electrically Conductive Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushi Kong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple and practical method for coating palladium/silver nanoparticles on polyimide (PI nanotubes is developed. The key steps involved in the process are silver ion exchange/reduction and displacement reactions between silver and palladium ions. With the addition of silver, the conductivity of the PI nanotubes is greatly enhanced. Further, the polyimide nanotubes with a dense, homogeneous coating of palladium nanoparticles remain flexible after heat treatment and show the possibility for use as highly efficient catalysts. The approach developed here is applicable for coating various noble metals on a wide range of polymer matrices, and can be used for obtaining polyimide nanotubes with metal loaded on both the inner and outer surface.

  15. Microstructural characterization of titanium dental implants by electron microscopy and mechanical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfenstein, B.; Muniz, N.O.; Dedavid, B.A.; Gehrke, S.A.; Vargas, A.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mini screw types for titanium implants, with differentiated design, were tested for traction and torsion for behavior analysis of the shape relative to the requirements of ASTM F136. All implants showed mechanical tensile strength above by the standard requirement, being that 83.3% of them broke above the doughnut, in support of the prosthesis. Distinct morphologies in ruptured by mechanical tests, were obtained. However, both fracture surfaces showed fragile comportments. Metallographic tests, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and microhardness were used for microstructural characterization of material, before and after heat treatment. The presences of β phase in screw surface after quenching treatment proves that the thermal treatment can contribute for mechanical resistance in surface implants. (author)

  16. Heat treatment evaluation of steel ASTM A-131 grade A by X-Ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, Francisco; Feio, Luciana Gaspar; Costa, Ednelson Silva; Rodrigues, Lino Alberto Soares; Braga, Eduardo Magalhaes, E-mail: juniorferrer93@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, PA (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: This study evaluates the residual stress of naval steel ASTM A-131 grade A before and after heat treatment. Residual stresses were determined by the technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD). Before heat treatment the residual stress measurements were made at 36 (thirty six) points distributed in a specimen with dimensions of 400 mm long, 200 mm wide and 95 mm thick, then the plate under analysis was brought to the oven for the implementation of heat treatment. To check the performance of the heat treatment, the plate was again subjected to XRD measurements of the same points previously measured in order to compare the residual stresses. As result, there was a reduction of residual stresses with the application of heat treatment. References: [1] COLPAERT, H. Metalografia dos Produtos Siderurgicos Comuns. 4 Edição. Editora Blucher. Saõ Paulo, SP, 2008. [2] HILL, R. Princípios de Metalurgia Física, 1992. (author)

  17. Effects of cold-working on pinning behaviour and critical current densities in NbTi-based superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Murase, S.; Wada, H.; Tachikawa, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of cold-working on high-field pinning behaviour at 1.8 K and 4.2 K have been studied for multifilamentary NbTi, NbTiHf and NbTiTa superconductors, which were subjected to cold-working, heat treatment and cold-working, in sequence. It is found that the cold-working, either before or after heat treatment, shifts the peak in pinning force density to a higher field, while the maximum pinning force value is first increased with increasing amount of cold-working, and then decreased. This result can not be predicted by existing pinning theories, and we conclude that for pinning behaviour induced by cold-working, not only the introduction of pinning centres but also their size and spacing must be taken into account. (author)

  18. Sulfur polymer cement, a solidification and stabilization agent for radioactive and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is made by reacting 95% sulfur with 2.5 % dicyclopentadiene and 2.5% cyclopentadiene oligomers, to produce a product that is much better than unmodified sulfur. SPC is being tested as a solidifying and stabilizing agent for low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes. Heavy loadings (5 wt%) of eight toxic metals were combined individually with SPC and 7 wt% sodium sulfide nonahydrate. The leach rates for mercury, lead, chromium and silver oxides were reduced by six orders of magnitude, while those of arsenic and barium were reduced by four. SPC is good for stabilizing incinerator ash. Ion-exchange resins can be stabilized with SPC after heat treatment with asbestos or diatomite at 220-250 deg C. 19 refs

  19. Thermal response to heat fluxes of the W7-AS divertor surface submitted to surface modification under high temperature treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, D., E-mail: dieter.hildebrandt@ipp.mpg.d [Euratom Association, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Duebner, A. [Euratom Association, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Greuner, H.; Wiltner, A. [Teilinstitut Garching, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Some target tiles of the W7-AS divertor has been investigated with respect to their thermal behaviour at the surface during power loading with well-defined heat fluxes in the Gladis facility. The primary aim was to examine uncertainties in the determination of heat fluxes derived from IR-thermography during operation of W7-AS. It is found that the derived heat flux profiles are strongly influenced by the local distribution of plasma-deposited contamination analyzed by AES and SIMS. With the observed actual surface conditions characterized by redeposited contamination equivalent up to about 1 mum thickness, the heat fluxes were partially overestimated up to a factor of 4 during operation of W7-AS. This uncertainty is observed to be significantly reduced after heat treatment at temperatures beyond 700 deg. C attained at power flux densities of 10.5 MW/m{sup 2} and durations longer than 5 s.

  20. Jojoba seed meal proteins associated with proteolytic and protease inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Madan K; Peri, Irena; Smirnoff, Patricia; Birk, Yehudith; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2002-09-25

    The jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, is a characteristic desert plant native to the Sonoran desert. The jojoba meal after oil extraction is rich in protein. The major jojoba proteins were albumins (79%) and globulins (21%), which have similar amino acid compositions and also showed a labile thrombin-inhibitory activity. SDS-PAGE showed two major proteins at 50 kDa and 25 kDa both in the albumins and in the globulins. The 25 kDa protein has trypsin- and chymotrypsin-inhibitory activities. In vitro digestibility of the globulins and albumins resembled that of casein and soybean protein concentrates and was increased after heat treatment. The increased digestibility achieved by boiling may be attributed to inactivation of the protease inhibitors and denaturation of proteins.

  1. Preparation and properties of yttrium iron garnet microcrystal in $P_{2}O_{5}-MgO$ glass

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, G J; Chang, Y S; Lee, H M; Lin, Y J; 10.1016/j.jallcom.2004.07.041

    2005-01-01

    The fabrication of phosphorus-based glasses containing Y/sub 3/Fe/sub 5/O/sub 12/ crystals by the incorporation method was studied. From transmission electron microscopy observation, there is only one rod- like crystalline phase identified as Y/sub 3/Fe/sub 5/O/sub 12/ existing in the glass matrix. When the content of YIG is 30wt.%, the as-cast sample shows a Faraday rotation of 85 degrees /cm and a magnetization of 0.4emu/g in a field of 14kOe. After heat treatment, the magnetic and optical properties of the glass ceramic changed owing to the thermal diffusion of iron ions into the glass matrix.

  2. Study on substrate metabolism process of saline waste sludge and its biological hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengshuai; Guo, Liang; Li, Qianqian; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing of high saline waste sludge production, the treatment and utilization of saline waste sludge attracted more and more attention. In this study, the biological hydrogen production from saline waste sludge after heating pretreatment was studied. The substrate metabolism process at different salinity condition was analyzed by the changes of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrate and protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and dissolved organic matters (DOM). The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was also used to investigate the effect of salinity on EPS and DOM composition during hydrogen fermentation. The highest hydrogen yield of 23.6 mL H 2 /g VSS and hydrogen content of 77.6% were obtained at 0.0% salinity condition. The salinity could influence the hydrogen production and substrate metabolism of waste sludge.

  3. Radiation pretreatment of cellulosic wastes and immobilization of cells producing cellulase for their conversion to glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1988-01-01

    Radiation pretreatment of cellulosic wastes such as saw dust and chaff was studied by using electron beam accelerator, in which irradiation effect was increased by increasing irradiation dose and dose rate, by after heating irradiated materials at 100∼140deg C, and by irradiation in the addition of alkaline solution. Trichoderma reesei cells producing cellulase were immobilized by using fibrous porous carrier obtained from radiation polymerization. The filter paper, cellobiose, and CMC activities in the immobilized growing cells were higher than those in free cells. The activity in the immobilized cells obtained with hydrophobic carrier was higher than that obtained with hydrophilic one. Durability of the immobilized cells was examined by repeated batch culture. It was found that the enzyme solution produced in the culture of the immobilized cells can hydrolyze effectively saw dust pretreated by radiation. (author)

  4. Incorporation of feasibility study of residue thin kaolin in of porcelain formulations production; Estudo da viabilidade da incorporacao do residuo fino do caulim na concepcao de formulacoes de porcelanatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, V.S. de; Ferreira, E.C.; Oliveira, T.M. de; Freitas, K.D. de Araujo; Soares Filho, J.E.; Sousa, F.J.P. de, E-mail: vanessaalmeida90@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The porcelain is the more advanced product among traditional ceramics due to the high technology used in its manufacture and its excellent technological and aesthetic properties. Due to the continuing worldwide development, kaolin processing industries have increased their productivity and consequently generating large amounts of waste, contributing to environmental degradation. Studies are being conducted to analyze the incorporation of such wastes in the ceramic mass compositions. The objective of this study was to evaluate 4 formulations of porcelain as the possibility of using waste coming from the last stage of kaolin processing. Processing occurred by wet grinding process, with uniaxial compacting pressure of 45 MPa after heat treatment at 1250 ° C. Technological tests were carried out physical and mechanical product. The results showed that the addition of fine kaolin residue was presented as an efficient alternative for the porcelain industry. (author)

  5. Chemiluminescence measurement of cinnamon-, curry-, red pepper- and milk powder as a method to identify ionizing radiation treatment. Die Messung der Chemilumineszenz von Zimt-, Curry-, Paprika- und Milchpulver als Nachweis einer Behandlung mit ionisierenden Strahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegl, W; Heide, L

    1983-11-01

    The findings may be summarized as follows: significant differences in the dose response relationship of the different foodstuffs were found; the chemiluminescence intensity of different foodstuffs irradiated at equal dose levels may vary considerably; in some cases there might be evidence of radiation treatment even 2 months afterwards; after heating, the irradiated foodstuffs showed reduced chemiluminescence intensity. In some cases it is, however, possible to identify previous irradiation of a foodstuff; if irradiated foodstuffs are treated with water vapor, the radicals will react with the water so as to preclude the identification of previous irradiation; UV-irradiation will result in a drastic increase in luminescence intensity, at least in some cases and air oxidation may also increase the luminescence intensity, especially in fatty foodstuffs.

  6. Surface development of a brazing alloy during heat treatment-a comparison between UHV and APXPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullik, L.; Johansson, N.; Bertram, F.; Evertsson, J.; Stenqvist, T.; Lundgren, E.

    2018-01-01

    In an attempt to bridge the pressure gap, APXPS was used to follow the surface development of an aluminum brazing sheet during heating in an ambient oxygen-pressure mimicking the environment of an industrial brazing furnace. The studied aluminum alloy brazing sheet is a composite material consisting of two aluminum alloy standards whose surface is covered with a native aluminum oxide film. To emphasize the necessity of studies of this system in ambient sample environments it is compared to measurements in UHV. Changes in thickness and composition of the surface oxide were followed after heating to 300 °C, 400 °C, and 500 °C. The two sets presented in this paper show that the surface development strongly depends on the environment the sample is heated in.

  7. Formation of Ni(Al, Mo) solid solutions by mechanical alloying and their ordering on heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, V.K.; Tomilin, I.A.; Blinov, A.M.; Kulik, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Ni(Al, Mo) solid solutions with different crystalline lattice periods (0.3592 and 0.3570 nm correspondingly) are formed in the course of the Ni 70 Al 25 Mo 5 and Ni 75 Al 20 Mo 5 powder mixtures mechanical alloying (MA) (through the mechanical activation in a vibrating mill). After MA the Mo atoms in the Ni 75 Al 20 Mo 5 mixture completely replace the aluminium positions with formation of the Ni 75 (AlMo) 25 (the L1 2 -type) ternary ordered phase, whereby such a distribution remains after heating up to 700 deg C. The Ni(Al, Mo) metastable solution is formed by MA in the Ni 75 Al 20 Mo 5 mixture, which decays with the release of molybdenum and the remained aluminide undergoes ordering by the L1 2 -type [ru

  8. Effect of Ti and Nb Addition on Precipitation and Sensitization Behavior in Ferritic Stainless Steel Welded Joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Hae Woo

    2013-01-01

    The precipitation and sensitization characteristics in AISI436 weld metal were investigated in different chemical composition ranges of Ti and Nb content. We manufactured four welding wires made of 0-0.2 wt% of Ti and 0-1.0 wt% of Nb and did flux cored arc welding. After heat treatment at 900 °C for 20 hours, we made a Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (DL-EPR) test, Electron Backscattering Diffraction and SEM. The DL-EPR test revealed that as the amount of addition of Ti and Nb rose, the degree of sensitization fell. The microstructure became more refined, and Cr carbide formed at the grain boundary that had no addition of Ti and Nb. Furthermore, in the specimen with the addition of Ti, Nb, the Ti, Nb carbide and nitride were precipitated in the intergranular boundary, and the laves phase was precipitated at the grain boundary.

