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Sample records for africanized worker honey

  1. The reproductive ability of Varroa destructor in worker brood of Africanized and hybrid honey bees in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderon, R.A.; Sommeijer, M.J.; Ruijter, de A.; Veen, van der J.W.

    2003-01-01

    From February to July 2001, the reproductive ability of Varroa destructor in artificially infested worker brood cells of Africanized honey bees (AHB) (Apis mellifera) and hybrids (HF1) of AHB x European honey bees was investigated in Costa Rica. No significant differences were found between AHB and

  2. Reproduction of Varroa destructor and offspring mortality in worker and drone brood cells of Africanized honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, R A; Ureña, S; van Veen, J W

    2012-04-01

    Varroa destructor is known to be the most serious parasite of Apis mellifera worldwide. In order to reproduce varroa females enter worker or drone brood shortly before the cell is sealed. From March to December 2008, the reproductive rate and offspring mortality (mature and immature stages), focusing on male absence and male mortality of V. destructor, was investigated in naturally infested worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (AHB) in Costa Rica. Data were obtained from 388 to 403 single infested worker and drone brood cells, respectively. Mite fertility in worker and drone brood cells was 88.9 and 93.1%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups (X(2) = 3.6, P = 0.06). However, one of the most significant differences in mite reproduction was the higher percentage of mites producing viable offspring in drone cells (64.8%) compared to worker cells (37.6%) (X(2) = 57.2, P < 0.05). A greater proportion of mites in worker brood cells produced non-viable female offspring. Mite offspring mortality in both worker and drone cells was high in the protonymph stage (mobile and immobile). A significant finding was the high rate of male mortality. The worker and drone brood revealed that 23.9 and 6.9%, respectively, of the adult male offspring was found dead. If the absence (missing) of the male and adult male mortality are taken together the percentage of cells increased to 40.0 and 21.3% in worker and drone cells, respectively (X(2) = 28.8, P < 0.05). The absence of the male or male mortality in a considerable number of worker cells naturally infested with varroa is the major factor in our study which reduces the production of viable daughters in AHB colonies in Costa Rica. PMID:22270116

  3. Reproduction of Varroa destructor and offspring mortality in worker and drone brood cells of Africanized honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, R A; Ureña, S; van Veen, J W

    2012-04-01

    Varroa destructor is known to be the most serious parasite of Apis mellifera worldwide. In order to reproduce varroa females enter worker or drone brood shortly before the cell is sealed. From March to December 2008, the reproductive rate and offspring mortality (mature and immature stages), focusing on male absence and male mortality of V. destructor, was investigated in naturally infested worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (AHB) in Costa Rica. Data were obtained from 388 to 403 single infested worker and drone brood cells, respectively. Mite fertility in worker and drone brood cells was 88.9 and 93.1%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups (X(2) = 3.6, P = 0.06). However, one of the most significant differences in mite reproduction was the higher percentage of mites producing viable offspring in drone cells (64.8%) compared to worker cells (37.6%) (X(2) = 57.2, P varroa is the major factor in our study which reduces the production of viable daughters in AHB colonies in Costa Rica.

  4. Support for the reproductive ground plan hypothesis of social evolution and major QTL for ovary traits of Africanized worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.

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    Page Robert E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reproductive ground plan hypothesis of social evolution suggests that reproductive controls of a solitary ancestor have been co-opted during social evolution, facilitating the division of labor among social insect workers. Despite substantial empirical support, the generality of this hypothesis is not universally accepted. Thus, we investigated the prediction of particular genes with pleiotropic effects on ovarian traits and social behavior in worker honey bees as a stringent test of the reproductive ground plan hypothesis. We complemented these tests with a comprehensive genome scan for additional quantitative trait loci (QTL to gain a better understanding of the genetic architecture of the ovary size of honey bee workers, a morphological trait that is significant for understanding social insect caste evolution and general insect biology. Results Back-crossing hybrid European x Africanized honey bee queens to the Africanized parent colony generated two study populations with extraordinarily large worker ovaries. Despite the transgressive ovary phenotypes, several previously mapped QTL for social foraging behavior demonstrated ovary size effects, confirming the prediction of pleiotropic genetic effects on reproductive traits and social behavior. One major QTL for ovary size was detected in each backcross, along with several smaller effects and two QTL for ovary asymmetry. One of the main ovary size QTL coincided with a major QTL for ovary activation, explaining 3/4 of the phenotypic variance, although no simple positive correlation between ovary size and activation was observed. Conclusions Our results provide strong support for the reproductive ground plan hypothesis of evolution in study populations that are independent of the genetic stocks that originally led to the formulation of this hypothesis. As predicted, worker ovary size is genetically linked to multiple correlated traits of the complex division of labor in

  5. A comparison of the reproductive ability of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata:Varroidae) in worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera).

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    Calderón, Rafael A; Zamora, Luis G; Van Veen, Johan W; Quesada, Mariela V

    2007-01-01

    Colony infestation by the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor is one of the most serious problems for beekeeping worldwide. In order to reproduce varroa females, enter worker or drone brood shortly before the cell is sealed. To test the hypothesis that, due to the preference of mites to invade drone brood to reproduce, a high proportion of the mite reproduction should occur in drone cells, a comparative study of mite reproductive rate in worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (AHB) was done for 370 mites. After determining the number, developmental stage and sex of the offspring in worker cells, the foundress female mite was immediately transferred into an uninfested drone cell. Mite fertility in single infested worker and drone brood cells was 76.5 and 79.3%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups (X(2)= 0.78, P = 0.37). However, one of the most significant differences in mite reproduction was the higher percentage of mites producing viable offspring (cells that contain one live adult male and at least one adult female mite) in drone cells (38.1%) compared to worker cells (13.8%) (X(2)= 55.4, P < 0.01). Furthermore, a high level of immature offspring occurred in worker cells and not in drone cells (X(2)= 69, P < 0.01). Although no differences were found in the percentage of non-reproducing mites, more than 74% (n = 85) of the mites that did not reproduce in worker brood, produced offspring when they were transferred to drone brood. PMID:17828439

  6. Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L. are more efficient at removing worker brood artificially infested with the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans than are Italian bees or Italian/Africanized hybrids

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    José Carlos Vieira Guerra Jr.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Africanized honey bees are more tolerant of infestations with the mite Varroa jacobsoni than are honey bees of European origin. The capacity of these bees to detect and react to brood infested with this mite could be one of the factors determining this tolerance. We tested colonies of Africanized bees headed by queens from swarms collected in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State. The Italian colonies had queens imported directly from the USA, or from the Brazilian Island of Fernando de Noronha, where varroa-infested Italian colonies have been maintained, untreated, since 1984. Recently sealed worker brood cells were artificially infested by opening the cell capping, inserting live adult female mites and resealing the cells. Control cells were treated in the same way, but without introducing mites. The ability of the Africanized honey bees to recognize and remove this artificially infested brood was compared with that of first generation Italian/Africanized hybrid bees, and with the two groups of "pure" Italian bees, in three separate experiments. Africanized colonies removed a mean of 51% of the infested brood, while Italian/Africanized hybrid colonies removed 25%. Africanized colonies also removed a significantly greater proportion of infested brood than did Italian colonies, headed by queens from the USA (59 vs. 31%, respectively. Similarly, when Africanized colonies were compared with colonies of Italian bees from Fernando de Noronha, the former were found to be significantly more efficient at removing infested brood (61 vs. 35%, respectively, even though the population of Italian bees on this island has been exposed to and survived varroa infestations (without treatment for more than 12 years. Only the Africanized honey bees removed a significant proportion of varroa-infested brood, when the data was corrected for brood removal from control cells.Abelhas africanizadas são mais tolerantes à infestação com o ácaro Varroa jacobsoni do que

  7. Support for the reproductive ground plan hypothesis of social evolution and major QTL for ovary traits of Africanized worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Allie M; Munday, Michael D; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.; Rueppell, Olav

    2011-01-01

    Background The reproductive ground plan hypothesis of social evolution suggests that reproductive controls of a solitary ancestor have been co-opted during social evolution, facilitating the division of labor among social insect workers. Despite substantial empirical support, the generality of this hypothesis is not universally accepted. Thus, we investigated the prediction of particular genes with pleiotropic effects on ovarian traits and social behavior in worker honey bees as a stringent t...

  8. Support for the reproductive ground plan hypothesis of social evolution and major QTL for ovary traits of Africanized worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Page Robert E; Kaftanoglu Osman; Munday Michael D; Graham Allie M; Amdam Gro V; Rueppell Olav

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The reproductive ground plan hypothesis of social evolution suggests that reproductive controls of a solitary ancestor have been co-opted during social evolution, facilitating the division of labor among social insect workers. Despite substantial empirical support, the generality of this hypothesis is not universally accepted. Thus, we investigated the prediction of particular genes with pleiotropic effects on ovarian traits and social behavior in worker honey bees as a st...

  9. Reproduction of Varroa destructor in South African honey bees: does cell space influence Varroa male survivorship?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Stephen; Kryger, Per

    2002-01-01

    International audience The ability of Varroa destructor to reproduce in the African honey bee Apis mellifera scutellata was studied. In addition, the effects of space within the brood cell and short brood developmental time on mite reproduction, was investigated using A. m. scutellata cells parasitised by a A. m. capensis worker pseudo-clone. In A. m. scutellata worker cells Varroa produced 0.9 fertilised females per mother mite which is the same as found in susceptible European honey bees...

  10. Kin discrimination by worker honey bees in genetically mixed groups

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    Breed, Michael D.; Butler, Linda; Stiller, Tammy M.

    1985-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that in a genetically mixed assemblage of worker honey bees, individual workers would behave differently toward unfamiliar sisters than toward unfamiliar nonsisters. Groups of worker honey bees of mixed genetic composition were assembled by collecting pupae from separate colonies and placing the worker bees together on eclosion. A total of 10 workers, 5 from each of two kin groups, were used to form each group. When the workers were 5 days old, a worker of one of the ...

  11. Bioassay for grooming effectiveness towards Varroa destructor mites in Africanized and Carniolan honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Aumeier, Pia

    2001-01-01

    International audience Grooming behavior is considered a varroosis tolerance factor of Africanized honey bees, but this behavior is difficult to evaluate directly within the honey bee colony. A laboratory bioassay was developed to measure the intensity and effectiveness of grooming responses by worker bees artificially infested with one Varroa mite. At a study site in tropical Brazil, the sequence of seven well- defined grooming reactions towards mites of different colonial origin was comp...

  12. Varroa destructor mite in Africanized honeybee colonies Apis mellifera L. under royal jelly or honey production

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    Pedro da Rosa Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the level of invasion of Varroa mite into worker brood cells, the infestation rate on adult worker honeybees, total and effective reproduction rates of the mite in Africanized honeybee colonies under royal jelly or honey production. Invasion and infestation rates were not statistically different between honeybee colonies producing honey or royal jelly and the averages for these parameters were 5.79 and 8.54%, respectively. Colonies producing honey presented a higher (p < 0.05 total and effective reproduction of Varroa than colonies producing royal jelly. There was a negative correlation between levels of invasion and infestation with minimum external temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. The variables month and season influenced the development of the mite, but rates were low and within the range normally found in Brazil for Africanized honeybee colonies, which confirm the greater resistance of these honeybees to Varroa destructor than European honeybees.

