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Sample records for africano atelerix albiventris

  1. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris, in Costa Rica Primeiro relato de acariasis por Caparinia tripilis em ouriços Africanos, (Atelerix albiventris, na Costa Rica

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    Andrés Moreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete loss of spines, lethargy, dehydration, and weight loss. During physical exam, deposits of dry seborrhea were taken and processed for diagnosis. Microscopic examination revealed psoroptid mites identified as Caparinia tripilis. This is the first report of the presence of Caparinia tripilis in Costa Rica and, to the authors' knowledge, the rest of Central America. O ouriço africano é um dos animais de estimação exótico, recém-importado que tem sido observado com maior regularidade nas clínicas veterinárias da Costa Rica. Apesar da sua popularidade, informações sobre suas doenças são escassas. Dentre as doenças de pele de ouriços, a sarna causada por Caparinia spp. é um diagnóstico comum nos outros países. Dois adultos ouriços africanos, um macho e uma fêmea, foram levados para uma clínica particular, em Heredia, Costa Rica, com a dermatite pruriginosa crônica, crostas, perda quase completa de espinhos, letargia, desidratação e perda de peso. Ao exame físico, os depósitos de seborreia seca foram retirados e processados para o diagnóstico. O exame microscópico revelou ácaros (psoroptidae identificados como Caparinia tripilis. Esse é o primeiro relato da presença de Caparinia tripilis na Costa Rica e, para conhecimento dos autores, o resto da América Central.

  2. Chylous ascites in a hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Roh, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Cho, Ara; Kim, Min-Su; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2014-12-01

    An African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was diagnosed as chylous ascites with biliary cirrhosis. Abdomenocentesis revealed a milky fluid with a 324 mg/dl triglyceride level. On serum biochemical examination, the hedgehog had hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia, and high blood urea nitrogen. There was no cytologic or genomic evidence of infection, and a blood culture was negative. Histopathologic examination revealed a liver with proliferative bile ducts that were often surrounded by prominent septa of fibrous connective tissue. In the area of ductular reaction, proliferative cells positive for CD66, an embryogenic antigen of epithelial cells, were revealed. The potential association between chylous ascites and liver cirrhosis is undetermined but could be an aspect of future study. This is the first description of chylous ascites in a hedgehog. PMID:25632690

  3. Cardiac assessment of African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Black, Peter A; Marshall, Cecilia; Seyfried, Alice W; Bartin, Anne M

    2011-03-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a common finding in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) at postmortem exam. To date, treatment attempts have been mostly empirical and unrewarding. The objective of this study was to determine reference cardiac values for captive African hedgehogs based on echocardiogram, electrocardiogram (ECG), and radiographs. Adult African hedgehogs with no clinical signs of cardiac disease (n = 13) were selected. Each animal was anesthetized with isoflurane via facemask and an echocardiogram, ECG, and radiographs were performed. Standard measurements were taken and the descriptive statistics performed. Values were comparable to limited data available in other hedgehog species and other similar-sized exotic species. Two animals were removed from consideration of reference values due to valvular defects that were considered significant. These data are the first establishing cardiac parameters in normal African hedgehogs using radiographic cardiac measurement, echocardiogram, and ECG. Evaluating animals with possible cardiomyopathy may allow for earlier diagnosis and more successful treatment. PMID:22946370

  4. Cardiomyopathy in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Raymond, J T; Garner, M M

    2000-09-01

    From 1994 to 1999, 16 captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), from among 42 necropsy cases, were diagnosed with cardiomyopathy. The incidence of cardiomyopathy in this study population was 38%. Fourteen of 16 hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy were males and all hedgehogs were adult (>1 year old). Nine hedgehogs exhibited 1 or more of the following clinical signs before death: heart murmur, lethargy, icterus, moist rales, anorexia, dyspnea, dehydration, and weight loss. The remaining 7 hedgehogs died without premonitory clinical signs. Gross findings were cardiomegaly (6 cases), hepatomegaly (5 cases), pulmonary edema (5 cases), pulmonary congestion (4 cases), hydrothorax (3 cases), pulmonary infarct (1 case), renal infarcts (1 case), ascites (1 case), and 5 cases showed no changes. Histologic lesions were found mainly within the left ventricular myocardium and consisted primarily of myodegeneration, myonecrosis, atrophy, hypertrophy, and disarray of myofibers. All hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy had myocardial fibrosis, myocardial edema, or both. Other common histopathologic findings were acute and chronic passive congestion of the lungs, acute passive congestion of the liver, renal tubular necrosis, vascular thrombosis, splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic lipidosis. This is the first report of cardiomyopathy in African hedgehogs. PMID:11021439

  5. Malignant mast cell tumor in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Raymond, J T; White, M R; Janovitz, E B

    1997-01-01

    In November 1995, a malignant mast cell tumor (mastocytoma) was diagnosed in an adult African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) from a zoological park (West Lafayette, Indiana, USA). The primary mast cell tumor presented as a firm subcutaneous mass along the ventrum of the neck. Metastasis to the right submandibular lymph node occurred. PMID:9027702

  6. Acinic cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Fukuzawa, Kazuhiro; Abe, Hitoshi; Nagai, Toshihiro; Kameyama, Kaori

    2004-01-01

    A male African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), estimated to be 3 years old, presented with exophthalmos and fixed abduction of the right eye. Radiographic examination revealed a retrobulbar tumor in the right orbital cavity. The mass was surgically resected but recurred 3 months later and the hedgehog died. There was no gross or microscopic evidence of salivary or lacrimal gland involvement of the tumor at surgery or at necropsy. The histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings were those of acinic cell carcinoma, the origin of which was unknown. This is the first known case of acinic cell carcinoma in an African hedgehog. PMID:15048626

  7. Reproductive characteristics of the african pygmy hedgehog, atelerix albiventris.

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    Bedford, J M; Mock, O B; Nagdas, S K; Winfrey, V P; Olson, G E

    2000-09-01

    To obtain further perspective on reproduction and particularly gamete function among so-called primitive mammals presently grouped in the Order Insectivora, we have examined the African hedgehog, Atelerix albiventris, in light of unusual features reported in shrews and moles. Atelerix proves to share many but not all of the characteristics seen in these other insectivores. The penis of Atelerix has a 'snail-like' form, but lacks the surface spines common in insectivores and a number of other mammals. Hedgehog spermatozoa display an eccentric insertion of the tail on the sperm head, and they manifest the barbs on the perforatorium that, in shrews, probably effect the initial binding of the sperm head to the zona pellucida. As a possible correlate, the structural matrix of the hedgehog acrosome comprises only two main components, as judged by immunoblotting, rather than the complex of peptides seen in the matrix of some higher mammals. The Fallopian tube of Atelerix is relatively simple; it displays only minor differences in width and in the arborized epithelium between the isthmus and ampulla, and shows no evidence of the unusual sperm crypts that characterize the isthmus or ampulla, depending on the species, in shrews and moles. In common with other insectivores, Atelerix appears to be an induced ovulator, as judged by the ovulation of some 6-8 eggs by about 23 h after injection of hCG. The dense cumulus oophorus appeared to have little matrix, in keeping with the modest dimensions of the tubal ampulla and, while it was not quite as discrete as that of soricids, it did show the same insensitivity to 0.5% (w/v) ovine or bovine hyaluronidase. PMID:11006156

  8. Recurrent sebaceous carcinoma in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Yong-Baek; Park, Jun-Won; Oh, Won-Seok; Kim, Eun-Ok; Lim, Byoung-Yong; Kim, Dae-Yong

    2010-07-01

    A 1.5-year-old intact male African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was presented with a firm, non-movable subcutaneous mass on ventral chest area. Microscopically, the tumor was un-encapsulated, invasive up to the muscle layer, and composed of highly pleomorphic polygonal cells arranged in variably-sized lobules. The neoplastic cells had abundant cytoplasm with vacuolation and a large pleomorphic nucleus with prominent nucleoli. Mitotic figures were frequently observed with atypical mitoses. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for cytokeratin, but negative for vimentin. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma was made. Three months after the surgery, a recurrent mass was found at the surgical site. On necropsy, the mass has penetrated the underlying intercostal musculature, without metastasis to distant organs. This is the first report of a sebaceous carcinoma in an African hedgehog. PMID:20215722

  9. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Wolff, Carlos; Corradini, Paulina; Cortés, Galaxia

    2005-06-01

    A 6-mo-old, male African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) presented with a history of pink urine and demonstrating pink-colored teeth and mild hepatomegaly on examination. Urinalysis revealed no physical, chemical, or cellular abnormalities other than a pink color and fluorescence under ultraviolet light (UV). Also under UV, intense fluorescence of teeth, feet, and spines was noted. Porphyria was suspected. Spectrophotometric evaluation of urine showed extremely elevated levels of copro- and uroporphyrins. Analysis of the urine by thin-layer chromatography showed an abnormal pattern of excreted porphyrin intermediates. Urine high-performance thin-layer chromatography showed that excreted porphyrins were 90-95% of the type-I isomeric form, suggestive of congenital erythropoietic porphyria. PMID:17323578

  10. Rib osteoblastic osteosarcoma in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile; D'Anjou, Marc-André; Girard, Christiane; Langlois, Isabelle

    2006-07-01

    A 3-year-old African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was presented to the Exotic Animal Clinic of the University of Montreal for evaluation of a mass growing on the right thoracic wall. The diagnostic workup, which included helical computed tomography, confirmed the presence of a large mass, originating from the right 7th rib, infiltrating the thoracic wall and cavity. The animal was euthanized due to the poor prognosis. At necropsy, a well-demarcated mass penetrated the thoracic wall and incorporated the 6th to 8th ribs. Cut sections of the tumor were white, glistening, firm, and gritty. Microscopically, it was composed of polyhedral to elongated cells with interspersed trabeculae of osteoid and large areas of coagulative necrosis. On the basis of histopathologic findings, a diagnosis of osteoblastic osteosarcoma was made. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of an osteoblastic osteosarcoma on the thoracic wall of an African hedgehog, as well as the first report of the use of helical computed tomography in that species. PMID:16921888

  11. Use of permethrin as a miticide in the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Staley, E C; Staley, E E; Behr, M J

    1994-04-01

    The African hedgehog, Atelerix albiventris (also known as Erinaceous albiventris; 1,2) has recently undergone an increase in popularity as an exotic pet. This popularity (Beatrix Potter not withstanding) is due in part to the small size of the African hedgehog (adults are 4-6 in in length, weighing approximately 1 lb), its lack of hibernation or aestivation if reared under controlled light and temperature, and its general good nature and accommodation to handling. PMID:8197715

  12. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Couture, Émilie L; Langlois, Isabelle; Santamaria-Bouvier, Ariane; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile

    2015-12-01

    A cutaneous mass was surgically excised in a 4-year-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). A squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination and local recurrence following excision is strongly suspected. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first well-documented report of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in this species. PMID:26663924

  13. Abnormal hematologic findings in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) with gastrointestinal lymphosarcoma.

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    Helmer, P J

    2000-06-01

    A 4-year-old African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was examined for weight loss and hematochezia, and was subsequently diagnosed with gastrointestinal lymphosarcoma. Abnormal hematological findings included marked leukocytosis with lymphocytosis and atypical circulating lymphocytes. This report represents the first documentation of hemogram abnormalities associated with gastrointestinal lymphosarcoma in this species. PMID:10857034

  14. Abnormal hematologic findings in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) with gastrointestinal lymphosarcoma.

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    Helmer, P J

    2000-01-01

    A 4-year-old African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was examined for weight loss and hematochezia, and was subsequently diagnosed with gastrointestinal lymphosarcoma. Abnormal hematological findings included marked leukocytosis with lymphocytosis and atypical circulating lymphocytes. This report represents the first documentation of hemogram abnormalities associated with gastrointestinal lymphosarcoma in this species.

  15. Necropsy and histopathologic findings in 14 African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris): a retrospective study.

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    Raymond, J T; White, M R

    1999-06-01

    From fiscal years 1992 through 1996, 14 African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) cases were submitted to the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory at Purdue University. The most common diagnoses were splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis (91%), hepatic lipidosis (50%), renal disease (50%), and neoplastic disease (29%). Other less frequent necropsy findings were myocarditis (21%), colitis (14%), bacterial septicemia (14%), and pneumonia (14%). The data indicate that splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis, hepatic lipidosis, renal disease, and neoplasms are frequent postmortem findings in hedgehogs. PMID:10484145

  16. An Outbreak of Caparinia tripilis in a Colony of African Pygmy Hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) from Korea

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    Kim, Da-Hee; Oh, Dae-Sung; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2012-01-01

    In February 2010, dermatitis characterized by scale and self-trauma due to puritis was recognized in a group of 22 four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris Wagner, 1841) from a local pet shop in Gwangju, Korea. Microscopic examinations of skin scraping samples showed numerous mites of all developmental stages. Morphologically, pedicels of adult mites were short and unjointed. Tarsal caruncles were bell-shaped on all legs of males while they were absent on legs III and IV of females. Three lo...

  17. Surgical resection of peripheral odontogenic fibromas in African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris): a case study

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    Wozniak-Biel, Anna; Janeczek, Maciej; Janus, Izabela; Nowak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Background Neoplastic lesions of the mammary gland, lymph nodes, or oral cavity in African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) are common in captive animals. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy protocols have not yet been established for the African pygmy hedgehog. Thus, surgical resection is the current treatment of choice in this species. Case presentation A 5-year-old male African pygmy hedgehog showed multiple erythematous, round small tumors located in the oral cavity, on both sides of maxi...

  18. Spontaneous proliferative lesions and tumors of the uterus of captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Mikaelian, Igor; Reavill, Drury R; Practice, Avian

    2004-06-01

    Fifteen captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), 3- to 5-yr-old, were diagnosed with proliferative uterine lesions (n = 28). Lesions were associated with vaginal bleeding in all cases, hematuria in 11 of 13 cases, and weight loss in 7 of 12 cases. Lesions were multiple in eight cases and single in seven cases. The lesions identified were 13 adenosarcomas, 7 endometrial stromal sarcomas, 6 endometrial polyps, 1 adenoleiomyosarcoma, and 1 adenoleiomyoma. In one animal with adenosarcoma, peritoneal seeding was detected at the time of hysterectomy. Mean survival time was 303 days (n = 10). Ovariohysterectomy allows prolonged survival of hedgehogs with uterine tumors. PMID:15305518

  19. Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumour (Carcinoid) of the Spleen in an African Pygmy Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Lowden, L R; Davies, J L

    2016-07-01

    A malignant neuroendocrine tumour (carcinoid) of the spleen was diagnosed on post-mortem examination of a 3-year-old, male African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). The animal presented with a history of inappetence, weight loss, lethargy, a wide-based gait and a palpable abdominal mass. The gross pathological, histopathological, histochemical and immunohistochemical findings are described. Primary splenic carcinoids are reported rarely in the human medical literature and this is believed to be the first report in a non-human animal. PMID:27212029

  20. Unilateral proptosis and orbital cellulitis in eight African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Wheler, C L; Grahn, B H; Pocknell, A M

    2001-06-01

    Eight African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) were presented with unilateral proptosis. Six animals presented specifically for an ocular problem, whereas two had concurrent neurologic disease. Enucleation and light microscopic examination of tissues was performed in five animals, and euthanasia followed by complete postmortem examination was performed in three animals. Histopathologic findings in all hedgehogs included orbital cellulitis, panophthalmitis, and corneal ulceration, with perforation in seven of eight eyes. The etiology of the orbital cellulitis was not determined, but it appeared to precede proptosis. Orbits in hedgehogs are shallow and the palpebral fissures are large, which may predispose them to proptosis, similar to brachycephalic dogs. This clinical presentation was seen in 15% (8/54) of African hedgehogs presented to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine over a 2-yr period from January 1995 to December 1996 and warrants further investigation. PMID:12790427

  1. Thyroid c-cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Miller, Debra L; Styer, Eloise L; Stobaeus, Janeen K; Norton, Terry M

    2002-12-01

    A 3-yr-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was submitted with dysphagia, weight loss, and tetraparesis. A palpable mass was found on the ventral neck. Histologic examination revealed replacement of the thyroid gland by a highly cellular, expansile, and infiltrative mass composed of lobules of polygonal cells separated by fine fibrovascular septa. Examination of ultrathin sections revealed tumor cells with few to many dense-core neuroendocrine granules, approximately 100-200 nm in diameter, and stromal amyloid. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for neuron-specific enolase. Only rare cells had positive immunohistochemical staining for calcitonin. Findings are consistent with a neuroendocrine tumor of C-cell origin. This is the first report of a C-cell carcinoma in a hedgehog. PMID:12564541

  2. Mixed Glioma (Oligoastrocytoma) in the brain of an African Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Benneter, S S; Summers, B A; Schulz-Schaeffer, W J; Härtig, W; Mollidor, J; Schöniger, S

    2014-11-01

    This report describes an oligoastrocytoma in the brain of a 3.5-year-old female pet African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) that showed progressive central nervous system signs for 6 months. Microscopical examination of the brain revealed a widely infiltrative, deep-seated glioma within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, basal nuclei, hippocampus, thalamus, midbrain, pons and the medulla of the cerebellum with extension of neoplastic cells into the cerebral cortex and overlying leptomeninges. Morphological features of the neoplastic cells, together with variable immunohistochemical expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, Olig-2 and Nogo-A, indicated the presence of intermingled astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumour cells with an astrocytic component of approximately 40% consistent with an oligoastrocytoma. The distribution of the tumour is consistent with gliomatosis cerebri. PMID:25172052

  3. An outbreak of Caparinia tripilis in a colony of African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) from Korea.

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    Kim, Da-Hee; Oh, Dae-Sung; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2012-06-01

    In February 2010, dermatitis characterized by scale and self-trauma due to puritis was recognized in a group of 22 four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris Wagner, 1841) from a local pet shop in Gwangju, Korea. Microscopic examinations of skin scraping samples showed numerous mites of all developmental stages. Morphologically, pedicels of adult mites were short and unjointed. Tarsal caruncles were bell-shaped on all legs of males while they were absent on legs III and IV of females. Three long setae on the third pair of legs in both sexes were present. Adult males had posterior end of the abdomen with trilobate projection on each side, each lobe with a long seta. Based on these features, the mites were identified as Caparinia tripilis. This is the first report of caparinic mite infestation in hedgehogs from Korea. Identification keys for the family Psoroptidae and the genus Caparinia are provided. PMID:22711928

  4. Morphometrics of foramen magnum in African four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Girgiri, I; Olopade, J O; Yahaya, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the morphometry of the foramen magnum of African four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) in Maiduguri. Fourteen hedgehog skulls (7 male and 7 female each) were used for this study. The overall mean value of foramen magnum height and width were 0.51 ± 0.05 cm and 0.64 ± 0.04 cm while occipital condylar and interparacondylar widths were 1.00 ± 0.12 cm and 1.62 ± 0.07 cm, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two sexes. The foramen magnum index was 83.4 ± 5.51 cm in males and was significantly higher than 76.3 ± 6.37 cm observed in females. The presences of dorsal notches (occipital dysplasia) were observed, that were of three distinct types. It is envisaged, that the study will provide a valuable database on the anatomy of foramen magnum of hedgehogs in Nigeria for morphological, neurological, zooarchaeological, and comparative anatomical studies. PMID:26050805

  5. A different kind of hedgehog pathway: tinea manus due to Trichophyton erinacei transmitted by an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Weishaupt, Julia; Kolb-Mäurer, Annette; Lempert, Sigrid; Nenoff, Pietro; Uhrlaß, Silke; Hamm, Henning; Goebeler, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    The unusual case of a 29-year-old woman with tinea manus caused by infection due to Trichophyton erinacei is described. The patient presented with marked erosive inflammation of the entire fifth finger of her right hand. Mycological and genomic diagnostics resulted in identification of T. erinacei as the responsible pathogen, which had been transmitted by a domestic African pygmy hedgehog, Atelerix albiventris. Upon prolonged treatment with topical and systemic antifungal agents skin lesions slowly resolved. This case illustrates that the increasingly popular keeping of extraordinary pets such as hedgehogs may bear the risk of infections with uncommon dermatophytes. PMID:23889168

  6. Organization of sensory cortex in the East African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Catania, K C; Collins, C E; Kaas, J H

    2000-05-29

    We investigated the organization of neocortex in the East African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) with microelectrode recordings from sensory areas that were later correlated with cytochrome oxidase patterns in sections of flattened cortex. The location of corticospinal projecting neurons was also examined and related to sensory areas by making small injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase into the spinal cord. Our goals were to determine how hedgehog cortex is organized, how much sensory areas overlap, and to compare results with recent findings in other insectivores. Evidence was found for three separate topographically organized somatosensory areas, two visual areas, and a caudolateral auditory area. A medial somatosensory area corresponded to S1, the primary somatosensory area, whereas two lateral areas partially encircled auditory cortex and corresponded to the parietal ventral area (PV) and the secondary somatosensory area (S2). Primary visual cortex (V1) was delineated by a caudomedial cytochrome oxidase dark oval, and a more lateral visual area between V1 and somatosensory cortex corresponded to V2, or area 18. Two patches of corticospinal projecting cells were found primarily overlapping S1 and S2. Some bimodal auditory and somatosensory responses were found in parts of PV and S2, but for the most part, areas had relatively sharp histochemically apparent and physiologically defined borders. The present results indicate that the caudal neocortex of hedgehogs has only a few sensory areas, corresponding to those commonly found in several other small-brained mammals. Hedgehog cortical organization differs significantly in somatotopy, number, and position of fields from that of closely related shrews and moles. Thus, clear specializations occur, even within the order Insectivora. PMID:10813786

  7. The karyotype of the middle-African hedgehog Atelerix albiventris Wagner, 1841 and its cytotaxonomical relationships to other Erinaceinae (Insectivora: Erinaceidae).

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    Hübner, R; Maddalena, T; Poduschka, W

    1991-01-01

    Like other hedgehog species investigated hitherto, also the Middle African species Atelerix albiventris has a diploid number of 48 chromosomes. However, Aethechinus and Atelerix display quite distinct cytogenetic characteristics compared to the hedgehog genera Erinaceus, Hemiechinus and Paraechinus. Individual chromosome structures and reactivities permit the recognition of similarities to the Algerian hedgehog Aethechinus algirus and indicate their close relationship. Nevertheless, the proposal by Corbet (1988) to merge the two taxa into one genus, which is contrary to Robbins and Setzer (1985) remains to be clarified by further investigations. PMID:1879689

  8. Efficacy of a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 1% moxidectin against Caparinia tripilis in African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris)

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    Kim Kyu-Rim; Ahn Kyu-Sung; Oh Dae-Sung; Shin Sung-Shik

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The efficacy and safety of a combination formulation of 10% imidacloprid + 1.0% moxidectin spot-on (Advocate® for Cats, Bayer Animal Health GmbH, Leverkusen, Germany) was tested in 40 African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) naturally infested with Caparinia tripilis. Methods The optimal dosage level of the combination for hedgehogs was determined by assigning 20 hedgehogs into three treatment groups (0.1, 0.4 and 1.6 ml/Kg b.w.), and one untreated control group of 5...

  9. Efficacy of a combination of 10% imidacloprid and 1% moxidectin against Caparinia tripilis in African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris

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    Kim Kyu-Rim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy and safety of a combination formulation of 10% imidacloprid + 1.0% moxidectin spot-on (Advocate® for Cats, Bayer Animal Health GmbH, Leverkusen, Germany was tested in 40 African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris naturally infested with Caparinia tripilis. Methods The optimal dosage level of the combination for hedgehogs was determined by assigning 20 hedgehogs into three treatment groups (0.1, 0.4 and 1.6 ml/Kg b.w., and one untreated control group of 5 hedgehogs each. Twenty naturally infested hedgehogs were then randomly assigned to either treatment or control group with 10 animals each, and the number of live mites was counted from 13 body regions on day 0, 3, 9, 16, and 30 after single treatment at the dosage level of 0.1 ml/Kg. Results Before the chemotherapy, the highest density of mite was observed in external ear canals followed by the dorsal and the lowest in the ventral regions of the body surface. The dosage level of 0.1 ml/Kg, which corresponded to the recommended dosage level for cats, containing 10 mg imidacloprid and 1 mg moxidectin was also the optimal dosage level for hedgehogs. No hedgehogs in the treatment group showed live mites from day 3 post treatment. Side effects such as ataxia, depression, nausea, and weight fluctuation were not observed during the whole period of study. Conclusions This report suggests that a combination formulation of 0.1 ml/Kg of 10% imidacloprid + 1% moxidectin spot-on for cats is also useful for the control of Caparinia tripilis infestation in hedgehogs.

  10. Surgical and medical management of a uterine spindle cell tumor in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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    Done, Lisa B; Deem, Sharon L; Fiorello, Christine V

    2007-12-01

    A 5-yr-old female African hedgehog (Ateleris albiventris) presented with hematuria. Vulvar culture results revealed a 4+ growth of Enterococcus sp. and gamma-Streptococcus sp. susceptible to trimethoprim sulfa and enrofloxacin. Ultrasound evaluation of the abdomen revealed an unidentifiable tubular structure in the region of the reproductive tract. An exploratory laparotomy and ovariohysterectomy were performed. Pathologic studies of the uterus showed a uterine spindle cell tumor, uterine endometrial polyp, uterine adenomyosis, and a possible acute infarct resulting in uterine wall necrosis. Hematuria did not reoccur, and the hedgehog lived for another 19 mo until she died from an oral squamous cell carcinoma. To date, this is the first report of a uterine spindle cell tumor in an African hedgehog. PMID:18229871

  11. The epidemiology and mating behavior of Arthroderma benhamiae var. erinacei in household four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Takizawa, Kayoko; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the household hedgehog and other rodents was made between January 17, 2002 and February 28, 2002 in Japan. Quills and hairs were collected from sources identified via the internet. The fungus was isolated only from the quills of four-toed hedgehogs (7/18; 39%) from Kanto to Kyushu regions. Isolates were examined morphologically, physiologically and genetically, and identified as T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph. The isolates were also genetically compared with European hedgehog (Erinaceus europeus)-borne T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei and Kenyan hedgehog (Aterelix albiventris)-borne Arthroderma benhamiae, and their genotypes of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA were all identical. The isolates were crossed with A. benhamiae Americano-European race and African race, A. vanbreuseghemii and A. simii, with the result that they mated only with African race (+) or (-). Mating types of the isolates were (+) in 6 isolates and (-) in one. An intra-isolate mating between one of the 6 plus isolates and the minus one formed abundant mature gymnothesia, the mating type ratio of the F1 progeny was approximately 1:1, and the sib crossings of F1 progeny produced abundant fertile gymnothesia. The present study revealed that the intra-Japanese hedgehog-borne isolate crossing showed complete fertility and that the sexual degeneration pointed out by Takashio (Mycologia 71: 968-976, 1979) did not exist. Two pairs of mating, (+) and (-) mating types of Japanese isolates with (-) and (+) tester strains of A. benhamiae African race formed less gymnothesia, mating type ratios were unbalanced, and sib crossings of F1 progeny produced small gymnothesia containing a low number of asci, pseudogymothesia, or none, respectively. These results show that A. benhamiae var. erinacei, the teleomorph of T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei, belongs to a different mating group (e.g. hedgehog race) than the Americano-European and

  12. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica Primeiro relato de acariasis por Caparinia tripilis em ouriços Africanos, (Atelerix albiventris), na Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Moreira; Adriana Troyo; Olger Calderón-Arguedas

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete ...

  13. Sebaceous gland carcinoma and mammary gland carcinoma in an African hedgehog (Ateletrix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Alonso Reyes; Bernal, Adriana Mendez; Lezama, José Ramírez; Guadalupe, Manzano Pech Linaloe; Antonio, Galicia Avalos Marco

    2014-09-01

    A sebaceous carcinoma was diagnosed, together with a mammary carcinoma, in an adult African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). The first neoplasm was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the neck and extended towards the axillary area of the chest. The second was located in the subcutaneous left caudal abdominal region. The purpose of this paper is to report the histopathologic and ultrastructural features of these neoplasms. Although there is little information about diseases affecting this species, it is known that neoplastic disorders are fairly common in African hedgehogs. The mammary carcinoma is considered to be the most common neoplasm in these animals; however, the presentation of sebaceous carcinoma is rare. In hedgehogs, the simultaneous presence of two neoplasms is common, which is why special attention should be paid to the presentation of other tumors during the early detection of a neoplastic process as this will greatly facilitate the optimal treatment and improve the long-term prognosis of affected animals. PMID:25314843

  14. Spontaneous tumours in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris): a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Garner, M M

    2001-01-01

    Forty tumours were diagnosed in 35 (53%) of 66 captive African hedgehogs documented at Northwest ZooPath (NZP) between 1994 and 1999. Three hedgehogs had more than one type of tumour and the remaining 32 had a single type. Of the 35 hedgehogs with tumours, 14 were female, 11 were male, and 10 were of unknown gender; 21 were from zoological parks and 14 were privately owned. Twenty of the hedgehogs with tumours were adult (>1 year old) with a median age of 3.5 years (range 2-5.5 years); 15, of unreported age, were classified as adult. Thirty-four (85%) of the 40 tumours were classified as malignant and six (15%) as benign. The integumentary, haemolymphatic, digestive and endocrine systems were common sites for tumours. The most common tumours were mammary gland adenocarcinoma, lympho-sarcoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:11222009

  15. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spugnini, Enrico P; Pagotto, Annarita; Zazzera, Francesca; D'Avino, Alfredo; Caruso, Giovanni; Citro, Gennaro; Baldi, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    A three-year-old male African hedgehog was presented for a non healing crusty proliferation on the left pinna. The lesion failed to respond to topical therapy and systemic antibiotic therapy. Whole body radiography and abdominal ultrasonograpy were within normal limits. The lesion was surgically removed. The patient recovered well from the procedure and remained in remission for nine months when he came back as an emergency case and died of an unrelated disease. The histopathology report enabled a diagnosis of completely excised cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. This report represents the first successful treatment of a cutanous T-cell lymphoma in this species and might help to plan future therapies. PMID:18396780

  16. Soft tissue sarcomas in the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris): microscopic and immunohistologic study of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Vara, J A

    2001-09-01

    Three soft tissue tumors from 2 female hedgehogs were examined microscopically and immunohistochemically. Two tumors involved haired skin and the third one was vaginal. Microscopically, the cutaneous tumors had features of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), whereas the vaginal tumor was classified only as a spindle cell sarcoma. Immunohistochemically, all 3 tumors were strongly positive for vimentin and strongly to moderately positive for CD10 and neuron-specific enolase but did not stain with antibody to S100 protein, an antigen typically present in human MPNST The cutaneous tumor from hedgehog no. 1 was examined ultrastructurally and the neoplastic cells resembled fibroblasts. Hedgehog no. 1 was euthanized at the time of the biopsy. The outcome of the other hedgehog was unknown. PMID:11580072

  17. Salivary gland oncocytes in African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) mimicking cytomegalic inclusion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnert, S R; Hensley, G T; Citino, S B; Herron, A J; Altman, N H

    1991-07-01

    The salivary glands from three African hedgehogs contained multiple foci of cytomegalic cells, which occasionally had a mild to moderate infiltrate of lymphocytes at the periphery. The cytomegalic cells were 35 to 40 microns in diameter with abundant acidophilic granular to hyalin cytoplasm. The nuclei were enlarged with clumped marginalized chromatin and a large, (6 to 8 microns in diameter) central, brightly eosinophilic nucleolus that had the appearance of an inclusion body by light microscopy. Histochemically most of the cytomegalic cells contained cytoplasmic metachromatic granules with Feyrter's thionine inclusion stain. Scattered cells at the periphery of the cytomegalic foci contained periodic acid-Schiff-positive cytoplasmic granules. Ultrastructurally the cytomegalic cells contained numerous tightly-packed, often bizarre, enlarged mitochondria that completely filled the cytoplasm. The nucleus consisted of a dense central core of chromatin associated with the nucleolus and the remaining chromatin was clumped and marginalized. Nuclear and cytoplasmic virions consistent with cytomegalovirus were not present. Histochemical stains of the nucleus for heavy metals were negative. The ultrastructural and histochemical findings of the cytomegalic cells were consistent with oncocytes. Previous reports in the literature of similar cells in the salivary glands of insectivores appear to have been erroneously described as cytomegalovirus infections. PMID:1655834

  18. Fatal herpes simplex infection in a pygmy African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, N; Chang, T C; Steele, K E; Hilliard, J K

    2002-01-01

    An adult pygmy African hedgehog developed acute posterior paresis attributed to a prolapsed intervertebral disc diagnosed by C-T scan. Corticosteroid therapy resulted in prompt resolution of the ataxia, but 2 weeks later the animal became anorexic and died. Macroscopically, the liver was stippled with punctate off-white foci which were confirmed microscopically to be foci of necrosis. Numerous hepatocytes contained intranuclear inclusions and syncytial cell formation was also present. A herpes virus was isolated and identified by fluorescent antibody and polymerase chain reaction studies as herpesvirus simplex type 1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of herpes infection in the African hedgehog and the first time herpes simplex has been identified as a cause of disease in insectivores. PMID:11814325

  19. Astrocytoma in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Makoto; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Itou, Takuya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Takeo

    2011-10-01

    A 28-month-old African hedgehog was referred to our hospital with progressive tetraparesis. On the first presentation, the hedgehog was suspected as having wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) and the animal was treated with medication and rehabilitation. The animal died 22 days after onset. Pathological examination revealed that the animal was involved in astrocytoma between the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord (C1). This report indicates that a primary central nervous system tumor should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses for hedgehogs presenting with progressive paresis, together with WHS. PMID:21628867

  20. Multicentric epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Choi, Ul-Soo

    2014-12-01

    A 2-year-old female African hedgehog was presented with a 5-month history of pruritus, and diffuse spine and hair loss. A dermatologic examination revealed erythema, excoriation, scales, and crusting affecting the face, flanks, forelimbs, hindlimbs, and dorsal and ventral abdomen. Fine-needle aspiration was performed and skin biopsies were taken from several lesions for cytologic and histologic evaluation. The aspirates yielded smears characterized by a monomorphic population of medium-sized to large lymphocytes with scant to moderate amounts of clear to moderately basophilic cytoplasm and distinct nucleoli along with a low number of cytoplasmic fragments. On histopathologic examination, there were dense dermal lymphoid infiltrates invading the dermis and a monomorphic population of round cells that had infiltrated the overlying epidermis. Epitheliotropic cutaneous lymphoma was diagnosed based on morphologic features. Additional immunochemical analysis using anti-CD3 and anti-CD79a antibodies revealed strong CD3 expression by the tumor cells, which confirmed epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. This is the first description of a multicentric pattern of epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in an African hedgehog. PMID:25204556

  1. Feeding behavior and nutrition of the african pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2009-05-01

    Despite their wide global distribution and popularity as pets, little is known concerning specific nutritional requirements of hedgehogs. They inhabit a wide variety of environments from desert to temperate forest, and they display flexible and opportunistic feeding behaviors. Natural diets include invertebrate and vertebrate prey, carrion, and plant material. Hedgehogs have enzymatic ability to digest chitin from insect exoskeletons as a dietary fiber source, but they do not seem to digest cellulose efficiently. Captive diets based on nutritionally balanced commercially available products containing moderate levels of protein (30%-50%, dry basis) and fat (10%-20%) are suitable for the omnivorous hedgehog. PMID:19341959

  2. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Andrés; Troyo, Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete loss of spines, lethargy, dehydration, and weight loss. During physical exam, deposits of dry seborrhea were taken and processed for diagnosis. Microscopic examination revealed psoroptid mites identified as Caparinia tripilis. This is the first report of the presence of Caparinia tripilis in Costa Rica and, to the authors' knowledge, the rest of Central America. PMID:24252963

  3. Anaplastic astrocytoma in the spinal cord of an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C J; Parry, N M A; Jakowski, R M; Eshar, D

    2008-11-01

    A 2-year-old, female hedgehog presented with an 8-month history of progressive, ascending paresis/paralysis and was tentatively diagnosed with wobbly hedgehog syndrome. She died awaiting further diagnostic tests, and the owners consented to postmortem examination. Grossly, the bladder was large and flaccid and the cervical and lumbar spinal cord were regionally enlarged, light grey, and friable with multifocal hemorrhages. The thoracic spinal cord was grossly normal. Microscopically all regions of the spinal cord had similar changes, although the cervical and lumbar sections were most severely affected. These regions were completely effaced by a moderately cellular infiltration of highly pleomorphic polygonal to spindle shaped cells, mineralization, and necrosis, which were most consistent with anaplastic astrocytoma. The thoracic spinal cord white matter was similarly infiltrated by the neoplastic cells, with perivascular extension into the otherwise normal grey matter. A diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma was confirmed using immunohistochemical stains that were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100. PMID:18984799

  4. Quatro prisioneiros africanos nos Açores

    OpenAIRE

    Vilhena, Maria da Conceição

    1995-01-01

    "No dia 27 de Junho de 1896, pela uma e meia da tarde, a canhoneira Zambeze fundeava em frente de Angra do Heroísmo. O Cais da Alfândega estava apinhado de gente e muitas centenas de pessoas circulavam pelas ruas, em desusada euforia. É que, a bordo, vinham quatro prisioneiros africanos. Tinham sido capturados no sul de Moçambique, em Dezembro do ano anterior, e já haviam passado três meses no forte de Monsanto. Curioso, o povo esperava impaciente. [...]"

  5. Ontogenia craneofacial en europeos y africanos subsaharianos

    OpenAIRE

    Sardi, Marina Laura

    2009-01-01

    Las poblaciones humanas se diferencian por numerosos rasgos de su morfología craneofacial. Es aceptado que muchos de esos rasgos se generan tempranamente en la ontogenia; sin embargo, no ha sido demostrado que las características que distinguen a los adultos ya estén presentes durante los primeros años de vida. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las trayectorias ontogénicas (cambios de tamaño y forma respecto de la edad) craneofaciales en europeos y africanos subsaharianos. Considerando ...

  6. Emergency and critical care procedures in sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), and prairie dogs (Cynomys spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Angela M

    2007-05-01

    Less common exotic pet mammals are gaining in popularity. The Australian Sugar Glider, African Hedgehog, and prairie dog are seen regularly in exotic animal practices. They are subject to the same types of medical emergencies as more traditional pets, with the unfortunate addition of all too common underlying nutritional and husbandry-related disorders. Emergency stabilization and critical care are important first steps before collection of diagnostic test samples and administration of definitive medical care. PMID:17577562

  7. Emergency and critical care procedures in sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), and prairie dogs (Cynomys spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Angela M

    2007-05-01

    Less common exotic pet mammals are gaining in popularity. The Australian Sugar Glider, African Hedgehog, and prairie dog are seen regularly in exotic animal practices. They are subject to the same types of medical emergencies as more traditional pets, with the unfortunate addition of all too common underlying nutritional and husbandry-related disorders. Emergency stabilization and critical care are important first steps before collection of diagnostic test samples and administration of definitive medical care.

  8. Cancro em mogno africano no estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Tremacoldi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sintomas de cancro foram observados em plantios de mogno africano, no município de Dom Eliseu, Pará. Os fungos associados aos tecidos sintomáticos foram identificados como Lasiodiplodia theobromae e Fusarium subglutinans. Culturas puras desses fungos foram testadas quanto à patogenicidade em mudas de mogno africano sadias. Apenas L. theobromae produziu cancro, por meio de inoculação por ferimento e alta umidade. A confirmação de L. theobromae como agente causal do cancro ocorreu após o reisolamento do fungo a partir das plantas inoculadas em casa de vegetação, concluindo a primeira verificação do postulado de Koch para esse patossistema.

  9. Turismo em meio insular africano: potencialidades, constrangimentos e impactos

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Brígida Rocha; Pinto, Joaquim Ramos; Alarcão, Nuno; Duarte, Andreia; Loloum, Bastien

    2010-01-01

    “Turismo em Meio Insular Africano. Potencialidades, constrangimentos e impactos” é o resultado de um Projecto de Investigação financiado pela Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT), intitutlado “O impacto do Turismo no Desenvolvimento Comunitário em África: análise de experiências insulares”, que consistiu num estudo comparativo entre dois Pequenos Estados Insulares em Desenvolvimento, Cabo Verde e São Tomé e Príncipe, sendo analisados os efeitos do turismo no desenvolvimento das popula...

  10. Heterothermy in the southern African hedgehog, Atelerix frontalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Stacey L; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi

    2011-04-01

    Most research on mammalian heterothermic responses in southern Africa tends to be laboratory based and biased towards rodents and smaller members of the Afrotheria. In this study, we continuously measured body temperature of southern African hedgehogs (Atelerix frontalis) between April and August 2009 (-10°C < T (a) < 43°C), kept under semi-captive conditions. A. frontalis showed a high propensity for torpor with animals spending up to 84% of the measurement period torpid. During this study, A. frontalis displayed the lowest T (b min) (ca 1°C) yet recorded in an Afrotropical placental heterotherm. Bout lengths of between 0.7 h (40 min) and 116.3 h (4.8 days) were recorded. Differences in bout length were observed between lighter individuals compared with an individual exhibiting a higher body mass at the onset of winter, with low M (b) individuals exhibiting daily torpor whereas a heavier individual exhibited torpor bouts that were indicative of hibernation. Our results suggest that heterothermic responses are an important feature in the energy balance equation of this species and that body mass at the onset of winter may determine the patterns of heterothermy utilised in this species. PMID:21082184

  11. An isolate of Arthroderma benhamiae with Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph isolated from a four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoko; Haritani, Kuniko; Sano, Ayako; Takizawa, Kayoko; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2002-01-01

    A female four-toed hedgehog probably imported from Africa and kept as a pet by a family suffered from depilation and mite (Caparinia tripilis) infection. Depilated quills were inoculated on a commercially available medium and an isolate of the dermatophytes was obtained. A giant colony after 14 days incubation on yeast extract Sabourauds agar had a central umbo with white granular surface and a yellow pigment ring in the reverse. The hedgehog isolate produced numerous elongated microconidia singly attached along the sides of hyphae. Macroconidia were somewhat irregular in shape and size and 2-6 septa. Abundant intermediate sized spores between micro- and macro conidia and few spirals were observed. Hair perforation and urease activity tests were positive. Maximum growth temperature was 40 C. In the mating tests using the tester strains of both African and Americano-European races of Arthroderma benhamiae, the strain produced numerous gymnothecia only when paired with the African race mating type minus(-). In addition, 591 bases of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene including the 5.8S region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) were sequenced and corresponded to those of T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession numbers Z97996 and Z97997) by more than 99.7%. Therefore, our case is the first isolation of A. benhamiae with T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph in Japan. PMID:12402026

  12. Cistos peribiliares em leão-africano (Panthera leo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Lucena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os achados macroscópicos e histopatológicos de cistos peribiliares em uma fêmea adulta de leão-africano (Panthera leo. Macroscopicamente, todos os lobos hepáticos continham numerosos cistos preenchidos por líquido translúcido. Histologicamente, os cistos estavam localizados no hilo hepático e nos tratos portais. Os cistos eram revestidos internamente por epitélio simples, constituído por células colunares ou cuboidais e não mucinosas, de acordo com avaliação para ácido periódico de Schiff/azul alciano. Na imuno-histiquímica, todas as células desse epitélio foram positivas para citoceratina. O leão morreu de complicações relacionadas a um carcinoma pulmonar e não foram observadas alterações clínicas associadas à lesão hepática, comprovando que cistos peribiliares em leões também ocorrem não associados a sinais clínicos.

  13. Diet of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae in two periurban areas in southern Brazil

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    Alexandre Rodrigues da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840 is one of the least known Brazilian marsupials with respect to its feeding habits. Since the white-eared opossum is omnivorous, it occupies several niches and may be found in urban areas as well as in forest fragments. Current analysis aimed at determining and comparing the diet of D. albiventris in two periurban areas of the municipality of Viamão, a conserved forest remnant and a degraded area resulting from agricultural activities. Captures of D. albiventris were carried out for a period of 30 months by a sampling effort of 504 trap-nights. Forty fecal samples were collected from 45 captures corresponding to 18 specimens.  Diet was determined by fecal analysis. Fruit was the most representative item, at an occurrence of 77.5%, comprising six species of plants, followed by invertebrates (62.5% and vertebrates (37.5%. Didelphis albiventris displayed a frugivorous-omnivorous habit, with no difference between the sexes with respect to composition and frequency of the items consumed. Since there was a greater diversity of food items and fruits in the more conserved area, seasonal variations in the diet could be detected. Generalist species, such as D. albiventris, may have an important role in the recovery of degraded areas through the dispersal of seeds of species of initial successional stages.

  14. HISTOLOGÍA DEL SISTEMA DIGESTIVO DE Didelphis albiventris (LUND, 1840)

    OpenAIRE

    C. Moreno-Durán1; C. López-Hurtado; F. Ruiz-Sanchez

    2007-01-01

    Didelphis albiventris es un marsupial que se encuentra en Colombia en la región Andina desde los 1800 hasta 4000 m.s.n.m (Cuartas - Calle 2003). Su importancia ecológica radica en que es una especie quecontrola poblaciones de roedores, e insectos y contribuye a la dispersión de las semillas.Se llevó a cabo un estudio histológico del sistema digestivo de marsupiales de Didelphis albiventris, provenientes del municipio de Sotaquirá (Boyacá), Colombia. Los órganos se fijaron en formol buferizado...

  15. Natural infection of the opossum Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia, Didelphidae with Leishmania donovani, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo A. Sherlock

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available An opossum, Didelphis albiventris, from Jacobina, bahia State, was found naturally infected with Leishmania donovani, being the first non-canid wild mammal to be detected with agent of kala-azar in the New World.Um gambá, Didelphis albiventris, de Jacobina, Bahia, foi encontrado com infecção natural pela Leishmania donovani, sendo o primeiro mamífero silvestre não-canídeo a ser achado com o agente do calazar nas Américas.

  16. Toxocara cati (Nematoda: Ascarididae) in Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) from Brazil: a case of pseudoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Melo, Alan Lane de

    2014-01-01

    Eggs of Toxocara cati were found in the feces of Didelphis albiventris from a peridomestic urban environment in Brazil. Negative fecal tests following short-term captivity of the opossums, as well as the absence of ascaridids during necropsy, suggest the occurrence of pseudoparasitism. Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed. PMID:25517533

  17. Toxocara cati (Nematoda: Ascarididae in Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae from Brazil: a case of pseudoparasitism

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    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of Toxocara cati were found in the feces of Didelphis albiventris from a peridomestic urban environment in Brazil. Negative fecal tests following short-term captivity of the opossums, as well as the absence of ascaridids during necropsy, suggest the occurrence of pseudoparasitism. Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed.

  18. China e África: a política de Pequim para o continente africano

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    João Bosco Monte

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento do continente africano através dos investimentos da China na exploração de petróleo e outros recursos naturais.

  19. China e África: a política de Pequim para o continente africano

    OpenAIRE

    João Bosco Monte

    2010-01-01

    O desenvolvimento do continente africano através dos investimentos da China na exploração de petróleo e outros recursos naturais.

  20. Arte africano como punto de partida para una actividad de arte terapia

    OpenAIRE

    Vassiliadou Yiannaka, María

    2001-01-01

    La visita a una exposición de arte africano realizada con un grupo de pacientes de un Hospital Psiquiátrico sirve en este artículo para reflexionar sobre los aspectos implicados en la organización de actividades de arte terapia y sobre el problema de la accesibilidad de todos los ciudadanos a la vida cultural

  1. Ocorrência de Ixodes loricatus Neumann, 1899 (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitando Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1841), (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae), em Campo Grande, MS Occurrence of Ixodes loricatus Neumann, 1899 (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1841) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) in Campo Grande , MS

    OpenAIRE

    Soraya R. Miziara; Fernando Paiva; Renato Andreotti; Wilson W. Koller; Vinicius A. Lopes; Nara T. Pontes; Klaudia Bitencourt

    2008-01-01

    Este é primeiro relato da ocorrência de Ixodes no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e primeiro caso identificado de Ixodes loricatus Neumann, 1899, parasitando Didelphis albiventris no município de Campo Grande, MS, Brasil.This is first report of occurence of Ixodes in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and first description of Ixodes loricatus Neumann, 1899, parasitizing Didelphis albiventris in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.

  2. Conocimiento indígena y poder global: lecciones de los debates africanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raewyn Connell

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo discuto las implicaciones de los debates africanos sobre la sociología indígena, la filosofía africana y el “Renacimiento africano”, para las ciencias sociales y las humanidades en otras partes del mundo. Los tres debates se preocupan por el estatus del conocimiento local en tensión con el poder metropolitano; debatir, y basarse en este tipo de comprensión situacional es la forma en que podemos superar la dicotomía entre conocimiento “universal” y “local”.

  3. La política exterior argentina hacia el continente africano (julio 2014-junio2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Morasso, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Como parte del seguimiento anual que realiza el Departamento África del IRI de los vínculos argentino-africanos, el presente trabajo releva las acciones más destacadas de política exterior argentina que tuvieron lugar entre julio de 2014 y junio de 2015. Entre las mismas sobresalen las relaciones bilaterales con los países subsaharianos, la continuidad del diálogo en los espacios multilaterales, la ejecución de iniciativas de cooperación a través del Fondo Argentino de Cooperación Sur-Sur y T...

  4. Aporte aborigen y africano de diferentes regiones de la Argentina en Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Avena, Sergio Alejandro; Goicoechea, Alicia Susana; Clapsos, R.; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Dejean, Cristina Beatriz; Perosino, María C.; Carnese, Francisco R.

    2003-01-01

    En trabajos anteriores realizados en muestras poblacionales de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (RMBA) hemos observado un 15,2 % de aporte indígena (AI) y un 3,8% de africano (AA). En el presente estudio se analizó una muestra de 169 individuos provenientes de las regiones del noroeste (NOA), del nordeste (NEA) y del centro del país (CP, se excluye la RMBA) que fueron donantes en el Banco de Sangre de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Esta muestra se adicionó a las previamente obtenidas de...

  5. Natural infection of Algerian hedgehog, Atelerix algirus (Lereboullet 1842) with Leishmania parasites in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemkhi, Jomaa; Souguir, Hejer; Ali, Insaf Bel Hadj; Driss, Mehdi; Guizani, Ikram; Guerbouj, Souheila

    2015-10-01

    In Tunisia, Leishmania parasites are responsible of visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania infantum species while three cutaneous disease forms are documented: chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania killicki, sporadic cutaneous form (SCL) caused by L. infantum and the predominant zoonotic cutaneous leishmanaisis (ZCL) due to Leishmania major. ZCL reservoirs are rodents of the Psammomys and Meriones genera, while for SCL the dog is supposed to be a reservoir. Ctenodactylus gundii is involved in the transmission of L. killicki. However, other mammals could constitute potential reservoir hosts in Tunisia and other North African countries. In order to explore the role of hedgehogs as potential reservoirs of leishmaniasis, specimens (N=6) were captured during July-November period in 2011-2013 in an SCL endemic area in El Kef region, North-Western Tunisia. Using morphological characteristics, all specimens were described and measured. Biopsies from liver, heart, kidney and spleen of each animal were used to extract genomic DNA, which was further used in PCR assays to assess the presence of Leishmania parasites. Different PCRs targeting kinetoplast minicircles, ITS1, mini-exon genes and a repetitive Leishmania- specific sequence, were applied. To further identify Leishmania species involved, RFLP analysis of amplified fragments was performed with appropriate restriction enzymes. Using morphological characters, animals were identified as North African hedgehogs, also called Algerian hedgehogs, that belong to the Erinaceidae family, genus Atelerix Pomel 1848, and species algirus (Lereboullet, 1842). PCR results showed in total that all specimens were Leishmania infected, with different organs incriminated, mainly liver and spleen. Results were confirmed by direct sequencing of amplified fragments. Species identification showed that all specimens were infected with L. major, three of which were additionally co-infected with L. infantum. The present study

  6. Detection of a pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) in an African hedgehog (Atelerix arbiventris) with suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarame, Hiroo; Ogihara, Kikumi; Kimura, Moe; Nagai, Makoto; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Ochiai, Hideharu; Mizutani, Tetsyuya

    2014-09-17

    A pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) from an African hedgehog (Atelerix arbiventris) with suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) was detected and genetically characterized. The affected hedgehog had a nonsuppurative encephalitis with vacuolization of the white matter, and the brain samples yielded RNA reads highly homogeneous to PVM strain 15 (96.5% of full genomic sequence homology by analysis of next generation sequencing). PVM antigen was also detected in the brain and the lungs immunohistochemically. A PVM was strongly suggested as a causative agent of encephalitis of a hedgehog with suspected WHS. This is a first report of PVM infection in hedgehogs. PMID:25129384

  7. El origen africano del cultivo del arroz en Las Américas

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    Carney, Judith A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Until the period of the transatlantic slave trade, rice was not cultivated in the Americas. By the eighteenth century the crop was widely established across plantation societies from South Carolina to Brazil. Grown by slaves as well as maroons, for subsistence and also for export, the onset of rice cultivation in the Americas has long been attributed to European planters. This article presents evidence that supports African agency in establishing rice culture in the New World. Emphasis is on African rice (Oryza glaberrima, enslaved West Africans for whom the crop was a dietary staple, and an indigenous rice knowledge system with identical features across the African and American Atlantic. A comparative analysis of land use, methods of cultivation, milling and cooking traditions illuminates the diffusion of African rice culture to the Americas and the role of West African slaves in pioneering rice as a New World subsistence staple.El arroz no empezó a ser cultivado en las Américas sino hasta el periodo del comercio transatlántico de esclavos. Para el siglo XVIII este cultivo ya se había establecido extensamente en plantaciones desde Carolina del Sur hasta Brasil. Cultivado por esclavos así como cimarrones, tanto para la subsistencia como para la exportación, el comienzo de la cultivación de arroz en las Américas invariablemente se ha atribuido a los dueños de plantaciones europeos. Este artículo presenta evidencia del importante papel que desempeñaron los africanos en establecer la cultura del arroz en el Nuevo Mundo. Este trabajo se enfoca sobre el arroz africano (Oryza glaberrima, personas esclavizadas de África occidental para quienes este cultivo era un alimento básico, y un sistema de conocimiento indígena sobre el arroz con características idénticas entre el Atlántico africano y americano. Un estudio comparativo de usos del suelo, métodos de cultivo, procesos de molienda y tradiciones culinarias ilumina el tema de la

  8. O pequeno agricultor africano: problemas que enfrenta e perspetivas sobre o seu futuro

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, André Filipe Ferreira de

    2015-01-01

    Mestrado em Estudos Africanos: Gestão do Desenvolvimento Social e Económico Os pequenos agricultores em África têm sido ameaçados por vários constrangimentos naturais, económicos, políticos e sociais ao longo das últimas décadas, que têm contribuído para o fracasso do desenvolvimento do setor agrícola no continente e inibido o alívio da pobreza e insegurança alimentar. Desde a independência das nações africanas que se assistiu ao declínio da capacidade produtiva da agricultu...

  9. HISTOLOGÍA DEL SISTEMA DIGESTIVO DE Didelphis albiventris (LUND, 1840

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    C. Moreno-Durán1

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Didelphis albiventris es un marsupial que se encuentra en Colombia en la región Andina desde los 1800 hasta 4000 m.s.n.m (Cuartas - Calle 2003. Su importancia ecológica radica en que es una especie quecontrola poblaciones de roedores, e insectos y contribuye a la dispersión de las semillas.Se llevó a cabo un estudio histológico del sistema digestivo de marsupiales de Didelphis albiventris, provenientes del municipio de Sotaquirá (Boyacá, Colombia. Los órganos se fijaron en formol buferizado al 10%, y se tiñeron con Hematoxilina - Eosina de acuerdo a la técnica de Propath 1992.Se realizaron descripciones histológicas, desde la cavidad oral hasta el intestino grueso. En la lengua se observaron papilas filiformes y tres papilas circunvaladas dispuestas en forma de triángulo en la parte posterior de la lengua, con botones gustativos. El estómago del marsupial se dividió en varias zonas: cardial, fúndica, del cuerpo y pilórica las cuales presentan características similares a la mayoría de mamíferos. En la primera porción del intestino delgado, se observó el duodeno con ausencia de glándulas de Brunner, la disposición de las fibras musculares lisas presentó variación a nivel de duodeno y cloaca, caracterizándose por poseer una muscular circular externa y una muscular longitudinal interna. No se observaron diferenciassignificativas con respecto a otros mamíferos, como roedores y el hombre en hígado, páncreas, vesícula biliar y glándulas salivares por lo cual no se incluyen en el presente trabajo. Se encontraron diferencias con respecto a los mamíferos en la ubicación de las glándulas de Brunner en el íleon y no en el duodeno y la distribución de nódulos linfoides dentro de la lámina propia de la mucosa de todo el tracto gastrointestinal.

  10. Rickettsiae in arthropods collected from the North African Hedgehog (Atelerix algirus) and the desert hedgehog (Paraechinus aethiopicus) in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaldi, Mourad; Socolovschi, Cristina; Benyettou, Meryam; Barech, Ghania; Biche, Mohamed; Kernif, Tahar; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    Hedgehogs have become a popular pet despite their potential role in zoonotic disease transmission. We conducted an entomological study in a mountainous region of northeast Algeria in which we collected 387 fleas (Archeopsylla erinacei) and 342 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis erinacei) from Paraechinus aethiopicus and Atelerix algirus hedgehogs. Of the hedgehogs sampled, 77.7% and 91% were infested with fleas and ticks, respectively. Significantly more ticks and fleas were collected from A. algirus than from P. aethiopicus. Rickettsia felis was detected in 95.5% of fleas and R. massiliae was detected in 6.25% of Rh. sanguineus ticks by molecular tools. A new Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group was detected in 11.25% of Rh. sanguineus and in 77% of H. erinacei ticks. Overall, we show that hedgehogs can act as hosts for ectoparasites infected with several rickettsial agents. These data justify a more detailed investigation of animal reservoirs for Rickettsiae. PMID:22222114

  11. Aporte aborigen y africano de diferentes regiones de la Argentina en Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avena, Sergio Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En trabajos anteriores realizados en muestras poblacionales de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (RMBA hemos observado un 15,2 % de aporte indígena (AI y un 3,8% de africano (AA. En el presente estudio se analizó una muestra de 169 individuos provenientes de las regiones del noroeste (NOA, del nordeste (NEA y del centro del país (CP, se excluye la RMBA que fueron donantes en el Banco de Sangre de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Esta muestra se adicionó a las previamente obtenidas de las mismas regiones en los hospitales de Clínicas e Italiano. El objetivo fue evaluar si existe una distribución diferencial del AI y el AA según la región de origen de los dadores. Para ello se determinaron los sistemas ABO, Rh, MNS, Diego, Duffy, Gm y Km. Las frecuencias génicas y haplotípicas fueron calculadas mediante métodos de máxima verosimilitud y la mezcla génica se calculó aplicando el programa ADMIX. La región con mayor AI fue NOA (49,5% seguida por NEA (28,4% y CP (17,2%, mientras que el AA fue similar en las tres regiones (NOA 3,2%, NEA 3,5% y CP 3,8.

  12. Interaction between Didelphis albiventris and Triatoma infestans in relation to Trypanosoma cruzi transmission

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    Nicolás J. Schweigmann

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to prove if a high Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence of opossums might be reached with few potential infective contacts. One non-infected Didelphis albiventris to T. cruzi and 10 infected nymphs of Triatoma infestans were left together during 23 hr in a device that simulated a natural opossum burrow. Twenty-six replicates were perfomed using marsupials and triatomines only once. Potentially infective contacts occurred in all the trials. From the 26 opossums used in trials, 54% did not eat any bug. Of the 260 bugs used, 21% were predated. In the 25 trials involving 205 surving bugs, 36 % of them did not feed. In 15/25 cases, maior ou igual a 60% of the triatomines were able to feed. The parasitological follow-up of 24 opossums showed that among 10 that had eaten bugs, 4 turned out infected and among the 14 that had not predate, 3 (21% became positive. In sum, 7/24 (29% of the marsupials acquired the infection after the experiment. This infection rate was similar to the prevalences found for the opossum population of Santiago del Estero, Argentina, suggesting that the prevalences observed in the field might be reached if each marsupial would encounter infected bugs just once in its lifetime.

  13. Dinâmica Socio-Cultural da Cidade: A Conflitualidade dos Imigrantes Africanos em Lisboa

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    Anelino Francisco Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa sobre a dinâmica sociocultural, o direito dos imigrantes à cidade, caso da Área Metropolitana de Lisboade Lisboa, traz uma reflexão do atual processo de inserção ou não dos imigrantes africanos de Angola, Cabo-Verde, São Tomé e Guine-Bissau, como um fator de conflito gerado pela sua permanência na cidade. A globalização atua no global-local, ajuizando a cidade reforçar as características local baseada da legitimidade cultural e política. A cidade metrópole precisa estar preparada às novas exigências produtivas do sistema econômico e da reprodução social. Sendo Lisboa, no contexto dos processos de estruturação econômico-territorial e de diferenciação sócio-urbanística, o espaço polarizado pela capital do país e, ter sido a metrópole que teve sob seu domínio Angola, Cabo -Verde, São Tomé e Guine – Bissau, que com o fim da colonização inicia um processo migratório para Portugal, especialmente, Lisboa. A baixa inserção ao mercado de trabalho, a tênue socialização cultural e a negação ao direito à cidade passam a ser obstáculos em toda sua plenitude

  14. Asociaciones de migrantes africanos. Educación y formación

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    Palaudàrias i Martí, Josep M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data obtained in a survey of 206 representatives of African immigrant associations, nine life histories and 54 interviews carried out with representatives of these associations, this article analyzes their educational reality from different points of view. First, we establish the importance the association leaders give to education (the role that education played in their migration processes and in the associations they lead. Second, we take a close look at their educational level and training. And finally, we analyze the training activities promoted by these associations or the activities in which they are involved (collaborating with other associations, institutions or services. Concerning these activities, we analyze their types (topics covered: language, religion, labor market integration, etc., and orientation (tendency to multiculturalism and collaboration or distance from formal education institutions.A partir de los datos obtenidos a través de un cuestionario suministrado a 206 representantes de asociaciones de inmigrantes de origen africano y de 20 historias de vida y 66 entrevistas realizadas a representantes de estas asociaciones, este artículo analiza la realidad educativa de las asociaciones desde diferentes puntos de vista. Primero, estableciendo el valor que los dirigentes asociativos dan a la educación (papel que ha jugado en sus procesos migratorios y papel que juega en las asociaciones que dirigen. En segundo lugar, aproximándonos a su nivel de estudios e itinerario formativo. Y finalmente, analizando las actividades formativas que estas asociaciones impulsan o en las que participan (colaborando con otras asociaciones, instituciones o servicios. De estas actividades, se han analizado tanto su tipología (temas que se abordan: lengua, religión, inserción laboral, entre otros, como su orientación (tendencia al multiculturalismo y colaboración o distanciamiento respecto al ámbito educativo formal.

  15. REGINALDO, Lucilene. Os Rosários dos Angolas: Irmandades de africanos e crioulos na Bahia setecentista.

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    Ênio José da Costa Brito

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Rosários dos Angolas realiza um estudo da Irmandade de Nossa Senhora do Rosário dos Pretos das Portas do Carmo( Bahia A novidade do estudo está nos subsidios coletados na Africa, Portugal e Brasil , no resgate da presença banto na Bahia e na abertura para um dialogo das cosmovisões banto e cristã.REGINALDO, Lucilene. Os Rosários dos Angolas: Irmandades de africanos e crioulos na Bahia setecentista. São Paulo: Alameda, 2011. 416p. ISBN 978-85-7939-082-1 

  16. Miíase por Lucilia eximia (Diptera: Calliphoridae em Didelphis albiventris (Mammalia: Didelphidae no Brasil Central

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    Edison Cansi

    2011-12-01

    Abstract. In May 2009 were collected 18 larvae of Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, a fly responsible for primary and secondary myiasis in livestock and humans. The larvae were taken from the myiasis on anal and auricular regions of an opossum Didelphis albiventris (Lund, in Brasília Zoo, and later identified in the laboratory. After 15 days, 15 adults emerged from L. eximia. This is the first record of this blowfly causing a primary myiasis in a marsupial species in the Brasília Cerrado.

  17. La mediación intercultural en las asociaciones de inmigrantes de origen africano

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    Llevot Calvet, Núria

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of intercultural mediation in the associations of African-origin immigrants in three regions (Catalonia, Valencia and Navarre. Specifically, we present how this is being carried out together with the situation of the mediators based on a survey of 206 associations of immigrant-origin people and thirty interviews (fifteen with managers; ten with administrations and entities that habitually work with these associations and five with non-associated immigrants. The results indicate that the associations are place of coexistence, but a significant proportion of these lack specific clear objectives in their work with their users and other social agents. This practice in the associations is incipient, in contrast with the trend in the Spanish entities, witch now are beginning to apply this in the educational, health and family environments. Furthermore, the African associations often distort this concept considering it simply as a conversation among their own people.El artículo analiza cómo realizan la mediación intercultural las asociaciones de inmigrantes de origen africano de tres comunidades autónomas (Cataluña, Valencia y Navarra y qué caracteriza a sus actores. El análisis se basa en una encuesta realizada a 206 asociaciones de inmigrantes y en 30 entrevistas: 15 a directivos, 10 a administraciones y entidades que trabajan con ellas, y 5 a inmigrantes no asociados. Los resultados apuntan a que las asociaciones son espacios de convivencia, pero una parte importante de ellas carece de objetivos específicos claros en sus planteamientos de trabajo con sus usuarios y otros agentes sociales. También hemos visto que la mediación es una práctica incipiente en las asociaciones, al contrario de lo que sucede en el seno de las instituciones españolas del ámbito educativo, sanitario y familiar. Por otra parte, hemos apreciado que las asociaciones africanas desvirtúan, a menudo, el concepto de mediación consider

  18. A institucionalização dos estudos Africanos nos Estados Unidos: advento, consolidação e transformações

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    Roquinaldo Ferreira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa o advento, a consolidação e a transformação dos Estudos Africanos nos Estados Unidos entre a década de 1960 e os dias atuais. O artigo tem como propósito discutir o contexto acadêmico, político e geopolítico que lastreou a criação desse campo de estudos. Para tanto, enfatiza as transformações na sociedade americana nos anos 60, sobretudo o movimento pelos direitos civis dos afro-americanos, assim como o contexto internacional, particularmente a Guerra Fria. Na base da ascensão dos Estudos Africanos estiveram uma política de Estado norte-americana e a participação ativa de agências de fomento privadas, tais como as Fundações Ford e Mellon. A base conceitual dos Estudos Africanos foram os chamados area studies. O artigo argumenta que esse modelo tem sofrido transformações na última década, com a incorporação de estudos sobre a diáspora africana nos chamados Estudos Africanos.

  19. Atrição dental em Didelphis albiventris e D. marsupialis (Marsupialia, Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) do Sul do Brasil Dental wear in Didelphis albiventris and D. marsupialis (Marsupialia, Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) from southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marília da Silva Aguiar; Jorge Ferigolo; João Luiz Rossi Junior; Marco Antônio Gioso

    2004-01-01

    Pesquisou-se o nível de desgaste dental (atrição e/ou abrasão) em 168 espécimes de Didelphis albiventris e D. marsupialis (gambás) do sul do Brasil. O desgaste foi muito importante, com elevada freqüência de dentina terciária e de exposição da câmara coronária e/ou do canal radicular, devido à associação de fraturas e desgaste, pois as fraturas predispõem ao desgaste e este favorece as fraturas. O grau de desgaste aumentou com a idade dos animais. A ordem crescente na freqüência de dentina te...

  20. The importance of the opossum (Didelphis albiventris as a reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi in Bambuí, Minas Gerais state

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    Alexandre José Fernandes

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available In a survey realized on the sylvatic and peridomestic environment at Bambuí county, Minas Gerais State, 44 (37.9% out of 116 opossums (Didelphis albiventris captured were found to be naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. One handred and forty three parasite samples were obtanied from 43 infected opossums using simultaneously hemoculture, xenodiagnosis (Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus and Rhodnius neglectus and examination of anal glands contents. The parasite samples were characterized according to six isoenzyme patterns. All samples, independently of the method of isolation, presented an isoenzyme pattern similar to the standard T. cruzi Z1, showing that either xenodiagnosis or hemoculture can used without selecting parasite subpopulation from naturally infected opossums. Preveous isoenzyme patterns reported for human T.cruzi isolates from same region were completely different. This isoenzyme dissimilarity between sylvatic and domiciliar environments suggests the existence of two independent T. cruzi transmission cycles in Bambuí. The epidemiological implicatinos of these results are discussed.

  1. Necrophagous Muscoids that develop in carcasses of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1841 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Ândrio Zafalon da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the similarity of the fauna that colonizes decomposing wildlife is insipient among the different carcass models. Species with different tissues and alimentary diets are hypothesized to be a colonization source of different necrophagous species. To verify this hypothesis, we observed the decomposition of a carcass of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1841 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae, that had been run over by a vehicle. 2,273 adults were reared from specimens at immature stages collected on the carcass. The most representative species belongs to Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae and Fanniidae, with numeric dominance of Lucilia eximia Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Another six species were found, besides non-identified Fanniidae specimens. All species were colonizers of traditionally used forensic models.

  2. Cytomegalic inclusion disease in the east African headgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstad, L

    1975-04-01

    Cytomegaly with intranuclear inclusion bodies was found in the duct epithelium of the salivary glands of five of ten hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). Cytomegalovirus infection was presumed to be the cause. PMID:167206

  3. Which Factors Determine Spatial Segregation in the South American Opossums (Didelphis aurita and D. albiventris)? An Ecological Niche Modelling and Geometric Morphometrics Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; de Moraes Weber, Marcelo; Melo, Geruza Leal; Carlo MELORO; Sponchiado, Jonas; Carvalho, Renan dos Santos; Bubadué, Jamile de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Didelphis albiventris and D. aurita are Neotropical marsupials that share a unique evolutionary history and both are largely distributed throughout South America, being primarily allopatric throughout their ranges. In the Araucaria moist forest of Southern Brazil these species are sympatric and they might potentially compete having similar ecology. For this reason, they are ideal biological models to address questions about ecological character displacement and how closely related species mig...