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel β titanium metallic composite by selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrancken, B.; Thijs, L.; Kruth, J.-P.; Van Humbeeck, J.

    2014-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing process in which functional, complex parts are produced by selectively melting consecutive layers of powder with a laser beam. This flexibility enables the exploration of a wide spectrum of possibilities in creating novel alloys or even metal–metal composites with unique microstructures. In this research, Ti6Al4V-ELI powder was mixed with 10 wt.% Mo powder. In contrast to the fully α′ microstructure of Ti6Al4V after SLM, the novel microstructure consists of a β titanium matrix with randomly dispersed pure Mo particles, as observed by light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Most importantly, the solidification mechanism changes from planar to cellular mode. Microstructures after heat treatment indicate that the β phase is metastable and locate the β transus at ∼900 °C, and tensile properties are equal to or better than conventional β titanium alloys

  10. Electron beam related manufacturing technology development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anklam, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the defense community, certain uranium-alloy components have been manufactured by methods which generate large quantities of uranium bearing waste. Our estimates show that these components can be fabricated by vapor deposition and reduce waste generation by more than an order of magnitude. We present results from a series of uranium-alloy vapor deposition tests designed to produce samples of free-standing structures. Both flat plate and cylindrical shells were produced. The deposits were fully dense, defect free and displayed a high quality surface finish. The uranium-alloy was co-evaporated from a single source. Bulk chemistry specifications for the material were met, although some residual variation in chemistry was observed in sample cross sections. After heat treatment, the vapor deposited samples exhibited tensile properties similar to conventional ingot processed material

  11. Visible Light-Photocatalytic Activity of Sulfate-Doped Titanium Dioxide Prepared by the Sol−Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuneo Fujii

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate-doped TiO2 was prepared from sol−gel systems containing titaniumalkoxide and sulfuric acid. The time needed for gelation of the systems was significantlyreduced by ultrasonic irradiation. The doped sulfate was observed by FTIR and XPSmeasurements. Some sulfate ions remained in the TiO2 even after heating at 300−600 °C.The UV and visible photocatalytic activities of the samples were confirmed by thedegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE. The activity of the photocatalyst samples duringthe UV irradiation strongly depended on their crystallinities rather than their specificsurface areas, i.e., adsorption ability. The degradation rate during the visible irradiationdepended on both the adsorption ability and visible absorption of the photocatalystsamples. The visible absorption induced by the sulfate-doping was effective for theTCE degradation.

  12. Retention of data in heat-damaged SIM cards and potential recovery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B J; Kenyon, A J

    2008-05-02

    Examination of various SIM cards and smart card devices indicates that data may be retained in SIM card memory structures even after heating to temperatures up to 450 degrees C, which the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has determined to be approximately the maximum average sustained temperature at desk height in a house fire. However, in many cases, and certainly for temperatures greater than 450 degrees C, the SIM card chip has suffered structural or mechanical damage that renders simple probing or rewiring ineffective. Nevertheless, this has not necessarily affected the data, which is stored as charge in floating gates, and alternative methods for directly accessing the stored charge may be applicable.

  13. Fabrication of polyacrylate core–shell nanoparticles via spray drying method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pengpeng, E-mail: chenpp@ahu.edu.cn [Anhui University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Cheng, Zenghui; Chu, Fuxiang; Xu, Yuzhi; Wang, Chunpeng, E-mail: wangcpg@163.com [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products (China)

    2016-05-15

    Fine polyacrylate particles are thought to be environmental plastisols for car industry. However, these particles are mainly dried through demulsification of the latexes, which is not reproducible and hard to be scaled up. In this work, a spray drying method had been applied to the plastisols-used acrylate latex. By adjusting the core/shell ratio, spray drying process of the latex was fully studied. Scanning electronic microscopy observation of the nanoparticles before and after spray drying indicated that the core–shell structures could be well preserved and particles were well separated by spray drying if the shell was thick enough. Otherwise, the particles fused into each other and core–shell structures were destroyed. Polyacrylate plastisols were developed using diisononylphthalate as a plasticizer, and plastigels were obtained after heat treatment of the sols. Results showed that the shell thickness also had a great influence on the storage stability of the plastisols and mechanical properties of the plastigels.Graphical Abstract.

  14. Thermal and optical bleaching of radiation effects in silver activated metaphosphate glass - its use in U.V. dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, J.S.; Ramanathan, G.; Gangadharan, P.

    1976-01-01

    While investigating the use of silver activated metaphosphate glass in radiation dosimetry, using its properties of radiophotoluminescence (RPL) in the range 20 mR to 10 3 R and of optical absorbance changes at higher exposures, a difference in the behaviour of the centers responsible for the two phenomenon was observed when the glass was exposed to 253.7 nm u.v. Ultraviolet exposure was observed to bleach the radiophotoluminescence in an irradiated glass whereas it was observed to induce photoluminescence in an unirradiated glass. Thermal behaviour of the two centers was also different. After heating the glass for 5 min at a number of temperatures, a gradual increase in RPL was observed up to 200 0 C. Above 200 0 C, the thermal treatment bleached the RPL. The optical absorbance was bleached from room temperature upwards. (U.K.)

  15. Effect of Chemical Composition on The Microstructure and High-Temperature Properties of Ti-Ni-Hf High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seong-Woo; Lee, Hak-Sung; Jeon, Yeong-Min; Yeom, Jong-Taek; Kim, Seong-Woong; Park, Chan-Hee; Hong, Jae-Keun; Oh, Chang-Seok [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Tae-Hyun [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeoung Han [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The effect of Ni and Hf content on the microstructure, phase transformation, and hot workability of Ti-Ni-Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. Twelve different Ti-xNi (x=49, 50.2, 50.5, 50.8 at%)-yHf (y=10, 12, 14 at%) SMA ingots were prepared by vacuum arc re-melting, and then analyzed by SEM, DSC, TEM, and XRD after heat treatment. Precipitation behavior was mostly dependent on Ni content rather than Hf content. The effect of homogenization treatment on the particle precipitation and phase transformation behavior was studied. We also found that hot workability was greatly dependent on the solidification structure of the austenite phase.

  16. Characterization of cubic ceria?zirconia powders by X-ray diffraction and vibrational and electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Escribano, Vicente; Fernández López, Enrique; Panizza, Marta; Resini, Carlo; Gallardo Amores, José Manuel; Busca, Guido

    2003-10-01

    The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and the Infrared, Raman and UV-visible spectra of CeO 2ZrO 2 powders prepared by co-precipitation are presented. Raman spectra provide evidence for the largely predominant cubic structure of the powders with CeO 2 molar composition higher than 25%. Also skeletal IR spectra allow to distinguish cubic from tetragonal phases which are instead not easily distinguished on the basis of the XRD patterns. All mixed oxides including pure ceria are strong UV absorbers although also absorb in the violet visible region. By carefully selecting their composition and treatment temperature, the onset of the radiation that they cut off can be chosen in the 425-475 nm interval. Although they are likely metastable, the cubic phases are still pure even after heating at 1173 K for 4 h.

  17. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... to expand. After heat-treatment foam glass can be obtained with porosities of 80–90 %. In this study we conduct physical foaming of cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass by sintering under high pressure (5-25 MPa) using helium, nitrogen, or argon at 640 °C (~108 Pa s). Reheating a sample in a heating...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  18. Metabolic profiling of heat or anoxic stress in mouse C2C12 myotubes using multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straadt, Ida K; Young, Jette F; Petersen, Bent O

    2010-01-01

    to anaerobic metabolism due to inhibition of the aerobic pathway in the mitochondria. Conversely, lower levels of unlabeled ((12)C) lactate were apparent at increasing severity of stress, which indicate that lactate is released from the myotubes to the medium. In conclusion, the metabolites identified......In the present study, the metabolic effects of heat and anoxic stress in myotubes from the mouse cell line C2C12 were investigated by using a combination of (13)C, (1)H, and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and enrichment with [(13)C]-glucose. Both the (13)C and the (1)H NMR...... spectra showed reduced levels of the amino acids alanine, glutamate, and aspartate after heat or anoxic stress. The decreases were smallest at 42 degrees C, larger at 45 degrees C, and most pronounced after anoxic conditions. In addition, in both the (1)H and the (31)P NMR spectra, decreases in the high...

  19. PURIFICATION OF Cd-BINDING PROTEIN FROM MAIZE ROOTS BY REVERSE-PHASE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何笃修; 罗建沅; 全胜

    1991-01-01

    An efficient procedure of purification of Cd-binding protein in roots of maize has been established. Young seedlings of maize were exposed to a medium containing CdCl2 to induce the production of Cd-binding protein in their roots. The protein was purified after heat treatment by ion-exchange chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The resulting protein was identified as a purified product by N-terminal amino acid with the dansyl method. Its molecular weight was 3200 dalton, the cysteine content was 29.5%, about 3 Cd atoms were bound to one molecule of the protein and the Cd : cystine ratio was 1 : 2.3. According to its character, this protein could be a kind of plant metallothionein-like protein.

  20. Evaluation of advanced transformation toughened zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swab, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Transformation toughened zirconia (TTZ) is a material being considered for use in advanced heat engines. However, at elevated temperatures TTZ materials undergo a phase transformation from tetragonal to the monoclinic with an associated volume increase of approximately 5%. This transformation results in a loss of strength and fracture toughness. Six commercially available Japanese TTZ materials and one experimental domestic grade were examined for the extent and effect of this phase transformation after exposure to elevated temperatures (1000 to 1200 0 C) for times of 100 and 500 hours. Strength losses after heat treatment at 1000 0 C for 100 and 500 hours, ranged from a high of 60% to as little as 7%. Additional heat treatments of 500 hours at 1100 and 1200 0 C were carried out on TTZ's which had strength losses of 15% or less after exposure to 1000 0 C

  1. Platinum containing amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H/Pt) thin films as selective solar absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Yung-Hsiang; Brahma, Sanjaya; Tzeng, Y.H.; Ting, Jyh-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated a double-cermet structured thin film in which an a-C:H thin film was used as an anti-reflective (AR) layer and two platinum-containing amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H/Pt) thin films were used as the double cermet layers. A reactive co-sputter deposition method was used to prepare both the anti-reflective and cermet layers. Effects of the target power and heat treatment were studied. The obtained films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The optical absorptance and emittance of the as deposited and annealed films were determined using UV–vis-NIR spectroscopy. We show that the optical absorptance of the resulting double-cermet structured thin film is as high as 96% and remains to be 91% after heat treatment at 400 °C, indicating the thermal stability of the film

  2. Modelling irradiation by EM waves of multifunctionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and subsequent drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Calvayrac, Florent; Montembault, Véronique; Fontaine, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Thermal transport in the environment close to the periphery of the nanoparticle, from a few angstroms to less than a nanometer scale, is becoming increasingly important with the advent of several biomedical applications of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles, including drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging, and hyperthermia therapy. We present a multiscale and multiphysics model of the irradiation by electromagnetic waves of radiofrequency of iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized by drug-releasing polymers used as new multifunctional therapeutic compounds against tumors. We compute ab initio the thermal conductivity of the polymer chains as a function of the length, model the unfolding of the polymer after heat transfer from the nanoparticle by molecular mechanics, and develop a multiscale thermodynamic and heat transfer model including the surrounding medium (water) in order to model the drug release. (paper)

  3. Investigation of crystallization in glasses containing fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malow, G.

    1979-01-01

    Five potential solidification products for high-level waste (four borosilicate glasses and one celsian glass ceramic) have been investigated in terms of crystallization. In all glasses and in the glass ceramic, crystallization, and recrystallization, respectively, were observed by heating above 773 0 K, however, at very different periods of time (0.1d greater than or equal to 100d). The noble metals precipitated into various phases. Crystal growth proceeded at the phase boundary glass-noble metal. In all products rare earth phases crystallized. Silicate phases rarely formed. The leach resistance (by the grain titration and Soxhlet tests) decreased after heat treatment in all cases. The changes were found to be within one order of magnitude for all products. 2 figures, 4 tables

  4. The Study on Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot-Stamped Steel by Using Laser Heat Source (Ⅲ) - Comparison on Laser Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot -Stamped Steel-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, So Young; Kim, Jong Do [Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Su [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study was conducted to compare the laser weldability of boron steel and hot-stamped steel. In general, boron steel is used in the hot-stamping process. Hot-stamping is a method for simultaneously forming and cooling boron steel in a press die after heating it to the austenitizing temperature. Hot-stamped steel has a strength of 1500 MPa or more. Thus, in this study, the laser weldability of boron steel and that of hot-stamped steel were investigated and compared. A continuous wave disk laser was used to produce butt and lap joints. In the butt welding, the critical cooling speed at which full penetration was obtained in the hot-stamped steel was lower than that of boron steel. In the lap welding, the joint widths were similar regardless of the welding speed when full penetration was obtained.