  13. Varroa destructor mite in Africanized honeybee colonies Apis mellifera L. under royal jelly or honey production

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    Pedro da Rosa Santos; Priscila Wielewski; Andre Luiz Halak; Patrícia Faquinello; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the level of invasion of Varroa mite into worker brood cells, the infestation rate on adult worker honeybees, total and effective reproduction rates of the mite in Africanized honeybee colonies under royal jelly or honey production. Invasion and infestation rates were not statistically different between honeybee colonies producing honey or royal jelly and the averages for these parameters were 5.79 and 8.54%, respectively. Colonies producing honey presented a higher (p < ...

  14. Behavioral studies of learning in the Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I; Aquino, Italo S

    2002-01-01

    Experiments on basic classical conditioning phenomena in adult and young Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are described. Phenomena include conditioning to various stimuli, extinction (both unpaired and CS only), conditioned inhibition, color and odor discrimination. In addition to work on basic phenomena, experiments on practical applications of conditioning methodology are illustrated with studies demonstrating the effects of insecticides on learning and the reaction of bees to consumer products. Electron microscope photos are presented of Africanized workers, drones, and queen bees. Possible sub-species differences between Africanized and European bees are discussed.

  15. Cytosine modifications in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) worker genome.

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    Rasmussen, Erik M K; Amdam, Gro V

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic changes enable genomes to respond to changes in the environment, such as altered nutrition, activity, or social setting. Epigenetic modifications, thereby, provide a source of phenotypic plasticity in many species. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) uses nutritionally sensitive epigenetic control mechanisms in the development of the royal caste (queens) and the workers. The workers are functionally sterile females that can take on a range of distinct physiological and/or behavioral phenotypes in response to environmental changes. Honey bees have a wide repertoire of epigenetic mechanisms which, as in mammals, include cytosine methylation, hydroxymethylated cytosines, together with the enzymatic machinery responsible for these cytosine modifications. Current data suggests that honey bees provide an excellent system for studying the "social repertoire" of the epigenome. In this review, we elucidate what is known so far about the honey bee epigenome and its mechanisms. Our discussion includes what may distinguish honey bees from other model animals, how the epigenome can influence worker behavioral task separation, and how future studies can answer central questions about the role of the epigenome in social behavior. PMID:25705215

  16. Cytosine modifications in the honey bee (Apis mellifera worker genome

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    Erik Magne Koscielniak Rasmussen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic changes enable genomes to respond to changes in the environment, such as altered nutrition, activity, or social setting. Epigenetic modifications, thereby, provides a source of phenotypic plasticity in many species. The honey bee (Apis mellifera uses nutritionally sensitive epigenetic control mechanisms in the development of the royal caste (queens and the workers. The workers are functionally sterile females that can take on a range of distinct physiological and/or behavioral phenotypes in response to environmental changes. Honey bees have a wide repertoire of epigenetic mechanisms which, as in mammals, includes cytosine methylation, hydroxymethylated cytosines, together with the enzymatic machinery responsible for these cytosine modifications. Current data suggests that honey bees provide an excellent system for studying the social repertoire of the epigenome. In this review, we elucidate what is known so far about the honey bee epigenome and its mechanisms. Our discussion includes what may distinguish honey bees from other model animals, how the epigenome can influence worker behavioral task separation, and how future studies can answer central questions about the role of the epigenome in social behavior.

  17. Highly polymorphic DNA markers in an Africanized honey bee population in Costa Rica

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    Lobo Segura Jorge Arturo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two genetic markers (the mtDNA COI-COII intergenic region and the microsatellite A7 with high levels of variability in South African and European honey bees were analyzed in wild swarms of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera from Costa Rica. Allelic or haplotypic frequencies revealed high levels of genetic variability at these loci in this population. Most of the alleles were African alleles, although some European-derived alleles were also present. Differences in the frequencies of African alleles between African and Africanized samples were minor, which could be explained by founder effects occurring during the introduction of African honey bee populations into South America.

  18. Varroa destructor mite mortality rate according to the amount of worker broods in africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies = Taxa de mortalidade do ácaro Varroa destructor de acordo com a quantidade de crias em colônias de abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L.

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    Geraldo Moretto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Varroa destructor mite has caused the death of hundreds of thousands of Apis mellifera colonies in several countries worldwide. However, the effects determined by the Varroa mite change according to the A. mellifera subspecies. In Africanized bee colonies from South and Central America, the parasite causes little damage, as the infestation levels are relatively stable and low, thus treatments against the pest are not required. Among several factors, the grooming behavior of Africanized worker bees plays an important role in the maintenance of the low infestation levels. This study determined the daily rate of live and dead mites found at the bottom of the hive in five Africanized honey bee colonies. During fifteen days of observations, a significant increase was verified in the number of live and dead mites at the bottom of the hive as the amount of worker broods from each honey bee colony decreased. This suggests a more intense grooming activity as the Varroa concentration in the adult honey bee population increases.O ácaro Varroa destructor tem causado a mortalidade de centenas de milhares de colônias de abelhas Apis mellifera em várias partes do mundo. Os efeitos determinados pelo ácaro Varroa variam com a subespécie de Apis mellifera. Nas Américas do Sul e Central, o parasita causa poucos danos às colônias de abelhas africanizadas, a taxa de infestação é estável e baixa, não sendo necessário o tratamento químico contra a praga. Entre vários fatores que são responsáveis pela tolerância das abelhas africanizadas a esse parasita, o comportamento de grooming executado pelas operárias deve exercer importante papel na manutenção dos baixos níveis deinfestação. Neste estudo, foram avaliadas as taxas diárias de ácaros vivos e mortos encontrados no fundo das colméias de cinco colônias de abelhas africanizadas. Durante 15 dias de observações, foi verificado significativo aumento de ácaros no fundo da colméia

  19. Drone and Worker Brood Microclimates Are Regulated Differentially in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

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    Zhiyong Li

    Full Text Available Honey bee (Apis mellifera drones and workers show differences in morphology, physiology, and behavior. Because the functions of drones are more related to colony reproduction, and those of workers relate to both survival and reproduction, we hypothesize that the microclimate for worker brood is more precisely regulated than that of drone brood.We assessed temperature and relative humidity (RH inside honey bee colonies for both drone and worker brood throughout the three-stage development period, using digital HOBO® Data Loggers. The major findings of this study are that 1 both drone and worker castes show the highest temperature for eggs, followed by larvae and then pupae; 2 temperature in drones are maintained at higher precision (smaller variance in drone eggs and larvae, but at a lower precision in pupae than the corresponding stages of workers; 3 RH regulation showed higher variance in drone than workers across all brood stages; and 4 RH regulation seems largely due to regulation by workers, as the contribution from empty honey combs are much smaller compared to that from adult workers.We conclude that honey bee colonies maintain both temperature and humidity actively; that the microclimate for sealed drone brood is less precisely regulated than worker brood; and that combs with honey contribute very little to the increase of RH in honey bee colonies. These findings increase our understanding of microclimate regulation in honey bees and may have implications for beekeeping practices.

  20. Effects of Nosema ceranae and thiametoxam in Apis mellifera: A comparative study in Africanized and Carniolan honey bees.

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    Gregorc, Ales; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine C M; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Kramberger, Doris; Teixeira, Erica W; Malaspina, Osmar

    2016-03-01

    Multiple stressors, such as chemicals and pathogens, are likely to be detrimental for the health and lifespan of Apis mellifera, a bee species frequently exposed to both factors in the field and inside hives. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate comparatively the health of Carniolan and Africanized honey bees (AHB) co-exposed to thiamethoxam and Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae) spores. Newly-emerged worker honey bees were exposed solely with different sublethal doses of thiamethoxam (2% and 0.2% of LD50 for AHB), which could be consumed by bees under field conditions. Toxicity tests for the Carniolan bees were performed, and the LD50 of thiamethoxam for Carniolan honey bees was 7.86 ng bee(-1). Immunohistological analyses were also performed to detect cell death in the midgut of thiamethoxam and/or N. ceranae treated bees. Thiamethoxam exposure had no negative impact on Nosema development in experimental conditions, but it clearly inhibited cell death in the midgut of thiamethoxam and Nosema-exposed bees, as demonstrated by immunohistochemical data. Indeed, thiamethoxam exposure only had a minor synergistic toxic effect on midgut tissue when applied as a low dose simultaneously with N. ceranae to AHB and Carniolan honey bees, in comparison with the effect caused by both stressors separately. Our data provides insights into the effects of the neonicotenoid thiamethoxam on the AHB and Carniolan honey bee life span, as well as the effects of simultaneous application of thiamethoxam and N. ceranae spores to honey bees. PMID:26774296

  1. Physiology of reproductive worker honey bees (Apis mellifera): insights for the development of the worker caste.

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    Peso, Marianne; Even, Naïla; Søvik, Eirik; Naeger, Nicholas L; Robinson, Gene E; Barron, Andrew B

    2016-02-01

    Reproductive and behavioural specialisations characterise advanced social insect societies. Typically, the honey bee (Apis mellifera) shows a pronounced reproductive division of labour between worker and queen castes, and a clear division of colony roles among workers. In a queenless condition, however, both of these aspects of social organisation break down. Queenless workers reproduce, forage and maintain their colony operating in a manner similar to communal bees, rather than as an advanced eusocial group. This plasticity in social organisation provides a natural experiment for exploring physiological mechanisms of division of labour. We measured brain biogenic amine (BA) levels and abdominal fat body vitellogenin gene expression levels of workers in queenright and queenless colonies. Age, ovary activation and social environment influenced brain BA levels in honey bees. BA levels were most influenced by ovary activation state in queenless bees. Vitellogenin expression levels were higher in queenless workers than queenright workers, but in both colony environments vitellogenin expression was lower in foragers than non-foragers. We propose this plasticity in the interacting signalling systems that influence both reproductive and behavioural development allows queenless workers to deviate significantly from the typical worker bee reaction norm and develop as reproductively active behavioural generalists. PMID:26715114

  2. Genetic structure of the gentle Africanized honey bee population (gAHB) in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo-Cardona, Alberto; Acevedo-Gonzalez, Jenny P; Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Giray, Tugrul

    2013-01-01

    Background The Africanized honey bee is one of the most spectacular invasions in the Americas. African bees escaped from apiaries in Brazil in 1956, spread over Americas and by 1994 they were reported in Puerto Rico. In contrast to other places, the oceanic island conditions in Puerto Rico may mean a single introduction and different dynamics of the resident European and new-coming Africanized bees. To examine the genetic variation of honey bee feral populations and colonies from different lo...

  3. Variation morphogeometrics of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera in Brazil

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    Lorena A. Nunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphometrics of the honey bee Apis mellifera L., 1758 has been widely studied mainly because this species has great ecological importance, high adaptation capacity, wide distribution and capacity to effectively adapt to different regions. The current study aimed to investigate the morphometric variations of wings and pollen baskets of honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 from the five regions in Brazil. We used geometric morphometrics to identify the existence of patterns of variations of shape and size in Africanized honey bees in Brazil 16 years after the classic study with this species, allowing a temporal and spatial comparative analysis using new technological resources to assess morphometrical data. Samples were collected in 14 locations in Brazil, covering the five geographical regions of the country. The shape analysis and multivariate analyses of the wing allowed to observe that there is a geographical pattern among the population of Apis mellifera in Brazil. The geographical variations may be attributed to the large territorial extension of the country in addition to the differences between the bioregions.