  4. A concorrência entre o Brasil e a China no mercado Sul-africano: uma aplicação do modelo constant-market-share

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    Ariane Danielle Baraúna da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O forte crescimento da economia chinesa nos últimos anos foi acompanhado pelo aumento de suas necessidades por recursos naturais para atender a demanda crescente de sua indústria de base. O continente africano tem representado, nesse contexto, uma importante fonte de matérias-primas para a China, dado que este continente se apresenta como uma das últimas regiões com abundância de recursos naturais ainda pouco explorados. A presença chinesa no continente africano tem trazido consigo mudanças quanto à vinculação econômica da região com o Brasil. Diante desse cenário, o presente trabalho realiza uma análise das relações econômicas entre o Brasil e a África do Sul, maior economia da África, que representa dentro do continente africano um importante mercado para as exportações brasileiras. Neste trabalho, será feito uso do modelo constant-market-share, com o objetivo de analisar os ganhos ou perdas da competitividade do Brasil e mensurar o quanto o avanço das exportações chinesas contribuíram para as possíveis perdas do Brasil. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que boa parte das perdas de exportações brasileiras na África do Sul é devida aos ganhos de participação da China.

  5. Africanos, tráfico atlántico y cimarrones en las fronteras entre la Guyana Francesa y la América portuguesa, siglo XVIII

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    Flávio dos Santos Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las experiencias históricas de los cimarrones en un área de fronter atlántica continental entre la Guyana Francesa y la América portuguesa durante el siglo XVII. Las expectativas de los fugitivos africanos se abordan relacionando el movimiento del tráfico atlántico de esclavos-sus variaciones, los volúmenes y las procedencias-. De esta forma se reflexiona sobre los ambientes sociales, étnicos y geográficos que fueron encontrados y recreados en las selvas de estas zonas fronterizas. En un territorio de conflictos, enfrentamientos, disputas coloniales y expectativas de identidades, surgieron espacios de cooperación, donde los colonos europeos y las poblaciones de indígenas y de africanos se reinventaron como culturas y comunidades. Los circuitos demográficos del tráfico atlántico estaban conectados a la experiencia de africanos de diversas procedencias y a la posibilidad de encuentro de estos, a través de las fugas y de las comunidades transétnicas en una zona de frontera transnacional durante la Colonia.

  6. Use of space by neotropical marsupial Didelphis albiventris (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae in an urban forest fragment Uso do espaço pelo marsupial Neotropical Didelphis albiventris (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae em um fragmento florestal urbano

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    Alex J. de Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A population of the Neotropical marsupial Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1840 living in an urban forest fragment was studied. Population structure and the influence of sex and age on two variables related to habitat use (Daily home range - MCP and Habitat use intensity - UI obtained by the spool-and-line technique were analysed. There were 20 males and 29 females studied (N = 49. No sexual dimorphism was apparent in adult individuals. There were 16 males and 24 females tracked using the spool-and-line device. There were significant differences found in the mean size of the daily home range, which was greater in adults than in sub-adults. Regarding the habitat use intensity there were also significant differences related to age. There were no significant differences in MCP and UI related to the sex of the individuals. Besides the analyzed factors, the variables related to habitat use are possibly influenced by other factors, especially, the ones related to the conservation status of the fragment.Neste estudo foi analisada uma população do marsupial neotropical Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1840, em um fragmento florestal urbano, e foram analisados aspectos da estrutura da população, e a influência do sexo e da idade em duas variáveis relativas ao uso do hábitat - Área de Vida Diária (MCP e Intensidade de Uso do Hábitat (UI, obtidas com a técnica do carretel de rastreamento. Foram estudados 49 indivíduos marcados, dos quais 20 eram machos e 29 eram fêmeas. Dos animais adultos, não foi encontrado qualquer dimorfismo sexual. De 40 indivíduos rastreados com carretel (16 machos, 24 fêmeas, diferenças significativas no MCP foram encontradas, sendo que os indivíduos adultos apresentaram tamanhos médios maiores que os sub-adultos. Quanto à UI, diferenças significativas foram observadas também relacionadas à idade. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre sexos com relação ao MCP e IU. Além dos fatores analisados, as vari

  7. Atrição dental em Didelphis albiventris e D. marsupialis (Marsupialia, Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae do Sul do Brasil Dental wear in Didelphis albiventris and D. marsupialis (Marsupialia, Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae from southern Brazil

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    Marília da Silva Aguiar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se o nível de desgaste dental (atrição e/ou abrasão em 168 espécimes de Didelphis albiventris e D. marsupialis (gambás do sul do Brasil. O desgaste foi muito importante, com elevada freqüência de dentina terciária e de exposição da câmara coronária e/ou do canal radicular, devido à associação de fraturas e desgaste, pois as fraturas predispõem ao desgaste e este favorece as fraturas. O grau de desgaste aumentou com a idade dos animais. A ordem crescente na freqüência de dentina terciária nos dentes caudais aos caninos foi: primeiro, segundo e terceiro molares, terceiro e segundo pré-molar, e quarto molar. Diferentemente de outros onívoros, em Didelphis o desgaste dentário parece mais relacionado às fraturas devidas aos alimentos (seguida de atrição/abrasão do que ao contato entre os dentes. Ao contrário da literatura, os molares tribosfênicos não parecem "ideais" para tal dieta onívora, o que é evidenciado pela elevada freqüência de desgaste, fraturas e exposição da câmara coronária ou do canal radicular.This work deals with the study of dental wear down (atrittion and/or abrasion in 168 specimens of Didelphis albiventris and D. marsupialis from Southern Brazil. Wear down was very important, with high frequency of tertiary dentine and exposition of the pulp cavity/radicular canal, due to the association of fractures and wear down. Fractures predispose wear down which, on the other side, favors fractures. The degree of attrition increased with age. The order of growing frequency of tertiary dentin in poscanines was: first, second and third molars, third and second premolars, and finally fourth molar. Differently from others omnivorous in Didelphis tooth wear down seems rather related to fractures due to food (followed by attrition than to teeth contact. Contrary to literature, tribosphenic molars seems not to be "ideals" for such omnivorous diet, as is evident from the high frequency of wear down

  8. O patrimônio cultural e religioso africano presente na festa de Santa Bárbara

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    Ileana Hodge Limonta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivos estabelecer vínculos entre os conceitos identidade, religião e patrimônio e analisar como se materializam na festividade de Santa Barbara. A reconstrução da memória coletiva dos africanos escravizados, tanto em Cuba quanto no Brasil, gerou estruturas de identificação a partir das uniões consensuais, como formas de reagrupamentos comunitários e religiosos nas novas estruturas das sociedades escravocratas americanas. Todas essas formas de organizações coletivas que responderam a processos de empréstimos, fusões e inter-relações entre as culturas que os representaram nessas condições de vida e convivência. Espera-se, assim, podemos entender esse processo cambial e de adaptação que aconteceu com o multiculturalismo negro produzido neste lado do Atlântico.

  9. Which Factors Determine Spatial Segregation in the South American Opossums (Didelphis aurita and D. albiventris)? An Ecological Niche Modelling and Geometric Morphometrics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; de Moraes Weber, Marcelo; Melo, Geruza Leal; Meloro, Carlo; Sponchiado, Jonas; Carvalho, Renan Dos Santos; Bubadué, Jamile de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Didelphis albiventris and D. aurita are Neotropical marsupials that share a unique evolutionary history and both are largely distributed throughout South America, being primarily allopatric throughout their ranges. In the Araucaria moist forest of Southern Brazil these species are sympatric and they might potentially compete having similar ecology. For this reason, they are ideal biological models to address questions about ecological character displacement and how closely related species might share their geographic space. Little is known about how two morphologically similar species of marsupials may affect each other through competition, if by competitive exclusion and competitive release. We combined ecological niche modeling and geometric morphometrics to explore the possible effects of competition on their distributional ranges and skull morphology. Ecological niche modeling was used to predict their potential distribution and this method enabled us to identify a case of biotic exclusion where the habit generalist D. albiventris is excluded by the presence of the specialist D. aurita. The morphometric analyses show that a degree of shape discrimination occurs between the species, strengthened by allometric differences, which possibly allowed them to occupy marginally different feeding niches supplemented by behavioral shift in contact areas. Overlap in skull morphology is shown between sympatric and allopatric specimens and a significant, but weak, shift in shape occurs only in D. aurita in sympatric areas. This could be a residual evidence of a higher past competition between both species, when contact zones were possibly larger than today. Therefore, the specialist D. aurita acts a biotic barrier to D. albiventris when niche diversity is not available for coexistence. On the other hand, when there is niche diversification (e.g. habitat mosaic), both species are capable to coexist with a minimal competitive effect on the morphology of D. aurita. PMID

  10. Which Factors Determine Spatial Segregation in the South American Opossums (Didelphis aurita and D. albiventris? An Ecological Niche Modelling and Geometric Morphometrics Approach.

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    Nilton Carlos Cáceres

    Full Text Available Didelphis albiventris and D. aurita are Neotropical marsupials that share a unique evolutionary history and both are largely distributed throughout South America, being primarily allopatric throughout their ranges. In the Araucaria moist forest of Southern Brazil these species are sympatric and they might potentially compete having similar ecology. For this reason, they are ideal biological models to address questions about ecological character displacement and how closely related species might share their geographic space. Little is known about how two morphologically similar species of marsupials may affect each other through competition, if by competitive exclusion and competitive release. We combined ecological niche modeling and geometric morphometrics to explore the possible effects of competition on their distributional ranges and skull morphology. Ecological niche modeling was used to predict their potential distribution and this method enabled us to identify a case of biotic exclusion where the habit generalist D. albiventris is excluded by the presence of the specialist D. aurita. The morphometric analyses show that a degree of shape discrimination occurs between the species, strengthened by allometric differences, which possibly allowed them to occupy marginally different feeding niches supplemented by behavioral shift in contact areas. Overlap in skull morphology is shown between sympatric and allopatric specimens and a significant, but weak, shift in shape occurs only in D. aurita in sympatric areas. This could be a residual evidence of a higher past competition between both species, when contact zones were possibly larger than today. Therefore, the specialist D. aurita acts a biotic barrier to D. albiventris when niche diversity is not available for coexistence. On the other hand, when there is niche diversification (e.g. habitat mosaic, both species are capable to coexist with a minimal competitive effect on the morphology of D

  11. Which Factors Determine Spatial Segregation in the South American Opossums (Didelphis aurita and D. albiventris)? An Ecological Niche Modelling and Geometric Morphometrics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; de Moraes Weber, Marcelo; Melo, Geruza Leal; Meloro, Carlo; Sponchiado, Jonas; Carvalho, Renan dos Santos; Bubadué, Jamile de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Didelphis albiventris and D. aurita are Neotropical marsupials that share a unique evolutionary history and both are largely distributed throughout South America, being primarily allopatric throughout their ranges. In the Araucaria moist forest of Southern Brazil these species are sympatric and they might potentially compete having similar ecology. For this reason, they are ideal biological models to address questions about ecological character displacement and how closely related species might share their geographic space. Little is known about how two morphologically similar species of marsupials may affect each other through competition, if by competitive exclusion and competitive release. We combined ecological niche modeling and geometric morphometrics to explore the possible effects of competition on their distributional ranges and skull morphology. Ecological niche modeling was used to predict their potential distribution and this method enabled us to identify a case of biotic exclusion where the habit generalist D. albiventris is excluded by the presence of the specialist D. aurita. The morphometric analyses show that a degree of shape discrimination occurs between the species, strengthened by allometric differences, which possibly allowed them to occupy marginally different feeding niches supplemented by behavioral shift in contact areas. Overlap in skull morphology is shown between sympatric and allopatric specimens and a significant, but weak, shift in shape occurs only in D. aurita in sympatric areas. This could be a residual evidence of a higher past competition between both species, when contact zones were possibly larger than today. Therefore, the specialist D. aurita acts a biotic barrier to D. albiventris when niche diversity is not available for coexistence. On the other hand, when there is niche diversification (e.g. habitat mosaic), both species are capable to coexist with a minimal competitive effect on the morphology of D. aurita. PMID

  12. Visões da África Representações e ideias acerca do continente africano nas capas da Revista Visão (1993-2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Anderson

    2011-01-01

    O presente texto possui como objetivo maior analisar as representações elaboradas sobre a África e os africanos em doze capas da Revista Visão, publicadas entre 1993-2006. Defendemos a perspectiva de que as ideias de África veiculadas por este integrante do mass media português contemporâneo refletem e projetam as representações recorrentes sobre a temática nos cenários mentais de grande parte de sua população, ao mesmo tempo em que, influenciam a elaboração deste imaginário coletivo, revelan...

  13. Isolates of Sarcocystis falcatula-like organisms from South American opossums Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis albiventris from São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Rosenthal, B M; Kerber, C E; Kasai, N; Pena, H F; Kwok, O C; Shen, S K; Gennari, S M

    2001-12-01

    Isolates of Sarcocystis falcatula-like organisms from South American opossums were characterized based on biological and morphological criteria. Sporocysts from intestinal scrapings of 1 Didelphis marsupialis and 8 Didelphis albiventris from São Paulo, Brazil, were fed to captive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Budgerigars fed sporocysts from all 9 isolates became ill and S. falcatula-like schizonts were identified in sections of their lungs by immunohistochemical staining. Sarcocystis falcatula-like organisms were cultured from lungs of budgerigars fed sporocysts from D. marsupialis and from lungs of budgerigars fed sporocysts from 3 of 8 D. albiventris. The 33/54 locus amplified by polymerase chain reaction from culture-derived merozoites contained both a HinfI endonuclease recognition site previously suggested to diagnose S. falcatula and a DraI site thought to diagnosed S. neurona. Development of the isolate from D. marsupialis was studied in cell culture; its schizonts divided by endopolygeny, leaving a residual body. Morphological and genetic variation differentiated this Sarcocystis isolate originating in D. marsupialis from the Cornell I isolate of S. falcatula. This is the first report of a S. falcatula infection in the South American opossum, D. marsupialis. PMID:11780836

  14. Biopolíticas da depressão nos imigrantes Africanos Biopolitics of depression in African immigrants

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    Chiara Pussetti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo foca o tema controverso das biopolíticas da depressão em imigrantes, em particular nos originários da África sub-sahariana. Os sintomas depressivos, ligados à ansiedade, são identificados também pela nova e mais importante patologia mental dos imigrantes: a Síndroma de Ulisses, de stress múltiplo e crónico, já definido como "o mal do século vinte e um", e que atinge principalmente os africanos. Não só entre estes imigrantes mas também em África, segundo um estudo conduzido pela OMS, a depressão tornou-se uma das principais patologias mentais. O tratamento farmacológico do sofrimento, entendido como fenómeno orgânico, é considerado o único caminho possível, silenciando os processos históricos, políticos e socioeconómicos que lhe estão na base. A atenção é portanto focada na saúde mental do indivíduo, desviando-a de problemas sociais de difícil resolução, que necessitariam de respostas económicas e políticas.The following article focuses on the controversial issue of the biopolitics of depression in immigrants, especially those originating from Sub-Saharan Africa. Depressive symptoms connected with anxiety are predicted by the new and major mental pathology of the immigrants: the Ulysses Syndrome, a condition of multiple and chronic stress, already defined as the "twenty-first century's affliction", which affects mainly Africans. Depression has become one of the predominant mental disorders not only among African immigrants but in Africa itself, according to research conducted by the WHO. Pharmaceutical treatment of suffering, understood as an organic phenomenon, is considered the only possible route, suppressing the historical, political and socio-economic processes which remain at its foundation. So, the attention placed on the subject's mental health is being diverted from complicated social problems which would require economic and political responses.

  15. Perfil hematológico de gambás Didelphis aurita e D. albiventris do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil = Blood profile of opossums Didelphis aurita and D. albiventris of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Renata Assis Casagrande

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi fornecer dados sobre o perfil hematológico de gambás (Didelphis sp.. Realizou-se hemograma de 83 D. aurita e 35 D. albiventris. Os valores obtidos dos D. aurita foram: Hematócrito dos adultos(A 31,8 ± 8,0% e dos filhotes(F 30,2 ± 6,9%; Eritrócitos A: 4,3 ± 1,5 x 106 μL-1, F: 3,4 ± 1,1 x 106 μL-1; Proteínas Totais A: 8,5 ± 1,0 g dL-1, F: 7,2 ± 0,9 g dL-1;Hemoglobina A: 10,9 ± 3,4 g dL-1, F: 8,7 ± 2,2 g dL-1; VCM A: 78,13 ± 18,13, F: 93,65 ± 23,62; HCM A: 26,41 ± 6,42, F: 27,09 ± 7,44; CHCM A: 64,59 ± 8,12, F: 30,40 ± 11,49; Leucócitos A: 8.205 ± 4.950 μL-1, F: 5.126 ± 3.945 μL-1; Neutrófilos A: 2.761 ± 2.966 μL-1, F: 1.310± 2.283 μL-1; Linfócitos A: 3.653 ± 2.431 μ L-1, F: 3.239 ± 2.234 μL-1; Monócitos A: 363,2 ± 308,7 μL-1, F: 101,5 ± 107,9 μL-1; Eosinófilos A: 1.362,0 ± 1.114,0 μL-1, F: 456,1 ± 464,4 μL-1 e Basófilos A: 65,9 ± 127,0 μL-1, F: 19,8 ± 48,7 μL-1. Os valores obtidos dos D. albiventris foram: Hematócrito A: 33,2 ± 14,0%, F: 25,7 ± 3,7%; Eritrócitos A: 4,8 ± 1,7 x 106 μL-1 , F: 3,9 ± 1,5 x 106 μL-1; Proteínas Totais A: 8,2 ± 0,6 g dL-1, F: 7,9 ± 1,1 g dL-1; Hemoglobina A: 10,3 ± 2,8 g dL-1, F: 10,2 ± 2,7 g dL-1; VCM A: 71,34 ± 23,74, F: 74,88 ± 27,68; HCM A: 22,86 ± 9,09, F: 28,63 ± 9,27,CHCM A: 32,48 ± 2,43, F: 40,13 ± 0,42; Leucócitos A: 11.683 ± 7.245 μL-1, F: 4.667 ± 4.027 μL-1; Neutrófilos A: 6.007 ± 6.250 μL-1, F: 1.274 ± 2.586 μL-1; Linfócitos A: 4.389 ± 1.928 μL-1, F: 3.151± 3.045 μL-1; Monócitos A: 455 ± 378 μL-1, F: 152,7 ± 180,4 μL-1; Eosinófilos A: 803 ± 840 μL-1, F: 67,8 ± 91,4 μL-1 e Basófilos A: 30,8 ± 75,3 μL-1, F: 21,5 ± 56,6 μL-1.The objective of this study was to provide data on the blood profile of opossums (Didelphis sp.. Hemograms were performed of 83 D. aurita and 35 D. albiventris. The results of D. aurita were: Hematocrit for adults(A 31.8 ± 8.0%, and for offspring(F 30.2 ± 6

  16. La historia blanqueada: representaciones de los africanos y sus descendientes en Antioquia a través de la obra de Tomás Carrasquilla

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    Lina del Mar Moreno Tovar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available After independence was achieved and throughout the 19th century, political, economical and cultural Colombian elites invented a model of nation based on the idea that highlands and white race were progress exclusive raw material, as though; based on racial and geographical attributions a regional hierarchy was built, and this allowed the configuration of local identities defined by this model. Meanwhile, besides Antioquia had an important presence of African and African descendant population since colonial times, from different enunciation places and turning over the colonization entrepreneurship of the 19th century as a the foundational myth, representations that showed Antioquia and its inhabitants as a successful correlate of the relationship between Andean highlands and white race started to be created, opposing to the negative valuation over lowlands and black population. This article, on one side, examines which were the representational mechanisms of Africans and their descendants in Antioquia through Tomas Carrasquilla literary work, and, on the other, wants to make evident that those creations marginalized the contributions done by Africans and their descendants to Antioquean history.//Tras el logro de la independencia y a lo largo de todo el siglo xix, las élites políticas, económicas y culturales colombianas trazaron un modelo de nación basado en la idea de que las tierras altas y la raza blanca eran materias primas privilegiadas del progreso; así, con base en atribuciones raciales y geográficas se construyó una jerarquía regional que dio lugar a la configuración de identidades locales definidas en función de ese modelo. Entretanto, aun a pesar de que Antioquia contaba con una importante presencia de africanos y afrodescendientes desde la época colonial, desde diversos lugares de enunciación y acudiendo a la empresa colonizadora del siglo xix como mito fundacional, se empezaron a elaborar representaciones que mostraban a

  17. Didelphis albiventris como indutor de germinação de Rapanea ferruginea (Myrcinaceae em área de Cerrado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Ademir K. M. Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A endozoocoria é um dos processos mais importantes na dispersão de sementes em florestas tropicais, dependente em grande parte de aves e mamíferos, onde a passagem dos frutos pelo sistema digestório permite a escarificação química das sementes e sua germinação. Entre as diversas espécies consumidas por animais está Rapanea ferruginea Ruiz et Pav. (Myrsinaceae, uma árvore perenifólia, heliófila, higrófila e pioneira, cujos frutos são ingeridos pelo marsupial Didelphis albiventris Lund, um pequeno mamífero onívoro de hábito noturno. Levando-se em consideração a importância do conhecimento sobre os processos de mutualismo dispersivo, o objetivo neste experimento foi avaliar a germinação de sementes de R. ferruginea que passaram pelo sistema digestório de D. albiventris. As sementes foram submetidas a seis tratamentos: (1 Grupo-Controle - sementes sem tratamento; (2 Grupo Lixa - sementes escarificadas; (3 Grupo Sistema Digestório - sementes que passaram pelo sistema digestório dos animais; (4 Grupo pH 2; (5 Grupo pH 3; (6 Grupo pH4. Os resultados indicaram que o processo de escarificação foi necessário para a obtenção de maiores taxas e velocidades de germinação da espécie estudada. O tratamento com lixa alcançou resultados significativamente diferentes do Grupo Controle, porém inferiores aos demais tratamentos. O tratamento Grupo Sistema Digestório apresentou a maior taxa e velocidade de germinação. Estes resultados indicam que D. albiventris pode ser considerado um frugívoro indutor da taxa e velocidade de germinação de R. ferruginea.

  18. Estudo sobre a evacuação de doentes dos Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa para Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Florência de Oliveira Reis

    2012-01-01

    Esta dissertação procura esmiuçar a problemática da evacuação dos doentes oriundos de Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa (PALOP) para Portugal ao abrigo dos acordos de cooperação no âmbito da saúde. Foram identificados os pontos fortes, as fragilidades e as possibilidades nos diversos países de origem e em Portugal. Procurou-se analisar a utilidade prática da legislação existente e até que ponto esta é efectivada. Verificou-se a impossibilidade por parte do Serviço Nacional d...

  19. Turgida turgida (Nematoda: Physalopteridae parasitic in white-bellied opossum, Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Roberta M.P. Humberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Turgida turgida have been largely reported parasitizing Didelphis species in North and South America based on light microscopy observation. However, the features that differentiate T. turgida from other physalopterid species should be observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. A female white-bellied opossum, Didelphis albiventris, arrived dead at the Centro de Reabilitação de Animais Silvestres (CRAS in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. During the necropsy, adult nematodes were collected from stomach and intestine. The nematodes were determined to be adult specimens and submitted to SEM for the species determination. This is the first report of T. turgida confirmed by SEM in the Neotropical region and the first report in an urban area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  20. Ecofisiologia de plantas jovens de mogno-africano submetidas a deficit hídrico e reidratação

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    Marcos Paulo Ferreira de Albuquerque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de plantas jovens de mogno-africano (Khaya ivorensis em recuperar seu status hídrico e trocas gasosas após período de deficit hídrico. Plantas com aproximadamente 315 dias, irrigadas (controle e não irrigadas, foram avaliadas aos 14 dias da suspensão da irrigação e após um, três e sete dias da retomada da irrigação (reidratação. No dia 14, o potencial hídrico foliar de antemanhã (Ψam das plantas estressadas foi reduzido a -2,66 MPa. Com a restrição hídrica, foram observadas reduções significativas no conteúdo relativo de água na antemanhã (redução de 32%, na taxa de assimilação líquida de CO2 (90%, na condutância estomática (95%, na transpiração (93% e na razão entre concentração intercelular e ambiental de CO2 (37%. Durante a reidratação, o status hídrico das plantas estressadas foi restabelecido após três dias. As trocas gasosas também se restabeleceram, mas de forma mais lenta que o status hídrico. Sob deficit hídrico, a concentração de prolina aumentou e a de carboidratos solúveis totais diminuiu. Plantas jovens de mogno-africano são tolerantes ao deficit hídrico moderado.

  1. Isolamento de Salmonella enterica em gambás (Didelphis aurita e Didelphis albiventris do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Isolation of Salmonella enterica in opossum (Didelphis aurita and Didelphis albiventris of the São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Renata Assis Casagrande

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, não há relato de estudos de Salmonella em gambás, sendo assim, este trabalho tem por objetivo determinar a frequência de isolamento de Salmonella enterica em gambás (D. aurita e D. albiventris no Estado de São Paulo. No período de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2006, foram necropsiados 106 D. aurita e 40 D. albiventris e colhidos fragmentos de intestinos delgado, grosso e suabe da cloaca. As amostras foram plaqueadas diretamente em ágar Mac Conkey, paralelamente suspendidas nos caldos Rappaport-Vassiliadis e Tetrationato e posteriormente plaqueados em ágar XLT4. As colônias sugestivas de Salmonella foram confirmadas através de provas bioquímicas e sorotipagem. Encontrou-se Salmonella enterica em 17,0% (18/106 dos D. aurita. Destes, 50% apresentaram positividade no intestino delgado (ID, 88,9% no intestino grosso (IG e 66,7% na cloaca. Da espécie S. enterica, as subespécies encontradas foram: diarizonae (11,1% houtenae e enterica (5,5% cada um; enquanto da subespécie S. enterica enterica os sorotipos foram Newport (83,3%, Typhimurium e Cerro (5,5% cada um. Nos D. albiventris, 17,5% (7/40 eram positivos, sendo que se encontraram 42,8% no ID, 85,7% no IG e 71,4% na cloaca. O sorotipo mais prevalente também foi Newport (71,4%, seguido por Typhimurium, Bareilly e Thompson (14,3% cada um. Através dos resultados obtidos neste estudo pode-se comprovar a presença de Salmonella enterica no trato intestinal de gambás no Brasil.In Brazil there is not report of Salmonella in opossum, so then, the objective of this study is to determine the isolation frequency of Salmonella enterica in opossum in São Paulo State, Brazil. From January 2005 to December 2006, 106 D. aurita and 40 D. albiventris were necropsied and samples from small and large intestine and cloacal swab were collected. These samples were submitted to direct plating in Mac Conkey agar and parallel suspension in Rappaport-Vassiliadis and Tetrationate broths with

  2. Liderazgo femenino. Un análisis de las diferencias de género en la formación y desarrollo de asociaciones de inmigrantes africanos

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    Molina Luque, Fidel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes, analyses and compares manifestations of female leadership in associations of African immigrants, examining such factors as work objectives, themes and forms, organisation and institutionalisation. It was based on an in-depth analysis of ten life hi stories, starting from the hypothesis that there is a clearly gender-based difference between the objectives of African associations comprised of men and of women and that this difference stems from the basic inequality of the respective social statuses of men and women and, more specifically, from gender-related culture. The results obtained suggest the existence of “strong” (neither submissive nor ignorant female immigrants with the capacity to lead associations, but whose character is not the result of any supposedly specifically “feminine” characteristics, but rather to a process of early (adolescent learning, academic success and relatively high social origin, all of which help to forge a certain rebellious streak and to lead certain women to assume positions of authority. Whatever the case, it was not possible to observe any relevant differences between female and male leadership; both tend to be characterised by a certain “charisma” and the presence of personal qualities that were the result of interactions within specific social contexts.En el presente estudio se describen, analizan y comparan las manifestaciones del liderazgo femenino en las asociaciones de inmigrantes africanos: sus objetivos de trabajo, temáticas y formas, organización e institucionalización. Para ello se analizan en profundidad diez historias de vida, partiendo de la hipótesis de la existencia de una clara diferenciación de objetivos entre las asociaciones de hombres y mujeres africanos derivados de la desigualdad básica de las posiciones sociales entre hombres y mujeres, y muy especialmente, de las culturas de género. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que existen mujeres

  3. Relaciones entre africanos e indígenas en Chiapas y Guatemala Relations between africans and indigenous peoples in Chiapas and Guatemala

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    Juan Pablo Peña Vicenteño

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia africana en la Audiencia de Guatemala en los siglos XVI y XVII ha sido poco estudiada. Por lo tanto, en este trabajo se analizarán los diferentes mecanismos que utilizó la corona española para el traslado de esclavos, como las licencias y el sistema de asientos. Asimismo, se estudiará la inserción de los africanos en la sociedad colonial y principalmente su interrelación con la población indígena nativa de la región. En los documentos coloniales referentes a matrimonios, podemos observar los procesos de "interculturalidad" en los cuales el esclavo africano intercambió elementos culturales que influyeron en la música. Tal fue el caso de la marimba, instrumento que dio identidad a la región de estudio. Por último, se pretende observar, a través del análisis de las narrativas indígenas originadas en la década de los 90' del siglo XX, cómo en la cosmovisión indígena aún continúa la presencia de los "negros".The presence of African population at the "Audiencia" of Guatemala between 16th and 17th centuries has been vaguely studied by historians and other social scientists. This paper emphasizes on several ways -as slave trade licenses and 'asientos'- that were used by the Spanish Crown for slave trade and transportation. In addition, this article analyses the integration of African slaves and their descendents in Colonial Mexican society, especially their mixture with indigenous population. In Colonial records, as marriages and baptisms files, it is possibly to regard a profound influence on inter-cultural processes between African people and the rest of the Colonial casts. As an example, the musical instrument 'marimba' that brought cultural identity to Guatemala 'Audiencia'. Finally, in this article we will analyze the indigenous literature of the last decade of the 20th century, in which is clear the evidence of "negro" agents in indigenous cosmology.

  4. La representación televisiva de los inmigrantes africanos: invisibilidad, desconocimiento y precariedad. The television representation of African immigrants: invisibility, ignorance and uncertainty

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    Vanessa Rodríguez Breijo

    Full Text Available ResumenLa imagen televisiva de los inmigrantes africanos se caracteriza por su aparición poco frecuente, la falta de información sobre ellos, la precariedad de sus condiciones de trabajo, su tendencia a desempeñar el rol de víctimas y una mayor incidencia de transgresiones a la ley respecto a otros grupos. Estos datos proceden del estudio de la representación de los inmigrantes en este medio. La técnica utilizada fue el análisis de contenido de una muestra de la programación con mayor audiencia, en la que se incluyeron todos los géneros televisivos. Los resultados correspondientes a los africanos los vincularon escasamente con el mundo laboral, lo que no contribuye a que los nativos los valoren como ciudadanos útiles y necesarios. No se promovió el interés por el conocimiento de este colectivo, ni la noción de que ya forman parte de la sociedad; debido a su poca visibilidad y a los exiguos datos ofrecidos sobre ellos. En lugar de resaltar sus aportes, se enfatizó su recurrencia a ayudas gubernamentales y su dependencia, transmitiendo una idea de competencia por los recursos y de normalidad de su situación de desigualdad. Finalmente, sus más frecuentes acciones ilegales podrían estar justificando esas peores condiciones de integración, liberando de responsabilidad a la sociedad receptora.AbstractThe television image of African immigrants is characterized by its infrequent occurrence, the lack of information about them, poor working conditions, their tendency to play the role of victims and a higher incidence of violations of the law regarding other groups. This data comes from examining the representation of immigrants in this media. The technique used was content analysis of a sample of the most watched programs, which included all television genres. The results for the Africans pointed a weak link with the workplace, which doesn't contribute to their valuing as necessary and useful citizens. The interest in knowledge of this

  5. Assessment of the risks of rats (Rattus norvegicus and opossums (Didelphis albiventris in different poultry-rearing areas in Argentina Avaliação dos riscos sanitários de ratos (Rattus norvegicus e gambás (Didelphis albiventris em diferentes granjas avícolas na Argentina

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    Isabel E. Gómez Villafañe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the prevalence of Trichinella spiralis, Leptospira spp. and Salmonella spp. in rats and opossums that inhabit poultry farms of Exaltación de la Cruz, Buenos Aires, Argentina, to determine the potential sanitary risk for humans that are in contact with these animals. The study was carried out on 48 poultry farms between spring 1999 and winter 2001. The study of opossums began in winter 2000. During the study period we captured 152 Rattus norvegicus, 3 Rattus rattus, 16 Didelphis albiventris and 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata. We have registered the presence of rats and opossums in 70% and 27% of the studied farms, respectively. The percentage of farms with rats was independent of the presence or absence of pigs. We did not detect the presence of Leptospira spp. and Trichinella spiralis in any individual. We detected the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in one Rattus norvegicus and one Didelphis albiventris. According to our results, the rats and opossums of poultry farms may not report a risk factor in the transmission of Trichinella and Leptospira under the present conditions; but the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in rats as well as in opossums suggests the idea of applying prophylactics measurements on poultry farms.A prevalência de Trichinella spiralis, Leptospira spp. e Salmonella spp. foi estudada em ratos e gambás que habitam granjas avícolas da região de Exaltación de la Cruz, Buenos Aires, Argentina, com o objetivo de determinar o potencial risco sanitário para pessoas que ficam em contato com esses animais. O estudo foi realizado entre a primavera de 1999 e o inverno de 2001 em 48 granjas avícolas. O estudo em gambás iniciou-se no inverno de 2000. Foram capturados 152 Rattus norvegicus, 3 Rattus rattus, 16 Didelphis albiventris e 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata. Registrou-se a presença de ratos e de gambás em 70% e 27% das granjas estudadas, respectivamente. A percentagem de granjas com ratos foi independente da

  6. Algumas observações sobre o ciclo reprodutivo anual de fêmeas do gambá Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1841 (Marsupialia, Didelphidae em populações naturais no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Sônia Elias Rigueira

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Females of white-eared opossum Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1841 from natural population of the "cerrado", State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, present a seasonal reproductive activity. Young-pouches were found in females captured from August to March. During the months of April to July youngs were not present in the pouch. The only two females captured in July showed pregnant uterus. All females collected in August and September were litter positive. The average number of individuais per litter was 7.04 ± 1.9.

  7. Carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar em leão-africano (Panthera leo Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in an African Lion (Panthera leo

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    Ricardo B. Lucena

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Um caso de carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar difuso do tipo misto foi diagnosticado em um leão-africano (Panthera leo, hospitalizado com sinais de dispnéia e emagrecimento progressivo. Em todos os lobos pulmonares havia múltiplos nódulos esbranquiçados, macios e homogêneos, de 0,2-0,5cm em diâmetro. Histologicamente, os nódulos eram constituídos por células neoplásicas arranjadas em alvéolos e papilas sustentados por moderado estroma fibrovascular, um padrão que lembrava a estrutura pulmonar pré-existente. Na reação pelo ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS foi observada marcação positiva no citoplasma de numerosas células neoplásicas. Todas as células neoplásicas demonstraram forte e uniforme imunorreatividade citoplasmática para pancitoceratina. A marcação para o fator 1 de transcrição da tireóide (TTF-1 foi observada em focos nos núcleos das células neoplásicas das margens dos nódulos. Nas secções avaliadas para surfactante A, a marcação foi observada em múltiplas áreas focais, tanto no citoplasma como na membrana citoplasmática das células neoplásicas. O diagnóstico de carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar difuso do tipo misto foi feito com base nos achados histológicos, histoquímicos e imuno-histoquímicos. Essa parece ser a primeira descrição de um neoplasma pulmonar primário maligno em leão-africano.A case of diffuse bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the mixed type was diagnosed in the lung of an adult female African lion (Panthera leo with presenting signs of progressive dyspnea and weight loss. In all pulmonary lobes there were multiple 0.2-0.5cm in diameter soft and homogenous white nodules. Histologically, these nodules consisted of neoplastic cells with an alveolar and papillary disposition, a pattern reminiscent of the preexistent pulmonary structure. The cytoplasms of numerous neoplastic cells were positive in the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS stain. At immunohistochemistry examination, all neoplastic

  8. La oportunidad de un atlas sobre el estado del continente africano / The Opportunity of an Atlas about the Situation of the African Continent

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    Eva Pérez Hernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde la Antigüedad clásica hasta nuestros días se han multiplicado las representaciones cartográficas de la Tierra, sin embargo, no todos los territorios del planeta han recibido la misma atención. En el caso del continente africano son escasas las colecciones de mapas recientes y, especialmente, las que conforman atlas temáticos. Esta circunstancia fue determinante en la orientación de las prácticas desarrolladas en Casa África durante el curso académico 2012-2013, al amparo del Consorcio Casa África-Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. El objetivo de las prácticas fue la elaboración de un atlas digital de África que tuvo como resultado la realización de cuarenta mapas temáticos basados en indicadores geográficos, ambientales, demográficos, económicos, sociales, geopolíticos, culturales y de sus relaciones económicas y políticas con España. La elaboración de dicho atlas se vio afectada por numerosas dificultades en cuanto a la búsqueda y tratamiento de las fuentes de información y por un trabajo de diseño y edición que requirió de la utilización de las nuevas tecnologías de la información geográfica. El presente artículo reflexiona acerca de la importancia de la cartografía como herramienta imprescindible de conocimiento geográfico y acerca de la superación de dificultades que entrañan retos como el de la realización de un atlas sobre el estado actual del continente africano.From Classical Antiquity to the present days, cartographic representations of the Earth have multiplied. However, not all the territories of the planet have received the same attention. In the case of the African continent, there are few collections of recent maps, especially, of those that are composed of thematic atlases. This circumstance was decisive in determining the focus of the internship in Casa África during academic year 2012-2013, under the auspices of the Consortium Casa África - University of Las Palmas de Gran

  9. Condições microbiológicas e de ocorrência do caramujo terrestre africano na cidade de Araguaína no Estado do Tocantins

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    Lilyan Luizaga Monteiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Com base na grande incidência da espécie invasora de caramujo africano, Achatina fulica, na cidade de Araguaína, objetivamos investigar a relação existente entre as condições microbiológicas do caramujo e a ocorrência deste nas hortas domésticas na cidade. Foram seguidas metodologias laboratoriais na determinação de presença/ausência de microrganismos na superfície do caramujo, assim como de fungos filamentosos. Para complementar o trabalho foram entrevistados cento e um (101 moradores domiciliados em dezenove setores de Araguaína. Os resultados microbiológicos da superfície do caramujo apresentam valores acima de 1,2x105 UFC/g de bactérias heterotróficas, foram também isolados fungos dos gêneros Aspergillus, Penicillum, Trichophyton e Cryptococcus. No levantamento por entrevista, 86% dos entrevistados relataram uma alta incidência do caramujo nos seus domicílios no período chuvoso e 50% deles afirmaram ter algum tipo de canteiro em casa, porém 85% desconhecem as doenças que poderiam ser transmitidas por este caramujo. Concluímos que existe uma elevada contaminação microbiológica na superfície dos caramujos analisados, o que combinado com a preferencia pelos produtos de hortas domesticas desconhecendo os riscos que a invasão por caramujos pode acarretar, indicam a necessidade de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a determinação das condições de risco inerentes a A. fulica, assim como sua divulgação na sociedade araguaínense sobre seus efeitos, não somente na saúde das pessoas mas também na produtividade da agricultura artesanal.

  10. El rol del asociacionismo de inmigrantes africanos en la construcción de cohesión social y la convivencia en Cataluña, Navarra y la Comunidad Valenciana. Miradas Cruzadas

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    Moncusí Ferré, Albert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse some possible contributions from organisations funded by immigrants from the African continent to the socio-cultural integration in three Regions in Spain. In order to do so, first there is a definition of integrations as a process, paying special attention to the role that national and international literature have given to the associations of immigrants. Afterwards, there is a focus on associations from people with an African origin, paying attention to the double view point, from one side the one from representatives from African associations and on the other, from administration technicians and representatives of social entities that collaborate with them. The point is to analyse the speech of those actors, about the reasons of its existence, the objectives and activities of the associations of Africans, for the associates themselves as well as for those immigrants from their countries and for the society that welcomes them. The elements in favour and against in the studied perspectives build an action field shared by both actors, in the process of construction of social cohesion and living partnership, but, at the same time, they suggest the existence of some limitations in itself.El objetivo de este artículo es analizar algunas posibles contribuciones de las organizaciones fundadas por personas emigradas desde el continente africano a la integración sociocultural en tres Comunidades Autónomas españolas. Para ello, se empieza definiendo la integración como proceso, con particular atención al papel que la literatura nacional e internacional ha otorgado al asociacionismo de inmigrantes en él. Posteriormente, se enfoca el caso particular del asociacionismo de las personas de origen africano y su incidencia en la integración en todo lo referido a la interadaptación social y cultural, según la doble mirada que encontramos en las entrevistas realizadas tanto a representantes de asociaciones de africanos como

  11. Who built the great Zimbabwe? About the myth of civilizational handicap of african peoples Quem construiu o grande Zimbábue? Em torno do mito da incapacidade civilizadora dos povos africanos

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    José Henrique Rollo Gonçalves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the sixteenth century Europeans have been writing about what they perceive as technological, aesthetic and moral backwardness of African peoples. Taking as starting point the history of the hypothesis about the origins of the architectural complex of Great Zimbabwe, this article discusses briefly the ethnocentric and racist assumptions of those perceptions, their durability, and their functional role in the development of white Africans’ supremacist ideologies.Desde o começo do século XVI, europeus têm escrito sobre o que entendem por atraso tecnológico, estético e moral dos povos africanos. Tomando como ponto de partida a história das hipóteses sobre as origens do complexo arquitetônico do Grande Zimbábue, este artigo discute brevemente os pressupostos etnocêntricos e racistas daquelas percepções, sua durabilidade, e seu papel funcional no desenvolvimento das ideologias supremacistas de brancos africanos.

  12. Análisis antropogenético de los aportes indígena y africano en muestras hospitalarias de la ciudad de Buenos Aires

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    Avena, Sergio Alejandro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Como consecuencia de las masivas corrientes migratorias de origen europeo que arribaron a la ciudad de Buenos Aires, las frecuencias génicas de los sistemas ABO y Rh en muestras hospitalarias de las décadas de 1930 y 1940 eran similares a las registradas en España e Italia. A partir de los años cuarenta, poblaciones del interior del país y de países limítrofes, de elevada composición indígena y posiblemente también africana, migraron hacia la ciudad. Para evaluar su repercusión sobre la estructura genética de la población nos propusimos analizar muestras poblacionales actuales. Los estudios se realizaron sobre dos muestras del Banco de Sangre del Hospital Italiano denominadas MI y MII. La MI comprendió la información del Registro de Dadores de Sangre de esa unidad, para los sistemas ABO y Rh (D (N=13.217. Para la MII se analizaron 9 sistemas eritrocitarios y los alotipos GM/KM (N=202. En este último caso se realizó una encuesta con la finalidad de obtener información sobre lugar de nacimiento, residencia actual y datos genealógicos. Las frecuencias génicas se determinaron empleando métodos de máxima verosimilitud. El mestizaje se estimó aplicando el programa ADMIX (trihíbrido. Las frecuencias génicas obtenidas para ABO y Rh difieren significativamente de las detectadas antes de mitad del siglo. Se registró 10.5% de aporte aborigen en la MI y 15.9% en la MII, mientras que sólo se detectó la presencia de componente africano en una región de la MI (1.0% y en la MII (3.3%. Estos resultados, que confirmarían la existencia de cambios en la composición genética de la población de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, se discuten en referencia a la información demográfica e histórica.

  13. Susceptibilidade do besouro rola-bosta africano a reguladores de crescimento de insetos Susceptibility of African dung beetle to insect growth regulators

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    L.N. Domingues

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a ação dos reguladores de crescimento de insetos (IGR, diflubenzuron e methoprene, sobre o besouro rola-bosta africano, Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius, um inimigo natural da mosca-dos-chifres, Haematobia irritans irritans (Linnaeus. Casais de besouros foram colocados em baldes contendo terra úmida e alimentados com fezes bovinas contendo 1, 0,5 ou 0,2ppm de diflubenzuron e 0,2ppm de methoprene. Os insetos e sua prole foram recuperados com o auxílio de armadilhas pitfall. Diflubenzuron e methoprene não afetaram a sobrevivência dos adultos inicialmente expostos, mas interferiram na produção de descendentes. Diflubenzuron, nas concentrações de 1 e 0,5ppm, também afetou a duração do ciclo de vida dos besouros. Nenhum dos IGRs alterou a razão sexual dos descendentes obtidos. As concentrações testadas de diflubenzuron mostraram-se moderadamente nocivas ao besouro enquanto methoprene a 0,2ppm mostrou ser pouco nocivo, segundo os critérios da International Organization for Biological Control.The effects of insect growth regulators (IGR, diflubenzuron and methoprene, on African dung beetle, Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius, a natural enemy of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Linnaeus, was studied. Beetles were placed in buckets partially filled with humid soil and were fed bovine feces containing 1, 0.5, or 0.2ppm diflubenzuron and 0.2ppm methoprene. Insects and their progenies were recovered by pitfall traps. Diflubenzuron and methoprene did not affect the survival of the adults but reduced their progenies. Diflubenzuron 1 and 0.5ppm also affected the life cicle of the beetles. None of the IGR modified the gender ratio of the progenies. According to the IOBC criteria, diflubenzuron tested concentrations showed to be moderately harmful to the beetles, whereas methoprene 0.2ppm was slightly harmful.

  14. Spinal osteosarcoma in a hedgehog with pedal self-mutilation.

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    Rhody, Jeffrey L; Schiller, Chris A

    2006-09-01

    An African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was diagnosed with osteosarcoma of vertebral origin with compression of the spinal cord and spinal nerves. The only presenting sign was a self-mutilation of rear feet. Additional diagnoses included a well-differentiated splenic hemangiosarcoma, an undifferentiated sarcoma of the ascending colon, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. PMID:16931383

  15. Cytologic diagnosis of diseases of hedgehogs.

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    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Garner, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on neoplastic diseases because they may be the most frequent disease processes in captive hedgehogs according to the literature and authors' case files and the most common cases submitted for cytologic diagnosis in these species, particularly the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). PMID:17198959

  16. Surgical removal of a mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor in an African pygmy hedgehog.

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    Wellehan, James F X; Southorn, Erin; Smith, Dale A; Taylor, W Michael

    2003-03-01

    A 3-year-old, female African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was referred with a history of hematuria. Hyperglycemia and glucosuria were found at presentation. Mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor were found and removed surgically. Glucosuria and hematuria resolved, and the hedgehog has done well for 10 mo postoperatively. PMID:12677695

  17. Surgical removal of a mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor in an African pygmy hedgehog

    OpenAIRE

    Wellehan, James F. X.; Southorn, Erin; Smith, Dale A.; Taylor, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A 3-year-old, female African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was referred with a history of hematuria. Hyperglycemia and glucosuria were found at presentation. Mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor were found and removed surgically. Glucosuria and hematuria resolved, and the hedgehog has done well for 10 mo postoperatively.

  18. Parámetros hematológicos de la comadreja overa, Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1841, de poblaciones silvestres del centro de la Argentina Haematological parameters of the White-eared Opossum, Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1841, wild populations of central Argentina

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    E.L. Tarragona

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue obtener parámetros hematológicos en poblaciones silvestres de comadreja overa Didelphis albiventris de la región centro de la Argentina. Se capturaron 39 individuos, a todos ellos se les realizó un recuento total y diferencial de células sanguíneas. Los valores promedio (± desvío estándar obtenidos fueron: eritrocitos 5,01 (±2,4 × 10(6µL-1; leucocitos 27.097 (±14.313 µL-1; neutrófilos 7.600 (±7.097 µL-1 (incluye inmaduros, 794 (±2.738 µL-1; linfocitos 13.110 (±7.541 µL-1; basófilos 1.218 (±1.441 µL-1; eosinófilos 1.983 (±2.458 µL-1; y monocitos 2.321 (±2.818 µL-1. La existencia de asociaciones entre estos parámetros y factores ambientales (estación y del animal (sexo y edad fue evaluada mediante regresión lineal multivariable. Se estableció que los neutrófilos estuvieron significativamente asociados a sexo (p=0.006. Los machos tenían la mitad de los niveles de neutrófilos que las hembras. Los eosinófilos estuvieron asociados a la estación. En verano hubo significativamente más eosinófilos que en invierno (p=0.042. En los extendidos sanguíneos se observaron alteraciones morfológicas de eritrocitos en aproximadamente 55% de las muestras analizadas, las más habituales fueron pilas en monedas y estomatocitos. También se visualizó un tipo celular no descripto anteriormente para esta especie, leucocito anular.The objective of this study was to assess haematological parameters in free-ranging white-bellied opossums (Didelphis albiventris in the central region of Argentina. Total and differential blood cell counts were conducted in thirty-nine captured individuals. The mean (± standard deviation values obtained were: erythrocytes 5.01 (±2.4 x 106µL-1, leukocytes: 27,097 (±14,313 µL-¹; neutrophils 7,600 (±7,097 µL-1 (including immature neutrophils: 794 (±2,738 µL-1; lymphocytes: 13,110 (±7,541 µL-1; basophils: 1,218 (±1,441 µL-1; eosinophils: 1,983 (±2,458 µL-1

  19. Sudáfrica: La Clase Obrera y el Congreso Nacional Africano después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El tema a trabajar será “Los movimientos nacionalistas y la clase obrera en Sudáfrica”, en el período que va desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial hasta principios de la década del sesenta. Más específicamente se analizará cómo los movimientos nacionalistas sudafricanos, principalmente el A.N.C. (African National Congress, se ligan a un importante número de trabajadores africanos y a los sindicatos que los dirigen; se establecerá cuáles eran sus programas políticos y sus estrategias de luchas contra el gobierno de la Unión y el Imperio inglés para la independencia nacional; y a partir de esto se precisaran sus límites tácticos y programáticos, sosteniendo como hipótesis de trabajo que en Sudáfrica, dada la importancia estructural de la clase obrera, existió la posibilidad de un programa y una dirección política que organizara a los trabajadores con sus propios métodos de lucha y que fuera más allá de la independencia política y nacional, es decir una alternativa socialista; y que, para ello, definiera claramente que la lucha por la independencia debía ser en contra, no sólo del gobierno de la minoría blanca, sino también de los verdaderos beneficiarios del régimen de segregación y superexplotación: las empresas transnacionales de capitales extranjeros, principalmente británicos. Para sostener esta hipótesis se realizará un análisis estructural de las distintas clases sociales en Sudáfrica desde una mirada marxista, como así también se analizarán las diversas luchas llevadas adelantes por los trabajadores sudafricanos y las respuestas que a éstas dieron los partidos y sindicatos que las dirigieron.The subject to work will be “the nationalistic movements and the working class in South Africa”, in the period that goes from World War II until the beginning of the Sixties. More specifically one will analyze how the South African nationalistic movements, mainly A.N.C. (African National Congress, they league

  20. Otredad y ambigüedad: las percepciones que los españoles y los mayas tenían de los africanos en el Yucatán colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Restall

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo estudia las actitudes de mayas y espaiíoles hacia las personas de ascendencia africana en Yucatán durante la época colonial. A lo largo de los tres siglos de dominio colonial en esta provincia, las relaciones entre españoles, mayas y negrós se hicieron progresivamente complejas, en tanto que el proceso de miceginación provccó que hubiera más mulatos que negros a finales del periodo colonial y que aumentara la interacción entre negros y mayas, tanto en poblados como en ciudades. A su vez, las actitudes de espaiioles y mayas hacia los africanos se hicieron también más complejas. Este artículo sostiene que dicha complejidad se manifestó como una ambigüedad que a un mismo tiempo perpetuó los estereotipos racistas y reconoció la pertenencia de las personas de ascendencia africana a las redes sociales multiraciales de la colonia. En otras palabras, los negros eran incluidos y excluidos, tanto por los españoles como por los mayas, lo que se manifestó en la formación de las identidades afroyucatecas

  1. Ecofisiologia de plantas jovens de mogno-africano submetidas a deficit hídrico e reidratação Ecophysiology of young African mahogany plants subjected to water deficit and rewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Ferreira de Albuquerque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de plantas jovens de mogno-africano (Khaya ivorensis em recuperar seu status hídrico e trocas gasosas após período de deficit hídrico. Plantas com aproximadamente 315 dias, irrigadas (controle e não irrigadas, foram avaliadas aos 14 dias da suspensão da irrigação e após um, três e sete dias da retomada da irrigação (reidratação. No dia 14, o potencial hídrico foliar de antemanhã (Ψam das plantas estressadas foi reduzido a -2,66 MPa. Com a restrição hídrica, foram observadas reduções significativas no conteúdo relativo de água na antemanhã (redução de 32%, na taxa de assimilação líquida de CO2 (90%, na condutância estomática (95%, na transpiração (93% e na razão entre concentração intercelular e ambiental de CO2 (37%. Durante a reidratação, o status hídrico das plantas estressadas foi restabelecido após três dias. As trocas gasosas também se restabeleceram, mas de forma mais lenta que o status hídrico. Sob deficit hídrico, a concentração de prolina aumentou e a de carboidratos solúveis totais diminuiu. Plantas jovens de mogno-africano são tolerantes ao deficit hídrico moderado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the capacity of young plants of African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis to recover their water status and gas exchange after water deficit. Plants with approximately 315 days, irrigated (control and non-irrigated, were evaluated after water was withheld for 14 days, and after one, three, and seven days of irrigation resumption (rehydration. On day 14, the predawn leaf water potential (Ψam of stressed plants was reduced to -2.66 MPa. With water deficit, significant decreases were observed in predawn relative water content (32% reduction, in net assimilation rate of CO2 (90%, in stomatal conductance (95%, in transpiration (93%, and in intercellular to ambient ratio of CO2 concentration (37%. During rehydration, the water status of stressed

  2. Corynebacterial pneumonia in an African hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Williams, C; Wu, C C

    1998-04-01

    A 3-mo-old, male African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was anorectic and lethargic for a period of 3 days prior to death. Necropys revealed lungs that were diffusely firm, dark red, and dorsally adhered by fibrinous tags to the pericardial sac. Histopathology revealed necrosuppurative bronchopneumonia with pulmonary abscesses and suppurative pericarditis and myocarditis. A Corynebacterium sp. was isolated from the lungs. We believe this is the first reported case of corynebacterial pneumonia in an African hedgehog. PMID:9577794

  3. Intestinal plasmacytoma in an African hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Vara, J A; Miller, M A; Craft, D

    1998-04-01

    A 3-yr-old male African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) had anorexia and weight loss for 1 wk before its death. The colon and mesocolon were diffusely infiltrated by a neoplastic proliferation of round cells with plasmacytoid features. A diagnosis of intestinal plasmacytoma was made and confirmed by electron microscopy. No other organs appeared to be affected. This is the first description of intestinal plasmacytoma in a hedgehog. PMID:9577789

  4. Intestinal lymphosarcoma in captive African hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Clarke, K A; Schafer, K A

    1998-10-01

    Two captive adult female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) had inappetance and bloody diarrhea for several days prior to death. Both hedgehogs had ulceration of the small intestine and hepatic lipidosis. Histopathology revealed small intestinal lymphosarcoma with metastasis to the liver. Extracellular particles that had characteristics of retroviruses were observed associated with the surface of some neoplastic lymphoid cells by transmission electron microscopy. These are the first reported cases of intestinal lymphosarcoma in African hedgehogs. PMID:9813852

  5. [Presence of a new Trichostrongyloidea (Nematoda) Nochtia (Nochtia) atelerixi n. sp. in an Erinacoidea (Insectivora) in Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, J C; Durette-Desset, M C

    1982-12-01

    Nochtia (Nochtia) atelerixi n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongyloidea) of Ethiopian Erinacoidea. - Nochtia (Nochtia) atelerixi n. sp. is found in the intestine of the hedgehog Atelerix albiventris in Togo. It is distinguished from the two other congeneric species parasite of asiatic Primates, N. (N.) nochti Travassos et Vogelsang, 1929 and N. (N.) tani Le Van Hoa, 1966, mainly by the highest number of cuticular crests and spicules with six tips. PMID:6926936

  6. EVA: o caso sul africano (2002 - 2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, José Anísio Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão de Empresas / JEL Classification: G12, G30 As diversas medidas tradicionais de avaliação de desempenho económico das empresas não conseguem apurar se está a ser criada ou destruída riqueza e consequentemente a contribuir-se para o aumento ou a diminuição do valor de mercado das empresas, uma vez que o seu cálculo tende a assentar quase exclusivamente em dados contabilísticos. Com vista a responder esta necessidade, o EVA/MVA foi apresentado como uma met...

  7. Segurança seletiva no pós-Guerra Fria: uma análise da política e dos instrumentos de segurança das Nações Unidas para os países periféricos - o caso africano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pio Penna Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traça o perfil da atuação da Organização das Nações Unidas em dois momentos distintos: antes e depois do fim da Guerra Fria. O autor analisa também como as operações de paz desenvolvidas por essa organização internacional vêm atuando nos conflitos ocorridos no continente africano.This article treats about the role that the United Nations has played in two different moments: before and after the end of Cold War. The author also analyses how peacekeeping operations developed by this international organization have worked in the conflicts that took place in the African continent.

  8. Traços do proprium cultural africano e sua relação com o sagrado (Features of African culture and conceptions of the sacred - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n29p88

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    Antonio Geraldo Cantarela

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Na esteira da conquista colonial de África, desencadeada na segunda metade do século XIX, alguns antropólogos e missionários europeus, que estabeleceram longa convivência com sociedades de diferentes regiões do continente  africano, lograram realizar as primeiras recolhas e sistematizações acadêmicas do imaginário cultural de comunidades tradicionais. Tomando tal contexto como pano de fundo e contraponto, o artigo destaca algumas vozes de teóricos “nativos” (Ki-Zerbo, Hampaté Bâ, Honorat Aguessy, com vistas a explicitar e discutir alguns traços do proprium cultural africano. Na concepção daquelas culturas tradicionais, a religião, assentada no mesmo arco da cultura oral, funda todos os demais componentes da vida social. Sobre tal pressuposto, o texto discute quatro aspectos principais: a concepção (ingênua de uma unidade cultural africana; a importância da tradição oral para o conhecimento da história e do imaginário das sociedades daquele continente; as imbricações da ação política e das questões culturais;  as polarizações (desnecessárias de Europa versus África para fins de caracterizar adequadamente as culturas africanas. Palavras-chave: Culturas africanas. Religião tradicional africana. Oralidade.   Abstract During the colonial conquest of Africa, which began in the second half of the nineteenth century, some European missionaries and anthropologists, who have established long acquaintance with some societies from different regions of Africa, managed to make the first academic collection and systematization of African traditional thought. Taking such a context as a backdrop and counterpoint, this article highlights some voices of African theorists (Ki-Zerbo, Hampaté Bâ, Honorat Aguessy, in order to explain and discuss some essential features of African culture. Within the traditional African conception, the religion, founded on the same pillars of oral culture, founds all other components of

  9. Hedgehogs and sugar gliders: respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dan H

    2011-05-01

    This article discusses the respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease of African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), two species commonly seen in exotic animal practice. Where appropriate, information from closely related species is mentioned because cross-susceptibility is likely and because these additional species may also be encountered in practice. Other body systems and processes are discussed insofar as they relate to or affect respiratory function. Although some topics, such as special senses, hibernation, or vocalization, may seem out of place, in each case the information relates back to respiration in some important way. PMID:21601815

  10. Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

    2000-04-01

    From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs. PMID:10813628

  11. Hedgehogs and sugar gliders: respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dan H

    2011-05-01

    This article discusses the respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease of African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), two species commonly seen in exotic animal practice. Where appropriate, information from closely related species is mentioned because cross-susceptibility is likely and because these additional species may also be encountered in practice. Other body systems and processes are discussed insofar as they relate to or affect respiratory function. Although some topics, such as special senses, hibernation, or vocalization, may seem out of place, in each case the information relates back to respiration in some important way.

  12. Forum: challenges in STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking African countries: contributions from social research and from a gender approach: Introduction Fórum: desafios da prevenção das DST/AIDS em países africanos de língua oficial portuguesa: contribuições da pesquisa social e do recorte de gênero: Introdução

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    Simone Monteiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This forum on the challenges of preventing STD/AIDS in Portuguese-speaking African countries contains three articles and a postscript. The first paper reviews academic production on the topic from the fields of the social sciences and of health, with special attention on how local cultural and socioeconomic factors impact the dynamics of the epidemic. Based on an ethnographic study of a region in southern Mozambique, the second paper analyzes the notion of 'tradition' within the context of Mozambique and how it affects perceptions of the local population's vulnerability to STD/AIDS. The third and final article discusses common ground and differences between government and civil society in gender approaches by community HIV/AIDS projects in Mozambique. Their observations suggest that important mistakes have been made in STD/AIDS prevention discourse and initiatives in African countries because the unique features of local development models and cultural systems have not been taken into account.Esta introdução apresenta o Fórum sobre os desafios da prevenção às DST/AIDS em países africanos de língua oficial portuguesa, constituído por três artigos e um posfácio. O primeiro trabalho traz uma revisão da produção acadêmica no campo das ciências sociais e da saúde sobre o tema, focalizando as implicações dos fatores culturais e sócio-econômicos locais para a dinâmica da epidemia. A partir de um estudo etnográfico numa região do sul de Moçambique, o segundo texto analisa a noção de "tradição" no contexto moçambicano e suas conseqüências para a percepção da vulnerabilidade às DST/AIDS da população local. O terceiro artigo discute pontos de aproximação e de desencontro entre o governo e a sociedade civil na abordagem de gênero de projetos comunitários de enfrentamento do HIV/AIDS em Moçambique. As reflexões revelam que os discursos e ações de prevenção das DST/AIDS em países africanos apresentam equ

  13. Pavimentos africanos con espectáculos de toros

    OpenAIRE

    Blázquez Martínez, José María; López Monteagudo, Guadalupe; Neira, Luz; San Nicolás Pedraz, María Pilar

    1990-01-01

    El mosaico descubierto en la villa romana de Silin (Tripolitania) con representación de una escena de condenados lanzados al aire por un toro, sirve de punto de partida a los autores para hacer un estudio comparativo de los pavimentos norteafricanos de anfiteatro en los que intervienen toros. Se utiliza para la interpretación de las escenas tanto las fuentes arqueológicas, como literarias que ilustran, de forma especial estas últimas, acerca de las distintas clases de espectáculos con toros q...

  14. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus fed high fat diets Carnitina dietética mantem reservas energéticas e evita a fatiga de bagre-africano durante exercício

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    Rodrigo Ozório

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1. Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P Lipídios e proteínas são tradicionalmente considerados combustíveis primários durante natação aeróbica. Nesse ensaio foi investigado o efeito da suplementação de vários níveis de gordura e carnitina no metabolismo de 100 bagres africanos juvenis (Clarias gariepinus. Os peixes foram arraçoados com quatro dietas isoprotéicas, cada uma contendo 100 ou 190 g gordura kg-1 dieta, e um dos dois níveis de carnitina (15 e 1000 mg kg-1. Os peixes cresceram de 61 a 162 g em 10 semanas. No final do ensaio de alimentação, grupos de seis peixes por tratamento foram induzidos a nadar vigorosamente por 3 h e em seguida vários parâmetros foram determinados no tecido muscular e plasma, e os resultados observados nos grupos exercitados foram comparados com grupos controles (não exercitados. Os peixes arraçoados com 1,000 mg carnitina acumularam de duas a três vezes mais carnitina que os peixes arraçoados com 15 mg carnitina. O nível de acyl-carnitina no plasma foi influenciado pela interação entre os tratamentos dietéticos e exercício físico (P < 0.05. As concentrações de adenosina trifosfato (ATP e fosfocreatina no tecido muscular branco (WM foram mais elevadas em

  15. Las religiones y culturas de origen africano (Brasil, Cuba, Venezuela a prueba de políticas turísticas y rivalidades ¿ Un desarrollo sostenible ? Religions and cultures of African origin (Brazil, Cuba, Venezuela to test tourism policies and rivalries. A sustainable development? Religions et cultures d'origine africaine (Brésil, Cuba, Venezuela à l'épreuve des politiques touristiques et des rivalités. Un développement soutenable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Fitó

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les religions1 d’origine africaine ont été transformées, au Brésil, à Cuba et plus récemment au Venezuela, en instruments pour augmenter la captation de devises, par le biais de programmes présentés par les autorités comme répondant aux normes du développement durable. Mais, tant le contrôle exercé sur ces manifestations culturelles, à des fins de commercialisation, que les rivalités engendrées entre pays, ou entre villes dans certains cas, mènent à une aliénation des acteurs de leur propre culture (après Guillermo Bonfill, contredisant la définition même de “développement durable”.The religions of African origin have been taken in Brazil, in Cuba and more recently in Venezuela as instruments to increase the inflow of currency, in tourism development programs presented by the authorities as sustainable. But the control exercised on them by the State organizations, with marketing purposes, as well as the rivalries between countries, as well as between cities of the same country in some cases, carry an alienation of the culture (according to Guillermo Bonfill's theory of cultural control, questioning the possibility of a balanced development, that is to say a sustainable development.Las religiones de origen africano han sido tomadas en Brasil, en Cuba y más recientemente en Venezuela como instrumento para incrementar la entrada de divisas, en programas de desarrollo del turismo presentados por las autoridades como sostenibles. Pero, tanto el control ejercido sobre ellas por los organismos oficiales, con fines de comercialización, como las rivalidades entre paises, así como en algún caso, entre ciudades de un mismo país, conllevan una enajenación de la cultura (según la teoría del control cultural de Guillermo Bonfill, cuestionando la posibilidad de un desarrollo equilibrado, es decir sostenible.

  16. Common procedures in hedgehogs, prairie dogs, exotic rodents, and companion marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A

    2006-05-01

    Nondomesticated species are commonly being kept as companion animals. These include the African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albi-ventris), the North American black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys lu-dovicianus), and exotic rodents such as the degu (Octodon degus)and duprasi or fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi). Common companion marsupials include the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps),Bennett's or Tammar (Dama) wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus rufo-griseus and Macropus eugenii, respectively), the Brazilian or South American gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica), and the North American Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Although many of these animals are now bred domestically and are fairly docile when human-raised, they are essentially wild animals and hence have strong instincts to hide illness and pain. PMID:16759954

  17. A new genotype of Arthroderma benhamiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Sano, Ayako; Makimura, Koichi; Watanabe, Shinichi; Nishimura, Kazuko; Yamaguchi, Hideo; Hasegawa, Atuhiko

    2008-11-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) indicated 90% sequence similarities among human and animal isolates of Arthroderma benhamiae. In particular, greater than 99% similarity was noted in the nucleotide sequence among Americano-European race isolates, African race isolates, and five isolates from four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the five isolates from hedgehogs were included in the same cluster and distinct from the Americano-European and the African race standard strains of A. benhamiae. These results were confirmed by ITS analysis. Therefore, it was proposed that genotypes could be established for the isolates of A. benhamiae in association with the mating behavior. PMID:18608884

  18. Marsupial, insectivore, and chiropteran anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, G W

    2001-01-01

    This article covers the manual restraint and anesthesia of marsupials, insectivores, and chiroptera. Marsupials commonly kept as pets in the U.S. [e.g., eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps)] are covered in detail. Marsupial species kept in zoological parks [e.g., Tasmanian devils, koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), and common wombats (Vombatus ursinus)] are covered in less detail. Of the insectivores, only the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) and the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) are commonly kept as pets and, consequently, the insectivore section concentrates on discussing these two species. The section on chiropteran anesthesia is divided into two broad categories: the megachiropterans (flying foxes and fruit bats) and the microchiropterans (insectivorous bats). Most of the information on the species covered in this article is anecdotal, and this should be kept in mind when using the anesthesia protocols described. PMID:11217462

  19. Common procedures in hedgehogs, prairie dogs, exotic rodents, and companion marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A

    2006-05-01

    Nondomesticated species are commonly being kept as companion animals. These include the African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albi-ventris), the North American black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys lu-dovicianus), and exotic rodents such as the degu (Octodon degus)and duprasi or fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi). Common companion marsupials include the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps),Bennett's or Tammar (Dama) wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus rufo-griseus and Macropus eugenii, respectively), the Brazilian or South American gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica), and the North American Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Although many of these animals are now bred domestically and are fairly docile when human-raised, they are essentially wild animals and hence have strong instincts to hide illness and pain.

  20. Marsupial, insectivore, and chiropteran anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, G W

    2001-01-01

    This article covers the manual restraint and anesthesia of marsupials, insectivores, and chiroptera. Marsupials commonly kept as pets in the U.S. [e.g., eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps)] are covered in detail. Marsupial species kept in zoological parks [e.g., Tasmanian devils, koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), and common wombats (Vombatus ursinus)] are covered in less detail. Of the insectivores, only the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) and the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) are commonly kept as pets and, consequently, the insectivore section concentrates on discussing these two species. The section on chiropteran anesthesia is divided into two broad categories: the megachiropterans (flying foxes and fruit bats) and the microchiropterans (insectivorous bats). Most of the information on the species covered in this article is anecdotal, and this should be kept in mind when using the anesthesia protocols described.

  1. AcEST: BP916220 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000084_F11 460 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000084_F11. BP916220... CL2658Contig1 Show BP916220 Clone id YMU001_000084_F11 Library YMU01 Length 460 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000084_F11. Accession BP916220 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...abase search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP916220|Adiantum ... half LIM domains protein 3 OS=Bo... 36 0.091 sp|Q00PK1|TES_ATEAB Testin OS=Atelerix albiventris GN=TES PE=3 SV=1 35 0.16 sp|P22220

  2. Gibraltar, identidad de un colectivo de origen africano en el Zulia (1820-1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Rodríguez Arrieta

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Gibraltar durante el siglo XIX fue el espacio atípico de la región zuliana. La forma de actuar y de resolver sus problemas al parecer responde al trato dado por las autoridades españolas y crio- llas durante dos siglos de historia esclavista; se constituyó en uno de los puertos más importantes y necesarios para pasar los productos que salían de Maracaibo y los que ésta recibía de Mérida y Tru- jillo. Su localización geográfica privilegiada fue el principal elemento que contribuyó a la creación de su identidad local, el apego a su espacio y las ventajas que este les ofreció permitió en el tiempo crear una micro-región con áreas productivas de gran provecho para los espacios ubicados en sus al - rededores. La defensa de su modo de vida, condujo al colectivo a enfrentarse con el centro de poder provincial; situación que hacía complejo el ejercicio del poder en la capital de la provincia ante la diversidad de demandas y formas de oposición. Las peculiaridades de su proceso histórico: pobla- ción no esclava logró en un período de larga duración definirse como un grupo social con sus pro- pios mecanismos y normativas de defensa y ataque.