  5. Preparation of a nickel nanopowder by wire explosion in liquid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chuhyun; Ha, Yooncheol; Kang, Chungil; Jin, Yunsik; Rim, Geunhie

    2010-01-01

    Nickel wires of 0.8 mm in diameter and 80 mm in length were electrically exploded in liquid media, such as water, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and acetone. The electrical energy discharged through the wire was 10 kJ. The distribution of particle sizes was broad from a few μm to tens of nanometer, regardless of the liquid medium used in this study. The particles could be classified according to their sizes by using a centrifugal separator. The powder prepared in distilled water showed mainly a pure metallic Ni phase although a little oxide phase was observed in the XRD analysis. However, the powders prepared in ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and acetone showed complicated unknown phases, which is attributed to a compound of carbon in the organic liquid. The unknown phase was turned into a pure metallic Ni phase after heat treatment at 400 .deg. C.

  6. Electrical properties of indium arsenide irradiated with fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolin, N.G.; Osvenskii, V.B.; Rytova, N.S.; Yurova, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of irradiation with fast reactor neutrons on electrical properties of indium arsenide samples with different dopant concentrations. The laws governing the formation and annealing of radiation defects in indium arsenide were found to be governed by the donor-acceptor interaction. Depending on the density of free carriers in the original crystal, irradiation could produce charged defects of predominantly donor or acceptor types. Donor defects in irradiated InAs samples were annealed practically completely, whereas a considerable fraction of residual acceptor defects was retained even after heat treatment at 900 degree C. The concentration of these residual acceptors depended on the electron density at the annealing temperature

  7. Fabrication of a Microtubular La0.6Sr0.4Ti0.2Fe0.8O3−δ Membrane by Electrophoretic Deposition for Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtubular type La0.6Sr0.4Ti0.2Fe0.8O3−δ (LSTF membranes were prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD. The oxygen permeation and hydrogen production behavior of the membranes were investigated under various conditions. LSTF green layer was successfully coated onto a carbon rod and, after heat treatment at 1400°C in air, a dense LSTF tubular membrane with a thickness of 250 mm can be obtained. The oxygen permeation and hydrogen production rate were enhanced by CH4 in the permeate side, and the hydrogen production rate by water splitting was 0.22 mL/min·cm2 at 1000°C. It is believed that hydrogen production via water splitting using these tubular LSTF membranes is possible.

  8. Preparation of three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foam by two-step foaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, J.T.; Xuming, Chu; Deping, He

    2008-01-01

    A novel method, named two-step foaming, was investigated to prepare three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foam used in car industry, spaceflight, packaging and related areas. Calculations of thermal decomposition kinetics of titanium hydride showed that there is a considerable amount of hydrogen releasing when the titanium hydride is heated at a relatively high temperature after heated at a lower temperature. The hydrogen mass to sustain aluminum alloy foam, having a high porosity, was also estimated by calculations. Calculations indicated that as-received titanium hydride without any pre-treatment can be used as foaming agents in two-step foaming. The processes of two-step foaming, including preparing precursors and baking, were also studied by experiments. Results showed that, low titanium hydride dispersion temperature, long titanium hydride dispersion time and low precursors porosity are beneficial to prepare three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foams with uniform pores

  9. Low-temperature atmospheric oxidation of mixtures of titanium and carbon black or brown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizarova, V.A.; Babaitsev, I.V.; Barzykin, V.V.; Gerusova, V.P.; Rozenband, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    This article reports on the thermogravimetric investigation of mixtures of titanium no. 2 and carbon black with various mass carbon contents. Adding carbon black (as opposed to boron) to titanium leads to an increase in the rate of heat release of the oxidation reaction. An attempt is made to clarify the low-temperature oxidation mechanism of titanium mixtures in air. An x-ray phase and chemical (for bound carbon) analysis of specimens of a stoichiometric Ti + C mixture after heating in air to a temperature of 650 0 C at the rate of 10 0 /min was conducted. The results indicate that the oxidation of the titanium-carbon mixture probably proceeds according to a more complex mechanism associated with the transport of the gaseous carbon oxidation products and their participation in the titanium oxidation

  10. Radioactive waste storage facility and underground disposal method for radioactive wastes using the facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Yoshihiro.

    1997-01-01

    A sealed container storage chamber is formed in underground rocks. A container storage pool is formed on the inner bottom of the sealed vessel storage chamber. A heat exchanger for cooling water and a recycling pump are disposed on an operation floor of the sealed vessel storage chamber. Radioactive wastes sealed vessels in which radioactive wastes are sealed are transferred from the ground to the sealed vessel storage chamber through a sealed vessel transferring shaft, and immersed in cooling water stored in the vessel storage pool. When after heat of the radioactive wastes is removed by the cooling water, the cooling water in the vessel storage pool is sucked up to the ground surface. After dismantling equipments, bentonite-type fillers are filled in the inside of the sealed vessel storage chamber, sealed vessel transferring shaft, air supplying shaft and air exhaustion shaft, and the radioactive waste-sealed vessels can be subjected stably to into underground disposal. (I.N.)

  11. Synthesis and characterization of bulky mesoporous silica Pd-MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Hidezumi; Nakahira, Atsushi; Hirao, Norie; Baba, Yuji; Onoki, Takamasa; Yamasaki, Yuki

    2008-01-01

    Bulky palladium catalyst supported on mesoporous silica MCM-41 (Pd-MCM-41) was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal hot-pressing method. In this study, the structure of the palladium species in Pd-MCM-41 bulk before and after heat-treatment process was revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, the microstructure and mesoporous property of Pd-MCM-41 bulk was discussed. As a result, it was revealed that these dense Pd-MCM-41 bulks possessed a high surface area of over 1000 m 2 /g and the structure of palladium of Pd-MCM-41 bulk is almost equal to palladium (0) metal. (author)

  12. Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chian; Conley, R.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Maser, J.; Kang, H.C.; Yan, H.; Stephenson, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated partial Multilayer Laue Lens (MLL) linear zone plate structures with thousands of alternating WSi 2 and Si layers and various outermost zone widths according to the Fresnel zone plate formula. Using partial MLL structures, we were able to focus hard X-rays to line foci with a width of 30 nm and below. Here, we describe challenges and approaches used to bond these multilayers to achieve line and point focusing. Bonding was done by coating two multilayers with AuSn and heating in a vacuum oven at 280-300 o C. X-ray reflectivity measurements confirmed that there was no change in the multilayers after heating to 350 o C. A bonded MLL was polished to a 5-25 μm wedge without cracking. SEM image analyses found well-positioned multilayers after bonding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a bonded full MLL for focusing hard X-rays

  13. A study on the performance valuation of small size water storage electric boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Joung Gun; Shin, Jae Ho; Bae, Chul Whan; Suh, Jeong Se; Chung, Han Shik; Jeong, Hyo Min

    2003-01-01

    We was made 150L a water storage electric boiler and obtained various performances of the storage, radiant and keeping by experimentation. The storage performance is that the heat were off about 50 minutes after heating start. Then the temperature of outlet was arrived the stead state at 91 deg. C and the storage performance was appeared 93.64%. In the radiant performance, the water temperature was decreased from 90 .deg. C to 44.8 deg. C after 960 minutes. Then the calorific value changed from 675kcal/h to 72kcal/h and the temperature decreased about 50%. The keeping performance showed mean temperature, 67.06 .deg. C according to progress 800 minutes and the maximum temperature drop were 0.2 .deg. C. By the results of the performance valuation, the water storage electric boiler was verified fitted quality on the test prescription of KERI (Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute.)

  14. Development the Mechanical Properties of (AL-Li-Cu Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Kadhom AlNaimi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to develop mechanical properties of a new aluminium-lithium-copper alloy. This alloy prepared under control atmosphere by casting in a permanent metal mould. The microstructure was examined and mechanical properties were tested before and after heat treatment to study the influence of heat treatment on its mechanical properties including; modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, impact, and fatigue. The results showed that the modulus of elasticity of the prepared alloy is higher than standard alloy about 2%. While the alloy that heat treated for 6 h and cooled in water, then showed a higher ultimate tensile stress comparing with as-cast alloy. The homogenous heat treatment gives best fatigue behaviour comparing with as-cast and other heat treatment alloys. Also, the impact test illustrates that the homogeneous heat treatment alloy gives the highest value.

  15. Preparation and Properties of Flexible AZO@C Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Hui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of environmental-friendly flexible nanofibers of aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO coated carbon (AZO@C was successfully prepared by using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA as raw materials. The as-spun PVA nanofibers were prepared via electrospinning and its water resistance was greatly improved after heat-treatment. Then, the PVA nanofibers with a layer of zinc aluminum hydroxide on the surface were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Thereafter, new AZO@C composite nanofibers was produced after sintering at 500℃ to the carbonization of PVA nanofibers and the dehydration of zinc aluminum hydroxide to form AZO nanoparticles. The structure and properties of the samples were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR, thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The average diameter of the AZO@C nanofibers is (320±45nm. The photocatalytic property of the resultant composite fibers is demonstrated by degrading methyl orange under solar light.

  16. Manufacturing of wollastonite-based glass from cement dust: Physical and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Francis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available By-pass cement dust is considered as a source of environmental pollution. Wollastonite-based glass foams are made by adding glass waste and SiC to the cement dust. XRD on samples indicated that the main crystalline phase after heat treatment at 850–1,000°C is wollastonite. Empirical models were developed to derive conclusion on the impact of SiC and temperature on the physical and mechanical properties of the products. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be at 900°C for 60 min, at which crushing strength was about 15 MPa and was the best uniform. Such wollastonite-based glass foam could be very attractive for thermal and acoustic applications.

  17. Difference in Thermal Degradation Behavior of ZrO2 and HfO2 Anodized Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijyo, Masahiro; Onozuka, Tomotake; Yoshida, Naoto; Shinkai, Satoko; Sasaki, Katsutaka; Yamane, Misao; Abe, Yoshio

    2004-09-01

    Microcrystalline ZrO2 and HfO2 thin film capacitors were prepared by anodizing sputter-deposited Zr and Hf films. The thermal degradation behavior of both anodized capacitors was clarified by the measurement of their capacitance properties and Auger depth profiles before and after heat treatment in air. As a result, it is confirmed that the heat-resistance property of the HfO2 anodized capacitor is superior to that of the ZrO2 capacitor. In addition, it is revealed that the thermal degradation of the ZrO2 anodized capacitor is caused by the diffusion of Zr atoms from the underlying layer into the ZrO2 anodized layer, while that of the HfO2 anodized capacitor is caused by the diffusion of oxygen atoms from the anodized layer into the underlying Hf layer.

  18. Thermal response to heat fluxes of the W7-AS divertor surface submitted to surface modification under high temperature treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Duebner, A.; Greuner, H.; Wiltner, A.

    2009-01-01

    Some target tiles of the W7-AS divertor has been investigated with respect to their thermal behaviour at the surface during power loading with well-defined heat fluxes in the Gladis facility. The primary aim was to examine uncertainties in the determination of heat fluxes derived from IR-thermography during operation of W7-AS. It is found that the derived heat flux profiles are strongly influenced by the local distribution of plasma-deposited contamination analyzed by AES and SIMS. With the observed actual surface conditions characterized by redeposited contamination equivalent up to about 1 μm thickness, the heat fluxes were partially overestimated up to a factor of 4 during operation of W7-AS. This uncertainty is observed to be significantly reduced after heat treatment at temperatures beyond 700 deg. C attained at power flux densities of 10.5 MW/m 2 and durations longer than 5 s.

  19. The Study on Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot-Stamped Steel by Using Laser Heat Source (Ⅲ) - Comparison on Laser Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot -Stamped Steel-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, So Young; Kim, Jong Do; Kim, Jong Su

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the laser weldability of boron steel and hot-stamped steel. In general, boron steel is used in the hot-stamping process. Hot-stamping is a method for simultaneously forming and cooling boron steel in a press die after heating it to the austenitizing temperature. Hot-stamped steel has a strength of 1500 MPa or more. Thus, in this study, the laser weldability of boron steel and that of hot-stamped steel were investigated and compared. A continuous wave disk laser was used to produce butt and lap joints. In the butt welding, the critical cooling speed at which full penetration was obtained in the hot-stamped steel was lower than that of boron steel. In the lap welding, the joint widths were similar regardless of the welding speed when full penetration was obtained

  20. Characterization and study of the behavior of wire Ti-Ni with shape memory effect enables manufacture of actuators; Estudo da caracterizacao e do comportamento de fios de Ti-Ni com efeito memoria de forma viabilizando fabricacao de atuadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, E.A.C.; Araujo Filho, O.O. de; Urtiga Filho, S.L.; Gonzalez, C.H., E-mail: kikipina@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEM/CTG/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the wire commercial Ti-Ni of 1.27 mm in diameter with shape memory effect for the development of helical springs with the function of sensor / actuator. After heat treatment, the transformation temperatures, the presence of precipitates, the degree of damping, maximum stress of rupture, modulus of elasticity, the presence of phase R, the behavior of the alloy under tension, will be analyzed and compared in each situation. For characterization we used several methods including: heat treatment, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), tensile, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), X-ray diffraction, thermomechanical cycling. The wires were cut into pieces and heat-treated at 400 deg C with variation of time in muffle furnaces and quenching in water at 25 deg C. (author)

  1. Encapsulated scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepke, I.L.

    1982-01-01

    A scintillation detector crystal is encapsulated in a hermetically sealed housing having a glass window. The window may be mounted in a ring by a compression seal formed during cooling of the ring and window after heating. The window may be chemically bonded to the ring with or without a compression seal. The ring is welded to the housing along thin weld flanges to reduce the amount of weld heat which must be applied. A thin section is provided to resist the flow of welding heat to the seal between the ring and the window thereby forming a thermal barrier. The thin section may be provided by a groove cut partially through the wall of the ring. A layer of PTFE between the tubular body and the crystal minimizes friction created by thermal expansion. Spring washers urge the crystal towards the window. (author)

  2. Longitudinal magnetic bistability of electroplated wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Garcia-Miquel, H.; Vazquez, M.; Svalov, A.V.; Vas'kovskiy, V.O.