  4. Larval and nurse worker control of developmental plasticity and the evolution of honey bee queen-worker dimorphism.

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    Linksvayer, T A; Kaftanoglu, O; Akyol, E; Blatch, S; Amdam, G V; Page, R E

    2011-09-01

    Social evolution in honey bees has produced strong queen-worker dimorphism for plastic traits that depend on larval nutrition. The honey bee developmental programme includes both larval components that determine plastic growth responses to larval nutrition and nurse components that regulate larval nutrition. We studied how these two components contribute to variation in worker and queen body size and ovary size for two pairs of honey bee lineages that show similar differences in worker body-ovary size allometry but have diverged over different evolutionary timescales. Our results indicate that the lineages have diverged for both nurse and larval developmental components, that rapid changes in worker body-ovary size allometry may disrupt queen development and that queen-worker dimorphism arises mainly from discrete nurse-provided nutritional environments, not from a developmental switch that converts variable nutritional environments into discrete phenotypes. Both larval and nurse components have likely contributed to the evolution of queen-worker dimorphism.

  5. Unequal subfamily proportions among honey bee queen and worker brood

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    Tilley; Oldroyd

    1997-12-01

    Queens from three colonies of feral honey bees, Apis mellifera were removed and placed in separate nucleus colonies. For each colony, eggs and larvae were taken from the nucleus and placed in the main hive on each of 3-4 consecutive weeks. Workers in the queenless parts selected young larvae to rear as queens. Queen pupae, together with the surrounding worker pupae, were removed from each colony and analysed at two to three microsatellite loci to determine their paternity. In all three colonies, the paternity of larvae chosen by the bees to rear as queens was not a random sample of the paternities in the worker brood, with certain subfamilies being over-represented in queens. These results support an important prediction of kin selection theory: when colonies are queenless, unequal relatedness within colonies could lead to the evolution of reproductive competition, that is some subfamilies achieving greater reproductive success than others. The mechanism by which such dominance is achieved could be through a system of kin recognition and nepotism, but we conclude that genetically based differential attractiveness of larvae for rearing as queens is more likely.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal BehaviourCopyright 1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9521799

  6. Spread of Africanized Honey Bees in the United States - Direct Download

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    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the spread, by year, of the Africanized honey bee (AHB) in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data indicate...

  7. Reproductive biology of Varroa destructor in Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera).

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    Calderón, R A; van Veen, J W; Sommeijer, M J; Sanchez, L A

    2010-04-01

    Since its first contact with Apis mellifera, the population dynamics of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor varies from one region to another. In many regions of the world, apiculture has come to depend on the use of acaricides, because of the extensive damage caused by varroa to bee colonies. At present, the mite is considered to contribute to the recent decline of honey bee colonies in North America and Europe. Because in tropical climates worker brood rearing and varroa reproduction occurs all year round, it could be expected that here the impact of the parasite will be even more devastating. Yet, this has not been the case in tropical areas of South America. In Brazil, varroa was introduced more than 30 years ago and got established at low levels of infestation, without causing apparent damage to apiculture with Africanized honey bees (AHB). The tolerance of AHB to varroa is apparently attributable, at least in part, to resistance in the bees. The low fertility of this parasite in Africanized worker brood and the grooming and hygienic behavior of the bees are referred as important factors in keeping mite infestation low in the colonies. It has also been suggested that the type of mite influences the level of tolerance in a honey bee population. The Korea haplotype is predominant in unbalanced host-parasite systems, as exist in Europe, whereas in stable systems, as in Brazil, the Japan haplotype used to predominate. However, the patterns of varroa genetic variation have changed in Brazil. All recently sampled mites were of the Korea haplotype, regardless whether the mites had reproduced or not. The fertile mites on AHB in Brazil significantly increased from 56% in the 1980s to 86% in recent years. Nevertheless, despite the increased fertility, no increase in mite infestation rates in the colonies has been detected so far. A comprehensive literature review of varroa reproduction data, focusing on fertility and production of viable female mites, was conducted to

  8. Varroa jacobsoni infestation of adult Africanized and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera) in mixed colonies in Brazil

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    Moretto Geraldo; Mello Jr. Leonidas João de

    1999-01-01

    Different levels of infestation with the mite Varroa jacobsoni have been observed in the various Apis mellifera races. In general, bees of European races are more susceptible to the mite than African honey bees and their hybrids. In Brazil honey bee colonies are not treated against the mite, though apparently both climate and bee race influence the mite infestation. Six mixed colonies were made with Italian and Africanized honey bees. The percentage infestation by this parasite was found to b...

  9. In-depth Proteomics Characterization of Embryogenesis of the Honey Bee Worker (Apis mellifera ligustica) *

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Han, Bin; Lu, Xiaoshan; Ramadan, Haitham; Li, Jianke

    2014-01-01

    Identifying proteome changes of honey bee embryogenesis is of prime importance for unraveling the molecular mechanisms that they underlie. However, many proteomic changes during the embryonic period are not well characterized. We analyzed the proteomic alterations over the complete time course of honey bee worker embryogenesis at 24, 48, and 72 h of age, using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, label-free quantitation, and bioinformatics. Of the 1460 proteins identified the embryo of all thr...

  10. Taxa de mortalidade do ácaro Varroa destructor de acordo com a quantidade de crias em colônias de abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L. - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.487 Varroa destructor mite mortality rate according to the amount of worker broods in africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.487

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Vieira Guerra Junior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Varroa destructor tem causado a mortalidade de centenas de milhares de colônias de abelhas Apis mellifera em várias partes do mundo. Os efeitos determinados pelo ácaro Varroa variam com a subespécie de Apis mellifera. Nas Américas do Sul e Central, o parasita causa poucos danos às colônias de abelhas africanizadas, a taxa de infestação é estável e baixa, não sendo necessário o tratamento químico contra a praga. Entre vários fatores que são responsáveis pela tolerância das abelhas africanizadas a esse parasita, o comportamento de grooming executado pelas operárias deve exercer importante papel na manutenção dos baixos níveis de infestação. Neste estudo, foram avaliadas as taxas diárias de ácaros vivos e mortos encontrados no fundo das colméias de cinco colônias de abelhas africanizadas. Durante 15 dias de observações, foi verificado significativo aumento de ácaros no fundo da colméia à medida que diminui a quantidade de crias de operárias das colônias de abelhas. Isso sugere que a atividade de grooming é incrementada à medida que aumenta a concentração de ácaros na população de abelhas adultas.The Varroa destructor mite has caused the death of hundreds of thousands of Apis mellifera colonies in several countries worldwide. However, the effects determined by the Varroa mite change according to the A. mellifera subspecies. In Africanized bee colonies from South and Central America, the parasite causes little damage, as the infestation levels are relatively stable and low, thus treatments against the pest are not required. Among several factors, the grooming behavior of Africanized worker bees plays an important role in the maintenance of the low infestation levels. This study determined the daily rate of live and dead mites found at the bottom of the hive in five Africanized honey bee colonies. During fifteen days of observations, a significant increase was verified in the number of live and dead

  11. Honey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research suggests that applying a combination of Egyptian bee honey and royal jelly in the vagina increases pregnancy rates. Poor nutrition. Early evidence suggests that honey improves weight and ...

  12. First detection of viruses in Africanized honey bees from Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Orlando; Yaez; Graciano; Tejada; Peter; Neumann

    2014-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,The ability of the Western honey bee,Apis mellifera,to adapt to most climates of the world and the ongoing standardization of colony management has made this species of honey bees the most important species for crop pollination.In recent years,Peru emerged as a main exporter of industrial crops.This industry is mainly concentrated in the Peruvian coastal region,because the local climate permits off-season production

  13. Exposure to cell phone radiations produces biochemical changes in worker honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Neelima R.; Sangwan, Sonika; Badotra, Pooja

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the effect of cell phone radiations on various biomolecules in the adult workers of Apis mellifera L. The results of the treated adults were analyzed and compared with the control. Radiation from the cell phone influences honey bees’ behavior and physiology. There was reduced motor activity of the worker bees on the comb initially, followed by en masse migration and movement toward “talk mode” cell phone. The initial quiet period was characterized by ...

  14. Morphometric identification of queens, workers, intermediates in in vitro reared honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    De Souza, Daiana A.; Ying Wang; Osman Kaftanoglu; David De Jong; Amdam, Gro V.; Lionel S. Gonçalves; Francoy, Tiago M.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro rearing is an important and useful tool for honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) studies. However, it often results in intercastes between queens and workers, which are normally are not seen in hive-reared bees, except when larvae older than three days are grafted for queen rearing. Morphological classification (queen versus worker or intercastes) of bees produced by this method can be subjective and generally depends on size differences. Here, we propose an alternative method for caste cla...

  15. Antimicrobial activity of two South African honeys produced from indigenous Leucospermum cordifolium and Erica species on selected micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grobler Sias R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Honey has been shown to have wound healing properties which can be ascribed to its antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity can be effective against a broad spectrum of bacterial species especially those of medical importance. It has also been shown that there is considerable variation in the antimicrobial potency of different types of honey, which is impossible to predict. With this in mind we tested the antimicrobial activity of honeys produced from plants grown in South Africa for their antibacterial properties on selected standard strains of oral micro-organisms. Methods The honeys used were produced from the blossoms of Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Bluegum trees, an indigenous South African plant Leucospermum cordifolium (Pincushion, a mixture of wild heather shrubs, mainly Erica species (Fynbos and a Leptospermum scoparium (Manuka honey. Only pure honey which had not been heated was used. The honeys were tested for their antimicrobial properties with a broth dilution method. Results Although the honeys produced some inhibitory effect on the growth of the micro-organisms, no exceptionally high activity occurred in the South African honeys. The carbohydrate concentration plays a key role in the antimicrobial activity of the honeys above 25%. However, these honeys do contain other antimicrobial properties that are effective against certain bacterial species at concentrations well below the hypertonic sugar concentration. The yeast C. albicans was more resistant to the honeys than the bacteria. The species S. anginosus and S. oralis were more sensitive to the honeys than the other test bacteria. Conclusion The honeys produced from indigenous wild flowers from South Africa had no exceptionally high activity that could afford medical grade status.

  16. Starving honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae signal pheromonally to worker bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu Jiang; Zhang, Xue Chuan; Jiang, Wu Jun; Barron, Andrew B.; Zhang, Jian Hui; Zeng, Zhi Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative brood care is diagnostic of animal societies. This is particularly true for the advanced social insects, and the honey bee is the best understood of the insect societies. A brood pheromone signaling the presence of larvae in a bee colony has been characterised and well studied, but here we explored whether honey bee larvae actively signal their food needs pheromonally to workers. We show that starving honey bee larvae signal to workers via increased production of the volatile pheromone E-β-ocimene. Analysis of volatile pheromones produced by food-deprived and fed larvae with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that starving larvae produced more E-β-ocimene. Behavioural analyses showed that adding E-β-ocimene to empty cells increased the number of worker visits to those cells, and similarly adding E-β-ocimene to larvae increased worker visitation rate to the larvae. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis identified 3 genes in the E-β-ocimene biosynthetic pathway that were upregulated in larvae following 30 minutes of starvation, and these genes also upregulated in 2-day old larvae compared to 4-day old larvae (2-day old larvae produce the most E-β-ocimene). This identifies a pheromonal mechanism by which brood can beg for food from workers to influence the allocation of resources within the colony. PMID:26924295

  17. Worker honey bee ovary development: seasonal variation and the influence of larval and adult nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Shelley E R; Higo, Heather A; Winston, Mark L

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effect of larval and adult nutrition on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) ovary development. Workers were fed high or low-pollen diets as larvae, and high or low-protein diets as adults. Workers fed low-protein diets at both life stages had the lowest levels of ovary development, followed by those fed high-protein diets as larvae and low- quality diets as adults, and then those fed diets poor in protein as larvae but high as adults. Workers fed high-protein diets at both life stages had the highest levels of ovary development. The increases in ovary development due to improved dietary protein in the larval and adult life stages were additive. Adult diet also had an effect on body mass. The results demonstrate that both carry-over of larval reserves and nutrients acquired in the adult life stage are important to ovary development in worker honey bees. Carry-over from larval development, however, appears to be less important to adult fecundity than is adult nutrition. Seasonal trends in worker ovary development and mass were examined throughout the brood rearing season. Worker ovary development was lowest in spring, highest in mid-summer, and intermediate in fall.