  3. O Brasil africano de Jorge Amado : territórios, cartografias & fotografias

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    Sanzio Araújo dos Anjos, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Uma das questões estruturais relacionada à cultura africana no Brasil que continua merecendo investigação e conhecimento, está relacionada aos aspectos historiográficos e geográficos da formação e distribuição da população de ancestralidade na África do território brasileiro. O paper resgata as principais referências geográficas e cartografias presentes nas obras do escritor Jorge Amado e utilizamos como espaços de investigação, nesta oportunidade, as representações espaciais do Estado da Bah...

  4. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium isolates from exotic pet animals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Matsubara, Katsuki

    2015-04-30

    The Cryptosporidium horse genotype, a zoonotic protozoan parasite first found in a Prezewalski wild horse, has not been found in any other mammal but calves, horses, and humans. Hedgehogs, popular exotic pet animals in Japan, are a reservoir of two zoonotic Cryptosporidum: C. parvum and C. erinacei (previously known as the hedgehog genotype). Recently, after finding Cryptosporidium infection in a four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), we identified the isolate genetically as the Cryptosporidium horse genotype. Its subtype (VIbA13) was the same as that of an isolate from a pet shop employee with severe clinical symptoms, as reported previously from sequencing analysis of the partial Cryptosporidum 60kDa glycoprotein gene sequence. The occurrence of this genotype in hedgehog indicates that the horse genotype has broad host specificity. This report is the first of a study identifying isolates from pet reptiles genetically in Japan. The study identified a new host (Teratoscincus scincus) in C. serpentis lizard genotype by sequencing analysis of partial SSU rRNA and actin genes. PMID:25801359

  5. The placentation of eulipotyphla-reconstructing a morphotype of the Mammalian placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, Kirsten; Siniza, Swetlana; Zeller, Ulrich

    2014-10-01

    Placentation determines the developmental status of the neonate, which can be considered as the most vulnerable stage in the mammalian life cycle. In this respect, the different evolutionary and ecological adaptations of marsupial and placental mammals have most likely been associated with the different reproductive strategies of the two therian clades. The morphotypes of marsupial and placental neonates, as well as the placental stem species pattern of Marsupialia, have already been reconstructed. To contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of Placentalia, a histological and ultrastructural investigation of the placenta in three representatives of Eulipotyphla, that is, core insectivores, has been carried out in this study. We studied the Musk shrew (Suncus murinus), the four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), and the Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis). As a result, a eulipotyphlan placental morphotype consisting of a compact and invasive placenta was reconstructed. This supports the widely accepted hypothesis that the stem lineage of Placentalia is characterized by an invasive, either endothelio- or hemochorial placenta. Evolutionary transformations toward a diffuse, noninvasive placenta occurred in the stem lineages of lower primates and cetartiodactyles and were associated with prolonged gestation and the production of few and highly precocial neonates. Compared to the choriovitelline placenta of Marsupialia, the chorioallantoic placenta of Placentalia allows for a more intimate contact and is associated with more advanced neonates. PMID:24797275

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of congestive heart failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy in a hedgehog.

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    Delk, K W; Eshar, D; Garcia, E; Harkin, K

    2014-03-01

    A one-year-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was evaluated for severe respiratory distress. Physical examination findings included marked dyspnoea, cyanosis and tachypnoea. Radiographic findings included an enlarged heart and pulmonary oedema, and dilated cardiomyopathy was confirmed via echocardiogram. The patient was treated for congestive heart failure because of dilated cardiomyopathy with furosemide, enalapril, pimobendan and l-carnitine. Within 24 hours of treatment, the pulmonary oedema and cyanosis had resolved. Following discharge, clinical improvement was noted by the owner and echocardiogram confirmed improved fractional shortening. Cardiomyopathy has been reported at post-mortem examination in hedgehogs, but there are no reports of ante-mortem diagnosis and treatment. Performing baseline cardiac assessment in hedgehogs is recommended, and treatment with l-carnitine and pimobendan may improve outcome, as carnitine deficiency is a possible cause of cardiomyopathy in hedgehogs. Successful emergency treatment of congestive heart failure in the hedgehog of this report may be effective for other hedgehogs presented with similar clinical signs. PMID:24372164

  7. Cortical organization in insectivora: the parallel evolution of the sensory periphery and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, K C

    2000-06-01

    Insectivores are traditionally described as a primitive group that has not changed much in the course of mammalian evolution. In contrast, recent studies reveal a great diversity of sensorimotor specializations among insectivores adapted to a number of different ecological niches, indicating that there has been significant diversification and change in the course of their evolution. Here the organization of sensory cortex is compared in the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), the masked shrew (Sorex cinereus), the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus), and the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata). Each of these four closely related species lives in a unique ecological niche, exhibits a different repertoire of behaviors, and has a different configuration of peripheral sensory receptors. Corresponding specializations of cortical sensory areas reveal a number of ways in which the cortex has evolved in parallel with changes to the sensory periphery. These specializations include expansion of cortical representations (cortical magnification), the addition or loss of cortical areas in the processing network, and the subdivision of areas into modules (barrels and stripes). PMID:10971016

  8. Cryptosporidium erinacei n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kváč, Martin; Hofmannová, Lada; Hlásková, Lenka; Květoňová, Dana; Vítovec, Jiří; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2014-03-17

    The morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium hedgehog genotype are described, and the species name Cryptosporidium erinacei n. sp. is proposed to reflect its specificity for hedgehogs under natural and experimental conditions. Oocysts of C. erinacei are morphologically indistinguishable from Cryptosporidium parvum, measuring 4.5-5.8 μm (mean=4.9 μm) × 4.0-4.8 μm (mean=4.4 μm) with a length to width ratio of 1.13 (1.02-1.35) (n=100). Oocysts of C. erinacei obtained from a naturally infected European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) were infectious for naïve 8-week-old four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris); the prepatent period was 4-5 days post infection (DPI) and the patent period was longer than 20 days. C. erinacei was not infectious for 8-week-old SCID and BALB/c mice (Mus musculus), Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), or golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit rRNA, 60 kDa glycoprotein, actin, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of Cryptosporidium-1, and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences revealed that C. erinacei is genetically distinct from previously described Cryptosporidium species. PMID:24529828

  9. Claudin gene expression patterns do not associate with interspecific differences in paracellular nutrient absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Edwin R; Rott, Katherine H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H

    2016-01-01

    Bats exhibit higher paracellular absorption of glucose-sized molecules than non-flying mammals, a phenomenon that may be driven by higher permeability of the intestinal tight junctions. The various claudins, occludin, and other proteins making up the tight junctions are thought to determine their permeability properties. Here we show that absorption of the paracellular probe l-arabinose is higher in a bat (Eptesicus fuscus) than in a vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) or a hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). Furthermore, histological measurements demonstrated that hedgehogs have many more enterocytes in their intestines, suggesting that bats cannot have higher absorption of arabinose simply by having more tight junctions. We therefore investigated the mRNA levels of several claudins and occludin, because these proteins may affect permeability of tight junctions to macronutrients. To assess the expression levels of claudins per tight junction, we normalized the mRNA levels of the claudins to the constitutively expressed tight junction protein ZO-1, and combined these with measurements previously made in a bat and a rodent to determine if there were among-species differences. Although expression ratios of several genes varied among species, there was not a consistent difference between bats and non-flyers in the expression ratio of any particular gene. Protein expression patterns may differ from mRNA expression patterns, and might better explain differences among species in arabinose absorption. PMID:26393434

  10. História da África e dos africanos nas escolas brasileiras: mito ou realidade?

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    Raquel Amorim dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como temática as Representações Sociais e Relações Raciais. Analisa as representações sociais de professores acerca das relações raciais no currículo escolar do Ensino Fundamental. Esta pesquisa fundamentou-se no referencial teórico-metodológico em Moscovici (1978 e Jodelet (2001, Gomes (1995, 2006, Coelho (2009 e Gomes e Silva (2006, para a análise das representações sociais, com os primeiros e, com os demais, sobre formação e relações raciais. O estudo é uma pesquisa do tipo descritiva. Utilizamos como instrumento de coleta de dados: documentos oficiais, questionário e grupo focal. Inferimos que o preconceito racial apresenta-se de forma tácita, na sociedade brasileira, o que contribui para a disseminação e ratificação do racismo e discriminação em vários setores sociais, entre os quais a escola. Concluímos que a formação de professores inicial e continuada representa um momento crucial para a formulação de uma Pedagogia que trabalhe com a diversidade cultural. A ausência dessa formação pode inviabilizar a subversão de práticas discriminatórias e estereotipias cristalizadas, em relação ao negro na escola e em seus instrumentos didático-pedagógicos.Abstract This study is subject to Social Representations and Race Relations. It analyzes the social representations of teachers about race relations in the curriculum of elementary school. This research was based on theoretical and methodological Moscovici (1978 and Jodelet (2001, Gomes (1995, 2006, Coelho (2009 and Gomes and Silva (2006, for the analysis of social representations, with the first and with others on training and race relations. The study is a descriptive type. Used as a tool for collecting data: official documents, questionnaires and focus groups. We infer that racial prejudice is presented implicitly, in Brazilian society, which contributes to the dissemination and ratification of racism and discrimination in various social sectors, including the school. We conclude that the initial teacher training and continuous is a crucial time for the formulation of a pedagogy that works with cultural diversity. The absence of such training is critical for its subversion of stereotypes and discriminatory practices crystallized in relation to black at school and in their didactic and pedagogical tools.

  11. Advecciones de polvo africano sobre la costa central venezolana y sus efectos sobre el desarrollo de la nubosidad

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    Estatio José Gutiérrez Quevedo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Empleando el índice de aerosol, determinado a través de las mediciones del sensor TOMS, se ha realizado un análisis del comportamiento de las magnitudes del parámetro sobre la costa central venezolana en base al período 19972005; los resultados señalaron que se presentaron los máximos valores del índice en los meses de Julio y Agosto correspondientes a la temporada de lluvias. Para este período las masas de aire cargadas de partículas de polvo llegan al Caribe provenientes del desierto del Sahara, como lo demuestra el mapa con la distribución espacial de la mediana del índice para el mes de julio, por el contrarío existe una disminución sustancial en la cantidad de partículas dispersas sobre la troposfera venezolana en la temporada seca en donde las nubes de polvo se desplazan generalmente desde el Sahel. Los productos atmosféricos del sensor MODIS han sido utilizados para determinar la relación entre la concentración de aerosoles y el comportamiento de la nubosidad, presentando ésta una disminución en su desarrollo en presencia de valores altos del índice de aerosol principalmente en los meses de abril y mayo.

  12. Luis de Molina y la esclavitud de los negros africanos en el siglo XVI. Principios doctrinales y conclusiones

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    García Añoveros, Jesús María

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important consequences of Portuguese discoveries was the black slavery business. A most reputed theologist and jurist of the time, Juan de Molina, who had a first-hand knowledge of the subject, made a thorough analysis of the justness of slavery from a Theology and Law perspective, while showing himself opposed to the same. His doctrine set basis for future thought and he must be considered as the first great tratadist on black slavery.

    Una de las consecuencias más importantes de los descubrimientos portugueses en África fue el negocio de los esclavos negros. Luis de Molina, uno de los teólogos y juristas más importantes de su época y con un gran conocimiento del asunto, trató el tema de la licitud de los esclavos negros en amplitud, analizándolo desde la perspectiva de la teología y del derecho, sin omitir su opinión personal contraria a dicha esclavitud. Su doctrina creó escuela y debe ser considerado como el primer gran tratadista de la esclavitud de los negros.

  13. Posibilidades abiertas por las nuevas tecnologías en el desarrollo de los cines africanos contemporáneos

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    Beatriz Leal Riesco

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available From its beginnings with the wave of independence that swept the continent in the middle of the previous century, African cinema has remained subordinate to and dependent upon Western aid. Barring a few prominent exceptions, the effects of this phenomenon have been visible, with films made catering to the tastes of occidental critics and cinephiles while African viewers have been left thirsting for images and sounds of an autochthonous character. Since the 1990’s, thanks to new technologies, African cinema has achieved a previously inconceivable vitality and autonomy. The democratizing effects of the reduction in the cost of production, distribution, and exhibition, as well as the easier accessibility of new technologies to non-professionals, has made of Africa a creative flashpoint, where myriad voices work to create a nuanced and polyphonic imaginary leagues beyond those prejudices and stereotypes of occidental provenance that have overshadowed this continent’s cinematography for more than five decades.

  14. Relations globales entre sédimentation de black shales océaniques et dépôts subséquents de phosphates. L'exemple du Crétacé moyen-supérieur de l'Atlantique centre et nord et du Crétacé supérieur-Eocène de la bordure ouest et nord du bouclier Africano-arabe Global Relations Between the Sedimentation of Oceanic Black Shales and Subsequent Phosphate Deposits. Example of the Middle-Upper Cretaceous in the Central and Northern Atlantic and of the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene on the Western and Northern Edges of the African-Arabian Shield

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    Busson G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A l'échelle mondiale, les grandes accumulations de phosphates sédimentaires apparaissent irrégulièrement réparties dans le temps. Celles du Crétacé supérieur-Eocène de la bordure ouest et nord du bouclier africano-arabe sont quantitativement exceptionnelles et intéressantes par les réflexions qu'elles suggèrent sur un mécanisme global. On insiste d'abord sur certaines données océanographiques actuelles : flux des matières phosphatées vers l'océan et dans l'océan; répartition des phosphates dans les masses d'eaux océaniques et en particulier dans les eaux euxiniques. Puis quelques théories proposées pour rendre compte du caractère épisodique de la sédimentation phosphatée sont rappelées et critiquées (Strakhov, Fischer, Arthur, Sheldon, etc. . Puis la répartition par pays des quantités de phosphates déposées dans une partie des domaines mésogéen et atlantique est précisée. Elle justifie de focaliser notre attention sur les phosphates marocains, de loin les plus abondants et localisés en position clé. On rappelle néanmoins que la double évolution latitudinale au Crétacé et au Paléogène du Nord vers le Sud dans l'actuel hémisphère nord et du Sud vers le Nord dans l'actuel hémisphère sud rend peu crédibles les interprétations purement latitudino-climatiques de ces dépôts phosphatés. Sur le cas du Maroc, les conditions préalables à cette sédimentation phosphatée sont précisées et discutées : existence de transgressions marines pelliculaires, de séries condensées; rémission des apports détritiques ( le silence de la terre ; confinement (origine et modalité d'action. Ces conditions à elles seules ne peuvent pas expliquer l'extraordinaire flux phosphaté de cette époque. On rappelle alors que les accumulations de matière organique des black shales du Crétacé moyen-supérieur de l'Atlantique -parmi les plus importantes de l'histoire de la terre- ne présentent nulle part leur

  15. The immunocytochemistry of cytokeratin in fish tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunton, T E

    1993-09-01

    An increasing interest in fish species as sentinels of environmental pollution and in carcinogenesis research has led to the identification of diagnostically challenging neoplasms of uncertain cellular origin and the need for additional diagnostic methods. To determine the potential of using commercially available antibodies to intermediate filament proteins on paraffin-embedded fish tissues for immunocytochemistry in tumor diagnosis, the application of three antikeratin antibodies to normal adult tissues from two fish species was assessed. Multiple tissues from 12-14-in. striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and 6-month-old medaka (Oryzias latipes) of both sexes were fixed in Bouin's or formalin fixatives. Formalin-fixed neoplasms from several mammalian species, including cat, dog, hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris, Erinaceus europaeus), rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), and sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), were also used as positive controls. Using a strepavidin horseradish peroxidase method on paraffin-embedded tissues, the broad spectrum antibodies AE1/AE3 (Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN) and MAK-6 (Triton Biosciences, Alameda, CA), which recognize most of the 19 human cytokeratins, and CAM 5.2 (Becton Dickinson, Mountain View, CA), which recognizes cytokeratins present in human liver, were used as primary antibodies. Epithelia from skin, gills, cornea, bile ducts, renal tubules, gastrointestinal tract, and thymus were strongly positive with AE1/AE3 and MAK-6 in striped bass, but nonepithelial tissues such as bone and muscle were negative. Skin, gills, cornea, and portions of the gastrointestinal tract were strongly positive in medaka with the same antibodies, whereas bile duct, renal, and intestinal epithelia were less so. Tissue digestion improved the intensity of staining, and fixation with Bouin's fixative improved results somewhat compared with formalin fixation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7505508

  16. Nuclear organisation of some immunohistochemically identifiable neural systems in five species of insectivore-Crocidura cyanea, Crocidura olivieri, Sylvisorex ollula, Paraechinus aethiopicus and Atelerix frontalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvey, Tanya; Patzke, Nina; Bennett, Nigel C; Consolate, Kaswera-Kyamakya; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Pettigrew, John D; Manger, Paul R

    2016-03-01

    The organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, and serotonergic neurons in the brains of five species of insectivores and the orexinergic (hypocretinergic) system in four insectivore species is presented. We aimed to investigate the nuclear complement of these neural systems in comparison to those of other mammalian species. Brains of insectivores were coronally sectioned and immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and orexin-A. The majority of nuclei were similar among the species investigated and to mammals in general, but certain differences in the nuclear complement highlighted potential phylogenetic interrelationships. In the cholinergic system, the three shrew species lacked parabigeminal and Edinger-Westphal nuclei. In addition, the appearance of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus in all insectivores revealed a mediodorsal arch. All three of these features are the same as those present in microchiropterans. The catecholaminergic system of the three shrew species lacked the A4 and A15d nuclei, as well as having an incipient A9v nucleus, again features found in microchiropteran brains. The serotonergic and orexinergic systems of the insectivores are similar to those seen across most eutherian mammals. The analysis of similarities and differences across mammalian species indicates a potential phylogenetic relationship between the Soricidae (shrews) and the microchiropterans. PMID:26724499

  17. Fotografías de amas de leche en bahía. Evidencia visual de los aportes Africanos a la familia esclavista en Brasil

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    Christianne Silva Vasconcellos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis de la producción y el uso de fotografías de personas africanas y afrodescendientes, realizadas en Brasil entre 1840, cuando esta técnica fue introducida al país, y 1920, cuando las primeras fotografías aún estaban en circulación. Desde la evidencia visual, se analizan tres temas recurrentes en el Brasil del siglo XIX: la difusión de teorías del racismo científico europeo a través de la fotografía, la creación de los tipos urbanos en las ciudades esclavistas y las nodrizas (amas de leche como agentes culturales en el seno de la familia colonial en Bahía.

  18. O AFRICANO INDESEJADO. COMBATE AO TRÁFICO, SEGURANÇA PÚBLICA E REFORMA CIVILIZADORA (GRÃO-PARÁ, 1850-1860)

    OpenAIRE

    Jos\\u00E9 Maia Bezerra Neto

    2011-01-01

    Among the reasons that had taken the Brazilian Empire in middle of 19th century to effectively fight against the Atlantic slave trade from Africa to Brazil, extinguishing it in little time, detach that relative in such a way public security face enslaved revolts and the fear of epidemics associates to the African slave trade, how much to the civilization idea whose european and white model excluded the african contribution, from there the distrust of africanization of Brazil. The combat to th...

  19. Estudo de carcaça do bagre africano (Clarias gariepinus em diferentes categorias de peso Study of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus carcass in different weight categories

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    Adriana Aparecida Pinto

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar carcaças de Clarias gariepinus, em três categorias de peso (P1=inferior a 1kg; P2=de 1 a 2kg e P3=superior a 2kg, para analisar o rendimento de carcaça com cabeça (RCC, sem cabeça (RCS, filé (RFI, músculos abdominais (RMA, partes comestíveis (RPC, tronco limpo (RTL, porcentagem de pele (PPE, cabeça (PCA, vísceras (PVI, resíduos totais (PRE e determinar a composição proximal do filé (proteína bruta, umidade, gordura e cinza. Foram utilizados 60 bagres, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, 3 tratamentos com 20 repetições, em nível de significância de 5%. O rendimento de filé foi maior para P2 (38,61% que para P1 e P3. O rendimento das partes comestíveis e tronco limpo foram superiores para P2 (RPC=46,27% e RTL=56,67%, mas sem diferirem do P3. O rendimento de carcaça sem cabeça foi maior para P3, não diferindo de P2. O P2 foi inferior para PPE (4,64%, PCA (23,62% e PRE (53,73%, sem diferir de P3, para porcentagem de cabeça e de resíduos totais. Não houve diferença significativa para rendimentos dos músculos abdominais, carcaça com cabeça e vísceras. P2 (2,25% e 77,49% não diferiu do P1 (1,51% e 77,78% e P3 (3,03% e 76,39%, para gordura e umidade, respectivamente, enquanto, para proteína bruta, não houve diferença significativa. Conclui-se que P2 apresentou melhores rendimentos de filetagem, ao passo que a composição proximal do filé, nas três categorias de peso, foi relativamente similar, com aumento de deposição de gordura nos peixes acima de 1kg de peso vivo.The aim of this experiment was to study Clarias gariepinus carcass in three weight categories (P1=below 1kg; P2= 1 to 2kg and P3=over 2kg to analyze yield of carcass with head (YCH, without head (YCW, fillet (YF, abdominal muscles (YAM, eatable parts (YEP, dressed out (YDO and percentages of skin (PSK, head (PHE, viscera (PVI, total residues (PTR; and to determine the proximate composition of fillet (crude protein, moisture, fat and ash . Sixty catfish were used in a completely randomized design (3 trataments with 20 replications, with 5% significance level. Fillet yield was higher for P2 (38,61% than for P1 and for P3 fillet. The eatable parts and dressed out yield were higher for P2 (YEP=46,27% and YDO=56,67%, but were not different from P3. The carcass with head was higher than P3, and didn’t differ from P2. P2 was lower in PSK (4,64%, PHE (23,62% and PTR (53,73%, without being different from P3 in percentages of head and total residues. There was no significant difference for yield of abdominal muscles, carcass with head, percentages of viscera. P2 (2,25% and 77,49% did not differ from P1 (1,51% and 77,78% and from P3 (3,03% and 76,39% for fat and moisture, respectively, while for crude protein there was no significant difference (P > 0.01. It may be concluded that P2 provided better filleting yieds, while the proximate composition of fillet in the three weight categories was relatively similar to the increase of fat deposition in the fish over 1kg live weight.

  20. Comparative analysis of the paleogeology along the Atlantic Brazilian and African shores; Analise comparativa da paleogeologia dos litorais atlanticos brasileiro e africano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesero, Pedro de; Ponte, Francisco Celso; Northfleet, Airton A. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia. Dept. de Estratigrafia e Paleontologia ]. E-mail: cesero@uerj.br (and others)

    1997-12-01

    Many professional geologists are not familiar with the origin of certain concepts. This is the reason that when making references, they do not give credit to the real authors. This paper recovers a paper which is essential to understand the evolution of the Brazilian sedimentary basins. This article was first published in 1972 and it was the first one based on plate tectonics which developed a more global vision on the evolution of the basins known up to that time. In some details it is outdated, many interpretations have changed, but the basic ideas about the evolution of the basins are accepted and used today. It should be remembered that the present data were not available and some features - e.g the Pendencia Graben - were unknown; it was the very beginning of basin exploration such as in the Campos and Santos basins. The interpretation premises of the work were developed by a team of geologists working at the SETUP (today CEN-NOR) in Bahia. In the following year, a summary of the original report was presented during the 26th Congress of the Brazilian Geological Society (SBG) held in Belem (Para State). Due to a fault of the organizing committee, the paper was not published in the Congress proceedings, it was only printed as internal reports produced by the DIDEP/SETUP/BA (1972) and the DEXPRO/Rio (1972). In order to publish this paper in the BGP, an attempt was made to maintain the original form, as it should had been printed in the Congress proceedings. Also, in order to make editing easier, figures 11 and 12, the stratigraphic tables for the main Brazilian basins and their African correlates are not being published. It is believed that the understanding of the work will not be affected. We hope that other important papers that are unknown to Brazilian geologists can be restored. The Brazilian and Western African coastlines were orientated by the ancient structural lines. In the Upper Jurassic, continental deposits were accumulated within the Afro-Brazilian trough, extending from the Alagoas-Cameroun to the Almada-Congo areas. The Wealden reactivation established the coastlines along the rift valleys. The first one, from south to north, along the underlying alignments, and the second, from west to east, cutting across and giving rise to a series of lakes. During the Aptian, the first marine transgressions took place, building up two proto-oceanic gulfs. One of them, bounded by the Walvis- Rio Grande and the Pernambuco-Cameroun proto chains, favored the deposition of thick evaporites deposits. To the north, the second gulf maintained an open connection with the ocean. From the Albian to the Turonian, the two continents remained linked. However, due to the progressive separation of the plates, pulsation transgressions took place until full marine conditions were attained. The rupture of the last link between the two plates was during the Turonian and the Santonian. Shearing stresses occurred along the Brazilian northeastern and the Gulf of Guinea coasts, caused by the trans current displacement of the two plates. However, to the south of Pernambuco-Cameroun, tension stresses were always registered while the continents were migrating. When both plates were completely free, the African plate was released from the tension stress, giving rise to the compression of the Benue trough. During the Cenozoic, the uplift of continental belts, adjacent to the coasts, supplied the continental margins and intracratonic basins with sediments. (author)

  1. Cimarrones africanos e indios en la frontera española con los Estados Unidos. El caso de los Seminoles negros de La Florida

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    Jane Landers

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores Andrew Jackson's bloody victories over the Red Stick Creeks and Seminoles of Florida and the triumph of "the White man's republic", with a particular interest in the participation of persons of African descent. The people who would become the Seminoles moved into Florida from Georgia and Alabama in the eighteenth century to fill the vacuum created by the exodus or extinction of Florida's indigenous nations. Initially the Seminoles were staunch allies of the British, but in the late eighteenth century, Chief Payne and Payne’s successors, Micanopy and Bowlegs, reshaped Seminole foreign policy and became allies of the Spanish government.Under their leadership the Seminoles also accepted into their lands many slaves who had run away from the United States and who lived in a sort of feudal arrangement with their "masters" and intermarried with them. These blacks recognized that Anglo rule would return them to slavery, so they, too, became fierce enemies of the Americans and allies of the Spaniards. For about a half century black and blood Seminoles struggled to maintain their autonomy on the volatile Southern frontier, but the United States was firmly committed to an expansionist foreign policy. Its interventions were motivated by territorial ambition, by the lingering fear that Britain would displace the weakened Spanish regimes in the Southeast, and by racial politics. The very success of the Spanish/ Indian/black alliance, in effect, ensured further intervention by Americans. The War of 1812 and the simultaneous Creek War of 1813-14 evolved into a long-term effort to push the Creeks, Seminoles, and blacks out of their settlements in western and central Florida, and eventually to drive out the Spaniards as well. Jackson led the first Seminole War in 1818 and in 1821, when the United States acquired Florida, as governor of the new territorial government he began the removal of the fugitive Creeks, Seminoles, and free blacks from the peninsula.//Este ensayo explora las victorias sangrientas de Andrew Jackson sobre los Red Stick Creeks y los Seminoles de la Florida y el triunfo de “la República del Hombre blanco”, con un interés particular de personas afro descendientes. Aquellos que se convirtieron en Seminoles se trasladaron a Florida desde Georgia y Alabama en el siglo XVIII para llenar el vacío dejado por el éxodo y la extinción de las naciones indígenas de aquella región. Inicialmente los Seminoles fueron firmes aliados de los británicos, pero bien entrado el siglo XVIII, el Jefe Payne y sus sucesores, Micanopy y Piernas arqueadas, le dieron nueva forma a su política exterior y se convirtieron en aliados del gobierno español. Bajo su liderazgo los Seminoles también aceptaron en sus tierras a un gran número de esclavos que habían huido de los Estados Unidos y que vivían en una especie de sociedad “feudal” con sus patrones. Estos negros sabían que el dominio inglés los devolvería a la esclavitud, por lo que también se convirtieron en enemigos feroces de los estadounidenses y en aliados de los españoles. Durante cerca de medio siglo los Seminoles y los negros lucharon por mantener su autonomía en la volátil frontera sur, pero Estados Unidos estaba firmemente comprometido con una política exterior expansionista. Sus intervenciones fueron motivadas por la ambición territorial, por el temor persistente de que Gran Bretaña pudiese desplazar a los débiles regímenes españoles en el sureste, y por la política racial. El éxito de los españoles de los indígenas y de la alianza negra aseguró la posterior intervención estadounidense. La guerra de 1812 y la simultánea Guerra Creek de 1813-14, se convirtieron en un esfuerzo a largo plazo para desplazar a los Creek, los Seminoles y los negros de sus asentamientos en el oeste y centro de Florida, y, finalmente, para expulsar a los españoles también. Jackson dirigió la primera Guerra Seminole en 1818 y en 1821, cuando Estados Unidos adquirió la Florida, como gobernador del nuevo gobierno territorial que expulsó a los Creek fugitivos a los Seminoles y a los negros libres de la península.

  2. Consumo da costa africana: comunicações entre os portos turísticos sul-africanos do oceano Índico

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    Pamila Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Do início até meados do século XX, os cruzeiros turísticos ao longo da costa sul-africana eram uma atividade de lazer popular, empreendida pelas elites (brancas europeias (predominantemente os britânicos, americanas e sul-africanas, com paradas que incluíam diversas cidades portuárias do oceano Índico, como Cidade do Cabo e Durban, na África do Sul, e Lourenço Marques e Beira, no Moçambique português. Considerando as cidades portuárias anteriormente mencionadas como cidades-gêmeas em relação aos seus entrelaçados passados coloniais e turísticos e como funcionando dentro de um “corredor cultural” regional distinto (NUTALL, 2009 da África do Sul, este artigo explora uma série de portos de lazer interligados via cruzeiros de passageiros. A base da minha navegação histórica são os anuários de turismo produzidos pelas companhias de cruzeiro marítimo Union-Castle Line e serviço Round África em 1939 e 1949, respectivamente. A justificativa é que esses guias de viagem servem como entrada ao microcosmo cosmopolita de barcos de cruzeiro, o que os torna inestimáveis para entender a história do lazer (concomitantemente aos bens de consumo e publicidade relacionados na África do Sul.

  3. La participación en asociaciones de los inmigrantes africanos. Vías de interpretación del distanciamiento asociativo

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    Lacomba Vázquez, Joan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the reasons for non-participation of African population in immigrant associations. To understand this question, we conducted semi-structured interviews with persons who decided consciously no to participate in associations and organizations that worked with immigrants. All this work was developed in Catalonia, Valencia and Navarra, from a multilocal research perspective. We interpret the associative detachment, as a voluntary distancing based on the absence of information, lack of time, disenchantment, proprietorship activism, passively waiting, or because they are the only user population. Nevertheless, there are other factors of greater significance, as the political culture or the questioning of leadership in associations.Este artículo se adentra en las razones de la no-participación de la población africana en las asociaciones de inmigrantes. Para ello se utilizan entrevistas semidirigidas realizadas a personas que deciden de manera consciente no participar en las asociaciones y a entidades que trabajan con inmigrantes, en el contexto de un proyecto de investigación mucho más amplio y de carácter multilocal centrado en Cataluña, la Comunidad Valenciana y Navarra. El desapego asociativo, observado a través de las entrevistas, se interpreta como un distanciamiento más o menos voluntario, basado en la ausencia de información, la falta de tiempo, el desencanto, el activismo unipersonal, la espera pasiva o la condición de población únicamente usuaria, pero también en factores de mayor calado como la cultura política o el cuestionamiento de los liderazgos asociativos.

  4. Análisis antropogenético de los aportes indígena y africano en muestras hospitalarias de la ciudad de Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Avena, Sergio Alejandro; Goicoechea, Alicia Susana; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Slepoy, Mónica G; Slepoy, Alberto S.; Carnese, Francisco R.

    2001-01-01

    Como consecuencia de las masivas corrientes migratorias de origen europeo que arribaron a la ciudad de Buenos Aires, las frecuencias génicas de los sistemas ABO y Rh en muestras hospitalarias de las décadas de 1930 y 1940 eran similares a las registradas en España e Italia. A partir de los años cuarenta, poblaciones del interior del país y de países limítrofes, de elevada composición indígena y posiblemente también africana, migraron hacia la ciudad. Para evaluar su repercusión sobre la estru...

  5. Morfologfa conchffera, crecimiento, reproducción y letargo de los caracoles gigantes africanos : observaciones en laboratorio sobre Archachatina marginata suturalis, Achatina achatina y Achatina fulica'

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    Stiévenart, C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available hell Shape, Growth, Reproduction and Estivation in Giant African Landsnails : Observations in Laboratory on"Archachatina marginata suturalis, Achatina achatina and Achatina fulica". Commercial frog farms exist in several countries. It seems hopeless believing that frog leg consumption can be prohibited, and the solution is probably a very strict control of the origin of the legs sold and imported. Uncontrolled hunting-poaching of frogs should be replaced by sustainable and rational breeding of frogs for sale. A large frog farm located near Singapore is described with the infrastructure and the management of the production. The two species bred are the American and the Asian bull-frogs Rana catesbeiana and R. tigerina. It is also mentioned that appropriate slaughtering techniques exist for frogs based on same guidelines as for conventional farm animals.

  6. Da partilha as independências: o continente africano nos livros didáticos de Geografía do Brasil (1890-2003

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    Rosemberg Ferracini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto es un resumen de la tesis doctoral en curso. Nuestro objeto de estudio es investigar la presencia de África en los libros de texto de Geografía en el período 1890-2003. Tenemos como objetivo discutir cómo este contenido escolar fue publicado, por ejemplo, con un enfoque de dominación territorial. Esto nos lleva a entender otras categorías como la de guerra, poder, raza, etnia, civilización y lo salvaje. El análisis se divide en cinco partes, con la elección de un libro por período, en función de su difusión entre el público estudiantil. La bibliografía de la investigación está disponible en el Laboratorio de Ciencias Humanas de la Facultad de Educación y en el Laboratorio de libros de texto de la Facultad de Filosofía y Humanidades de la Universidade de São Paulo.

  7. Neuroendocrinologia do comportamento social no ciclídeo africano Oreochromis mossambicus: mecanismos reguladores e modulação social da reprodução

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, O. G.

    2014-01-01

    A reprodução em teleósteos é controlada pelo eixo hipotálamo-pituitária-gónada (HPG) que modula a gametogénese, o desenvolvimento dos caracteres secundários e a expressão do comportamento reprodutor. A informação sobre fatores endógenos e exógenos é integrada no cérebro e a atividade do eixo HPG é regulada, fazendo com que traços comportamentais sejam expressos no momento e no contexto certos. Fatores exógenos relacionados com condições físicas do ambiente (e.g. temperatura e fotoperíodo) têm...

  8. China and the African Internet: Perspectives from Kenya and Ethiopia / China y el Internet africano: Perspectivas desde Kenia y Etiopía

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    Iginio Gagliardone

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the lens of China in Africa, this paper explores the transformations in the relationship between the Internet and the state. China’s economic success, impressive growth of Internet users and relative stability have quietly promoted an example of how the Internet can be deployed within the larger political and economic strategies of developing states, moving beyond the democratization paradigm promoted in the West. New evidence suggests that this model is becoming increasingly popular, but it is not clear why and how it is spreading. Through a case study comparison of an emerging democracy, Kenya, and a semi-authoritarian country, Ethiopia, where China has recently increased its involvement in the communications sector, this paper investigates whether and how the ideas of state stability, development and community that characterize the strategies pursued by the Chinese government are influencing and legitimizing the development of a less open model of the Internet. It analyses how new ideas, technologies and norms integrate with existing ones and which factors influence their adoption or rejection. It is based on fieldwork conducted in Ethiopia and in Kenya between 2011 and 2013, where data was collected through mapping Internet related projects involving Chinese companies and authorities, analysing Internet policies and regulations, and interviewing officials in Ministries of Communication, media lawyers, Internet activists, and Chinese employed in the media and telecommunication sector in Kenya and Ethiopia.Desde la óptica de China en África, este artículo explora las transformaciones en la relación entre Internet y el estado. El éxito económico de China, el impresionante crecimiento de usuarios de Internet y estabilidad relativa ha promovido un ejemplo tranquilo de cómo Internet puede ser desplegado dentro de las más amplias estrategias políticas y económicas de los estados en desarrollo, más allá del paradigma de la democratización promovida en Occidente. Existen nuevas evidencias que sugieren que este modelo está siendo cada vez más popular, pero no está claro por qué y cómo se está extendiendo. A través de un estudio de caso comparativo de una democracia emergente, Kenia, y un país semi-autoritario, Etiopía, donde China ha aumentado recientemente su participación en el sector de las comunicaciones, este trabajo investiga hasta qué punto y de qué manera las ideas de la estabilidad del Estado, el desarrollo y la comunidad que caracterizan las estrategias adoptadas por el gobierno chino están influyendo y legitimando el desarrollo de un modelo menos abierto de Internet. Se analiza cómo las nuevas ideas, tecnologías y normas se integran con las ya existentes y qué factores influyen en su adopción o rechazo. El artículo se basa en el trabajo de campo llevado a cabo en Etiopía y en Kenia entre 2011 y 2013, donde se recogieron datos a través del análisis de proyectos relacionados con Internet en los que participan empresas y autoridades chinas, así como el estudio de las políticas y reglamentos de internet, y complementando con entrevistas a funcionarios de los Ministerios de Comunicación, especialistas en derecho de las comunicaciones, activistas de Internet, así como profesionales chinos del sector de las telecomunicaciones en Kenia y Etiopía.

  9. Classification of Pasteurella species B as Pasteurella oralis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Henrik; Bertelsen, Mads F; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bisgaard, Magne

    2012-06-01

    Pasteurella species B has so far only been reported from the oral cavity of dogs, cats and a ferret. In the present study, information from 15 recent isolates from different sources, including African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), banded mongoose (Mungos mungo), Moholi bushbabies (Galago moholi) and pneumonia of a cat, were compared to five strains investigated previously from bite wounds in humans inflicted by a cat and dog and from gingiva of a cat. rpoB gene sequence comparison showed that 17 isolates, including the reference strain (CCUG 19794(T)), had identical sequences, whereas two were closely related and demonstrated 97.9 and 99.6 % similarity to strain CCUG 19794(T), respectively; the type strain of Pasteurella stomatis was the most closely related strain, with 92.3 % similarity. This is within the mean range (76-100 %) of rpoB gene sequence similarity between species of the same genus within the family Pasteurellaceae. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of four strains selected based on rpoB sequence comparison showed at least 99.7 % similarity between strains of Pasteurella species B, with 96.2 % similarity to the type strain of the closest related species (Pasteurella canis), indicating that Pasteurella species B should have separate species status. Separate species status was also documented when recN sequence comparisons were converted to a genome similarity of 93.7 % within Pasteurella species B and 59.0 % to the type strain of the closest related species (P. canis). Based on analysis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic data, and since most isolates originate from the oral cavities of a diverse group of animals, it is suggested that these bacteria be classified as Pasteurella oralis sp. nov.; the type strain is P683(T) ( = CCUG 19794(T) = CCM 7950(T) = strain 23193(T) = MCCM 00102(T)), obtained from a cat. Previous reports of the type strain have shown ubiquinone-8, demethylmenaquinone-8 and menaquinone-8 as the major quinones. Polyamines in the type

  10. "Instruído na fé, batizado em pé": batismo de africanos na Sé da Bahia na 1a metade do século XVIII, 1734-1742

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    Carlos Eugenio L\\u00EDbano Soares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the African identities found in the Sé parish, Salvador city, Bahia, in the first half of the 18th century, specially between 1734 and 1742, using for this the catholic baptism and death register books. The Sé was the political and administrative centre of the capital of the State of Brazil [The southern part of the Portuguese colonies in the Americas], and [then] the slave trade had reached unheard levels in the Colony. What is outstanding is the great presence of Africans from the [so called] the Jeje nation - a unique phenomena in the city - and the larger presence of women among the Africans, this a situation that is present in all parishes. In this text we try to explain culturally the serial data of the baptism registers from the point of view of ethnic recreation of the African identities in South America.

  11. Uma reflexão sobre os agentes históricos na sistematização do estereótipo africano sobre a construção do imaginário do negro no Brasil

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    Claudia Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a reflection based on references in order to show a major problem which is the African stereotype on the construction of the imagery of black people in Brazil, which interferes directly as a limiter in the receptivity and in the adequate recognition of the founding myths of the matrix African religions. The cultural references of the Africans were built up under occidental values and codes represented by the white-Christian man. In this sense, these ethnocentric parameters, at that period, were used specifi cally for evaluation and later on they migrated to Brazil. In this article, the focus is towards the possible origins of the construction of the African stereotype as a starting point in the trajectory of the representation of the identity which established the image of the black African in the Portuguese imagery in the 14th century. In this context, some special features shown by the Portuguese Catholic culture migrate as a continuum phenomenon which is fostered in the meeting or (remeeting in Brazilian territory, of the African culture together with the Portuguese catholic religion.

  12. A diagnose sexual de escravos africanos. Estimativa sexual a partir de os coxae da coleção osteológica negroide de PAVd’09 ( Valle da Gafaria , Lagos)

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, Marta

    2012-01-01

    A diagnose sexual é um parâmetro importante do perfil biológico no estudo das populações do passado. O dimorfismo sexual observado na pélvis é essencialmente o resultado evolutivo de modificações funcionais relacionadas com o parto e a locomoção. Assim, ao contrário de outras partes anatómicas do esqueleto humano, as grandes diferenças entre o homem e a mulher existentes na pélvis fazem do coxal o osso mais dimórfico do esqueleto humano, sendo considerado o indicador mais fiável para a estima...

  13. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex genes in New World bats and their functional importance in parasite resistance and life-history decisions in the lesser bulldog bat (Noctilio albiventris)

    OpenAIRE

    Schad, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) constitute a central component of the adaptive immune system and play an essential role in parasite resistance and associated life-history strategies. In addition to pathogen-mediated selection also sexual selection mechanisms have been identified as the main drivers of the typically-observed high levels of polymorphism in functionally important parts of the MHC. The recognition of the individual MHC constitution is presumed to be med...

  14. Nutrient intake in 5-17-year-old African boys and girls in a rural district of Kenya Aporte de nutrientes en chicos y chicas africanos de 5-17 años en un distrito rural de Kenia

    OpenAIRE

    S. Semproli; E. Canducci; E. Ricci; E. Gualdi-Russo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate relationships between nutritional status and growth among a sample of schoolchildren and adolescents living in a rural district of Kenya. Design: Cross-sectional nutritional and anthropometric survey. Setting: The data are from schools in a rural district of south-western Kenya. Subjects: Schoolchildren and adolescents aged between 5 and 17 years of age. Anthropometric measurements and interviews on dietary intake were carried out in 2001 and 2002 on 1,442 subjects. ...

  15. Tectonic breccia of the Cabo Frio area, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, intruded by Early Cretaceous mafic dyke: evidence of the Pan-African brittle tectonism? Brecha tectônica da área de Cabo Frio - RJ, intrudida por dique máfico do Eocretáceo: evidência do tectonismo rúptil do Pan-Africano?

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    Akihisa Motoki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the field descriptions and microscopic observations of a tectonic breccia in the basement gneiss of the Cabo Frio and Arraial do Cabo areas, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and its intrusive contact with the Early Cretaceous mafic dyke. At the sea cliff close to the Ilha do Japonês, there is an excellent contact outcrop between them. The tectonic breccia zone is 10 to 20m wide and has N30ºE direction. The breccia clasts are angular and characterized by auto-brecciation texture, and composed of breccia with similar aspect of the host tectonic breccia. The matrix is firmly consolidated by hydrothermalism and following silicification. The mafic dyke is 7 to 10m wide and of N45ºE direction. Along the contact, the dyke chilled margin featured by fine-grained basalt and prismatic joints can be observed. At the Conchas Beach and Arraial do Cabo city, there are four outcrops demonstrating the mafic dyke intrusion into the consolidated tectonic breccias. These outcrops prove that the tectonic breccias are older than the Early Cretaceous tholeiitic dykes. The fault breccias could have been formed during the brittle-phase tectonism of the last stage of the Pan-African Orogeny by hydrothermalism without magmatic activities, namely tectonic hydrothermalism. The existence of the clasts constituent of the breccia that are composed of breccia suggests that the fault movement and following hydrothermalism occurred repeatedly.Esse trabalho apresenta as descrições de campo e observações petrográficas de uma brecha tectônica no embasamento gnáissico das áreas de Cabo Frio e Arraial do Cabo, RJ, e seu contato intrusivo com um dique máfico do Eocretáceo. Na proximidade da ilha do Japonês, ocorre um excelente afloramento de contato entre esses litotipos. A zona da brecha tectônica tem 10 a 20 m de largura e tem direção de N30ºE. Os clastos da brecha são angulosos e caracterizados pela textura de auto-brechação, sendo similares aos de brecha tectônica. A matriz é firmemente consolidada por hidrotermalismo e silicificação. O dique máfico tem 7 a 10 m de largura e N45ºE de direção. Ao longo do contato, observa-se a margem de resfriamento do dique, caracterizada por basalto de granulometria fina e disjunções prismáticas. Na Praia das Conchas e Arraial do Cabo, ocorrem quatro afloramentos de contato, demonstrando a intrusão dos diques máficos nas brechas tectônicas consolidadas. Esses afloramentos comprovam que as brechas tectônicas silicificadas são mais antigas do que os diques toleíticos do Eocretáceo. As brechas poderiam ter sido formadas durante a fase hidrotermal e tal processo estaria associado ao tectonismo rúptil do estágio final da Orogenia Pan-Africana, sem atividades magmáticas. A existência dos clastos constituintes da brecha, que são compostos de brecha, sugere que os movimentos de falha e atividades hidrotermais ocorreram repetidamente.

  16. Nutrient intake in 5-17-year-old African boys and girls in a rural district of Kenya Aporte de nutrientes en chicos y chicas africanos de 5-17 años en un distrito rural de Kenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Semproli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate relationships between nutritional status and growth among a sample of schoolchildren and adolescents living in a rural district of Kenya. Design: Cross-sectional nutritional and anthropometric survey. Setting: The data are from schools in a rural district of south-western Kenya. Subjects: Schoolchildren and adolescents aged between 5 and 17 years of age. Anthropometric measurements and interviews on dietary intake were carried out in 2001 and 2002 on 1,442 subjects. Results: In this African rural sample, the degree of malnutrition differs with age (increasing with age and sex (more accentuated in males. Several correlations (P A pesar de la emergencia en la prevalencia del sobrepeso en escolares de países en vías de desarrollo, se sigue observando una deficiencia de micronutrientes en la infancia. Algunos estudios realizados en Kenia han notificado algunos efectos beneficiosos de los suplementos dietéticos en algunos escolares pero no en otros. De hecho, estos estudios no detectaban la influencia de la ingesta nutricional sobre el crecimiento de los escolares por edad y sexo. Con el fin de investigar las relaciones entre el estado nutricional y el crecimiento entre escolares y adolescentes, diseñamos un estudio nutricional transversal que recogía datos de escuelas de educación primaria en un distrito rural de Kenia. Los individuos eran niños de entre 5 y 17 años. Se realizaron medidas antropométricas y entrevistas sobre la ingesta diaria en 2001 y 2002 en 1.442 individuos. En esta muestra rural africana, el grado de desnutrición difería con la edad (aumentando con la edad y el sexo (más acentuado en los chicos. Se observaron fuertes correlaciones (P < 0,05 entre las tasas de adecuación de los nutrientes y los valores antropométricos, particularmente en los chicos. No hubo correlaciones entre las características antropométricas y el sodio o la vitamina C (en chicos y chicas ni la vitamina A o el potasio (en las chicas. La malnutrición fue más evidente en individuos en la pubertad. La dieta fue deficiente en sodio, calcio y potasio. Aunque WAZ y BMIZ no mostraron relaciones significativas con los nutrientes en las chicas, las variables antropométricas se correlacionaron significativamente con los micronutrientes y la tiamina en los chicos. El diferente patrón de crecimiento en los niños y las niñas podría estar causado por las diferencias sexuales en la sensibilidad ambiental, el acceso a la comida y el gasto de energía.

  17. O Gênero Epistolar na Antiguidade: a importância das Cartas de Cipriano para a História do Cristianismo Norte Africano (século III d.C. * The Epistolary Genre in Antiquity: the importance of Letters of Cyprian for North African History of Christianity...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLLINE DA SILVA SOARES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Ao nos debruçarmos nos estudos acerca do cristianismo antigo percebemos que algumas análises ainda se pautam numa leitura teológica e doutrinal e tendem a deixar de lado os aspectos político-administrativos e disciplinares da organização das comunidades cristãs, bem como o cotidiano dos cristãos nas ciuitates greco-romanas. As epístolas de Cipriano, bispo de Cartago entre os anos 249 e 258, nos dão importantes informações acerca da constituição das comunidades cristãs africanas e do cotidiano dos cristãos cartagineses de meados do século III d. C., sobretudo durante o período das perseguições dos imperadores Décio e Valeriano. Nosso objetivo nesse artigo é discutir as informações contidas nas epístolas de Cipriano como fontes primordiais para a percepção do processo de desenvolvimento do cristianismo no norte da África, especificamente na cidade de Cartago durante o século III, momento no qual a crença cristã ainda é considerada uma religio illicita.Palavras-chave: Cristianismo – Cipriano – Cartas – Cristãos – Norte da África. Abstract: By examining studies about ancient Christianity we realize that some analyzes are still in a guided reading theological and doctrinal, and tend to leave out the political and administrative aspects of the organization and discipline of the Christian communities, as well as the daily life of Christians at ciuitates Greco- Roman. The Epistles of Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage between the years 249 and 258 , provides important information about the formation of the African Christian communities and the daily lives of Christians Carthaginians from the mid- third century A.D., especially during the period of the persecutions of the emperors Decius and Valerian. Our goal in this article is to argue the information contained in the epistles of Cyprian as main sources for the perception of the development of Christianity in North Africa, specifically in the city of Carthage during the third century, at which Christian belief is yet considered a religio illicita.Keywords: Christianity – Cyprian – Letters – Christians – North Africa.

  18. O Gênero Epistolar na Antiguidade: a importância das Cartas de Cipriano para a História do Cristianismo Norte Africano (século III d.C.) * The Epistolary Genre in Antiquity: the importance of Letters of Cyprian for North African History of Christianity...

    OpenAIRE

    CAROLLINE DA SILVA SOARES

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Ao nos debruçarmos nos estudos acerca do cristianismo antigo percebemos que algumas análises ainda se pautam numa leitura teológica e doutrinal e tendem a deixar de lado os aspectos político-administrativos e disciplinares da organização das comunidades cristãs, bem como o cotidiano dos cristãos nas ciuitates greco-romanas. As epístolas de Cipriano, bispo de Cartago entre os anos 249 e 258, nos dão importantes informações acerca da constituição das comunidades cristãs africanas e do c...

  19. El lenguaje de los negros congos de Panamá: estudio linguístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Lipski

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Es indiscutible la influencia africana sobre el español de la región caribeña; y sin embargo la naturaleza de los contactos hispano-africanos de lossiglos pasados es poco entendida. Al examinar los documentos históricos quellegan hasta el siglo presente, se pone de manifiesto la existencia de modalidades distintamente afrohispánicas entre los esclavos y peones de origen africano.

  20. Polystomoides bourgati (Monogenea: Polystomatidae) infecting Pelusios castaneus in southern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Enabulele, E.e.; Aisien, M.; Du Preez, Louis Heyns

    2012-01-01

    The study of endoparasites (helminths and coccidians) in the Algerian (Atelerix algirus) and desert (Paraechinus aethiopicus) hedgehogs was performed between July 2008 and October 2009. The helminth species found included two cestodes, Mathevotaenia erinacei (Anoplocephalidae) and an unidentified cestode larva in the mesentery, eight species of nematode: Aonchotheca erinacei (Capillaridae) in the intestine, spirurids (Spiruridae) in the intestine, Crenosoma striatum (Crenosomatidae) in the lu...

  1. Cytogenetic analysis of some Brazilian marsupials (Didelphidae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casartelli, C; Rogatto, S R; Ferrari, I

    1986-01-01

    Three species of marsupials from the Amazon region (Marmosa cinerea, Caluromys lanatus, and Didelphis marsupialis) and two from the region of São Paulo (Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis albiventris) were studied. The G-banding pattern of the species with 2n = 14 (M. cinerea and C. lanatus...... except for a negative band close to the centromeric region. In D. albiventris the long arm of the X chromosome is C-band positive except for a negative band close to the telomeric region. In M. cinerea the silver-stained nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) are found in the acrocentric chromosomes......, being located in the telomeric region of one pair and in the centromeric region of the other pair. Caluromys lanatus has centromeric Ag-NORs in one acrocentric and in one submetacentric chromosome pairs. Didelphis marsupialis has three chromosome pairs with telomeric Ag-NORs. In D. albiventris the Ag...

  2. Varia e Recensões

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ana Bénard da; Esteves, Alina; Liberato, Ermelinda; Mokam, David; Morais, Sara Santos; Ribeiro, Gabriel Mithá; Spinola, Noelio Dantaslé; Weeks, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Dividido em duas secções – Artigos e Recensões – este número 23 da revista Cadernos de Estudos Africanos inclui artigos centrados não só em países africanos mas também em países onde a influência e a presença de africanos se faz sentir (Brasil e Portugal); artigos que abordam questões culturais, sociais, económicas e políticas; artigos centrados apenas em países específicos (Moçambique e Camarões) e artigos que abordam relações entre vários países e continentes; artigos produzidos por autores...

  3. Evidence of Bartonella spp. in Blood and Ticks (Ornithodoros hasei) of Bats, in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoust, Bernard; Marié, Jean-Lou; Dahmani, Mustapha; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Bompar, Jean-Michel; Blanchet, Denis; Cheuret, Marie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-08-01

    We screened blood from 59 bats from French Guiana for Bartonella spp. PCRs were positive for 13.6% and culture was positive in one Noctilio albiventris and one Pteronotus parnellii, as well as in Ornithodoros hasei ticks collected from bats. Two isolated strains represent possible two new species.

  4. Evidence of Bartonella spp. in Blood and Ticks (Ornithodoros hasei) of Bats, in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoust, Bernard; Marié, Jean-Lou; Dahmani, Mustapha; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Bompar, Jean-Michel; Blanchet, Denis; Cheuret, Marie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-08-01

    We screened blood from 59 bats from French Guiana for Bartonella spp. PCRs were positive for 13.6% and culture was positive in one Noctilio albiventris and one Pteronotus parnellii, as well as in Ornithodoros hasei ticks collected from bats. Two isolated strains represent possible two new species. PMID:27305604

  5. Reforma do sector de segurança em Moçambique

    OpenAIRE

    Macombo, Vieira

    2008-01-01

    O continente africano é considerado até hoje como um continente pobre. Esta pobreza resulta da falta de capacidade em explorar os seus recursos para o benefício do seu povo. Durante o século XV os países europeus desafiaram as adversidades dos oceanos para chegar ao continente africano. A presença dos europeus em África trouxe novos desafios para o continente. O pretexto da abertura do caminho marítimo para a Índia teve como consequência a fixação das potências europeias na região da Africa A...

  6. Há salvação para a África? Thabo Mbeki e seu New Partnership for African development

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Döpcke

    2002-01-01

    O NEPAD - New Partnership for African Development - tem seus primórdios em 1996, proposto pelo atual presidente da África do Sul, Thabo Mbeki e outros líderes africanos, para erradicar a marginalização e o subdesenvolvimento africanos e promover o crescimento econômico, através da integração continental. Seus objetivos, inseridos no contexto da globalização e do African Renaissance, incorpora valores da luta antiapartheid sul-africana, restauração da auto-estima e resgate de valores pré-colon...

  7. Varia e Dossier "Multinational enterprises in Africa: Corporate governance, social responsibility and risk management"

    OpenAIRE

    Bullejos, David Nievas; Bussotti, Luca; Costa, Ana Bénard da; Daouda, Youssoufou Hamadou; Ekhator, Eghosa Osa; Lara, Eduardo Carreño; Sousa, Ricardo Real Pedrosa de; Tallio, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Este número dos Cadernos de Estudos Africanos divide-se em duas partes. Na primeira parte apresentamos um conjunto de três artigos que têm como elemento comum a análise de temáticas essencialmente de cariz político ou militar. A segunda parte estrutura-se em torno do dossier “Multinational enterprises in Africa: Corporate governance, social responsibility and risk management”. Contrariamente à diversidade temática que caracterizou o número anterior dos Cadernos de Estudos Africanos, neste núm...

  8. Salida de campo por Valladolid los días 19 y 20 de mayo de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo por Valladolid capital los días 19 de 20 de mayo de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre el Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), los reptiles: Malpolon monspessulanus (Culebra bastarda, llamada Coleopeltis mouspessulanus por el autor) y Timon lepidus (Lagarto ocelado, llamado Lacerta lepida o Lacerta ocellata por el autor), y las siguientes aves: Asio otus (Búho chico), Clamator glandarius (Críalo europeo), Serinus serinus (Verdecillo), Stur...

  9. Coetzee, Nooteboom, e o “ilusionismo realista”

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Charbel Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    O artigo analisa romances escritos pelo sul-africano J. M. Coetzee e pelo holandês Cees Nooteboom como modo de propor algumas questões sobre o significado do realismo na história literária ocidental.

  10. Editorial: Geopolítica y solidaridad en el siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A. Osuna Ceballos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El 26 de mayo de 2013, en el marco de la celebración de los 50 años de la fundación de la Unión Africana, en Addis Abeba, capital de Etiopía, la Señora Dilma Rousseff, Presidenta de Brasil, anunció la condonación de la deuda externa de 870 millones de dólares de un conjunto de doce países africanos, entre los cuales figuran la República del Congo, Sudán, Gabón y Guinea Ecuatorial, países gobernados por dictadores a quienes se les acusa de violación de los derechos humanos, y en algunos casos de genocidio. Gobernantes que han accedido al poder mediante golpes de estado, manteniendo su mandato, en algunos casos a perpetuidad, como Teodoro Obiang Mguena, realizando “elecciones frecuentes, libres y democráticas”, con resultados invariablemente predecibles. ¿Gesto humanitario el de Brasil con los países africanos?. Según opinión de expertos, Brasil tomó esa decisión para que su Banco de Desarrollo Económico y Social pueda financiar proyectos de empresas brasileñas en aquellos estados africanos. Prevaleció el interés económico y el posicionamiento de Brasil en el continente africano.

  11. Nelson Mandela realiza un nuevo milagro : Esta vez, liderando la búsqueda de una paz duradera en la lastimada Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Emilio J.

    2001-01-01

    Finalmente la paz llegó a Burundi. El autor describe los esfuerzos desplegados por el veterano líder sudafricano en la siempre difícil y complicada relaci ón entre las etnias hutus y tutsis en ese país africano.

  12. Coetzee, Nooteboom, e o “ilusionismo realista”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Charbel Teixeira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa romances escritos pelo sul-africano J. M. Coetzee e pelo holandês Cees Nooteboom como modo de propor algumas questões sobre o significado do realismo na história literária ocidental.

  13. Frequency of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Iris Daniela Santos de Meneses; Müller Ribeiro Andrade; Rosângela Soares Uzêda; Marta Vasconcelos Bittencourt; David Scott Lindsay; Luís Fernando Pita Gondim

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. It infects several mammalian species in the Americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris) are found. Domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against S. neurona had never before been demonstrated in Brazilian cats. The aim of this study was to determine whether cats in Bahia, Brazil, are exposed to the ...

  14. Información proporcionada por cazadores sobre la fauna de Vadocondes (Burgos) el 13 de noviembre de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Información proporcionada al autor por cazadores, sobre la fauna de Vadocondes (Burgos), a 13 de noviembre de 1953, que incluye a los siguientes anfibios: Alytes sp. (Sapo partero), Bufo sp. (Sapo) y "Molge sp." (puede referirse a Triturus marmoratus o a Pleurodeles waltl), los siguientes mamíferos: Ardilla (pudiendo ser, Sciurus vulgaris o Atlantoxerus getulus), Canis lupus (Lobo), Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), Felis silvestris (Gato montés), Lirón (pudiendo se...

  15. Salida de campo a Zaratán (Valladolid) el 24 y 26 de mayo de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Zaratán, Valladolid, los días 24 y 26 de mayo de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre el parto de un Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), y las siguientes aves: Actitis hypoleucos (Andarríos chico, llamado Actynioides hypoleucus por el autor), Anas platyrhynchos (Ánade azulón, también llamado Pato bravío por el autor), Charadrius dubius (Chorlitejo chico), Corvus monedula (Grajilla, llamada Coloeus por el autor), Falco peregrinus (Halcón pe...

  16. Notas sobre capturas de fauna en la provincia de Valladolid el 28 de septiembre de 1952

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de caza por diferentes lugares de la provincia de Valladolid (al menos, La Fraila, Matapozuelos y la capital) el 28 de septiembre, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre los siguientes mamíferos: Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), Lepus sp. (Liebre) y Oryctolagus cuniculus (Conejo), y las siguientes aves: Accipiter nisus (Gavilán común, también llamado Astur palumbarius por el autor), Alcedo atthis (Martín pescador común), Burhinus oedicnemus (Alcaraván com...

  17. Salida de campo a la Cuesta de la Maruquesa (Valladolid) el 27 de octubre de 1952

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a la Cuesta de la Maruquesa, en Valladolid capital, durante la mañana del 27 de octubre de 1952, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre los siguientes órdenes de insectos: Diptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata y Orthoptera, los siguientes mamíferos: Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), Lepus sp. (Liebre), Mustela nivalis (Comadreja) y las siguientes aves: Accipiter nisus (Gavilán común, también llamado Astur palumbarius por el autor), Alauda arvensis (Alondr...

  18. Salida de campo desde Valdestillas (Valladolid) hasta un puente sobre el río Eresma el 21 de octubre de 1951

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo desde Valdestillas hasta un puente sobre el río Eresma, en la provincia de Valladolid, el 21 de octubre de 1951, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre alguna lagartija y un lagarto (sin concretar géneros o especies), los siguientes mamíferos: Ardilla (pudiendo ser Sciurus vulgaris o Atlantoxerus getulus), Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), Lepus granatensis (Liebre ibérica), Lutra lutra (Nutria), Meles meles (Tejón), Mustela nivalis (Comadreja), O...

  19. Salida de campo al pinar de Laguna de Duero (Valladolid) el 25 de marzo de 1952

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo al pinar de Laguna de Duero (Valladolid) el 25 de marzo de 1952, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre "Lymneidos", la Rana Común (Pelophylax perezi), saltamontes y mariposas, los siguientes mamíferos: Arvicola sapidus (Rata de agua) y Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), los siguientes reptiles: Blanus cinereus (Culebrilla ciega), Chalcides sp. (Eslizón) y lagartijas (sin identificar especies), y las siguientes aves: Accipiter nisus (Gavilán común,...

  20. Salida de campo por Francia en mayo de 1954

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo por Francia, seguramente cerca de La Camarga, en Provenza, en mayo de 1954, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre ranas y sapos (sin identificar las especies), un Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), y las siguientes aves: Alauda arvensis (Alondra común), Apus sp. (Vencejo), Ardea cinerea (Garza real), Ardea purpurea (Garza imperial), Burhinus oedicnemus (Alcaraván común), Buteo buteo (Busardo ratonero, también llamado Águila ratera), Certhia sp. (A...

  1. Trade in hedgehogs (Mammalia: Erinaceidae) in Morocco, with an overview of their trade for medicinal purposes throughout Africa and Eurasia

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Nijman; Daniel Bergin

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehogs are traded locally and often in relatively small num--bers throughout Eurasia and Africa.  We here report on the trade in North African Hedgehog Atelerix algirus and to a smaller extent possibly the Desert Hedgehog Paraechinus aethiopicus in Morocco, and provide an overview of the global trade in hedgehogs for medicinal purposes.  In 2013 and 2014 we surveyed 20 Moroccan cities for a total of 48 times.  We recorded 114 hedgehogs (32 alive and 82 skins) for sale in 25 shops in 10 cit...

  2. La presencia de Negros en la Nordpatagonia. 1779-1837

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Noemí Martínez de Gorla

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the juridical and social effects created by the individual assimilation of the slave and freeperson in the Rio Negro and the massive entrance of blacks during the war with Brazil, a historic moment when differences were established between African blacks and American blacks. This distinction was modified with the decree of September 12, 1827, when such distinctions were abolished.//Este trabajo estudia los efectos jurídicos y sociales creados por la asimilación individual del esclavo y de la persona libre en el Rio Negro y la entrada masiva de africanos durante la guerra con Brasil, momento histórico en el que las diferencias entre africanos negros y americanos negros fueron establecidas. Esta distinción fue modificada con el decreto 12 de 1827, cuando se abolieron tales diferencias.

  3. El auge y el declive de las culturas del África Occidental (o Atlántica / The Rise and Fall of West (or Atlantic African Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo Bolekia Boleká

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cada uno de los pueblos negro-africanos presenta un perfil cultural que le hace ser singular y esencialmente semejante a otros, como parte importante de un todo cultural, algunas veces difícil de determinar explícitamente.  Los procesos que definían a los negro-africanos experimentaron una acelerada transformación debido al choque cultural que vivieron durante casi cinco siglos de su historia. Este choque debilitó sus estructuras culturales, creando Estados con lenguas extranjeras oficiales,  religiones de importación, escuelas desvernacularizadas, etc., y desplazando los tradicionales sistemas sociopolíticos negro-africanos. Esta fuerte aculturación del África negra se ve fortalecida por la dominancia de la cultura exógena, que impide la reconfiguración etnocultural de sus habitantes y sociedades. Este es el gran reto de su futuro: fortalecer sus diversidades y enseñar a sus habitantes a aprender a ser africanos.Each black African peoples presents a cultural identity that makes it unique and essentially similar to others, as an important element of a whole culture, sometimes difficult to determine. The processes that defined black Africans experienced a accelerated transformation due to the culture shock lived for five centuries of their history. This shock weakened their cultural structures, creating states with official foreign languages, imported religions, acculturated schools, etc., and replacing the traditional black-African socio-political systems with Western models. This strong acculturation of black Africa was strengthened by the exogenous culture dominance; avoiding the ethno-cultural reconfiguration of its people and societies. This is the great challenge of their future: to strengthen African diversities and to teach the people to learn to be Africans.

  4. Migraciones internacionales, seguridad y xenofobia: los límites del modelo francés de integración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Lara Salinas

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available En el 2005, los suburbios de París fueron escenario de graves disturbios y los detonantes fueron, por un lado, la muerte de dos jóvenes musulmanes de origen africano mientras escapaban de la policía y, por otro, las declaraciones del ministro de interior Nicolás Sarkozy, quien llamó a los primeros manifestantes "escoria". Estos incidentes muy rápidamente se

  5. Matrimonios mixtos y cnice de la barrera de color como vías para el mestizaje de la población negra y mulata (1674-1796

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Angélica Castillo Palma

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene dos hipótesis principales. En primer lugar, hace evidente la amplitud de la preferencia hacia los matrimonios mixtos entre la población de origen africano en Cholula durante el periodo 1674-1796. En segundo término se pretende mostrar que la descendencia de dichas parejas mixtas tenía una amplia gama de posibilidades de adscripción en una o varias categorías socio-raciales. Esta situación le permitia al individuo buscar aquéllas designaciones más ventajosas, como el ser considerado mestizo o ser incluido en el gmpo indígena. Las variaciones en los patrones matrimoniales de los esclavos y sus descendientes se han seguido de maneracuantitativa, mientras que el salto de la barrerade color se ha analizado a partir de la reconstrucción de genealogías. El wmportamiento de ambos indicadores nos permite concluir que la población de origen africano buscó diluirse con otros grupos para asimilarse jurídicamente con los mestizos, los indios y excep cionalmente alcanzar una movilidad que les permitiera ser considerados como españoles. Por esta razón, entre la población de origen africano encontramos un frecuente cambio de identidad socio-racial. Estas particularidades fueron posibles gnicias al contexto multiétnico de inserción de los esclavos africanos, puesto que la unidades productivas cholultecas, haciendas y obrajes, contaban con una dominante población indigena trabajadora, una élite española y un creciente grupo mestizo.

  6. Botánica y Medicina africanas en la Nueva Granada, Siglo XVII.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Adriana Maya Restrepo.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La relación que los bozales (africanos que llegaban directamente de Africa que no se expresaban en lengua castellana ni conocían la fe católica y sus hijos nacidos en la Nueva Granada mantuvieron con los vegetales y los animales, en particular las aves, es otro de los legados ancestrales que la nación colombiana le debe a Africa. Los africanos le transmitieron a sus descendientes saberes y técnicas sobre el mundo vegetal y animal. Estos conocimientos, que fueron utilizados para curar los males del cuerpo y los del alma, se caracterizaban por un componente experimental cuyo éxito dependía también de la interacción con los espíritus. De ahí que el Tribunal de la Inquisición de Cartagena hubiera juzgado a los africanos y a sus hijos en calidad de "brujos(as", "hechiceros(as" y "curanderos(as".