    2002-01-01

    Fe 20 Ni 74 Co 6 and Fe 20 Ni 64 Co 16 1 μm thick magnetic tubes electroplated onto Cu 98 Be 2 conductive wire have been investigated in as-deposited state, after heat treatment under longitudinal magnetic field for 1 h at 330 deg. C, and after rf-sputtering deposition of the additional 2 μm Fe 19 Ni 81 layer. Heat treatments and an additional layer deposition modify the shape of hysteresis loops. Magnetically bistable behaviour, observed after the field annealing at a temperature of 330 deg. C, is studied as a function of the length of the samples. This is the first report by our knowledge on the bistable behaviour of the electroplated wires. The bistability of these wires is promising for applications such as tagging or pulse generator applications

  3. Detection of N-acetylglycine, N-acetylglycylglycine, and N-acetylglycylglycylglycine by paper chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol, H.A.

    1978-06-01

    This paper reports that the developing solvent of Kirchenmayer and Kuffner, n-butanol-acetic acid-water (8:1:10, v/v) can be used to separate and detect N-acetylglycine, N-acetylglycylglycine, and N-acetylglycylglycylglycine. The chromatographic procedure is described. After heating at 100 0 C, the spots could be seen under uv light; acetone-bromocresol green-morpholine can also be used to make the spots show up. The R/sub f/ values are 0.59, 0.43, and 0.33, respectively. This procedure was used to detect these compounds in aqueous solutions of diglycine, triglycine, and tetraglycine, which were used as gamma-radiolysis targets

  4. [Analysis of gene expression pattern in peripheral blood leukocytes during experimental heat wave].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feoktistova, E S; Skamrov, A V; Goryunova, L E; Khaspekov, G L; Osyaeva, M K; Rodnenkov, O V; Beabealashvilli, R Sh

    2017-03-01

    The conditions of Moscow 2010 summer heat wave were simulated in an accommodation module. Six healthy men aged from 22 to 46 years stayed in the module for 30 days. Measurements of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes before, during and 3 day after simulated heat wave were performed using qRT-PCR. We observed a shift in the expression level of certain genes after heat exposure for a long time, and rapid return to the initial level, when volunteers leaved the accommodation module. Eight genes were chosen to form the "heat expression signature". EGR2, EGR3 were upregulated in all six volunteers, EGR1, SIRT1, CYP51A1, MAPK9, BAG5, MNDA were upregulated in 5 volunteers.

  5. Study of polyoxide catalysts of methane combustion on Mn, Cu, Ni, rare earth elements, alkaline earth elements base by the X-ray fluorescence analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'eva, V.P.; Popova, N.M.; Zheksenbaeva, Z.T.; Sass, A.S.; Salakhova, R.Kh.; Dosumov, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    The results of X-ray fluorescence analysis of polyoxide catalysts on of Mn, Cu, Ni, rare earth elements, alkaline earth elements base supported on 2 % Ce/θ-Al 2 O 3 are presented. This polyoxide catalysts are using for deep methane oxidation. DRON-4-7 X-ray diffractometers was applied for the analysis. It was found, that oxides in Ni-Cu-Cr catalysts after long time heating up to 1200 deg. C have been interacted with catalyst supports with Ni(Cu)Al 2 O 3 aluminates formation and due to its decomposition transformation degree of CH 4 to CO 2 are reduced. Activity of MnBaSrCeLa catalysts after heating up to 1200 deg. C does not changed

  6. Autohydrolysis of plant xylans by apoplastic expression of thermophilic bacterial endo-xylanases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkhardt, Bernhard; Harholt, Jesper; Ulvskov, Peter Bjarne

    2010-01-01

    The genes encoding the two endo-xylanases XynA and XynB from the thermophilic bacterium Dictyoglomus thermophilum were codon optimized for expression in plants. Both xylanases were designed to be constitutively expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter and targeted to the apoplast....... Transient expression in tobacco and stable expression in transgenic Arabidopsis showed that both enzymes were expressed in an active form with temperature optima at 85 °C. Transgenic Arabidopsis accumulating heterologous endo-xylanases appeared phenotypically normal and were fully fertile. The highest...... xylanase activity in Arabidopsis was found in dry stems indicating that the enzymes were not degraded during stem senescence. High levels of enzyme activity were maintained in cell-free extracts from dry transgenic stems during incubation at 85 °C for 24 h. Analysis of cell wall polysaccharides after heat...

  7. Cathodic electrodeposition of CuInSe sub 2 thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, C; Galiano, E; Herrero, J [Inst. de Energias Renovables (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    1991-01-01

    In order to study the preparation process of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films by a one-step electrodeposition method, thin films of the compound were prepared from aqueous citric acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7} . H{sub 2}O) plating baths onto titanium substrates. During electrodeposition, the bath composition and deposition potential were changed to obtain stoichiometric thin films. In general, close to stoichiometry, layers rich in selenium were observed, and this excess of selenium was removed after heat treatment. Best quality films were obtained after annealing at 400deg C during 15 min. X-ray diffraction showed the formation of CuInSe{sub 2} films, the chalcopyrite structure, at heating treatment temperatures higher than 350deg C. Optical measurements showed that the band gap of the deposited material was 0.99 eV. (orig.).

  8. Determination of muscle microcirculation of the limbs of healthy persons and patients with scleroderma by means of 133Xe clearance. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenitzsch, I.; Wiemers, U.; Haustein, U.F.; Schneider, G.

    1984-01-01

    By means of 133 Xe muscle clearance the blood flow of the musculus tibialis anterior and the musculus opponens pollicis was determined during nonischemic work and after 3 minutes ischemia in patients with progressive scleroderma and additionally of the ischemic musculus opponens pollicis following contrast baths. In relation to 53 patients with normal vessels the reactive hyperemia of the musculus tibialis anterior after ischemia and of the musculus opponens pollicis after heat, cold as well as arterial flow decreasing was significantly decreased in patients with scleroderma and was as a disturbance of the microcirculation realized. For scientific problems in progressive scleroderma the 133 Xe muscle clearance is suitable as to the musculus opponens pollicis. (author)

  9. Determination of muscle microcirculation of the limbs of healthy persons and patients with scleroderma by means of /sup 133/Xe clearance. 2. Examination of patients with progressive scleroderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenitzsch, I.; Wiemers, U.; Haustein, U.F.; Schneider, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1984-01-01

    By means of /sup 133/Xe muscle clearance the blood flow of the musculus tibialis anterior and the musculus opponens pollicis was determined during nonischemic work and after 3 minutes ischemia in patients with progressive scleroderma and additionally of the ischemic musculus opponens pollicis following contrast baths. In relation to 53 patients with normal vessels the reactive hyperemia of the musculus tibialis anterior after ischemia and of the musculus opponens pollicis after heat, cold as well as arterial flow decreasing was significantly decreased in patients with scleroderma and was as a disturbance of the microcirculation realized. For scientific problems in progressive scleroderma the /sup 133/Xe muscle clearance is suitable as to the musculus opponens pollicis.

  10. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of edible oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinovitser, Alex; Valchev, Dimitar G.; Abbott, Derek

    2017-06-01

    Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and processing at production facilities, and more generally within the food industry. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that oil undergoes chemical and physical changes when heated above the smoke point, which can be detected in the 0.05-2 THz spectral range, measured using the conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The measurements demonstrate a null result in that there is no significant change in the spectra of terahertz optical parameters after heating above the smoke point for 5 min.

  11. New temperable solar coatings: Tempsol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya

    2001-11-01

    This paper deals with the large area deposition and coating properties of the thermo-stable (temperable/bendable) solar coating material, CuO, and some new optical coating systems comprising CuO films for architectural and automotive/transportation applications. The CuO solar coating is combined with other coating layers, for example, an anti-reflection film, a reflection film, a coloration coating layer, etc., which are also thermo-stable. The film systems are developed at the research laboratory by D.C. Magnetron reactive sputtering process. The new developed technologies then transferred to the production line. Product performances are compared before and after heat treatment of the coating systems. Performance tables and other physical properties, including optical parameters, mechanical and environmental stability, storage properties, etc., are also presented for this new product series.

  12. Irradiation in combination of heat treatment of mango puree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomhorm, A.; Apintanapong, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of irradiation with heat combination treatment on the shelf life and quality of mango puree was studied. Thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme at 80 degree C and 15 min. was used as a measure of adequacy of pre-heat treatment. Irradiation of mango puree after heat treatment at dosage of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy showed no change in mc, pH, acidity, and TSS but during storage, growth of microorganisms brought changes in these values. Irradiation in combination with low temperature (5 degree C) reduced discoloration and darkening rate during storage. Irradiation dose from 0 to 8 kGy resulted in log linear reductions in microorganism levels but at 6 and 8 kGy, there was no growth of microorganisms. Products irradiated at 8 kGy showed no microorganism growth at both temperatures

  13. Feedwater processing method in a boiling water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumitani, M; Tanno, K

    1976-09-06

    The purpose of the invention is to decrease a quantity of corrosion products moving from the feedwater system to the core. Water formed into vapor after heated in a reactor is fed to the turbine through a main steam line to drive a generator to return it to liquid-state water in a condenser. The water is then again cycled into the reactor via the condensate pump, desalting unit, low pressure feedwater heater, medium pressure feedwater heater, and high pressure feedwater heater. The reactor water is recycled by a recycling pump. At this time, the reactor water recycled by the recycling pump is partially poured into a middle point between the desalting unit and the low pressure feedwater heater through a reducing valve or the like. With the structure described above, the quantity of the corrosion products from the feedwater system may be decreased by the function of a large quantity of active oxygen contained in the reactor water.

  14. Precipitation of heterogeneous nanostructures: Metal nanoparticles and dielectric nanocrystallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masai, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takumi; Tokuda, Yomei; Yoko, Toshinobu

    2010-01-01

    Heterogeneous precipitation of nanocrystallites of metallic Bi and anatase was observed in CaO-Bi 2 O 3 -B 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 glass-ceramics. Addition of AlN reduced the Bi 2 O 3 to Bi metal nanoparticles, which were uniformly dispersed in the glass. After heat-treatment of the Bi-precipitated glass around the glass transition temperature, nanocrystalline anatase precipitated out without aggregation of the Bi metal particles. It was found that the anatase nanocrystal size was affected by the distance between a nanocrystal and a precipitated Bi nanoparticle. The glass-ceramic produced is a functional material containing a random dispersion of different types of nanoparticles with different dielectric constants.

  15. Effect of heat treatment on CO2 adsorption of KOH-activated graphite nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Long-Yue; Park, Soo-Jin

    2010-12-15

    In this work, graphite nanofibers (GNFs) were successfully expanded intercalating KOH followed by heat treatment in the temperature range of 700-1000 °C. The aim was to improve the CO(2) adsorption capacity of the GNFs by increasing the porosity of GNFs. The effects of heat treatment on the pore structures of GNFs were investigated by N(2) full isotherms, XRD, SEM, and TEM. The CO(2) adsorption capacity was measured by CO(2) isothermal adsorption at 25 °C and 1 atm. From the results, it was found that the activation temperature had a major influence on CO(2) adsorption capacity and textural properties of GNFs. The specific surface area, total pore volume, and mesopore volume of the GNFs increased after heat treatment. The CO(2) adsorption isotherms showed that G-900 exhibited the best CO(2) adsorption capacity with 59.2 mg/g. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sol-gel synthesis and densification of aluminoborosilicate powders. Part 1: Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Jeffrey; Selvaduray, Guna; Leiser, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Aluminoborosilicate powders high in alumina content were synthesized by the sol-gel process utilizing various methods of preparation. Properties and microstructural effects related to these syntheses were examined. After heating to 600 C for 2 h in flowing air, the powders were amorphous with the metal oxides comprising 87 percent of the weight and uncombusted organics the remainder. DTA of dried powders revealed a T(sub g) at approximately 835 C and an exotherm near 900 C due to crystallization. Powders derived from aluminum secbutoxide consisted of particles with a mean diameter 5 microns less than those from aluminum isopropoxide. Powders synthesized with aluminum isopropoxide produced agglomerates comprised of rod shaped particulates while powders made with the secbutoxide precursor produced irregular glassy shards. Compacts formed from these powders required different loadings for equivalent densities according to the method of synthesis.