  18. Insulin-like peptide response to nutritional input in honey bee workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Kate E; Baker, Nicholas A; Amdam, Gro V

    2014-10-01

    The rise in metabolic disorders in the past decades has heightened focus on achieving a healthy dietary balance in humans. This is also an increasingly important issue in the management of honey bees (Apis mellifera) where poor nutrition has negative effects on health and productivity in agriculture, and nutrition is suggested as a contributing factor in the recent global declines in honey bee populations. As in other organisms, the insulin/insulin-like signaling (IIS) pathway is likely involved in maintaining nutrient homeostasis in honey bees. Honey bees have two insulin-like peptides (Ilps) with differing spatial expression patterns in the fat body suggesting that AmIlp1 potentially functions in lipid metabolism while AmIlp2 is a more general indicator of nutritional status. We fed caged worker bees artificial diets high in carbohydrates, proteins or lipids and measured expression of AmIlp1, AmIlp2, and the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) to test their responses to dietary macronutrients. We also measured lifespan, worker weight and gustatory sensitivity to sugar as measures of individual physical condition. We found that expression of AmIlp1 was affected by diet composition and was highest on a diet high in protein. Expression of AmIlp2 and AmIRS were not affected by diet. Workers lived longest on a diet high in carbohydrates and low in protein and lipids. However, bees fed this diet weighed less than those that received a diet high in protein and low in carbohydrates and lipids. Bees fed the high carbohydrates diet were also more responsive to sugar, potentially indicating greater levels of hunger. These results support a role for AmIlp1 in nutritional homeostasis and provide new insight into how unbalanced diets impact individual honey bee health. PMID:24952326

  19. Insulin-like peptide response to nutritional input in honey bee workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Kate E; Baker, Nicholas A; Amdam, Gro V

    2014-10-01

    The rise in metabolic disorders in the past decades has heightened focus on achieving a healthy dietary balance in humans. This is also an increasingly important issue in the management of honey bees (Apis mellifera) where poor nutrition has negative effects on health and productivity in agriculture, and nutrition is suggested as a contributing factor in the recent global declines in honey bee populations. As in other organisms, the insulin/insulin-like signaling (IIS) pathway is likely involved in maintaining nutrient homeostasis in honey bees. Honey bees have two insulin-like peptides (Ilps) with differing spatial expression patterns in the fat body suggesting that AmIlp1 potentially functions in lipid metabolism while AmIlp2 is a more general indicator of nutritional status. We fed caged worker bees artificial diets high in carbohydrates, proteins or lipids and measured expression of AmIlp1, AmIlp2, and the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) to test their responses to dietary macronutrients. We also measured lifespan, worker weight and gustatory sensitivity to sugar as measures of individual physical condition. We found that expression of AmIlp1 was affected by diet composition and was highest on a diet high in protein. Expression of AmIlp2 and AmIRS were not affected by diet. Workers lived longest on a diet high in carbohydrates and low in protein and lipids. However, bees fed this diet weighed less than those that received a diet high in protein and low in carbohydrates and lipids. Bees fed the high carbohydrates diet were also more responsive to sugar, potentially indicating greater levels of hunger. These results support a role for AmIlp1 in nutritional homeostasis and provide new insight into how unbalanced diets impact individual honey bee health.

  20. Learning and memory in workers reared by nutritionally stressed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Heather R; Smith, Brian H

    2008-12-15

    Chronic nutritional stress can have a negative impact on an individual's learning ability and memory. However, in social animals that share food among group members, such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), it is unknown whether group-level nutritional stress is manifested in the learning performance of individuals. Accordingly, we examined learning and memory in honey bee workers reared by colonies exposed to varying degrees of long-term pollen stress. Pollen provides honey bee workers with almost all of the proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals that they require as larvae and adults. Colonies were created that were either chronically pollen poor or pollen rich, or were intermediate in pollen supply; treatments altered colonies' pollen stores and brood-rearing capacity. Workers from these colonies were put through a series of olfactory-conditioning assays using proboscis-extension response (PER). PER thresholds were determined, then workers learned in olfactory-conditioning trials to associate two floral odors (one novel and the other presented previously without reward) with stimulation with sucrose and a sucrose reward. The strength of the memory that was formed for the odor/sucrose association was tested after olfactory-conditioning assays ended. Colony-level nutritional status had no effect on worker learning or memory (response threshold of workers to sucrose, acquisition of the odor/sucrose association, occurrence of latent inhibition, or memory retention over 72 h). We conclude that potential effects of chronic, colony-wide nutrient deprivation on learning and memory are not found in workers, probably because colonies use brood-rearing capacity to buffer nutrient stress at the level of the individual.

  1. Risk of injury in African American hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C L; Severson, R K

    2000-10-01

    Very few data exist that describe the risk of injury in African American health care workers, who are highly represented in health care occupations. The present study examined the risk for work-related injury in African American hospital workers. Hospital Occupational Health Service medical records and a hospital human resource database were used to compare risk of injury between African American and white workers after adjusting for gender, age, physical demand of the job, and total hours worked. Risk of work-related injury was 2.3 times higher in African Americans. This difference was not explained by the other independent variables. Differences in injury reporting, intra-job workload, psychosocial factors, and organizational factors are all potential explanations for racial disparity in occupational injury. More research is needed to clarify these findings. PMID:11039167

  2. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cassava flower honey samples produced by africanized honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Peres de Moura Pontara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cassava producers in the region of Marília-São Paulo are integrating their farming activity with beekeeping to diversify their income. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera from cassava flower in 2008. Analysis were carried out for pH, total soluble solids (TSS, acidity, moisture, reducing and total sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, color, ash, proteins, water insoluble solids, diastasic activity, mineral content, microbiological evaluations, and mineral and hydrocyanic acid (HCN content. The honey samples showed physicochemical and microbiological characteristics favorable to commercialization, with the exception of apparent sucrose and acidity, which show the need for a narrow focus of attention to the honey maturation degree at the harvest time and more careful monitoring during production and processing. The commercialization of Brazilian cassava honey, still little explored, can be widely spread in the market since the levels of hydrocyanic acid (HCN showed no consumption risk; in addition the simultaneous production of honey and cassava provides an alternative to family income increase.

  3. Physicochemical characteristics of organic honey samples of africanized honeybees from Parana River islands

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    Eloi Machado Alves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the physicochemical composition of organic honey in Paraná River islands, in Porto Brasílio, State of Paraná. Honey was harvested directly from super of the colonies in three apiaries spread in the Floresta and Laranjeira Islands, from August 2005 to August 2006. Twenty-four samples of organic honey produced by Africanized honeybees were evaluated. The following parameters were analyzed: pH, acidity, formol index, hydroxymethylfurfural, ashes, color, electric conductivity and moisture. Three replications per sample were performed for laboratorial analysis, giving the means and standard deviation. Most honey samples were in conformity with the Normative Instruction 11 from October 20, 2000. However, 4.17% were not in accordance with the moisture standards, 8.33% showed high concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, thus, totalizing 12.50% of non-complying samples. Nevertheless, 87.50% of the analyzed honey samples are within the standards, being characterized as an organic product of excellent quality, with good commercialization perspectives in the market.

  4. Aversive conditioning in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica): a comparison of drones and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Christopher W; Avalos, Arian; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur; Austin, Zoe M; Varnon, Christopher A; Dal, Fatima Nur; Giray, Tugrul; Wells, Harrington

    2013-11-01

    Honey bees provide a model system to elucidate the relationship between sociality and complex behaviors within the same species, as females (workers) are highly social and males (drones) are more solitary. We report on aversive learning studies in drone and worker honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica) in escape, punishment and discriminative punishment situations. In all three experiments, a newly developed electric shock avoidance assay was used. The comparisons of expected and observed responses were performed with conventional statistical methods and a systematic randomization modeling approach called object oriented modeling. The escape experiment consisted of two measurements recorded in a master-yoked paradigm: frequency of response and latency to respond following administration of shock. Master individuals could terminate an unavoidable shock triggered by a decrementing 30 s timer by crossing the shuttlebox centerline following shock activation. Across all groups, there was large individual response variation. When assessing group response frequency and latency, master subjects performed better than yoked subjects for both workers and drones. In the punishment experiment, individuals were shocked upon entering the shock portion of a bilaterally wired shuttlebox. The shock portion was spatially static and unsignalled. Only workers effectively avoided the shock. The discriminative punishment experiment repeated the punishment experiment but included a counterbalanced blue and yellow background signal and the side of shock was manipulated. Drones correctly responded less than workers when shock was paired with blue. However, when shock was paired with yellow there was no observable difference between drones and workers.

  5. Aversive conditioning in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica): a comparison of drones and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Christopher W; Avalos, Arian; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur; Austin, Zoe M; Varnon, Christopher A; Dal, Fatima Nur; Giray, Tugrul; Wells, Harrington

    2013-11-01

    Honey bees provide a model system to elucidate the relationship between sociality and complex behaviors within the same species, as females (workers) are highly social and males (drones) are more solitary. We report on aversive learning studies in drone and worker honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica) in escape, punishment and discriminative punishment situations. In all three experiments, a newly developed electric shock avoidance assay was used. The comparisons of expected and observed responses were performed with conventional statistical methods and a systematic randomization modeling approach called object oriented modeling. The escape experiment consisted of two measurements recorded in a master-yoked paradigm: frequency of response and latency to respond following administration of shock. Master individuals could terminate an unavoidable shock triggered by a decrementing 30 s timer by crossing the shuttlebox centerline following shock activation. Across all groups, there was large individual response variation. When assessing group response frequency and latency, master subjects performed better than yoked subjects for both workers and drones. In the punishment experiment, individuals were shocked upon entering the shock portion of a bilaterally wired shuttlebox. The shock portion was spatially static and unsignalled. Only workers effectively avoided the shock. The discriminative punishment experiment repeated the punishment experiment but included a counterbalanced blue and yellow background signal and the side of shock was manipulated. Drones correctly responded less than workers when shock was paired with blue. However, when shock was paired with yellow there was no observable difference between drones and workers. PMID:24133154

  6. Managed European-Derived Honey Bee, Apis mellifera sspp, Colonies Reduce African-Matriline Honey Bee, A. m. scutellata, Drones at Regional Mating Congregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Ashley N; Ellis, James D

    2016-01-01

    African honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) dramatically changed the South American beekeeping industry as they rapidly spread through the Americas following their introduction into Brazil. In the present study, we aimed to determine if the management of European-derived honey bees (A. mellifera sspp.) could reduce the relative abundance of African-matriline drones at regional mating sites known as drone congregation areas (DCAs). We collected 2,400 drones at six DCAs either 0.25 km or >2.8 km from managed European-derived honey bee apiaries. The maternal ancestry of each drone was determined by Bgl II enzyme digestion of an amplified portion of the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene. Furthermore, sibship reconstruction via nuclear microsatellites was conducted for a subset of 1,200 drones to estimate the number of colonies contributing drones to each DCA. Results indicate that DCAs distant to managed European apiaries (>2.8 km) had significantly more African-matriline drones (34.33% of the collected drones had African mitochondrial DNA) than did DCAs close (0.25 km) to managed European apiaries (1.83% of the collected drones had African mitochondrial DNA). Furthermore, nuclear sibship reconstruction demonstrated that the reduction in the proportion of African matriline drones at DCAs near apiaries was not simply an increase in the number of European matriline drones at the DCAs but also the result of fewer African matriline colonies contributing drones to the DCAs. Our data demonstrate that the management of European honey bee colonies can dramatically influence the proportion of drones with African matrilines at nearby drone congregation areas, and would likely decreasing the probability that virgin European queens will mate with African drones at those drone congregation areas.