  7. Notas sinonímicas sobre Hesperiidae neotropicais, com descrições de novos gêneros, espécies e subespécies (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf H. H. Mielke

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Celaenorrhinus shema mercedensis, ssp. n. de La Mercede e Rio Colorado, Peru e Cochabamba, Bolívia; Phocides pialia intermedia, ssp. n. de Minas Gerais, Brasil; Corticea diamantina, sp. n. de Minas Gerais, Brasil; Artines tobiasi sp. n. de Minas Gerais, Brasil; Cymaenes albiventris albiventris, sp. n. do Maranhão, Brasil; Cymaenes albiventris capixaba, ssp. n. do Espirito Santo, Brasil; Papias cascatona, sp. n. de Minas Geras, Brasil; Lerema caraca, sp. n. de Minas Gerais e Espirito Santo, Brasil; Vettius ploetzii morretesi, ssp. n. do Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Propapias, gen. n., tipo: Rhinthon proximus Bell, 1934, única espécie incluída. Celaenorrhinus songoensis saroma Evans, 1952, comb. n.; Celaenorrhinus songoensis tonio Evans, 1952, comb. n. Lerema duroca duroca (Ploetz, 1883, comb. n. e sp. rev. Lerema duroca lenta Evans, 1955, stat. n. Eumesia eburones inornata (Bell, 1937, comb. n. e stat. n., Eprius veleda obrepta (Kivirikko, 1936, comb. n. e stat. n., Phocides zancleius 1932 syn. n. de Phocides pialia (Hewitson, 1857; Dalla eburones elna Evans, 1955 syn. n. de Eumesia eburones inornata (Bell, 1937; Staphylus holaphegges Dyar, 1913 syn. n. de Eprius veleda veleda (Godman, 1901; Eprius veleda palta Evans, 1955 syn. n. de Eprius veleda obrepta (Kivirikko, 1936; Lerema elgina Schaus, 1902 syn. n. de Lerema duroca duroca (Ploetz, 1883. Dalla Mabille, 1904 syn. n. de Eumesia Felder &. Felder, 1867, n. rev, Eumesiinae Felder & Felder, 1867, n. rev.Celaenorrhinus shema mercedensis, ssp. n. from La Merced and Rio Colorado, Peru, and Cochabamba, Bolívia; Phocides pialia intermedia, ssp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Corticea diamantina, sp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Artines tobiasi, sp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Cymaenes albiventris albiventris, sp. n. from Maranhão, Brazil; Cymaenes albiventris capixaba, ssp. n. from Espírito Santo, Brazil; Papias cascatona, sp. n. from Minas Gerais, Brazil; Lerema caraca, sp. n. from

  8. Enzootic transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli in the Federal District of Brazil Transmissão enzoótica de Trypanosoma cruzi e T. rangeli no Distrito Federal, Brasil

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    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Federal District of Brazil (DF lies within the Cerrado biome, where open shrubland (savannas is interspersed with riverside gallery forests and permanent swamps (veredas. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected native triatomines occur in the area, but the enzootic transmission of trypanosomatids remains poorly characterized. A parasitological survey involving sylvatic triatomines (166 Rhodnius neglectus collected from Mauritia flexuosa palms and small mammals (98 marsupials and 70 rodents, totaling 18 species was conducted in 18 sites (mainly gallery forests and veredas of the DF. Parasites were isolated, morphologically identified, and characterized by PCR of nuclear (mini-exon gene and kinetoplast DNA (kDNA. Six R. neglectus, seven Didelphis albiventris and one Akodon cursor were infected by trypanosomes; wild reservoir infection is documented for the first time in the DF. kDNA PCR detected T. cruzi in five R. neglectus and mini-exon gene PCR revealed T. cruzi I in isolates from D. albiventris. Parasites infecting one bug yielded T. rangeli KP1+ kDNA amplicons. In spite of the occurrence of T. cruzi-infected D. albiventris (an important wild and peridomestic reservoir and R. neglectus (a secondary vector displaying synanthropic behavior, a low-risk of human Chagas disease transmission could be expected in the DF, considering the low prevalence infection recorded in this work. The detection of T. rangeli KP1+ associated with R. neglectus in the DF widens the known range of this parasite in Brazil and reinforces the hypothesis of adaptation of T. rangeli populations (KP1+ and KP1- to distinct evolutionary Rhodnius lineages.O Distrito Federal (DF do Brasil está localizado no bioma Cerrado, um complexo de fisionomias savânicas incluindo matas de galeria e campos úmidos permanentes (veredas. Triatomíneos silvestres infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi ocorrem na área, mas a transmissão enzoótica de tripanossomatídeos permanece insuficientemente

  9. Observações sobre calazar em Jacobina, Bahia. VI - Investigações sobre reservatórios silvestres e comensais

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    I. A. Sherlock

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante os anos de 1982 a 1986, a investigação sobre mamíferos comensais e silvestres, da periferia da cidade de Jacobina, Bahia, mostrou, ao lado do escasso número de exemplares, uma reduzida variedade específica dessa fauna. Capturou-se apenas 11 espécies, entre as quais, predominou o Didelphis albiventris, que abrangeu 44% dos 213 espécimens capturados. Entre os 193 com exames já concluídos, 84 eram exemplares de D. albiventris e 2 estavam infectados pela Leishmania donovani senso lato, 1 por L. mexicana amazonensis, 1 por L. braziliensis, subespécie e 3 por Trypanosoma cruzi Também foram observadas formas suspeitas de serem amastigotas de leishmanics, nos esfregaços de órgãos de 3 exemplares de Dasyprocta aguti, 1 Cercomys cunicularius - e 1 Oryzomys eliurus. 0 restante dos exemplares, inclusive 14 de Lycalopex vetulus, estava negativo para flagelados. Apesar de reforçado por outros indicadores epidemiológicos, como a predominância específica, a freqüência domiciliar, a atratividade para a vetora Lutzomyia longipalpis, e a concomitância com casos humanos nos mesmos locais, o índice de 2,3% de infecção natural do Didelphis albiventris, não autoriza a conclusão definitiva de ser o marsupial o mais importante reservatório natural da leishmaniose visceral em Jacobina.

  10. A comparative study of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals from a protected and a disturbed area in the Argentine Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, M M; Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Piccinali, R V; Gürtler, R E

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the complex epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles requires comparative studies in widely different environments. We assessed the occurrence of T. cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals, their infectiousness to the vector, and parasite genotypes in a protected area of the Argentine Chaco, and compared them with information obtained similarly in a nearby disturbed area. A total of 278 mammals from >23 species in the protected area were diagnosed for T. cruzi infection using xenodiagnosis, kDNA-PCR and nuclear satellite DNA-PCR (SAT) from blood samples. The relative abundance and species composition differed substantially between areas. Didelphis albiventris opossums were less abundant in the protected area; had a significantly lower body mass index, and a stage structure biased toward earlier stages. The capture of armadillos was lower in the protected area. The composite prevalence of T. cruzi infection across host species was significantly lower in the protected area (11.1%) than in the disturbed area (22.1%), and heterogeneous across species groups. The prevalence of infection in D. albiventris and Thylamys pusilla opossums was significantly lower in the protected area (nil for D. albiventris), whereas infection in sigmodontine rodents was three times higher in the protected area (17.5 versus 5.7%). Parasite isolates from the two xenodiagnosis-positive mammals (1 Dasypus novemcinctus and 1 Conepatus chinga) were typed as TcIII; both specimens were highly infectious to Triatoma infestans. Fat-tailed opossums, bats and rodents were kDNA-PCR-positive and xenodiagnosis-negative. Desmodus rotundus and Myotis bats were found infected with T. cruzi for the first time in the Gran Chaco. PMID:26708994

  11. A comparative study of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals from a protected and a disturbed area in the Argentine Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, M M; Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Piccinali, R V; Gürtler, R E

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the complex epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles requires comparative studies in widely different environments. We assessed the occurrence of T. cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals, their infectiousness to the vector, and parasite genotypes in a protected area of the Argentine Chaco, and compared them with information obtained similarly in a nearby disturbed area. A total of 278 mammals from >23 species in the protected area were diagnosed for T. cruzi infection using xenodiagnosis, kDNA-PCR and nuclear satellite DNA-PCR (SAT) from blood samples. The relative abundance and species composition differed substantially between areas. Didelphis albiventris opossums were less abundant in the protected area; had a significantly lower body mass index, and a stage structure biased toward earlier stages. The capture of armadillos was lower in the protected area. The composite prevalence of T. cruzi infection across host species was significantly lower in the protected area (11.1%) than in the disturbed area (22.1%), and heterogeneous across species groups. The prevalence of infection in D. albiventris and Thylamys pusilla opossums was significantly lower in the protected area (nil for D. albiventris), whereas infection in sigmodontine rodents was three times higher in the protected area (17.5 versus 5.7%). Parasite isolates from the two xenodiagnosis-positive mammals (1 Dasypus novemcinctus and 1 Conepatus chinga) were typed as TcIII; both specimens were highly infectious to Triatoma infestans. Fat-tailed opossums, bats and rodents were kDNA-PCR-positive and xenodiagnosis-negative. Desmodus rotundus and Myotis bats were found infected with T. cruzi for the first time in the Gran Chaco.

  12. Relationships among Sarcocystis species transmitted by New World opossums (Didelphis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, B M; Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P

    2001-02-26

    At least three species of Sarcocystis (S. neurona, S. falcatula, S. speeri) have recently been shown to use opossums of the genus Didelphis as their definitive host. In order to evaluate the evolutionary relationships among Sarcocystis spp. isolates from the Americas, and to determine whether organisms representing the same parasite lineages are transmitted north and south of the Panamanian isthmus, we inferred the phylogenetic relationships from nucleotide sequence variation in parasites isolated from three opossum species (D. virginiana, D. albiventris, D. marsupialis). In particular, we used variation in the 25/396 marker to compare several isolates from Brazil, Argentina, and the United States to each other and to cloned S. neurona and S. falcatula whose morphology and host affinities have been defined in the laboratory. S. neurona was identified from a Brazilian D. albiventris, as well as from North American D. virginiana. Parasites resembling the Cornell isolate of S. falcatula are transmitted both south and north of the Panamanian isthmus by D. albiventris and D. virginiana, respectively. Distinct attributes at two genetic loci differentiated a Brazilian isolate of S. falcatula from all other known parasite lineages. We confirm S. neurona as the causative agent of recently reported neurologic disease in Southern sea otters, Enhydra lutris nereis. And we found that S. speeri could not be compared to the other opossum-derived Sarcocystis isolates on the basis of nucleotide variation at the 25/396 locus. The widespread distribution of certain species of Sarcocystis may derive from their ability to parasitize migratory bird hosts in their intermediate stage. PMID:11223194

  13. First finding of Trypanosoma cruzi II in vampire bats from a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission in Northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argibay, Hernán D; Orozco, M Marcela; Cardinal, M Victoria; Rinas, Miguel A; Arnaiz, María; Mena Segura, Carlos; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the putative links between sylvatic and domestic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is of public health relevance. We conducted three surveys to assess T. cruzi infection in wild mammals from a rural and a preserved area in Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina, which had recently been declared free of vector- and blood-borne transmission of human T. cruzi infection. A total of 200 wild mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis (XD) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the hyper-variable region of kinetoplast DNA minicircles of T. cruzi (kDNA-PCR). The overall prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 8%. Nine (16%) of 57 Didelphis albiventris opossums and two (7%) of 29 Desmodus rotundus vampire bats were positive by both XD and kDNA-PCR. Additionally, one D. rotundus positive for T. cruzi by kDNA-PCR tested positive by satellite-DNA-PCR (SAT-DNA-PCR). The T. cruzi-infected bats were captured indoors and in the yard of a vacant dwelling. All D. albiventris were infected with TcI and both XD-positive D. rotundus by TcII. Fifty-five opossum cubs within the marsupium were negative by XD. The mean infectiousness to the vector was 62% in D. albiventris and 50% in D. rotundus. Mice experimentally infected with a parasite isolate from a vampire bat displayed lesions typically caused by T. cruzi. Our study documents the presence of the genotype TcII in a sylvatic host for the first time in Argentina, and the occurrence of two transmission cycles of T. cruzi in a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission. PMID:27220254

  14. Primeira evidência de Trypanosoma rangeli no sudeste do Brasil, região endêmica para doença de Chagas

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez Luis Eduardo; Machado Maria Inês; Maywald Paula G.; Matos Aldo; Chiari Egler; Silva Eliane Lages

    1998-01-01

    Informa-se, pela primeira vez, os achados de Trypanosoma rangeli no Triângulo Mineiro, Sudeste do Brasil, área altamente endêmica para doença de Chagas, assim como a infecção natural da espécie Didelphis albiventris.com este mesmo tripanosoma. Estes foram demonstrados por esfregaços sangüíneos, xenodiagnóstico, hemocultura, microhematócrito e PCR. A PCR foi realizada nas fezes e hemolinfa de Triatoma infestans, usando como controle cepas de T. rangeli provenientes da Colômbia.

  15. Primeira evidência de Trypanosoma rangeli no sudeste do Brasil, região endêmica para doença de Chagas First evidence of Trypanosoma rangeli in the southeast of Brazil, an endemic region to Chagas' disease

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Eduardo Ramirez; Maria Inês Machado; Paula G. Maywald; Aldo Matos; Egler Chiari; Eliane Lages Silva

    1998-01-01

    Informa-se, pela primeira vez, os achados de Trypanosoma rangeli no Triângulo Mineiro, Sudeste do Brasil, área altamente endêmica para doença de Chagas, assim como a infecção natural da espécie Didelphis albiventris.com este mesmo tripanosoma. Estes foram demonstrados por esfregaços sangüíneos, xenodiagnóstico, hemocultura, microhematócrito e PCR. A PCR foi realizada nas fezes e hemolinfa de Triatoma infestans, usando como controle cepas de T. rangeli provenientes da Colômbia.This short commu...

  16. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with opossum nests at urban sites in southeastern Brazil: a risk factor for urban and periurban zoonotic Leishmania transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Andre Antonio; Teodoro, Anna Karollina Menezes; Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2014-06-01

    Sandflies associated with opossum nests are reported for the first time in the yards of residences located in the urban area of the municipality of Monte Mor, situated in the metropolitan region of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Eleven specimens of Evandromyia cortelezzii and one of Evandromyia lenti were captured in two Didelphis albiventris nests. Ev. cortelezzii is considered a secondary vector species for the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the Neotropics. This association may contribute to the introduction, establishment and maintenance of urban and periurban zoonotic transmission outbreaks of Leishmania and should therefore be investigated further. PMID:24789554

  17. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae associated with opossum nests at urban sites in southeastern Brazil: a risk factor for urban and periurban zoonotic Leishmania transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Antonio Cutolo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies associated with opossum nests are reported for the first time in the yards of residences located in the urban area of the municipality of Monte Mor, situated in the metropolitan region of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Eleven specimens of Evandromyia cortelezzii and one of Evandromyia lenti were captured in two Didelphis albiventris nests. Ev. cortelezzii is considered a secondary vector species for the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania infantum in the Neotropics. This association may contribute to the introduction, establishment and maintenance of urban and periurban zoonotic transmission outbreaks of Leishmania and should therefore be investigated further.

  18. Notas e comentários sobre a dinâmica do comércio Brasil-África nas décadas de 1970 a 1990

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    Ivo de Santana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz algumas reflexões acerca da presença empresarial brasileira no mercado africano, enfocando particularmente a visão de diferentes autores que se voltaram para o estudo das relações comerciais entre o Brasil e a África. O texto objetiva responder a duas questões principais. Primeiramente, sob que motivações o comércio Brasil-África obteve um notável crescimento entre os anos 1970 e 1990? Segundo, quais as perspectivas que se apresentam para o empresário brasileiro que deseje iniciar negócios na África? Através da pesquisa bibliográfica e entrevistas com executivos que atuaram na África no período mencionado, além de especialistas em comércio exterior, constatou-se que nos anos mencionados o governo brasileiro concedeu generosos incentivos aos empreendimentos direcionados para o mercado africano. Com o fim dessa política privilegiada, muitas empresas fracassaram, no entanto algumas permanecem em atividade, a exemplo da Câmara de Comércio Afro-Brasileira e da Construtora Norberto Odebrecht cujas trajetórias proporcionaram a entrada de outras empresas brasileiras no mercado africano, além de propiciarem importantes lições a empreendedores que desejam iniciar negócios no mercado africano. Concluímos que, a despeito da redução do apoio estatal e das mudanças no ambiente econômico interno e externo brasileiro, as oportunidades comerciais no continente africano existem e não podem ser ignoradas pelos homens de negócios, que tendem a julgar a África como um todo em função dos aspectos negativos ressaltados pela imprensa, da mesma forma que muitos empresários africanos desconhecem a qualidade dos nossos produtos e serviços.This article brings some reflections about the presence of Brazilian enterprises in the African market, focusing particularly the vision of different authors that had studied the trade relationship between Brazil and Africa. The text aims to answer two main questions. Firstly

  19. Geographic distribution of Bhanja virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z

    1987-01-01

    A review on the geographic distribution, vectors and hosts of Bhanja virus (Bunyaviridae) is based on reports about: isolations of the virus; antibody surveys. Bhanja virus has been isolated in 15 countries of Asia, Africa and Europe, and antibodies against it have been detected in 15 additional countries. Vector range includes ticks of the family Ixodidae (subfam. Amblyomminae; not subfam. Ixodinae): 13 species of 6 genera (Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus and Boophilus) yielded the virus. Bhanja virus has only rarely been isolated from vertebrates (Atelerix, Xerus, Ovis, Bos; possibly bats), though antibodies have been detected frequently in a wide range of mammals (Ruminantia being the major hosts), in several species of birds (Passeriformes, Galliformes) and even reptiles (Ophisaurus apodus). Natural foci of the Bhanja virus infections are of the boskematic type (sensu Rosický), associated closely with pastures of domestic ruminants infested by ticks in the regions of tropical, subtropical and partly temperate climatic zones. PMID:3108117

  20. Serological survey for Leishmania sp. infection in wild animals from the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil

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    EM Voltarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania sp. infection was investigated in wild animals from the Ingá Park, in the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil, where American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is an endemic disease. Sixty-five mammals, comprising Didelphis albiventris, Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua, were captured. Blood samples were collected for parasite cultivation. Antibodies were investigated by direct agglutination test (DAT using Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis as antigen. Flagellates were observed in blood cultures of 14 (35.9% Didelphis albiventris. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 31 (51.6% specimens of Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua. These results suggest that Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex vetulus (crab-eating fox, Cebus apella (capuchin monkey, Dasyprocta azarae (agouti, Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon and Nasua nasua (coati play an important role in the ACL transmission cycle in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

  1. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2 %) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal. PMID:26912332

  2. [Mycobacterium bovis in wildlife of the dairy regions of Santa Fe (Argentina)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Alejandro A; Garbaccio, Sergio; Zumárraga, Martín; Tarabla, Héctor D

    2015-01-01

    Control eradication campaigns of bovine tuberculosis based on the «test and slaughter» approach were successful in many countries and regions; however, in some areas the infection persists and one of the main reasons is Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild life species. Argentina has applied the same approach since 1999, achieving progress in dairy cattle herds. Nonetheless, the wildlife role has never been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if wildlife from the Santa Fe dairy area is infected with M. bovis. Wildlife species having a positive tuberculin skin test were captured in five dairy farms. Ninety five wildlife mammals were captured; M. bovis was recovered from 7 possums (Didelphys albiventris), from one fox (Lycolapex gimnocercus) and from one rat (Rattus norvegicus). None of the animals exhibited macroscopic lesions. The most frequently isolated M. bovis spoligotypes were types 34 (4 isolates) and 12 (3 isolates). Spoligotype 34 is the most frequently isolated type in Argentine cattle. The role of D. albiventris as spillover host of M. bovis is discussed in this study. PMID:26376835

  3. Metabolic costs of bat echolocation in a non-foraging context support a role in communication

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    Dina Kea Noanoa Dechmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of information is a key adaptive behaviour of social animals, and many animals produce costly signals to communicate with conspecifics. In contrast, bats produce ultrasound for auto-communication, i.e., they emit ultrasound calls and behave in response to the received echo. However, ultrasound echolocation calls produced by non-flying bats looking for food are energetically costly. Thus, if they are produced in a non-foraging or navigational context this indicates an energetic investment, which must be motivated by something to be under positive selection. We quantified the costs of the production of such calls, in stationary, non-foraging lesser bulldog bats (Noctilio albiventris and found metabolic rates to increase by 0.021 ± 0.001 J/pulse (mean ± standard error. From this, we estimated the metabolic rates of N. albiventris when responding with ultrasound echolocation calls to playbacks of echolocation calls from familiar and unfamiliar conspecific as well as heterospecific bats. Lesser bulldog bats adjusted their energetic investment to the social information contained in the presented playback. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that in addition to orientation and foraging, ultrasound calls in bats may also have function for active communication.

  4. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Geruza L; Miotto, Barbara; Peres, Brisa; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2013-01-01

    Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation. PMID:23828340

  5. Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi Strains Isolated from Chronic Chagasic Patients, Triatomines and Opossums Naturally Infected from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Cloé Duarte Fernandes

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five Trypanosoma cruzi strains were isolated from chronic chagasic patients, triatomines and opossums from different municipalities of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Parasites were characterized by means of mice infectivity, enzyme electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Twenty-nine strains were isolated from chagasic patients, 4 from triatomines (2 from Triatoma infestans and 2 from Panstrongylus megistus and 2 from opossums Didelphis albiventris. Thirty-three T. cruzi strains were of low and 2 strains of high virulence in mice. Both virulent strains were isolated from P. megistus. Isoenzyme analysis of the strains showed 3 different zymodemes. Eleven strains isolated from chagasic patients and 2 from D. albiventris were Z2. Eighteen strains from patients and 2 from T. infestans were ZB and 2 T. cruzi strains isolated from P. megistus were Z1. RAPD profiles obtained with 4 random primers showed a high genetic heterogeneity of the T. cruzi strains. Zymodeme 2 and ZB strains were the more polymorphic. A band sharing analysis of the RAPD profiles of Z2 and ZB strains using 3 primers, showed a very low percentage of shared bands, 20% among 13 ZB strains and 14% among 13 Z2 strains. According to the isoenzyme results, 3 T. cruzi populations were present in State of Rio Grande do Sul. Zymodeme 2 and ZB strains were found infecting man (domiciliar transmission cycle whereas Z1 strains were found infecting the sylvatic vector P. megistus

  6. Primeira evidência de Trypanosoma rangeli no sudeste do Brasil, região endêmica para doença de Chagas First evidence of Trypanosoma rangeli in the southeast of Brazil, an endemic region to Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Ramirez

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Informa-se, pela primeira vez, os achados de Trypanosoma rangeli no Triângulo Mineiro, Sudeste do Brasil, área altamente endêmica para doença de Chagas, assim como a infecção natural da espécie Didelphis albiventris.com este mesmo tripanosoma. Estes foram demonstrados por esfregaços sangüíneos, xenodiagnóstico, hemocultura, microhematócrito e PCR. A PCR foi realizada nas fezes e hemolinfa de Triatoma infestans, usando como controle cepas de T. rangeli provenientes da Colômbia.This short communication informs the discovery of Trypanosoma rangeli for the first time at Triângulo Mineiro region, South-east of Brazil, a highly endemic area of Chagas'disease and also the natural infection of Didelphis albiventris with the same trypanosome. Both the findings were demonstrated through blood smears, xenodiagnosis, microhematocrit technics and PCR. The last one was realized in faeces and hemolymph of Triatoma infestans utilizing as controls strains of T. rangeli from Colombia.

  7. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  8. The Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa: A Product of The Entire Black World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgwebi Snail

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo ilustra cómo el surgimiento del Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica puede estar diametralmente unido a la emergencia de los movimientos de Conciencia Negra y Black Power en América. Pretende demostrar además cómo, en el contexto africano, el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra fue impulsado por el nacionalismo africano y cómo ese nacionalismo fue moldeado y transformado por pensadores africanos de la década de los 50 y 60 en el Panafricanismo. El artículo también mostrará similitudes y diferencias entre la Negritud Africana y el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra. El texto de nuevo explicará de manera cronológica cómo el Garveyismo, la Conciencia Negra en América y el nacionalismo africano, la personalidad africana y la Negritud en África contribuyeron al surgimiento del Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica. El estudio advierte de que la falta de comprensión de estos antecedentes, podría llevar a la confusión y a una mala interpretación de concepto vital en la historia de África. Finalmente, este trabajo busca hacer hincapié en la historización del desarrollo del por qué el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica no puede estar divorciado del contexto global.____________________ABSTRACT:The paper illustrates how the rise of the Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa can be diametrically tied up with the emergence of the Black Consciousness and Black-Power Movements in America. It goes further to demonstrate how, in the African context, the Black Consciousness Movement was given impetus by African nationalism and how that nationalism was later moulded and shaped by African thinkers of the 1950’s and 1960’s into Pan Africanism. The paper, will also try to show similarities and the disparities between Negritude African personality and the Black Consciousness Movement. The paper will again explain in a chronological manner how Garveyism, Black Consciousness in America and African Nationalism in

  9. Mezcla génica en la población de la región metropolitana de Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Avena, Sergio Alejandro; Goicoechea, Alicia Susana; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Rey, Jorge Alberto; Slepoy, Alberto S.; Dejean, Cristina Beatriz; Carnese, Francisco R.

    2001-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estimar la contribución del componente africano en la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, constituida por la Capital Federal (CF), primera corona (1C) y segunda corona (2C) del conurbano, utilizando los sistemas Gm y Km. Se estudió una muestra hospitalaria de la ciudad, constituida por 455 individuos (CF=216, 1C=129 y 2C=110). Las frecuencias haplotípicas se determinaron mediante un método de máxima verosimilitud y la mezcla génica se calculó aplicand...

  10. English as a world language: its role as a lingua francaa sociolinguistic profile of students of secondary schools in Santiago Island, in the Archipelago of Cape Verde

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Olívio Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Estudos Ingleses e Americanos, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Letras, 2011 Esta tese centra-se em aspectos relevantes do inglês como uma língua universal, no actual contexto globalizado e examina possíveis mudanças relacionadas com o seu uso, em especial no continente africano, particularmente no caso de Cabo Verde, no sentido de ponderar eventuais alternativas nas pedagogias linguísticas no ensino desta língua que impliquem uma adaptação à realidade contemporânea. ...

  11. “Un tocotín mestizo de español y mexicano..."

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Gruzinski

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Una sociedad pluriétnica y pluricultural Cabe   recordar la peculiaridad de la ciudad de México. Desde su conquista en el año 1521, la ciudad de México se volvió una ciudad en la que se codeaba Europeos, Africanos y Amerindios.Su población era sumamente heterogénea y en este aspecto totalmente distinta de las de las ciudades europeas.  Esta peculiaridad,  el manchego  Bernardo de Balbuena la comentó en unos versos famosos - aunque, a mi parecer, pocas veces comentados - de su poema Grandeza m...

  12. Freire y Ondjango: diálogos con la experiencia vital del mundo angoleño

    OpenAIRE

    Gomercindo Ghiggi; Martinho Kavaya

    2012-01-01

    Este texto busca aproximar dos perspectivas vitales para pensar el mundo contemporáneo con base en el diálogo como referencia central: una, presente en el ideario de Paulo Freire, a través de los Círculos de Cultura, y otra desde la cultura africano/angoleña, a través de Ondjango. Ondjango, en la lengua/cultura umbundu del sur de Angola, es una palabra compuesta por aglutinación: ondjo (‘casa’) + ohango (‘conversación’), es decir, ondjo y ohango (‘casa de conversación’). Ondjo, significando ‘...

  13. Representações sociais e arbítrio nas roças : as primeiras levas de caboverdianos em S. Tomé e Príncipe nos primórdios de novecentos

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Augusto

    2001-01-01

    Na derradeira década de Oitocentos, S. Tomé e Príncipe confirmouse como um exemplo da prosperidade dos empreendimentos coloniais e, acreditava-se à época, da superioridade da agricultura europeia. Essa ventura baseava-se na monocultura do cacau, cuja produção ascensional se devia à fertilidade das terras florestais virgens desmatadas e trabalhadas de forma intensiva pelos crescentes contingentes de mão-de-obra resgatada no continente africano que não era repatriada. A implantação das ro...

  14. Poetas do Atlântico: as descobertas como metáfora e ideologia em Whitman, Crane e Pessoa

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Maria Irene Ramalho de Sousa

    1990-01-01

    Nos finais do século XIX, alguns pensadores políticos defendiam no Ocidente a ideia de uma comunidade do Atlântico, como a única forma de preservar a supremacia europeia branca num mundo cada vez mais perturbado pela inevitabilidade da descolonização e pelo aparecimento, nos continentes asiático e africano, de novas nações ameaçadoramente diferentes. Muito antes disso, Whitman celebrara, na sua "grande ideia" da América, a utopia exaltada da passagem para "mais do que a Índia". Que a metáfora...

  15. O combate à probreza através do microcrédito em Àfrica : algumas observações acerca da situação em Moçambique

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Teresa Fátima Bento

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Ciências Empresariais O objetivo do presente estudo é analisar em que medida o microcrédito funciona como instrumento de combate à pobreza. Ele encontra-se apoiado em dados do continente africano, com especial foco na situação de Moçambique. O microcrédito nasce da consciência de exclusão dos pobres relativamente ao acesso a serviços financeiros formais. Embora a literatura reconheça no microcrédito uma mais-valia para as categorias socioeconómicas menos abastadas, existem auto...

  16. Política francesa de cooperação em África

    OpenAIRE

    Escarras, François

    2009-01-01

    Nos seus discursos na cidade do Cabo e em Dakar em 2007 e 2008, o presidente francês Nicolas Sarkozy esboçou os traços de novas relações entre França e África. Mais de quarenta anos depois das independências das antigas colónias francesas, este trabalho tenta estudar as razões que levaram o presidente francês a rever as ligações estreitas que unem França ao continente africano. Em primeiro lugar, África mudou. Ainda confrontando desafios enormes, presentes e futuros, como a ...

  17. Políticas de protecção de menores em Angola: a influência cultural na concepção e intervenção no trabalho infantil exploratório

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Elisa Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Psicologia Comunitária e Protecção de Menores De acordo com a (Unicef, 2006), o trabalho infantil exploratório constitui maus-tratos com todas as suas tipologias inerentes; e vem vitimando biliões de crianças por todo o mundo. Essa prática tem sido atribuída pela literatura a vários factores, como a pobreza familiar, pobreza infantil, elevando índice de literacia e práticas culturais cingidas nas crenças e valores, com maior incidência para o continente africano. As organizaçõe...

  18. Gestão dos recursos hídricos em Moçambique: Gaza – rio Limpopo

    OpenAIRE

    Milhano, Ana Paula Ferreira Ribeiro da Costa

    2008-01-01

    Mestre em Estudos Africanos – Desenvolvimento Social e Económico em África: Análise e Gestão A água é um recurso escasso e circulante, pelo que o seu uso em determinado local condiciona o que dela poderão fazer noutros lugares. O modo com cada país gere os recursos tem implicações nos índices de pobreza, na distribuição de oportunidades de vida e, por isso, no desenvolvimento humano. Moçambique é frequentemente sujeito a ciclos de abundância de água, associados a cheias, ...

  19. Desenvolvimento, Subdesenvolvimento e Democracia em África

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Apesar da democratização constituir um processo eminentemente político, inúmeros estudos promovidos tanto por economistas como cientistas políticos, desde meados do século vinte, estabeleceram uma relação entre o nível de desenvolvimento e o carácter democrático da governação. O objectivo deste artigo é o de verificar esta hipótese para o continente africano, e mais propriamente para a sua fatia subsaariana. Ora, em contraste com os estudos supracitados, a literatura mais actual não permite c...

  20. Mujer Pagana/ Mujer Cristiana en Ad uxorem de Tertuliano

    OpenAIRE

    López Abelaira, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Desde los primeros años del cristianismo la figura de la mujer no ha pasado desapercibida para los distintos autores. Nos parece muy interesante la figura de Tertuliano, autor africano de los siglos II-III d. C. Pagano de formación y atraído por el mensaje y las vivencias de la nueva religión, pero confundido por la radicalidad que surgieron en las sectas del cristianismo. Es el primer escritor cristiano del norte de África que se ocupó ampliamente de la mujer virgen, viuda y casada. Sient...

  1. La ??ltima posesi??n bizantina en la Pen??nsula Ib??rica: Mesopotamenoi-Mesopotaminoi. Nuevas aportaciones para su identificaci??n

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Chica, Jos??; Berenjeno, Ana Mar??a

    2014-01-01

    La identificaci??n del misterioso t??rmino ??????????????????????????? que aparece mencionado en la Descriptio Orbis Romani de Jorge de Chipre ha constituido uno de los grandes problemas de la historia de la dominaci??n bizantina en Hispania y el extremo Occidente africano. Por nuestra parte proponemos aqu?? la identificaci??n de Mesopotamenoi con la actual ciudad de Algeciras y ello en base a la puesta en valor de nuevos datos extra??dos de fuentes mal aprovechadas, poco conocidas o total...

  2. Da escola corânica tradicional à escola Arabi: um simples aumento de qualificação do ensino muçulmano na Senegâmbia?

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Este texto tem como objectivo principal apresentar e discutir algumas das razões que tornam, na Senegâmbia, como aliás em muitos outros contextos muçulmanos africanos, as escolas arabi, também conhecidas por «novas madrass», ao contrário das escolas corânicas tradicionais (kuttâb, madrass «clássicas»), num tipo de escola confessional muçulmana pouco consentâneo com a forma como a generalidade das populações locais islamizadas estrutura e organiza o seu saber religioso e prático-religioso....

  3. El comercio de esclavos a Cuba (1790-1840: una proporción femenina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ JODA ESTEVE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde una perspectiva comparativa y de género, se realiza un análisis de la trata de esclavos africanos dirigida a Cuba entre 1790 y 1840. Por un lado, se aborda la controversia de las fuentes para investigar y cuantificar las mujeres esclavas llevadas a la isla y, por otro, la evolución de la proporción de mujeres que hicieron parte de la trata de esclavos. Las causas e hipótesis que pueden explicar los porcentajes hallados nos plantean la dicotomía entre producción y reproducción femenina.

  4. La Inmigración Africana en Zaragoza . Espacio, discurso y memoria de los procesos migratorios en Aragón

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Ranedo, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo general es conocer los procesos migratorios en Aragón y más concretamente de la inmigración de origen africano a Zaragoza.La aproximación teórica al fenómeno migratorio, desde varias disciplinas, ha puesto en evidencia la preocupación de los científicos sociales por explicarlas. Haciendo un repaso por las mismas, se ha visto que han pasado por las teorías de la modernización, al dependentismo y descansando actualmente en las articulacionista.Entendemos la emigración/inmigración co...

  5. O papel de cooperação dos EUA no processo de desenvolvimento de Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Gina, Francisco Manuel

    2014-01-01

    O bem comum, paz, justiça, reconciliação, unidade e outros termos que submergem a convivência humana. Fora das áreas em crise do continente, poucos países africanos são mais importantes para os interesses dos Estados Unidos da América que Angola, o segundo maior productor de petróleo de África. O sucesso ou o fracasso de Angola, na passagem de quase trinta anos de guerra para a paz e a democracia, tem consequências para a estabilidade do abastecimento de petróleo dos Estados...

  6. Geografías de la infancia y género en África subsahariana

    OpenAIRE

    Prats, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta un balance de los estudios sobre geografías de la infancia en África subsahariana. A partir de artículos de revistas, publicados en el periodo 2000-2008, se han analizado cuales son los principales temas y lugares objeto de estudio. La principal conclusión obtenida es que la investigación sobre geografías de la infancia en el continente africano, publicada en las principales revistas académicas del mundo anglosajón, de diferentes ámbitos (geografía, infancia, desarrollo) presenta ...

  7. El otro, el mismo : Duby, Georges. Año 1000, año 2000. La huella de nuestros miedos, Editorial Andrés Bello. Santiago de Chile. 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrero, Adrián Marcelo

    1999-01-01

    El hilo tópico conductor del libro son los miedos: del presente y de la Edad Media. El miedo a la peste (la negra o el SIDA), el miedo al otro (los tártaros o los inmigrantes africanos), el miedo al más allá, el miedo a la violencia y el miedo a la miseria. Si bien Duby encuentra similitudes o equivalencias, es muy precavido. No deja de enfatizar las condiciones desemejantes en que acontecieron. Las salvedades, es decir. Se podría afirmar que todo el libro es un ir y venir del pasado al pr...

  8. Identidad biocultural de las poblaciones del Noroeste Argentino (NOA)

    OpenAIRE

    Alfaro Gómez, Emma Laura

    2005-01-01

    La identidad de un individuo y también de una población puede analizarse a través de apellidos, marcadores moleculares y la asociación entre ambos. Históricamente, el NOA ha visto afectada la distribución de la variación genética de sus poblaciones, resultado del mestizaje entre grupos autóctonos y poblaciones alóctonas principalmente españoles y en menor medida africanos. Para reconstruir la identidad biocultural de las poblaciones del NOA se analizan datos censales, distribución y frecuenci...

  9. Nollywood llega al Sur de España

    OpenAIRE

    Moral, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo se centra en cómo y por qué gentes nigerianas viviendo en las ciudades de Granada y Málaga (Sur de España), simultáneamente distribuyen y consumen Nollywood, proveniente de África. Para ello, se desentraña la naturaleza de esta industria de cine nigeriana, desde el propio contexto africano, hasta su extensión a nivel internacional. Pone especial atención en cómo este fenómeno cultural juega un rol relevante en las identidades de mujeres y hombres en la diáspora. Hay que resaltar ...

  10. Afrolatinoamericanas... una experiencia de subversión estereotípica en el museo de la mujer de Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Lea Geler

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo me centraré en la perfomance teatral Afrolatinoamericanas..., realizada en el Museo de la Mujer de Buenos Aires a finales del año 2010 por un grupo de teatro dedicado a la tematización de la afrodescendencia en la Argentina, un país que hasta hoy día sigue considerándose blanco-europeo y que sostiene que la población de descendientes de esclavizados/as africanos/as ha desaparecido. El análisis de la puesta en escena de dicha obra, en conjunto con el de fuentes históricas, perm...

  11. Retrospectiva histórica de la minería en Marmato

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Anotaciones históricas sobre la minería de este colonial poblado de Colombia, donde se pretende una explotación a cielo abierto cuando está de por medio la voluntad de cientos de familias de etnias mayoritariamente afrodescendientes e indígenas que no han negociado sus raíces culturales. Allí llegan legiones de esclavos africanos cuando los Cartamas fueron exterminados, y luego los ingleses para asegurarse con el oro el pago de los empréstitos de la independencia

  12. Hybrid Education as a Source of Contradiction in the Way to Womanhood in Tsitsi Dangarembga’s Nervous Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pagola Montoya, Irene

    2006-01-01

    [ES] Este estudio se centra en el tema de educación y mujer en el continente africano tal y como aparece representado en la novela Nervous Conditions de la escritora Tsitsi Dangarembga (Mutoko, Zimbabwe, 1959). La novela muestra cómo un entorno particular puede determinar y destruir la identidad femenina, sobre todo cuando ésta se asienta sobre cimientos racistas y sexistas para su perpetuación. Una educación híbrida, concebida como fuente de crítica en polos fijos de identificación como son ...

  13. Mujeres y niños en los conflictos armados: África en el punto de mira

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Herrero, Olga

    2009-01-01

    [ES] Este estudios analiza la situación que sufren los niños, niñas y mujeres en poblaciones en las que existen conflictos armados, ofreciendo una panorámica general que incluye la venta de armas de Occidente al continente africano y la situación que las niñas y niños soldado se ven forzados a vivir. El estudio finaliza con un breve análisis de algunas narrativas emblemáticas de escritoras africanas sobre las situaciones creadas por los conflictos armados.[EN] This study analyzes the situat...

  14. Community Radio: the future speaks "glocal". An African experience: the Guinea-Bissau & Mozambique cases

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Mota Paula

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo es un análisis comparativo de realidades de radio comunitaria en dos países africanos lusófonos: Guinea-Bissau y Mozambique, cuyas investigaciones se refieren a 2003, 2004, 2007 y 2009, respectivamente. Se centra en la tensa relación entre poder político y radios comunitarias a través de una revisión teórica de dos conceptos nuevos: "Comunicación para Desarrollo" y "Glocalización". Un estudio amplio e innovador con el objetivo de determinar el papel que estos medios tienen para ...

  15. Innovative corporate social responsibility in Botswana. The Debswana mining company study case

    OpenAIRE

    José Ramón Torres Solís; Keonethebe Moroka

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan una serie de consideraciones sobre la forma en que una importante compañía africana hace frente a su responsabilidad social, en lo que podría ser una innovación en la industria minera dedicada a la explotación del diamante. De esta manera se realiza un caso de estudio referido a la compañía Debswana que opera en Botswana, uno de los países africanos más destacados en la producción diamantífera mundial. Se discuten y critican algunas acciones implementadas por esa ...

  16. Desenvolvimento limpo : uma nova cooperação entre Portugal e os PALOP

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Carla Maria

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho propõe analisar as políticas de cooperação em Portugal e perceber de que modo a Convenção Internacional para as Alterações Climáticas, nomeadamente o Protocolo de Quioto, provocou uma mudança de prioridades e de estratégia. À luz de um novo paradigma da “cooperação para o desenvolvimento sustentável”, procura-se avaliar o potencial dos Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa como parceiros em futuros projectos de Desenvolvimento Limpo, em particular de Fontes de Ener...

  17. Usos y acepciones de chino, china en el norte del Perú, siglos XVIII-XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Andrade Ciudad; Fred Rohner

    2014-01-01

    ResumenSe estudian los usos de la palabra chino, china en el norte peruano, entre los siglos XVIII y XIX, a partir de documentos históricos y coplas de la lírica popular. En contra de propuestas anteriores, se confirma el uso efectivo del término, sobre todo en su forma femenina, y se postulan dos acepciones: la primera, vinculada a la terminología de castas, alude a un tipo de mestizaje que une los troncos indio y africano, con un componente menor, variable, de “sangre blanca”, mientras que ...

  18. Pobreza, Exclusión Social y Discriminación Étnico-Racial en América Latina - 10.5102/uri.v4i2.232

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bijos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Reflexión acerca de las transformaciones económicas, la ausencia de políticas públicas y sociales para una población indígena, especialmente mujeres aymara, quéchua, moxeñas, niegras brasileñas, y de la Provincia de Bahia, descendientes de los esclavos africanos, excluídas socialmente. A pesar de los niveles de desarrollo alcanzados en las últimas décadas, América Latina posue todavía, una parcela significativa de su población viviendo en pobreza absoluta.

  19. El Alivio de la deuda en Africa ¿hacia la reducción de la pobreza?

    OpenAIRE

    Cairó i Céspedes, Gemma; Colom Jaén, Artur

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo se estudian las oportunidades de reducción de la pobreza en África subsahariana surgidas a raíz de la reciente propuesta de condonación de deuda del G-7, del Banco Mundial y del Fondo Monetario Internacional, la llamada Iniciativa PPAE. En primer lugar se realiza un repaso histórico al proceso de endeudamiento africano a partir de las independencias en los años 60, señalando sus causas y analizando la estructura de la deuda. En segundo lugar, se analizan los términos de la In...

  20. El alivio de la deuda en África : ¿Hacia la reducción de la pobreza?

    OpenAIRE

    Cairó i Cespedes, Gemma; Colom Jaén, Artur

    2003-01-01

    En este artículo se estudian las oportunidades de reducción de la pobreza en África Subashariana surgidas a raíz de la propuesta de condonación de deuda del G-7, el Banco Mundial y el Fondo Monetario Internacional, la llamada Iniciativa PPAE, encaminada a aliviar la carga de la deuda de los países pobres altamente endeudados. Tras un repaso histórico al proceso de endeudamiento africano, señalando sus causas y analizando la estructura de la deuda, se analizan los términos de la Iniciativa y s...

  1. Estudo de doenças metabólicas numa amostra de escravos dos séculos xv-xvii, Lagos, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Marta Filipa dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    A escavação do Parque do Anel Verde em Lagos, Portugal permitiu a descoberta de resto mortais, pertencentes a 158 indivíduos. Material arqueológico, contexto das inumações e características morfométricas indicaram que estes restos mortais pertenciam a escravos africanos dos séculos XV-XVII. Devido às características da amostra foi possível realizar um estudo exclusivo sobre os inícios do tráfico negreiro atlântico. O presente estudo debruçou-se sobre uma amostra seleci...

  2. A vivência da doença mental e a influência da medicina tradicional: o caso de Moçambique

    OpenAIRE

    Meireles, Luísa Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Estudos Africanos O presente estudo tem como objectivo aprofundar o papel da Medicina Tradicional na vivência da doença mental em Moçambique, bem como analisar as possíveis relações entre estas temáticas. Para tal realiza-se a caracterização do estado da arte, o levantamento das representações sociais de Saúde Mental e Medicina Tradicional presentes em artigos do Jornal “Notícias” durante o ano de 2009 e um estudo de caso do Hospital Psiquiátrico do Infulene baseado em dois ano...

  3. Observações sobre calazar em Jacobina, Bahia. VI - Investigações sobre reservatórios silvestres e comensais

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    I. A. Sherlock

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante os anos de 1982 a 1986, a investigação sobre mamíferos comensais e silvestres, da periferia da cidade de Jacobina, Bahia, mostrou, ao lado do escasso número de exemplares, uma reduzida variedade específica dessa fauna. Capturou-se apenas 11 espécies, entre as quais, predominou o Didelphis albiventris, que abrangeu 44% dos 213 espécimens capturados. Entre os 193 com exames já concluídos, 84 eram exemplares de D. albiventris e 2 estavam infectados pela Leishmania donovani senso lato, 1 por L. mexicana amazonensis, 1 por L. braziliensis, subespécie e 3 por Trypanosoma cruzi Também foram observadas formas suspeitas de serem amastigotas de leishmanics, nos esfregaços de órgãos de 3 exemplares de Dasyprocta aguti, 1 Cercomys cunicularius - e 1 Oryzomys eliurus. 0 restante dos exemplares, inclusive 14 de Lycalopex vetulus, estava negativo para flagelados. Apesar de reforçado por outros indicadores epidemiológicos, como a predominância específica, a freqüência domiciliar, a atratividade para a vetora Lutzomyia longipalpis, e a concomitância com casos humanos nos mesmos locais, o índice de 2,3% de infecção natural do Didelphis albiventris, não autoriza a conclusão definitiva de ser o marsupial o mais importante reservatório natural da leishmaniose visceral em Jacobina.From 1982 to 1986, investigations on the natural infection with leishmanias of the sylvatic and commensal mammals were carried out around the city of Jacobina, Bahia, one of the oldest endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. The species of Marsupialia Didelphis albiventris predominated, with the rate of 44%, over the total of 213 specimens belonging to only 11 different species of mammals collected there. Among the 84 specimens of D. albiventris examined, 2(2.3% were infected with Leishmania donovani sensu lato; 1 with L. mexicana amazonensis, 1 with L. braziliensis sub species, and 3 with Trypanosoma cruzi. Also, amastigote suspected bodies were

  4. La evolución de la obligación de extraditar o juzgar a través del caso Hissène Habré

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    Marta Sosa Navarro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El inicio del procedimiento contra el ex dictador chadiano Hissène Habré puede retrotraerse al año 2000, con la presentación de la primera denuncia por parte de las víctimas ante los tribunales senegaleses. Este hecho actuó como detonante para que el caso comenzara una larga peregrinación por tribunales nacionales y organismos internacionales y regionales, que culminó con la sentencia de la Corte Internacional de Justicia dictada el 20 de julio de 2012. El objetivo principal de este artículo es estudiar la forma en que este asunto ha contribuido a modelar el derecho penal internacional moderno, fundamentalmente desde el punto de vista procesal, para lograr, en última instancia, poner fin a la impunidad de la que el ex mandatario chadiano se ha venido beneficiando desde que escapó de su país en 1990. Se analizan, asimismo, las contribuciones del Comité contra la Tortura, la Unión Africana y algunos tribunales regionales africanos en la creación de las Cámaras Extraordinarias Africanas, el primer tribunal penal africano creado exclusivamente para conocer de las violaciones de derechos humanos perpetradas bajo el régimen de Hissène Habré entre 1982 y 1990

  5. “De lugares y objetos” - La visibilización del pasado afro en el norte de argentina – Caso de estudio: La ciudad colonial de San Miguel de Tucumán

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    Luciana Chavez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de africanos en la argentina continúa siendo hoy en día un tema en discusión y continua elaboración. Negada, silenciada  y en el mejor de los casos minimizada dentro de los discursos oficiales de la configuración de la nación, esta ausencia fue tal que la misma se trasladó y arraigó hasta en la propia memoria e imaginario colectivo de los argentinos. En los últimos años surgieron diversos estudios académicos motivados a reivindicar la verdadera historia de los afro y afro argentinos así como la incidencia e importancia que los mismos tuvieron en los diferentes procesos históricos del país.  En este caso presentamos un avance  acerca de las tareas de investigación realizadas hasta el momento, las cuales se enmarcan en el proyecto de pos graduación en memoria social y patrimonio cultural de la UFPEL, el cual se basa en el estudio del patrimonio material  africano, como herramienta de visibilización y revalorización de la historia de dicha población contextualizando el área de estudio  en la ciudad colonial de San Miguel de Tucumán, situada en  la región noroeste de Argentina.

  6. Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables Comparação da promoção de crescimento de plantas por Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Bacillus subtilis em três vegetais

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    A.O. Adesemoye

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato, Abelmoschus esculentus (okra, and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spinach respectively over the non-bacterized control. Considering all the parameters tested, there were similarities but no significant difference at P Nosso objetivo foi comparar as propriedades PGPR (rizobactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas de Bacillus subtilis e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Solanum licopersicum (tomate, Asbelmoschus esculentus (ocra e Amaranthus sp (espinafre africano foram inoculados com as culturas bacterianas. Após 60 dias de plantio, a biomassa seca das plantas tratadas com B.subtilis e P. aeruginosa aumentou 31% para o tomate, 36% e 29% para ocra, e 83% e 40% para espinafre africano, respectivamente, em comparação com o controle não inoculado. Considerando os parâmetros testados, o desempenho dos dois microrganismos foi similar, sem diferença estatisticamente significativa (p< 0,05.

  7. Prospects for area-wide integrated control of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae and trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa

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    Marc J.B. VREYSEN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los países del África sub-Sahariana están entre los menos desarrollados del mundo, y el hambre y la pobreza continúan siendo muy extendidos en la mayoría de las comunidades rurales. Se considera que disminuir el hambre y la sub-alimentación mediante la introducción de ganado productivo, como fuente de tracción y abono para la producción agrícola, el transporte, los lácteos y la carne, es un primer paso fundamental hacia un mejor desarrollo rural. La presencia de la mosca tse-tsé en un tercio del continente africano y la tripanosomiasis que transmite, se consideran la principal barrera para el desarrollo del ganado productivo. A pesar de la administración anual de 35 millones de dosis de drogas tripanocidas (a 1 (un dólar por dosis, los granjeros africanos pierden 3 millones de cabezas de ganado por año debido a esta enfermedad, y las pérdidas económicas directas se estiman entre 600 y 1200 millones de dólares...

  8. Revisiting aspects of language in South Africa durting the Apartheid area

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    Mgwebi Lavin Snail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, nuestro principal objetivo es mostrar como los africanos usaron su lengua para construir su nacionalismo, los africanos usaron el poder del estado para emplear la situación lingüística en Sudáfrica para implementar su política. La existencia de diferencias lingüísticas fue manipulada para crear varias naciones –“multiculturalismo” como prefirireron llamarlo los arquitectos del ApartheidPalabras Clave: Sudáfrica, Apartheid, lengua, diferencias lingüísticas, multi-nacionalismo___________________________Abstract:In this article, our aim is show how the Afrikaners succeeded in using their language to build their nationalism, the Afrikaners used the state power to use the language situation in South Africa to implement their policy of divide and rule. The existing linguistic differences were manipulated to create many nations called – “multi-nationalism “as the architects of Apartheid would prefer to call it.   Keywords: South Africa, Apartheid, language, linguistic differences, multi-nationalism.

  9. Paz y seguridad humana en África: una visión desde la Unión Africana

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    Jerónimo Delgado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan las diferentes iniciativas que ha tenido el continente africano en materia de solución de conflictos y consolidación de la paz desde la perspectiva de la seguridad humana. En la primera parte, se identifican los componentes de la seguridad humana y los factores de inseguridad a los que se exponen los individuos en África, para luego examinar los avances del marco legal de la Unión Africana en la prevención de conflictos con énfasis en la seguridad de los individuos.La segunda parte contiene un estudio de las medidas enmarcadas dentro de la seguridad humana con las que cuentan los estados africanos y la comunidad internacional para la adecuada protección de los individuos, mientras se da un acercamiento entre las partes del conflicto para alcanzar el fin de las hostilidades. Finalmente, se afirma que África reconoce que la seguridad de sus ciudadanos es viable si se entienda que ésta es una responsabilidad compartida por todo el continente, en donde el individuo juega un papel central.

  10. O Brasil, a África e o Atlântico no século XIX

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    Alberto da Costa e Silva

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Até o último quartel do século XIX, a presença européia na África reduzia-se a poucos pontos litorâneos. Em toda a sua grande extensão, a África era governada por africanos. O continente dividia-se em impérios, reinos e cidades-estado. Do lado do Atlântico, havia intensas relações entre essas estruturas políticas e o Brasil. O que se passava num lado do oceano repercutia no outro. A cruzada anti-escravagista desembocou num novo imperialismo europeu. A ocupação da África pelas potências européias não logrou destruir muitas dessas estruturas de poder, algumas das quais serviram de intermediárias entre o colonizador e os africanos enquanto que outras persistiram na clandestinidade. A ocupação colonial ocasionou o quase completo corte das antigas e fortes relações com o Brasil.

  11. Una contribución al estudio de la nueva inmigración africana subsahariana en la Argentina Uma contribuição ão estudo da nova imigração desde Africa Subsahariana à Argentina A contribution to study the immigration from Sub Saharan Africa to Argentina

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    Marta M. Maffia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Si bien en la Argentina poseemos una inmigración desde el África subsahariana a partir de fines del siglo XIX y principios del XX, como la de los sudafricanos y los caboverdeanos, esta nueva inmigración, de la última década del siglo XX y la primera del XXI, que llega desde Senegal, Nigeria, Camerún, Ghana, entre otros países, aparece en un contexto histórico y político diferente, enfrentada a regímenes jurídicos y estatutos administrativos cada vez más restrictivos, enmarcada en la creciente globalización de la economía. Este trabajo constituye una parte de los primeros resultados de la investigación iniciada en el año 2009 sobre esta migración desde una perspectiva antropológica, sumando los aportes que nos brindan la historia, la ciencia política y la demografía -entre otras disciplinas-, haciendo uso de los materiales producidos por científicos sociales africanos y no africanos, con el convencimiento de que en el diálogo de miradas se pueden superar las propias limitaciones.Ainda que na Argentina se conheça uma imigração da África subsahsariana desde finais do século XIX e princípio do século XX, como a dos sul-africanos e a dos cabo-verdianos, esta nova imigração (entre a última década do século XX e a primeira década do século XXI que chega do Senegal, Nigéria, Camarões, Ghana, entre outros países, aparece num contexto histórico e político diferenciado, submetida a regimes jurídicos e estatutos administrativos cada vez mais restritivos demarcados pela acrescente globalização da economia. Este trabalho é resultado parcial dos primeiros resultados da investigação iniciada no ano de 2009, sobre esta migração numa perspectiva antropológica, somada aos aportes da história, das ciencias políticas, da demografía, entre outras disciplinas e fazendo uso de materiais produzidos por cientistas sociais africanos e não-africanos temos a convicção de que, por meio do diálogo de diferentes olhares

  12. Contribuição para o estudo dos mecanismos de transmissão do agente etiológico da doença de Chagas A contribution to the study of the mechanisms of transmission of the etiological agent of "Chagas" disease

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    Rosa Domingues Ribeiro

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram capturados no Município de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, exemplares de gambá, Didelphis albiventris. Na medida em que os exemplares chegavam ao laboratório foram submetidos a exames de sangue a fresco, hemoculturas e xenodiagnósticos, com o propósito de descartar a hipótese de infecção natural. Em cativeiro os animais passaram a ter, como parte de sua alimentação, camundongos parasitados pela cepa Bolívia do Tripanosoma cruzi ou exemplares de triatomíneos comprovadamente infectados pela mesma cepa do parasita. Vinte e cinco dias após a última refeição, foram realizados xenodiagnósticos nos animais em experimentação, cujo índice de infecção nos animais que ingeriram camundongos infectados foi de 60,0% e naqueles que ingeriram triatomíneos foi de 83,3%. Os resultados revelaram que os gambás apresentaram altos índices de infecção, mostrando a importância da via oral como porta de entrada do T. cruzi, bem como a importância do D. albiventris como reservatório do parasita nos focos naturais de infecção e elo de ligação entre o ambiente silvestre e o domicílio.The infection of several opossums Didelphis albiventris, male, female and young, by oral means by feeding them either on infected triatomines or on mice experimentally infected by Tripanosoma cruzi, is studied. After feeding uncontaminated opossums on carcasses or living specimens of baby mice, infected with the Bolivian strain of T.cruzi, a 60.0% infection index was obtained on xenodiagnoses. On the other hand, after feeding uncontaminated opossums on infected triatomines, an 83.3% index was obtained on xenodiagnoses. These results indicate that the feeding on infected mammals, as well as the ingestion of infected triatomines by omnivorous animals gives high infection indices and demonstrates the importance of the oral route as the means of access of T. cruzi. The also show the importance of opossums as reservoirs of the parasite in the natural focci of

  13. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest

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    GERUZA L. MELO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003, particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do g

  14. Technetium-99m-dimethylglyoxime ([sup 99m]Tc-DMG) as renal imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adonaylo, V.N. (Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas); Stahl, Adriana; Pomilio, A.B.; Vitale, A.A. (Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales); Canellas, C.O. (Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1993-06-01

    Dimethylglyoxime (DMG) labelled with [sup 99m]Tc is presented as a renal imaging agent. The behaviour of this complex was analysed at different pH by means of UV spectral data and using DMG-calcium chloride as a reference complex. Biokinetic data were evaluated in two biological models, Sprague-Dawley rats and Didelphis albiventris argentine opossum. Biodistribution in rats demonstrated fast and specific renal excretion. Time-activity values over both kidneys could be quantified for this complex. Renographic studies led to mean time-to maximum values on twelve assays of 2.0 [+-] 0.1 min and a mean relative function of 53.0 [+-] 2.3 and 47.0 [+-] 3.2 for right and left kidneys, respectively. [sup 99m]Tc-DMG showed specificity for the renal excretion pathway and therefore seems to be a very useful radiopharmaceutical for renal function studies. (Author).

  15. Technetium-99m-dimethylglyoxime (99mTc-DMG) as renal imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimethylglyoxime (DMG) labelled with 99mTc is presented as a renal imaging agent. The behaviour of this complex was analysed at different pH by means of UV spectral data and using DMG-calcium chloride as a reference complex. Biokinetic data were evaluated in two biological models, Sprague-Dawley rats and Didelphis albiventris argentine opossum. Biodistribution in rats demonstrated fast and specific renal excretion. Time-activity values over both kidneys could be quantified for this complex. Renographic studies led to mean time-to maximum values on twelve assays of 2.0 ± 0.1 min and a mean relative function of 53.0 ± 2.3 and 47.0 ± 3.2 for right and left kidneys, respectively. 99mTc-DMG showed specificity for the renal excretion pathway and therefore seems to be a very useful radiopharmaceutical for renal function studies. (Author)

  16. Morphological study of Tetratrichomonas didelphidis isolated from opossum Lutreolina crassicaudata by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Tiana; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio

    2007-05-01

    Tetratrichomonas didelphidis is a flagellate protozoan found in the intestine of opossums Didelphis marsupialis, Didelphis albiventris, and Lutreolina crassicaudata. The isolate used in this study was from L. crassicaudata and it was cultivated in monoxenic culture with Escherichia coli in Diamond (TYM) medium without maltose and with starch solution (trypticase-yeast extract-starch), pH 7.5 at 28 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy showed the fine morphological features of the trophozoites: the emergence of the anterior flagella, the structure of the undulating membrane, the axostyle and posterior flagellum. In addition, we described spherical forms that are probably pseudocysts. Our data will contribute to a better understanding of surface structures in T. didelphidis. PMID:17252276

  17. Serologic evidence of canine parvovirus in domestic dogs, wild carnivores, and marsupials in the Argentinean Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, María Marcela; Miccio, Luciano; Enriquez, Gustavo Fabián; Iribarren, Fabián Eduardo; Gürtler, Ricardo Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The transmission of pathogens between domestic dogs and generalist wildlife species may be modified by environmental degradation, biodiversity losses, host densities, and increased contact rates in remnant forest patches. A serologic survey of canine parvovirus (CPV) in rural domestic dogs and wild mammals was conducted in two neighboring rural areas (disturbed and protected) from Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina, between 2008 and 2011. A total of 174 domestic dogs and 26 wild mammals-4 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), 3 crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), 17 white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris), and 2 gray four-eyed opossums (Philander opossum)-were examined for antibodies to CPV using a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Domestic dogs were numerous and their movements unrestricted. The main function of dogs differed significantly between areas, with more dogs used for herding or hunting around the protected area. The seroprevalence of antibodies to CPV in dogs from both areas was very high (93.9-94.6%) and increased steeply with age. Nearly all carnivores and marsupials showed high exposure to CPV. Although a higher exposure to CPV was expected in wild mammals from disturbed areas as a result of enhanced contact between dogs and wildlife, no significant differences were found between areas. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to document exposure to CPV of free-ranging Pr. cancrivorus, D. albiventris, and Ph. opossum, and include a detailed demographic study of the domestic dog populations living in the area. This study highlights that dogs and wildlife have potential opportunities for contact and shows that the edges of the protected area may be as suitable as other fragmented areas for the transmission of CPV. Rural domestic dogs may pose serious threats to the health and conservation of wild carnivores in both disturbed and protected areas, especially in the Gran Chaco, where habitat fragmentation is severely

  18. Molecular characterization and development of Sarcocystis speeri sarcocysts in gamma interferon gene knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Dunams, D; Calero-Bernal, R; Rosenthal, B M

    2015-11-01

    The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is the definitive host for at least three named species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis speeri. The South American opossums (Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis aurita) are definitive hosts for S. falcatula and S. lindsayi. The sporocysts of these Sarcocystis species are similar morphologically. They are also not easily distinguished genetically because of the difficulties of DNA extraction from sporocysts and availability of distinguishing genetic markers. Some of these species can be distinguished by bioassay; S. neurona and S. speeri are infective to gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mice, but not to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus); whereas S. falcatula and S. lindsayi are infective to budgerigars but not to KO mice. The natural intermediate host of S. speeri is unknown. In the present study, development of sarcocysts of S. speeri in the KO mice is described. Sarcocysts were first seen at 12 days post-inoculation (p.i.), and they became macroscopic (up to 4 mm long) by 25 days p.i. The structure of the sarcocyst wall did not change from the time bradyzoites had formed at 50-220 days p.i. Sarcocysts contained unique villar protrusions, 'type 38'. The polymerase chain reaction amplifications and sequences analysis of three nuclear loci (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and ITS1) and two mitochondrial loci (cox1 and cytb) of S. speeri isolate from an Argentinean opossum (D. albiventris) confirmed its membership among species of Sarcocystis and indicated an especially close relationship to another parasite in this genus that employs opossums as its definitive host, S. neurona. These results should be useful in finding natural intermediate host of S. speeri. PMID:26303093

  19. De BRIC a BRICS: como a África do Sul ingressou em um Clube de Gigantes

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    Elton Jony Jesus Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O grupo BRIC foi criado em 2006 para reunir os principais países emergentes do mundo. Durante a sua terceira cúpula em 2011, a África do Sul aderiu formalmente ao grupo, que então se tornou BRICS. A sua adesão ao grupo, no entanto, é intrigante, uma vez que a África do Sul é muito menor do que os outros BRICS em termos de sua economia, território e população. Por que a África do Sul foi convidada a se juntar ao grupo? Este artigo argumenta que, para responder a esta questão, é necessário considerar a dimensão simbólica do grupo. Mesmo que o grupo possa ser útil para aprofundar as relações entre os seus membros e coordenar posições em foros multilaterais, os países do BRICS têm como objetivo principal usar o BRICS como símbolo da maior relevância do "Sul Global" em comparação ao "Norte Global". A este respeito, a África do Sul se juntou ao grupo para desempenhar o papel de representante da África, reforçando assim a imagem do BRICS de representante do "Sul Global". Com um país africano, o "Sul Global" estaria "mais bem" representado no BRICS. Embora o status da África do Sul de representante da África seja controverso, este artigo argumenta que a África do Sul é o país mais adequado para desempenhar este papel. Isso se deve a dois fatores: a África do Sul possui uma economia mais madura que as de outros grandes países africanos; e possui um softpower que nenhum outro país africano possui. O artigo chega a essas conclusões analisando os interesses de cada BRIC em ser membro do grupo e analisando as suas posições sobre a admissão da África do Sul no grupo.

  20. Hosts, seasonal occurrence and life cycle of Rhipicentor nuttalli (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, L J; Horak, I G; Kok, D J; Van Zyl, W

    2002-09-01

    There are only two species worldwide within the genus Rhipicentor, namely Rhipicentor bicornis and Rhipicentor nuttalli and both occur only in Africa. Rhipicentor nuttali has a widespread distribution in South Africa and the present investigation was initiated to elucidate its host preference, seasonality and life cycle. Rock elephant shrews, Elephantulus myurus were examined for ticks at four localities in the Free State Province, one in Gauteng Province and two in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Cape elephant shrews, Elephantulus edwardii were examined at two places in the Western Cape Province, and a single specimen of the bushveld elephant shrew, Elephantulus intufi was examined in central Namibia. Small mammals of other species were also examined at two of these localities. The majority of E. myurus at two sites in the Free State, at the locality in Gauteng and both sites in Limpopo Province were infested with larvae and/or nymphs of R. nuttalli, while the single E. edwardii examined at one site in the Western Cape Province and the single E. intufi examined in Namibia were infested with nymphs of this tick. Not one of the other small animals was infested. Although larvae and nymphs of R. nuttalli were present on E. myurus throughout the year, the former were generally most numerous during the period March to September, and the latter during May to October. The preferred hosts of the adults are domestic dogs, leopards, Panthera pardus and South African hedgehogs, Atelerix frontalis. Adult females engorged on Atelerix frontalis in 16-32 days and, after a preoviposition period of 2-4 days, produced approximately 170,00 eggs during the following 60-70 days. The average incubation period of the eggs was 59 days. Larvae engorged on E. myurus in 4-10 days and moulted to nymphs 12-20 days later. Nymphs required 11-15 days to engorge on E. myurus and moulted to adults 32-47 days later. Allowing 14 days for the exoskeletons and mouthparts of each of the three parasitic

  1. A captação do investimento directo chinês em África

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Mauro Filipe Pinto Magalhães Arques

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Economia, Mercados e Políticas Públicas Este projecto tem como base uma curiosidade pessoal, que tem sido alimentada pelos media e também por vários teóricos e organizações internacionais: tentar responder às questões“Quais são os principais motivos que levam o investidor chinês a investir em países africanos? O que é que estes procuram nesses países? Como atrair mais investimento Chinês?” Após a revisão da literatura foi possível fazer uma selecçã...

  2. Estrutura e reactividade de moléculas contendo o grupo endoperóxido com possível actividade antimalárica

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Miguel da Conceição

    2010-01-01

    Actualmente, a malária é a doença tropical e parasitária que causa mais problemas sociais e económicos no mundo, sendo considerada pela OMS um problema de saúde pública, pois 40% da população mundial convive com o risco de contágio. Anualmente, sobretudo no continente africano, entre 300 a 500 milhões de pessoas são infectadas. Os fármacos continuam a ser a única opção de tratamento, apesar de muitos dos antimaláricos disponíveis serem antiquados, muitas vezes limitados do p...

  3. O uso da literatura infanto-juvenil de pepetela para consciência e superação do colonialismo e racismo

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    Márcio Mucedula Aguiar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir o uso da literatura africana de países de língua portuguesa para o desenvolvimento de estratégias pedagógicas para superação do racismo e preconceito presente no imaginário escolar. Para tanto, analisa uma das obras infanto-juvenis de Pepetela a partir da contribuição crítica de Franz Fanon e Guerreiro Ramos, que refletiram sobre o imaginário racista presente nas sociedades pós-coloniais. O uso dessa literatura constitui em instrumento privilegiado para o conhecimento da história da luta dos povos negros contra opressão e racismo fruto do colonialismo, experiência comum entre o Brasil e países africanos oprimidos pela dominação colonial portuguesa.

  4. El tambor blanqueado o la cubanidad musical, en Fernando Ortíz, como vanguardia de las resistencias transculturales

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio González Alcantud

    2012-01-01

    El etnólogo cubano Fernando Ortíz acuñó en los años treinta el concepto de transculturalidad para definir la realidad cultural y musical nueva que la identidad cubana le imponía. Este concepto partía de la conjunción de lo blanco y lo negro, con exclusión de lo indoantillano definitivamente desaparecido para él. En el análisis general del concepto, la música diabólica del tambor africano y su aceptación final por la música nacional cubana ocupa un lugar relevante. Una vez trazada la nueva rea...

  5. Índios: "mãos e pés dos senhores" da Amazônia colonial

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    José Alves de Souza Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute la importancia de la fuerza del trabajo indígena en la Amazonia portuguesa colonial y cómo su control fue objeto de una intensa disputa que incluyó a jesuitas, colonos y autoridades coloniales. Esas querellas se materializaron no solamente en un juego de influencias en la Corte, cuyo objetivo era obtener una legislación indigenista favorable a los diversos intereses en cuestión, sino también en constantes conflictos que protagonizaron, principalmente, jesuitas y colonos. En ese proceso, la oposición de los religiosos, la legislación indigenista y la tenaz resistencia de los indios a su utilización como mano de obra por los colonos, junto a los altos índices de mortalidad por las epidemias, disminuyeron en los portugueses la resistencia al uso de esclavos africanos.

  6. Construyendo “la verdad yorùbá". Una lectura afroepistemológica del sistema de Ifá

    OpenAIRE

    De Diego González, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo propone una lectura afroepistemológica del sistema de Ifá. Las políticas de la epistemología académica europea han despreciado el conocimiento tradicional africano. Ifá no ha sido una excepción. Pero a través de este método se han configurado gran parte de las normas socio-culturales y epistemológicas de la sociedad yorùbá. Así Ifá se convierte en algo más importante que un rito de adivinación, pues representa la cohesión político-social y epistemológica de una gran parte de los...

  7. Carnaval de Barranquilla

    OpenAIRE

    Escamilla Morales, Julio

    1988-01-01

    Con la invasión de los españoles, llegó el carnaval. Lo trajeron los conquistadores y se sembró aquí, pero con el fenómeno del ingreso, de la incrustación, podríamos decir, dentro de esa columna vertebral, de lo aborigen, que tenía una visión del mundo distinta, y de lo africano que llegaba con lo europeo también. Esa conjunción de esas tres visiones del mundo fue lo que hizo el carnaval. Un carnaval distinto; un carnaval que es distinto acá, que es distinto en el Brasil, que es distinto en P...

  8. Africa and the millennium development goals (MDGs) : what’s right, what’s wrong and what’s missing

    OpenAIRE

    Oya, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    El plazo de 2015 para los ODM se acerca peligrosamente. Es sabido que la mayoría de países africanos no alcanzarán los ODM establecidos en el año 2000 como un plan ambicioso para conseguir avances socio-económicos rápidos en países en desarrollo. Este artículo opera de introducción a esta sección especial dedicada a la problemática de los ODM en África, los logros alcanzados, los desafíos y qué es lo que falta en la agenda de los ODM. El artículo aporta una panorámica de la ...

  9. Estudio sobre las interconexiones de los sistemas eléctricos de las Islas Canarias

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Bordón, Jacob David

    2011-01-01

    [ES]La interconexión de los sistemas eléctricos de las Islas Canarias, así como la de éstas con el sistema eléctrico continental africano, y por ende con el europeo, supone la mejora de los sistemas eléctricos de las Islas Canarias en múltiples aspectos, de los cuales cabe destacar aquí tres: disminución de los costes de generación, mejora de la calidad del suministro, y mejora en la penetración de la generación mediante energías renovables. En definitiva, satisfacer la demanda con una mayor ...