  17. IMPACT STRENGTH AND FAILURE ANALYSIS OF WELDED DAMASCUS STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Mintách

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the experimental research of damascus steel from point of view of the structural analyze, impact strength and failure analyzes. The damascus steel was produced by method of forged welding from STN 41 4260 spring steel and STN 41 9312 tool steel. The damascus steel consisted of both 84 and 168 layers. The impact strength was experimentally determined for original steels and damascus steels after heat treatment in dependence on temperature in the range from -60 to 160 °C. It has been found that the impact strength of experimental steels decreased with decreasing temperature behind with correlated change of damage mode. In the case of experimental tests performed at high temperature ductile fracture was revealed and with decreasing temperature proportion of cleavage facets increased. Only the STN 41 9312 steel did not show considerable difference in values of the impact strength with changing temperature.

  18. Defect trapping of deuterium implanted in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, Y.; Kakeno, M.; Yamada, K.; Hioki, T.; Kawamoto, J.

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of deuterium implanted in Al was studied by the D( 3 He,p) 4 He and the D(d,p)T nuclear reactions. Changes of the depth profiles of the deuterium after heat treatments indicated that the implanted deuterium was trapped by the defect produced during the deuterium implantation and the release probability of the trapped deuterium increased as the specimen temperature was raised. Assuming a thermal equilibrium locally in the region of high defect concentration, the trapping energy of deuterium in Al was determined to be 0.12eV. Since the release probability for the single crystal was considerably larger than that for the polycrystal specimens, the deuterium was considered to be strongly trapped in the grain boundaries. Distributions of displaced Al atoms and the recovery of the lattice damage by annealing were measured by the channelling technique. (author)

  19. A three-tier phenotyping approach for hunting QTLs related to heat tolerance in bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2014-01-01

    In the global climate change scenario, heatstress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an importantdeterminant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop, feeding about one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate climate......, wheat is sensitive to heat stress, particularly at the reproductive phase. Heat tolerance is a complex trait. In the present study, a combined approach of physiological phenotyping and quantitative genetics was used to dissect the complex nature of heat tolerance into photosynthesis related traits......- with a top-to-bottom (forward) approach: Tier 1: Phenotyping: As a starting point,the quantification of heat tolerance was done by the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter, Fv/Fm, as a measure of maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry after heat stress treatment (40°C for 72h). This way...

  20. Synthesis, bioactivity and preliminary biocompatibility studies of glasses in the system CaO-MgO-SiO2-Na2O-P2O5-CaF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulyaganov, D U; Agathopoulos, S; Valerio, P; Balamurugan, A; Saranti, A; Karakassides, M A; Ferreira, J M F

    2011-02-01

    New compositions of bioactive glasses are proposed in the CaO-MgO-SiO(2)-Na(2)O-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) system. Mineralization tests with immersion of the investigated glasses in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37°C showed that the glasses favour the surface formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) from the early stages of the experiments. In the case of daily renewable SBF, monetite (CaHPO(4)) formation competed with the formation of HA. The influence of structural features of the glasses on their mineralization (bioactivity) performance is discussed. Preliminary in vitro experiments with osteoblasts' cell-cultures showed that the glasses are biocompatible and there is no evidence of toxicity. Sintering and devitrification studies of glass powder compacts were also performed. Glass-ceramics with attractive properties were obtained after heat treatment of the glasses at relatively low temperatures (up to 850°C).

  1. Polysialates binders preparation and their influence to shear strength of foundry sand mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fridrich

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with polysialates water-glasses preparation. There were used various procedures with the goal to create inorganic polymer on silicon and aluminum base. The one composed of SiO2 and AlO4 tetrahedron chains. For the preparation was concentrated NaOH solution used together with metakaolinite in a way low-temperature synthesis in the presence of alkaline silicate: higher pressure and temperature (autoclave to direct making of alkaline silicate made of sand, NaOH with metakaolinite addition and by melting fritted glass together with metakaolinite and dissolution in autoclave. The dissolving effectivity was evaluated by the concentration of aluminum in alkaline silicate and by the influence to reduce strengths after heat exposition with this inorganic binder.

  2. Bone bonding ability of some borate bio-glasses and their corresponding glass-ceramic derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma H. Margha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary borate glasses from the system Na2O·CaO·B2O3 together with soda-lime-borate samples containing 5 wt.% of MgO, Al2O3, SiO2 or P2O5 were prepared. The obtained glasses were converted to their glass-ceramic derivatives by controlled heat treatment. X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the separated crystalline phases in glass-ceramics after heat treatment of the glassy samples. The glasses and corresponding glass-ceramics after immersion in water or diluted phosphate solution for extended times were characterized by the grain method (adopted by several authors and recommended by ASTM and Fourier-transform infrared spectra to justify the formation of hydroxyapatite as an indication of the bone bonding ability. The influence of glass composition on bioactivity potential was discussed too.

  3. XPS and ToF-SIMS analysis of natural rubies and sapphires heat-treated in a reducing (5 mol% H 2/Ar) atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiwawanich, S.; James, B. D.; Liesegang, J.

    2008-12-01

    Surface effects on Mong Hsu rubies and Kanchanaburi sapphires after heat treatment in a controlled reducing atmosphere (5 mol% H 2/Ar) have been investigated using advanced surface science techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Visual appearance of the gemstones is clearly affected by the heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere. Kanchanaburi sapphires, in particular, exhibit Fe-containing precipitates after the heat treatment which have not been observed in previous studies under an inert atmosphere. Significant correlation between changes in visual appearance of the gemstones and variations in surface concentration of trace elements, especially Ti and Fe are observed. The XPS and ToF-SIMS results suggest that; (1) a reducing atmosphere affects the oxidation state of Fe; (2) dissociation of Fe-Ti interaction may occur during heat treatment.

  4. XPS and ToF-SIMS analysis of natural rubies and sapphires heat-treated in a reducing (5 mol% H{sub 2}/Ar) atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achiwawanich, S. [Department of Physics, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); James, B.D. [Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Department of Chemistry, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Liesegang, J. [Department of Physics, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia)], E-mail: J.Liesegang@latrobe.edu.au

    2008-12-30

    Surface effects on Mong Hsu rubies and Kanchanaburi sapphires after heat treatment in a controlled reducing atmosphere (5 mol% H{sub 2}/Ar) have been investigated using advanced surface science techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Visual appearance of the gemstones is clearly affected by the heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere. Kanchanaburi sapphires, in particular, exhibit Fe-containing precipitates after the heat treatment which have not been observed in previous studies under an inert atmosphere. Significant correlation between changes in visual appearance of the gemstones and variations in surface concentration of trace elements, especially Ti and Fe are observed. The XPS and ToF-SIMS results suggest that; (1) a reducing atmosphere affects the oxidation state of Fe; (2) dissociation of Fe-Ti interaction may occur during heat treatment.

  5. Calcium-magnesium Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Interactions with Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Valerie L.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2015-01-01

    Particulates, like sand and volcanic ash, threaten the development of robust environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) that protect next-generation silicon-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine engine components from harsh combustion environments during service. The siliceous particulates transform into molten glassy deposits of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) when ingested by an aircraft engine operating at temperatures above 1200C. In this study, a sample of desert sand was melted into CMAS glass to evaluate high-temperature interactions between the sand glass and an advanced EBC material. Desert sand glass was added to the surface of hot-pressed EBC substrates, which were then heated in air at temperatures ranging from 1200C to 1500C. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to evaluate microstructure and phase compositions of specimens and the CMASEBC interface after heat treatments.

  6. Description of an improvement concept to prevent overpressure containment rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covelli, B.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes results of experiments and recommendations for design improvements, shown by the example of a standard PWR-type system designed in Western Germany. The design improvements are intended to allow safe handling of the hydrogen problem and prevention of undue pressure built-up in the containment. Dimensions and design data are given of the technical components in order to present a realistic view of the measures to be taken for accident prevention. The measures described have been tested and proved to afford optimal advances with regard to prevention of a hydrogen explosion, by inerting with Halon; controlled venting, by means of an open filtering system with head-end blow-off condenser; after-heat removal, by an appropriately dimensioned blow-off condenser, or by means of an additional external spray cooling system. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Partial purification and characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium 130 isolated from mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Luiz Tulini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are important in foods as potential probiotics and also due to the ability to produce antimicrobial compounds that can contribute for biopreservation. In this work, the bacteriocin produced by the food isolate Enterococcus faecium 130 was partially purified and characterized. The compound was active against Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes. It was produced after 4 days of storage at a broad temperature range (4 to 37 °C; it was stable at pH ranging from 2 to 10 with no loss of activity after heating at 100 °C for 15 minutes. Bacteriocin was partially purified by the adsorption-desorption technique, and the analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE showed a molecular mass of 3.5 to 6.5 kDa. These data encourage studies on application of this bacteriocin in food systems as an additional hurdle to microbial growth.

  8. Study on the process of calibration and deep centring of blanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapov, I.N.; Romantsev, B.A.; Popov, V.A.; Volodin, V.V.; Goncharuk, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Process of calibration and deep centring of blanks before broaching is developed and studied. Investigations are performed at a semi-industrial screw rolling mill MISiS-100 T. Blanks made of 40Kh, 60, 50, 45KhN2MFA, 30KhGSNA steels 80, 85, and 90 mm in diameter and 300 mm long were calibrated and centered after heating in a furnace to a depth of 200 mm at shafts and faces with different calibration. 30KhN2MFA steel is chosen for face material; heat treatment is conducted under the following conditions: heating up to 950-1000 deg C and hold-up during 30-35 min with the following cooling in the air. The above experimental investigations reveal that the process of calibration and deep centring accomplished at a three-shaft screw rolling mill is rather stable and provides a high accuracy of centering hollow marking

  9. Synthesis and characterization of laminated Si/SiC composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga, Salma M.; Kenawy, Sayed H.; Awaad, Mohamed; Abd El-Wahab, Hamada S.; Greil, Peter; Abadir, Magdi F.

    2012-01-01

    Laminated Si/SiC ceramics were synthesized from porous preforms of biogenous carbon impregnated with Si slurry at a temperature of 1500 °C for 2 h. Due to the capillarity infiltration with Si, both intrinsic micro- and macrostructure in the carbon preform were retained within the final ceramics. The SEM micrographs indicate that the final material exhibits a distinguished laminar structure with successive Si/SiC layers. The produced composites show weight gain of ≈5% after heat treatment in air at 1300 °C for 50 h. The produced bodies could be used as high temperature gas filters as indicated from the permeability results. PMID:25685404

  10. Into the open – or hidden away? – The construction of war children as a social category in post-war Norway and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Simonsen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available After World War II two groups of children fathered by foreign soldiers were assigned special political functions in the building of a future peaceful Europe. In Norway, the children of German soldiers and Norwegian women and in West Germany, the children of African-American soldiers and German women were constructed as specific categories to be handled in certain ways by state authorities. The Norwegian government, after heated debates, decided that the children were allowed to stay and to be silently and discreetly assimilated into society. In West Germany however, the children begotten to African-Americans came to serve as objects in a national public campaign for international recognition as a democratic state. The two cases demonstrate how social politics for children may serve political purposes, rather than being in the interest of the child.

  11. Controlled Morphology and Mechanical Characterisation of Electrospun Cellulose Acetate Fibre Webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ghorani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to interpret the varying morphology of electrospun cellulose acetate (CA fibres produced from single and binary solvent systems based on solubility parameters to identify processing conditions for the production of defect-free CA fibrous webs by electrospinning. The Hildebrand solubility parameter ( and the radius of the sphere in the Hansen space ( of acetone, acetic acid, water, N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc, methanol, and chloroform were examined and discussed for the electrospinning of CA. The Hildebrand solubility parameter ( of acetone and DMAc were found to be within an appropriate range for the dissolution of CA. The suitability of the binary solvent system of acetone: DMAc (2 : 1 for the continuous electrospinning of defect-free CA fibres was confirmed. Electrospun webs exhibited improved tensile strength and modulus after heat and alkali treatment (deacetylation of the as-spun material, and no major fibre morphological degradation occurred during the deacetylation process.

  12. EFFECTS OF CARBURIZING AND NITRIDING PROCESSES ON THE COST AND QUALITY OF GEARS PRODUCED WITH AISI 4140 AND 8620 STEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio José Leitão

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of nitriding and carburizing processes applied to gears subjected to contact stresses below 1300 MPa. The manufacturing cost, as well the depth of hardened layer and the distortion produced by two processes are analyzed. AISI 4140 gears quenched, tempered, liquid and gas nitriding and AISI 8620 gears after liquid carburizing, quenching and tempering are analyzed. The dimensional control of the gears was carried out before and after heat and thermochemical treatments. It is concluded that liquid or gas nitriding processes are about 30% more economical than liquid carburizing an also they reduce the dimensional changes. By the other hand liquid carburizing achieves greater case depth. Liquid nitriding process presents the lowest cost, dimensional changes and case depth.