  7. Managed European-Derived Honey Bee, Apis mellifera sspp, Colonies Reduce African-Matriline Honey Bee, A. m. scutellata, Drones at Regional Mating Congregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Ashley N; Ellis, James D

    2016-01-01

    African honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) dramatically changed the South American beekeeping industry as they rapidly spread through the Americas following their introduction into Brazil. In the present study, we aimed to determine if the management of European-derived honey bees (A. mellifera sspp.) could reduce the relative abundance of African-matriline drones at regional mating sites known as drone congregation areas (DCAs). We collected 2,400 drones at six DCAs either 0.25 km or >2.8 km from managed European-derived honey bee apiaries. The maternal ancestry of each drone was determined by Bgl II enzyme digestion of an amplified portion of the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene. Furthermore, sibship reconstruction via nuclear microsatellites was conducted for a subset of 1,200 drones to estimate the number of colonies contributing drones to each DCA. Results indicate that DCAs distant to managed European apiaries (>2.8 km) had significantly more African-matriline drones (34.33% of the collected drones had African mitochondrial DNA) than did DCAs close (0.25 km) to managed European apiaries (1.83% of the collected drones had African mitochondrial DNA). Furthermore, nuclear sibship reconstruction demonstrated that the reduction in the proportion of African matriline drones at DCAs near apiaries was not simply an increase in the number of European matriline drones at the DCAs but also the result of fewer African matriline colonies contributing drones to the DCAs. Our data demonstrate that the management of European honey bee colonies can dramatically influence the proportion of drones with African matrilines at nearby drone congregation areas, and would likely decreasing the probability that virgin European queens will mate with African drones at those drone congregation areas. PMID:27518068

  8. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cassava flower honey samples produced by africanized honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Lucimar Peres de Moura Pontara; Edmar Clemente; Dalany Menezes Oliveira; Angela Kwiatkowski; Cássia Inês Lourenzi Franco Rosa; Valter Eugênio Saia

    2012-01-01

    Cassava producers in the region of Marília-São Paulo are integrating their farming activity with beekeeping to diversify their income. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera from cassava flower in 2008. Analysis were carried out for pH, total soluble solids (TSS), acidity, moisture, reducing and total sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, color, ash, proteins, water inso...

  9. Effects of immunostimulation on social behavior, chemical communication and genome-wide gene expression in honey bee workers (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Freddie-Jeanne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social insects, such as honey bees, use molecular, physiological and behavioral responses to combat pathogens and parasites. The honey bee genome contains all of the canonical insect immune response pathways, and several studies have demonstrated that pathogens can activate expression of immune effectors. Honey bees also use behavioral responses, termed social immunity, to collectively defend their hives from pathogens and parasites. These responses include hygienic behavior (where workers remove diseased brood and allo-grooming (where workers remove ectoparasites from nestmates. We have previously demonstrated that immunostimulation causes changes in the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers, which results in altered worker-worker social interactions. Thus, cuticular hydrocarbons may enable workers to identify sick nestmates, and adjust their behavior in response. Here, we test the specificity of behavioral, chemical and genomic responses to immunostimulation by challenging workers with a panel of different immune stimulants (saline, Sephadex beads and Gram-negative bacteria E. coli. Results While only bacteria-injected bees elicited altered behavioral responses from healthy nestmates compared to controls, all treatments resulted in significant changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Immunostimulation caused significant changes in expression of hundreds of genes, the majority of which have not been identified as members of the canonical immune response pathways. Furthermore, several new candidate genes that may play a role in cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis were identified. Effects of immune challenge expression of several genes involved in immune response, cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and the Notch signaling pathway were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, we identified common genes regulated by pathogen challenge in honey bees and other insects. Conclusions These results demonstrate that

  10. Mapping sleeping bees within their nest: spatial and temporal analysis of worker honey bee sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Anthony Klein

    Full Text Available Patterns of behavior within societies have long been visualized and interpreted using maps. Mapping the occurrence of sleep across individuals within a society could offer clues as to functional aspects of sleep. In spite of this, a detailed spatial analysis of sleep has never been conducted on an invertebrate society. We introduce the concept of mapping sleep across an insect society, and provide an empirical example, mapping sleep patterns within colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.. Honey bees face variables such as temperature and position of resources within their colony's nest that may impact their sleep. We mapped sleep behavior and temperature of worker bees and produced maps of their nest's comb contents as the colony grew and contents changed. By following marked bees, we discovered that individuals slept in many locations, but bees of different worker castes slept in different areas of the nest relative to position of the brood and surrounding temperature. Older worker bees generally slept outside cells, closer to the perimeter of the nest, in colder regions, and away from uncapped brood. Younger worker bees generally slept inside cells and closer to the center of the nest, and spent more time asleep than awake when surrounded by uncapped brood. The average surface temperature of sleeping foragers was lower than the surface temperature of their surroundings, offering a possible indicator of sleep for this caste. We propose mechanisms that could generate caste-dependent sleep patterns and discuss functional significance of these patterns.

  11. Effects of Pesticide Treatments on Nutrient Levels in Worker Honey Bees (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley K. Feazel-Orr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey bee colony loss continues to be an issue and no factor has been singled out as to the cause. In this study, we sought to determine whether two beekeeper-applied pesticide products, tau-fluvalinate and Fumagilin-B®, and one agrochemical, chlorothalonil, impact the nutrient levels in honey bee workers in a natural colony environment. Treatments were performed in-hive and at three different periods (fall, spring, and summer over the course of one year. Bees were sampled both at pre-treatment and two and four weeks post-treatment, weighed, and their protein and carbohydrate levels were determined using BCA and anthrone based biochemical assays, respectively. We report that, based on the pesticide concentrations tested, no significant negative impact of the pesticide products was observed on wet weight, protein levels, or carbohydrate levels of bees from treated colonies compared with bees from untreated control colonies.

  12. Effects of Pesticide Treatments on Nutrient Levels in Worker Honey Bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feazel-Orr, Haley K; Catalfamo, Katelyn M; Brewster, Carlyle C; Fell, Richard D; Anderson, Troy D; Traver, Brenna E

    2016-01-01

    Honey bee colony loss continues to be an issue and no factor has been singled out as to the cause. In this study, we sought to determine whether two beekeeper-applied pesticide products, tau-fluvalinate and Fumagilin-B(®), and one agrochemical, chlorothalonil, impact the nutrient levels in honey bee workers in a natural colony environment. Treatments were performed in-hive and at three different periods (fall, spring, and summer) over the course of one year. Bees were sampled both at pre-treatment and two and four weeks post-treatment, weighed, and their protein and carbohydrate levels were determined using BCA and anthrone based biochemical assays, respectively. We report that, based on the pesticide concentrations tested, no significant negative impact of the pesticide products was observed on wet weight, protein levels, or carbohydrate levels of bees from treated colonies compared with bees from untreated control colonies. PMID:26938563

  13. Africanized honey bees are slowere learners than their European counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The range of Africanized honeybees continues to expand, superseding the common European honeybees in the southern United States. Are superior learning and memory the reason for their ecological success? Surprisingly, a comparison in a classical conditioning test of the two bee races shows that few...

  14. Pheromonal regulation of starvation resistance in honey bee workers ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Patrick; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2008-08-01

    Most animals can modulate nutrient storage pathways according to changing environmental conditions, but in honey bees nutrient storage is also modulated according to changing behavioral tasks within a colony. Specifically, bees involved in brood care (nurses) have higher lipid stores in their abdominal fat bodies than forager bees. Pheromone communication plays an important role in regulating honey bee behavior and physiology. In particular, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) slows the transition from nursing to foraging. We tested the effects of QMP exposure on starvation resistance, lipid storage, and gene expression in the fat bodies of worker bees. We found that indeed QMP-treated bees survived much longer compared to control bees when starved and also had higher lipid levels. Expression of vitellogenin RNA, which encodes a yolk protein that is found at higher levels in nurses than foragers, was also higher in the fat bodies of QMP-treated bees. No differences were observed in expression of genes involved in insulin signaling pathways, which are associated with nutrient storage and metabolism in a variety of species; thus, other mechanisms may be involved in increasing the lipid stores. These studies demonstrate that pheromone exposure can modify nutrient storage pathways and fat body gene expression in honey bees and suggest that chemical communication and social interactions play an important role in altering metabolic pathways.

  15. Conversion of high and low pollen protein diets into protein in worker honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, M; Barragán, S; Vanagas, L; García, C; Solana, H; Rodríguez, E; Bedascarrasbure, E

    2013-08-01

    Adequate protein levels are necessary to maintain strong honey bee [Apis mellifera (L.)] colonies. The aim of this study was to quantify how pollens with different crude protein contents influence protein stores within individual honey bees. Caged bees were fed one of three diets, consisting of high-protein-content pollen, low-protein-content pollen, or protein-free diet as control; measurements were made based on protein content in hemolymph and fat body, fat body weight, and body weight. Vitellogenin in hemolymph was also measured. Bees fed with high crude protein diet had significantly higher levels of protein in hemolymph and fat bodies. Caged bees did not increase pollen consumption to compensate for the lower protein in the diet, and ingesting approximately 4 mg of protein per bee could achieve levels of 20 microg/microl protein in hemolymph. Worker bees fed with low crude protein diet took more time in reaching similar protein content of the bees that were fed with high crude protein diet. The data showed that fat bodies and body weight were not efficient methods of measuring the protein status of bees. The determination of total protein or vitellogenin concentration in the hemolymph from 13-d-old bees and protein concentration of fat bodies from 9-d-old bees could be good indicators of nutritional status of honey bees. PMID:24020265

  16. Conversion of high and low pollen protein diets into protein in worker honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, M; Barragán, S; Vanagas, L; García, C; Solana, H; Rodríguez, E; Bedascarrasbure, E

    2013-08-01

    Adequate protein levels are necessary to maintain strong honey bee [Apis mellifera (L.)] colonies. The aim of this study was to quantify how pollens with different crude protein contents influence protein stores within individual honey bees. Caged bees were fed one of three diets, consisting of high-protein-content pollen, low-protein-content pollen, or protein-free diet as control; measurements were made based on protein content in hemolymph and fat body, fat body weight, and body weight. Vitellogenin in hemolymph was also measured. Bees fed with high crude protein diet had significantly higher levels of protein in hemolymph and fat bodies. Caged bees did not increase pollen consumption to compensate for the lower protein in the diet, and ingesting approximately 4 mg of protein per bee could achieve levels of 20 microg/microl protein in hemolymph. Worker bees fed with low crude protein diet took more time in reaching similar protein content of the bees that were fed with high crude protein diet. The data showed that fat bodies and body weight were not efficient methods of measuring the protein status of bees. The determination of total protein or vitellogenin concentration in the hemolymph from 13-d-old bees and protein concentration of fat bodies from 9-d-old bees could be good indicators of nutritional status of honey bees.