  10. Esclavitud y composición étnica de Cartagena de Indias

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    Adolfo Segovia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parte de América se ha convertido en el crisol de una raza atlántica, último retoño del árbol humano, que tardará unos milenios en homogeneizarse. La componen el amerindio nativo, el europeo navegante y el involuntario africano. Esta monografía es acerca de este último. Por accidentes históricos, la mezcla ha avanzado más en el Caribe hispano que en otros lugares. Quizá mañana se estudiará la progresión de esta nueva rama de la familia del hombre, como se estudia el origen de los indoeuropeos o de los han en la China.

  11. “Gestão de recursos” em manuais de 13 países : análise comparativa desde o primeiro nível até ao secundário

    OpenAIRE

    Tracana, Rosa Branca; Ferreira, Cláudia; Ferreira, Maria Eduarda; Carvalho, Graça Simões

    2007-01-01

    A gestão dos recursos naturais é uma das preocupações das sociedades contemporâneas devido à sua sobre exploração. Neste trabalho analisámos o tema “Gestão de Recursos” nos manuais escolares de dez países Europeus, dois Africanos e um do Médio Oriente, desde o 1º ano de escolaridade até ao fim do secundário. Utilizou-se uma grelha de análise construída no âmbito do projecto europeu “Biohead-Citizen”. Os resultados demonstraram que, no seu todo, os manuais escolares dão pouca atenção à necessi...

  12. Analysis of the topic "resource mangement" in textbooks of thirteen countries throughout the school grades

    OpenAIRE

    Tracana, Rosa Branca; Ferreira, Cláudia; Carvalho, Graça Simões

    2011-01-01

    A gestão dos recursos naturais é uma das preocupações das sociedades contemporâneas devido à sua sobre exploração. Neste trabalho analisámos o tópico “Gestão de Recursos” nos manuais escolares de dez países Europeus, dois Africanos e um do Médio Oriente, desde o 1º ano de escolaridade até ao fim do secundário. Utilizou-se uma grelha de análise construída no âmbito do projecto europeu “BIOHEAD-CITIZEN”. Os resultados demonstraram que, no seu todo, os manuais escolares dão pouca ...

  13. Prevenção e resolução de conflitos: o papel das Organizações Regionais Africanas no espaço lusófono

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    A institucionalização da União Africana (UA) e da Nova Parceria para o Desenvolvimento de África (NEPAD), a ligação entre ambas as organizações e destas com as organizações sub-regionais, associadas aos inovadores mecanismos de alerta precoce da UA e de avaliação da governação pelos pares do NEPAD, materializam uma nova arquitectura de segurança, reveladora de uma grande ambição dos líderes africanos, no sentido de, através das organizações regionais africanas, trilharem o caminho da paz e da...

  14. Mimetismo colonial e reprodução animal: carneiros caracul no Sudoeste angolano

    OpenAIRE

    Saraiva, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    Este texto explora a relação entre reprodução de colonos portugueses e reprodução de carneiros caracul no Sul de Angola. Segue-se a pista dos caraculos, desde o Sudoeste Africano sob ocupação alemã até ao deserto de Moçâmedes, usando-se o conceito de mimese para dar conta de práticas coloniais do Terceiro Império. O Posto Experimental do Caracul (PEC), fundado em 1948, serve como local de prova de tais práticas, combinando num mesmo espaço experiências de inseminação artificial de carneiros c...

  15. A África e a Diplomacia para o Desenvolvimento e Paz: o caso de Cabo Verde 10.5102/uri.v11i1.2402

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel António Pereira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available esta nota diplomática, escrita pelo Embaixador da República de Cabo Verde no Brasil, por ocasião dos eventos comemorativos do Dia da África e dos 50 anos da União Africa, promovido pelo Centro Universitário de Brasília - UNICEUB, tem como objetivo trazer algumas reflexões sobre os avanços conquistados pelos países africanos nas últimas décadas e os principais desafios políticos, econômicos e sociais que assolam o continente nas primeiras décadas do século XXI. O texto dá uma especial ênfase ao processo de desenvolvimento do arquipélago de Cabo Verde.

  16. Cartago Nova: días de guerra y paz. Trailler del documental 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación Integra

    2010-01-01

    El documental histórico analiza, hace más de 2000 años, el territorio donde se ubica la actual Cartagena, que fue codiciado por las dos grandes potencias de la época, Carthago y Roma. En el siglo III a.C. los cartagineses fundaron en este enclave su capital en la Península Ibérica. Sin embargo, pocos años después las legiones comandadas por Publio Cornelio Escipión, 'El Africano' en el año 209 a.C conquisto la ciudad para el Imperio Romano, naciendo así con el nombre de Carthago Nova una de ...

  17. Importância da genotipagem na terapêutica transfusional de doentes com drepanocitose

    OpenAIRE

    C. Costa; Lichtner, A; Rodrigues, MJ; Moser, MI; Barra, A.; Cardoso, E; Fernandes, A; Magalhães, D; Nunes, C.; Pereira, M.; Plácido, C; A. Simões

    2015-01-01

    Introdução A drepanocitose é uma hemoglobinopatia autossómica recessiva com uma incidência na população portuguesa de 0,32%. A História, associada à actual imigração de países africanos de língua portuguesa, deram origem a alguns “hot spots” de portadores no centro e sul do país e à considerável incidência da drepanocitose. A fenotipagem alargada tem sido utilizada para transfundir com segurança os doentes com drepanocitose, prevenindo a aloimunização e as reacções transfusionais hemolíticas....

  18. Implementación de una plataforma con interfaz web y SMS para la visibilización de problemas de hábitat de los pobladores de un barrio desfavorecido de Dakar

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Ahmed Taleb, Sidi Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    El desarrollo rápido y enorme que han conocido las nuevas tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación, ha hecho de herramientas como el móvil y la web unos productos de necesidad presentes en muchos ámbitos de la vida cotidiana de una importante parte de la población del planeta. En los países africanos el móvil logró una penetración que superó todas las expectativas a pesar de la enorme brecha tecnológica que los separa del resto del mundo. Desde la celebración de la cumbre Conecta...

  19. Barack Obama e os filhos da Globalização

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    Robert Allen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo sustenta que a eleição de Barack Obama, como o 44o presidente dos Estados Unidos da América, foi um evento de profunda significação histórica. Obama rompeu uma longa tradição de eleição de presidentes brancos, uma tradição legalmente reforçada pelas leis norte-americanas que negavam, durante muito tempo, o direito de voto às pessoas negras e mulheres de todas as raças. Essa história também oferece um profundo entendimento sobre o fenômeno Obama, cujo pai africano, transcende a própria história dos Estados Unidos.

  20. Lo afro y lo indígena en Argentina. Aportes desde la antropología social al análisis de las formas de la visibilidad en el nuevo milenio

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    Liliana; Marta Tamagno; Maffia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lo que se denomina «nuevas formas de la visibilidad» de afrodescendientes, inmigrantes africanos y pueblos indígenas son analizadas a partir de los avances de dos investigaciones sobre población indígena y afro en Argentina. La primera, centrada en el análisis de la inmigración caboverdeana iniciada a fines del siglo xix y principios del xx, se proyecta hoy al análisis de las migraciones desde países del África subsahariana, articulando estos colectivos con el estudio de las organizaciones de afrodescendientes de la Argentina. La segunda, focalizada en el análisis de población indígena qom (toba migrante a las grandes ciudades, se proyecta hoy a la comprensión de la cuestión indígena en general.

  1. Guerras, normalizaciones, crisis del Estado-nación en África subsahariana

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    Traducción Pilar Lozano Ortiz de Zárate

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Los conflictos armados de ciertos países africanos en la última década son analizados como el signo de una dificultad de sus regímenes para construir la nación que dicen defender. Esta tesis se apoya sobre la crisis del Estado- Nación y la difícil gestión de la diversidad. Dos paradigmas que resultan reveladores de un divorcio entre la aspiración a la democracia y la nación. La conflictividad en estos países modifica las relaciones y creencias de los actores en la capacidad del Estado para detentar el monopolio de la violencia legítima a la vez que invierte los parámetros de una economía de paz.

  2. Musulmanes y judíos en la literatura africanista española: tres testimonios de principios del siglo XX

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Mas, Paloma

    2013-01-01

    La expansión colonial de España en Marruecos propició que la literatura orientalista española fuera mayoritariamente africanista. En este artículo se analiza la imagen que se ofrece de los musulmanes y los judíos en tres libros publicados en España durante un breve lapso de tiempo en la época del Protectorado español en Marruecos: España en África y el peligro judío, de Africano Fernández (seudónimo del franciscano Ramón Fernández Lestón) publicado en 1918; Los hebreos en Marruecos, del pe...

  3. Diversidade na sala de aula: Representação da cultura afro-brasileira

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    Flávia Brocchetto Ramos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available After the implementation of the Elementary School in nine years, the Ministry of Education (MEC, by means of the Programa Nacional do Livro Didático (PNLD – The National Coursebook Program, distributed, in 2010, collections formed by supplementary teaching materials to Elementary School classrooms of the 1st and 2nd years. In this study, we analyze the book “Seis pequenos contos africanos sobre a criação do mundo e do homem” (“Six African short stories about the creation of the world and the man, by Raul Lody. The article discusses the representation of African culture in children’s literature, presents the object of analysis and, finally, discusses ethnic issues in the book, which is designed for young readers. Thus, the paper aims to contribute for the consideration of the young reader as an individual who has the right to live with cultural diversity, present in Brazil and conveyed in the literature. A partir da implantação do Ensino Fundamental de nove anos, o MEC (Ministério da Educação, pelo Programa Nacional do Livro Didático (PNLD, distribuiu, em 2010, às salas de aula do 1º e 2º anos do Ensino Fundamental, acervos formados por obras paradidáticas. Neste estudo, analisaremos o título Seis pequenos contos africanos sobre a criação do mundo e do homem, de Raul Lody. O artigo discute a representação da cultura africana na literatura infantil, apresenta a obra objeto de análise e, por fim, discute questões étnicas na obra destinada ao leitor criança. Assim, o artigo pretende contribuir para pensar a criança leitora como um sujeito que tem direito a conviver com a diversidade cultural, presente no Brasil e veiculada na literatura.

  4. O português, sua variação e seu ensino na África: exemplos de Angola, Caboverde, Guiné-Bissau, Moçambique e São Tomé e Príncipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Okoudowa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A língua portuguesa chegou nos Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa (PALOPs pela colonização. No continente, entrou em contato com línguas da grande família linguística, Níger-Congo A e B. Do A, temos línguas faladas em Guiné-Bissau que são línguas do grupo mande como o Balanta, o Manjaco, o Pepel, o Mandinka. Do B, temos línguas faladas em Angola e Moçambique que são essencialmente línguas do grupo banto. Como exemplo, temos: o Kimbundu, o Umbundu, o Kicongo, o Chokuê  etc em Angola;  o Changana, o Kisuaíli, o Nyanja, o Zulu etc em Moçambique. O contato do português com as línguas africanas gerou crioulos de base portuguesa nas ilhas de Cabo Verde e São Tomé e Príncipe. O Presente trabalho tem por objetivo, analisar a realidade linguística dos PALOPs e apontar alguma pista para os problemas que encontram no ensino da língua portuguesa. Já que o ensino monolíngue do português tem mostrado seus limites nos países africanos de língua oficial portuguesa. Para melhorar essa situação, pensamos que o ensino da língua portuguesa deve integrar as línguas nativas africanas desses países.

  5. De amores y seducciones. El mestizaje en la Audiencia del Nuevo Reino de Granada en el siglo XVII

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    María Cristina Navarrete

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Racial mixture replayed an important role in the creation of a population of castes in Spanish America. The efforts on behalf of the Crown and Church to avoid race mixture had no effect. The Spaniards, the Indians and the Africans interacted sexually throughout the years which resulted in a variety of racial mixture; this development strengthened the formation o f numerous classes of free persons of African ancestry. The inter-racial links during the colonial period were constant. If the slave owners did not legitimate their relations with the female slaves and free women, blacks and mulattas, they maintained ties of "concubine" some of which were quite strong and long-lasting.//La mezcla entre razas jugó un papel importante en la creación de una población de castas en la América española. Los esfuerzos de la Corona y de la Iglesia para evitar dicha mezcla no surtieron efecto. Los españoles, los indígenas y los africanos interactuaron sexualmente a lo largo del tiempo, lo cual dio como resultado una variedad de razas. Esto fortaleció la formación de numerosas clases de personas libres con ancestros africanos. Sus lazos inter-raciales durante la Colonia fueron constantes, si los dueños de esclavos no legitimaban las relaciones con sus esclavas, con mujeres libres, negras y mulatas, mantenían lazos de “concubinato”, algunos de los cuales eran bastante fuertes y duraderos.

  6. Há salvação para a África? Thabo Mbeki e seu New Partnership for African development

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    Wolfgang Döpcke

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O NEPAD - New Partnership for African Development - tem seus primórdios em 1996, proposto pelo atual presidente da África do Sul, Thabo Mbeki e outros líderes africanos, para erradicar a marginalização e o subdesenvolvimento africanos e promover o crescimento econômico, através da integração continental. Seus objetivos, inseridos no contexto da globalização e do African Renaissance, incorpora valores da luta antiapartheid sul-africana, restauração da auto-estima e resgate de valores pré-coloniais. O que o difere de outros planos que não deram certo na África é o vínculo inseparável entre democracia, direitos humanos, paz, governabilidade e o desenvolvimento econômico, as responsabilidades assumidas pelos participantes e a propriedade africana do plano.NEPAD - New Partnership for African Development - was originated in 1996, proposed by the current South African president, Thabo Mbeki and other African leaders, to eradicate the African exclusion and underdevelopment and to promote the economical growth, through the continental integration. It's objectives, in the context of globalization and African Renaissance, incorporates values of the fight against apartheid in South Africa, restoration of the self-esteem and recovering pre-colonial values. What differs this from other plans that did not work is the inseparable entail among democracy, human rights, peace, governability and the economical development, the responsibilities assumed by the participants and the African property of the plan.

  7. Placentation in mammals once grouped as insectivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C

    2010-01-01

    Interest in insectivoran grade mammals has been reawakened by taxonomic changes that place tenrecs and golden moles in a new order and separate hedgehogs from moles, shrews and solenodons. This survey of their placentation shows there is great variation even within families. As an example three subfamilies of tenrec have been examined. The interhemal region is cellular hemomonochorial in Echinops and Microgale but endotheliochorial in Micropotamogale. Golden moles, which are placed in the same order, have hemodichorial placentation. Many insectivores have complex arrangements for histotrophic nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures in a separate order (Erinaceomorpha) is bolstered by the presence of interstitial implantation, amniogenesis by cavitation, a hemochorial barrier and a prominent spongy zone; these features do not occur in shrews, moles or solenodons (Soricomorpha). Three insectivoran grade mammals deserve close attention as they have been selected for genome sequencing. One of these, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), has not been studied with current methodology and renewed investigation of this or the closely related genus Atelerix should be a priority.

  8. Ticks of four-toed elephant shrews and Southern African hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Ivan G; Welman, Shaun; Hallam, Stacey L; Lutermann, Heike; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi

    2011-01-01

    Several studies on ticks infesting small mammals, including elephant shrews, have been conducted in South Africa; however, these studies have included only a single four-toed elephant shrew and no hedgehogs. This study thus aimed to identify and quantify the ixodid ticks infesting four-toed elephant shrews and Southern African hedgehogs. Four-toed elephant shrews (Petrodromus tetradactylus) were trapped in dense shrub undergrowth in a nature reserve in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal. They were separately housed, first in cages and later in glass terraria fitted with wire-mesh bases to allow detached ticks to fall through for collection. Southern African hedgehogs (Atelerix frontalis) were hand caught on a farm in the eastern region of the Northern Cape Province and all visible ticks were collected by means of tweezers while the animals were anaesthetised. The ticks from each animal were preserved separately in 70% ethanol for later identification and counting. The immature stages of five ixodid tick species were collected from the elephant shrews, of which Rhipicephalus muehlensi was the most common. It has not been recorded previously on any species of elephant shrew. Three ixodid tick species were collected from the hedgehogs. Large numbers of adult Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, which has not been encountered previously on hedgehogs, were collected from these animals. Four-toed elephant shrews are good hosts of the larvae and nymphs of R. muehlensi, and Southern African hedgehogs are good hosts of adult H. colesbergensis. PMID:23327207

  9. Viremia and antibody response of small African and laboratory animals to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A J; Leman, P A; Swanepoel, R

    1989-05-01

    Eleven species of small African wild mammals, laboratory rabbits, guinea pigs, and Syrian hamsters were infected with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus. Low-titered viremia followed by development of antibody was observed in scrub hares (Lepus saxatilis), Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris), red veld rats (Aethomys chrysophilus), white tailed rats (Mystromys albicaudatus), bushveld gerbils (Tatera leucogaster), striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio), and guinea pigs. The maximum viremic titer in 4 scrub hares was 10(1.7-4.2) 50% mouse lethal doses/ml. Viremia was detected in 1/17 infected laboratory rabbits. Antibody response was only detected in South African hedgehogs (Atelerix frontalis), highveld gerbils (T. brantsii), Namaqua gerbils (Desmodillus auricularis), 2 species of multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis and M. coucha), and Syrian hamsters. The results of the study indicate that a proportion of infected scrub hares develop CCHF viremia of an intensity shown in the Soviet Union to be sufficient for infection of feeding immature ixodid ticks, but that South African hedgehogs and wild rodents are unlikely to be of importance as maintenance hosts of the virus in southern Africa. PMID:2499205

  10. [Using inter-SINE-PCR to study mammalian phylogeny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikova, A A; Matveev, V A; Kramerov, D A

    2002-06-01

    Results of the use of the fingerprinting method related to short interspersed elements (SINEs), inter-SINE-PCR, in the study of phylogenetic and taxonomic relationship in mammals from orders Chiroptera (family Vespertilionidae) and Lipotyphla (family Erinaceidae) are reported. The inter-SINE-PCR method is based on the amplification of fragments situated between copies of SINEs, which are short retroposons spaced 100 to 1000 bp apart. Specifically selected primers were used, which are complementary to consensus sequences of two short retroposons: the mammalian interspersed repeat (MIR), which is typical of all mammals and some other vertebrates, was used in the cases of bats and Erinaceidae, and the ERI-1 element recently isolated from the genome of the Daurian hedgehog was used in the case of Erinaceidae. The results support the current view on phylogenetic relationship between hedgehogs belonging to genera Erinaceus, Hemiechinus, and Paraechinus (but not the genus Atelerix). In bats, the phylogenetic reconstruction revealed a statistically valid topology only at lower taxonomic levels, whereas the topology for the genus and supragenus ranks was unresolved and fan-shaped. The benefits and limitations of the inter-SINE-PCR method are discussed. PMID:12138785

  11. Placentation in mammals once grouped as insectivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C

    2010-01-01

    Interest in insectivoran grade mammals has been reawakened by taxonomic changes that place tenrecs and golden moles in a new order and separate hedgehogs from moles, shrews and solenodons. This survey of their placentation shows there is great variation even within families. As an example three subfamilies of tenrec have been examined. The interhemal region is cellular hemomonochorial in Echinops and Microgale but endotheliochorial in Micropotamogale. Golden moles, which are placed in the same order, have hemodichorial placentation. Many insectivores have complex arrangements for histotrophic nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures in a separate order (Erinaceomorpha) is bolstered by the presence of interstitial implantation, amniogenesis by cavitation, a hemochorial barrier and a prominent spongy zone; these features do not occur in shrews, moles or solenodons (Soricomorpha). Three insectivoran grade mammals deserve close attention as they have been selected for genome sequencing. One of these, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), has not been studied with current methodology and renewed investigation of this or the closely related genus Atelerix should be a priority. PMID:19876821

  12. First report of natural infection in hedgehogs with Leishmania major, a possible reservoir of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Pérez, Míriam; Khaldi, Mourad; Riera, Cristina; Mozo-León, Denis; Ribas, Alexis; Hide, Mallorie; Barech, Ghania; Benyettou, Meryam; Seghiri, Kamel; Doudou, Souad; Fisa, Roser

    2014-07-01

    We report here the first known cases of natural infection of hedgehogs with Leishmania major. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an important public health problem in the area of M'sila, a semi-arid province in Algeria's northern Sahara, where two species of hedgehog live, Atelerix algirus and Paraechinus aethiopicus. The aim of this research was to survey Leishmania infection in these hedgehogs and evaluate whether they were reservoir hosts of Leishmania in an endemic zoonotic focus of leishmaniasis. Serological and molecular methods were used to determine the presence of Leishmania in 24 hedgehogs caught directly by hand and identified at species level as 19 A. algirus and 5 P. aethiopicus. Specific anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 29.2% of individuals by Western blot and in 26.3% by ELISA. The real-time PCR performed in spleen, ear and blood samples detected Leishmania spp. DNA in 12.5% of the individuals, one A. algirus and two P. aethiopicus. Three skin and two spleen samples of these animals were found to be parasitized and were identified by molecular test as L. major. Considering our results, it is suggested that hedgehogs have a potential epidemiological role as reservoir hosts of L. major. PMID:24699087

  13. Ticks of four-toed elephant shrews and Southern African hedgehogs

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    Ivan G. Horak

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies on ticks infesting small mammals, including elephant shrews, have been conducted in South Africa; however, these studies have included only a single four-toed elephant shrew and no hedgehogs. This study thus aimed to identify and quantify the ixodid ticks infesting four-toed elephant shrews and Southern African hedgehogs. Four-toed elephant shrews (Petrodromus tetradactylus were trapped in dense shrub undergrowth in a nature reserve in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal. They were separately housed, first in cages and later in glass terraria fitted with wire-mesh bases to allow detached ticks to fall through for collection. Southern African hedgehogs (Atelerix frontalis were hand caught on a farm in the eastern region of the Northern Cape Province and all visible ticks were collected by means of tweezers while the animals were anaesthetised. The ticks from each animal were preserved separately in 70% ethanol for later identification and counting. The immature stages of five ixodid tick species were collected from the elephant shrews, of which Rhipicephalus muehlensi was the most common. It has not been recorded previously on any species of elephant shrew. Three ixodid tick species were collected from the hedgehogs. Large numbers of adult Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, which has not been encountered previously on hedgehogs, were collected from these animals. Four-toed elephant shrews are good hosts of the larvae and nymphs of R. muehlensi, and Southern African hedgehogs are good hosts of adult H. colesbergensis.

  14. Contribución al conocimiento de los reservorios del Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas,1909 en la Provincia de Corrientes, Argentina Contribution to knowledge of reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909 in Corrientes Province, Argentina

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    María Esther Bar

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de identificar a reservorios del Trypanosoma cruzi se investigaron 60 mamíferos en los Departamentos Capital y San Luis del Palmar. Se examinaron: primates, roedores, marsupiales, carnívoros y edentados; 40 vivían en cautiverio y 20 fueron capturados mediante trampas en una comunidad rural forestal. Los mamíferos fueron analizados por xenodiagnóstico, empleándose ninfas de 3o o 4o estadío de Triatoma infestans ayunadas durante 2 semanas. Las heces de los triatominos fueron observadas al microscopio (400x a los 30, 60 y 90 días post-alimentación. En 2 Saimiri sciureus y en 1 Cebus apella se constató infección por tripanosomas cruziformes. Se concluye que la parasitemia detectada fue baja. La presencia de Didelphis albiventris, reservorio potencial del Trypanosoma cruzi , en una zona de transmisión activa del parásito representa un factor de riesgo, por lo que son necesarias futuras investigaciones epidemiológicas para determinar la real diagnosis de esta parasitosis en la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina.In order to identify Trypanosoma cruzi reservoirs in transmission areas, 60 mammals in Capital and San Luis del Palmar Departments, Corrientes, Argentina were studied. Primates, rodents, carnivores, marsupials and edentates were investigated, 40 of them living in captivity and 20 caught with traps in a rural area. The mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis and third or fourth instars nymphs of Triatoma infestans starved for 2 weeks were used. The feces were microscopically observed (400x for Trypanosoma cruzi infection at 30, 60 and 90 days after feeding. Trypanosoma cruzi-like parasites were identified in 2 Saimiri sciureus and 1 Cebus apella analyzed by xenodiagnosis. It was concluded that parasitemia was low. Howewer, the presence in a forest area of Didelphis albiventris, potential reservoir of the parasite, indicates a risk factor and deserves further epidemiological study for a true diagnosis of this

  15. Domiciliation of Triatoma pseudomaculata (Corrêa e Espínola 1964 in the Jequitinhonha Valley, State of Minas Gerais Domiciliação de Triatoma pseudomaculata (Corrêa e Espínola 1964 no Vale do Jequitinhonha, Estado de Minas Gerais

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    Girley Francisco Machado de Assis

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Impact of the vector control program was evaluated eight years after implantation of epidemiological surveillance for Chagas’ disease in Berilo, a municipality in the Jequitinhonha Valley of the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. In all 5,242 domiciliary units (96% of the total were inspected and 10 found to be infested by the triatomine bug Triatoma pseudomaculata. Triatomines were found associated with bats inside one house and in the peridomiciles of the other nine. None of the 111 Triatoma pseudomaculata captured was infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Noireau et al16 traps were installed in (n=8 and around (n=100 the infested house but no Trypanpsoma cruzi-infected triatomines were found. None bat, opossums (Didelphis albiventris and rat captured in the peridomicile were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi although 24% of the inhabitants of the house infested by Triatoma pseudomaculata were seropositive for the parasite, based on ELISA, IHA and IIF.Oito anos após a implantação da vigilância epidemiológica para doença de Chagas em Berilo, Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, Brasil, foi realizada uma pesquisa para verificar o impacto do Programa de Controle Vetorial. Neste trabalho, 5. 242 (96% unidades domiciliares foram vistoriadas. Dez estavam infestadas por Triatoma pseudomaculata. Em nove delas os insetos estavam infestando o peridomicílio e em uma casa foi constatado um foco intradomiciliar associado a morcegos. Foram capturados 111 insetos da espécie Triatoma pseudomaculata e nenhum exemplar estava infectado por Trypanosoma cruzi. Na casa infestada e em torno dela foram instaladas respectivamente 8 e 100 armadilhas de Noireau et al16 e nenhum triatomíneo foi capturado. Oitenta morcegos capturados e examinados também estavam negativos para Trypanosoma cruzi bem como três gambás (Didelphis albiventris e um roedor, todos capturados no peridomicílio. Um porcentual de 24% dos moradores das casas infestadas por Triatoma pseudomaculata foi

  16. Avaliaçao de híbridos de coqueiro (Cocos nucifera L. para produção de frutos e de albúmen sólido fresco Performance of hybrids of coconut palm for production of fruits and solid fresh albumen

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    Paulo Manoel Pontes Lins

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de seis híbridos de coqueiro para produção de frutos e de albúmen sólido fresco no Município de Moju, PA. Os híbridos avaliados foram: PB 121 (Anão-amarelo da Malásia x Gigante Oeste Africano; PB 111 (Anão-vermelho de Camarões x Gigante Oeste Africano; PB 141 (Anão-verde do Brasil x Gigante Oeste Africano; PB 123 (Anão-amarelo da Malásia x Gigante de Renel; PB 132 (Anão-vermelho da Malásia x Gigante da Polinésia e PB 113 (Anão-vermelho de Camarões x Gigante de Renel, em delineamento em blocos casualizados com seis repetições. Verificou-se, pela análise de variância, diferença significativa para tratamentos, resultante da heterogeneidade do material genético estudado. As fontes de variação ano e a interação anos x tratamentos foram também altamente significativas, evidenciando que o comportamento dos híbridos foi induzido por aquelas fontes de variação. Considerando o desempenho dos híbridos no período de 9 anos de avaliação para produção de frutos e de albúmen fresco, pode-se recomendar para plantio os híbridos PB 111, PB 113, PB 141 nas condições do Estado do Pará, com vistas a atender às indústrias (albúmen sólido, quanto à venda de cocos "in natura" para consumo de água.The performance of six hybrids of coconut palm were evaluated for fruit and solid fresh albumen production in Moju, State of Pará. The evaluated hybrids were: PB 121 (Dwarf Yellow of Malaysia x West African Giant; PB 111 (Dwarf Red of Cameron x West Afican Giant; PB 141 (Dwarf Green of Brazil x West Aficam Giant; PB 123 (Dwarf Yellow of Malaysia x Renel's Giant; PB 132 (Red Dwarf of Malaysia x (Giant from Polynesia; PB 113 (Dwarf Red of Cameron x Renel's Giant in hazard blocks and six repetitions. It was verified through variance analysis, significancy difference between treatments, as result of the heterogeneity of the studied genetic material. The sources of variation year and the interaction years x

  17. Small mammal community structure and microhabitat use in the austral boundary of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Daniela O. de Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the richness, composition, and species relative abundance of a terrestrial small mammal community in a Deciduous Forest area in the austral boundary of the Atlantic Forest. The microhabitat use of the most common species was also investigated. Six rodents - Akodon montensis (Thomas, 1913, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Sooretamys angouya (Thomas, 1913, Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829, Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Juliomys sp. - and one marsupial - Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1840 - were captured. Thaptomys nigrita is recorded in the state of Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. Species richness was poor when compared with communities in the central portions of the Atlantic Forest, but equivalent to that found in the Araucaria and Dense Ombrophilous forests of southern Brazil. The species most often captured in our study, A. montensis and O. nigripes, are also the most common in the majority of faunistic studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. Akodon montensis and S. angouya used places with high abundance of bamboo, possibly to avoid predators. Oligorizomys nigripes used areas with a high density of scrubs, what could facilitate aboveground movements, and was negatively correlated to mature forest indicators, which reinforce the idea that this species has opportunistic habits.

  18. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

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    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  19. Ecological interactions of visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Italo A Sherlock

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory and field observations summarized in this paper on visceral leishmaniasis ecology in the State of Bahia, Brazil are based on the author's observations over the past 35 years in a number of state's foci, public health records and literature citations. The disease is endemic with epidemic outbreaks occurring every ten years and its geographical distribution is expanding rapidly in the last years. Leishmania chagasi is the main ethiologic agent of the visceral leishmaniasis but Le. amazonensis s. lato was the only leishmania isolated by other authors from some visceral leishmaniasis human cases in the state. Lutzomyia longipalpis (with one or two spots on tergites III and IV and two sized different populations was epidemiologically incriminated as the main vector. It was found naturally infected with promastigotes, and it was infected with four species of leishmanias in the laboratory. Although the experimental transmission of Le. amazonensis by the bite of Lu. longipalpis to hamsters was performed, the author was not successful in transmitting Le. chagasi in the same way. The dog is the most important domestic source for infection of the vector, however it is not a primary reservoir. The opossum Didelphis albiventris was found naturally infected with Le. chagasi but its role as reservoir is unknown. Foxes and rodents were not found infected with leishmanias in Bahia.

  20. Frequency of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Iris Daniela Santos de Meneses

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. It infects several mammalian species in the Americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris are found. Domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against S. neurona had never before been demonstrated in Brazilian cats. The aim of this study was to determine whether cats in Bahia, Brazil, are exposed to the parasite. A total of 272 feline serum samples (134 from feral and 138 from house cats were subjected to an indirect fluorescent antibody test using cultured merozoites of S. neurona as antigen. Positivity was detected in 4.0% (11/272 of the tested samples, with titers ranging from 25 to 800. The feline sera were also tested for antibodies against the protozoan Neospora caninum, with an observed antibody frequency of 2.9%. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to report antibodies against S. neurona in Brazilian cats. We conclude that cats are exposed to the parasite in the region of this study. Further investigations are needed to confirm the role of cats in the transmission cycle of S. neurona in Brazil.

  1. Serological evidence of exposure to tick-borne agents in opossums (Didelphis spp. in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Andréia Lima Tomé Melo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work involved a serological investigation of tick-borne pathogens in opossums in eight municipalities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Serum samples from 109 opossums (91 Didelphis aurita and 18 Didelphis albiventris were tested to detect antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii (Taiaçu strain, 1:64 cut-off and Ehrlichia canis (São Paulo strain, 1:40 cut-off, by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA; and against Borrelia burgdorferi (strain G39/40 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The presence of antibodies to anti-R. rickettsii, anti-E. canis and anti-B. burgdorferi was detected in 32 (29.35%, 16 (14.67% and 30 (27.52% opossums, respectively. Opossum endpoint titers ranged from 64 to 1,024 for R. rickettsii, from 40 to 160 for E. canis, and from 400 to >51,200 for B. burgdorferi. These serological results suggest that opossums have been exposed to Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi-related agents in the state of São Paulo. Our study underscores the need for further research about these agents in this study area, in view of the occurrence of Spotted Fever and Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome disease in humans in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

  2. The Araguaia River as an Important Biogeographical Divide for Didelphid Marsupials in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rita Gomes; Ferreira, Eduardo; Loss, Ana Carolina; Heller, Rasmus; Fonseca, Carlos; Costa, Leonora Pires

    2015-01-01

    The riverine barrier model suggests that rivers play a significant role in separating widespread organisms into isolated populations. In this study, we used a comparative approach to investigate the phylogeography of 6 didelphid marsupial species in central Brazil. Specifically, we evaluate the role of the mid-Araguaia River in differentiating populations and estimate divergence time among lineages to assess the timing of differentiation of these species, using mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The 6 didelphid marsupials revealed different intraspecific genetic patterns and structure. The 3 larger and more generalist species, Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis, and Philander opossum, showed connectivity across the Araguaia River. In contrast the genetic structure of the 3 smaller and specialist species, Gracilinanus agilis, Marmosa (Marmosa) murina, and Marmosa (Micoureus) demerarae was shaped by the mid-Araguaia. Moreover, the split of eastern and western bank populations of the 2 latter species is consistent with the age of Araguaia River sediments formation. We hypothesize that the role of the Araguaia as a riverine barrier is linked to the level of ecological specialization among the 6 didelphid species and differences in their ability to cross rivers or disperse through the associated habitat types. PMID:26249652

  3. Didelphidae marsupials (Mammalia, Didelphimorphia) from the late Pleistocene deposit of the Gruta dos Moura Cave, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, Patricia Villa; Avilla, Leonardo S; Oliveira, Édison V

    2015-03-01

    The present study acknowledges the diversity of fossil marsupials from the Gruta dos Moura cave, as well as environmental and climatic aspects during the Quaternary. The results show that this is the largest diversity of Pleistocene marsupials recorded in a single cave: Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus agilis, G. microtarsus, Marmosa murina, Monodelphis brevicaudata, M. domestica and Sairadelphys tocantinensis. Furthermore, the described specimens are also part of the only fossil assemblage unequivocally referable to the late Pleistocene. Paleontological studies suggest an intimate association with dry and open environments with high abundance of water sources. Since most of the identified taxa are characteristic of open forests and gallery forests, this could represent the actual environment around the Gruta dos Moura cave. Recent studies identified sympatric occurrences between species from open and dry environments and species from humid forests that were identified among our material and are characteristic of humid regions. Therefore, these species could inhabit gallery forests and capons, or even ecotones, inside a dry and open environment. Moreover, the extinction of Sairadelphys could also indicate that the climatic and environmental conditions changed or that the past environment was more heterogeneous than the current environment of the region. PMID:25806985

  4. First evidence of gregarious denning in opossums (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae), with notes on their social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astúa, Diego; Carvalho, Rafael A; Maia, Paula F; Magalhães, Arthur R; Loretto, Diogo

    2015-06-01

    The Didelphidae are considered solitary opossums with few social interactions, usually limited to mating-related or mother-pouch young interactions. Anecdotal reports suggest that additional interactions occur, including den sharing by a few individuals, usually siblings. Here, we report novel observations that indicate opossums are more social than previously thought. These include nest sharing by males and females of Marmosa paraguayana, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus prior to the onset of the breeding season and without signs of sexual activity; this is taken to indicate early pair-bonding matching and cooperative nest building. We also recorded den sharing among recently weaned siblings of Didelphis aurita and Caluromys philander. In addition, we observed 13 individuals of Didelphis albiventris representing three age classes resting without agonistic interactions in a communal den. These are the first reports of gregarious behaviour involving so many individuals, which are either unrelated or represent siblings from at least two litters, already weaned, sharing the same den with three adults. Sociality in opossums is probably more complex than previously established, and field experimental designs combining the use of artificial nests with camera traps or telemetry may help to gauge the frequency and extent of these phenomena. PMID:26085500

  5. Toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from forest fragments of the municipality of Natal, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Gislene Fátima da Silva Rocha; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Marcili, Arlei; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; Acosta, Igor Cunha Lima; Ferreira, Juliana Isabel Giuli da Silva; Cabral, Aline Diniz; Lima, Júlia Tereza Ribeiro de; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis stands out as a global disease that has felines as definitive hosts. In the municipality of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, two parks are notable for their ecological and social importance. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in short hair cats, bats and small non-volant mammals in these two ecological reserves. Altogether, biological samples were obtained from 154 mammals, 92 wild animals from both areas and 62 domestic cats of the Parque da Cidade. In total, 22 (53.7%) non-volant wild mammals, 11 (21.5%) bats and 28 (52.8%) cats were positive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies using the Modified Agglutination Test (≥ 25). It was possible to detect the presence of T. gondii DNA, by means of a molecular amplification of a B1 gene fragment (155bp), in 92 tissue samples from wild animals, including Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina. Of the 62 cats examined by the same molecular method, T. gondii DNA could be detected in 4 cats. In this study, it was observed the circulation of T. gondii in wild species and domestic cats, demonstrating the involvement of wild and domestic animals in the cycle of T. gondii. PMID:25517529

  6. Association patterns of ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae, Argasidae) of small mammals in Cerrado fragments, western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza L; Martins, Thiago F; Krawczak, Felipe S; Labruna, Marcelo B; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2015-03-01

    The present study describes ticks associated with small mammals and analyzes the aggregation patterns according to seasonal and host variations in the Cerrado biome, central-western Brazil. Small mammals were systematically captured in 54 woodland fragments from February 2012 to July 2013. A total of 1,040 animals belonging to eight marsupial and 12 rodent species were captured; 265 animals were parasitized by eight tick species (in decreasing order of abundance): Ornithodoros mimon, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma parkeri, and Ixodes amarali. With few exceptions, collected ticks were larvae and nymphs. Among the more abundant animals, the marsupial Didelphis albiventris showed the highest tick prevalence (84.4 %), mean abundance (19.2), mean intensity (22.8), richness of ticks species (n = 7), and total abundance of ticks (n = 2,457). Amblyomma sculptum and O. mimon were the most generalist species, collected on four host species. Fifteen new tick-host associations are reported for the first time. Most ticks showed higher prevalence and mean intensity in the dry season, regardless of host species. Overall, tick prevalence and mean intensity of infestation were significantly associated with host gender. Finally, the importance of the large number of records of the argasid O. mimon is discussed. PMID:25633262

  7. Identidade, riqueza e abundãncia de pequenos mamíferos (Rodentia e Didelphimorphia de área de Floresta com Araucária no estado do Paraná, Brasil

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    Guilherme Grazzini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Roedores e Marsupiais são componentes importantes da fauna na região Neotropical. Estudos sobre a riqueza e abundância destes animais são raros na Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM e aqui apresentamos um inventário conduzido na Floresta Nacional de Piraí do Sul. Esta área possui uma área aproximada de 150 ha, cercada por pastos e plantações de Pinus. A amostragem foi feita através de armadilhas de queda, Sherman e Tomahawk, dispostas nos principais tipos de vegetação encontrados. Pelo menos um casal de cada espécie foi coletado. Como resultado, durante 5.892 armadilhas.noite nós obtivemos um total de 1.049 capturas, representando 17 espécies: Akodon montensis, Bibimys labiosus, Brucepattersonius iheringi, Cryptonanus sp., Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Monodelphis americana, M. scalops, Myocastor coypus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex, O. nasutus, Sooretamys angouya e Thaptomys nigrita. Capturas por armadilhas de queda representaram 67% do total, e oito espécies foram registradas exclusivamente por este método. Akodon montensis, O. nigripes e T. nigrita foram as espécies mais abundantes.

  8. Serological evidence of exposure to tick-borne agents in opossums (Didelphis spp.) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de; Spolidorio, Mariana Granziera; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime; Matushima, Eliana Reiko; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-06-01

    This work involved a serological investigation of tick-borne pathogens in opossums in eight municipalities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Serum samples from 109 opossums (91 Didelphis aurita and 18 Didelphis albiventris) were tested to detect antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii (Taiaçu strain, 1:64 cut-off) and Ehrlichia canis (São Paulo strain, 1:40 cut-off), by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA); and against Borrelia burgdorferi (strain G39/40) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The presence of antibodies to anti-R. rickettsii, anti-E. canis and anti-B. burgdorferi was detected in 32 (29.35%), 16 (14.67%) and 30 (27.52%) opossums, respectively. Opossum endpoint titers ranged from 64 to 1,024 for R. rickettsii, from 40 to 160 for E. canis, and from 400 to >51,200 for B. burgdorferi. These serological results suggest that opossums have been exposed to Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi-related agents in the state of São Paulo. Our study underscores the need for further research about these agents in this study area, in view of the occurrence of Spotted Fever and Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome disease in humans in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:27276663

  9. Epidemiological significance of the breeding of mosquitoes in discarded automobile tyres in Zaria, Northern Nigeria.

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    Adebote, D A; Kogi, E; Oniye, S J; Akoje, F

    2011-09-01

    Waste automobile tyres are suitable receptacles of rainwater thus capable of supporting the breeding of vector mosquito species in close proximity to humans and altering disease transmission risks. Bionomics of mosquitoes in carelessly discarded tyres was explored to unravel species composition and abundance, physicochemical parameters of microhabitats and epidemiological significance. Of the 1179 larvae isolated from 90/212 (42.45%) positive tyres were ten species belonging to Aedes and Culex genera, including Aedes aegypti (46.56%), Culex albiventris (0.25%), Cx. cinereus (0.25%), Cx. grahami (0.68%), Cx. ingrami (1.44%), Cx. nebulosus (2.37%), Cx. mirificus (0.08%), Cx. pipiens pipiens (0.17%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (47.07%) and Cx. tigripes (1.10%). Abundance of the dominant Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), but was higher than those of the other eight species (P < 0.05). The microhabitat pH (range 5.20-9.50), total dissolved solids (range 15-802 ppm) and electrical conductivity (range 30-1603 microscm 1) were obtained in tyres. Abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus correlated positively and significantly with EC and TDS of breeding water (P < 0.05). The study revealed high potential of the transmission of filariasis and arboviruses including dengue and yellow fever by mosquitoes domiciled in waste tyres.

  10. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report

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    IP da Costa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9% were in larval form and 22 (21.1% were nymphs; the only adult (0.8% was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  11. Distribuição geográfica de pequenos mamíferos não voadores nas bacias dos rios Araguaia e Paraná, região centro-sul do Brasil Geographic distribution of small non-volant mammals in the Araguaia and Paraná basins, south-central region of Brazil

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    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se amostragens de pequenos mamíferos em duas bacias hidrográficas do Brasil central pertencentes aos rios Araguaia e Paraná com intuito de descrever a composição de espécies de pequenos mamíferos de hábito florestal e comparar suas distribuições geográficas. Quatorze pontos de coleta foram amostrados, subdivididos em oito na bacia do Rio Paraná e seis na bacia do Rio Araguaia. Foram registradas 20 espécies de pequenos mamíferos na região (oito de marsupiais e 12 de roedores, sendo 16 delas por meio de armadilhas metálicas (5.253 armadilhas-noite e oito delas por meio de armadilhas de queda (224 baldes-noite, totalizando 161 capturas de 139 indivíduos. A bacia do Rio Paraná apresentou 16 espécies (armadilhas-noite: 3.115; baldes-noite: 104 e a bacia do Araguaia apresentou 11 espécies (armadilhas-noite: 2.138; baldes-noite: 120, sendo que as riquezas foram similares quando aplicado o método da rarefação. Das 20 espécies registradas, sete (35% ocorreram em ambas as bacias. Apesar da elevada riqueza de espécies amostrada, destacou-se a elevada abundância do marsupial Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840. As espécies de marsupiais amostradas foram D. albiventris, Caluromys philander (Linnaeus, 1758, Cryptonanus cf. agricolai Voss, Lunde & Jansa, 2005, Gracilinanus agilis (Burmeister, 1854, G. microtarsus (Wagner, 1842, Lutreolina crassicaudata (Desmarest, 1804, Marmosa murina (Linnaeus, 1758, e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758. As espécies de roedores amostradas foram Akodon gr. cursor, Calomys tener (Winge, 1887, Nectomys rattus (Pelzen, 1883, N. squamipes (Brants, 1827, Oecomys bicolor (Tomes, 1860, Oryzomys maracajuensis Langguth & Bonvicino, 2002, Oryzomys cf. marinhus, O. megacephalus (Fischer, 1814, Oligoryzomys fornesi (Massoia, 1973, Oligoryzomys sp., Proechimys longicaudatus (Rengger, 1830 e P. roberti (Thomas, 1901. A ampliação da distribuição de algumas espécies é discutida, assim como aspectos

  12. Epidemiological factors related to the transmission risk of Trypanosoma cruzi in a Quilombola community, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Marlon Cezar Cominetti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This work was an epidemiological investigation of the risk of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the rural Quilombola community of Furnas do Dionízio, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Of the 71 animals examined, seven were captured (two opossums, Didelphis albiventris; four rats, Rattus rattus; and one nine-banded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus and 64 were domestic (one canine, Canis familiaris; five pigs, Sus scrofa; two bovines, Bos taurus; five caprines, Capra sp.; and 51 ovines, Ovis aries. Parasitological tests were performed to detect parasites in the blood and to identify the morphology of flagellates. These methods included fresh examinations, buffy coat tests and blood cultures. Molecular analysis of DNA for identification of trypanosomatids was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers S35 and S36. RESULTS: The parasitological tests showed flagellates in an opossum and two cattle. The molecular tests showed DNA from T. cruzi in an opossum and a pig. Triatoma sordida was the only triatomine species found in the community, and it colonized households (four specimens and the surrounding areas (124 specimens. Twenty-three specimens tested positive for flagellates, which were subsequently identified as T. cruzi by PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Data analysis demonstrated that T. cruzi has a peridomestic life cycle that involves both domestic and wild mammals.

  13. Molecular identification of trypanosomatids in wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, M S; Oliveira e Sousa, L; Alves-Martin, M F; Paixão, M S; Rodrigues, M V; Starke-Buzetti, W A; Araújo Junior, J P; Lucheis, S B

    2014-06-16

    Diverse wild animal species can be reservoirs of zoonotic flagellate parasites, which can cause pathologic Chagas disease. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of flagellate parasites through direct microscopic examination of the parasites in blood samples and through PCR of whole blood and blood culture (haemoculture) samples from 38 captive and 65 free-living wild animals in the Centre for Conservation of Wild Fauna (CCWF), an area endemic for leishmaniasis. For this study, PCR was accomplished using primers for the ribosomal region (ITS-1) of the flagellate parasites. The amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced to identify DNA of the Trypanosomatid parasite species, observed in blood cultures from 3.9% (04/103) of the animals. Through these techniques, Trypanosoma cruzi was identified in haemoculture samples of the following three free-living species: common agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). Furthermore, Trypanosoma minasense was identified in whole blood samples from 01 (0.9%) captive animal (black howler monkey-Alouatta caraya). These results demonstrated the first report of T. cruzi isolation in wild species from the CCWF using blood culture, which can be applied in addition to molecular tools for epidemiological studies and to identify trypanosomatids in wild animals. PMID:24636787

  14. New records and human parasitism by Ornithodoros mimon (Acari: Argasidae) in Brazil.

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    Labruna, Marcelo B; Marcili, Arlei; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Fernandes, André A; Leite, Romario C; Venzal, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    The bat tick Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones is currently known by only few reports in Bolivia, Uruguay, Argentina, and the state of São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. Here, we expand the distribution of O. mimon in Brazil to the states of Minas Gerais (southeastern region), Goiás (central-western), Pernambuco, and Rio Grande do Norte (northeastern). Ticks were collected on human dwellings, where there had been repeated complains of tick bites on persons during the night. Tick bites were generally followed by intense inflammatory reactions that lasted for several weeks at the bite site. Bats and opossums were reported to inhabit the attic of the infested houses. In addition, a free-ranging opossum (Didelphis albiventris Lund) trapped in Rio Grande do Norte was found infested by argasid larvae. Based on morphological and/or molecular analysis, all ticks were identified as O. mimon. From one of the sites (Tiradentes, state of Minas Gerais), 20 field-collected nymphs were tested by a battery of polymerase chain reaction protocols targeting tick-borne microorganisms of the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, Rickettsia, Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Coxiella; no tick specimen was found infected by any of these microorganism genera. The current study expands northwards the distribution of O. mimon, which has been shown to be very harmful to humans because of the intense inflammatory response that usually occurs after tick bites. PMID:24605480

  15. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

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    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  16. Evaluation of natural foci of Panstrongylus megistus in a forest fragment in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Jose Eloy dos Santos Jr

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Panstrongylus megistus is commonly found in wild environments of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize the network of refuges used by triatomine in a forest fragment of Porto Alegre and to identify Trypanosoma cruzi infection, associated hosts and the epidemiological importance of both hosts and triatomines. Methods Techniques including the spool-and-line method and active searching (transects were used to identify natural foci. Results The food source for each triatomine was determined using the precipitin test, and the infection of marsupials was determined by xenodiagnosis. A total of 33 adults (domestic environment and 27 nymphs (wild environment of P. megistus were found in addition to 43 Didelphis albiventris specimens. The infection rates of triatomine adults, triatomine nymphs and opossums with T. cruzi I were 64%, 73% and 69%, respectively. Birds, rodents and opossums were the main resources used by triatomine. Conclusions This work presents the first characterization of a natural focus of P. megistus in Rio Grande do Sul. The natural characteristics of this focus and its implication in the transmission of T. cruzi are discussed.

  17. First isolation of Leptospira interrogans from Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox) in Argentina shows new MLVA genotype.

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    Scialfa, Exequiel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Venzano, Agustín; Morris, Winston Eduardo; Bolpe, Jorge; Schettino, Mateo

    2013-01-01

    To identify carriers of Leptospira spp. in Argentina, wild animals were trapped in Buenos Aires Province during three nights, capturing 12 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), six Chaetophractus villosus (big hairy armadillo), five Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox), and two Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk). All were tested by microscopic agglutination test, and five (two gray foxes, two armadillos, and one skunk) were positive for Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, L. borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis, and L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, at titers of 1:50 and 1:100. Kidney tissue from all animals was cultured, and one isolate of L. interrogans from a gray fox was obtained. Hamsters inoculated with the isolate died after 6 days with no macroscopic lesions at necropsy. However, histologic examination revealed glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia. The Leptospira strain from the South American gray fox was analyzed serologically and its pathogenicity was established. Genotyping through multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strain was a new genotype related to the L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. PMID:23307384

  18. Trans-sialidase inhibition assay detects Trypanosoma cruzi infection in different wild mammal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Paula A; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Orozco, Marcela M; Cardinal, Marta V; Gürtler, Ricardo E; Leguizamón, María S

    2013-08-01

    The detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mammals is crucial for understanding the eco-epidemiological role of the different species involved in parasite transmission cycles. Xenodiagnosis (XD) and hemoculture (HC) are routinely used to detect T. cruzi in wild mammals. Serological methods are much more limited because they require the use of specific antibodies to immunoglobulins of each mammalian species susceptible to T. cruzi. In this study we detected T. cruzi infection by trans-sialidase (TS) inhibition assay (TIA). TIA is based on the antibody neutralization of a recombinant TS that avoids the use of anti-immunoglobulins. TS activity is not detected in the co-endemic protozoan parasites Leishmania spp and T. rangeli. In the current study, serum samples from 158 individuals of nine wild mammalian species, previously tested by XD, were evaluated by TIA. They were collected from two endemic areas in northern Argentina. The overall TIA versus XD co-reactivity was 98.7% (156/158). All 18 samples from XD-positive mammals were TIA-positive (co-positivity, 100%) and co-negativity was 98.5% (138/140). Two XD-negative samples from a marsupial (Didelphis albiventris) and an edentate (Dasypus novemcinctus) were detected by TIA. TIA could be used as a novel tool for serological detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in a wide variety of sylvatic reservoir hosts. PMID:23930975

  19. New sylvatic hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi and their reservoir competence in the humid Chaco of Argentina: a longitudinal study.

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    Orozco, M Marcela; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Alvarado-Otegui, Julián A; Cardinal, M Victoria; Schijman, Alejandro G; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2013-05-01

    A four-year longitudinal study of the structure of sylvatic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi, reservoir host competence and parasite discrete typing units was conducted in a disturbed rural area of the humid Chaco in Argentina. Among 190 mammals examined by xenodiagnosis and polymerase chain reaction amplification, the composite prevalence of infection was substantially higher in Dasypus novemcinctus armadillos (57.7%) and Didelphis albiventris opossums (38.1%) than in Euphractus sexcinctus (20.0%), Tolypeutes matacus (12.5%), and Chaetophractus vellerosus (6.3%) armadillos. Trypanosoma cruzi was detected for the first time in Thylamys pusilla small opossums and in two unidentified small rodents. Infection was spatially aggregated only in armadillos. All Didelphis were infected with T. cruzi I and all armadillo species were infected with T. cruzi III, implying two distinct sylvatic cycles with no inputs from the domestic cycle. Dasypus armadillos and Didelphis opossums were much more infectious to vectors than other armadillos, small opossums, or rodents. PMID:23530075

  20. Life cycle of Ixodes (Ixodes) loricatus (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, T T; Labruna, M B; Abel, I dos S; Clerici, P T

    2000-09-01

    The life cycle of Ixodes (Ixodes) loricatus Neumann, reared in the laboratory, is described. Engorged females collected from opossums trapped in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, Brazil, which were used to start the laboratory colonies, were designated as BMG and CSP, respectively. Larval and nymphal ticks from both colonies fed separately on Rattus norvergicus Berkenhout or Calomys callosus Rengger, whereas Didelphis marsupialis L and Didelphis albiventris Lund were used as hosts for BMG and CSP adults, respectively. Biological and developmental data obtained from ticks of both the BMG and CSP colonies that were reared separately for two consecutive generations were compared. The percentage of fed or molted ticks reared on C. callosus was higher than that recorded for ticks fed on R. norvergicus in the majority of the observations. Despite significant differences among several of the biological parameters, the pattern of the life cycles of the two tick colonies was similar. Results indicated that the mean life cycle duration of I. (I.) loricatus was approximately 7 mo from parental oviposition to the occurrence of F1 eggs, regardless of geographic origin or host species. PMID:11004783

  1. Morcegos (Chiroptera da área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Bats (Chiroptera of the urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

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    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.

  2. Epidemiological significance of the breeding of mosquitoes in discarded automobile tyres in Zaria, Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebote, D A; Kogi, E; Oniye, S J; Akoje, F

    2011-09-01

    Waste automobile tyres are suitable receptacles of rainwater thus capable of supporting the breeding of vector mosquito species in close proximity to humans and altering disease transmission risks. Bionomics of mosquitoes in carelessly discarded tyres was explored to unravel species composition and abundance, physicochemical parameters of microhabitats and epidemiological significance. Of the 1179 larvae isolated from 90/212 (42.45%) positive tyres were ten species belonging to Aedes and Culex genera, including Aedes aegypti (46.56%), Culex albiventris (0.25%), Cx. cinereus (0.25%), Cx. grahami (0.68%), Cx. ingrami (1.44%), Cx. nebulosus (2.37%), Cx. mirificus (0.08%), Cx. pipiens pipiens (0.17%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (47.07%) and Cx. tigripes (1.10%). Abundance of the dominant Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), but was higher than those of the other eight species (P < 0.05). The microhabitat pH (range 5.20-9.50), total dissolved solids (range 15-802 ppm) and electrical conductivity (range 30-1603 microscm 1) were obtained in tyres. Abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus correlated positively and significantly with EC and TDS of breeding water (P < 0.05). The study revealed high potential of the transmission of filariasis and arboviruses including dengue and yellow fever by mosquitoes domiciled in waste tyres. PMID:23781631

  3. Habitat associations of small mammals in southern Brazil and use of regurgitated pellets of birds of prey for inventorying a local fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibler, D R; Christoff, A U

    2007-11-01

    We inventoried terrestrial small mammals in an agricultural area in southern Brazil by using trapping and prey consumed by Barn Owls (Tyto alba) and White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus). Small mammals were trapped in three habitat types: corn fields, uncultivated fields ("capoeiras"), and native forest fragments. A total of 1,975 small mammal specimens were trapped, another 2,062 identified from the diet of Barn Owls, and 2,066 from the diet of White-tailed Kites. Both trapping and prey in the predators' diet yielded 18 small mammal species: three marsupials (Didelphis albiventris, Gracilinanus agilis, and Monodelphis dimidiata) and 15 rodents (Akodon paranaensis, Bruceppatersonius iheringi, Calomys sp., Cavia aperea, Euryzygomatomys spinosus, Holochilus brasiliensis, Mus musculus, Necromys lasiurus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oryzomys angouya, Oxymycterus sp.1, Oxymycterus sp.2, Rattus norvegicus, and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758)). The greatest richness was found in the uncultivated habitat. We concluded that the three methods studied for inventorying small mammals (prey in the diet of Barn Owls, White-tailed Kites, and trapping) were complementary, since together, rather than separately, they produced a better picture of local richness. PMID:18278312

  4. Frequency of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in domestic cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Iris Daniela Santos de; Andrade, Müller Ribeiro; Uzêda, Rosângela Soares; Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Lindsay, David Scott; Gondim, Luís Fernando Pita

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. It infects several mammalian species in the Americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris) are found. Domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against S. neurona had never before been demonstrated in Brazilian cats. The aim of this study was to determine whether cats in Bahia, Brazil, are exposed to the parasite. A total of 272 feline serum samples (134 from feral and 138 from house cats) were subjected to an indirect fluorescent antibody test using cultured merozoites of S. neurona as antigen. Positivity was detected in 4.0% (11/272) of the tested samples, with titers ranging from 25 to 800. The feline sera were also tested for antibodies against the protozoan Neospora caninum, with an observed antibody frequency of 2.9%. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to report antibodies against S. neurona in Brazilian cats. We conclude that cats are exposed to the parasite in the region of this study. Further investigations are needed to confirm the role of cats in the transmission cycle of S. neurona in Brazil. PMID:25517534

  5. Sarcocystis neurona schizonts-associated encephalitis, chorioretinitis, and myositis in a two-month-old dog simulating toxoplasmosis, and presence of mature sarcocysts in muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Black, S S; Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Morris, E; Hanson, M A; Cooley, A J

    2014-05-28

    Sarcocystis neurona is an unusual species of the genus Sarcocystis. Opossums (Didelphis virginianus, D. albiventris) are the definitive hosts and several other species, including dogs, cats, marine mammals, and horses are intermediate or aberrant hosts. Sarcocysts are not known to form in aberrant hosts. Sarcocystis neurona causes fatal disease in horses (Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, EPM). There are numerous reports of fatal EPM-like infections in other species, usually with central nervous system signs and associated with the schizont stage of S. neurona. Here, we report fatal disseminated S. neurona infection in a nine-week-old golden retriever dog from Mississippi, USA. Protozoal merozoites were identified in smears of the cerebrospinal fluid. Microscopically, lesions and protozoa were identified in eyes, tongue, heart, liver, intestines, nasal turbinates, skeletal muscle and brain, which reacted intensely with S. neurona polyclonal antibodies. Mature sarcocysts were seen in sections of muscles. These sarcocysts were ultrastructurally similar to those of S. neurona from experimentally infected animals. These data suggest that the dog is another intermediate host for S. neurona. Data suggest that the dog was transplacentally infected. PMID:24680604

  6. An outbreak of sarcocystosis in psittacines and a pigeon in a zoological collection in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecco, R; Luppi, M M; Malta, M C C; Araújo, M R; Guedes, R M C; Shivaprasad, H L

    2008-12-01

    This report describes an outbreak of acute pulmonary sarcocystosis in different species of captive psittacines and in a Luzon bleeding-heart pigeon (Gallicolumba luzonica) in a zoological collection in Brazil. A majority of the birds were found dead and had exhibited no previous clinical signs. Grossly, pulmonary congestion and edema were the most-common findings. Enlarged and congested livers and spleens were also frequently observed. Microscopically, there was edema, fibrin exudation, congestion, and perivascular and interstitial lymphoplasmacytic infiltration associated with numerous sinuous schizonts of Sarcocystis sp. in the lungs. Mild to moderate myocarditis, hepatitis, splenitis, and interstitial nephritis were also observed in the birds. Immunohistochemistry confirmed Sarcocystis sp. in the capillaries of lungs, hearts, livers, and spleens of most of the birds, but also in the pancreas, kidney, intestine, proventriculus, and brain of a few birds. The probable source of Sarcocystis sp. in these birds was the wild opossum (Didelphis albiventris), a common inhabitant of a local forest that surrounds the Belo Horizonte Zoo (Fundação Zoo-Botânica). This is the first documentation of Sarcocystis infection in psittacines and a pigeon from Brazil.

  7. Performing Jim Crow: Blackface Performance and Emancipation (Interpretando a Jim Crow: Blackface y emancipación

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    King, Thomas L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A nineteenth-century American actor named Thomas Rice was sensationally popular as a blackface character named Jim Crow. His popularity is credited with giving birth to blackface minstrelsy as others began to imitate him in the hope of emulating his success. Rices Jim Crow provided a name for laws and customs designed to repudiate the emancipation of African slaves. Blackface minstrelsy staged an idealized version of slave life on a southern plantation. Paradoxically, as blackface revoked the emancipation of slaves on stage, it emancipated the American theatre from its British origins and its audience of recently immigrated laborers from a low social position. It even occasionally performed an ironic reversal of the subaltern status of the very African slaves whose freedom by proclamation and constitutional amendment the performance sought to negate. Contradictions in the history of blackface performance in the United States stage American anxieties about race, class, emancipation, and the very construction of the concepts of blackness and whiteness. Resumen: En el siglo XIX, Thomas Rice, un actor estadounidense, ganó mucha fama haciendo el papel de un personaje cuya cara estaba pintada de negro con el nombre Jim Crow. Se le da crédito a Rice la creación de grupos de actores que se pintaron la cara de negro (un estilo denominado blackface que luego otros se pusieron a imitarlos con la esperanza de emular su éxito. El Jim Crow de Rice dio nombre a una serie de leyes y costumbres diseñadas para repudiar la emancipación de esclavos africanos. Los espectáculos de los actores en blackface representaron una versión idealizada de la vida de los esclavos en una hacienda sureña. Paradójicamente, mientras el blackface revocó la emancipación de los esclavos sobre el escenario, emancipó el teatro estadounidense de sus orígenes británicas y su público que consistía en obreros inmigrantes de baja clase social. De vez en cuando hasta

  8. Pós-Antropologia: as críticas de Archie Mafeje ao conceito de alteridade e sua proposta de uma ontologia combativa

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    Antonádia Borges

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumoNosso texto se debruça sobre os escritos etnológicos de Archie Mafeje. Este autor sul-africano que viveu boa parte de sua carreira acadêmica no exílio, formulou críticas contundentes às ciências sociais em geral e à antropologia em particular. Para ele, formações sociais que desafiam nossas abordagens taxonômicas e dualistas, continuam sendo encarceradas em escaninhos estreitos e claustrofóbicos, em abordagens voltadas para a classificação e a interpretação do Outro. Esta ideia de alteridade baseia-se em uma leitura teórica que segrega o sujeito do objeto de escrutínio, da análise social. Em trabalhos que apontam os equívocos de estudos antropológicos, históricos e de sociologia urbana no continente africano, Mafeje demonstra como as apostas epistemológicas das ciências sociais legitimaram ideias e ideais de sociedades imóveis, circunscritas a limites territoriais demarcados no período colonial. Em suma, temos confinados o Outro, ao mesmo tempo em que temos nos satisfeito com modelos analíticos que perversamente permitiram o avanço da expropriação de terras e seus efeitos: xenofobia, êxodo, intolerância e racismo. A saída para Mafeje estaria no estabelecimento de uma interlocução autêntica, fundada não numa divisão entre o Eu e o Outro, mas no que ele chama de ontologia combativa. Segundo o autor, ao fazer etnografia, estaríamos recompondo o mundo para além dos dualismos e das cisões. Com tal proposta, Mafeje defende um projeto pós-antropológico de produção de conhecimento.

  9. Veinte años de migraciones españolas: 1982-2002. Cambio de signo e intensidad

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    Cebrián, Juan Antonio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the changes in migration that have taken place recently in Spain. After joining the EC in 1986, the new socioeconomic and political standards of Spain have attracted many labor migrants from the Third World. African immigrants, 77% of whom are Moroccan, represent the largest segment among them. Africans find ready employment in commercial agriculture, construction, and services on the Iberian Peninsula. Besides, Latin America and Southeast Asia are sending greater and greater numbers of workers to Spain. Since the passing of the first Alien Law in 1985, Spanish legislation has been subjected to continuous reform. This has achieved three underlying goals: improvement of administrative procedures and the working conditions for immigrants, as well as the overcoming of many obstacles to their integration to society.

    Coincidiendo con su entrada en el Mercado Común Europeo en 1986, España se ha convertido en un foco de atracción de inmigrantes laborales del Tercer Mundo. Por continentes, [Según datos del Ministerio del Interior (Anuario Estadístico de Extranjería, 2002, los 380.343 inmigrantes procedentes de América superan en la actualidad a los 366.518 inmigrantes africanos. Pero si dividimos, como es práctica habitual, el continente americano en dos grandes conjuntos: América del Norte (con 15.774 inmigrantes e Iberoamérica (con 364.569, Africa continúa siendo la procedencia más frecuente de inmigrantes laborales en España.] el grupo más numeroso es el africano, marroquí en un 77%, que se emplea, fundamentalmente, en la agricultura intensiva, en la construcción y en los servicios. Muy numerosos también, y cada vez más, son los inmigrantes laborales procedentes de Latinoamérica y del Sudeste asiático. Desde la aprobación de la primera Ley de Extranjería en 1985, la legislación española ha experimentado continuas reformas, para la consecución de tres objetivos fundamentales: la mejora de los

  10. Mestizaje en el sur de la Región Pampeana (Argentina

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    Avena, Sergio Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro objetivo fue estimar la composición genética de la población de Bahía Blanca (BB y comparar los datos obtenidos con investigaciones previas realizadas en el Area Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (AMBA. Se estudiaron 183 muestras de donantes no emparentados. Fueron analizados 5 sistemas eritrocitarios, alotipos Gm, haplogrupos mitocondriales y el locus DYS199 del cromosoma Y. Se realizó una encuesta con la finalidad de obtener información sobre lugar de nacimiento, residencia actual y datos genealógicos de los mismos. Las frecuencias génicas se calcularon aplicando métodos de máxima verosimilitud y para los haplogrupos mitocondriales y DYS199 se empleó el conteo directo. La mezcla génica se estimó mediante el Programa ADMIX. Los marcadores proteicos arrojaron 19.5% de componente indígena y 3.6% de africano. El aporte amerindio de los linajes mitocondriales constituyó el 46.7% y el 1.5% subsahariano. Un 3.8% de los varones analizados poseen la variante aborigen DYS199*T. Esa diferencia en la contribución genética sexo-específica revelaría un aporte asimétrico por género en la historia de esta población. Al comparar estos datos con los del AMBA se constataron, en esa región, similares valores del componente africano (3.8% y de la transición DYS199*T (2.2% y menores porcentajes de mezcla génica con indígenas (15.3% y de los haplogrupos mitocondriales amerindios (43.6%, aunque estas diferencias fueron no significativas. Sin embargo, se observó significancia al interior de los linajes mitocondriales aborígenes, pues C y D sumados representaron en BB un 74% de los haplogrupos indígenas vs. 52% en el AMBA. Este hecho se condice con la distinta proveniencia de los inmigrantes hacia estas ciudades

  11. Origin of hominids: European or African origin, neither or both?

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    Senut, B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last twenty years, some scientists have suggested that the African ape and humans lineages emerged in Europe, a scenario known as the “Back to Africa Hypothesis”. Even though hominoids were widespread in Eurasia during the Middle and Upper Miocene due to the tropical conditions which prevailed in this region, we cannot dismiss the fact that they were present in Africa (contra some authors. Actually, they were highly diverse at that same time (at least 10 lineages represented even if the fossil record is less complete than in Eurasia. Postcranial elements from African species suggest that some features of modern hominoids were already present in the Lower and Middle Miocene of Africa and were not restricted to European ones. Considering the available evidence, it is not possible at this stage to favour a European origin over an African one. Hominoids were living in the tropical areas of Northern Africa and Southern Eurasia and faunal exchanges between the two continents occurred throughout the Middle and Upper Miocene, as the Tethys did not act as an effective barrier to interchanges between Europe and Asia.

    Durante los últimos veinte años, algunos científicos han sugerido que los grandes monos africanos y los linajes humanos surgieron en Europa, un escenario conocido como la “ Hipótesis de la vuelta a Africa”. A pesar de que los homínidos se extendieron en Eurasia durante el Mioceno Medio y Superior debido a las condiciones tropicales que prevalecian en esta region, no podemos descartar el hecho de que ellos estuvieron presentes en Africa (contra algunos autores. En realidad, ellos tuvieron una alta diversidad al mismo tiempo (al menos 10 líneas representadas, incluso si el registro fosil es menos completo que el de Eurasia. Elementos postcraneales de especies africanas sugieren que en algunos carácteres los homínidos modernos estaban ya presentes en el Mioceno Inferior y Medio de Africa, no sólo restringidos a

  12. Caracterización del ambiente atmosférico en Las Palmas de Gran Canaria y Santa Cruz de Tenerife. 2000 a 2004

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    Elena López Villarrubia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El carácter insular de las ciudades de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria y Santa Cruz de Tenerife, su meteorología y la proximidad del continente africano que favorece la llegada de material particulado de origen natural sobre las islas, determinan unas especificidades en su calidad del aire. El objetivo de este artículo es la caracterización de la contaminación atmosférica durante los años 2000 a 2004 como indicador de exposición de los habitantes de estas dos ciudades. Métodos: Se elaboraron los siguientes indicadores de contaminación: promedios de 24 horas de PM10, PM2,5, NO2, SO2 y O3; máximo de las 17 medias móviles octohorarias diarias de O3 y CO; máximo horario diario de SO2, NO2, O3, CO, PM10 y PM2,5. También se calcularon los niveles de la moda gruesa de partículas, como la diferencia entre los valores de PM10 y PM2,5 (PM10-2,5. Se identificaron episodios de intrusión africana. Resultados: En Sta Cruz de TF los promedios de SO2 (14ug/m3N y de O3 (44,4 ug/m3N fueron superiores respecto a los de Las Palmas de GC (8 y 28,3 ug/m3N. Los promedios de NO2 en Las Palmas de GC: 45,8 ug/m3N fueron superiores a los de Sta. Cruz de TF: 30,3 ug/m3N. Debido a las intrusiones africanas, algunos días superaron los 600 ug/m3 de PM10 y los 200 de PM2.5 en ambas ciudades. Conclusiones: Se identifica un patrón de calidad del aire con episodios de polvo mineral africano que en superficie afecta a todas las fracciones granulométricas, una estacionalidad diferente a las ciudades europeas respecto al ozono, así como un patrón de contaminación urbano-industrial en Sta. Cruz de Tf y netamente urbano en Las Palmas de GC. Se hace necesario tener en cuenta estos resultados para analizar su posible impacto sobre la salud de los ciudadanos de las Islas Canarias y establecer sistemas adecuados de vigilancia.