  13. Characterising palladium-silver and palladium-nickel alloy membranes using SEM, XRD and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuler, J.N.; Lorenzen, L.; Sanderson, R.D.; Prozesky, V.; Przybylowicz, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Palladium alloy membranes were prepared by successive electroless plating steps on an alumina-zirconia support membrane. Palladium, silver and nickel were deposited in layers and then the metal films were heat treated for 5 h in a hydrogen atmosphere at 650 deg. C. The topography of the metal coatings and cross-sections of the films (before and after heating) were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD was used to determine the crystal phase of the alloy coatings. Both SEM and XRD provide only surface information and therefore micro-PIXE was used to extract depth information of the alloy coating. Concentration profiles across the thickness of the films were constructed to determine penetration of the coating into the support membrane pores during electroless plating and to investigate diffusion of coated layers during the heating step

  14. Effect of consumer cooking on furan in convenience foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D; Crews, C; Grundy, H; Mills, C; Matthews, W

    2008-01-01

    The effect of domestic preparation regimes on the level of the heat-formed toxicant furan was studied to provide useful information for exposure assessment and advice for manufacturers and consumers. Foods were cooked in a saucepan on a gas hob or microwaved and furan was determined by headspace sampling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In general, furan levels did not decrease as much when foods were cooked in a microwave oven when compared with the same foods cooked in a saucepan. Furan levels decreased in most canned and jarred foods after heating in a saucepan. Low levels of furan in soups in cartons were not changed by any procedure. Furan decreased slightly in foods on standing before consumption, but did so more rapidly on stirring. The levels also decreased slightly when foods were left to stand on plates; this observation is attributed to the volatility of furan.

  15. Effects of heat treatment on mechanical properties of h13 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghua, Yan; Xinmin, Huang; Yanqing, Wang; Xingguo, Qin; Ming, Yang; Zuoming, Chu; Kang, Jin

    2010-12-01

    Heat treatment on the mechanical properties of H13 hot working die steel for die casting is discussed. The H13 steel for die casting was treated by different temperatures of vacuum quenching, tempering, and secondary tempering to investigate its mechanical properties. Strength, plasticity, hardness, and impact toughness of the H13 hot working die steel for die casting were measured. Microstructure, grain size, and carbide particle size after heat treatment have a great impact on the mechanical properties of H13 hot working die steel for die casting. The microstructure of the H13 was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by a metallographic microscope. It is found that H13 exhibits excellent mechanical properties after vacuum quenching at 1050°C and twice tempering at 600°C.

  16. Ostrich eggshell as calcium source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. M. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, hydroxyapatite and Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized using ostrich eggshell as a calcium source. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun, and X-ray diffraction (XRD to identify the present phases, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative chemical analysis of the synthesized and heat treated powders. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was used before and after heat treatments at 700, 900 and 1100 °C in order to identify the functional groups present, as an additional technique to the XRD analysis. The results presented in this study represent a promising method for synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc, since the results showed no undesirable phases or impurities in the produced powders. It was observed that Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite showed higher thermal stability, when compared to pure hydroxyapatite.

  17. Kinetics and mechanism of the low-temperature yttrium-aluminium garnet synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivakin, Yu.D.; Danchevskaya, M.N.; Yanchenko, P.A.; Murav'eva, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    Kinetics and formation mechanism of finely crystalline yttrium-aluminium garnet (YAG) during hydrothermal and hot steam treatment of stoichiometric mixture of oxides in the range of temperature 200-400 Deg C and pressures of 1.5-26 MPa were studied. It is ascertained that formation of YAG occurs via intermediate stage of Y(OH) 3 structure formation, whereas the aluminia component is X-ray amorphous. Kinetics of YAG formation is described by the equation of solid phase transformation with the limiting stage of nucleation. The YAG formed contains 7-5 % of water, which corresponds to hydrogarnet structure. Unit cell parameters of the YAG samples synthesized are somewhat high and after heating up to 1200 Deg C they decrease [ru

  18. Development of a system for rapid discharge of spherical fuel elements as a diversitary afterheat removal system for pebble-bed HTR-type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phlippen, P.W.

    1982-07-01

    Owing to its spherical fuel elements the pebble bed high temperature reactor provides the possibility to remove these fuel elements rapidly from the reactor for the purpose of after-heat removal and cooling in situations of danger and to collect them in easily cooled tanks. The paper investigates and represents fields of problems such as critically behaviour of core and fuel element collecting tanks, emission time of the core, thermodynamics in the vessel etc. by example of the PNP-500 reactor concept. A selection for the construction proposal was made from the performance possibilities of the three necessary main components prestressed-concrete vessel closure, fuel element guide and fuel element storage with cooling system. The proposal includes a prestressed concrete vessel closure opening by hydraulics as well as three annular fuel element storage modules cooled with the containment air by natural convection. (orig.) [de

  19. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  20. Manganese in silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnarsson, M.K.; Hallén, A.

    2012-01-01

    Structural disorder and relocation of implanted Mn in semi-insulating 4H–SiC has been studied. Subsequent heat treatment of Mn implanted samples has been performed in the temperature range 1400–2000 °C. The depth distribution of manganese is recorded by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry has been employed for characterization of crystal disorder. Ocular inspection of color changes of heat-treated samples indicates that a large portion of the damage has been annealed. However, Rutherford backscattering shows that after heat treatment, most disorder from the implantation remains. Less disorder is observed in the [0 0 0 1] channel direction compared to [112 ¯ 3] channel direction. A substantial rearrangement of manganese is observed in the implanted region. No pronounced manganese diffusion deeper into the sample is recorded.

  1. Sensory quality and energy use for scrambled eggs and beef patties heated in institutional microwave and convection ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, M.L.

    1982-05-01

    Scrambled eggs (96 portions) and beef patties (96 portions) were heated in institutional microwave and convection ovens to determine energy use in heating and sensory quality of food. For both products, significantly (P < 0.01) more energy (BTU) was used for heating in the convection than in the microwave oven and respective amounts (BTU) were 28658.7 and 9385.7 for eggs; 31313.3 and 9365.0 for beef patties. All scores for sensory quality were significantly (P < 0.01) higher for eggs heated in the microwave than in the convection, but for beef patties, scores were higher for all characteristics and significantly (P < 0.01) higher for appearance, flavor, and general acceptability after heating in the convection rather than the microwave oven.

  2. Fabrication of polyacrylate core–shell nanoparticles via spray drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pengpeng; Cheng, Zenghui; Chu, Fuxiang; Xu, Yuzhi; Wang, Chunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Fine polyacrylate particles are thought to be environmental plastisols for car industry. However, these particles are mainly dried through demulsification of the latexes, which is not reproducible and hard to be scaled up. In this work, a spray drying method had been applied to the plastisols-used acrylate latex. By adjusting the core/shell ratio, spray drying process of the latex was fully studied. Scanning electronic microscopy observation of the nanoparticles before and after spray drying indicated that the core–shell structures could be well preserved and particles were well separated by spray drying if the shell was thick enough. Otherwise, the particles fused into each other and core–shell structures were destroyed. Polyacrylate plastisols were developed using diisononylphthalate as a plasticizer, and plastigels were obtained after heat treatment of the sols. Results showed that the shell thickness also had a great influence on the storage stability of the plastisols and mechanical properties of the plastigels.Graphical Abstract

  3. LaNi1-xCoxO3-δ (x=0.4 to 0.7) cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells by infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzan, Aleksander; Ovtar, Simona; Chen, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Performance of LaNi1-xCoxO3-δ (LNC) (x=0.4 to 0.7) as a cathode in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is evaluated. Symmetrical cathode/electrolyte/cathode cells for electrochemical testing are prepared by infiltration of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) backbone with LNC solutions. It is showed that the cathode infiltrated with LaNi0.5Co0.5O3-δ (LNC155) has the lowest polarization resistance and activation energy, 197 mΩ cm2 at 600 °C and 0.91 eV, respectively. Therefore it is the most promising material of the LNC group for electrochemical applications. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that none of the materials is single-phased after heat treatment at 800 °C as they contain residues of La2O3 and La2NiO4-δ

  4. Sex peculiarities of radiosensitivity. Communication IV. Action of ionizing radiation on the sexual cycles of mouse and guinea pig females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, L V; Kudryavtseva, A A [AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki

    1975-01-01

    Animals (mice, guinea pigs) were irradiated with doses of 500, 700 and 750 R, while a control group was subjected to mock radiation. In all cases after mock and real irradiation, the sexual cycles of the female mice and guinea pigs were disturbed after 1 to 3 hours (after mock irradiation slightly, and after irradiation doses of 500 and 700 R to a greater extent). The restoration of the cycles of some animals after mock irradiation took place after 2 to 3 days, and of others after 10 to 14 days. After irradiation with doses of 500 to 700 R restoration of the cycles did not occur for two months and longer. Despite the considerable individual differences in the duration of the reaction, the delay was observed in all mice principally in the phase after heat, and in the guinea pigs during the inactive phase.

  5. Sex peculiarities of radiosensitivity. Communication 4. Action of ionizing radiation on the sexual cycles of mouse and guinea pig females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, L.V.; Kudryavtseva, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Animals (mice, guinea pigs) were irradiated with doses of 500, 700 and 750 r, while a control group was subjected to mock radiation. In all cases after mock and real irradiation, the sexual cycles of the female mice and guinea pigs were disturbed after 1-3 hours (after mock irradiation slightly, and after irradiation doses of 500 and 700 r to a greater extent). The restoration of the cycles of some animals after mock irradiation took place after 2 - 3 days, and of others after 10 - 14 days. After irradiation with doses of 500 - 700 r restoration of the cycles did not occur for two months and longer. Despite the considerable individual differences in the duration of the reaction, the delay was observed in all mice principally in the phase after heat, and in the guinea pigs during the inactive phase. (author)

  6. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline graphite from coconut shell with heating process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachid, Frischa M., E-mail: frischamw@yahoo.com, E-mail: adhiyudhaperkasa@yahoo.com, E-mail: afandisar@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurulrosyidah92@gmail.com, E-mail: darminto@physics.its.ac.id; Perkasa, Adhi Y., E-mail: frischamw@yahoo.com, E-mail: adhiyudhaperkasa@yahoo.com, E-mail: afandisar@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurulrosyidah92@gmail.com, E-mail: darminto@physics.its.ac.id; Prasetya, Fandi A., E-mail: frischamw@yahoo.com, E-mail: adhiyudhaperkasa@yahoo.com, E-mail: afandisar@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurulrosyidah92@gmail.com, E-mail: darminto@physics.its.ac.id; Rosyidah, Nurul, E-mail: frischamw@yahoo.com, E-mail: adhiyudhaperkasa@yahoo.com, E-mail: afandisar@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurulrosyidah92@gmail.com, E-mail: darminto@physics.its.ac.id; Darminto, E-mail: frischamw@yahoo.com, E-mail: adhiyudhaperkasa@yahoo.com, E-mail: afandisar@yahoo.com, E-mail: nurulrosyidah92@gmail.com, E-mail: darminto@physics.its.ac.id [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Campus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    Graphite were synthesized and characterized by heating process of coconut shell with varying temperature (400, 800 and 1000°C) and holding time (3 and 5 hours). After heating process, the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and analyzed by X'pert HighScore Plus Software, Scanning Electron Microcope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX) and Transmission Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (TEM-EDX). Graphite and londsdaelite phase were analyzed by XRD. According to EDX analysis, the sample was heated in 1000°C got the highest content of carbon. The amorphous carbon and nanocrystalline graphite were observed by SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX.

  7. Temperature stability of AgCu nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopoušek, Jiří, E-mail: sopousek@mail.muni.cz; Zobač, Ondřej; Vykoukal, Vít [Masaryk University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Czech Republic); Buršík, Jiří; Roupcová, Pavla [Institute of Physics of Materials ASCR (Czech Republic); Brož, Pavel; Pinkas, Jiří [Masaryk University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Czech Republic); Vřešťál, Jan [Masaryk University, Central European Institute of Technology, CEITEC (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    The colloidal solutions of the Ag–Cu nanoparticles (NPs, 10–32 nm) were prepared by solvothermal reactions. The samples of dried AgCu NPs and the resulting microstructures after heat treatment in air were investigated by various methods including electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) and high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction (HTXRD). The AgCu randomly mixed, Cu-rich, and Ag-rich face centred cubic crystal lattices were detected during the experiments. The temperature induced sintering was observed experimentally by HTXRD at 250 °C. The phase transformations at high temperatures were monitored by differential scanning calorimetry. The formation of the Ag-rich grains during heating in air and evolution of copper oxide microstructure were detected.Graphical abstract.