  17. In-depth proteomics characterization of embryogenesis of the honey bee worker (Apis mellifera ligustica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Han, Bin; Lu, Xiaoshan; Ramadan, Haitham; Li, Jianke

    2014-09-01

    Identifying proteome changes of honey bee embryogenesis is of prime importance for unraveling the molecular mechanisms that they underlie. However, many proteomic changes during the embryonic period are not well characterized. We analyzed the proteomic alterations over the complete time course of honey bee worker embryogenesis at 24, 48, and 72 h of age, using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, label-free quantitation, and bioinformatics. Of the 1460 proteins identified the embryo of all three ages, the core proteome (proteins shared by the embryos of all three ages, accounting for 40%) was mainly involved in protein synthesis, metabolic energy, development, and molecular transporter, which indicates their centrality in driving embryogenesis. However, embryos at different developmental stages have their own specific proteome and pathway signatures to coordinate and modulate developmental events. The young embryos (nutrition storage and nucleic acid metabolism may correlate with the cell proliferation occurring at this stage. The middle aged embryos (24-48 h) enhanced expression of proteins associated with cell cycle control, transporters, antioxidant activity, and the cytoskeleton suggest their roles to support rudimentary organogenesis. Among these proteins, the biological pathways of aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, β-alanine metabolism, and protein export are intensively activated in the embryos of middle age. The old embryos (48-72 h) elevated expression of proteins implicated in fatty acid metabolism and morphogenesis indicate their functionality for the formation and development of organs and dorsal closure, in which the biological pathways of fatty acid metabolism and RNA transport are highly activated. These findings add novel understanding to the molecular details of honey bee embryogenesis, in which the programmed activation of the proteome matches with the physiological transition observed during embryogenesis. The identified biological pathways and key

  18. In-depth proteomics characterization of embryogenesis of the honey bee worker (Apis mellifera ligustica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Han, Bin; Lu, Xiaoshan; Ramadan, Haitham; Li, Jianke

    2014-09-01

    Identifying proteome changes of honey bee embryogenesis is of prime importance for unraveling the molecular mechanisms that they underlie. However, many proteomic changes during the embryonic period are not well characterized. We analyzed the proteomic alterations over the complete time course of honey bee worker embryogenesis at 24, 48, and 72 h of age, using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, label-free quantitation, and bioinformatics. Of the 1460 proteins identified the embryo of all three ages, the core proteome (proteins shared by the embryos of all three ages, accounting for 40%) was mainly involved in protein synthesis, metabolic energy, development, and molecular transporter, which indicates their centrality in driving embryogenesis. However, embryos at different developmental stages have their own specific proteome and pathway signatures to coordinate and modulate developmental events. The young embryos (proteins related to nutrition storage and nucleic acid metabolism may correlate with the cell proliferation occurring at this stage. The middle aged embryos (24-48 h) enhanced expression of proteins associated with cell cycle control, transporters, antioxidant activity, and the cytoskeleton suggest their roles to support rudimentary organogenesis. Among these proteins, the biological pathways of aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, β-alanine metabolism, and protein export are intensively activated in the embryos of middle age. The old embryos (48-72 h) elevated expression of proteins implicated in fatty acid metabolism and morphogenesis indicate their functionality for the formation and development of organs and dorsal closure, in which the biological pathways of fatty acid metabolism and RNA transport are highly activated. These findings add novel understanding to the molecular details of honey bee embryogenesis, in which the programmed activation of the proteome matches with the physiological transition observed during embryogenesis. The identified biological

  19. Reproductive biology of varroa mites in colonies of Africanized honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderon Fallas, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reproductive biology of V. destructor in Africanized honeybees (AHB) in Central American conditions, specifically in Costa Rica. Attention was paid to mite fertility and production of viable female mites in worker and drone brood cells. Other reproduction parameters, like fecundi

  20. Molecular genetic analysis of Varroa destructor mites in brood, fallen injured mites and worker bee longevity in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two important traits that contribute to honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony survival are resistance to Varroa destructor and longevity of worker bees. We investigated the relationship between a panel of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and three phenotypic measurements of colonies: a) perc...

  1. Recombination is associated with the evolution of genome structure and worker behavior in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Clement F; Minaei, Shermineh; Harpur, Brock A; Zayed, Amro

    2012-10-30

    The rise of insect societies, marked by the formation of reproductive and sterile castes, represents a major unsolved mystery in evolution. Across several independent origins of sociality, the genomes of social hymenopterans share two peculiar attributes: high recombination and low but heterogeneous GC content. For example, the genome of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, represents a mosaic of GC-poor and GC-rich regions with rates of recombination an order of magnitude higher than in humans. However, it is unclear how heterogeneity in GC content arises, and how it relates to the expression and evolution of worker traits. Using population genetic analyses, we demonstrate a bias in the allele frequency and fixation rate of derived C or G mutations in high-recombination regions, consistent with recombination's causal influence on GC-content evolution via biased gene conversion. We also show that recombination and biased gene conversion actively maintain the heterogeneous GC content of the honey bee genome despite an overall A/T mutation bias. Further, we found that GC-rich genes and intergenic regions have higher levels of genetic diversity and divergence relative to GC-poor regions, also consistent with recombination's causal influence on the rate of molecular evolution. Finally, we found that genes associated with behavior and those with worker-biased expression are found in GC-rich regions of the bee genome and also experience high rates of molecular evolution. Taken together, these findings suggest that recombination acts to maintain a genetically diverse and dynamic part of the genome where genes underlying worker behavior evolve more quickly.

  2. Early gut colonizers shape parasite susceptibility and microbiota composition in honey bee workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ryan S; Moran, Nancy A; Evans, Jay D

    2016-08-16

    Microbial symbionts living within animal guts are largely composed of resident bacterial species, forming communities that often provide benefits to the host. Gut microbiomes of adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) include core residents such as the betaproteobacterium Snodgrassella alvi, alongside transient parasites such as the protozoan Lotmaria passim To test how these species affect microbiome composition and host physiology, we administered S alvi and/or L passim inocula to newly emerged worker bees from four genetic backgrounds (GH) and reared them in normal (within hives) or stressed (protein-deficient, asocial) conditions. Microbiota acquired by normal bees were abundant but quantitatively differed across treatments, indicating treatment-associated dysbiosis. Pretreatment with S. alvi made normal bees more susceptible to L. passim and altered developmental and detoxification gene expression. Stressed bees were more susceptible to L. passim and were depauperate in core microbiota, yet supplementation with S. alvi did not alter this susceptibility. Microbiomes were generally more variable by GH in stressed bees, which also showed opposing and comparatively reduced modulation of gene expression responses to treatments compared with normal bees. These data provide experimental support for a link between altered gut microbiota and increased parasite and pathogen prevalence, as observed from honey bee colony collapse disorder. PMID:27482088

  3. Starvation stress during larval development facilitates an adaptive response in adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Brent, Colin S; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

    2016-04-01

    Most organisms are constantly faced with environmental changes and stressors. In diverse organisms, there is an anticipatory mechanism during development that can program adult phenotypes. The adult phenotype would be adapted to the predicted environment that occurred during organism maturation. However, whether this anticipatory mechanism is present in eusocial species is questionable because eusocial organisms are largely shielded from exogenous conditions by their stable nest environment. In this study, we tested whether food deprivation during development of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), a eusocial insect model, can shift adult phenotypes to better cope with nutritional stress. After subjecting fifth instar worker larvae to short-term starvation, we measured nutrition-related morphology, starvation resistance, physiology, endocrinology and behavior in the adults. We found that the larval starvation caused adult honey bees to become more resilient toward starvation. Moreover, the adult bees were characterized by reduced ovary size, elevated glycogen stores and juvenile hormone (JH) titers, and decreased sugar sensitivity. These changes, in general, can help adult insects survive and reproduce in food-poor environments. Overall, we found for the first time support for an anticipatory mechanism in a eusocial species, the honey bee. Our results suggest that this mechanism may play a role in honey bee queen-worker differentiation and worker division of labor, both of which are related to the responses to nutritional stress. PMID:27030775

  4. Starvation stress during larval development facilitates an adaptive response in adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Brent, Colin S; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

    2016-04-01

    Most organisms are constantly faced with environmental changes and stressors. In diverse organisms, there is an anticipatory mechanism during development that can program adult phenotypes. The adult phenotype would be adapted to the predicted environment that occurred during organism maturation. However, whether this anticipatory mechanism is present in eusocial species is questionable because eusocial organisms are largely shielded from exogenous conditions by their stable nest environment. In this study, we tested whether food deprivation during development of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), a eusocial insect model, can shift adult phenotypes to better cope with nutritional stress. After subjecting fifth instar worker larvae to short-term starvation, we measured nutrition-related morphology, starvation resistance, physiology, endocrinology and behavior in the adults. We found that the larval starvation caused adult honey bees to become more resilient toward starvation. Moreover, the adult bees were characterized by reduced ovary size, elevated glycogen stores and juvenile hormone (JH) titers, and decreased sugar sensitivity. These changes, in general, can help adult insects survive and reproduce in food-poor environments. Overall, we found for the first time support for an anticipatory mechanism in a eusocial species, the honey bee. Our results suggest that this mechanism may play a role in honey bee queen-worker differentiation and worker division of labor, both of which are related to the responses to nutritional stress.

  5. ECOLOGICAL IMPACT ON NATIVE BEES BY THE INVASIVE AFRICANIZED HONEY BEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROUBIK DAVID

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT

    Very little effort has been made to investigate bee population dynamics among intact wilderness areas. The presence of newly-arrived feral Africanized honey bee (AHB, Apis mellifera (Apidae, populations was studied for 10-17 years in areas previously with few or no escaped European apiary honey bees. Here I describe and interpret the major results from studies in three neotropical forests: French Guiana, Panama and Yucatan, Mexico (5° to 19° N. latitude. The exotic Africanized honey bees did not produce a negative effect on native bees, including species that were solitary or highly eusocial. Major differences over time were found in honey bee abundance on flowers near habitat experiencing the greatest degree of disturbance, compared to deep forest areas. At the population level, sampled at nest blocks, or at flower patches, or at light traps, there was no sudden decline in bees after AHB arrival, and relatively steady or sinusoidal population dynamics. However, the native bees shifted their foraging time or floral species. A principal conclusion is that such competition is silent, in floristically rich habitats, because bees compensate behaviorally for competition. Other factors limit their populations.

    Key words: Africanized honey bee, native bees, competition, population dynamics, neotropical forests

    RESUMEN Pocos estudios han considerado la dinámica de poblaciones de abejas en bosques o hábitats no alterados por el hombre. La presencia de abejas silvestres Africanizadas de Apis mellifera (Apidae fue estudiado por 10-17 años en áreas previamente sin esta especie. Aquí presento e interpreto resultados de tres bosques neotropicales: Guyana Francesa, Panamá y Yucatán, México (5° a 19° N. latitud. La abeja Africanizada exótica no produjo efecto negativo en las abejas nativas, incluyendo especies altamente sociales y solitarias. Diferencias mayores a través del tiempo fueron encontradas en

  6. In vitro effects of thiamethoxam on larvae of Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Daiana Antonia; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine Cristina Mathias; Malaspina, Osmar

    2015-09-01

    Several investigations have revealed the toxic effects that neonicotinoids can have on Apis mellifera, while few studies have evaluated the impact of these insecticides can have on the larval stage of the honeybee. From the lethal concentration (LC50) of thiamethoxam for the larvae of the Africanized honeybee, we evaluated the sublethal effects of this insecticide on morphology of the brain. After determine the LC50 (14.34 ng/μL of diet) of thiamethoxam, larvae were exposed to a sublethal concentration of thiamethoxam equivalent to 1.43 ng/μL by acute and subchronic exposure. Morphological and immunocytochemistry analysis of the brains of the exposed bees, showed condensed cells and early cell death in the optic lobes. Additional dose-related effects were observed on larval development. Our results show that the sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam tested are toxic to Africanized honeybees larvae and can modulate the development and consequently could affect the maintenance and survival of the colony. These results represent the first assessment of the effects of thiamethoxam in Africanized honeybee larvae and should contribute to studies on honey bee colony decline. PMID:25985214

  7. Common endocrine and genetic mechanisms of behavioral development in male and worker honey bees and the evolution of division of labor.