  13. Culturas y género: prácticas lesivas, intervenciones feministas y derechos de las mujeres

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    Guerra Palermo, María José

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the phenomenon of the making of reactive cultural identities in a particular and sensitive case: the female genital mutilation (FGM in an African context. This case is framed in the debate between feminism and multiculturalism and in the controversies about the feminist transnational interventions to defend women’s human rights. Alice Walker, the Afro-American writer and activist promoted an international campaign against FGM that was strongly contested by African activists. There has been a main criticism against sensationalism in the media that reduces Africa as alterity to a barbarian and uncivilised rite. We try to analyse all this in relation to the need of promoting an intercultural feminist ethics in order to fostering the process of empowerment of local women. Contexts and means are relevant if we try, first, to eradicate cultural practices that damage women’s lives and rights and, also, to consolidate a transnational and intercultural feminism.

    El objetivo de este artículo, en el contexto del debate entre feminismo y multiculturalismo, es analizar el fenómeno de identidades culturales reactivas que ha operado en el caso de la interpelada práctica de la mutilación genital femenina en algunos enclaves africanos. Para ello seguiremos la peripecia de Alice Walker, la escritora y activista afroamericana, en su denuncia de esta dañina práctica cultural que atenta contra los derechos a la integridad corporal y psíquica de las mujeres. Queremos dejar de lado el sensacionalismo con que suele ser tratado en muchos medios de opinión este asunto y que contribuye a construir la alteridad de lo africano como mera barbarie y carencia de civilización. Tratamos, aquí, de analizar lo anterior en relación a la necesidad de ir construyendo una ética intercultural feminista que promueva el empoderamiento de las mujeres locales. Los contextos y los medios de intervención son relevantes para el empe

  14. Heterothermy in Afrotropical mammals and birds: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Andrew E; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi

    2011-09-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the number of Afrotropical endotherms known to avoid mismatches between energy supply and demand by using daily torpor and/or hibernation. Among mammals, heterothermy has been reported in 40 species in six orders, namely Macroscelidea, Afrosoricida, Rodentia, Eulipotyphla, Primates and Chiroptera. These species span a range in body mass of 7-770 g, with minimum heterothermic body temperatures ranging from 1-27°C and bout length varying from 1 h to 70 days. Daily torpor is the most common form of heterothermy, with true hibernation being observed in only seven species, Graphiurus murinus, Graphiurus ocularis, Atelerix frontalis, Cheirogaleus medius, Cheirogaleus major, Microcebus murinus and Microcebus griseorufus. The traditional distinction between daily torpor and hibernation is blurred in some species, with free-ranging individuals exhibiting bouts of > 24 h and body temperatures < 16 °C, but none of the classical behaviours associated with hibernation. Several species bask in the sun during rewarming. Among birds, heterothermy has been reported in 16 species in seven orders, and is more pronounced in phylogenetically older taxa. Both in mammals and birds, patterns of heterothermy can vary dramatically among species occurring at a particular site, and even among individuals of a single species. For instance, patterns of heterothermy among cheirogalid primates in western Madagascar vary from daily torpor to uninterrupted hibernation for up to seven months. Other examples of variation among closely-related species involve small owls, elephant shrews and vespertilionid bats. There may also be variation in terms of the ecological correlates of torpor within a species, as is the case in the Freckled Nightjar Caprimulgus tristigma. PMID:21705792

  15. Epidemiology of tick-borne borreliosis in Morocco.

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    Georges Diatta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence in Morocco of Argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex, the vector of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF in North Africa, has been known since 1919, but the disease is rarely diagnosed and few epidemiological data are available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between 2006 and 2011, we investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 34 sites distributed across Morocco. We also collected small mammals in 10 sites and we investigated TBRF in febrile patients in Kenitra district. The prevalence of Borrelia infections was assessed by nested PCR amplification in ticks and the brain tissue of small mammals, and by evaluation of thick blood films in patients. A high proportion of burrows were infested with ticks of the O. erraticus complex in all regions of Morocco, with a mean of 39.5% for the whole country. Borrelia infections were found in 39/382 (10.2% of the ticks and 12/140 (8.6% of the rodents and insectivores studied by PCR amplification, and 102 patients tested positive by thick blood film. Five small mammalian species were found infected: Dipodillus campestris, Meriones shawi, Gerbillus hoogstrali, Gerbillus occiduus and Atelerix algirus. Three Borrelia species were identified in ticks and/or rodents: B. hispanica, B. crocidurae and B. merionesi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tick populations belonging to O. erraticus complex are widely distributed in Morocco and a high proportion of ticks and small mammals are infected by Borrelia species. Although rarely diagnosed, TBRF may be a common cause of morbidity in all regions of Morocco.

  16. An estimation of Erinaceidae phylogeny: a combined analysis approach.

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    Kai He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Erinaceidae is a family of small mammals that include the spiny hedgehogs (Erinaceinae and the silky-furred moonrats and gymnures (Galericinae. These animals are widely distributed across Eurasia and Africa, from the tundra to the tropics and the deserts to damp forests. The importance of these animals lies in the fact that they are the oldest known living placental mammals, which are well represented in the fossil record, a rarity fact given their size and vulnerability to destruction during fossilization. Although the Family has been well studied, their phylogenetic relationships remain controversial. To test previous phylogenetic hypotheses, we combined molecular and morphological data sets, including representatives of all the genera. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included in the analyses 3,218 bp mitochondrial genes, one hundred and thirty-five morphological characters, twenty-two extant erinaceid taxa, and five outgroup taxa. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed using both partitioned and combined data sets. As in previous analyses, our results strongly support the monophyly of both subfamilies (Galericinae and Erinaceinae, the Hylomys group (to include Neotetracus and Neohylomys, and a sister-relationship of Atelerix and Erinaceus. As well, we verified that the extremely long branch lengths within the Galericinae are consistent with their fossil records. Not surprisingly, we found significant incongruence between the phylogenetic signals of the genes and the morphological characters, specifically in the case of Hylomys parvus, Mesechinus, and relationships between Hemiechinus and Paraechinus. CONCLUSIONS: Although we discovered new clues to understanding the evolutionary relationships within the Erinaceidae, our results nonetheless, strongly suggest that more robust analyses employing more complete taxon sampling (to include fossils and multiple unlinked genes would greatly enhance our understanding of the

  17. Trade in hedgehogs (Mammalia: Erinaceidae in Morocco, with an overview of their trade for medicinal purposes throughout Africa and Eurasia

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    Vincent Nijman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehogs are traded locally and often in relatively small num--bers throughout Eurasia and Africa.  We here report on the trade in North African Hedgehog Atelerix algirus and to a smaller extent possibly the Desert Hedgehog Paraechinus aethiopicus in Morocco, and provide an overview of the global trade in hedgehogs for medicinal purposes.  In 2013 and 2014 we surveyed 20 Moroccan cities for a total of 48 times.  We recorded 114 hedgehogs (32 alive and 82 skins for sale in 25 shops in 10 cities, with the largest numbers recorded in Casablanca and Marrakesh.  All live hedgehogs were identified as North African Hedgehog but skins could additionally have been of the Desert Hedgehog.  Shops often displayed only single hedgehog skins, but occasionally up to 48 skins, and live individuals were mostly traded singly or in pairs.  Over 80% of the shops selling hedgehogs were herbalists, selling herbs, spices, oils and animal parts, and both skins and live hedgehogs were intended to supply the demand for traditional (‘folk’ medicine.  At a global scale we found an additional 34 reports of trade in 12 or possibly 13 species of hedgehogs from 23 countries; five studies involving three species in China, South Africa and Benin, included data on the frequency and abundance of hedgehogs in trade, whereas the other studies were qualitative in nature.  Market data have limited value in gauging the off-take of hedgehogs from the wild to supply the traditional medicine trade, but we nevertheless urge the continuation of monitoring the trade in hedgehogs in Morocco and indeed elsewhere to ensure it does not become a threat to their survival in the foreseeable future. 

  18. Epidemiology of Tick-Borne Borreliosis in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatta, Georges; Souidi, Yassine; Granjon, Laurent; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Chauvancy, Gilles; Mané, Youssouph; Sarih, M'hammed; Belghyti, Driss; Renaud, François; Trape, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Background The presence in Morocco of Argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex, the vector of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in North Africa, has been known since 1919, but the disease is rarely diagnosed and few epidemiological data are available. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2006 and 2011, we investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 34 sites distributed across Morocco. We also collected small mammals in 10 sites and we investigated TBRF in febrile patients in Kenitra district. The prevalence of Borrelia infections was assessed by nested PCR amplification in ticks and the brain tissue of small mammals, and by evaluation of thick blood films in patients. A high proportion of burrows were infested with ticks of the O. erraticus complex in all regions of Morocco, with a mean of 39.5% for the whole country. Borrelia infections were found in 39/382 (10.2%) of the ticks and 12/140 (8.6%) of the rodents and insectivores studied by PCR amplification, and 102 patients tested positive by thick blood film. Five small mammalian species were found infected: Dipodillus campestris, Meriones shawi, Gerbillus hoogstrali, Gerbillus occiduus and Atelerix algirus. Three Borrelia species were identified in ticks and/or rodents: B. hispanica, B. crocidurae and B. merionesi. Conclusions/Significance Tick populations belonging to O. erraticus complex are widely distributed in Morocco and a high proportion of ticks and small mammals are infected by Borrelia species. Although rarely diagnosed, TBRF may be a common cause of morbidity in all regions of Morocco. PMID:23029574

  19. Biografia como história social: o clã Ferreira Gomes e os mundos da escravização no Atlântico Sul

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    Roquinaldo Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as conexões econômicas e sociais engendradas pelo tráfico de escravos entre Angola e Brasil, assim como o abolicionismo português na primeira metade do século XIX. Neste sentido, o artigo usa como ponto de partida a trajetória pessoal de José Ferreira Gomes, um homem negro, nascido em Benguela, cuja mãe, Florinda José Gaspar, era filha de um chefe africano da Catumbela e cujo pai, Francisco Ferreira Gomes, foi um homem negro nascido no Brasil que tinha sido um dos traficantes de escravos mais ativos em Benguela. Tendo como base a biografia de Gomes Júnior, o artigo discute os laços sociais e culturais que os traficantes de escravos angolanos mantinham com o Brasil e com as populações africanas, a transição do tráfico de escravos para o comércio lícito, e as mudanças na políticas portuguesas em relação ao tráfico de escravos na década de 1840. Para entender o recrudescimento do colonialismo em Angola, o artigo examina acusações de que membros da família Ferreira Gomes teriam participado de sedições raciais e anti-coloniais contra os portugueses.

  20. El tambor blanqueado o la cubanidad musical, en Fernando Ortíz, como vanguardia de las resistencias transculturales

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    José Antonio González Alcantud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El etnólogo cubano Fernando Ortíz acuñó en los años treinta el concepto de transculturalidad para definir la realidad cultural y musical nueva que la identidad cubana le imponía. Este concepto partía de la conjunción de lo blanco y lo negro, con exclusión de lo indoantillano definitivamente desaparecido para él. En el análisis general del concepto, la música diabólica del tambor africano y su aceptación final por la música nacional cubana ocupa un lugar relevante. Una vez trazada la nueva realidad conceptual a Ortíz le sale un seguidor de calidad, el antropólogo Malinowski, que alza la transculturalidad como bandera de combate frente a la aculturación. Hoy día el término transculturalidad forma parte del discurso de la poscolonialidad, pero tiene una virtud frente a otros, como culturas híbridas: que no ha perdido en nombre de la globalización sus referentes locales.

  1. El etnólogo y sus fantasmas. Leiris en África

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    Giobellina Brumana, Fernando

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dakar-Djibouti expedition, led by Marcel Griaule, crossed Africa between 1931 and 1933. One of the participants was Michel Leiris, a young poet who had just severed his relations with the surrealist avantgarde and was in the throes of a personal crisis. This paper is about his experience in that joumey of discovery of himself, of the other and of ethnography. Representation and margination: these are the themes that will endure in L'Afrique fantôme as well as in Leiris' other writings about the Dogon and the Zar cult.

    La Misión Dakar-Yibuti, bajo la dirección de Marcel Griaule, atravesó el continente africano entre 1931 y 1933. En sus filas se encontraba Michel Leiris, joven poeta que acababa de romper con la cúpula surrealista y pasaba por malos tiempos personales. Este artículo registra su experiencia en este viaje de descubrimiento de sí, del otro y de la etnografía. Representación y marginalidad, esos son los elementos que quedarán, tanto en L'Afrique fantôme como en sus otros escritos sobre los dogon y el culto zar.

  2. Homo infantilis: asimilación y segregación en la política colonial española en Guinea Ecuatorial

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    Sánchez Molina, Raúl

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The otherness' ethnocentric construction such as homo infantilis was used by Europeans to justify colonial policies. Spanish colonial policies in Equatorial Guinea provide us a significant context to analyze this specific colonial image's socio-cultural meanings. This article seeks to understand some of this image's political meanings and functions during the Franco colonial period in Equatorial Guinea. This analysis throws some light upon some colonial policies, such as assimilation, implemented by some European countries in Africa as well as some modern social phenomenon such as racism.

    La construcción etnocéntrica del otro como homo infantilis fue utilizada ideológicamente por los europeos para justificar políticas coloniales. El caso particular de la política indígena española en Guinea Ecuatorial nos ofrece un ámbito socio-cultural singular para analizar algunos de los significados y las funciones políticas de esta imagen durante el primer franquismo. Este análisis nos permite profundizar en el alcance de algunas políticas coloniales desarrolladas por los europeos en el continente africano, como la asimilación y el desarrollo de fenómenos sociales modernos como el racismo.

  3. La manumisión de los esclavos o la parodia de la libertad Santafe de Bogotá, 1700-1750

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    Rafael Antonio Díaz Díaz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La presencia del esclavo africano -y de sus descendientes- en las zonas andinas centrales del Nuevo Reino de Granada se dió a la par con el proceso de ocupación hispana. Se sabe que a los Lugo, padre e hijo, la Corona les concedió licencia, en 1535, de incluir cien esclavos, "libres de derechos, debiendo ser hembras una tercera parte a lo menos", en su expedición a Tierra Firme, particularmente para la conquista de la provincia de Santa Marta. Es muy probable, entonces, que los primeros esclavos -y negros libres- que habitaron Santafé de Bogotá y áreas circunvecinas hayan arribado con la empresa conquistadora de Jiménez de Quesada, aventura originada en las huestes hispánicas capitaneadas por los Lugo. De hecho, Juana García la primera "bruja" -una negra libre- registrada hacia 1540 o 1545 en la historia de Bogotá, arribó a suelo neogranadino con Alonso Luis de Lugo.

  4. Para além de Salvador e do Recôncavo baiano: o culto aos santos na América Portuguesa Beyond Salvador and the Recôncavo baiano: cult to the saints in Portuguese America

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    Tânia Maria Pinto de Santana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende discutir alguns aspectos ligados à questão dos poucos avanços da catequese católica entre os negros, proposta pelo Clero na América - tomando como referência a cidade de Salvador e seu Recôncavo. Esses estariam ligados à sobrevivência de práticas pré-cristãs entre os africanos e seus descendentes. Marcados pela presença dos elementos cósmicos em suas concepções religiosas, esses priorizaram em suas crenças, a relação com os elementos da natureza, fazendo prevalecer uma experiência religiosa que colocava à margem conteúdos básicos transmitidos através da doutrina e dos ritos instituídos pela Igreja Católica.This text intends to discuss some aspects referent to the few advances of the Catholic catechism among the blacks, proposed by the Clergy in America - taking as reference the city of Salvador and its Recôncavo. These would be linked to the survival of pre-Christian practices among the Africans and their descendants. Marked by the presence of the cosmic elements in their religious concepts, these prioritized in their beliefs, the relation with the elements from the nature, prevailing a religious experience that laid aside basic contents transmitted through the doctrine and the rites established by the Catholic Church.

  5. Scipione a corte: Il «Certamen inter Hannibalem et Alexandrum ac Scipionem Aphricanum» di Filippo Lapaccini

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    Matteo Bosisio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo illustra gli aspetti formali e ideologici principali contenuti nel Certamen inter Hannibalem et Alexandrum ac Scipionem Aphricanum e ne fornisce il testo critico (Mantova, ms. 124. Il componimento, scritto in terza rima dal poeta Filippo Lapaccini, risulta un volgarizzamento “rappresentativo” del XII Dialogo dei morti di Luciano. In particolare il modello seguito dal poeta è costituito dalla versione latina del Dialogo di Giovanni Aurispa. Lapaccini, operante a Mantova sul finire del XV secolo, adatta il testo al gusto teatrale che si stava imponendo nelle corti centro settentrionali e sembra accostare il proprio signore, Francesco II Gonzaga, a Scipione l’Africano, protagonista dell’opera.The article explains the formal and ideological aspects of the Certamen inter Hannibalem et Alexandrum ac Scipionem Aphricanum and provides the critical edition of the text (Mantua, ms. 124. The poem, written in ‘terza rima’ by the poet Filippo Lapaccini, is a theatrical ‘volgarizzamento’ of the twelfth Dialogue of the Dead of Lucian. In particular, the model followed by the writer consists in the Giovanni Aurispa’s Latin version of the Dialogue. Lapaccini, who works in Mantua in the late 15th century, adapts the text to the theatrical taste that was being established in North Central courts and seems to compare his lord, Francesco II Gonzaga, to Scipio Africanus, the protagonist of the work.

  6. MULTI-FACETED MEDIATION IN THE GUINEA-BISSAU CIVIL WAR

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    Simon Massey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An exchange of gunfire in Bissau city between soldiers loyal to President and mutinous troops supporting the recently dismissed army chief of staff Brigadier Ansumane Mané in the early morning of 7 June 1998 heralded the start of 11 months of civil conflict. ‘It was not a huge war’, the Economist noted, ‘but for the 1m people…of Guinea-Bissau, it was devastating…Hundreds of people were killed, the city was destroyed and hundreds of thousands fled into the countryside’. The primary reason for the fighting - irrevocable splits within the government and leading Partido Africano da Independencia da Guiné-Bissau e Cabo Verde (PAIGC - sat amidst a web of geopolitical machinations and posturing.Guinea-Bissau became the locus for mediation based, for a large part, on political opportunism. These efforts resulted in a peace operation with ostensible humanitarian motives which, nonetheless, was also marked by strong political impulses. As William Zartman has remarked, ‘Africa does not lack mediators’. In the case of the war in Bissau the gamut of potential intermediaries – regional, African and extra-African – offered assistance. This confusion of good offices led to rival mediation efforts whose polarisation mirrored that on the battlefield.

  7. El español como lengua puente de culturas en el eje África, América, Europa

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    Carmen Caffarel Serra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Este número monográfico de la revista index.comunicación es el fruto de la colaboración de la Cátedra Unesco de Investigación en Comunicación y África (http://www.unescoafricom.es/ y la Fundación Mujeres por África (http://www.mujeresporafrica.es/ a partir de la firma de un artículo 83 suscrito en noviembre de 2013.Dentro de este convenio una de las acciones fue la organización del  Congreso  “África con eñe” que se celebró  el 29 y 30 de abril de 2014 en la Universidad Félix Houphouët-Boigny de Abdijan, Costa de Marfil y cuya información detallada puede verse en http://www.mujeresporafrica.es/hispanistas2014/hola.html y http://www.unescoafricom.es/concluye-el-congreso-internacional-africa-con-n/[1].[1] Tienen ya una cierta tradición los Congresos Ibero-Africano de Hispanistas, convocados por la Universidad de Navarra y que tuvieron lugar en Dakar, Senegal (2009,  en El Cairo, Egipto (2012 y en Fez, Marruecos (2014. La particularidad de estos congresos es que se centran fundamentalmente en la literatura y en especial en la del siglo de oro. 

  8. Análise da variabilidade genética de Alphitobius diaperinus utilizando marcadores moleculares de DNA - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v8i2.1141

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    Paulo Roberto Queiroz Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797 é uma espécie cosmopolita originária do continente africano encontrada em grande quantidade em cama de frango causando problemas sanitários e econômicos, afetando a saúde e o crescimento das aves e atuando também como transmissor de doenças. Indivíduos A. diaperinus originários de três localidades da região sul do Brasil foram analisados molecularmente por meio da técnica de RAPD. Para isso foi adaptada uma metodologia para extração de DNA e testados os iniciadores decaméricos OPA-03, OPA-04, OPA-10, OPA-11 e OPA-13. O protocolo de extração de DNA que foi adaptado produziu fragmentos de DNA para a análise das populações de cascudinho originárias da região sul do Brasil por RAPD. Foi encontrada alta variabilidade genética entre as populações de cascudinho. Além disso, sugere-se que indivíduos de A. diaperinus ocorrendo no Paraná possam ter se deslocado para os estados de Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul.

  9. Moral transgression, disease and holistic health in the Livingstonia Mission in late nineteenth and early twenttieth-century Malawi

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    Hokkanen, Markku

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ideas of morality and health, and connections between moral transgression and disease in both Scottish missionary and Central African thought in the context of the Livingstonia Mission of the Presbyterian Free Church of Scotland in Malawi during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.2 By concentrating on debates, conflicts and co-operation between missionaries and Africans over the key issues of beer drinking and sexual morality, this article explores the emergence of a new ‘moral hygiene’ among African Christian communities in Northern Malawi.

    Este artículo analiza las ideas sobre moralidad y salud, así como las relaciones entre transgresión moral y enfermedad, tanto en el pensamiento misionero escocés como en el pensamiento del África central, en el contexto de la Misión de Livingstonia de la Iglesia Libre Presbiteriana de Escocia en Malawi entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Centrándose en las conversaciones, los conflictos y la colaboración entre los misioneros y los africanos sobre cuestiones clave como el consumo de cerveza y la moralidad sexual, este artículo estudia la aparición de una nueva «higiene moral» entre las comunidades cristianas africanas en Malawi del norte.

  10. 'Nada se pierde' en "El cielo protector" y "Cita en Tombuctú"

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    Santiago Martín

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende comparar dos novelas distantes en el tiempo y en el espacio, a saber, The Protecting Sky (1949, de Paul Bowles, y Cita en Tombuctú (1996, de Joseph Subirós. La novela espaúola remite en más de una ocasión a la obra americana. Varios temas, presentes en ambas obras, que quisiéramos destacar: La fascinación por el continente africano; el desierto como telón de fondo; el viaje (especialmente interior como formación del hombre civilizado en un entorno hostil; el amor carnal entre la mujer civilizada y el hombre salvaje; la huída del hombre civilizado de su habitat en busca de otros valores; y, la derrota, debida al desequilibrio (físico, mental y temporal del hombre civilizado. Así, comparando las obras y mediante una frase ('Nada se pierde en el desierto' que Cita en Tombuctú presta de The Protecting Sky, la novela espaúola ofrece alternativas a los problemas planteados en la novela americana. Si en Bowles hay resignación, en Subirós hay esperanza.

  11. ASPECTOS DE LA VIDA Y SOCIEDAD NOVOHISPANA DEL SIGLO XVIII

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    Francisco Javier Quirós Vicente

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se habla acerca de diversos aspectos de la vida y sociedad en la Nueva España. Se tratan concretamente dos temas que sirven de reflejo de esta la sociedad colonial de principios del siglo XVIII; en primer lugar el de la relación las colonias españolas de ultramar con la corona española, en la época de la Guerra de la Sucesión, y en segundo el de la esclavitud que se desarrolla en este mismo periodo, con el negocio conocido como Paso Medio, con africanos mayormente provenientes de Angola y La Guinea. El ámbito geográfico se acota a la localidad de San Luís Potosí, en México. Y su desarrollo se basa en dos documentos encontrados en el Archivo Histórico Municipal del San Luís Potosí, en su sección de Alcaldía Mayor.

  12. Entre la retórica legal y eclesiástica:una misión antiesclavista en el siglo XVII

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    Rebeca Moreno Orama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1537 la Iglesia prohibió la esclavitud de los amerindios, y no sería sino hasta 1839 que hiciera lo mismo con la esclavitud africana. Entre los siglos entre una postura a la otra, la impugnación religiosa de la esclavitud africana estuvo en manos de unos cuantos misioneros. Este trabajo discute cómo a través del empleo de la retórica legal y eclesiástica, el capuchino Francisco José de Jaca construye en su Resolución (La Habana, 1681un proyecto misionero alterno, centrado en la denuncia del cuerpo católico envuelto en la esclavitud y no en la evangelización de los africanos. In 1537 the Catholic Church prohibited Amerindian slavery, but not until 1839 would they do the same with African slavery. Between the centuries that span from one position to the other, religious condemnation of African slavery was in the hands of but a few missionaries. This work discusses how, through the employment of legal and ecclesiastic rhetoric, the Capuchin monk Francisco José de Jaca constructs in his Resolución (Havana, 1681 an alternative missionary project, focused on the denunciation of the Catholic body involved in the slavery institution and not on the evangelization of Africans.

  13. Noémia de Sousa: la voz histórica de Mozambique

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    María Carreño López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La producción literaria de Noémia se sitúa entre los años 40 y 50 y exclusivamente en Mozambique; durante los periodos en que vivió en Portugal (donde terminaría muriendo en 2001 o en Francia, detuvo su labor poética.Esta peculiaridad de su actividad literaria delata una de sus características principales: la concepción de la literatura como espacio de resistencia y organización en una encrucijada histórica donde la elaboración de un proyecto nacional dominaba sobre cual- quier impulso lírico o intimista. La denuncia de la esclavitud, la necesidad de repensar el ser africano, pasaba por la necesidad de erigir una voz común, en su sentido más literal, esto es: fundar, dar validez, a una expresión nueva y compartida capaz de cohesionar culturalmente un territorio de inequívoca heterogeneidad.

  14. Lithic technology of the “St Site Complex” from Peninj (Lake Natron, Tanzania: Analysis of an African Oldowan assemblage

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    de la Torre Sáinz, Ignacio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work a sistematic analysis of the lithic materials from the ST Site Complex (Lake Natron, Tanzania is presented. This complex is composed of a cluster of eleven archaeological sites, which share a topographic proximity and the same stratigraphic position. They are located above Tuff 1 in the Upper Sandy Clays of the Humbu Formation of Peninj, dated around 1,6-1,4 ma. Lithic artefacts from each archaeological site will be analysed together from a technological perspective, focusing on the relevance of the conclusions obtained for knowledge of the African Oldowan.

    En este trabajo se presenta un análisis sistemático de los materiales líticos hasta ahora estudiados en el Complejo ST de Peninj, en el lago Natron (Tanzania. Este complejo está constituido por un grupo de 11 yacimientos arqueológicos muy próximos topográficamente y situados en la misma posición estratigráfica, por encima de la Toba 1 en las Upper Sandy Cáliz (Arcillas Arenosas Superiores de la Formación Humbu de Peninj, cuya cronología se estima entre los 1,6-1,4 ma. Desde una perspectiva tecnológica, se estudiarán conjuntamente los objetos líticos recuperados en cada uno de estos yacimientos, incidiendo en la relevancia de las conclusiones obtenidas para el conocimiento del Olduvayense africano.

  15. La inmigración latinoamericana en los contenidos informativos. Un estudio sobre las noticias de prensa y televisión españolas

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    Carlos Muñiz Muriel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La inmigración latinoamericana en España ha aumentado durante los últimos años, siendo ya el colectivo con mayor presencia. La imagen que los medios de comunicación plasman de los inmigrantes puede afectar la creación, el mantenimiento o el aumento de ciertos estereotipos de esos colectivos. Para conocer el tratamiento (framing que las noticias dan a la inmigración y a los inmigrantes latinoamericanos, se realizó un análisis de contenido de los principales periódicos y televisiones españolas del año 2004. Los resultados reflejan que el grupo latinoamericano está subrepresentado en las noticias respecto a la realidad. Además, sus retratos mediáticos son más favorables que los de otros grupos como el africano o el asiático. A partir de los datos obtenidos se reflexiona sobre los efectos que este tipo de cobertura puede producir sobre la población española.

  16. Política, agricultura e a reconversão do capital do tráfico transatlântico de escravos para as finanças brasileiras na década de 1850 Politics, agriculture and the reconversion of the transatlantic slave trade capital to Brazilian finances in 1850'

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    Artur Vitorino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo enfoca como, após 1850, com a cessação do tráfico transatlântico de africanos escravos, o capital, antes engatado nesse negócio, passou a irrigar o meio circulante (a moeda e o crédito, reforçando, assim, a economia de mercado já existente na Corte Imperial, mas, a partir de então, com força para configurar nesta cidade uma economia urbana de profundas conseqüências para os agricultores escravistas do Vale do Paraíba ligados ao comércio exterior, e dependentes do crédito e da moeda ali alocados. O assentamento urbano do capital dos mercadores negreiros foi deliberado pelo Partido Conservador.The article emphasizes how, after 1850, with the cessation of the transatlantic African slave trade, the capital, rather linked in this business, passed to irrigate the finance capital (the coin and the credit, reinforcing, then, the trade economy also extant in the Imperial Court but, hereafter, stronger enough to build in this city a urban economy with profoundest consequences to the farms of the Vale do Paraíba who used slaves, were linked in the foreign trade, and were dependent of the credit and of the coin allocated there. The urban settlement of the black slave trade capital was deliberate by the Conservative Party.

  17. La presencia canaria en Matanzas desde 1765 a 1909

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    Velgis Cardero Garcés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La inmigración canaria a Matanzas se caracterizó, como otros movimientos poblacionales, por el predominio masculino. Esto se ratifica en los tres tipos de documentos analizados, en los que las personas de origen canario registradas eran fundamentalmente hombres. A pesar de ello, las cifras indicadas en el registro de matrimonios nos hacen estimar que las diferencias entre los por cientos de personas de cada sexo que arribaron a esta ciudad procedentes de Islas Canarias no son tan considerables como entre las provenientes de otras regiones de España. Matanzas albergó sucesivamente a inmigrantes de diversas procedencias que conformaron, en definitiva, al hombre de hoy. La mezcla de nacionalidades en la identidad nacional  -lo cual no constituye particularidad alguna dentro del desarrollo de la humanidad-  perfiló al cubano actual, fruto del español, el africano y el chino, por mencionar las de mayor influencia. Pero siempre, al esbozarse una historia de la ciudad, será ineludible remontarse a la treintena de familias canarias que, alrededor de ríos y bahía, construyeron sus hogares y al originar descendencia alumbraron, de hecho, a quienes primero tuvieron el orgullo de proclamarse matanceros. 

  18. Presencia de la pedagogía española en las exposiciones universales del XIX

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    María del Mar del POZO ANDRÉS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Las exposiciones mundiales celebradas profusamente en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX pueden considerarse como muestras interdisciplinarias internacionales, ilustrativas del progreso industrial y social alcanzado por los países occidentales, y demostrativas del modus vivendi existente en los pueblos africanos y orientales, que aún mantenían su exotismo y misterio para los hombres europeos. El objetivo fundamental de estas muestras, llenas de espectacularidad y colorido, debido a la cuidadosa elección del espacio en el que se extendían y a la construcción de grandiosos edificios que las albergaban, era la exhibición didáctica de los logros técnicos conseguidos en multitud de manifestaciones particulares: Economía, Ciencias Naturales, Etnología, Comercio, Comunicaciones, Industria, Educación y Artes Plásticas. En este sentido, constituyen un elemento básico para el análisis de la cultura y la sociedad decimonónicas.

  19. Carcinoma espinocelular infiltrante de base de cráneo en paciente de 16 años con albinismo óculo-cutáneo

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    J.M. Lasso-Vázquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una adolescente africana de 16 años de edad afectada por albinismo óculo-cutáneo, que desarrolló un carcinoma epidermoide en pabellón auricular derecho que requirió escisión radical y reconstrucción con colgajo TRAM libre. El albinismo es un trastorno metabólico genético que consiste en la incapacidad hereditaria para sintetizar melanina. Tiene dos variantes clínicas: el albinismo ocular y el albinismo óculo-cutáneo. En determinados países africanos, los pacientes afectos por esta enfermedad son socialmente rechazados y por ello no se les presta un control sanitario adecuado. Por esta razón el tumor llevaba varios años de evolución y cuando la paciente fue vista en nuestro centro, existía una infiltración profunda con afectación severa de la base del cráneo. La compleja anatomía de las estructuras vitales en esta región hace que la resección quirúrgica de los tumores sea complicada. Comentamos las peculiaridades en la reconstrucción de casos complejos en la base lateral del cráneo con proyección a la zona temporal.

  20. Procesos religiosos y reelaboración teológica

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    Diego Irarrázaval

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo mostrar nuevos caminos para el quehacer teológico desde una perspectiva latinoamericana. Considera el autor que existen en este continente nuevas condiciones humanas y vivencias espirituales que ameritan el intento de re-elaborar teología tomando en cuenta procesos religiosos e interculturales en un mundo globalizado. Esta amalgama cultural está constituida por elementos indígenas, africanos mestizos y americanos que dan origen a un cambio epocal. Aboga por un encuentro crítico mutuamente fecundante entre estos aspectos, de modo que se incorporen al actual abanico de identidades existente en A. Latina.This article attempts to show new paths for the theological study, from a Latin American perspective. The author considers that this continent displays new human conditions and spiritual experiences which are worthy of an attempt to re-elaborate theology, takin into account religious and intercultural processes in a global world. This cultural blend is made up of indigenous, African, mestizos (race-mixed and American elements which bring about a change of the times. The author claims for a critical encounter of these aspects mutually fruitful, so that they may be embodied in the current range of existing Latin American identities

  1. Tem um queniano correndo entre nós: atletismo e migração no Brasil

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    Carlos Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi analisar a movimentação migratória de esportistas estrangeiros do atletismo, sobretudo os de nacionalidades africanas, face ao seu sucesso em corridas de rua disputadas nas grandes cidades brasileiras. Focamos nossas análises na fala dos técnicos brasileiros de nível internacional que trabalham ou não com este grupo. Os resultados demonstram que os técnicos que treinam os atletas estrangeiros são contrários as normas reguladoras em vigor e que limitam a participação destes. Os técnicos centrados em atletas nacionais defendem as normas estabelecidas pela entidade responsável pelo esporte no país. Como conclusão, consideramos que um esporte individual como o atletismo que se estrutura à margem da identidade clubística, parece estar operando por parte de seus protagonistas sob o guarda chuva protetor do nacionalismo em que o atleta local deve ser defendido mediante reserva do mercado, contra a participação de atletas estrangeiros, sobretudo, na figura dos africanos.

  2. Peinillas and Popular Participation: Machete fighting in Haiti, Cuba and Colombia

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    T. J. Desch-Obi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora la historia de esgrima con machetes entre los afro-descendientes en Haití, Cuba y Colombia. El machete, como un ícono sagrado de éxito individual y de guerra en África, se convierte para los esclavizados Africanos en una herramienta usada en la explotación de su trabajo. Ellos retuvieron la maestría en esta arma a través de la extensión del arte de pelea con palos. Esta maestría en las armas blancas ayudó a transformar el machete en un importante instrumento en las batallas nacionales de esas tres naciones. Aún en el comienzo del siglo veinte, el arte de esgrima con machetes fue una práctica social muy expandida entre los Afro-Caucanos, que les permitía demostrar su honor individual, como también hacer importantes contribuciones a las batallas nacionales, como la Colombo-Peruana. Aunque la historia publicada de las batallas nacionales realza la importancia de los líderes políticos y militares, los practicantes de estas formas de esgrima perpetuaron importantes contra- memorias que enfatizan el papel de soldados Afros quienes con su maestría con el machete pavimentaron el camino para la victoria nacional.

  3. Community Radio: the future speaks "glocal". An African experience: the Guinea-Bissau & Mozambique cases

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    Patrícia Mota Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es un análisis comparativo de realidades de radio comunitaria en dos países africanos lusófonos: Guinea-Bissau y Mozambique, cuyas investigaciones se refieren a 2003, 2004, 2007 y 2009, respectivamente. Se centra en la tensa relación entre poder político y radios comunitarias a través de una revisión teórica de dos conceptos nuevos: "Comunicación para Desarrollo" y "Glocalización". Un estudio amplio e innovador con el objetivo de determinar el papel que estos medios tienen para construir una ciudadanía exigente y participativa. Expone peligros que amenazan la sostenibilidad de estas herramientas de empoderamiento, estando privadas de los marcos institucionales viables. El objetivo principal es identificar similitudes y diferencias, discutir problemas y proponer soluciones viables a la normalización de los criterios y definiciones.

  4. As interrogativas de conteúdo nas variedades do português falado

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    Erotilde Goreti PEZATTI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo trata dos Atos Interrogativos de conteúdo, comumente denominados interrogativas-Q. Adotando a perspectiva funcional da linguagem e os pressupostos teórico-metodológicos da Gramática Discursivo-Funcional, procura-se explicar as diferentes formas assumidas pelas interrogativas-Q com base no alinhamento entre a codificação dessa estrutura nos níveis Morfossintático e Fonológico e as formulações ocorridas nos níveis Interpessoal e Representacional, centrando-se na questão da ordenação de elementos-Q. Como universo de pesquisa, tomam-se ocorrências reais de uso extraídas do corpus oral organizado pelo Centro de Linguística da Universidade de Lisboa, em parceria com a Universidade de Toulouse-le-Mirail e a Universidade de Provença-Aix-Marselha, que dispõe de amostragens das variedades do português falado em Portugal, no Brasil, nos países africanos de língua oficial portuguesa, no Timor Leste e em Macau.

  5. Esclavos Sodomitas en Cartagena colonial, hablando del pecado nefando.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Giraldo.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda el tema de la homosexualidad, que todavía no ha sido estudiado históricamente en Colombia. En los documentos estudiados, los protagonistas del “abominable pecado nefando de sodomía” son los africanos y sus descendientes, quienes vivieron en condiciones de esclavitud en Cartagena durante la Colonia. Los afrogranadinos sodomitas constituyeron una doble transgresión al modelo moral español, constituyéndose en “demonios”. La sodomía se define como la penetración anal. Fue una transgresión a la ley y a la religión, penalizada con la hoguera. Sin embargo, las relaciones entre personas del mismo sexo implicaron más elementos que la vivencia sexual, por lo tanto es pertinente hablar de homoeroticidad. En primer lugar, los afrodescendientes fueron demonizados por el color de su piel. Este hecho, reafirmado por la Biblia, constituyó la legitimación de la esclavitud negra. En segundo lugar, algunos afrogranadinos realizaban “juntas de brujería”. En ellas se reproducían tradiciones africanas. En el ritual de iniciación, “el diablo” tenía relaciones sodomíticas con el iniciado, o la iniciada; incluso le podía designar un compañero.

  6. A África carioca em lentes européias: corpos, sinais e expressões

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    Eneida Maria Mercadante Sela

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste artigo é examinar as maneiras pelas quais alguns viajantes europeus que estiveram no Rio de Janeiro durante a primeira metade do século XIX diferenciaram os africanos na experiência da escravidão, tratando de um viés temático específico: os registros produzidos pela literatura de viagem oitocentista a respeito de suas belezas físicas, sinais corporais e expressões de cantos e danças. A convergência temática e valorativa desses relatos permite-nos observar a reiteração de certas tópicas que cristalizaram os significados mais comuns atribuídos pelos olhares estrangeiros aos africanismos com que depararam na cidade que continha, à época, a maior população escrava das Américas.The proposal of this article is to investigate the ways some European travellers, who have came to the city of Rio de Janeiro during the first half of the 19th century, registered Africans in the slavery experience. Foreigners who visited Brazilian Court until 1850 faced the biggest African slave population of the Americas, and the set of their literature, which describes such cultural and social counterpose, reveals conceptual reiterations of a whole lot of physical and behavioural characteristics given to Africans in captivity.

  7. Os Lele revisitados, 1987 acusações de feitiçaria à solta

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    Douglas Mary

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao retornar aos Lele do Kasai (Congo, em 1987, vinte e cinco anos após sua pesquisa de campo, a autora é informada sobre fatos que tinham ocorrido no final dos anos 70 e início dos anos 80. Um grande surto antifeitiçaria tomara conta do país lele, sendo liderado por missionários católicos, nativos e não-nativos. O artigo relata as brutalidades cometidas nesse período contra supostos feiticeiros, inserindo esses fatos em um duplo contexto: por um lado, aquele da religião lele e de sua teoria para explicar o infortúnio; por outro, aquele advindo da pregação missionária e da conversão. Por fim, procura entender as razões para a ocorrência de um surto tão violento e analisa a incapacidade da Igreja Católica, tanto para oferecer respostas às questões que afligem os africanos, como para compreender suas doutrinas religiosas.

  8. Anestesia na população negra Anestesia en la población negra Anesthesia in the afro-american population

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    Nilton Bezerra do Vale

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Percentual significativo dos 12 milhões de negros americanos pode apresentar modificações fisiológicas, fisiopatológicas e farmacológicas capazes de modificar o bom desenvolvimento do ato anestésico; a população brasileira que se considera afro-descendente (40% pode também apresentá-las por causa da mesma origem étnica e geográfica. O objetivo desta revisão é reavaliar o viés da diferença racial em eventuais mudanças no efeito das drogas anestésicas e adjuvantes no ato anestésico. CONTEÚDO: A análise dos estudos fisiopatológicos inerentes à histórica migração do gene africano em relação aos caucasianos mostra significativas diferenças raciais entre o negro americano ou africano, sugerindo uma estreita interface entre a genética e o ambiente, capaz de modificar o procedimento anestésico. As condições sócio-econômicas desfavoráveis da população negra das Américas como resultado de 400 anos de história de escravidão continuam sempre a influenciar na preservação de diferenças culturais e fisiológicas, além da cor da pele: disfunções de sistemas orgânicos estão relacionados com o SNC, SCV, respiratório e renal. No entanto, modificações de efeito de drogas anestésicas e seus adjuvantes, como diminuição do efeito analgésico local do creme anestésico EMLA, aumento do efeito hipnótico do propofol e da toxicidade do paracetamol, menor efeito anti-hipertensivo das drogas que reduzem renina (IECA, bloqueadores beta2 e de AT1, menor ação dos vasodilatadores beta2 e menor fibrinólise do t-PA podem afetar a conduta pré e pós-anestésica, sobretudo em pacientes negros hipertensos, renais, asmáticos ou com acidente vascular cerebral. CONCLUSÕES: Resposta a drogas pode variar entre diferentes populações devido a fatores biológicos (idade, sexo, doença, genéticos, culturais e ambientais. O fator demográfico raça deve ser valorizado na visita ou consulta pr

  9. DENGUE, CHIKUNGUNYA E EBOLA: VIROSES AMBIENTAIS

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    Thereza Cristina Ferreira Camello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.12957/sustinere.2014.14122Várias viroses emergentes ou reemergentes podem ser veiculadas por mosquitos. Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus, os mesmos que transmitem o vírus da dengue e da febre amarela, podem disseminar o vírus Chikungunya que este ano no Brasil já fez cerca de 1000 casos confirmados. A doença tem parâmetros semelhantes aos da Dengue, e embora a taxa de letalidade seja muito baixa, sequelas podem permanecer no individuo por um ano. Em 2014 a partir de setembro o mundo observou perplexo a ressurgência de um vírus hemorrágico letal, em uma das piores epidemias já ocorridas no continente africano. O vírus Ebola atingiu mais de 6000 pessoas. Estudos no sentido de melhorar as estratégias de contenção da disseminação de vetores e dos vírus devem ser estabelecidas, enquanto aguardamos a produção de vacinas eficazes. O mundo não é imune a uma infecção endêmica, localizada no interior de um continente e não estamos preparados para atender uma demanda deste porte.

  10. Un escarpado camino hacia la paz

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    Jennie Patricia Flechas Manosalva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta reflexión es un llamado a reconocer la historia, para generar el compromiso de participar en su construcción, de transformarla, a través de un camino de paulatina humanización en la búsqueda de la anhelada paz. La historia universal ha estado siempre envuelta por hechos de barbarie que generan cuestionamientos acerca de la verdadera “humanidad” de quienes conforman la especie dominante del mundo. La barbarie implica desconocer al otro en su dignidad, no reconocerlo como igual; es una falta de conciencia que conduce a sucesos tan lamentables y atroces como el exterminio de los indígenas americanos, la trata de negros africanos o el holocausto nazi, que tienen en común la negación de las víctimas. Pero a la par de estas situaciones de barbarie, se encuentran, en la historia de la humanidad, movimientos sociales fuertes y proyectos de emancipación que permiten seguir creyendo y mirar con esperanza hacia soluciones más humanas.

  11. Telemedicina, una red social médica de ayuda humanitaria entre España y Camerún

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    David Pérez-Manchón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación de las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación en la asistencia sanitaria de los países del sur es un recurso que puede mejorar la salud de millones de personas en situación de pobreza y sin acceso a servicios de salud de calidad. Concretamente, la telemedicina no sincronizada con plataformas en Internet es una opción muy eficiente para proyectos de cooperación internacional. El proyecto Salud 2.0: profesionales de África-España conectados, de la organización española Fundación Recover, Hospitales para África, ha conseguido desde su inicio conectar a profesionales de ambos continentes con el objetivo de mejorar la salud en Camerún. Gracias a una red social científica con formato de gestión de casos clínicos y actualizaciones, médicos españoles colaboran a través de un voluntariado e-health en la formación de sus colegas africanos, mejorando la calidad asistencial que se presta a la población a la vez que se crean fuentes de conocimiento y de investigación.

  12. Recepción de estereotipos de la serie norteamericana Lost entre jóvenes que habitan en Monterrey, México

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    Beatriz Elena Inzunza Acedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio consistió en el análisis de recepción de los personajes de la serie estadounidense Lost, cuyas representaciones variaron entre norteamericanos, latinos, europeos, coreanos, rusos, árabes, australianos y africanos; hombres y mujeres; niños, jóvenes, adultos y ancianos. Se llevaron a cabo cinco grupos de discusión con 29 jóvenes que habitaban en Monterrey, México. Para la interpretación de resultados, se utilizó el modelo de Palmer y Hafen, en la versión ampliada de Inzunza Acedo, y los tipos de empatía de Igartua y Muñiz. Las conclusiones apuntan a una tendencia de aceptación o rechazo de tipo ingenuo de los personajes, puesto que no hay una reflexión crítica respecto a los estereotipos, debido al apego emocional por parte de los espectadores o a elementos humorísticos del guion.

  13. The Need to Help. The Domestic Arts of International Humanitarism, de Liisa H. Malkki

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    Ignacio Fradejas-García

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available La literatura crítica con el humanitarismo ha emergido en el ámbito político internacional para quedarse. Renombrados científicos sociales como Didier Fassin (2012 o Thomas G. Weiss (2016, entre otros, han trabajado sobre los efectos de las intervenciones humanitarias desde diferentes ángulos. Cambiando el clásico enfoque en los beneficiarios, las políticas y los programas para pasar a indagar sobre las organizaciones y los trabajadores humanitarios, Liisa Malkki ha hecho una gran contribución a esta literatura profundizando en el porqué y el cómo de las acciones humanitarias. La autora es conocida por sus reflexiones etnográficas sobre las situaciones de exilio y refugio causadas por las sucesivas guerras y genocidios que asolaron en el último cuarto del siglo XX la zona de los grandes lagos africanos. Durante el genocidio ruandés de 1994, Malkki estaba finalizando un libro sobre un conflicto previo y olvidado en Burundi que provocó la llegada de refugiados hutus a Tanzania. La etnografía resultante, Purity and Exile (1995, explora cómo la violencia política y la cotidianeidad del exilio transforman la identidad y la conciencia histórica de los refugiados.

  14. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    êcher le portage pharyngé devrait être déterminé. Pour résoudre ce problème, le consortium MenAfriCar (Consortium Africain du Portage Méningococcique) a été établi en 2009 pour étudier le mode de portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite avant et après l’ introduction de PsA-TT. Cet article décrit comment le consortium a été établi, ses objectifs et les méthodes de laboratoire et de terrain standardisées qui ont été utilisées pour atteindre ces objectifs. L’ expérience du consortium MenAfriCar aidera à planifier les futures études sur l’ épidémiologie du portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite et d’ ailleurs. Se está utilizando una vacuna meningocócica conjugada (MenAfriVac™) de polisacárido del serogrupo A / tétano toxoide (PsA-TT) en países del cinturón Africano de meningitis. Las experiencias obtenidas con otras vacunas conjugadas polisacárido/proteína han demostrado que una parte importante de su éxito se debe a su habilidad para prevenir la colonización faríngea de los portadores, acabando por lo tanto con la transmisión, y a la de inducir la protección de rebaño. Si PsA-TT ha de cumplir el objetivo de prevenir epidemias, debe ser capaz de prevenir el estado de portador faríngeo, al igual que la enfermedad invasiva por meningococo, y para ello es necesario determinar si la PsA-TT puede prevenir la colonización faríngea. Con el fin de abordar esta cuestión se estableció un consorcio africano en el 2009 - el MenAfriCar (African Meningococcal Carriage Consortium) – para investigar los patrones del estado de portador de meningococo en países del cinturón Africano de la meningitis, antes y después de la introducción de PsA-TT. Este artículo describe como se estableció el consorcio, sus objetivos y los métodos estandarizados de campo y de laboratorio que se utilizaron para alcanzarlos. La experiencia del consorcio MenAfriCar ayudar

  15. How Immigrants. Have Shapped Uruguay

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    Felipe Arocena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto presenta un análisis comparativo de cómo nueve grupos de migrantes y un sector de población negra, llevados como esclavos, han conformado la cultura de Uruguay. La imagen más común de Uruguay, tanto en el propio país como en el extranjero, es la de una nación homogénea y europeizada construida por inmigrantes de España e Italia, sin la presencia de una gran población de ascendencia africana y sin nativos. Esta imagen, en el mejor de los casos, es una verdad a medias, porque también ha habido contribuciones de inmigrantes de Asia, de Rusia, de otros países europeos y también de esclavos africanos y sus descendientes. En particular analizaremos cómo personas de ascendencia africana, vascos, italianos, suizos, rusos, armenios, libaneses, judíos, musulmanes y peruanos han contribuido en la construcción de la nación uruguaya. Asimismo, examinaremos el impacto de esta migración en la sociedad y la cultura de Uruguay. Este texto presenta las conclusiones más importantes de una investigación fundamentada en casi cien entrevistas a profundidad con personas descendientes de dichas comunidades.

  16. Curie surface of Borborema Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Raphael T.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Oksum, Erdinc

    2016-06-01

    The Curie surface interpreted from magnetic data through spatial frequency domain techniques is used to provide information on the thermal structure of Borborema Province. The Borborema Province is part of the neoproterozoic collision of an orogenic system situated between the São Francisco-Congo and São Luís-West Africa cratons, which formed the Gondwana Supercontinent. The Curie surface of Borborema Province varies from 18 to 59 km, which reveals the complexity in the crustal composition of the study area. The thermal structure shows different crustal blocks separated by the main shear zones, which corroborates the evolution model of allochthonous terranes. The Curie surface signature for the west portion of Pernambuco Shear Zone may indicate processes of mantle serpentinization, once the Curie isotherm is deeper than Mohorovic discontinuity. In this region, the amplitude of Bouguer anomaly decreases, which corroborates long wavelength anomaly observed in the magnetic anomaly. We interpreted this pattern as evidence of the Brasiliano-Pan-Africano's subduction/collision event. Earthquakes in the region are concentrated mainly in shallow Curie surface regions (less resistant crust) and in transition zones between warm and cold blocks. We calculated the horizontal gradient of the Curie depth to emphasize the signature of contact between the thermal blocks. These regions mark possible crustal discontinuities, and have high correlation with orogenic gold occurrence in the study area.

  17. A estrutura do conhecimento nas universidades ocidentalizadas: racismo/sexismo epistêmico e os quatro genocídios/epistemicídios do longo século XVI

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    Ramón Grosfoguel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a estrutura epistêmica do mundo moderno em relação aos quatro genocídios/epistemicídios do longo século XVI (1450-1650. Argumenta-se que o privilégio epistêmico do homem ocidental foi construído às custas do genocídio/epistemicídios dos sujeitos coloniais. O artigo relaciona o racismo/sexismo epistêmico da estrutura das universidades ocidentalizadas e do mundo moderno ao genocídio/epistemicídio contra muçulmanos e judeus na conquista de Al-Andalus, contra povos nativos na conquista das Américas, contra povos africanos na conquista da África e a escravização dos mesmos nas Américas e, finalmente, contra as mulheres europeias queimadas vivas acusadas de bruxaria. Esses quatro genocídios/epistemicídios são fundantes da estrutura epistêmica moderno-colonial e das universidades ocidentalizadas. A tese principal deste artigo é que a condição de possibilidade para o cartesianismo idolátrico dos anos 1640 que assume o olho de Deus e arroga-se o direito de dizer "penso, logo existo" é o "extermino, logo existo".

  18. Negociando la tierra: empresas extranjeras, minería a gran escala y derechos humanos en Colombia

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    Juan David Velasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La adquisición masiva de tierras por parte de empresas extranjeras en países africanos, asiáticos y latinoamericanos refleja una nueva fase del capitalismo global (Sassen, 2013. Colombia no ha escapado a esta lógica mundial del capitalismo, pues en la última década la influencia de las empresas extranjeras en el mercado de tierras ha sido notoria. En esa lógica, este artículo compara, desde un enfoque de Derechos Humanos, las prácticas de adquisición de tierras de tres compañías extranjeras que han explotado carbón a cielo abierto en La Guajira y Cesar. Los resultados indican que la formalidad de la propiedad agraria y las restricciones institucionales de las empresas —asociadas al gobierno corporativo, la participación en bolsa de valores y el veto de compradores internacionales—influyen significativamente en el respeto a los derechos humanos.

  19. Migraciones, subjetividades y contextos de investigación

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    Pilar Uriarte Bálsamo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Los trabajos sobre dinámicas migratorias en África Occidental señalan una importante presencia del fenómeno entre la población de la mayoría de los países. En una variedad de contextos, la idea de que la migración es el camino preferencial para la mejora de las condiciones de vida está ampliamente difundida. Simultáneamente, los caminos para la realización de ese proyecto migratorio son difíciles y lindan con diversas formas de irregularidad o ilegalidad. La presencia de extranjeros, caracterizados como no africanos y blancos en el cotidiano de muchas personas en África Occidental, despierta de diversas formas la sensación de proximidad a la migración. Al realizar trabajo de campo en la región me enfrenté en reiteradas ocasiones con esa situación. En este artículo me propongo analizar las particularidades de un campo en que la presencia de la investigadora generó por sí misma y de forma casi mágica la aparición del propio fenómeno que se buscaba investigar

  20. South-South cooperation for development: Brazil-Africa relations in the promotion of public policies (2003-2012

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    Carlos Eduardo Santos PINHO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A diferencia de los modelos clásicos de cooperación para el desarrollo promovidos por los países ricos (cooperación Norte-Sur-CNS, la cooperación Sur-Sur (CSS se concibe como una asociación horizontal entre países que comparten problemas y desafíos similares para el desarrollo. Brasil, que durante décadas fue receptor de ese tipo de ayuda, afirma tener una mejor comprensión de las necesidades de los países pobres. Desde 2003, ese país ha profundizado sus relaciones con el África subsahariana, tanto a partir de la proyección de sus empresas como por medio de la «internacionalización›› de las políticas públicas. A pesar de las «limitaciones›› y «tensiones›› de esa modalidad embrionaria de CSS, el artículo argumenta que Brasil está contribuyendo substancialmente al desarrollo del continente africano.

  1. Composição e abundância relativa dos mamíferos de médio e grande porte no Parque Estadual do Turvo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Composition and relative abundance of the medium-large ized mammals of Turvo State Park, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B. Kasper

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre janeiro de 2005 e dezembro de 2006 foram realizados estudos sobre a composição e abundância relativa dos mamíferos de médio e grande porte do Parque Estadual do Turvo. Para tanto, foram utilizados registros de armadilhas fotográficas além de visualizações e dados sobre presença e ausência de pegadas ao longo de transectos pré-determinados. No total foram registradas 29 espécies de mamíferos de médio e grande porte, das quais Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 e Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758 foram as espécies com maior número de registros. No que se refere a Carnivora, Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766 e Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 tiveram os maiores índices de registro, enquanto Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1782 e Galictis cuja (Molina 1782 os menores. Entre os ungulados apenas Pecari tajacu (Linnaeus, 1758 mostrou-se freqüente, sendo a quarta espécie em número de registros. Algumas espécies comuns em outros ambientes apresentaram baixos índices de registro no Parque Estadual do Turvo, tais como Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 e Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840. Finalmente, constata-se a provável extinção local de Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795, uma vez que não foram obtidos registros de sua presença ao longo do estudo. A conservação dos mamíferos de médio e grande porte do Parque está fortemente associada à preservação do "Corredor Verde de Misiones", que provavelmente representa uma área fonte para diversas espécies.Between January of 2005 and December of 2006, studies on the composition and relative abundance of medium and large sized mammals were carried out in Turvo State Park. Records came from camera-trapping, in addition to visualization and presence and absence data from track surveys along pre determined transects. At total, 29 species of medium-large sized mammals were listed. Of these, Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 and Sylvilagus

  2. Search for Mycobacterium leprae in wild mammals

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    Sílvia Cristina Barboza Pedrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is still a worldwide public health problem. Brazil and India show the highest prevalence rates of the disease. Natural infection of armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus with Mycobacterium leprae has been reported in some regions of the United States. Identification of bacilli is difficult, particularly due to its inability to grow in vitro. The use of molecular tools represents a fast and sensitive alternative method for diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. In the present study, the diagnostic methods used were bacilloscopy, histopathology, microbiology, and PCR using specific primers for M. leprae repetitive sequences. PCR were performed using genomic DNA extracted from 138 samples of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin of 44 D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus, Cabassous unicinctus, and C. tatouay armadillos from the Middle Western region of the state of São Paulo and from the experimental station of Embrapa Pantanal, located in Pantanal da Nhecolândia of Mato Grosso do Sul state. Also, the molecular analysis of 19 samples from internal organs of other road killed species of wild animals, such as Nasua nasua (ring-tailed coati, Procyon cancrivoros (hand-skinned, Cerdocyon thous (dog-pity-bush, Cavia aperea (restless cavy, Didelphis albiventris (skunk, Sphigurrus spinosus (hedgehog, and Gallictis vittata (ferret showed PCR negative data. None of the 157 analyzed samples had shown natural mycobacterial infection. Only the armadillo inoculated with material collected from untreated multibacillary leprosy patient presented PCR positive and its genomic sequencing revealed 100% identity with M. leprae. According to these preliminary studies, based on the used methodology, it is possible to conclude that wild mammals seem not to play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy in the Middle Western region of the São Paulo state and in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state.

  3. Rickettsial Infection in Animals, Humans and Ticks in Paulicéia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, I; Martins, T F; Olegário, M M; Peterka, C; Guedes, E; Ferreira, F; Labruna, M B

    2015-11-01

    A previous study in Paulicéia Municipality, south-eastern Brazil, reported 9.7% of the Amblyomma triste ticks to be infected by Rickettsia parkeri, a bacterial pathogen that causes spotted fever in humans. These A. triste ticks were shown to be associated with marsh areas, where the marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus is a primary host for this tick species. During 2008-2009, blood serum samples were collected from 140 horses, 41 dogs, 5 opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and 26 humans in farms from Pauliceia Municipality. Ticks were collected from these animals, from vegetation and from additional wildlife in these farms. Overall, 25% (35/140) of the horses, 7.3% (3/41) of the dogs, 3.8% (1/26) of the humans and 100% (5/5) of the opossums were seroreactive (titre ≥64) to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that horses that were allowed to forage in the marsh were 4.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp than horses that did not forage in the marsh. In addition, horses that had been living in the farm for more than 8.5 years were 2.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to SFG Rickettsia spp than horses that were living for ≤8.5 years. Ticks collected from domestic animals or from vegetation included Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Dermacentor nitens and Rhipicephalus microplus. By PCR analyses, only one pool of A. coelebs ticks from the vegetation was shown to be infected by rickettsiae, for which DNA sequencing revealed to be Rickettsia amblyommii. Ticks (not tested by PCR) collected from wildlife encompassed A. cajennense and Amblyomma rotundatum on lizards (Tupinambis sp), and A. cajennense and A. triste on the bird Laterallus viridis. Our results indicate that the marsh area of Paulicéia offers risks of infection by SFG rickettsiae. PMID:25643912

  4. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira de; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-11-01

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous. PMID:25410992

  5. Biochemical, pharmacological, and structural characterization of new basic PLA2 Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corasolla Carregari, Victor; Stuani Floriano, Rafael; Rodrigues-Simioni, Lea; Winck, Flavia V; Baldasso, Paulo Aparecido; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Marangoni, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Bbil-TX, a PLA2, was purified from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom after only one chromatographic step using RP-HPLC on μ-Bondapak C-18 column. A molecular mass of 14243.8 Da was confirmed by Q-Tof Ultima API ESI/MS (TOF MS mode) mass spectrometry. The partial protein sequence obtained was then submitted to BLASTp, with the search restricted to PLA2 from snakes and shows high identity values when compared to other PLA2s. PLA2 activity was presented in the presence of a synthetic substrate and showed a minimum sigmoidal behavior, reaching its maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 25-37°C. Maximum PLA2 activity required Ca(2+) and in the presence of Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), and Mg(2+) it was reduced in the presence or absence of Ca(2+). Crotapotin from Crotalus durissus cascavella rattlesnake venom and antihemorrhagic factor DA2-II from Didelphis albiventris opossum sera under optimal conditions significantly inhibit the enzymatic activity. Bbil-TX induces myonecrosis in mice. The fraction does not show a significant cytotoxic activity in myotubes and myoblasts (C2C12). The inflammatory events induced in the serum of mice by Bbil-TX isolated from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom were investigated. An increase in vascular permeability and in the levels of TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1 was was induced. Since Bbil-TX exerts a stronger proinflammatory effect, the phospholipid hydrolysis may be relevant for these phenomena. PMID:23509754

  6. Biochemical, Pharmacological, and Structural Characterization of New Basic Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata Snake Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Corasolla Carregari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bbil-TX, a PLA2, was purified from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom after only one chromatographic step using RP-HPLC on μ-Bondapak C-18 column. A molecular mass of 14243.8 Da was confirmed by Q-Tof Ultima API ESI/MS (TOF MS mode mass spectrometry. The partial protein sequence obtained was then submitted to BLASTp, with the search restricted to PLA2 from snakes and shows high identity values when compared to other PLA2s. PLA2 activity was presented in the presence of a synthetic substrate and showed a minimum sigmoidal behavior, reaching its maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 25–37∘C. Maximum PLA2 activity required Ca2+ and in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Mg2+ it was reduced in the presence or absence of Ca2+. Crotapotin from Crotalus durissus cascavella rattlesnake venom and antihemorrhagic factor DA2-II from Didelphis albiventris opossum sera under optimal conditions significantly inhibit the enzymatic activity. Bbil-TX induces myonecrosis in mice. The fraction does not show a significant cytotoxic activity in myotubes and myoblasts (C2C12. The inflammatory events induced in the serum of mice by Bbil-TX isolated from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom were investigated. An increase in vascular permeability and in the levels of TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1 was was induced. Since Bbil-TX exerts a stronger proinflammatory effect, the phospholipid hydrolysis may be relevant for these phenomena.

  7. The South American opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, from Brazil as another definitive host for Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Kerber, C E; Lindsay, D S; Kasai, N; Pena, H F

    2000-12-01

    The North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, is a definitive host for at least 3 species of Sarcocvstis: S. falcatula Stiles 1983, S. neurona Dubey, Davis, Speer, Bowman, de Lahunta, Granstrom, Topper, Hamir, Cummings, Suter 1991, and S. speeri Dubey and Lindsay 1999. In order to identify species of Sarcocystis in the South American opossum, D. inarsupialis, Sarcocystis sporocysts from the intestines of a naturally infected opossum (D. marsupialis) from Brazil were fed to 4 gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice, a nude mouse, and 2 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). All 4 KO mice became ill and 1 died 42 days post-feeding (p.f.) of sporocysts, 1 was killed 44 days p.f. because of neurological signs, and 2 were killed 52 and 53 days p.f. because of abnormal gaits. Numerous sarcocysts were seen in the skeletal muscles of all 4 KO mice and they were structurally identical to S. speeri seen in KO mice fed sporocysts from D. virginiana from the United States and D. albiventris from Argentina. The nude mouse was killed 41 days p.f. because it appeared weak; schizonts were seen in sections of its liver and sarcocysts were seen in sections of skeletal muscles. Sarcocystis speeri was cultured in bovine turbinate cells inoculated with liver homogenate from this mouse. Sarcocystis neurona was not demonstrable in tissues of mice. The two budgerigars remained asymptomatic and S. falcatula was not found in their tissues when they were killed 29 days p.i. This is the first report of S. speeri from D. marsupialis. PMID:11155929

  8. Structure of parasite component communities of didelphid marsupials: insights from a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, F Agustín; Catzeflis, François; Gardner, Scott L

    2011-10-01

    The parasite fauna of the gray four-eyed opossum, Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758), and the common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758, in Camp du Tigre, French Guiana, is characterized. Nine species from the gastrointestinal system were recovered from both species, which shared 80% of their parasites. The parasite fauna comprised several monoxenous species (63%) and was dominated by Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1914, which exhibited high levels of prevalence and abundance in both communities. Only 2 species (Moennigia sp. and Spirura guianensis) had been recorded in other species of mammals. Both species richness and taxonomic composition at the level of component communities from this locality were compared against 11 communities present in the Virginia ( Didelphis virginiana ), white-bellied (Didelphis albiventris), and common opossum from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Neither host phylogeny nor taxonomy accounted for statistical differences in species richness. There was no statistical difference among species richness values among the 9 localities studied. Taxonomic similarity was analyzed by means of the Jaccard's similarity index, including all, and only common species (occurring in prevalence >10%). The results suggest that sympatric species of marsupials share more species of parasites than parasite communities occurring in conspecific marsupials from different localities. As a consequence, taxonomic composition of these parasite communities varied depending on the locality. Probably, marsupials of the monophyletic Didelphini offer the same compatibility toward their parasites, by presenting them with similar habitats. Subtle differences in lifestyles of the marsupials may determine the chance of encounter between the symbionts and prevent some parasites from completing their life cycles. Further and more rigorous tests are necessary to determine the roles of encounter and compatibility filters, as well as the role of

  9. Structure of parasite component communities of didelphid marsupials: insights from a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, F Agustín; Catzeflis, François; Gardner, Scott L

    2011-10-01

    The parasite fauna of the gray four-eyed opossum, Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758), and the common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758, in Camp du Tigre, French Guiana, is characterized. Nine species from the gastrointestinal system were recovered from both species, which shared 80% of their parasites. The parasite fauna comprised several monoxenous species (63%) and was dominated by Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1914, which exhibited high levels of prevalence and abundance in both communities. Only 2 species (Moennigia sp. and Spirura guianensis) had been recorded in other species of mammals. Both species richness and taxonomic composition at the level of component communities from this locality were compared against 11 communities present in the Virginia ( Didelphis virginiana ), white-bellied (Didelphis albiventris), and common opossum from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Neither host phylogeny nor taxonomy accounted for statistical differences in species richness. There was no statistical difference among species richness values among the 9 localities studied. Taxonomic similarity was analyzed by means of the Jaccard's similarity index, including all, and only common species (occurring in prevalence >10%). The results suggest that sympatric species of marsupials share more species of parasites than parasite communities occurring in conspecific marsupials from different localities. As a consequence, taxonomic composition of these parasite communities varied depending on the locality. Probably, marsupials of the monophyletic Didelphini offer the same compatibility toward their parasites, by presenting them with similar habitats. Subtle differences in lifestyles of the marsupials may determine the chance of encounter between the symbionts and prevent some parasites from completing their life cycles. Further and more rigorous tests are necessary to determine the roles of encounter and compatibility filters, as well as the role of

  10. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mendonça Bezerra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53, while in pigs it was 6% (2/34. The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112 and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112. Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749 were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369. In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.