  8. Carbonate loss from two magnesium-substituted carbonated apatites prepared by different synthesis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, S.M.; Rau, J.V.; Fadeeva, I.V.; Cesaro, S. Nunziante; Ferro, D.; Trionfetti, G.; Komlev, V.S.; Bibikov, V.Yu.

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed at the investigation of the thermal stability of Mg-substituted carbonated apatites over the wide temperature range. Two different apatites were studied, which were prepared by either precipitation from aqueous solution or by solid-liquid interaction. The following methods were employed: FTIR spectroscopy of the condensed gas phase to evaluate the CO and CO 2 release with increasing temperature, FTIR of the solid residue after heating, XRD analysis, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Decomposition behavior was shown to depend significantly on the synthesis method. Wet-synthesized powders are significantly less thermally stable compared with those prepared by solid-liquid interaction. Intensive release of carbon oxides from the former was observed at 300 deg. C, whereas the latter powder was relatively stable up to temperature about 1000 deg. C

  9. Microsegregation of heat and homogenization treatments in uranium-niobium alloys (U-Nb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    In the following sections microsegration results in U-3,6 Wt% Nb and U-6,1 Wt% Nb alloys casted in noconsumable electrode arc furnace are presented. The microsegration is studied qualitatively by optical microscopy and quantitatively by electron microprobe. The degree of homogenization has been measured after 800 and 850 0 C heat treatments in tubular resistive furnace. The microstructures after heat treatments are quantitatively analysed to check effects on the casting structures, mainly the variations in solute along the dendrite arm spacing. Some solidification phenomena are then discussed on reference to theorical models of dendritic solidification, including microstructure and microsegregation. The experimental results are compared to theoretical on basis of initial and residual microsegregation after homogenization treatments. The times required for homogenization of the alloys are also discussed in function of the microsegregation from casting structures and the temperatures of the treatments. (author) [pt

  10. Micro segregation and homogenization treatments of uranium-niobium alloys (U-Nb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Jose Fernando

    1988-01-01

    In the following sections micro segregation results in 0-3,6 wt% Nb and U-6,1 wt% Nb alloys casted in no consumable electrode arc furnace are presented. The micro segregation is studied qualitatively by optical microscopy and quantitatively by electron microprobe. The degree of homogenization has been measured after 800 and 850 deg C heat treatments in tubular resistive furnace. The microstructures after heat treatments are quantitatively analysed to check effects on the casting structures, mainly the variations in solute along the dendrite arm spacing. Some solidification phenomena are then discussed on reference to theoretical models of dendritic solidification , including microstructure and micro segregation. The experimental results are compared to theoretical on basis of initial and residual micro segregation after homogenization treatments. The times required for homogenization of the alloys are also discussed in function of the micro segregation from casting structures and the temperatures of the treatments. (author)

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Hydrous Zirconium Oxide Formed by Homogeneous Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva G.L.J.P. da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the preparation, characterization and study of the ion exchange behavior of hydrous zirconium oxides formed by homogeneous precipitation from zirconium oxychloride. The precipitants used were obtained by thermal decomposition of urea, sodium nitrite or ammonium carbonate. Seven compounds were prepared and characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry and by surface area measurements. Amorphous forms were obtained in each case, a result that agrees with those obtained by conventional gel precipitation methodology. All these materials present surface area values of >148 m².g-1, determined after heat treatment at 50 °C. The ion exchange behavior of each hydrous zirconium oxide prepared was studied using K+ as the exchanged species and the results compared with those obtained for hydrous zirconium oxide originally precipitated by the sol gel method.

  12. Influence of the mix parameters and microstructure on the behaviour of concrete at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanema, M.; Noumowe, A.; Gallias, J.-L.; Cabrillac, R.

    2005-01-01

    Concrete is used in structures likely to be exposed to high temperature. Data on the behaviour of concrete at high temperature are necessary to design buildings and other civil engineering structures in order to resist under accidental conditions (fire) or particular conditions of service (storage of radioactive waste). The present experimental study was carried out on the behaviour of five concretes containing the same nature and quantity of aggregates and presenting different water/cement ratios. Concrete specimens were submitted to heating-cooling cycles whose maximum temperatures were 150, 300, 450 and 600 degree C. Measurements of compressive and tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and permeability were carried out on cylindrical specimens before and after heating-cooling cycles. The results showed the influence of concrete mix parameters on the residual properties and the dehydration of the cement paste matrix, the evolution of the permeability and thermal stability of concrete when it is subjected to high temperature. (authors)

  13. Dye-Affinity Nanofibrous Membrane for Adsorption of Lysozyme: Preparation and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Sheng-Shih Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibrous membrane was prepared by an electrospinning technique. After heat treatment and alkaline hydrolysis, the weak ion exchange membrane was grafted with chitosan molecule and then covalently immobilized with a Cibacron Blue F3GA (CB. Fibre diameter, porosity and pore size of the membrane and immobilized dye density were characterized. Furthermore, the membrane was applied to evaluate the binding performance of lysozyme under various operating parameters (pH, chitosan mass per volume ratio, dye concentration, ionic strength and temperature in batch mode. The experimental results were directly applied to purify lysozyme from chicken egg white by membrane chromatography. The results showed that the capture efficiency, recovery yield and purification factor were 90 and 87 %, and 47-fold, respectively, in a single step. The binding capacity remained consistent after five repeated cycles of adsorption-desorption operations. This work demonstrates that the dye-affinity nanofibrous membrane holds great potential for purification of lysozyme from real feedstock.

  14. To the question of peculiarities of thermal activation of natural siliceous raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumachenko Natalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research of activity enhancement of natural siliceous raw material are given in the article. Fossil meal of Khotynetsky deposit, diatomite of Sharlovsky deposit, silica clay of Balasheika deposit were used as natural active mineral admixtures. The influence of heat-treating temperature and dispersion on activity of different types of siliceous raw material is studied. The increase of activity of fixation of Ca(OH2 in several times is traced after heat-treating at a certain temperature in the range from 100 to 800°C. The type of activity change is discovered. Explanation is given connected with the change of silica structure in the surface layer. Parameters of the highest activity are defined for every type of siliceous raw material.

  15. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  16. The long-term effects of a life-prolonging heat treatment on the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome suggest that heat shock proteins extend lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Peter; Loeschcke, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Heat-induced hormesis, i.e. the beneficial effect of mild heat-induced stress, increases the average lifespan of many organisms. This effect, which depends on the heat shock factor, decreases the log mortality rate weeks after the stress has ceased. To identify candidate genes that mediate......-treated flies. Several hsp70 probe sets were up-regulated 1.7–2-fold in the mildly stressed flies weeks after the last heat treatment (P shock protein, Hsp70, is reported to return to normal levels of expression shortly after heat stress. We...... conclude that the heat shock response, and Hsp70 in particular, may be central to the heat-induced increase in the average lifespan in flies that are exposed to mild heat stress early in life....

  17. Reduced heat shock response in human mononuclear cells during aging and its association with polymorphisms in HSP70 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Kølvraa, Steen; Bross, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Age-dependent changes in heat shock response (HSR) were studied in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) collected from young (mean age = 22.6 +/- 1.7 years) and middle-aged (mean age = 56.3 +/- 4.7 years) subjects after 1 hour of heat shock at 42 degrees C. Genotype-specific HSR...... was measured by genotyping the subjects for 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms, HSPA1A(A-110C), HSPA1B(A1267G), and HSPA1L(T2437C), 1 each in the 3 HSP70 genes. A significant age-related decrease in the induction of Hsp70 occurred after heat shock in both monocytes and lymphocytes. The noninducible...

  18. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 µm in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo project in winter 2012. Two high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent and an urban site (North Kensington, London. The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the contribution from different sources is distinctly different between the two sites. The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC; measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have

  19. Radioactive gas solidification apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji; Yabu, Tomohiko; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Handling of a solidification container from the completion for the solidifying processing to the storage of radioactive gases by a remote control equipment such as a manipulator requires a great cost and is difficult to realize. In a radioactive gas solidification device for injection and solidification in accumulated layers of sputtered metals by glow discharge, radiation shieldings are disposed surrounding the entire container, and cooling water is supplied to a cooling vessel formed between the container and the shielding materials. The shielding materials are divided into upper and lower shielding materials, so that solidification container can be taken out from the shielding materials. As a result, the solidification container after the solidification of radioactive gases can be handled with ease. Further, after-heat can be removed effectively from the ion injection electrode upon solidifying treatment upon storage, to attain a radioactive gas solidifying processing apparatus which is safe, economical and highly reliable. (N.H.)

  20. Reactor core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To safely and effectively cool down the reactor core after it has been shut down but is still hot due to after-heat. Constitution: Since the coolant extraction nozzle is situated at a location higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the coolant sprayed from the nozzle, is free from sucking immediately from the extraction nozzle and is therefore used effectively to cool the reactor core. As all the portions from the top to the bottom of the reactor are cooled simultaneously, the efficiency of the reactor cooling process is increased. Since the coolant extraction nozzle can be installed at a point considerably higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the distance from the coolant surface to the point of the coolant extraction nozzle can be made large, preventing cavitation near the coolant extraction nozzle. Therefore, without increasing the capacity of the heat exchanger, the reactor can be cooled down after a shutdown safely and efficiently. (Kawakami, Y.)

  1. A study of the high temperature behavior of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, H.; Zee, R. H.; Gale, W. F.; Yeh, W.

    1997-01-01

    Poco AXF 5Q graphite coupons were heated at temperatures ranging from 1900 K to 2400 K. A loss in weight was observed in all cases, but there appeared to be no simple relationship between the holding temperature and the weight loss observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no change in the surface morphology of the samples before and after heating, indicating that the loss of material occurred in a uniform, rather than a localized, fashion. The weight loss per hour, for pre-dried graphite coupons, was in most cases higher with short holding times than for prolonged exposure. Thus, it would appear that the observed weight changes were dominated in most cases by the removal of volatiles rather than by the evaporation of carbon

  2. Method of fabricating a poision tube for reactor control rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Yasuhiko; Yoshida, Toshimi; Masaoka, Isao; Naruse, Akisuke

    1983-04-28

    A method to unify the neutron absorbing performance, enhance the workability in the insertion of neutron absorber tube and further decrease the stresses acting on the neutron absorber coating tube is described. The neutron absorber coated rod comprising neutron absorbing substance and a metal pipe is fabricated by compressing a metal pipe filled with the neutron absorber. Specifically, neutron absorbing substance such as boron carbide powder or the like is filled in a metal pipe such as made of stainless steel tube by way of vibration packing or the like. Then, after heating the metal pipe, it is applied with compression working such as swaging into a fine tube to increase the packing density of the absorbing substance filled in the pipe to greater than 60% of the theoretical density and completely contacted closely to the inner wall of the pipe. The neutron absorber coated rod thus fabricated can be inserted to an external coating tube with ease at a predetermined gap.

  3. Heat resistance and local structure of FeCl2-absorbed crosslinked poly(γ-glutamic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, T.; Kamezawa, H.; Hara, T.; Matsumoto, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Fiber of Japanese food natto (Bacillus subtilis) is known to be superabsorbent poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA). NaCl particles precipitate in FeCl 2 -absorbed crosslinked PGA when heated at crystallization temperature of 320 deg C for 10 to 60 min. After heat treatment the Moessbauer spectrum of FeCl 2 -crosslinked PGA consists of a quadrupole doublet due to FeCl 2 x 2H 2 O. The Moessbauer spectrum of anhydrous FeCl 2 reagent heated under the same condition shows an intense sextet due to α-Fe 2 O 3 . These results prove that the superabsorbent polymer, crosslinked PGA, has higher heat resistance. (author)

  4. TEM analysis of fine sulphides dissolution and precipitation in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbarz, B.; Marcisz, J.; Wojtas, J.

    2003-01-01

    Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of morphology, size distribution and chemistry of nano-inclusions formed in 4 mm thick laboratory steel ingots in as-cast condition and after heat treatment are reported. The investigated steel contained 0.11-0.14 C, 0.6 Mn, 0.25 Si, 0.22 Cu, 0.025-0.037 S (wt.%), and 80-115 ppm O and solidified at an average cooling rate of 250 K s -1 . In the as-cast specimens most nano-inclusions had a diameter in the range 10-100 nm with an average size of 30 nm. They were identified by microanalysis in thin foils as sulphides: MnS, (Mn,Cu)S, CuS and Cu 2 S. After a solution treatment of the thin ingots the re-precipitation of nano-sulphides was investigated

  5. Synthesis and characterization of laminated Si/SiC composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma M. Naga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated Si/SiC ceramics were synthesized from porous preforms of biogenous carbon impregnated with Si slurry at a temperature of 1500 °C for 2 h. Due to the capillarity infiltration with Si, both intrinsic micro- and macrostructure in the carbon preform were retained within the final ceramics. The SEM micrographs indicate that the final material exhibits a distinguished laminar structure with successive Si/SiC layers. The produced composites show weight gain of ≈5% after heat treatment in air at 1300 °C for 50 h. The produced bodies could be used as high temperature gas filters as indicated from the permeability results.