    OpenAIRE

    Giray, T; Robinson, G E

    1996-01-01

    Temporal polyethism is a highly derived form of behavioral development displayed by social insects. Hormonal and genetic mechanisms regulating temporal polyethism in worker honey bees have been identified, but the evolution of these mechanisms is not well understood. We performed three experiments with male honey bees (drones) to investigate how mechanisms regulating temporal polyethism may have evolved because, relative to workers, drones display an intriguing combination of similarities and...

  8. Africanization of a feral honey bee (Apis mellifera) population in South Texas: does a decade make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Juliana; Giresi, Melissa; Pinto, Maria Alice; Baum, Kristen A; Rubink, William L; Coulson, Robert N; Johnston, John Spencer

    2016-04-01

    The arrival to the United States of the Africanized honey bee, a hybrid between European subspecies and the African subspecies Apis mellifera scutellata, is a remarkable model for the study of biological invasions. This immigration has created an opportunity to study the dynamics of secondary contact of honey bee subspecies from African and European lineages in a feral population in South Texas. An 11-year survey of this population (1991-2001) showed that mitochondrial haplotype frequencies changed drastically over time from a resident population of eastern and western European maternal ancestry, to a population dominated by the African haplotype. A subsequent study of the nuclear genome showed that the Africanization process included bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honey bees, giving rise to a new panmictic mixture of A. m. scutellata- and European-derived genes. In this study, we examined gene flow patterns in the same population 23 years after the first hybridization event occurred. We found 28 active colonies inhabiting 92 tree cavities surveyed in a 5.14 km(2) area, resulting in a colony density of 5.4 colonies/km(2). Of these 28 colonies, 25 were of A. m. scutellata maternal ancestry, and three were of western European maternal ancestry. No colonies of eastern European maternal ancestry were detected, although they were present in the earlier samples. Nuclear DNA revealed little change in the introgression of A. m. scutellata-derived genes into the population compared to previous surveys. Our results suggest this feral population remains an admixed swarm with continued low levels of European ancestry and a greater presence of African-derived mitochondrial genetic composition. PMID:27069571

  9. A comparison of the hygienic response of Africanized and European (Apis mellifera carnica honey bees to Varroa-infested brood in tropical Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Aumeier

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the significance of hygienic behavior for the tolerance to varroosis of Africanized honey bees, they were compared with non-tolerant Carniolans in tropical Brazil. Capped worker brood cells were artificially infested with living Varroa mites, and inspected some days later. Uncapping, disappearance of the introduced mite and removal of the pupa were recorded in a total of manipulated 3,096 cells during three summer seasons. The hygienic response varied between Africanized and Carniolan colonies, but this difference was significant only in one year, during which Africanized honey bees removed a significantly greater proportion of Varroa mites than European honey bees. A high proportion of the mites disappeared from artificially infested brood cells without damage to the pupae. The opening of the cell and the removal of the bee brood are independent traits of a graded response by adult workers towards mite-infested brood cells. We found a higher between-colony variation in the reaction towards Varroa-infested brood of Africanized honey bees compared to Carniolans. The overall similar response of the two bee types indicates that hygienic behavior is not a key factor in the tolerance to varroosis of Africanized bees in Brazil.Com o intuito de examinar o significado do comportamento higiênico na tolerância à varroose de abelhas africanizadas, elas foram comparadas com as não tolerantes Cárnicas no Brasil tropical. Células de cria de operárias operculadas foram artificialmente infestadas com ácaros Varroa vivos e inspecionadas alguns dias depois. Desoperculação, desaparecimento dos ácaros introduzidos e remoção da pupa foram anotados em um total de 3096 células manipuladas durante três verões. A resposta higiênica variou entre as colônias africanizadas e de Cárnicas, mas esta diferença foi significante apenas em um ano, durante o qual as abelhas africanizadas removeram uma proporção significantemente maior de

  10. Honeybee glucose oxidase--its expression in honeybee workers and comparative analyses of its content and H2O2-mediated antibacterial activity in natural honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucekova, Marcela; Valachova, Ivana; Kohutova, Lenka; Prochazka, Emanuel; Klaudiny, Jaroslav; Majtan, Juraj

    2014-08-01

    Antibacterial properties of honey largely depend on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is generated by glucose oxidase (GOX)-mediated conversion of glucose in diluted honey. However, honeys exhibit considerable variation in their antibacterial activity. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the mechanism behind the variation in this activity and in the H2O2 content in honeys associated with the role of GOX in this process. Immunoblots and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that gox is solely expressed in the hypopharyngeal glands of worker bees performing various tasks and not in other glands or tissues. Real-time PCR with reference genes selected for worker heads shows that the gox expression progressively increases with ageing of the youngest bees and nurses and reached the highest values in processor bees. Immunoblot analysis of honey samples revealed that GOX is a regular honey component but its content significantly varied among honeys. Neither botanical source nor geographical origin of honeys affected the level of GOX suggesting that some other factors such as honeybee nutrition and/or genetic/epigenetic factors may take part in the observed variation. A strong correlation was found between the content of GOX and the level of generated H2O2 in honeys except honeydew honeys. Total antibacterial activity of most honey samples against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate significantly correlated with the H2O2 content. These results demonstrate that the level of GOX can significantly affect the total antibacterial activity of honey. They also support an idea that breeding of novel honeybee lines expressing higher amounts of GOX could help to increase the antibacterial efficacy of the hypopharyngeal gland secretion that could have positive influence on a resistance of colonies against bacterial pathogens. PMID:24969731

  11. Honeybee glucose oxidase—its expression in honeybee workers and comparative analyses of its content and H2O2-mediated antibacterial activity in natural honeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucekova, Marcela; Valachova, Ivana; Kohutova, Lenka; Prochazka, Emanuel; Klaudiny, Jaroslav; Majtan, Juraj

    2014-08-01

    Antibacterial properties of honey largely depend on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is generated by glucose oxidase (GOX)-mediated conversion of glucose in diluted honey. However, honeys exhibit considerable variation in their antibacterial activity. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the mechanism behind the variation in this activity and in the H2O2 content in honeys associated with the role of GOX in this process. Immunoblots and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that gox is solely expressed in the hypopharyngeal glands of worker bees performing various tasks and not in other glands or tissues. Real-time PCR with reference genes selected for worker heads shows that the gox expression progressively increases with ageing of the youngest bees and nurses and reached the highest values in processor bees. Immunoblot analysis of honey samples revealed that GOX is a regular honey component but its content significantly varied among honeys. Neither botanical source nor geographical origin of honeys affected the level of GOX suggesting that some other factors such as honeybee nutrition and/or genetic/epigenetic factors may take part in the observed variation. A strong correlation was found between the content of GOX and the level of generated H2O2 in honeys except honeydew honeys. Total antibacterial activity of most honey samples against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate significantly correlated with the H2O2 content. These results demonstrate that the level of GOX can significantly affect the total antibacterial activity of honey. They also support an idea that breeding of novel honeybee lines expressing higher amounts of GOX could help to increase the antibacterial efficacy of the hypopharyngeal gland secretion that could have positive influence on a resistance of colonies against bacterial pathogens.

  12. Honeybee glucose oxidase--its expression in honeybee workers and comparative analyses of its content and H2O2-mediated antibacterial activity in natural honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucekova, Marcela; Valachova, Ivana; Kohutova, Lenka; Prochazka, Emanuel; Klaudiny, Jaroslav; Majtan, Juraj

    2014-08-01

    Antibacterial properties of honey largely depend on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is generated by glucose oxidase (GOX)-mediated conversion of glucose in diluted honey. However, honeys exhibit considerable variation in their antibacterial activity. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the mechanism behind the variation in this activity and in the H2O2 content in honeys associated with the role of GOX in this process. Immunoblots and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that gox is solely expressed in the hypopharyngeal glands of worker bees performing various tasks and not in other glands or tissues. Real-time PCR with reference genes selected for worker heads shows that the gox expression progressively increases with ageing of the youngest bees and nurses and reached the highest values in processor bees. Immunoblot analysis of honey samples revealed that GOX is a regular honey component but its content significantly varied among honeys. Neither botanical source nor geographical origin of honeys affected the level of GOX suggesting that some other factors such as honeybee nutrition and/or genetic/epigenetic factors may take part in the observed variation. A strong correlation was found between the content of GOX and the level of generated H2O2 in honeys except honeydew honeys. Total antibacterial activity of most honey samples against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate significantly correlated with the H2O2 content. These results demonstrate that the level of GOX can significantly affect the total antibacterial activity of honey. They also support an idea that breeding of novel honeybee lines expressing higher amounts of GOX could help to increase the antibacterial efficacy of the hypopharyngeal gland secretion that could have positive influence on a resistance of colonies against bacterial pathogens.

  13. Honey bee workers that are pollen stressed as larvae become poor foragers and waggle dancers as adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Hailey N; Mattila, Heather R

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects on adult behavior of juvenile undernourishment are well documented in vertebrates, but relatively poorly understood in invertebrates. We examined the effects of larval nutritional stress on the foraging and recruitment behavior of an economically important model invertebrate, the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Pollen, which supplies essential nutrients to developing workers, can become limited in colonies because of seasonal dearths, loss of foraging habitat, or intensive management. However, the functional consequences of being reared by pollen-stressed nestmates remain unclear, despite growing concern that poor nutrition interacts with other stressors to exacerbate colony decline. We manipulated nurse bees' access to pollen and then assessed differences in weight, longevity, foraging activity, and waggle-dance behavior of the workers that they reared (who were co-fostered as adults). Pollen stress during larval development had far-reaching physical and behavioral effects on adult workers. Workers reared in pollen-stressed colonies were lighter and shorter lived than nestmates reared with adequate access to pollen. Proportionally fewer stressed workers were observed foraging and those who did forage started foraging sooner, foraged for fewer days, and were more likely to die after only a single day of foraging. Pollen-stressed workers were also less likely to waggle dance than their unstressed counterparts and, if they danced, the information they conveyed about the location of food was less precise. These performance deficits may escalate if long-term pollen limitation prevents stressed foragers from providing sufficiently for developing workers. Furthermore, the effects of brief pollen shortages reported here mirror the effects of other environmental stressors that limit worker access to nutrients, suggesting the likelihood of their synergistic interaction. Honey bees often experience the level of stress that we created, thus our findings

  14. Honey bee workers that are pollen stressed as larvae become poor foragers and waggle dancers as adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailey N Scofield