  11. Rickettsial Infection in Animals, Humans and Ticks in Paulicéia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, I; Martins, T F; Olegário, M M; Peterka, C; Guedes, E; Ferreira, F; Labruna, M B

    2015-11-01

    A previous study in Paulicéia Municipality, south-eastern Brazil, reported 9.7% of the Amblyomma triste ticks to be infected by Rickettsia parkeri, a bacterial pathogen that causes spotted fever in humans. These A. triste ticks were shown to be associated with marsh areas, where the marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus is a primary host for this tick species. During 2008-2009, blood serum samples were collected from 140 horses, 41 dogs, 5 opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and 26 humans in farms from Pauliceia Municipality. Ticks were collected from these animals, from vegetation and from additional wildlife in these farms. Overall, 25% (35/140) of the horses, 7.3% (3/41) of the dogs, 3.8% (1/26) of the humans and 100% (5/5) of the opossums were seroreactive (titre ≥64) to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that horses that were allowed to forage in the marsh were 4.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp than horses that did not forage in the marsh. In addition, horses that had been living in the farm for more than 8.5 years were 2.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to SFG Rickettsia spp than horses that were living for ≤8.5 years. Ticks collected from domestic animals or from vegetation included Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Dermacentor nitens and Rhipicephalus microplus. By PCR analyses, only one pool of A. coelebs ticks from the vegetation was shown to be infected by rickettsiae, for which DNA sequencing revealed to be Rickettsia amblyommii. Ticks (not tested by PCR) collected from wildlife encompassed A. cajennense and Amblyomma rotundatum on lizards (Tupinambis sp), and A. cajennense and A. triste on the bird Laterallus viridis. Our results indicate that the marsh area of Paulicéia offers risks of infection by SFG rickettsiae.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a serine protease, Ba III-4, from Peruvian Bothrops atrox venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Soto, L A; Bonfim, V L; Novello, J C; Navarro Oviedo, R; Yarlequé Chocas, A; Marangoni, S

    2007-09-01

    A serine protease from Bothrops atrox (Peruvian specimen's venom) was isolated in two chromatographic steps in LC molecular exclusion and reverse phase-HPLC. This protein was denominated Ba III-4 (33,080.265 Da determinated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry) and showed pI of 5.06, Km 0.2 x 10(-1 ) M and the V (máx) 4.1 x 10(-1 )nmoles p-NA/lt/min on the synthetic substrate BapNA. Ba III-4 also showed ability to coagulate bovine fibrinogen. The serine protease was inhibited by soyben trypsin inhibitor and DA2II, which is an anti-hemorrhagic factor isolated from the opossum specie Didelphis albiventris. The primary structure of Ba III-4 showed the presence of His(44), Asp(94) and Ser(193) residues in the corresponding positions to the catalytic triad established in the serine proteases and Ser(193) are inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF). Amino acid analysis showed a high content of Asp, Glu, Gly, Ser, Ala and Pro, as well as 12 half-cysteine residues. Ba III-4 contained 293 amino acid residues and the primary structure of VIGGDECDIN EHPFLAFMYY SPRYFCGMTL INQEWVLTAA HCRYFCGMTL IHLGVHRESE KANYDEVRRF PKEKYFIFCD NNFTDDEVDK DIMLIRLDKP VSNSEHIAPL SLPSNPPSVG SVCRIMGWGQ TTTSPIDVLS PDEPHCANIN LFDNTVCHTA HPQVANTRTS TDTLCAGDLQ GGRDTCNGDS GGPLICNEQL HGILSWGGDP CAQPNKPAFY TKVYYFDHPW IKSIIAGNKK TVNFTCPPLR SDAKDDSTTY INQEWDWVLT AEHCDRTHMR NSFYDYSSIN SDS. Titration experiments did not show the presence of free sulfhydryl groups after 4 h incubation, nor were differences found in relation to titration kinetics in the presence of nondenaturating buffer. The isolation of this protein, Ba III-4, is of potential interest for the understanding of the pathomechanism of the snake venom action and for the identification of new blood coagulation enzymes of natural sources. PMID:17522968

  13. THE EVOLUTION AND FUTURE OF SOCIAL SECURITY IN AFRICA: AN ACTUARIAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Badat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social Security in most African countries has evolved significantly in terms of perspectives, motives, governance as well as innovation of benefits and administration. African countries are slowly, one by one, beginning to reassess the role of social security in correcting several social ills. Empowerment programs and grants are increasingly being provided via social security to women and the youth. From the roots of social security, even very low income countries, some of which have recently experienced several years of civil war and extreme economic hardships, have begun to improve benefit structures and amounts, which include national medical benefits. The attention being provided to social security and how it fits into a nation’s plans to lift itself out of poverty is increasingly involving the actuarial profession from international organisations such as ILO and ISSA as well as consulting actuaries and academics. Assessing and ensuring sustainability of social security benefits requires actuarial valuations to take long-term consequences involving demographic changes into account in the face of providing the benefits in the short term; asset liability modelling to ensure adequate resources are held; ensuring that results are appropriately reported and communicated to key stakeholders; as well as developing long-term strategic plans and dynamic systems surrounding all of these issues. In this paper, the role of actuaries is brought to the centre of the increasingly changing face and evolving culture of social security in taking Africa closer to poverty alleviation. La Seguridad Social en la mayoría de los países africanos ha evolucionado significativamente en cuanto a perspectivas, motivos, gobernanza, así como en innovación en las prestaciones y la adminsitración. Los países africanos están comenzando a reevaluar el papel de la Seguridad Social en la eliminación de determinados problemas sociales. Los programas de acción y los

  14. Tendências e tensões de sociabilidade de estudantes dos Palop em duas universidades brasileiras Tendencies and tensions in the sociability of students from African countries where Portuguese is the official language at two Brazilian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute, a partir de uma perspectiva etnográfica, tendências e tensões características da sociabilidade de estudantes africanos - vindos de países de língua oficial portuguesa - na Universidade de Brasília (UnB e na Universidade de São Paulo (USP. Abordamos os modos pelos quais eles experimentam as práticas linguísticas e pedagógicas das universidades, vivenciam as tensões raciais existentes no Brasil, atribuem sentido aos espaços urbanos nos quais são acolhidos; e analisamos seus padrões mais comuns de interação e agregação. Sugerimos que o tempo de participação no fluxo migratório, a nacionalidade de origem dos estudantes e a cidade de acolhida no Brasil são variáveis que condicionam de forma importante a sociabilidade dos estudantes. Residualmente, e de forma ainda incipiente, exploramos algumas dinâmicas de identificação entre os alunos. Alguns se apresentam como sujeitos em diáspora. Outros, contudo, chamam atenção para a necessidade de continuarem a ser reconhecidos como estrangeiros. A maioria demonstra surpresa em se ver percebido como negro ou africano, simplesmente. Os estudantes vêm para o Brasil mediante o Programa Estudante Convênio de Graduação (PEC-G, um acordo diplomático que facilita o deslocamento do aluno ao nosso país a fim de realizar seu curso de nível superior.This article discusses typical tendencies and tensions of the sociability of foreign students from African countries where Portuguese is the official language at 'Universidade de Brasilia' and at 'Universidade de São Paulo'. Our analysis is carried out through an ethnographic approach. We analyze the way students experienced the linguistic and pedagogical practices at the universities, the way they make sense the urban spaces they live as well as the Brazilian typical racial tensions and their most common patterns of integration and aggregation. The time they are involved in the migratory flow, the city they live in

  15. Origin of the hemoglobin S gene in a northern Brazilian population: the combined effects of slave trade and internal migrations

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    Gabriella Pante-de-Sousa

    1998-12-01

    , particularmente de nordestinos. A distribuição de haplótipos em Belém não difere significativamente da observada em outras regiões brasileiras, muito embora os dados históricos sugiram que a maioria dos escravos procedentes da região do Atlântico-Oeste africano, onde predomina o haplótipo Senegal, foi trazida para o norte do Brasil, enquanto que o nordeste (Bahia, Pernambuco e Maranhão recebeu o maior contingente de escravos oriundos da região centro-oeste africana, onde o haplótipo Benin é o mais comum. Nós sugerimos que as diferenças regionais quanto à procedência dos escravos africanos também foram modificadas pelo tráfico de escravos estabelecido entre as diferentes regiões brasileiras e posteriormente pelos movimentos migratórios.

  16. A RELAÇÃO DE PODER E A ORDEM DO DISCURSO NO ROMANCE BALADA DE AMOR AO VENTO DE PAULINA CHIZIANE

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    Néstor Raúl González Gutiérrez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo analisar e refletir a relação do poder e a ordem do discurso no romance Balada de Amor ao vento de Paulina Chiziane e sua relação com as teorias contemporâneas francesas de Michael Foucault, indagando sobre a relação entre o poder e as formas de legitimar o controle do discurso entre a realidade retratada do Moçambique Pós-colonial. Assim como o encontro entre o poder e a variante de gênero, raça/etnia e corpo. A relação entre o feminino e sua sujeição ao discurso ligado à tradição religiosa e cultural que permeia a nação. Discute-se sobre a participação da mulher na sociedade africana e a poligamia como forma vigente de tradição das tribos do sul de Moçambique e o encontro entre a dicotomia tradição/sujeição, poder/gênero em contextos patriarcais e de manutenção do machismo como discurso vigente da contemporaneidade. Analisa as formas de tradição das sociedades de discurso como eixo articulador de disciplinarização do corpo e do comportamento social ligada à representação de homem e mulher e de masculino e feminino. O trabalho é dividido em três tópicos que nortearão a compreensão do leitor, começando com uma breve biografia da autora, seguindo da articulação da sua obra com a teoria foucaultiana e a obra “A ordem do discurso” para assim continuar com a relação e interligação teórica dos dois autores. Finalizando-se, portanto, com a reflexão do contexto africano e os discursos vigentes de repressão e de controle no feminino, a análise entre a legitimação do poder e sua evidência na obra a ser comparada. Para sua elaboração, se fez necessária a pesquisa bibliográfica de autores como CHIZIANE (2003, FOUCAULT (1996, MACEDO (2007 MATA (2000 SANTANA (2005, que questionam a relação de poder em contextos africanos e a reflexão de fenômenos que instigam o poder e o controle sobre a mulher.

  17. Heterogeneous ethnic distribution of the factor v leiden mutation

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    Rendrik F. Franco

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Inherited resistance to activated protein C caused by the factor V Leiden (FVL mutation is the most common genetic cause of venous thrombosis yet described, being found in 20-60% of patients with venous thrombophilia. A relationship between the FVL mutation and an increased predisposition to arterial thrombosis in young women was recently reported. We assessed the prevalence of the FVL mutation in 440 individuals (880 chromosomes belonging to four different ethnic groups: Caucasians, African Blacks, Asians and Amerindians. PCR amplification followed by MnlI digestion was employed to define the genotype. The FVL mutation was found in a heterozygous state in four out of 152 Whites (2.6%, one out of 151 Amerindians (0.6%, and was absent among 97 African Blacks and 40 Asians. Our results confirm that FVL has a heterogeneous distribution in different human populations, a fact that may contribute to geographic and ethnic differences in the prevalence of thrombotic diseases. In addition, these data may be helpful in decisions regarding the usefulness of screening for the FVL mutation in subjects at risk for thrombosis.Resistência à proteína C ativada associada à mutação do fator V Leiden (FVL é a mais prevalente causa genética de trombose venosa conhecida, sendo encontrada em 20 a 60% dos pacientes com trombofilia. Adicionalmente, uma associação entre a mutação do FVL e predisposição aumentada para doença cardiovascular prematura em mulheres foi recentemente descrita. No presente estudo nós determinamos a prevalência da mutação do FVL em 440 indivíduos (880 cromossomos de 4 grupos étnicos diferentes: caucasóides, negros africanos, asiáticos e ameríndios. Amplificação por PCR seguida de digestão com a enzima de restrição MnlI foi utilizada para definição do genótipo. A mutação do FVL foi encontrada em heterozigose em 4 de 152 caucasóides (2,6%, 1 de 151 ameríndios (0,6% e esteve ausente em 97 negros africanos e 40 asi

  18. "A carne mais barata do mercado é a carne negra: uma reflexão sobre o "design" das camisas da Puma na Copa do Mundo de Futebol/2010 "The cheapest flesh in the market is the black one": body, soccer and advertising Puma uniforms in the 2010 soccer world cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Andrade de Melo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Puma, uma empresa de material esportivo, desde meados da primeira década do século XXI tem constantemente utilizado jogadores negros em suas campanhas publicitárias, parte de uma estratégia de busca de aproximação com o continente africano. À beira da falência no início dos anos 90, a empresa conseguiu se reposicionar no mercado unindo o esporte à moda, investindo em produtos de "design" arrojado. Uma de suas iniciativas foi buscar inspiração no "caráter exótico" das nações africanas para produzir peças que possam ser utilizadas em situações cotidianas, não só para a prática de esportes. Como o corpo do negro africano tem sido representado em suas estratégias publicitárias? Esse estudo teve por objetivo analisar um ponto específico da publicidade da Puma por ocasião da Copa do Mundo de Futebol de 2010, realizada na África do Sul: o "design" das camisas fornecidas a três seleções africanas - Camarões, Costa do Marfim e Gana. Para alcance do objetivo, entabulamos uma comparação com os modelos das camisas fornecidas pela empresa a outros selecionados (Suíça, Uruguai e Itália, prospectando o quanto suas ações publicitárias reforçam ou não certos estereótipos comumente observados quando se utilizam negros em campanhas de publicidade.Puma, a company of sport gears, has been inserting black soccer players in its advertising campaigns as a strategy to get closer to the African continent. Near to bankruptcy at the 90' beginning, the company has succeeded in bringing to the market products with more daring design, linking fashion and sports. One of its latest initiatives was to seek inspiration in the exotic profile of African people to produce pieces that can be used in all occasions not only for sports. How African's bodies have been exposed in its adverting campaigns? The objective of this study was to analyze an specific issue related to some strategies adopted in Puma advertising campaigns launched during

  19. Prevalencia de infección tuberculosa en la población de inmigrantes en Ceuta, España

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    Fernández Sanfrancisco María Teresa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La tuberculosis es la enfermedad infecciosa más extendida en el mundo. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron conocer la prevalencia de infección tuberculosa en los inmigrantes que durante 1998 estuvieron en el campamento de Calamocarro en Ceuta y analizar si existen diferencias según país o región geográfica de procedencia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal sobre la población total de inmigrantes en el campamento de Calamocarro en 1998. Se practicó la intradermorreacc ión según la técnica de Mantoux según protocolo ya establecido, a los 2.223 inmigrantes (1979 varones y 244 mujeres procedentes de distintos países africanos (Nigeria, Mali, Guinea Bissau, Camerún, Ghana, Sierra Leona, Rep Dem Congo, y Liberia, principalmente en el campamento de refugiados de Calamocarro de Ceuta. Los resultados se presentan para tres puntos de corte de la induración: <5mm; entre 5 y 10mm; e igual o superior a 10mm. Resultados: Los inmigrantes procedían de 36 países africanos, el 89,0% eran varones y el 11,0% mujeres (p < 0,001 con una edad media de 24,9 ± 4,3 y 23,4 ± 4,1 años respectivamente. El 32,6% presentaron una respuesta al test de Mantoux igual o superior a 10 mm, 33,2% en varones y 27,9% en mujeres (p = 0,09. Sólo hubo un 1,1% con induración 5-10 mm de probable origen vacunal. Por zonas geográficas, las tasas más altas se presentaron en inmigrantes procedentes de la República Democrática del Congo (65,1% y de Camerún (48,4%, seguidos a distancia por Nigeria (34,0%, Liberia (32,7%, Mauritania (29,1%, Sierra Leona (28,8%, Costa de Marfil (27,8%, Guinea Bissau (27,4%, Ghana (26,3%, Argelia (25,6%, Mali (24,1% y R.Guinea (20,9% (p<0,0001. Conclusiones: La población inmigrante procedente de países centroafricanos presenta una alta prevalencia de infección tuberculosa, constituyendo un grupo de riesgo de padecer la enfermedad. Por tanto, es fundamental la implantación de programas específicos de b

  20. Cristianismo y esclavitud. Discusiones sobre la evangelización de los esclavos en Hispanoamérica

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    Liliana Crespi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of the Africans to Christianity was a long process that began in Africa and concluded in the New World. The religious protection and the health of the soul of the slave, was, for the slave owner and the State, a permanent obligation. But carrying out this moral obligation involved a multitude of factors: Spaniards did not know African languages, massive numbers arrived at the principal ports of entry, contraband of slaves, a lack of ecclesiastic control due to the lack of priests and missionaries and non compliance on the part of slave owners. All of this meant that the Christianization of the slaves occurred with less rigor than with the Indians, whose conversion to Christianity was a priority during all stages of the conquest and colonization. In the essay that follows, I hope to show some aspects of this problem by studying the legislation, the ecclesiastic precepts, as well as the customs followed in the distinct places of destination of the African slaves. I have also attempted to focus this theme in the area of the River Plate and, accordingly, the paper is based on edited documentary sources in addition to documentation found in the National Archive of Argentina and the Archive of the Indies, in Spain.//La conversión de personas africanas al cristianismo fue un proceso largo que empezaba en África y concluía en el Nuevo Mundo. La protección religiosa y la salud del alma del esclavo eran, para el dueño del esclavo y para el Estado, una obligación permanente.Pero hacerse cargo de esta obligación moral implicaba una multiplicidad de factores: Los españoles no conocían los idiomas africanos, el números masivos de esclavos llegaban a los principales puertos, el contrabando de esclavos, la falta de control eclesiástico debido a la falta de curas y misionarios, y la falta de compromiso de parte de los dueños de los esclavos.Todo esto supone que la cristianización de los esclavos se llevó a cabo con menos rigor que la

  1. Encountering Otherness. Depth of Field: A collective approach to Africa / Conocer la alteridad. Depth of Field: una aproximación colectiva a África

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    Rosario Jiménez Morales

    2013-11-01

    desde un punto de vista colonial. Las fotografías de esta nueva generación nada tienen que ver con lo naif, lo primitivo o lo rudo - características éstas asociadas a lo que podríamos etiquetar como “lo africano - occidental”, sino que se insertan en el diálogo global del arte posmoderno y rompen con el etnocentrismo imperante en las artes. Es importante tratar este tema desde el mundo académico para legitimar unas prácticas que cuestionan no sólo el círculo y el sistema del arte, sino también la construcción social de un imaginario que a día de hoy sigue imperante en el mundo Occidental. No hay que olvidar asimismo que una parte importante de la formación de estos fotógrafos se ha desarrollado en Occidente, por lo que es necesario hablar también de los flujos migratorios del arte y de sus significados. Las fotografías de DOF, además de tratar el tema del Otro, promueven el debate sobre la pertinencia de la entrada de África en un mundo globalizado desde el que distribuir sus obras de arte al mismo tiempo que las deslocaliza de su territorio. Esto ha causado una gran brecha no sólo en el imaginario occidental sino entre los fotógrafos africanos más tradicionales como es el caso de J.D. Okhai Ojeikere, Tam Fiofori, Jide Adeniyi-Jones y Sunmi Smart-Cole.

  2. Cooperação internacional para o combate às drogas ilícitas em Moçambique La cooperación internacional para el combate a las drogas ilícitas en Mozambique International cooperation in combatting illicit drugs in Mozambique

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    Flávia Buvana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os países da África Austral se uniram para formar a Comunidade para o Desenvolvimento da África Austral (SADC, com o intuito de estimular ações comuns em diversas áreas, dentre elas o combate às drogas ilícitas. Nesse contexto, este estudo qualitativo apresentou como objetivo identificar informações e percepções sobre a cooperação implementada entre Moçambique e os países membros da SADC, no combate às drogas ilícitas. Para a coleta de dados, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com pessoas exercendo funções públicas, ligadas à implementação do Protocolo de Combate às Drogas da SADC. Depois de transcritas, as entrevistas foram analisadas por meio de análise de conteúdo, resultando nas categorias: Moçambique como corredor de drogas, iniciativas de cooperação entre os Estados Africanos na área de drogas, dificuldades para cooperação na África, implementação insatisfatória do protocolo e dificuldades para implementação da política de controle. Constata-se, portanto, a necessidade de se rever e atualizar as políticas e estratégias na área das drogas, uma vez que estão descontextualizadas à realidade atual moçambicana.Los países de África Austral se unieron para formar una Comunidad para el Desarrollo (SADC con el intuito de estimular acciones en diversas áreas, entre ellas el combate a las drogas ilícitas. En ese contexto, este estudio cualitativo presentó como objetivo identificar informaciones y percepciones sobre la cooperación implementada entre Mozambique y los países miembros de la SADC, en el combate a las drogas ilícitas. Para la recolección de datos fueron realizadas entrevistas semiestructuradas con personas con funciones públicas ligadas a la implementación del Protocolo de Combate a las Drogas de la SADC. Después de transcritas las entrevistas fueron analizadas por medio del análisis de contenido, resultando en las categorías: "Mozambique como corredor de drogas

  3. Contribution to the use of marble in Central-Lusitania in Roman times: The stone architectural decoration of Ammaia (São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal

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    Taelman, Devi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a quantitative and qualitative study of the imported architectural decorative stone of the Roman town of Ammaia (São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal, located centrally in the province of Lusitania. All studied ornamental stones were counted, weighed, classified and their provenance was determined. Six types of stone were used for the architectural decoration at Ammaia: white marble, pink–purple limestone, grey– white marble, two marble breccias and granite. Granite was the most widely used building stone and was used for the production of columns and capitals. Previous studies have established a local source for the Ammaia granite (Taelman et alii in press. The provenance of the remaining ornamental stones is primarily regional (the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Only the two marble breccia varieties were imported from the Mediterranean: africano from Teos (Turkey and breccia di Sciro from the island of Skyros also (Greece. The predominant use of regionally available stones is observed in other Roman towns located in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula, such as Emerita Augusta, Asturica Augusta and Munigua, and results mainly from the geographic location of the sites, remote from any seaport and/or navigable river.El presente trabajo presenta los resultados de una valorización cuantitativa y cualitativa de la utilización de las piedras decorativas arquitectónicas importadas de la ciudad romana lusitana de Ammaia (São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal. Todas las piedras decorativas estudiadas fueron contadas, pesadas, clasificadas y su procedencia fue determinada. En la época romana se utilizaron seis tipos de piedra para la decoración arquitectónica de la ciudad de Ammaia: mármol blanco, caliza morada–rosa, mármol blanco y gris, dos brechas compuestas de fragmentos de mármol blanco y granito. El granito fue la piedra de construcción principal en Ammaia. Además, el granito se utiliz

  4. http://seer.fclar.unesp.br/alfa/article/view/5510/5018

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    Valter Pereira ROMANO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available • RESUMO: Este trabalho utiliza como corpus de análise os dados coletados pela equipe do Projeto Atlas Linguístico do Brasil em três regiões: Centro-Oeste, Sudeste e Sul. Os dados referem-se às cidades do interior e às capitais de cada estado, coletados junto a informantes selecionados segundo o perfil estabelecido. Nesta oportunidade, objetiva-se discutir a distribuição diatópica das variantes lexicais para a questão 132 – “Criança pequenininha, a gente diz que é bebê. E quando ela tem de 5 a 10 anos, do sexo masculino?” – do Questionário Semântico-Lexical (COMITÊ NACIONAL DO PROJETO ALIB, 2001. A metodologia utilizada envolveu análises descritivas e inferenciais pertinentes ao estudo. Para tanto, oito hipóteses foram testadas no sentido de averiguar o comportamento e a distribuição diatópica das cinco variantes mais produtivas no conjunto de respostas. Os principais resultados observados indicam que as variantes apresentam comportamento distinto nas três regiões: (i a variante “menino” apresenta distribuição homogênea nos dez estados; (ii as formas lexicais “guri” e “piá” possuem distribuição heterogênea na região Sul; (iii as variantes de etimologia indígena (“guri” e “piá” são mais representativas nas regiões Sul e Centro-Oeste; (iv há uma maior representatividade da variante “moleque” (étimo africano na região Sudeste, principalmente em São Paulo e Minas Gerais. • PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Projeto ALiB. Dialetologia. Variantes lexicais.

  5. MENINO, GURI OU PIÁ? UM ESTUDO DIATÓPICO NAS REGIÕES CENTRO-OESTE, SUDESTE E SUL A PARTIR DOS DADOS DO PROJETO ATLAS LINGUÍSTICO DO BRASIL

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    Valter Pereira ROMANO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho utiliza como corpus de análise os dados coletados pela equipe do Projeto Atlas Linguístico do Brasil em três regiões: Centro-Oeste, Sudeste e Sul. Os dados referem-se às cidades do interior e às capitais de cada estado, coletados junto a informantes selecionados segundo o perfil estabelecido. Nesta oportunidade, objetiva-se discutir a distribuição diatópica das variantes lexicais para a questão 132 - "Criança pequenininha, a gente diz que é bebê. E quando ela tem de 5 a 10 anos, do sexo masculino?" - do Questionário Semântico-Lexical (COMITÊ NACIONAL DO PROJETO ALIB, 2001. A metodologia utilizada envolveu análises descritivas e inferenciais pertinentes ao estudo. Para tanto, oito hipóteses foram testadas no sentido de averiguar o comportamento e a distribuição diatópica das cinco variantes mais produtivas no conjunto de respostas. Os principais resultados observados indicam que as variantes apresentam comportamento distinto nas três regiões: (i a variante "menino" apresenta distribuição homogênea nos dez estados; (ii as formas lexicais "guri" e "piá" possuem distribuição heterogênea na região Sul; (iii as variantes de etimologia indígena ("guri" e "piá" são mais representativas nas regiões Sul e Centro-Oeste; (iv há uma maior representatividade da variante "moleque" (étimo africano na região Sudeste, principalmente em São Paulo e Minas Gerais.

  6. O modernismo e suas abordagens em Moçambique e Angola Modernism and its approaches in Mozambique and Angola

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    Rui Paes Mendes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A ditadura portuguesa condicionou a vida de Portugal durante grande parte do séc. XX, procurando regular todos os sectores da vida portuguesa à vontade do Estado, indo sua intervenção até a uma imposição do gosto e da estética dos seus cidadãos que se refletiram na arquitetura e no urbanismo. Os arquitetos portugueses,inicialmente conformados a uma política de encomenda do Estado Novo, vêm a ser influenciados com o advento do modernismo, com forte impacto junto às novas gerações de arquitetos que se formam na década de 1940. A nova visão preconizava que a arquitetura deveria aproximar-se dos anseios do cidadão, numa linguagem internacional que conduziria à própria reorganização da cidade. Essa visão é fortemente influenciada pela produção arquitetónica brasileira, que se revelaria essencial, pois do ponto de vista climático era muito semelhante ao continente africano, existindo diversas soluções e técnicas já experimentadas e saberes sedimentados que poderiam ser transpostos para aquele contexto. Até a independência, as colónias portuguesas experimentam um conjunto de intervenções arquitetónicas e urbanísticas influenciadas pelo modernismo brasileiro. Com a independência, a generalidade dos arquitetos regressa a Portugal, introduzindonovas contribuições estilísticas na paisagem urbana portuguesa, mas alguns partem (também para o Brasil, estabelecendo sua atividade naquele país.

  7. Hibridismo e simultaneidade em The Famished Road de Ben Okri = Hybridity and simultaneousness in The Famished Road, by Ben Okri

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    Divanize Carbonieri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analisa-se o romance The famished road (1991 de Ben Okri, um autor nigeriano que vive e publica suas obras na Inglaterra. O objetivo é demonstrar que é uma obra híbrida entre concepções de mundo e formas de narrar diferentes, características de diversas tradições literárias e orais. A análise é baseada nos conceitos de hibridismo, tradução cultural e cosmopolitismo vernáculo de Bhabha (1990 e 2000, além de textos teóricos sobre a cultura iorubá e a literatura africana, como Soyinka (1990, Okpewho (1983 e Quayson (2002, entre outros. Também são apresentadas as especificidades dorealismo mágico africano, um modo narrativo que reúne, em si, estratégias e técnicas distintas, com a discussão de autores como Cooper (2004, Slemon (1988 e Walter (1993.This article analyzes The famished road (1991 by Ben Okri, a Nigerian author who lives and publishes his works in England. Its main goal is to demonstrate that it is a hybrid work among different worldviews and narrative forms, characteristic of diverse literary andoral traditions. The analysis is based on concepts of hybridity, cultural translation and vernacular cosmopolitanism by Bhabha (1990 and 2000, as well as on theoretical texts about Yoruba culture and African literature, such as Soyinka (1990, Okpewho (1983, andQuayson (2002, among others. Specificities of African magical realism, a narrative mode that combines distinct strategies and techniques, are also presented with the discussion of authors, such as Cooper (2004, Slemon (1988, and Walter (1993.

  8. The new Africa and Brazil in the Lula era: the rebirth of Brazilian Atlantic Policy A nova África e o Brasil na era Lula: o renascimento da Política atlântica Brasileira

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    José Flávio Sombra Saraiva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the post-Cold War world, Africa has been an important focus of Brazilian foreign policy. Having a significant historical weight in building our nation, African countries are also part of the moves adopted by Brazil's foreign policy. The main purpose of the present text is to show this relevant regional dimension regarding Brazil's international insertion during the Lula era. The work is divided in two parts: the first part approaches Africa's international insertion throughout recent years and the second analyses the dimension occupied by African affairs in Brazil during the Lula era. The main argument is that the new role played by Africa in the international scene coincides with a global BrazilNo mundo pós-Guerra Fria, a África tem tido um papel de destaque para política externa brasileira. Além de ter significativo peso histórico na formação da nação, os países africanos também são parte do movimento adotado pela política externa brasileira. O propósito central deste texto é mostrar essa dimensão regional relevante da inserção internacional do Brasil na era Lula. O trabalho está dividido em duas partes: a primeira versa sobre a inserção internacional da África em anos recentes e a segunda analisa a dimensão ocupada pelo continente na política externa brasileira. O argumento central é que o novo lugar ocupado pela África no cenário internacional coincide com o Brasil global

  9. Una reina contra el sistema. Isabel la Católica y la esclavitud de los indios

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    Olaechea Labayen, Juan B.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Not available.La esclavitud en la época en cuestión estaba inmersa en la cultura de muchos países europeos y, no menos, en la española, de forma que los contingentes de los negros, bereberes y de otras procedencias eran absorbidos con facilidad en los puertos peninsulares. El envío de indios esclavos, como prisioneros de guerra, a partir del segundo viaje de Colón, planteó un serio dilema a la reina Isabel. La guerra constituía el capítulo más importante de la esclavitud, arraigado como un atavismo por siglos de lucha en la Reconquista, en la que habían participado buena parte de los primeros conquistadores. El mismo Colón, familiarizado con el fenómeno desde su infancia genovesa y su estancia en Portugal, incluyendo sus periplos africanos, llegó a proponer el envío de mercancía humana, a falta de otras ensoñaciones frustradas como la abundancia de oro, con el fin de compensar los ingentes gastos que producía su empresa. Es justo reconocer que Isabel la Católica tuvo alguna vacilación inicial, pero asumió pronto la conciencia de la necesidad de defender la libertad de los que consideraba súbditos suyos, cuyo objetivo centró buena parte de sus energías, a pesar de cegar una prometedora fuente de recursos económicos y abrir otra de gastos en repatriaciones y compensaciones de diverso género.

  10. Los inicios del “ministerio de negros” en la provincia jesuítica del Paraguay

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    Tardieu, Jean Pierre

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to contribute to fill up an emptiness on the study of the population of African origin and, generally, slave in an area in which, traditionally, its presence was even refused. The interest is focused on the process of evangelization carried out by the jesuits, because they were they who took care primarily of such ministry between the slaves. Firstly, are studied some canonical problems, considered by the Church and the jesuits, around the baptism and catechizing of the enslaved population; next, the fundamental aspects of this practice are reviewed based on the documentation shown in the Anuas Letters of the Jesuit Province of Paraguay.

    Este trabajo intenta contribuir a rellenar un vacío sobre el estudio de la población de origen africano y, por lo general, esclava en un área en la que, tradicionalmente, se negaba incluso su presencia. El interés recae sobre el proceso de evangelización llevado a cabo por los jesuitas, pues fueron ellos quienes se ocuparon prioritariamente de tal ministerio entre los esclavos. Primeramente, se ponen de relieve algunos problemas canónicos que se planteó la Iglesia, y en particular los jesuitas, en torno al bautismo y catequización de la población esclava; a continuación, se revisan los aspectos fundamentales de la práctica catequética: medios utilizados, aprendizaje de lenguas, creación de cofradías, etc., tomando como documentación de base las Cartas Anuas de la Provincia Jesuítica del Paraguay.

  11. Familias trasplantadas: imágenes, sueños y realidad

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    Neusa María Mendez de Gusmao

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The conceptions of the practices and values related to Education and Work in black families in Brazil and in African migrant families in Portugal constitute the subject of a debate about African Diaspora, represented, in its origin, by slavery in Brazil and also by the contemporary migration process towards Europe, particularly the one which results from migration of the African Countries of Portuguese Official Language (PALOP to Portugal. Thus, it's under question the dimension of old and new processes according to which the identities and the social practices in the ethnic field and in the collective action are "re-contextualized" and made particular. The condition of the "trans-located “people involves new rights to the roots, memory, identify and, above all, to the citizenship.//Las concepciones de las prácticas y de los valores relacionados con la educación y el trabajo en las familias negras de Brasil y en los inmigrantes negros en Portugal, constituye la base del debate sobre la Diáspora africana, representada, en su origen, por la esclavitud en Brasil y por el proceso contemporáneo de migración hacia Europa, particularmente la que resulta de la migración de países africanos de habla portuguesa hacia Portugal. Por lo tanto, es en la cuestión de la dimensión de los procesos antiguos y nuevos, según la cual las identidades y las prácticas sociales, en el ámbito étnico y en la acción colectiva, son re-contextualizadas y particularizadas. La condición de gente “trasplantada” supone nuevos derechos a las raíces, a la memoria a la identidad y sobre todo, a la ciudadanía.

  12. En los borrosos confines de la libertad: el caso de los negros emancipados en Cuba, 1817-1870

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    Roldán de Montaud, Inés

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the group of Africans that were taken to Cuba to be turned into slaves and were declared legally free due to the application of international treaties and the pressure of British abolitionist groups because the ship they were being transported on was captured. However, the so-called emancipated blacks, approximately 26,000, were assimilated as slaves in fear of their becoming a disruptive factor in the social order, due to the need of labor for the sugar plantations and the appearance of a lucrative business for the authorities. This study covers the period from their origin in 1817 to their disappearance in 1870.

    En este artículo estudiamos el grupo de africanos llevados a Cuba para convertirse en esclavos y que fueron declarados jurídicamente libres por haber sido capturado el buque que los transportaba, en aplicación de los tratados internacionales y la presión abolicionista británica. Los llamados negros emancipados, unos 26.000 individuos, fueron sin embargo asimilados a la población esclava ante el temor de que pudieran resultar un factor disolvente del orden social, debido a la necesidad de mano de obra para el azúcar y a la aparición de un lucrativo negocio para las autoridades. El estudio aborda la situación del grupo desde sus orígenes en 1817 hasta su desaparición en 1870.

  13. La pertenencia simultánea de los estados en los acuerdos de integración en América Latina

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    Jorge Fernández Reyes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En un reciente artículo relacionado con los “Procesos de integración contemporáneos en América Latina”, analizábamos en términos generales, las principales tendencias de dichos procesos de integración, individualizando a una de ellas, como la “Superposición e Interrelación” de los mismos en esta región, sin perjuicio de que ésta no era una característica única de América Latina, sino que la misma, también podía observarse en el continente europeo, africano y asiático1. Afirmábamos en dicha oportunidad –sin profundizar en sus consecuencias- que una de las manifestaciones integracionistas de fines del siglo pasado y de lo que transcurre del presente, era la existencia de un número importante de “Procesos de Integración en América Latina”, que si bien tenían objetivos o finalidades conceptualmente similares, tenían fundamentos o explicaciones de diversa índole y que se superponían y relacionaban, a partir de la configuración de las “participaciones múltiples” por parte de los Estados. A partir de dicha afirmación, vinculada con los distintos esquemas de integración en América Latina, la intención de este artículo es analizar el tema desde la óptica de la participación simultánea de los Estados en uno o más Acuerdos Regionales de Integración y las consecuencias que derivan de la misma, del punto de vista económico y jurídico.

  14. Resolución de «pequeños» conflictos en zonas de «grandes» conflictos. Una aproximación desde la antropología a las nociones endógenas de paz en Casamance (Senegal / Resolving «Small» Conflicts in Zones of «Large» Conflicts: An Anthropological...

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    Jordi Tomàs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A menudo, las grandes instituciones internacionales aplican políticas de resolución de conflictos a gran escala sin fijarse en los sistemas y estrategias endógenos de las poblaciones implicadas. En este artículo intentaremos presentar algunos valores, prácticas e instituciones locales que intentan resolver conflictos de todo tipo a pequeña escala en la región de Casamance, donde se vive uno de los conflictos más duraderos del continente africano. Para ello, presentamos los diferentes grupos étnicos que habitan en Casamance y algunas de sus instituciones más características a la hora de mediar entre familias, pueblos o comunidades. Y finalmente invitamos a reflexionar sobre si estas estrategias endógenas podrían ser utilizadas de forma coordinada como contribución al proceso de paz en Casamance.Large international institutions frequently apply sweeping policies of conflict resolution without paying attention to the endogenous systems and strategies of the populations involved. The aim of this article is to present several local institutions, practices and values which are used in attempts at all kinds of small-scale conflict resolution in the Casamance region, scene of one of the longst-running conflicts in the African continent. The different ethnic groups living in Casamance will be presented together with descriptions of some of their most characteristic institutions for mediating between families, villages and communities. It is hoped that this will lead to reflections on whether these endogenous strategies might be used in a coordinated fashion as a contribution towards the peace process in Casamance.

  15. Derecho indiano para esclavos, negros y castas. Integración, control y estructura estamental

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    Juana Patricia Pérez Munguía

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is concerned, primarily, with studying the legislation that was created to regulate the lives of persons brought from Africa to America, at first as slaves. Over the course of time, as massive numbers of Africans arrived in the seventeenth century the legal form of freedom for this population was born-this created a complex society that had an effect on the composition of social networks, the composition of social groups, and prohibitions/permissions, all of which is clearly seen through the attempts at legislative control imposed by the Crown. My revision of the laws of Indies shows the possibility of distinct paths of research. In the essay below, I will concentrate on integration, control and the structure of the social-legal group in question.//Esta investigación se centra en estudiar la legislación que fue creada para regular la vida de las personas traídas de África hacia América, en un principio como esclavos. En el siglo XVII, mientras llegaba una gran cantidad de africanos, se creó una forma legal de libertad para éstas personas, lo cual creó una sociedad compleja que tuvo efectos en la composición de las redes sociales, en la composición de los grupos sociales, en lo prohibido y lo permitido, todo esto visto a través de los mecanismos de control legislativo impuestos por la Corona. Mi revisión de estas Leyes de Indios, crea la posibilidad de ver distintos caminos de investigación. En este ensayo se hará énfasis en la integración, el control y la estructura social y legal del grupo en cuestión.

  16. La imperiosa necesidad de ser diferente en la globalización: el mercadeo territorial. La experiencia de las regiones chilenas

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    Sergio Boisier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se centra en un tema emergente: el nuevo papel de los territorios en la competencia mundial empujada por la globalización. Todos y cada uno de los territorios persigue lo mismo: atraer capital, tecnología, turismo y vender sus productos transables en todo el mundo. Como se dice en un antiguo proverbio africano, en la llanura da lo mismo ser león o gacela; en cualquier caso hay que correr desde que sale el sol para no morir de hambre o en las garras de un depredador. En América Latina es escasa la importancia dada al mercadeo territorial, si bien comienza a reconocerse su importancia. Se trata de aplicar a los territorios las normas sobre la retórica descritas por Aristóteles, es decir, aplicar a la presentación de los territorios ante su clientela, el arte del discurso, basado en el ethos (las características intrínsecas de quien emite el discurso, en el pathos (la emocionalidad que se busca despertar y en el logos (la palabra y la razón. El texto se divide en cuatro secciones: a Introducción, que presenta el problema aclarando la naturaleza sistémica de la globalización y su más probable resultado: la conformación de un único espacio de mercado y de múltiples espacios de producción; b Competencia y mercadeo territorial, una presentación de los conceptos teóricos principales; c La experiencia chilena en marketing territorial, presentando los programas del gobierno: PROCHILE y TODOCHILE; d Comentarios finales.

  17. A modernidade e a ruptura transatlântica: Uma reflexão sobre o comércio de escravos

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    Houston Baker Jr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A aplicabilidade global da modernidade tem a sua marca mais relevante no Tráfico de Escravos Transatlântico, em que milhões de africanos foram deportados para o “Novo Mundo”. Analisar a economia do tráfico e as suas implicações diaspóricas resulta no reconhecimento da importância do açúcar como mercadoria e da plantação como meio de produção. Partindo de um prelúdio rememorativo centrado na cidade de Coimbra em Portugal, a análise inclui uma explanação da escravatura nas colónias da América do Norte e das suas implicações hoje para o problema da raça nos Estados Unidos. Ce qui marque le plus l’applicabilité globale de la modernité, c’est le trafic trans-atlantique des esclaves, par lequel des millions d’Africains ont été déportés vers le “Nouveau Monde”. Analyser l’économie de ce trafic et ses implications quant à sa dimension de diaspora s’appuie sur la reconnaissance de l’importance du sucre comme marchandise et de la plantation comme moyen de production. Partant d’un prélude remémoratif centré à Coimbra au Portugal, l’analyse tente d’apporter une explication au sujet de l’esclavage dans les colonies de l’Amérique du Nord et de ses implications aujourd’hui pour ce qui est du problème racial aux Etats-Unis.

  18. La genética de las poblaciones centroamericanas

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    Barrantes, Ramiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones centroamericanas no han sido objeto de muchos estudios genéticos con la excepción de análisis esporádicos de la variación entre y dentro de los grupos amerindios y de origen africano ubicados en el área. No obstante, en los últimos 15 años se efectuaron investigaciones sistemáticas en este sentido incluyendo poblaciones mestizas, particularmente las de Costa Rica y Panamá. En los amerindios se efectuaron estudios detallados de su estructura genética y las relaciones filogenéticas entre poblaciones en un contexto regional y continental. De manera general estos grupos mantienen una baja diversidad genética. Por otra parte, estimativas de la mezcla génica en la población mestiza muestran diferencias dentro y entre los distintos países del área. Al Valle Central de Costa Rica se le atribuye la condición de aislado con una supuesta constitución genética homogénea favorable para los estudios de desequilibrio de ligamiento y asociaciones con algunas enfermedades hereditarias; sin embargo, los resultados obtenidos con relación el flujo génico direccional, la amalgama de etnias y otros componentes de su estructura como la variación temporal y espacial de la consanguinidad y la migración indican una mayor heterogeneidad. Se muestran los resultados y conclusiones obtenidas y se plantean las perspectivas y tendencias al mediano plazo que vinculan los enfoques y métodos de la epidemiología y la antropología genética y el estudio genético de poblaciones.

  19. ENTREVISTA A ÁNGELES DÍAZ OJEDA

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    Lydia Rodríguez Cuevas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Ángeles Díaz Ojeda es actualmente Consejera Técnica de la Subdirección General de Cooperación con los Países de América del Sur de la Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional (AECI. Es responsable del Programa Indígena, que gestiona y coordina la cooperación española con los pueblos indígenas. Ángeles Díaz se licenció en Sociología (especialidad en Antropología a finales de los 70 y participó activamente en la implantación de los actuales departamentos de antropología y en la creación de la Federación de Asociaciones de Antropología del Estado Español (FAAEE. Además, ha sido conservadora en el Museo Nacional de Antropología (España y desde principios de los 90 es responsable de la cooperación española con diversos países africanos y latinoamericanos. En esta entrevista Ángeles Díaz nos habla sobre el nacimiento de la FAAEE y sobre la institucionalización de la antropología en España, así como de la relación entre la antropología y la cooperación para el desarrollo.

  20. Determinantes sociales de la salud en el embarazo, postparto y maternidad reciente: el impacto de la migración

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    Lígia Moreira Almeida

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación buscó establecer una interfaz entre Salud Pública y Medicina Social. Su objetivo principal se basó en la evaluación de desigualdades teóricas en el acceso, utilización y calidad del cuidado à la salud materna en madres recientes inmigrantes y su interacción con los determinantes sociales de la salud. El plan de investigación subyacente fue diseñado para explorar determinantes clínicos, individuales y sociales específicos en salud materna (en embarazo y posparto. Otro objetivo específico fue la evaluación del acceso, utilización y calidad de la atención recibida (adecuación y satisfacción de las respuestas ofrecidas por el sistema de salud pública, comparando el estado de salud, las percepciones y necesidades de mujeres inmigrantes y nativas en las mismas condiciones y etapas de la maternidad. Los datos se recogieron en todos los hospitales de referencia y varias asociaciones civiles de Porto, para llegar a la población destinataria: madres recientes procedentes de los países con mayor representación en Portugal (Brasil, países africanos de habla portuguesa y países de Europa del Este, y madres recientes portuguesas (por comparación. Para cumplir los objetivos, fueron realizados tres estudios a partir de datos obtenidos en los orígenes definidos, siguiendo diferentes enfoques y diseños metodológicos (estrategias cualitativas y cuantitativas.

  1. TRÁGICO NOS TRÓPICOS. TRABALHANDO NIETZSCHE NO BRASIL

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    Rodrigo dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é uma exposição dos primeiros resultados de uma pesquisa de mestrado em andamento, cujo objetivo principal é estabelecer uma reflexão sobre a constituição de uma filosofia do trágico no Brasil. A filosofia do trágico nasce na modernidade sob a influência do idealismo alemão e se intensifica, com Nietzsche, como alternativa à racionalidade conceitual da ciência moderna e à hierarquia dos valores proposta pela moral judaico-cristã. Assim como o jovem Nietzsche encontra na Grécia Antiga o fundamento para a elaboração de sua filosofia do trágico – o dionisíaco – é possível que possamos extrair da cosmovisão da cultura yorùbá, que até hoje sobrevive em território africano e em território brasileiro no processo litúrgico do culto aos orìsà, elementos que permitam a formulação do nosso próprio pensamento trágico. Tanto em Nietzsche como na cultura yorùbá, o corpo é valorizado como instância primordial na produção do saber. Assim, deveremos observar como a produção de conceitos a partir da cosmovisão yorùbá pode contribuir como alternativa aos saberes que privilegiam em sua base o que Derrida apontou como “etnocentrismo” e “logocentrismo”.

  2. Sartre e o humanismo racista europeu: uma leitura sartriana de Frantz Fanon Sartre and the european racist humanism: a Sartrian reading of Frantz Fanon

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    Marco Antonio Arantes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Centrado no livro de Sartre, "Colonialismo e Neocolonialismo - Situações V", e no seu prefácio escrito para o livro Les Dammés de La Terre, de Frantz Fanon, o presente artigo propõe percorrer algumas considerações sartrianas a respeito de Fanon e o colonialismo francês na Argélia, tendo como pano de fundo a complexidade das relações sociais em países colonizados. Como representantes do pensamento anticolonial e críticos das alienações geradas pelo colonialismo, Sartre e Fanon elaboraram críticas radicais sobre as estratégias de violência, subordinação e desumanização que atingiram o colonizado africano, instigados pela reconstrução social com o uso da violência, buscando-se assim um novo homem em sua verdadeira humanidade.Centered on Sartre's book "Colonialismo e Neocolonialismo - Situações V" and on the foreword written by philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre for Frantz Fanon's book, Les Dammés de la Terre, the present article intends to explore some Sartrian considerations on both Fanon and the French colonialism in Algeria, building upon the complexity of social relationships in colonized countries. As representatives of anticolonial thought and critics of the alienation generated by colonialism, Sartre and Fanon elaborated radical criticism on the strategies of violence, subordination and dehumanization that affected the colonized African, urged by the social reconstruction using violence, looking for a new man in his true humanity.

  3. Cambio climático en España y riesgo de enfermedades infecciosas y parasitarias transmitidas por artrópodos y roedores

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    Rogelio López-Vélez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Por la proximidad con el continente africano, siendo lugar de tránsito obligado de aves migratorias y personas, y por las condiciones climáticas, cercanas a las de zonas donde hay transmisión de enfermedades vectoriales, España es un país en el que este tipo de enfermedades podrían verse potenciadas por el cambio climático. El posible riesgo vendría por extensión geográfica de vectores ya establecidos o por la importación e instalación de vectores sub-tropicales adaptados a sobrevivir en climas menos cálidos y más secos. Hipoté- ticamente, las enfermedades vectoriales susceptibles de ser influidas por el cambio climático en España serían aquellas transmitidas por dípteros como dengue, encefalitis del Nilo occidental, fiebre del valle del Rift, malaria y leishmaniosis; las transmitidas por garrapatas como la fiebre de Congo Crimea, encefalitis por garrapata, enfermedad de Lyme, fiebre botonosa y fiebre recurrente endémica; y las transmitidas por roedores. Pero la mayor y más factible amenaza sería la instauración del mosquito Aedes albopictus, que sería capaz de transmitir enfermedades virales como la del Nilo occidental o el dengue. Pero para el establecimiento de auténticas áreas de endemia se necesitaría la conjunción de otros factores, tales como el aflujo masivo y simultáneo de reservorios animales o humanos y el deterioro de las condiciones socio-sanitarias y de los servicios de Salud Pública.

  4. China’s and Japan’s Foreign Aid Policies vis-à-vis Lusophone Africa

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    Pedro Miguel Amakasu Raposo de Medeiros Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the evolution of China’s and Japan’s foreign policies to Lusophone Africa, focusing on the period post-2000. The lack of analysis on Beijing’s and Tokyo’s respective aid policies towards Portuguese-speaking African countries (Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa, PALOP makes this study relevant. Arguably, Japan’s development “edge” over China in terms of the “aid model” approach towards PALOP countries is under threat. This raises questions about China’s changing pattern of aid, characterised by an increasing amount of “soft” aid towards PALOP states outside of trade and investment relations, which is much in line with Japan’s aid philosophy and, according to observers, less neocolonialist than Japan’s previous aid practices. This paper asks which model of cooperation is morally better and which is more effective, as both donors have interests in PALOP countries beyond development assistance. It finds complementarities in the two countries’ aid allocation to PALOP states, such as poverty eradication given the sectoral diversity of Chinese aid, and the empowerment of local communities fostered by Japanese aid’s emphasis on grassroots and human-security projects.

  5. Innovative corporate social responsibility in Botswana. The Debswana mining company study case

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    José Ramón Torres Solís

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan una serie de consideraciones sobre la forma en que una importante compañía africana hace frente a su responsabilidad social, en lo que podría ser una innovación en la industria minera dedicada a la explotación del diamante. De esta manera se realiza un caso de estudio referido a la compañía Debswana que opera en Botswana, uno de los países africanos más destacados en la producción diamantífera mundial. Se discuten y critican algunas acciones implementadas por esa compañía en materia de responsabilidad social y se concluye con algunos señalamientos y opiniones al respecto. Podemos señalar que los resultados del estudio de este caso muestran como altamente positivas las interacciones de esta compañía minera con la sociedad en la que se desenvuelve sin que deje de puntualizarse la existencia de algunos inconvenientes serios que deben ser superados en conjunción con las políticas públicas del gobierno de ese país. Es importante señalar que lo que se intenta hacer en este trabajo es mostrar algunos hechos que consideramos importantes en la responsabilidad social de una organización en particular, buscando construir un caso de estudio que pudiera ser relevante para las disciplinas administrativas en cuya literatura han sido escasamente tratados.

  6. Algunos mitos, estereotipos, realidades y retos de Latinoamérica

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    José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La mayoría de los latinoamericanistas tratan a las naciones Latinoamericanas como si sólo fuera un simple objeto de estudio, el cual tiene características similares. El propósito de este trabajo es analizar algunos de los mitos, estereotipos, realidades y retos atribuidos a una de las más importantes regiones del mundo, conocida como Latinoamérica. Latinoamérica ha sido conceptualizada como una entidad homogénea, significando solamente las naciones actuales que han recibido la herencia ibérica como resultado de haber sido conquistadas y colonizadas por España y Portugal. La mayor parte de los estudios sobre América Latina descuidan reconocer la influencia de otras culturas de Europa del Norte y devalúan la fuerte herencia recibida de las culturas indígenas o amerindias y los descendientes africanos. ________________ABSTRACT:The majority of Latin-americanists consider Latin-American nations as if they were just a simple case of study that has similar characteristics. The purpose of this work is to analyse some of the beliefs, stereotypes, realities and challenges ascribed to one of the most important regions of the world, known as Latin America. Latin America has been considered as a homogeneous entity meaning only the present nations that have received the Iberian-heritage as a result of having been conquered and colonized by Spain and Portugal. The large part of the studies about Latin America does not take into account the influence of other cultures of North-Europe and undermines the strong heritage received from the aboriginal or Amerindian cultures and the African descending.

  7. Análisis geográfico de las actuales relaciones comerciales entre Canarias y Marruecos / Geographic analysis of commercial relations between the Canary Islands and Morocco

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    Ramón Díaz Hernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo formulamos como hipótesis de partida que Canarias, como frontera meridional de Europa, en un contexto de creciente internacionalización, tiene en los mercados africanos una gran baza histórica que desempeñar. Dado el interés general que este asunto suscita entre las ciencias sociales, se requiere abordarlo desde el análisis geográfico. Para cumplimentar este estudio se emplearon las estadísticas que ofrecen organismos oficiales como el Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Instituto Canario de Estadística, Agencia Estatal de la Administración Tributaria, Instituto de Comercio Exterior y entidades internacionales como la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Comercio y el Desarrollo (UNCTAD y la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OCM.In this work we formulate the hypothesis that the Canary Islands, as Europe’s southern border, must develop an important role in African markets, in a context of increasing internationalization. Because of the general interest in this issue within the social sciences, to address it from the geographic analysis is required. This study is based, on the one hand, on statistics provided by Spanish government agencies such as the National Statistics Institute, the Canary Institute of Statistics, the State Tax Administration Agency and the Institute of Foreign Trade and, on the other hand, by international entities such as the United Nations Conference for Trade and Development (UNCTAD and the World Trade Organization (WTO.

  8. Donación de sangre y prevalencia de infecciones transmitidas por la sangre en una clínica de Luanda, Angola

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    Julio Dámaso Fernádez Águila

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: muchos países africanos carecen de un suministro adecuado de sangre segura y no tienen registros fiables sobre la prevalencia de infecciones transmitidas por la sangre. Objetivos: caracterizar la donación de sangre en una clínica, determinar las causas de rechazo de candidatos a donar y la prevalencia entre ellos de las infecciones que se pesquisan. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, realizado en la Clínica Multiperfil de Angola. Se incluyeron 8 043 candidatos a donar sangre que se presentaron entre los años 2005 y 2010. Las variables analizadas fueron: tipo de donante, resultado de los estudios de laboratorio y de la evaluación al donante, causas de rechazo. Se aplicó la prueba chi cuadrado para determinar diferencias entre los valores de frecuencia, con un intervalo de confianza del 95 % (p <0,05. Resultados: el 9,7 % de las donaciones fueron voluntarias y el resto familiares. Hubo diferencias significativas entre las tasas de rechazo de los candidatos a donar según tipos de donación: 29,9 % en las familiares y 6,8 % en las voluntarias. La causa más común de rechazo fue la positividad del antígeno de superficie de la hepatitis B en los donantes familiares y en los voluntarios ocasionales. Entre los voluntarios regulares fueron la malaria y las causas no infecciosas. Se demostraron diferencias en la prevalencia de infecciones entre los diferentes tipos de donantes. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de infecciones que pueden transmitirse por la sangre es elevada. Los donantes voluntarios son los de menor riesgo pero su captación es baja.

  9. El poder de la prensa, la prensa del poder : reflexión entorno al periodismo afroargentino

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    Jean Arsène Yao

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Le grand développement de la presse qui se produisit en Argentine à partir de 1850 se caractérisa en particulier par l'émergence d'une presse afro-argentine très active, dont l'objectif était de défendre les intérêts de la communauté noire. Cet article essaie de déterminer si les Argentins d'origine africaine prirent conscience du pouvoir de la presse écrite, comme moyen de divulgation de leurs idées. Par ailleurs, il met en évidence les accointances des journaux afroargentins avec la classe politique de l'époque, démontrant ainsi à quel point ils furent instrumentalisés par le pouvoir en place.El despegue periodístico que se produjo en Argentina durante la década de 1850 vio la aparición de una activa prensa afroargentina defensora de los intereses de la comunidad negra. Este artículo pretende analizar en qué medida los argentinos de origen africano fueron conscientes del poder de la prensa escrita como medio de divulgación de sus ideas. Subraya por otra parte el acercamiento de los periódicos afroargentinos a la clase política convirtiéndose en instrumentos del poder político.In the 1850's appeared an Afro-Argentinian activist press, which defended the black community interests. In this paper the author tries to evaluate if the Argentinians of African origin realized the full power of the written press as a way of spreading their ideas.Therefore, he explains the conversion of the Afro-Argentinians newspapers as political instruments.

  10. Marcadores ancestrales culturales y genéticos: investigación de apellidos mapuche

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    Corach, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Las comunidades aborígenes que habitan las regiones andinas se caracterizan por haber conservado elementos lingüísticos originarios en sus apellidos. Estos han sufrido procesos de “occidentalización”, manteniendo, no obstante, rasgos etnia-específicos. Tal situación permite disponer de un criterio simple para identificar con cierto grado de certeza la ancestralidad de un individuo. Con el objeto de evaluar el grado de correlación entre este marcador cultural y marcadores genéticos hemos llevado a cabo una investigación con individuos varones no relacionados provenientes de las provincias de Río Negro y Chubut (N=136. Los donantes se seleccionaron de acuerdo a la presencia de elementos lingüísticos Mapuche en sus apellidos e individuos con apellidos europeos. Se emplearon tres criterios de clasificación: apellidos, presencia del haplogrupo Q-M3 y presencia de Haplogrupos mitocondriales amerindios (ABCD. Los grupos clasificados de acuerdo con estos criterios fueron analizados mediante 15 STRs autosómicos y 9 Y-STRs. En ambas provincias más del 95% de los individuos portadores de apellidos Mapuche exhibían hgs matri y/o patrilineales amerindios. Por otro lado, en Río Negro y Chubut sólo 18 y 17%, respectivamente, no exhibieron ni apellidos ni marcadores genéticos asociables con ancestros amerindios; en éstos los hgmt más representados fueron H (6.5%, U5 (4.3% y K (2.8%, seguidos por T (1.4%, V (0.7%, X (0.7% y M (0.7%. También fue detectado el hg Africano en baja frecuencia (1.4%. Nuestros resultados confirman una correlación estrecha entre apellidos Mapuche y polimorfismos genéticos étnia-específicos.

  11. Perfiles demográficos y culturales esquemáticos en la comunidad de esclavos del centro de Veracruz dentro de un contexto interpretativo más amplio

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    Patrick Carroll

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Basado principalmente en padrones, protocolos y registros parroquiales, este estudio consta de dos partes: la primera delinea un perfil estructural de la población de origen africano en las provincias coloniales de Córdoba, Jalapa, y Orizaba, Veracmz, aproximadamente entre 1580 y 1790. Se centra en características como tamaño de la población, lugar de origen (etnicidad, identificación racial y género, distribución de edades, status familiar, tipo de residencia (ingenio, trapiche, casa individual, zona Nral o zona urbana, etcétera. La segunda parte es más especulativa. Explora algunas de las consecuencias socio- económicas implícitas en el perfil cambiante de la población esclava dentro del contexto de temas como: transferencia y persistencia de cultura africana vs. la criollización africana; la intersección de consúuctores sociales (raza y etnicidad y la estratificación social; desarrollo atlántico vs. desarollo veracruzano, y la formación de la familia y la comunidad esclavas. Además, trata el desarrollo económico como el cambio de las funciones laborales rurales y urbanas de los esclavos, las cambiantes oportunidades de movilidad económica veríical y, de acuerdo wn lo que los datos permiten, compara los papeles económicos en desarrollo y responsabilidades de hombres y mujeres dentro los hogares esclavos.

  12. South-South cooperation for development: Brazil-Africa relations in the promotion of public policies (2003-2012 Cooperación Sur-Sur para el desarrollo: las relaciones Brasil-África en la promoción de las políticas públicas (2003-2012

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    Carlos Eduardo Santos PINHO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the classical development cooperation provided by rich countries (NorthSouth Cooperation-CNS, the South-South Cooperation (CSS is designed as a horizontal partnership between countries sharing similar problems and development challenges. Once recipient of development aid for decades, Brazil claims it has a better understanding of the needs of poor countries. Since 2003, Brazil has been deepening relations with sub-Saharan Africa both from the projection of their companies as through the internationalization of public policy. Despite the «limitations›› and «tensions›› of this type of embryonic CSS, the article argues that Brazil has contributed substantially to the development of the African continent.A diferencia de los modelos clásicos de cooperación para el desarrollo promovidos por los países ricos (cooperación Norte-Sur-CNS, la cooperación Sur-Sur (CSS se concibe como una asociación horizontal entre países que comparten problemas y desafíos similares para el desarrollo. Brasil, que durante décadas fue receptor de ese tipo de ayuda, afirma tener una mejor comprensión de las necesidades de los países pobres. Desde 2003, ese país ha profundizado sus relaciones con el África subsahariana, tanto a partir de la proyección de sus empresas como por medio de la «internacionalización›› de las políticas públicas. A pesar de las «limitaciones›› y «tensiones›› de esa modalidad embrionaria de CSS, el artículo argumenta que Brasil está contribuyendo substancialmente al desarrollo del continente africano.

  13. Geografías urbanas: representación e identidad en la literatura africana en español

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    M’bare N’gom

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia las representaciones de las geografías urbanas y sus problemáticas en la literatura africana de expresión castellana. Para tal efecto propone la representación de las realidades urbanas como espacios de experiencias de vida heterogéneas, ya sean culturales, políticas o de renegociación de identidad. Igualmente examina cómo esa geografía urbana se configura como espacio que se presta a la articulación de una multitud de discursos y reinterpretaciones de la realidad urbana y urbanística, que obligan en este caso al sujeto migrante africano a embarcarse en un proceso de reterritorialización desde la transterritorialidad del desplazamiento, como estrategia de supervivencia en ese espacio ajeno y dislocado que es la ciudad.This study explores the representations of urban geography and its problematic in African literature in Spanish. It intends to examinate the representation of urban realities as spaces of heterogeneous experiences, be they cultural, political, or renegociation of identity. Along those lines, this study will discuss how urban geography becomes a space that allows a multitude of negociations, as well as the articulation of a variety of discourses and reinterpretations of urban and urbanistic reality that oblige the African migrant subject, in this case, to engage in a process of reterritorialization from the transterritoriality of displacement, as a strategy for survival in an alien and dislocated space such as the City.

  14. Water, Health and Agriculture in Africa Eau, santé, agriculture en Afrique Agua, salud y agricultura en África

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    2012-04-01

    uvré pour renforcer les liens scientifiques et techniques avec l'Afrique francophone. Des forums ont été organisés, axés soit sur des problèmes globaux de recherche, d'enseignement ou de formation à caractère fondamental, soit sur des questions à caractère spécifique touchant à la santé, à l'agriculture, à la nutrition, à l'épidémiologie, à la démographie, aux ressources énergétiques et minières. Ce onzième Forum a réuni des universitaires et des chercheurs français, ainsi que divers membres de l'Académie des Sciences et d'Académies africaines.Il s'inscrit ainsi dans la ligne des forums antérieurs du COPED.Les participants africains, universitaires, directeurs de centres de recherche, académiciens, se sont efforcés de dresser un état des lieux concernant les ressources en eau dans leurs pays respectifs et leur gestion. En parallèle, les chercheurs français et africains ont rapporté diverses approches : méthodologies de pointe pour l’assainissement, prévention des risques, nouveaux paradigmes concernant l’utilisation des eaux usées, expériences localesBajo los auspicios del COPED (Comité de Países en Desarrollo : http://www.coped.org y la DRI (Delegación de Relaciones Internacionales de la Academia de las Ciencias, y en colaboración con el GID  (Grupo Interacadémico para el Desarrollo : http://g-i-d.org, se ha celebrado un importante Foro franco-africano titulado “Agua, Salud y Agricultura en África”, en París, en la Academia de las Ciencias, el 12 y el 13 de mayo de 2011.Desde su creación en 1996, el COPED ha trabajado esencialmente para reforzar los vínculos científicos y técnicos con el África francófona. Se han organizado foros basados en problemas globales de investigación, enseñanza o formación de carácter fundamental, acerca de temas de carácter específico vinculados a la salud, la agricultura, la nutrición, la epidemiología, la demografía y los recursos energéticos y mineros. Este undécimo Foro

  15. Natural infection of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Marsupialia with Leishmania infantum in Brazil

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    Carreira João Carlos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The opossum Didelphis have been considered as natural hosts of Leishmania parasites in the New World, suggesting an important role in the epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL. Among six extant species that belong to the genus Didelphis, only two (D. marsupialis and D. albiventris, have been mentioned as natural hosts of Leishmania infantum in Brazil and Colombia. In the present paper, it is reported for the first time, the observation of intracellular parasites (amastigotes in tissues of Didelphis aurita naturally infected with Leishmania infantum in Brazil. We also discuss some aspects associated to the relationship between L. infantum and the geographical distribution of some species of the genus Didelphis. Methods The opossums studied were caught by wire traps (Tomahawk in Barra de Guaratiba, a peri-urban area in Rio de Janeiro. The opossums were killed with an overdose of Thiopental sodium.At necropsy, macroscopic alterations were examined and samples from liver, spleen, lymph nodes, ear, abdominal skin, scent glands and bone marrow were collected for parasitological and molecular diagnoses. Results Forty-eight opossums were captured in an AVL endemic region, 30 being caught in a mangrove area and eighteen animals in a forest area near to some residential-yards. Among the thirty opossums trapped in the mangrove area, all of them were negative by both imprint and sera samples assayed on Dipstick Tests, that is a test based on a combination of protein-A colloidal gold conjugate and rk39 Leishmania antigen to detect anti-Leishmania antibody in serum or plasma. At the macroscopic examination one out of eighteen opossums, caught close to the forest, presented alterations compatible with spleen hypertrophy and three were positive by Dipstick Tests (16.6% and presented amastigotes in the spleen and in one of them, the parasites were also observed in a submandibular lymph node. Leishmania infantum infections were confirmed

  16. Os Desafios da Epidemia do Ebola

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    Manoel Dias da Fonsêca Neto

    2014-09-01

    de Ebola traz, no seu bojo, grandes desafios para os serviços de saúde e pesquisadores. Três fatores intervieram para sua eclosão e repercussão. O primeiro está na gravidade da doença, expressa numa letalidade de 50 a 90%. O segundo diz respeito à magnitude, abrangendo três países e cidades altamente populosas, na Libéria, Guiné Conacri e Serra Leoa. De acordo com a Organização Mundial da Saúde - OMS, os surtos surgem, normalmente, em aldeias remotas da África Central e Ocidental, próximo a florestas tropicais. Neste momento, o vírus, que tem cinco estirpes, só existe no continente africano, mas já houve casos nas Filipinas e na China(4,5,6. E o terceiro está ligado à questão cultural, tanto do ponto de vista dos costumes locais que favorecem a transmissão, como da desconfiança da população em relação aos serviços de saúde e seu despreparo. Nesta mescla de cultura apareceu uma nova ameaça vinculada à intensa mobilidade entre países, através da aviação turística e de negócios. A possibilidade de expansão para os países desenvolvidos colocou o mundo em alerta, em particular a OMS. A resposta dos órgãos internacionais foi lenta e limitada quando a epidemia abrangia só os países africanos. O Ebola existe desde 1976 na República Democrática do Congo e no Sudão, quando da primeira epidemia e pouco foi feito, desde então, até esta avassaladora epidemia atual, que já matou em torno de 5.000 africanos. Três estratégias e ao mesmo tempo, desafios, tornaram-se evidentes atualmente, onde a primeira ação deu-se numa localidade onde os Médicos Sem Fronteiras propuseram contratar pessoas curadas do Ebola como agentes multiplicadores, uma espécie de agente comunitário de saúde, e instituíram o ritual do abraço, em que os profissionais de saúde sem seus equipamentos de proteção abraçavam o paciente curado no momento da alta. A confiança da população e o compromisso dos profissionais reduziram a letalidade para 10 a

  17. Prospects for area-wide integrated control of tsetse flies (Diptera:Glossinidae and trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa Perspectivas para el control integrado abarcativo del área de moscas tse-tsé (Diptera: Glossinidae y la tripanosomiasis en el África sub-Sahariana

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    Marc J.B. Vreysen

    2006-07-01

    large scale eradication approaches to localised tsetse control efforts by the local farmer communities, combined with the growing economic crises and political instability in many African countries has most likely contributed to the decline of most tsetse control efforts in the last decades. It is obvious that the sustained removal of the tsetse fly over large geographical areas would result in enormous benefits for the rural farmer community. Tsetse population genetic studies and data derived from satellite remote sensing are providing more and more convincing evidence that tsetse fly populations are not distributed in a continuous belt (at least in East Africa, but in large fragmented pockets. These tsetse 'islands ' (e.g. the Southern Rift Valley in Ethiopia, KwaZulu Natal in South Africa-Mozambique and the Niayes area in West Senegal offer excellent opportunities for the creation of sustainable tsetse-free zones using an AW-IPM approach.Los países del África sub-Sahariana están entre los menos desarrollados del mundo, y el hambre y la pobreza continúan siendo muy extendidos en la mayoría de las comunidades rurales. Se considera que disminuir el hambre y la sub-alimentación mediante la introducción de ganado productivo, como fuente de tracción y abono para la producción agrícola, el transporte, los lácteos y la carne, es un primer paso fundamental hacia un mejor desarrollo rural. La presencia de la mosca tse-tsé en un tercio del continente africano y la tripanosomiasis que transmite, se consideran la principal barrera para el desarrollo del ganado productivo. A pesar de la administración anual de 35 millones de dosis de drogas tripanocidas (a 1 (un dólar por dosis, los granjeros africanos pierden 3 millones de cabezas de ganado por año debido a esta enfermedad, y las pérdidas económicas directas se estiman entre 600 y 1200 millones de dólares. La mosca tse-tsé afecta principalmente a los campesinos pobres, y es considerada una causa fundamental de

  18. MAMÍFEROS NÃO-VOADORES DE UM FRAGMENTO DE MATA MESÓFILA SEMIDECÍDUA, DO INTERIOR DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

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    Marcus Vinicius Vieira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Semideciduous forests from rural areas of São Paulo State are isolated and small due to agriculture, industry and city growth. Fragmented forests are important to the persistence of several mammal species. In this study we did an inventory of the mammal fauna from a fragmented mesophilous semideciduous forest in the rural regionof the São Paulo State (Fazenda São José, between Rio Claro and Araras cities. In the three sampling periods, between May 1997 and March 1999, field work was done using traps for small mammals, direct observation of animals and identification of their footprints. We recorded the occurrence of three marsupial species (Didelphidae, twoarmadillos (Dasipodidae, three primates (Callithrichidae and Cebidae, five carnivores (Canidae, Procyonidae and Mustelidae, one deer (Cervidae, six rodent (Sciuridae and Muridae and one rabbit (Leporidae. Didelphis albiventris (Didelphidae, Nectomys squamipes and Akodon montensis (Muridae were the most frequently species captured. Mammal species of the study area are also present in other areas of Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State and others mesophilous forests from of the region around. However, we did not captured or observed signs of rodents and felid species common to other areas linked to the study area through gallery forest of the Ribeirão Claro (Rio Claro city. The forest studied showed a subset of mammal species present in other larger areas of the region, and the mammal species listed in this area demonstrated how it is important theconservation of this and other forest fragments to mammal diversity in the State. = As florestas semidecíduas do interior do Estado de São Paulo são isoladas e pequenas devido às atividades agrícolas, expansão urbana e industrial. Os remanescentes dos fragmentos florestais são importantes para a persistência de diversas espécies demamíferos. Neste estudo foi feito um inventário da mastofauna de um fragmento de mata mesófila semidec

  19. Propietarios de esclavos en el Guanajuato colonial

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    María Guevara Sanguinés

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican historiography concerning the presence of Africans and their descendents in Mexico has emphasized slaves and free-persons, but there has been little writing on analyzing the relationships between the owners of slaves and the slaves in everyday life. In the essay that follows, I discuss the relationship between the slave owners and the relationships that developed between slave owners and their slaves. My study will give emphasis to the formation of families, the interaction between the countryside and the city, conflicts and participation in the economy (fishing, mining and commercial ventures. Essentially, this is a family study, based on serial records from the local notary archives and other judicial sources. Although originally my analysis focuses on the relationships of the Busto family, I will only use this group as the analytical framework and as a unifying group of a wide region that includes the Altos de Jalisco, the Bajio of Guanajuato and Queretaro.//La historiografía mexicana relacionada con la presencia de africanos y sus descendientes en México ha puesto énfasis en los esclavos y en las personas libres pero ha dejado de lado el estudio de las relaciones entre los dueños y sus esclavos en la vida cotidiana. En el presente ensayo se discute precisamente dicho vínculo. Este estudio se concentrará en la formación de familias, en la interacción entre las ciudades y el campo, en los conflictos y la participación de la economía (pesca, minería y comercio. Esencialmente este es un estudio de la familia, basado en registros notariales. Aunque el análisis se centra en las relaciones de la familia Busto, este grupo se empleará sólo como un marco analítico y como unificador de una gran región que incluye los Altos de Jalisco, el Bajío de Guanajuato y Querétaro.