  6. Water quality monitoring device for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Mitsushi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention measures quality of feedwater after heated in a regenerative heat exchanger device of a coolant cleanup system in a BWR type reactor, to detect ions generated from organic materials decomposed at high temperature and specify the position where impurities are formed. Namely, in a power plant having a reactor coolant cleanup pipeline connected to a feedwater pipeline, a water quality measuring portion is disposed to the feedwater system at the downstream of the junction to the feedwater system pipeline. A water quality sample is taken to measure the water quality in a state where the feedwater heated by a feedwater heater and flowing to the reactor, and the cleanup coolants heated by the regenerative heat exchanger are mixed. Thus, the impurities formed at the down stream of the feedwater system pipeline, as well as the water quality including impurities decomposed in a high temperature state can be measured. (I.S.)

  7. SiO2 sol-gel films after ammonia and heat two-step treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunlai; Wang Biyi; Tian Dongbin; Yin Wei; Jiang Xiaodong; Yuan Xiaodong; Yan Lianghong; Zhang Hongliang; Zhao Songnan; Lv Haibing

    2008-01-01

    SiO 2 thin films were deposited using tetraethoxylsilane as precursor, ammonia as catalyst on K9 glass by sol-gel method. These films were post-treated by ammonia and heat. The properties of the coatings were characterized by ellipsometer, UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR-spectroscopy, scanning probe microscope and contact angle measurement apparatus. The resuits indicate that the thickness of the films with ammonia and heat treatment tend to decrease. Both the refractive index and water contact angle increase after ammonia treatment. However, they both decrease after heat treatment. The former increases by 0.236 for the first step, then decreases by 0.202 for the second. The latter increases to 58.92 degree, then decreases to 38.07 degree. The transmittance of the coatings turn to be better and continuously shift to short wave by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The surface becomes smoother by AFM after the two-step treatment. (authors)

  8. Conductivity of oriented bis-azo polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apitz, D.; Bertram, R.P.; Benter, N.

    2006-01-01

    The conductivity properties of electro-optic photoaddressable, dense bis-ozo chromophore polymer films are investigated by using samples corona poled at various temperatures. A dielectric spectrometer is applied to measure the frequency dependence of the conductivity at different temperatures...... before and after heating the material to above the glass transition temperature. The results show that the orientation of the chromophores changes the charge-carrier mobility. Ionic conductivity dominates in a more disordered configuration of the material, while the competing process of hole hopping...... takes over as a transition to a liquid-crystalline phase occurs when the material is heated to much higher than the gloss transition temperature. Such micro-crystallization strongly enhances the conductivity....

  9. Niobium phosphates as an intermediate temperature proton conducting electrolyte for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Annemette Hindhede

    2012-01-01

    A new proton conductor based on niobium phosphates was synthesized using niobium pentoxide and phosphoric acid as precursors. The existence of hydroxyl groups in the phosphates was confirmed and found to be preserved after heat treatment at 500 °C or higher, contributing to an anhydrous proton co...... are of high interest as potential proton conducting electrolytes for fuel cells operational in an intermediate temperature range....... conductivity of 1.6 × 10−2 S cm−1 at 250 °C. The conductivity increased with water content in the atmosphere and reached 5.8 × 10−2 S cm−1 under pure water vapour at the same temperature. The conductivity showed good stability in the low water partial pressure range of up to 0.05 atm. The metal phosphates...

  10. Research on Extruded Products of Mgalzn Alloys – Microstructure and Mechanical Properties / Badania Wyrobów Wyciskanych Ze Stopów Mgalzn – Mikrostruktura I Właściwości Mechaniczne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płonka B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test and assess products extruded from the magnesium alloys type MgAlZn: AZ31, AZ61 and AZ80A alloys in the form of Ø35mm round bars and 80x15mm flat bars. The test material was extruded in a direct system with the ram feed speed of 1 mm/s and the extrusion ratio λ = 7 ÷ 9. The extruded bars were examined in as-extruded state and after heat treatment to the T5 temper and T6 temper. The strength properties were tested and microstructure was examined with calculation of the average grain size.

  11. Porcelain tiles using nepheline as alternative source of alkalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, C.M. da; Oliveira, D.C. de; Faustino, L.M.; Maestrelli, S.C.; Roveri, C.D.

    2016-01-01

    Porcelain tiles present good aesthetical properties, low water absorption and high mechanical and chemical attack resistance. The feldspar, one of its raw materials, is responsible form diminishing porosity and enhance mechanical resistance. It is normally imported, making the production more expensive. In this paper, it was studied the substitution of feldspar by nepheline under the rheological point of view, determining the optimum amount of deffloculant and the maximum concentration of solids of the suspensions. The results showed similar rheological behaviour, with a small reduction on the maximum concentration of solids as the proportion of nepheline increases. The pieces made with nepheline are darker than the ones made of feldspar; however, the magnetic separation results in lighter pieces. The formulations with nepheline as alkalis source presented a high increase of the density after heating. (author)

  12. Incorporation of feasibility study of residue thin kaolin in of porcelain formulations production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, V.S. de; Ferreira, E.C.; Oliveira, T.M. de; Freitas, K.D. de Araujo; Soares Filho, J.E.; Sousa, F.J.P. de

    2016-01-01

    The porcelain is the more advanced product among traditional ceramics due to the high technology used in its manufacture and its excellent technological and aesthetic properties. Due to the continuing worldwide development, kaolin processing industries have increased their productivity and consequently generating large amounts of waste, contributing to environmental degradation. Studies are being conducted to analyze the incorporation of such wastes in the ceramic mass compositions. The objective of this study was to evaluate 4 formulations of porcelain as the possibility of using waste coming from the last stage of kaolin processing. Processing occurred by wet grinding process, with uniaxial compacting pressure of 45 MPa after heat treatment at 1250 ° C. Technological tests were carried out physical and mechanical product. The results showed that the addition of fine kaolin residue was presented as an efficient alternative for the porcelain industry. (author)

  13. Secondary electron measurement and XPS characterization of NEG coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R. K.; Sinha, Atul K.; Gupta, Nidhi; Nuwad, J.; Jagannath,; Gadkari, S. C.; Singh, M. R.; Gupta, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Ternary alloy coatings of IVB and VB materials provide many of benefits over traditional material surfaces such as creation of extreme high vacuum(XHV), lower secondary electron yield(SEY), low photon desorption coefficient. XHV (pressure −10 mbar) is very useful to the study of surfaces of the material in as it is form, high energy particle accelerators(LHC, Photon Factories), synchrotrons (ESRF, Ellectra) etc.. Low secondary electron yield leads to very low multi-pacting utilizes to increase beam life time. In this paper preparation of the coatings and a study of secondary electron yield measurement after heating at different temperatures has been shown also results of their surface characterization based on shift in binding energy has been produced using the surface techniques XPS. Stoichiometry of the film was measured by Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX)

  14. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline graphite from coconut shell with heating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachid, Frischa M.; Perkasa, Adhi Y.; Prasetya, Fandi A.; Rosyidah, Nurul; Darminto

    2014-01-01

    Graphite were synthesized and characterized by heating process of coconut shell with varying temperature (400, 800 and 1000°C) and holding time (3 and 5 hours). After heating process, the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and analyzed by X'pert HighScore Plus Software, Scanning Electron Microcope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX) and Transmission Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (TEM-EDX). Graphite and londsdaelite phase were analyzed by XRD. According to EDX analysis, the sample was heated in 1000°C got the highest content of carbon. The amorphous carbon and nanocrystalline graphite were observed by SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX

  15. Purification, characterisation and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of LipG7 an enantioselective, cold-adapted lipase from the Antarctic filamentous fungus Geomyces sp. P7 with unusual thermostability characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczak, Tomasz; Daroch, Maurycy; Wilkinson, Mark Charles; Białkowska, Aneta; Bates, Andrew Derek; Turkiewicz, Marianna; Iwanejko, Lesley Ann

    2013-06-10

    A lipase, LipG7, has been purified from the Antarctic filamentous fungus Geomyces sp. P7 which was found to be cold-adapted and able to retain/regain its activity after heat denaturation. The LipG7 exhibits 100% residual activity following 1h incubation at 100°C whilst simultaneously showing kinetic adaptations to cold temperatures. LipG7 was also found to have industrial potential as an enantioselective biocatalyst as it is able to effectively catalyse the enantioselective transesterification of a secondary alcohol. The LipG7 coding sequence has been identified and cloned using 454 pyrosequencing of the transcriptome and inverse PCR. The LipG7 protein has been heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ5465 and shown to exhibit the same characteristics as the native protein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of the H2O/TEOS ratio on the structure of gels derived by the acid catalysed hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strawbridge, I.; James, P.F.; Craievich, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Silica gels were produced by the acid catalysed hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) using H 2 O/TEOS ratios from 2 to 50. After heat treatment the structure of the gels was studied using nitrogen adsorption, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and bulk density measurements. All the gels possessed microporosity in the region of 30 A or less. For H 2 O/TEOS = 25 and 50 the matrix density was found to be uniform, but for gels from solutions with H 2 O/TEOS = 2, 4 and 10, density fluctuations in the matrix were detected from a Porod analysis of the SAXS data. These results indicate that in high water content solutions, rearrangement of the polymeric chains leads to small densified particles, but for lower water content solutions, gelation results from the entanglement of linear chains leaving free volume on a molecular scale between the chains. (Author) [pt

  17. Characterization and study of the behavior of wire Ti-Ni with shape memory effect enables manufacture of actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E.A.C.; Araujo Filho, O.O. de; Urtiga Filho, S.L.; Gonzalez, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to characterize the wire commercial Ti-Ni of 1.27 mm in diameter with shape memory effect for the development of helical springs with the function of sensor / actuator. After heat treatment, the transformation temperatures, the presence of precipitates, the degree of damping, maximum stress of rupture, modulus of elasticity, the presence of phase R, the behavior of the alloy under tension, will be analyzed and compared in each situation. For characterization we used several methods including: heat treatment, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), tensile, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), X-ray diffraction, thermomechanical cycling. The wires were cut into pieces and heat-treated at 400 deg C with variation of time in muffle furnaces and quenching in water at 25 deg C. (author)

  18. Role of orientation of nucleus of crystal during the process of synthesis of fine crystalline oxides at high temperatures and pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasyuk, G P; Belan, V N; Voroshilov, I L; Shabalin, D G [IGIC RAS, N. S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Panasyuk@igic.ras.ru

    2008-07-15

    The structural transformations of hydrargillite Al(OH){sub 3} and boehmite AlOOH were studied on thermovaporous autoclaving and on heat treatment. A special attention was paid to the morphology of initial flocculated and loose hydrargillite crystals, of the again segregating flocculi boehmite intermediate phase, and to the morphology of the end product - corundum single - or polycrystals. It is shown that on thermovaporous autoclaving the intraflocculi orientation of the boehmite crystals is decisive in the corundum single crystals formation. The degree of identity of the boehmite crystals orientation qualifies the sizes of the growing corundum crystals. It is shown, that after heat treatment in air at <1200 deg. C alpha-alumina forms, the habitus of the initial crystals remains unchanged, but at 1400-1500 deg. C in vacuum it alters, and equally oriented alumina grains sinter. Influence of the mutual crystals orientation at different stages of structural transformations is explored. Keywords: autoclaving, hydrargillite, boehmite, corundum.

  19. The influence of external effects on the design and price of structural installations for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, W.; Ramm, W.

    1976-01-01

    In the first part of the paper external effects such as earthquakes, chemical explosions, aircraft crashes, and the stress functions associated therewith are briefly considered. A few examples of global and local effects of an aircraft crash are given in order to illustrate general arrangements. In the second part of the paper the philosophy of objectives to provide protection is briefly discussed (safer shutdown, ensuring after-heat removal, preventing intolerable levels of activity release). From this emerge the layout criteria for the individual buildings of a plant. Factors affecting building arrangement and interaction between buildings are discussed. In conclusion the influence of external effects on the overall structural concept of individual buildings is described. With the aid of selected examples the structural layout required is indicated. (orig.) [de

  20. Palladium and ruthenium supported silver migration in 3C–silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Connell, Jacques Herman; Neethling, Johannes Henoch

    2015-01-01

    Surrogate TRISO particles were infiltrated with a Pd Ag mixture and heat treated at 1000 °C to investigate the effect of Pd on Ag transport through current state of the art TRISO coatings for use in HTGRs. The experiment was repeated with Ru instead of Pd because of the similarities in the reaction between Pd and Ru with SiC. It was found that both Pd and Ru form their respective silicides after heat treatment together with the simultaneous precipitation of graphite. In both cases Ag was concentrated along the leading edge of the reaction zone which itself was concentrated along grain boundaries. However, the effect of Pd was much more pronounced than that of Ru making Ru at most a secondary contributor to Ag migration through SiC in TRISO fuel