  20. A presença do Novo Mundo na iconografia da morte e dos sonhos de São Francisco Xavier: a missão jesuítica e as partes e gentes do Império Português

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    Luís Filipe Silvério Lima

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste artigo é analisar diferentes leituras pictóricas da morte e dos sonhos de S. Francisco Xavier, desde inícios do século XVII até a parte da pesquisa em relação à morte deriva de monografia defendida em 2010 na Unifesp. Versões da parte sobre o sonho foram apresentadas em congressos em 2010 e uma prévia bastante resumida foi publicada na Revista de História da Biblioteca Nacional (n. 93, Junho de 2013. Gostaríamos de agradecer às contribuições feitas naquelas ocasiões pela audiência e pela banca, bem como também agradecemos a André Tavares, Evergton Sales Souza, Renato Cymbalista e aos pareceristas. A pesquisa contou com o apoio do CNPq e da Fapesp. meados do século XVIII. Se o jesuíta, mesmo antes de sua canonização em 1622 era entendido como Apóstolo do Oriente, a partir da segunda metade do século XVII, ocorreu uma mudança iconográfica pela qual aos personagens e elementos asiáticos somaram-se africanos e índios americanos na representação da cena de sua morte e de seus sonhos. Pretende-se a partir desse câmbio imagético analisar a construção de um programa visual da hagiografia de Xavier, no qual a vinculação exclusiva com o Oriente é suplantada pelos esforços em caracterizá-lo como exemplo máximo para a Missão, aplicável também - e sobretudo - às Américas. Interessam aqui em particular essas modulações no caso do Brasil e do Império Português.

  1. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 larvae (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infecting Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Amazon region Ocorrência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infectando o Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda na região amazônica

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    Sanny Maria de Andrade-Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica or "giant African snail" is an exotic species, considered to be one of the world's hundred most invasive species, causing serious environmental damages. In the present study we report, for the first time, the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infecting A.fulica in the Amazon region. This nematode is described parasitizing mainly the pulmonary system of felines, which causes "aelurostrongilose", also known as feline cardio-pulmonary strongyloidosis. New morphometric data of third stage larvae are presented herein. The present study demonstrated that 40% of all the snails were infected by A. abstrusus. Achatina fulica specimens were collected from three different areas in Manaus namely: rural; east and west areas. The east area presents the highest prevalence of 80%. The large number of A.fulica found in inhabited areas increases the chances of emergent zoonoses, which highlights the need of further studies so as to better control this disease.Achatina fulica ou "caramujo africano" é uma espécie exótica, considerada uma das cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos ambientais. No presente estudo foi registrado, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência do Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infectando o A.fulica na região amazônica. Esse nematóide é descrito parasitando principalmente o sistema pulmonar de felinos, causando a "aelurostrongilose", também conhecida como estrongiloidose cardio-pulmonar felina. Novos dados morfométricos de larvas de terceiro estágio são apresentados. Dos 45 caramujos coletados, 40% estavam infectados por larvas de A. abstrusus. Especimens de Achatina fulica foram coletados em três áreas da cidade de Manaus: rural, leste e oeste. A zona leste apresentou a maior prevalência de 80%. O grande número de A.fulica encontrado em áreas habitadas aumenta as chances de ocorrência de zoonoses emergentes e destaca a necessidade de mais estudos para o melhor controle da doença.

  2. ¿Cuándo un estado es un estado? Explorando Puntlandia, Somalia | When is a State a State?: Exploring Puntland, Somalia

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    Martin DOORNBOS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este fragmento se escribió en un contexto, que puede seguir pareciendo familiar hoy día, en el que varios estados africanos estaban atravesando diversas crisis. Martin Doornbos advierte de que este fenómeno no es homogéneo y que cada estado estaba entonces en una fase diferente de crisis, con unas circunstancias y características propias. El Estado de Somalia se encontraba en un momento de estancamiento. Se trata así de un estado fallido en el que, no obstante, parece que han ido surgiendo elementos que podríamos denominar estatales. Por eso este capítulo se va a centrar en el caso de Puntlandia, una región somalí en la que se ha producido este fenómeno. Se analizará así cuándo se puede considerar que un estado efectivamente es un estado, y si Puntlandia realmente cumple las condiciones fundamentales para ser considerado de esta manera. También surgirá la pregunta de si el camino seguido por Puntlandia puede servir como guía para una Somalia unida en el futuro. This fragment was written in a context, which may seem familiar nowadays, where a number of African States were experiencing different crisis. Martin Doornbos advises us that these phenomena were not homogenous and that each state was in a different stage of crisis with independent circumstances and characteristics. Somalia was in a period of stagnation. It is a failed State in which elements of stateness nevertheless seem to reappear. For this reason this chapter concentrates on the case of Puntland, a Somali region where this phenomenon is taking place. It will analyze when a State is a State and if Puntland complies with the fundamental conditions that make it possible for it to be considered one. It also asks us whether the path followed by Puntland could serve as a guide for a unified Somalia in the future.

  3. Melhoramento visando a resistência do cafeeiro à ferrugem Breeding for resistance to leaf rust disease in C. arabica

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    A. J. Bettencourt

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem alaranjada, uma das mais graves moléstias do cafeeiro, ainda não foi observada no continente americano. Com a mais freqüente e rápida ligação entre os países africanos e o Brasil, tem aumentado consideràvelmente o perigo de introdução neste continente. No presente trabalho, são fornecidos elementos sôbre a especialização fisiológica da H. vastatrix,fontes de resistência ao fungo, hereditariedade dessa resistência e dados já obtidos sôbre os fatôres de resistência que ocorrem nos cafeeiros existentes no Instituto Agronômico, em Campinas. Apresentam-se também as diretrizes para o prosseguimento do plano de melhoramento visando a obtenção de linhagens portadoras de fatôres genéticos que lhes proporcionem resistência ao maior número possível de raças da ferrugem.Coffee leaf rust, one of the most destructive diseases of this crop plant, does not occur in the American continent. However, the frequent commercial flights and the ever increasing speed of the planes that connect Africa and Brazil increase the probability of introduction of the disease into this continent. This paper reviews the characteristics of the coffee leaf rust fungus, Hemileia vastatrix, its physiological races and their geographic distribution, and the main sources of resistance already determined in Coffea spp.The genetic basis of the disease resistance is discussed and the collected, data indicate the presence of five pairs of genes for resistance in the imported coffee plants of the: Campinas collection. The breeding program which is being carried on at the Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, is discussed in regard to the isolation of coffee progenies resistant to the most known races of Hemileia vastatrix.

  4. «Equality! the sacred right of equality». Representation under Constitution of 1812

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    Rodríguez O., Jaime E.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Historians generally argue that Spaniards were not willing to grant Americans equal representation in the Cortes of Cádiz. This article examines the nature of representation in the Antiguo Régimen and the reasons inequality existed in the institutions that emerged after 1808, the Junta Central, the Regency, and the Cortes. Although it is true that the Peninsular majority refused to grant the castas full political rights, they acted to preserve equal representation for themselves in the Cortes. Their actions were predicated on an erroneous belief about the total population of the overseas territories. Opposition to granting the castas full political rights was also shared by some American deputies — those from regions with large African origin population—. Although the Peninsular majority failed to grant Americans the equal representation based on population that they desired, the Spaniards went further than the leaders of any other European nation. England never considered granting the white population of its North American possessions any representation in Parliament, much less equality.

    La historiografía sostiene habitualmente que los españoles peninsulares no deseaban otorgar a los americanos una representación igualitaria en las Cortes de Cádiz. Este artículo estudia la naturaleza de la representación en el Antiguo Régimen y las razones por las que existía la desigualdad en instituciones surgidas después de 1808, como la Junta Central, la Regencia y las Cortes. Es cierto que la mayoría peninsular rechazó otorgar plenos derechos políticos a las castas (personas con ancestros africanos y que se esforzó en conservar la representación igualitaria para ellos mismos en las Cortes. Un comportamiento que se basaba en una idea equivocada sobre la población total de los territorios de ultramar. Sin embargo, en el rechazo a otorgar plenos derechos políticos también participaron algunos diputados

  5. Os meandros da urbanização em Moçambique

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    Alexandre H. M. Baia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Com base na análise da literatura que de modo disperso descreve a produção de cidades em África, o artigo expõe como a cidade em Moçambique deve ser apreendida a partir da análise do processo de dependência inerente à dominação colonial portuguesa e ao sistema capitalista em geral na sua relação com os paises africanos. Nesse movimento, a cidade aparece como produto da história o que permite identificar as continuidades e descontinuidades nesse espaço produzido. Nesse contexto a periodização sugerida (pré-colonial, colonial e pós-independência constitui domínios caracterizados por fenômenos sociais, sensações e percepções de espaços e de tempos, de imagens e conceitos, de linguagem e de racionalidade, de teorias e de práticas sociais que especificam o urbano em Moçambique – aquele que nasce da explosão da cidade colonial e engloba ilhotas de urbanidade e ruralidade.

  6. Creche e racismo

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    Flávio Santiago

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper, based on studies about race relations, is to debate the presence of racist mechanisms in early childhood education, the first step of basic education. It is a reflection built from an ethnographic research carried out in a day care center in the metropolitan area of Campinas, Brazil, involving three-year-old children and their teachers. The data analysis points out to the existence of racist processes that contribute to the removal of Afro-Brazilian and African contributions from the early childhood education spaces, and to the exclusion of very young black girls and boys from the social field permissible to the experiences regarding the acceptance of their own body and their ancestry. We also perceive the presence of a “whitening” pedagogy, strongly denounced by the black movement since the 1980s, based on an educational model with the purpose of reproducing prejudices regarding the black young children and the Afro-Brazilian and African history and culture. Este artigo tem como objetivo, a partir dos estudos sobre relações raciais, debater a presença de mecanismos racistas na educação infantil, primeira etapa da educação básica. Trata-se de uma reflexão construída a partir de uma pesquisa etnográfica, realizada em uma creche da região metropolitana de Campinas, Brasil, envolvendo crianças pequenininhas de três anos e suas/seus docentes. As análises dos dados apontam a existência de processos racistas que contribuem para o afastamento dos aportes afro-brasileiros e africanos dos espaços da educação infantil e na exclusão de meninas pequenininhas negras e meninos pequenininhos negros do campo social permissível às experiências relativas à aceitação do seu corpo, de sua ancestralidade. Nesse contexto, podemos, ainda, perceber a presença de uma pedagogia “embranquecedora”, já fortemente denunciada pelo movimento negro a partir da década de 1980, que se embasa num modelo educacional com

  7. Negros em movimento: etiópia, resistência cultural e afirmação étnica na pós-emancipação / Negros en movimiento: etiopía, resistencia cultural y afirmación étnica después de la emancipación

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    Iris Graciela Germano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo parte da Etiópia no imaginário afro-brasileiro pós-emancipação através da análise da imprensa negra e de alguns pensadores negros. Busca-se entender como circulavam idéias de afirmação de identidade étnica que chegaram ao Brasil vindas dos Estados Unidos, Caribe, Europa e África, ou seja, como dialogavam diferentes descendentes de africanos espalhados emvários pontos do Atlântico negro que viveram conjuntamente, embora de formas diferenciadas, a experiência da escravidão, da diáspora e do racismo. O contexto internacional que viu emergir o Pan-Africanismo, o Négritude e a descolonização da África e do Caribe, entrecruza, dialoga e se relaciona com negros em movimento no Brasil, influenciando a construção étnica afro-brasileira em deslocamentos que são de idas e vindas. Mesmo reconhecendo as diversidades e fragmentações presentes na realidade afro-diaspórica entende-se ser possível encontrar laços de solidariedade e trocas transnacionais.Resumen Este estudio parte de Etiopía en el imaginario afrobrasileño, después de la emancipación y a través del análisis de la prensa negra y de algunos pensadores negros. Investiga cómo circulaban las ideas de afirmación de identidad étnica que llegaron a Brasil provenientes de Estados Unidos, Caribe, Europa y África, o sea, cómo dialogaban los diferentes descendientes de africanosdiseminados por los varios puntos del Atlántico negro, que vivieron de diferentes formas, la experiencia de esclavitud, diáspora y racismo. El contexto internacional que vio emerger elPanafricanismo, Négritude y la descolonización de África y Caribe, entrecruza, dialoga y se relaciona con negros en movimiento en Brasil, influenciando la construcción étnica afrobrasileña endesplazamientos que son de idas y vueltas. Aunque se reconozcan las diversidades y fragmentaciones presentes en la realidad afrodiaspórica es posible encontrar lazos de solidaridad e intercambios

  8. Batuque: a identidade nos corpos = Batuque: the identity in the bodies

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    Roselene de Fátima Coito

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Michel Foucault, ao abordar os usos da História como o uso paródico darealidade, o uso dissociativo da identidade e o uso sacrificial da verdade, leva-nos a refletir sobre o que é a História sob a ótica da genealogia, a qual revela que a origem como se concebe tradicionalmente, ou seja, linearmente, é questionável enquanto uma verdade atribuída por um conhecimento (ou um querer-saber que percorre a humanidade. O querer-saber de onde viemos e para onde vamos tem suscitado reflexões variadas sobre identidade, sobre História e sobre verdade. No entanto, o que é a identidade quando se lhe atribui um caráter genealógico? O filósofo francês, partindo de Nietzsche, propõe dois olhares para essa discussão: a emergência ou o ponto de surgimento com o possibilidade de reflexão sobre a origem, cujo termo em alemão é Entestehung, ou o corpo como superficie deinscrições dos acontecimentos, cujo termo em alemão é Herkunft. É partindo deste segundo olhar que discutiremos o batuque, uma dança africana acompanhada de música, como uma prática que institui e constitui a identidade do africano que veio habitar o Brasil.Analyzing the uses of History as the parodic use of reality, the dissociative use of identity and the sacrificial use of truth, MichelFoucault investigates the meaning of History from the perspective of genealogy. Genealogy discloses that origin as traditional conceived, as a linear factor, is problematic as a truth attributed by knowledge (or desire-knowledge involving mankind. The desire-knowledgeon our origin and our destiny has stimulated several reflections on identity, history and truth. Nevertheless, what does identity mean when a genealogical character is attributed to it? Based on Nietzsche’s suppositions, the French philosopher presents two explanations to this discussion: emergency or the point of arising as a possibility for reflections on origin (Entstehung in German, or the body as a surface of events

  9. Anatomía de un educador

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    Javier Olivera Betrán

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Todos somos alumnos. El educador contribuyendo a la formación de sus educandos, aprende de ellos. Cada individuo posee un ciclo vital para desarrollar su potencial humano, corresponde a la determinación personal y a su constante interacción con el entorno el que se logre, o no, la máxima expresión de ese proceso. Para lograr este propósito de vida necesitamos referentes que nos señalen el camino y nos ayuden al proceso de construcción personal. El educador es la figura natural que se erige poderosa para guiar desde la ayuda desinteresada este desafío de vida. Todos somos educadores. Dice un viejo adagio africano: “Para educar a un niño hace falta toda la tribu”. Todos los individuos de un colectivo humano que contactan con los miembros más jóvenes de ese grupo son responsables, en mayor o menor grado, con más o menos intencionalidad, de la formación de esos niños y niñas maleables, inmaduros e influenciables. Todos somos alumnos, ya que aprendemos constantemente de nuestro entorno social y medioambiental; pero también todos somos educadores ya que con nuestras posiciones, conductas y relaciones estamos incidiendo en la educación de los más cercanos, especialmente en los más jóvenes y moldeables. Para ser educador no basta con querer serlo; es preciso mostrar ejemplo, transmitir valores y actuar con espíritu de ayuda hacia los demás. Para ser educador no hacen falta títulos ni cargos ni declaraciones, el educador se erige de forma natural ya que se convierte en un referente para alguien que lo ve como un faro resplandeciente que le sirve para vislumbrar su camino entre las tinieblas de la vida.

  10. O retorno do nativo

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    Adam Kuper

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor analisa os usos que certos movimentos sociais e políticos fazem de antigos conceitos antropológicos, mostrando como estes grupos interpretam e se apropriam de algumas teorias antropológicas. Discussões acerca dos direitos de minorias étnicas, sejam elas feitas no âmbito de uma nação ou numa assembléia das Nações Unidas, fundamentam algumas políticas nacionais e internacionais. O autor salienta a importância de se ter clareza acerca de quais conceitos e teorias estão sendo empregados nestas discussões - conceitos como nativo ou indígena, hoje eufemismos para o primitivo, civilização ou cultura, às vezes empregados em outros tempos no lugar de raça, e teorias como a do evolucionismo. Para exemplificar as apropriações conceituais empregadas por movimentos sociais, o autor analisa os movimentos de povos ditos caçadores-coletores, como os Inuit no norte do Canadá e os Bushmen no sul do continente africano.The author analyzes the uses that certain social and political organizations make of old anthropological concepts, demonstrating how these groups interpret certain anthropological theories, taking them for themselves. Debates on the rights of ethnic groups and other minorities, at a national level or in the United Nations, are at the base of certain national and international politics. Therefore, the author points out, it is important to clarify which concepts and which theories are being used in those discussions - concepts such as native or indigineous, current euphemisms for the out-dated primitive, civilization or culture, sometimes used interchangeably with race at other times, and theories such as evolutionism. In order to exemplify how different social movements make use of these concepts, the author analyses those political groups who defend the so called foragers and hunters, such as the Inuit in northern Canada or the Bushmen in the south of Africa.

  11. Gracias a Dios que coamí. Los orígenes del cristianismo en Iberoamérica y El Caribe, siglos XV-XX

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    EDUARDO HOORNAERT

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde o momento em que Maximiliano Salinas publicou sua Historia del pueblo de Dios en Chile em 1987, ele inova em termos de pesquisa sobre temas que tradicionalmente caem fora do campo de visao do historiador cristao. A inovaçao de 1987 visava aspectos heurísticos, pois mencionado livro partia de folhetos populares, cânticos, benditos, refroes, poesias. Com seu mais novo ensaio, Gracias a Dios que comí, Maximiliano Salinas completa o trabalho heurístico anterior por importantes inovaçoes no campo hermenéutico. O ensaio apresenta o painel de um cristianismo pouco analisado na literatura mas intensamente praticado por descendentes de indígenas, africanos mas também portugueses (fértil fronteira com o Islam. Ele insiste na positividade das culturas que encaram a Deus como fonte da subsistencia, quem nos dá o pao para comer, as pernas para dançar, o ânimo para transformar o trabalho em festa. Ele fala de um Deus cristao dionisíaco. Trata-se de uma inusitada memória crista, e apagada nos textos ortodoxos do cristianismo histórico relegada ao mundo dos textos apócrifos, mas que encontra fortes concordâncias nas culturas azteca, quechua e mapuche onde se vive o trabalho como festa, onde Deus tem maos (para trabalhar e entranhas (para compartir, onde a comida é uma hierofania (as comidas sagradas e o paraíso um deleite culinário. Aí Deus nao é mais o 'preceptor absoluto' mas o 'poeta' (no sentido original: quem faz, quem executa a obra. Postula-se dessa maneira uma releitura global do cristianismo, na linha do livro Dionisios, reíz de la vida indestructible, da autoria de K. Kerényi (Barcelona 1998: «La cultura mediterránea del vino fue el fondo común y concreto de diversos elementos, tales como la fundación del cristianismo...». O Apolo da ciência, o Pluto da riqueza e o Mercúrio do comercio cedem lugar ao Dioniso davida. A partir da vida rejeita-se o 'blanco perfecto', que se manifesta no ‘preceptor exclusivo’ no

  12. Tracing the origin and geographic distribution of an ancestral form of the modern human Y chromosome Reconstrucción del origen y distribución geográfica de una forma ancestral del cromosoma Y del hombre moderno

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    CLAUDIO M BRAVI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We screened a total of 841 Y chromosomes representing 36 human populations of wide geographical distribution for the presence of a Y-specific Alu insert (YAP+ chromosomes. The Alu element was found in 77 cases. We tested five biallelic and eight polyallelic markers in 70 out of the 77 YAP+ chromosomes. We could identify the existence of a hierarchical and chronological structuring of ancestral and derived YAP+ lineages giving rise to four haplogroups, 14 subhaplogroups and 60 haplotypes. Moreover, we propose a monophyletic origin for each one of the YAP+ lineages. Out-of-Africa and out_of-Asia models have been suggested to explain the origin and evolution of ancestral and derived YAP+ elements. We analyse the evidence supporting these two hypotheses and we conclude that the information available supports better the out-of-Africa modelSe buscó la presencia de un inserto Alu Y-específico (cromosomas YAP+ en un total de 841 cromosomas Y provenientes de 36 poblaciones humanas de amplia distribución geográfica. El elemento Alu se encontró en 77 casos. En 70 de los 77 cromosomas YAP+ se testificaron cinco marcadores bialélicos y ocho polialélicos. Se pudo identificar la existencia de una estructura jerárquica y cronológica de linajes YAP+ ancestrales y derivados, la cual generó cuatro haplogrupos, 14 subhaplogrupos, y 60 haplotipos. Se propone un origen monofilético para cada linaje YAP+. Dos modelos intentan explicar el origen y evolución de los cromosomas YAP+ ancestrales y derivados: (i origen del inserto Alu en Africa y posterior migración a otros continentes ("out-of-Africa"; (ii origen en Asia con subsecuente migración a otras áreas geográficas ("out-of-Asia". El análisis de la evidencia que apoya estos dos modelos nos permite sugerir que la hipótesis más probable es el origen africano con subsecuente dispersión fuera de Africa

  13. Prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas diagnosticadas en población inmigrante y autóctona Prevalence of diagnosed chronic disorders in the inmigrant and native population

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    María D. Esteban-Vasallo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de problemas de salud crónicos en inmigrantes y compararla con la de la población autóctona, utilizando la historia clínica electrónica (HCE de atención primaria (AP. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal con pacientes de 16 y más años incluidos en el sistema sanitario público de la Comunidad de Madrid. Se estimaron prevalencias ajustadas por edad para cada sexo y nacionalidad (agrupada en regiones a partir de los episodios de atención registrados en la HCE de AP con alguna anotación en 2005 o 2006. Resultados: El 36,8% de la población inmigrante presentaba alguna enfermedad crónica (55,3% de autóctonos tras ajustar por edad, con más frecuencia en mujeres y en población de origen africano y latinoamericano. Las enfermedades más prevalentes en los extranjeros fueron las alergias (tasa cruda: 10,2%, las lumbalgias (9,1%, problemas crónicos de piel (6,8% y trastornos mentales (6,4%. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas es menor en la población extranjera y varía según el sexo y la procedencia.Objective: To estimate the prevalence rates of chronic disorders in immigrants and to compare them with those in the native population, based on electronic clinical records in primary care (ECRPC. Methods: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study in patients aged 16 and over included in the Madrid Regional Public Health System. Age-adjusted prevalence rates for each sex and region were estimated on the basis of medically examined cases registered in the ECRPC with any new data entry made in 2005 or 2006. Results: After age-adjustment, a total of 36.8% immigrants had some chronic health problem (vs. 55.3% natives. These disorders were more frequent among women and among the population from Africa and Latin America. The highest overall prevalence rates in the foreign population were allergy (10.2% crude rate, low-back pain (9.1%, chronic skin problems (6.8% and mental disorders

  14. Os debates pelo fim do tráfico no periódico O Philantropo (1849-1852 e a formação do povo: doenças, raça e escravidão The debate on the end of the slave trade in the periodical O Philantropo (1849-1852 and the formation of the people: illnesses, race and slavery

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    Kaori Kodama

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo é investigar a atuação do jornal O Philantropo (1849-1852, bem como da "Sociedade contra o Tráfico de Africanos e Promotora da Colonisação e da Civilização dos Indígenas", que sustentou o jornal. Procura-se atentar para a especificidade dos segmentos presentes na Sociedade em relação ao projeto de fim do tráfico, no momento em que ocorriam os debates no Parlamento. No jornal, a bandeira antitráfico combinava em suas propostas a defesa da mão-de-obra livre e um nacionalismo que muitas vezes lançava mão de argumentos racialistas. Interessa-nos, assim, destacar aspectos do debate da Sociedade através de um exame do perfil de seus sócios e na articulação que apresentaram entre as questões da colonização e da formação do povo, através dos temas da raça, das doenças e da escravidão.This paper aims at investigating the newspaper O Philantropo (1849-1852 and the Society against the Slave Trade and for the Colonization and Civilization of the Indians which supported it. It focuses on the specific roles of the Society's members in the movement for ending the slave trade, when the discussion for its suppression was taking place in Parliament. In the newspaper, ranged under the banner of the defense against the slave trade, could also be found the support for a free labor force and a nationalism which frequently made use of racialist arguments. It attempts to detach some aspects of the debate of the Society by examining the profile of its members as well as by articulating the problem of colonization with the formation of the nation through the issues of race, diseases and slavery.

  15. SABER E IDENTIDADE DOS AGRICULTORES FAMILIARES CAMPONESES DE COSTA DO BICA E PAREDÃO, PIRATINI (RS

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    Marilse Beatriz Losekann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata de uma pesquisa que procurou analisar a forma de vida camponesa e como ocorre a reprodução social dos agricultores familiares camponeses das localidades de Costa do Bica e Paredão, localizadas no município de Piratini (RS, e inseridas no denominado Território do Alto Camaquã. O desenvolvimento da pesquisa está apoiado no método fenomenológico, com uso da história de vida e da observação da paisagem. Os sujeitos em questão são resultado da miscigenação entre indígenas (tupi-guarani e tape, açorianos, africanos (ex-escravos, sobre uma área que secularmente foi uma zona fronteiriça em litígio e um território onde predomina o poder do latifúndio pastoril em confronto com a agricultura camponesa. Esta está presentena disputa por esse território que abrange o bioma Pampa e reproduz práticas que permitem a coexistência do homem com a natureza, garantindo a preservação das características socioambientais. Entre os resultados obtidos percebe-se que nesse território uma nova transformação espacial está em curso com a implantaçãoda silvicultura, que vem modificando a paisagem rural com predomínio da pecuária familiar em extensas lavouras de monocultura de árvores exóticas. Pode-se constatar que, apesar da pressão externa produzida pela territorialização do capital e da invisibilidade desses camponeses, eles continuam resistindo, uma vez que seussaberes tradicionais continuam latentes em suas memórias, forma de vida e práticas cotidianas.

  16. The immigration in Canarian press photography / La inmigración, en la fotografía de prensa de Canarias

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    Ddo. Alberto Ardévol Abreu - alberardevol@gmail.com

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a newspaper, the way press photography contributes to discourse construction is as relevant as the text appearing next to the images. An study of the pictures about immigration in four of the most important newspapers on the Canary Islands show that media agenda focuses exclusively on some aspects of the immigration phenomenon, representing a deformed reality. Few differences among mastheads appear, associating immigration almost exclusively with the arrival of the kind of boats used by the immigrants (cayucos and pateras from the neighbouring continent. Consequently, immigrants are always portrayed as Subsaharan or Moroccan, giving priority to an homogenizing portrait and to the group, instead of looking at the individuals and their differences. While associating Africans with an image of weakness, lack of initiative and subordination, as well as crime, other much more numerous groups, such as Latin Americans, are ignored in these pictures. resumenLa fotografía de prensa colabora en la construcción del discurso periodístico de manera tan importante como los textos que la acompañan. El análisis de las fotografías de inmigración en los cuatro periódicos canarios de mayor importancia revela que la agenda mediática se centra sólo en algunos aspectos del fenómeno inmigratorio, por lo que se representa una realidad deformada. Con pocas diferencias entre cabeceras, la inmigración se asocia casi en exclusiva a la llegada de embarcaciones (cayucos y pateras del vecino continente, y el inmigrante retratado es, en consecuencia, el “subsahariano” o el marroquí, primando el retrato homogeneizador, en grupo, sobre el que busca la individualidad y la diferencia. Además de identificar a los africanos con la debilidad, la carencia de iniciativa y la subalternidad, se les asocia con el delito, a la vez que se ignora a otros colectivos, más numerosos, como los latinoamericanos.

  17. Tipificación corológica de los micromamíferos ibéricos en relación con Europa y África

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    Real, R.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analysed the different types of distribution, or chorotypes, existing for the 70 species of micro-mammals distributed by the 12 mountain ranges surrounding the westernmost part of the Mediterranean basin. We also analysed the species richness’ trends in relation to the main environmental gradients. We identified five chorotypes involving the distributions of 49 species: a widespread chorotype (I, two Iberian chorotypes (II and III, an Alpine chorotype (IV, and an African chorotype (V. Only chorotypes II, IV, and V were environmentally characterised. Chorotype II corresponds to the mountain ranges with intermediate precipitation. Chorotype IV includes the range with the highest precipitation and climatic instability. Chorotype V involves the mountain ranges with highest energy availability. For non-rodents and for all micro-mammals together, the number of species shows a bimodal trend with respect to energy availability. For rodents this bimodal trend occurs mainly with respect to the simultaneous availability of water and energy.

    En el presente artículo se analizan los diferentes tipos de distribución, o corotipos, que pudieran existir para las 70 especies de micromamíferos que se distribuyen por los 12 sistemas montañosos que circundan la parte más occidental de la cuenca mediterránea. También se ha llevado a cabo un análisis de las tendencias de la riqueza de especies en relación con los principales gradientes ambientales. Se han identificado cinco corotipos que incluyen la distribución de 49 especies: un corotipo ampliamente distribuido (I, dos corotipos ibéricos (II y III, un corotipo alpino (IV y un corotipo africano (V. Únicamente los corotipos II, IV y V se han podido caracterizar ambientalmente. El corotipo II se corresponde con aquellos sistemas montañosos que presentan una disponibilidad intermedia de agua procedente de la lluvia. El corotipo IV incluye el sistema montañoso con mayor precipitaci

  18. Co-occurrence and distribution of East (L1014S) and West (L1014F) African knock-down resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato population of Tanzania

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    Kabula, Bilali; Kisinza, William; Tungu, Patrick; Ndege, Chacha; Batengana, Benard; Kollo, Douglas; Malima, Robert; Kafuko, Jessica; Mohamed, Mahdi; Magesa, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Insecticide resistance molecular markers can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in Anopheles vector populations. Assaying these makers is of paramount importance in the resistance monitoring programme. We investigated the presence and distribution of knock-down resistance (kdr) mutations in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Tanzania. Methods Indoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from 10 sites and tested for insecticide resistance using the standard WHO protocol. Polymerase chain reaction-based molecular diagnostics were used to genotype mosquitoes and detect kdr mutations. Results The An. gambiae tested were resistance to lambdacyhalothrin in Muheza, Arumeru and Muleba. Out of 350 An. gambiae s.l. genotyped, 35% were An. gambiae s.s. and 65% An. arabiensis. L1014S and L1014F mutations were detected in both An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. L1014S point mutation was found at the allelic frequency of 4–33%, while L1014F was at the allelic frequency 6–41%. The L1014S mutation was much associated with An. gambiae s.s. (χ2 = 23.41; P lambdacialotrina en Muheza, Arumeru y Muleba. De 350 An. gambiae s.l. genotipados, 35% eran An. gambiae s.s. y 65% eran An. arabiensis. Se detectaron mutaciones L1014S y L1014F tanto en An. gambiae s.s. como en An. arabiensis. La mutación puntual L1014S se encontró con una frecuencia alélica de 4-33%, mientras que L1014F tenía una frecuencia alélica de 6-14%. La mutación L1014S estaba ampliamente asociada a An. gambiae s.s. (Chi-Cuadrado = 23.41; P lambdacialotrina (P < 0.001). Conclusión La simultaneidad de mutaciones de L1014S y L1014F junto con informes de resistencia a los insecticidas sugiere que la resistencia a piretroides se está convirtiendo en un fenómeno común entre las poblaciones del vector de la malaria en Tanzania. La presencia de la mutación L1014F en estas poblaciones del Este de África indican la diseminación del gen a lo largo del continente africano

  19. Poder y ordenamiento espacial en la Costa Caribe colombiana: Patrones de asentamiento en el Partido de Cartagena (Tierradentro- Provincia de Cartagena de Indias, siglos XVI - XVII

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    Camilo Díaz Pardo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En la literatura histórica colombiana y caribeña se ha dado un fuerte acento en el papel que jugaron las ciudades y las regiones que emergieron de ellas en ola formación la moderna cultura caribeña. En la arqueología el énfasis se ha limitado a analizar procesos prehispánicos adaptativos a condiciones cambiantes del medio ambiente dejando de manera tacita fuera de foco la discusión de las consecuencias sociales y culturales de la conquista y la colonia y su impacto en el tejido social que surgiría a finales del siglo XVI. Estas delimitaciones disciplinarias se han convertido en un obstáculo para el conocimiento e interpretación de las dinámicas que siguieron al impulso inicial de la colonización del litoral caribeño y la bien conocida fundación de los centros militares y administrativos. Consecuentemente los historiadores han ignorado en gran parte el papel de las poblaciones aborígenes en la formación de los asentamientos al interior de la llanura costera a pesar que es un hecho bien conocido que no desaparecieron completamente después del siglo XVI. A pesar de que han existido intentos de sintetizar y complementar la información histórica con datos arqueológicos especialmente en los últimos diez años no hemos asistido a un evaluación del campo que consideramos de la mayor importancia para entender la estrategias a traves de las cuales las comunidades aborígenes y algo mas tarde las comunidades de composición mixta africano-indígena y mestizas establecieron exitosamente una serie de asentamientos fuera del sistema colonial reinante. El análisis de los patrones de asentamiento se ha restringido a estudios arqueológicos pero su potencial se extiende mucho mas alla de esta disciplina. La colonia en el siglo XVIII registra un gran número de asentamientos en las planicies caribeñas para los cuales tenemos muy poca información precedente, se hace necesario entonces entender el sistema de asentamientos que exitosamente

  20. Afrolatinoamericanas... una experiencia de subversión estereotípica en el museo de la mujer de Buenos Aires

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    Lea Geler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo me centraré en la perfomance teatral Afrolatinoamericanas..., realizada en el Museo de la Mujer de Buenos Aires a finales del año 2010 por un grupo de teatro dedicado a la tematización de la afrodescendencia en la Argentina, un país que hasta hoy día sigue considerándose blanco-europeo y que sostiene que la población de descendientes de esclavizados/as africanos/as ha desaparecido. El análisis de la puesta en escena de dicha obra, en conjunto con el de fuentes históricas, permitirá establecer ciertas relaciones de continuidad entre las situaciones de exposición, objetivación y estereotipación surgidas en Europa y algunos de los lineamientos en que se fueron sustentando las representaciones raciales/sexuales para las mujeres socialmente negras en la Argentina. Haciendo hincapié en la reutilización y crítica producida en la performance de estos elementos propondré repensar a esta intervención artístico-política de autorepresentación como una plataforma privilegiada para su desafío.In this paper I will focus on the theatrical performance Afrolatinoamericanas... held in the Women's Museum of Buenos Aires in 2010 by a theater group that focuses on the visibilization of Afro descendants in Argentina, a nation that continues to define itself as white-European and specifies that the population of descendants of enslaved people of African origin have disappeared. The analysis of the staging of that performance, together with some historical sources, will help me establish continuity relations between exposure situations, objectification and stereotyping emerged in Europe and some of the guidelines that were sustaining the racialized/sexualized representations for black women in Argentina. Emphasizing the critical reutilization of some of these elements, I will propose to rethink this artistic-political intervention of self-representation as a privileged platform for challenging stereotypes.

  1. Algunos aspectos de la estructura de la Zona Subbética (Cordilleras Béticas. España meridional

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    Hermes, Jacobus J.

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of sedimentation and tectonics of the Subbetic zone of the Betic Cordilleras leads to the conclusion that sedimentation and subsequent deformation are largely governed by a Wilson cycle (Wilson, 1966, 1968 that began the opening of the Tethyan rift in the Pangaea continent during the Pliensbachian, 180 Ma ago. The resulting ocean began to close again in the Cretaceous, a process that led to a collision between Iberia and African elements in the Burdigalian, which was followed by strike-slip movement along a shear zone between the two plates which continues to this day. It is argued that the collision led to general uplift of the Subbetic zone as shown by the termination of deep water pelagic and hemipelagic sedimentation in the entire zone, and that the subsequent strike-slip movements along a system of anastomosing faults loo to very intense deformation localized along separate fault zones, and to the opening of pull-apart basins with characteristic sedimentation sequences.

    El análisis de la sedimentación y la tectónica de la Zona Subbética (Cordilleras Béticas conduce a la conclusión de que la sedimentación y la deformación posterior han sido ampliamente determinadas por un ciclo de Wilson (Wilson, 1966, 1968; Mitchell y Reading, 1978 que comenzó con la apertura del Tethys en el continente de Pangaea durante el Pliensbaquiense, hace 180 ID. a. El océano resultante empezó a cerrarse de nuevo en el Cretácico. Este proceso condujo a la colisión entre Iberia y elementos africanos en el Burdigaliense y fue seguido por un movimiento de salto en dirección a favor de una zona de cizalla que aún continúa en la actualidad. La colisión provocó el levantamiento general del la Zona Subbética, como lo demuestra el cese de la sedimentación pelágica y hemipelágica profundas por toda ella. Los movimientos subsiguientes de salto en 'dirección a favor de un sistema de fallas anastomosadas produjeron una deformación muy

  2. A Mestizo and Tropical Country: The Creation of the Official Image of Independent Brazil

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    Lilia Moritz Schwarcz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to consider how  Brazil, in the first official images of it as a nation,  was characterized by symbols that reflected its  singularity and universality: a tropical monarchy  with representations of indigenous peoples, flora  and fauna mixed with the traditional elements of European monarchies. This makes use of original iconographic sources and texts emblematic of the  Brazilian imperial period, which stretched from  1822 to 1889. There are hundreds of images,  texts, coins, coats of arms, etc., that picture the country from the standpoint of miscegenation,  while at the same time exposing a hierarchy of  peoples: in a nation where 90 per cent of the  population were African slaves, the selected national representation emphasized the environment  of Brazil and its indigenous peoples.  Resumen: Un País Mestizo y Tropical: La Creación de la Imagen Oficial del Brasil IndependienteEl objetivo de este artículo es examinar cómo  Brasil, en sus primeras imágenes oficiales como  nación, fue caracterizado por símbolos que reflejaban al mismo tiempo su singularidad y su universalidad: una monarquía tropical con representación de pueblos indígenas, y la flora y la fauna  mezcladas con elementos tradicionales de las  monarquías europeas. Estos símbolos hacen uso  de fuentes iconográficas originales y textos emblemáticos del período imperial brasileño, que se extendió de 1822 a 1889. Hay cientos de imágenes, textos, monedas, escudos de armas, etc., que  muestran al país desde el punto de vista de la  mezcla racial, mientras que al mismo tiempo  expone una jerarquía de pueblos: en un país donde  el 90 por ciento de la población estaba constituida  por esclavos africanos, la representación nacional  elegida enfatizaba el paisaje de Brasil y sus pueblos indígenas.

  3. Litoquímica, Geocronologia U-Pb e Geologia Isotópica (Sr-Nd-Pb das Rochas Graníticas dos Batólitos Cunhaporanga e Três Córregos na Porção Sul do Cinturão Ribeira, Estado do Paraná

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    Hélcio José dos Prazeres Filho

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Durante a evolução da porção sul do Cinturão Ribeira no Estado do Paraná, o Ciclo Brasiliano-Pan Africano foi responsávelpela geração de um grande volume de rochas graníticas com destaque para os batólitos Cunhaporanga (BCP e TrêsCórregos (BTC. Estudos litoquímicos e isotópicos revelaram a existência de tipos graníticos distintos entre dois batólitos einternamente aos mesmos, definidos por unidades graníticas. A principal diferença entre os dois batólitos está no comportamentodos álcalis com o BCP, a NW mais potássico e o BTC, a SE mais sódico. Os dados isotópicos mostram claramente aparticipação de fontes infracrustais distintas de longa residência crustal, evidenciadas pelos isótopos de Pb em K-feldspato,pelos valores negativos de eNd (–11 a –13 para o BCP e –17 a –19 para o BTC e pelas idades TDM (1,8 a 2,0 Ga para o BCPe 2,2 a 2,4 Ga para o BTC. Estas fontes estariam situadas em uma crosta continental paleoproterozóica com a participaçãode fontes mantélicas e supracrustais na gênese das rochas graníticas do BCP e BTC. A Unidade Ribeirão Butiá do BCP e asUnidades Arrieiros e Paina do BTC estão representadas predominantemente por monzogranitos e granodioritos e rarostonalitos, metaluminosos, cálcio-alcalinos de alto a médio K, formados entre 630 a 620 Ma em ambiente de margem continentalativa. As Unidades Piraí do Sul e Santa Rita do BCP são constituídas por monzogranitos fracamente peraluminosos, de altoK e as Unidades São Sebastião e Conceição do BTC são constituídas respectivamente por quartzo-monzonitos e monzo asienogranitos fracamente metaluminosos, de alto K. Estas unidades foram formadas em ambiente sin- a tardi-colisional entre620 e 590 Ma.

  4. A história da disseminação dos microrganismos The history of the dissemination of microorganisms

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    Stefan Cunha Ujvari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O Homo sapiens nasceu portando agentes infecciosos que circulavam no animal ancestral comum ao homem e chimpanzé. Adquirimos outros microrganismos ainda no solo africano, época dos caçadores e coletores. Partimos da África, conquistamos o planeta e nos tornamos sedentários. Descobrimos a agricultura e a domesticação dos animais e, com isso, fomos invadidos por novos agentes infecciosos. Os microrganismos apanharam carona nas locomoções humanas. Estavam presentes nas migrações humanas originadas da África, nas campanhas militares da Antigüidade, nas viagens marítimas de descobrimentos, nas colonizações, no tráfico de escravos e outros. O avanço no estudo do DNA e RNA de microrganismos nos esclarece a origem e o dispersar de várias doenças infecciosas. Descobrimos, então, como estamos globalizando vírus, bactérias e parasitos desde nossa saída da África até os dias atuais.Homo sapiens was born with infectious agents that circulated in the common ancestral animal from which both the man and the chimpanzee evolved. We have acquired other microorganisms while still in African territory, in the time of the hunters and gatherers. We have left Africa, have conquered the planet and have become sedentary. We discovered agriculture and animal domestication and, thus, have been invaded by new infectious agents. The microorganisms came along with human locomotion. They were present in the human migrations from Africa, in the military campaigns of Antiquity, in the ocean voyages of discovery, in the colonizations, in the slave trade and so on. The advance in the studies of microorganisms DNA and RNA clarifies the origin and the spread of various infectious diseases. We can then find out how viruses, bacteria and parasites have been globalized since our departure from Africa until the present day.

  5. Inmigración e Identidad: la Società Sportiva Palestra Italia en San Pablo

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    Nelson Santos da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La Società Sportiva Palestra Italia, actual Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras, es una importante institución deportiva que demostró cómo la práctica de fútbol logró promover la cohesión de la colonia italiana en São Paulo. Los Italianos entran a Brasil reemplazando la mano de obra de africanos desde el siglo XIX en adelante, fundamentalmente con labores dedicadas a las plantaciones de café . A través de un estudio analítico y historiográfico se recorrerá la historia de la inmigración italiana, vinculada a la historia del fútbol en São Paulo , como expresión de la institucionalidad deportiva . Este proceso- que tiene como hito la fundación de la Palestra Italia- es destacable en cuanto una organización deportiva va incidiendo de manera central en la formación identitaria de los inmigrantes italianos en la ciudad de São Paulo. Abstract The Società Sportiva Palestra Italia Current Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras is an important sporting institution that demonstrated how soccer practice provides the cohesion of a social group, analyzing the history of the club and the link with the Italian colony in São Paulo. Italians enter the country to replace the hand of black work since the nineteenth century, first in the coffee plantations and in the early twentieth century in the factories. At that very moment the Pensilula Italica goes through its unification process and the consequent pauperism arising out of industrial capitalism, contributing further to the mass immigration of Italians and their regionalist roots. Through an analytical and historiagrafico study will cover the history of immigration, emphasizing the Italian, the history of football in São Paulo until the founding of the Palestra Italia, building the history of its early years (1914-1920 and as a sports organization becomes forming the identity of Italian immigrants in the city of São Paulo.

  6. DEBUNKING PATRIARCHAL LEGACY IN AFRICAN TRADITIONAL SETTING: A READING OF EFO KODJO MAWUGBE’S IN THE CHEST OF A WOMAN

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    Damlègue Lare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the critical views of Efo Kodjo Mawugbe on some African traditional customs which deny identity and welfare to women and his literary endeavor to unravel the patriarchal legacy in his In the Chest of a Woman. It examines the dictates of patriarchy that militate against females’ emancipation and lay a foundation for their marginalization and oppression. It attempts to read Mawugbe’s call for gender balance and equal treatment for men and women in modern society. Two sexist practices are targeted: the denial of inheritance rights to female children and the capital punishment of those who go against tradition by becoming pregnant out of customary wedlock. The study asserts that if modern African society should experience a participatory socio-economic development it is urgent to end sexism and gender oppression in families and society, and to give men and women equal opportunities to emerge as fulfilled free beings. Keywords: debunk, patriarchy, gender oppression, sexism, education. // EL DESCRÉDITO DEL LEGADO PATRIARCAL EN EL CONTEXTO AFRICANO TRADICIONAL: IN THE CHEST OF A WOMAN DE EFO KODJO MAWUGBE. Este artículo investiga las visión crítica de Efo Kodjo Mawugbe sobre las tradiciones africanas que niegan la identidad y el bienestar a la mujer y analiza su interés literario por desactivar la herencia patriarcal en la obra de teatro In the Chest of a Woman. La obra examina los dictados del patriarcado que operan en contra de la emancipación de la mujer y fundamentan su marginación y opresión. En el presente artículo se aprecia la defensa de Mawugbe del equilibrio entre sexos y el tratamiento equitativo para hombres y mujeres en la sociedad moderna. Se apuntan también dos prácticas sexistas: la negación del derecho a heredar de las niñas y la pena capital impuesta a aquellas mujeres que se oponen a la tradición quedando embarazadas fuera del matrimonio. El estudio concluye que, para que la sociedad

  7. Los mesianismos en la América del sur (Fragmentos

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    Egon Schaden

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Caracteres generales de las agitaciones mesiánicas entre los indios de América del sur: la documentación sobre los movimientos mesiánicos en la América del Sur cubre un período histórico que se extiende de la conquista del territorio por los blancos a nuestros días. Concierne, además de las poblaciones indígenas a numerosos grupos de origen cultural europeo o incluso africano. El valor de los testimonios recogidos es sin embargo muy desigual. Falta con frecuencia, a los narradores la objetividad de una actitud científica y sus relatos presentan los hechos gravemente deformados, sobre todo cuando ellos datan de los primeros siglos después del descubrimiento del continente. Ciertos aspectos que impresionaban más a los europeos de la época son exageradamente señalados, mientras que otros son dejados en el silencio. Los cronistas no llegaban a concebir la naturaleza real de las manifestaciones indígenas. El comportamiento del mesías era invariablemente calificado "de inspiración de Satanás". Una interpretación sociológica o etnológica se muestra particularmente difícil. A menudo es imposible sobrepasar el estadio de las hipótesis y de las conjeturas dudosas. Sin embargo, el interés científico de un estudio del mesianismo ha ido creciendo, la calidad de los documentos se ha mejorado progresivamente. Así, los ejemplos más recientes del fenómeno han sido analizados por observadores que poseían una formación teórica sólida y gracias a ellos, muchos de nuestros conocimientos fragmentarios referentes a ciertos levantamientos del período colonial han adquirido actualmente su sentido verdadero.

  8. Representations of diaspora in Caryl Phillips´s novels Representações da diáspora nos romances de Caryl Phillips

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    Thomas Bonnici

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The representation of Negro diaspora during slavery and in the modern world is analyzed within the context of two novels by Caribbean Caryl Phillips. The diaspora phenomenon and diasporic movements are investigated in the wake of colonization, migration, slavery, creolization and hybrid culture. Crossing the River (1993 and A Distant Shore (2003 narrate two different instances in the Negro diaspora. Whereas Crossing the River records events in the life of three Negroes in the New World after having been sold by their father in Africa, A Distant Shore reveals the contemporary diaspora of a Negro who runs away from an African civil war stricken country and goes to England expecting a humane place. Racial bias and displacement frustrate his expectations at the precise moment that some communication with a white woman starts. In these two novels Phillips debates the uselessness of returning to primitive African Culture, the experience of umheimlichkeit, constant displacement, uprootness caused by a slave regime and by white hegemony still at large.Analisa-se a representação da diáspora do Negro durante a escravidão e no mundo contemporâneo em dois romances do autor caribenho Caryl Phillips. O fenômeno da diáspora e dos movimentos diaspóricos é investigado e inserido no contexto da colonização, migração, escravidão, crioulização e cultura híbrida. Crossing the River (1993 e A Distant Shore (2003 narram dois momentos da diáspora do Negro. Enquanto Crossing the River rasteia certos eventos na vida de três negros no Novo Mundo após terem sido vendidos, ainda crianças, pelo pai na África, A Distant Shore revela a diáspora contemporânea do Negro que foge dum país africano, mergulhado em guerra civil, para a Inglaterra, e suas tentativas para encontrar uma vida acolhedora. O preconceito e o deslocamento frustram as suas expectativas no exato momento em que começa a surgir um tênue indício de comunicação com uma mulher branca

  9. Espaço e Materialidade na Tripolitania Romana: uma tentativa de reconstituição da cidade de Oea em meados do II Século * Space And Materiality In Roman Tripolitania: an attempt of recovery of the city of Oea in the Mid-Second Century

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    BELCHIOR MONTEIRO LIMA NETO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Oea, atualmente Trípoli, na Líbia, foi uma cidade que integrou o Império romano nos primeiros séculos de nossa era. Dela, poucas relíquias são hoje conhecidas, uma vez que a atual capital líbia fora construída sobre a antiga urbs romana. Tendo em vista tais limitações e com o intuito de superá-las, empreenderemos uma tentativa de reconstituição da antiga Oea. Intencionamos dar materialidade à cidade, haja vista o nosso interesse de pesquisar o espaço citadino onde Apuleio de Madaura, escritor norte-africano de meados do II século, foi publicamente difamado e acusado de praticante magia. Por meio da obra Apologia, dos diminutos artefatos arqueológicos e epigráficos e de comparações com as cidades vizinhas de Sabrata e Leptis Magna – cujos sítios arqueológicos são imensamente mais ricos e completos – acreditamos ser possível visualizar, mesmo que parcialmente, o ambiente citadino vivido por Apuleio entre os anos de 157 e 159.Palavras-chave: Oea – Espaço – Materialidade – Apuleio de Madaura. Abstract: Oea, now Tripoli, Libya, was a city that was part of the Roman Empire in the first centuries of our era. Few of its relics, however, are actually known, since the current Libyan capital was built on the old Roman urbs. Considering these limitations and in order to overcome them will undertake an attempt to reconstitute the ancient Oea. We intend to give materiality to the city, given our interest in researching the urban space where Apuleius of Madaura, North African writer of the mid-second century, was publicly vilified and accused of witchcraft. From the work Apology, the tiny epigraphic and archaeological artifacts and comparisons with the nearby cities of Leptis Magna and Sabrata - which archaeological sites are immensely richer and more complete - we believe we can shimmer the urban environment experienced by Apuleius between the years 157 - 159 A.D.Keywords: Oea – Space – Materiality – Apuleius

  10. Mia Couto e a educação de crianças pequenas: Alteridade, arte e infância

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    Maria Carmen Silveira Barbosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents the proposal of an interlocution between the course of our studies in the field of early childhood education and Mia Couto's work. We address the matter of alterity from themes such as space, time, childhoods, art and science. Mia Couto defines alterity as the magic of being us, being others, a conception that reaffirms the African thinking according to which each person is because we are everybody else. Here, "others" do not refer only to people, but also to the places they inhabit, the listening to their social processes, their traditions, in summary, the lives they live. Mia Couto's reflections lead us to part with instituted habits of thinking the education of childhood by favoring the resistance to the hegemonic way of conceiving and conducting the education of small children from one single way of promoting childhood experiences. Este ensaio apresenta uma proposta de interlocução entre o percurso de nossos estudos no campo da educação da infância e a obra de Mia Couto. Para tanto, detemo-nos na questão da alteridade a partir dos temas espaço, tempo, infâncias, arte e ciência. A alteridade é, para Mia Couto, a magia de sermos nós, sendo outros, concepção que reafirma o pensamento africano na qual cada um é porque é todos os outros. Esses “outros” não se referem apenas a pessoas, mas também aos lugares que habitam, à escuta de seus processos sociais, suas tradições, enfim as vidas que neles são vividas. As reflexões de Mia Couto permitem romper com hábitos instituídos de pensar a educação das infâncias ao favorecerem a resistência ao modo hegemônico de conceber e realizar a educação de crianças pequenas a partir de uma única forma escolar de promover experiências de infância na contemporaneidade.

  11. Mezcla génica en una muestra poblacional de la ciudad de Buenos Aires Gene mixture in a population sample from Buenos Aires City

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    Sergio A. Avena

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo estimar la mezcla génica en la población de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, a partir de muestras de dadores de sangre provenientes de un centro público de salud (Hospital de Clínicas. Los estudios se realizaron sobre 218 personas no emparentadas que donaron su sangre durante el año 2002. Se analizaron 8 sistemas genéticos eritrocitarios y los alotipos GM/KM. Se realizó una encuesta con la finalidad de obtener información sobre lugar de nacimiento, residencia actual y datos genealógicos de los dadores. Las frecuencias génicas se determinaron empleando métodos de máxima verosimilitud. Para calcular la mezcla génica se aplicó el programa ADMIX (trihíbrido. Se registró un 15.8% de aporte indígena (AI y 4.3% de africano (AA. Estos datos se compararon con un estudio previo realizado en un centro privado (Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, no observándose diferencias significativas salvo en el sistema Km. Los resultados obtenidos se corresponden con la información histórica y demográfica de la ciudad de Buenos Aires.The aim of this study is to estimate the gene admixture in the population of Buenos Aires City from samples of blood donors, which come from a public health centre (Hospital de Clínicas. These studies were performed on 218 unrelated people, who donated blood during the year 2002. Eight erythrocyte genetic systems and GM/KM allotypes were analysed. A survey to obtain information about place of birth, present residence and genealogical data of the donors was performed. The gene frequencies were determined using a method of maximum likelihood. The genetic admixture was calculated through the ADMIX program (trihibride. The Amerindian and African contributions were 15.8% and 4.3% respectively. These data were compared with those obtained in a previous study performed in a private centre (Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires and significant differences were observed, except in the KM system. The

  12. La pauta poblacional de África: los desiguales niveles de la transición demográfica

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    Martín Ruiz, Juan Francisco

    2007-06-01

    transición epidemiológica, y también la transición demográfica misma, de manera que hay dos grandes brechas: la primera, la del continente africano en su conjunto con respecto al Primer Mundo, y la segunda, de reciente aparición, que separa cada vez más a África Subsahariana, empobrecida, en muchas de cuyas regiones se ha paralizado la transición sanitaria, y la Septentrional, que ha hallado las vías del desarrollo humano, con una transición demográfica ya en una fase avanzada.

  13. Quem é Digno de Abrir os Selos? O Comentário Bíblico como gênero de escrita na Alta Idade Média * Who is Worthy to Open the Seals? The Bible Commentary as written genres in The High Middle Ages

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    RAQUEL DE FÁTIMA PARMEGIANI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste trabalho, temos como proposta refletir sobre o processo de construção da relação entre texto bíblico e seus comentadores na Alta Idade Média. Nosso objetivo é pensar esta escritura na sua historicidade, ou seja, seus usos sociais e suas possibilidades de leitura. Para tanto, partiremos da análise do Comentário ao Apocalipse do Africano Ticônio (cerca de 328, um dos primeiros autores a analisar este livro, e do seu trabalho Liber Regylarum, no qual propõe sete preceitos a partir dos quais os textos bíblicos deveriam ser interpretados. Embora este autor tenha sido considerado herético pela Igreja Romana, o uso das suas regras ganhou um reconhecido lugar entre os comentaristas bíblicos na Idade Média, o que pode ser percebido na obra de autores cristãos como Santo Agostinho, São Jeronimo, Cesário de Arlés, Beda e Beato de Liébana.Palavras-chave: Comentário Bíblico – Práticas de leitura – Cristianismo Medieval. Abstract: In this paper, we will try to reflect how the relationship between the biblical text and its commentators is building in the High Middle Ages. Our aim is to think this scripture in its historicity, that is, its social uses and possibilities of reading. For this, we begin with the analysis of the Tyconius’ Commentary on the Apocalypse (about 328, one of the first authors to analyze this book and your work entitled Liber Regylarum, in which he proposes seven principles according to which the biblical texts should be interpreted. Although this author has been considered heretical by the Roman Church, the use of these rules has gained a recognized place among the bible commentators in the Middle Ages, as we can see in the works of Christian writers such as St. Augustine, St. Jerome, Caesarius of Arles, Beda and Beatus of Liebana.Keywords: Bible Commentary – Reading practices – Medieval Christianity.

  14. Las nuevas diásporas de los afromexicanos y algunos de sus efectos en las culturales locales

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    Haydee Quiroz Malca

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will present advances in the research concerning the effects of the migration of populations originally from Africa that live along the Chica Coast of Guerrero in Mexico. The work begins with the historic impact of the arrival, of Africans, to this area of New Spain and I hope to explain that, as an effect of the recurring economic crises, a growing number of Afromexicans of this region migrate toward the United States.This reality brings diverse effects to the population that remains in the community of origin in Mexico. In this case, I hope to emphasize the revitalization that is observed in the community festivals, such as the celebrations of domestic groups, like weddings. In a parallel way, the community creates and recreates new phenomenon among the young who return, and who behave and are seen as cholos, which creates certain tensions in their towns.//En este ensayo se presentarán los avances de la investigación sobre los efectos de la migración de poblaciones originarias de África que viven a lo largo de la Costa Chica de Guerrero en México. El trabajo empieza narrando el impacto histórico de la llegada de los africanos a esta área de Nueva España, con esto espero explicar que, como un efecto de las crisis económicas recurrentes, un número creciente de afro-mexicanos de esta región migraron hacia Estados Unidos. Esta realidad trae diversos efectos a la población que aún reside en su comunidad de origen en México. En este caso, espero hacer énfasis en la revitalización que se observa en los festivales de la comunidad y en las celebraciones domésticas como las bodas. De forma paralela, este grupo crea y recrea un fenómeno nuevo dentro de los hombres jóvenes que regresan y que se comportan y son vistos como “cholos”, lo cual crea tensiones en sus pueblos.

  15. Explorando la educación en medios como práctica cívica en África Exploring Media Education as Civic Praxis in Africa

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    Fackson Banda

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo sostiene que la educación en medios africana debe definir una agenda pedagógica para la ciudadanía. Esa tarea se sitúa en un revisionismo poscolonial de formas liberales de pensamiento y práctica acerca de los medios. Esta dependencia neo-colonial de la educación en medios africana es evidente en el énfasis pedagógico de la automatización periodística-profesional. Sin embargo, los africanos se están volviendo crecientemente apáticos, política y cívicamente. Esta aportación demanda una visión emancipatoria del periodismo inmerso en la sociedad civil. Se basa en el estudio de caso de clubs de radio-escuchas para ilustrar la influencia cívica de los medios en Malawi y Zambia, y propone un modelo de educación mediática para la ciudadanía. La tesis clave de este modelo incluye realzar el análisis crítico de la correlación entre medios, democracia y desarrollo; desarrollar una visión emancipatoria del periodismo; cultivar una ciudadanía activa; fortificar una infraestructura institucional viable de democracia, y promover una adhesión informada a los derechos humanos. This article argues that African media education must define a pedagogical agenda for citizenship. That task lies in a postcolonial revisionism of liberal modes of thought and practice about media. This neo-colonial dependence of African media education is evident in the pedagogical emphasis on professional- journalistic automation. However, Africans are increasingly becoming politically and civically apathetic. This analysis calls for an emancipatory vision of journalism that is embedded in civil society. It uses a case study of radio listening clubs to illustrate the civic influence of the media in Malawi and Zambia. It concludes by proposing a model of media education for citizenship. The key tenets of the model include enhancing critical analysis of the correlation between media, democracy and development; developing an emancipatory vision of

  16. Participación de las mujeres en la construcción social del territorio y el proceso de regionalización del Caribe colombiano

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    Yusmidia Solano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe el papel de las mujeres en los procesos de construcción de territorios y de regionalización en la costa Caribe colombiana. En primer lugar, se presenta la participación de las mujeres en los procesos adaptativos de los primeros habitantes, a través de su contribución a la creación de las culturas más importantes que surgieron en la región, tales como la Tairona y la Sinú. También, se consideran las acciones de resistencia de las mujeres indígenas que se opusieron a la invasión española, la participación de las mujeres en las luchas libertarias de africanos, indígenas, mestizos, zambos y criollos contra el colonialismo, y en la consolidación de la República, junto a su contribución en la construcción de los tejidos sociales que consolidaron la vida social de los pueblos y ciudades nacientes, lo que convirtió a las mujeres en integradoras de los grupos familiares, en la fuerza socializadora de las nuevas generaciones y en las garantes del funcionamiento de la estructura familiar. La segunda argumentación que se trabaja en el artículo es la referida a la participación de las mujeres en el proceso de regionalización del Caribe colombiano, en la que se establece y concluye que a pesar de que ésta se ha dado, no se ha garantizado el reconocimiento de sus intereses prácticos y estratégicos que permitan cambios en su posición social, económica y política, porque si bien hubo expresión de esos intereses en algunos de los foros realizados para concertar la visión y demandas de la región, el movimiento social no ha tenido acceso a la toma de decisiones, lo que no ha impedido si embargo, que en las últimas décadas éste se haya fortalecido.

  17. Política etnorreligiosa, conflito intra-estatal e o futuro da democracia na Costa do Marfim Ethno-religious politics, intra state conflict and the future of democracy in Côte d'Ivoire

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    Dele Ogunmola

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo utiliza o método descritivo para analisar as origens e o caráter aparentemente intratável, mas evitável, dos fatores ancilares que implicaram a derrocada da Costa do Marfim, que já foi uma ilha de estabilidade política, uma vitrine de prosperidade econômica e de sucesso em uma África Ocidental mergulhada em guerras civis. O artigo investiga as políticas dos Estados colonial e pós-colonial até a morte do presidente Félix Houphouët-Boigny, a era pós-Houphouët e suas crises política e socioeconômica, e a má administração do legado de Boigny, que levaram ao conflito interno. As conseqüências da disputa interna também são investigadas nos níveis nacional e sub-regional, assim como as resoluções dos conflitos por meio das ineficientes iniciativas de paz de Accra que, inexoravelmente, levariam às conversas de paz de Lina-Marcoussis. Os resultados das negociações, a participação de poderes não africanos e o futuro da democracia na Costa do Marfim também são investigados.This paper uses descriptive method to analyse the origin and the seemingly intractable but avoidable ancillary factors that plunged Côte d'Ivoire, which was once the island of political stability, the showcase of economic prosperity and success in West Africa in the fangs of civil war. The paper surveys the policies of the colonial and postcolonial state till the death of President Félix Houphouët-Boigny, the post-Houphouët era and its lot of political and socio-economic upheavals and the mismanagement of the legacies of Boigny that led to the internal conflict. The consequences of the civil strife are also surveyed at the national and sub-regional levels as well as the resolutions of the conflict through the botched Accra peace initiatives that inexorably led to the Lina-Marcoussis peace talks. The aftermath of the negotiations and the involvement of extra-African powers and the future of democracy in Côte d'Ivoire are also looked into.

  18. Aspectos Musicales del Joropo de Venezuela y Colombia

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    Claudia Calderón Sáenz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Joropo es una expresión de arte popular en permanente evolución, originalmente una fiesta campesina o pueblerina que integra poesía, canto, música y danza en un sistema de creatividad improvisatoria sobre estructuras establecidas y parámetros definidos de estilo. El Joropo se caracteriza por un sistema de estructuras cristalizadas a lo largo de la historia a partir de canciones y danzas tradicionales que se erigieron en formas musicales, sirviendo como base para a variantes en la letra, o convirtiéndose en formas puramente instrumentales. El Joropo es una tradición que abarca casi la totalidad del territorio venezolano y al menos la cuarta parte del territorio colombiano. En Venezuela el Joropo es considerado el baile nacional por excelencia y existen tres tipos de Joropo clasificados por regiones con importantes variantes de instrumentación y estilo: el Joropo Oriental, el Joropo Central y el Joropo Llanero. Solamente el Joropo Llanero, extendido alrededor de la cuenca central del Orinoco, es común a Colombia y Venezuela, siendo el más difundido de todos, tanto por la amplia discografía y radiodifusión como por la abundancia de festivales, concursos y torneos que involucran a ambos países. Además es notable el auge y desarrollo urbano que ha tenido esta música en los últimos años en las respectivas capitales. Sus orígenes se remontan a las músicas ibéricas del Siglo XVII y XVIII, tales como el múltiple Fandango, las Folías, Peteneras, Jotas y Malagueñas andaluzas, sazonadas con la influencia de ocho siglos de dominación árabe y posteriormente transformadas en América con el mestizaje de elementos africanos e indígenas, bajo el sol abrasador de la Cuenca del Orinoco y la vastedad infinita de sus horizontes y llanuras. Los antecesores del Joropo incluyen la música de marineros y trovadores que llega en los galeones provenientes de España, transformándose en música arraigada en el suelo americano y dando lugar a

  19. Dictatures et protestantisme en Afrique Noire depuis la décolonisation: le résultat d'une politique françafricaine et d'une influence américaine certaine

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    Jérémie Kroubo Dagnini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Étienne Gnassingbé Eyadéma, Jean Bédel Bokassa, Denis Sassou-Nguesso, El Hadj Omar Bongo, Idriss Déby, Paul Biya et Blaise Compaoré, por citar sólo algunos, tienen un mismo punto en común : fueron o son « amigos de Francia » que recibieron la ayuda económica, financiera, política y militar de presidentes franceses sucesivos, de Charles de Gaulle a Nicolas Sarkozy. Estos dictadores africanos constituyen el resultado directo de la política africana de Francia después de los últimos cincuenta años. Paralelamente a este neocolonialismo francés, otra forma de imperialismo se ha desarrollado en el África negra: la conquista religiosa de las iglesias evangélicas americanas. La presencia de los evangélicos americanos en África es muy clara: compensar el retraso político de América en la conquista colonial. Pero este imperialismo religioso no sucede sin consecuencias: ha originado graves divergencias sectarias. Así, este estudio, en una primera parte, expone la política africana de Francia y el apoyo que aporta a las antiguas colonias africanas. La segunda parte propone explorar el rol, la influencia y las consecuencias de las misiones protestantes en el África negra.__________________ABSTRACT:Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Étienne Gnassingbé Eyadéma, Jean Bédel Bokassa, Denis Sassou-Nguesso, El Hadj Omar Bongo, Idriss Déby Paul Biya and Blaise Compaoré, to mention only a few, have one thing in common: they are, or were, “friends of France”, who received economic, financial, political and military help from successive French presidents, from Charles de Gaulle to Nicolas Sarkozy. Those African dictators are a direct result of the French policy in Africa during the last fifty years. In parallel with this French neo-colonialism, another form of imperialism has developed in Black Africa: the religious conquest of the American Protestant churches. The presence of the American Protestants in Africa is

  20. A (desintegração da África pós-colonial em A Bend in the River de V. S. Naipaul = The (disintegration of post-colonial Africa in A Bend in the River by V. S. Naipaul

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    Mariana Bolfarine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa refletir sobre as consequências do imperialismo europeu em uma cidade africana fictícia, inspirada no Zaire, representada por V. S. Naipaul na obra A Bend in The River (1979. O artigo investiga a falta de integração entre as diferentesesferas sociais que se formaram no leste da África, a partir da imigração de indianos e asiáticos como indentured workers, trabalhadores contratados. Serão analisados trechos do romance que possuem como foco as consequências dos relacionamentos inter-raciaisvividos entre diferentes personagens. A conclusão é que A Bend in the River demonstra que a política de dividir para governar, posta em prática pelos europeus, influenciou a construção de uma sociedade fragmentada, desigual, hierárquica e determinista. O pessimismo deNaipaul corrobora a ideologia racista do colonialismo, que prega a pressuposição pelo negro africano da superioridade do branco europeu, reafirmando o seu direito de oprimir e dominar os povos colonizados. O campo teórico é constituído com base nos estudos de Avtar Brah, Edward Said, Michael Gorra.This work aims at reflecting upon the consequences of European imperialism in a fictitious African city, supposedly situated in Zaire, represented by V. S. Naipaul in A Bend in the River (1979. The article investigates the lack of integration between different social spheres, which were formed in East Africa, after the immigration of Indians and Asians as indentured workers. Different excerpts of the novel that focus on the consequences of the inter-racial relationships between different characters in the narrative will be analyzed. The conclusion is that A Bend in the River reveals that the divide and rule policy, put into practice by the Europeancolonizer, influenced the construction of a society that is fragmented, unequal, hierarchical and deterministic. Naipaul’s pessimism supports the racist ideology of colonialism, which preachesthe assumption by the