    Full Text Available The negative effects on adult behavior of juvenile undernourishment are well documented in vertebrates, but relatively poorly understood in invertebrates. We examined the effects of larval nutritional stress on the foraging and recruitment behavior of an economically important model invertebrate, the honey bee (Apis mellifera. Pollen, which supplies essential nutrients to developing workers, can become limited in colonies because of seasonal dearths, loss of foraging habitat, or intensive management. However, the functional consequences of being reared by pollen-stressed nestmates remain unclear, despite growing concern that poor nutrition interacts with other stressors to exacerbate colony decline. We manipulated nurse bees' access to pollen and then assessed differences in weight, longevity, foraging activity, and waggle-dance behavior of the workers that they reared (who were co-fostered as adults. Pollen stress during larval development had far-reaching physical and behavioral effects on adult workers. Workers reared in pollen-stressed colonies were lighter and shorter lived than nestmates reared with adequate access to pollen. Proportionally fewer stressed workers were observed foraging and those who did forage started foraging sooner, foraged for fewer days, and were more likely to die after only a single day of foraging. Pollen-stressed workers were also less likely to waggle dance than their unstressed counterparts and, if they danced, the information they conveyed about the location of food was less precise. These performance deficits may escalate if long-term pollen limitation prevents stressed foragers from providing sufficiently for developing workers. Furthermore, the effects of brief pollen shortages reported here mirror the effects of other environmental stressors that limit worker access to nutrients, suggesting the likelihood of their synergistic interaction. Honey bees often experience the level of stress that we created, thus

  15. Honey bee workers that are pollen stressed as larvae become poor foragers and waggle dancers as adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Hailey N; Mattila, Heather R

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects on adult behavior of juvenile undernourishment are well documented in vertebrates, but relatively poorly understood in invertebrates. We examined the effects of larval nutritional stress on the foraging and recruitment behavior of an economically important model invertebrate, the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Pollen, which supplies essential nutrients to developing workers, can become limited in colonies because of seasonal dearths, loss of foraging habitat, or intensive management. However, the functional consequences of being reared by pollen-stressed nestmates remain unclear, despite growing concern that poor nutrition interacts with other stressors to exacerbate colony decline. We manipulated nurse bees' access to pollen and then assessed differences in weight, longevity, foraging activity, and waggle-dance behavior of the workers that they reared (who were co-fostered as adults). Pollen stress during larval development had far-reaching physical and behavioral effects on adult workers. Workers reared in pollen-stressed colonies were lighter and shorter lived than nestmates reared with adequate access to pollen. Proportionally fewer stressed workers were observed foraging and those who did forage started foraging sooner, foraged for fewer days, and were more likely to die after only a single day of foraging. Pollen-stressed workers were also less likely to waggle dance than their unstressed counterparts and, if they danced, the information they conveyed about the location of food was less precise. These performance deficits may escalate if long-term pollen limitation prevents stressed foragers from providing sufficiently for developing workers. Furthermore, the effects of brief pollen shortages reported here mirror the effects of other environmental stressors that limit worker access to nutrients, suggesting the likelihood of their synergistic interaction. Honey bees often experience the level of stress that we created, thus our findings

  16. Field and semifield evaluation of impacts of transgenic canola pollen on survival and development of worker honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zachary Y; Hanley, Anne V; Pett, Walter L; Langenberger, Michael; Duan, Jian J

    2004-10-01

    A 2-yr field trial (2001 and 2002) and 1-yr semifield trial (2002) were conducted to evaluate the effect of transgenic herbicide (glyphosate) -tolerant canola Brassica napus L. pollen on larval and adult honey bee, Apis mellifera L., workers. In the field trial, colonies of honey bees were moved to transgenic or nontransgenic canola fields (each at least 40 hectares) during bloom and then sampled for larval survival and adult recovery, pupal weight, and hemolymph protein concentrations. No differences in larval survival, adult recovery, and pupal weight were detected between colonies placed in nontransgenic canola fields and those in transgenic canola fields. Colonies placed in the transgenic canola fields in the 2002 field experiment showed significantly higher hemolymph protein in newly emerged bees compared with those placed in nontransgenic canola field; however, this difference was not detected in the 2001 field experiment. In the semifield trial, bee larvae were artificially fed with bee-collected transgenic and nontransgenic canola pollen and returned to their original colonies. Larval survival, pupal survival, pupal weight, and hemolymph protein concentration of newly emerged adults were measured. There were no significant differences in any of the parameters measured between larvae that were fed transgenic canola pollen and those fed nontransgenic corn pollen. Results from this study suggest that transgenic canola pollen does not have adverse effects on honey bee development and that the use of transgenic canola dose not pose any threat to honey bees. PMID:15568338

  17. Xenobiotic Effects on Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation in Adult Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L) Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Cordelia Forkpah; Dixon, Luke R.; Fahrbach, Susan E.; Olav Rueppell

    2014-01-01

    The causes of the current global decline in honey bee health are unknown. One major group of hypotheses invokes the pesticides and other xenobiotics to which this important pollinator species is often exposed. Most studies have focused on mortality or behavioral deficiencies in exposed honey bees while neglecting other biological functions and target organs. The midgut epithelium of honey bees presents an important interface between the insect and its environment. It is maintained by prolifer...

  18. Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) have low infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor in different ecological regions in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Flores, C A; Guzmán-Novoa, E; Hamiduzzaman, M M; Aréchiga-Flores, C F; López-Carlos, M A

    2014-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies of African and European descent were compared for levels of Varroa destructor infestation in 3 different ecological regions in Mexico. The 300 colonies that were studied were located in subtropical, temperate sub-humid, and temperate dry climates. The morphotype and mitotype of adult bees as well as their rates of infestation by varroa mites were determined. Additionally, the number of combs with brood and covered with bees was recorded for each colony. The highest frequency of colonies that were classified as African-derived was found in the subtropical environment, whereas the lowest occurred in the temperate dry region. Overall, the colonies of African genotype had significantly lower mite infestation rates (3.5±0.34%) than the colonies of European genotype (4.7±0.49%) regardless of the region sampled. Significant effects of genotype and region on Varroa infestation rates were evident, and there were no differences in bee population or capped brood between genotypes. Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in the colonies of the temperate dry region than in the colonies of the other 2 regions. These results are discussed within the context of results from studies that were previously conducted in Brazil. This is the first study that demonstrates the effects of Africanization and ecological environment on V. destructor infestation rates in honey bee colonies in North America. PMID:24634296

  19. Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) have low infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor in different ecological regions in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Flores, C A; Guzmán-Novoa, E; Hamiduzzaman, M M; Aréchiga-Flores, C F; López-Carlos, M A

    2014-02-21

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies of African and European descent were compared for levels of Varroa destructor infestation in 3 different ecological regions in Mexico. The 300 colonies that were studied were located in subtropical, temperate sub-humid, and temperate dry climates. The morphotype and mitotype of adult bees as well as their rates of infestation by varroa mites were determined. Additionally, the number of combs with brood and covered with bees was recorded for each colony. The highest frequency of colonies that were classified as African-derived was found in the subtropical environment, whereas the lowest occurred in the temperate dry region. Overall, the colonies of African genotype had significantly lower mite infestation rates (3.5±0.34%) than the colonies of European genotype (4.7±0.49%) regardless of the region sampled. Significant effects of genotype and region on Varroa infestation rates were evident, and there were no differences in bee population or capped brood between genotypes. Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in the colonies of the temperate dry region than in the colonies of the other 2 regions. These results are discussed within the context of results from studies that were previously conducted in Brazil. This is the first study that demonstrates the effects of Africanization and ecological environment on V. destructor infestation rates in honey bee colonies in North America.

  20. Xenobiotic effects on intestinal stem cell proliferation in adult honey bee (Apis mellifera L) workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkpah, Cordelia; Dixon, Luke R; Fahrbach, Susan E; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-01-01

    The causes of the current global decline in honey bee health are unknown. One major group of hypotheses invokes the pesticides and other xenobiotics to which this important pollinator species is often exposed. Most studies have focused on mortality or behavioral deficiencies in exposed honey bees while neglecting other biological functions and target organs. The midgut epithelium of honey bees presents an important interface between the insect and its environment. It is maintained by proliferation of intestinal stem cells throughout the adult life of honey bees. We used caged honey bees to test multiple xenobiotics for effects on the replicative activity of the intestinal stem cells under laboratory conditions. Most of the tested compounds did not alter the replicative activity of intestinal stem cells. However, colchicine, methoxyfenozide, tetracycline, and a combination of coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate significantly affected proliferation rate. All substances except methoxyfenozide decreased proliferation rate. Thus, the results indicate that some xenobiotics frequently used in apiculture and known to accumulate in honey bee hives may have hitherto unknown physiological effects. The nutritional status and the susceptibility to pathogens of honey bees could be compromised by the impacts of xenobiotics on the maintenance of the midgut epithelium. This study contributes to a growing body of evidence that more comprehensive testing of xenobiotics may be required before novel or existing compounds can be considered safe for honey bees and other non-target species. PMID:24608542

  1. Xenobiotic effects on intestinal stem cell proliferation in adult honey bee (Apis mellifera L workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordelia Forkpah

    Full Text Available The causes of the current global decline in honey bee health are unknown. One major group of hypotheses invokes the pesticides and other xenobiotics to which this important pollinator species is often exposed. Most studies have focused on mortality or behavioral deficiencies in exposed honey bees while neglecting other biological functions and target organs. The midgut epithelium of honey bees presents an important interface between the insect and its environment. It is maintained by proliferation of intestinal stem cells throughout the adult life of honey bees. We used caged honey bees to test multiple xenobiotics for effects on the replicative activity of the intestinal stem cells under laboratory conditions. Most of the tested compounds did not alter the replicative activity of intestinal stem cells. However, colchicine, methoxyfenozide, tetracycline, and a combination of coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate significantly affected proliferation rate. All substances except methoxyfenozide decreased proliferation rate. Thus, the results indicate that some xenobiotics frequently used in apiculture and known to accumulate in honey bee hives may have hitherto unknown physiological effects. The nutritional status and the susceptibility to pathogens of honey bees could be compromised by the impacts of xenobiotics on the maintenance of the midgut epithelium. This study contributes to a growing body of evidence that more comprehensive testing of xenobiotics may be required before novel or existing compounds can be considered safe for honey bees and other non-target species.

  2. Xenobiotic effects on intestinal stem cell proliferation in adult honey bee (Apis mellifera L) workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkpah, Cordelia; Dixon, Luke R; Fahrbach, Susan E; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-01-01

    The causes of the current global decline in honey bee health are unknown. One major group of hypotheses invokes the pesticides and other xenobiotics to which this important pollinator species is often exposed. Most studies have focused on mortality or behavioral deficiencies in exposed honey bees while neglecting other biological functions and target organs. The midgut epithelium of honey bees presents an important interface between the insect and its environment. It is maintained by proliferation of intestinal stem cells throughout the adult life of honey bees. We used caged honey bees to test multiple xenobiotics for effects on the replicative activity of the intestinal stem cells under laboratory conditions. Most of the tested compounds did not alter the replicative activity of intestinal stem cells. However, colchicine, methoxyfenozide, tetracycline, and a combination of coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate significantly affected proliferation rate. All substances except methoxyfenozide decreased proliferation rate. Thus, the results indicate that some xenobiotics frequently used in apiculture and known to accumulate in honey bee hives may have hitherto unknown physiological effects. The nutritional status and the susceptibility to pathogens of honey bees could be compromised by the impacts of xenobiotics on the maintenance of the midgut epithelium. This study contributes to a growing body of evidence that more comprehensive testing of xenobiotics may be required before novel or existing compounds can be considered safe for honey bees and other non-target species.

  3. Variation in honey yield per hive of Africanized bees depending on the introducing time of young queens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladson Carbonari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to evaluate the honey production per hive and the egg laying rates of queens produced in 2007, 2008 and 2010. Thirty colonies initiated with a queen per colony at each climatic season were used during the three years. The years, started on January (summer, April (autumn, July (winter and October (spring and ended 12 months later, at the same periods related to each season of the later years. Honey supply were weighed before and after centrifugation to evaluate the quantity of the stored honey. Colonies with queens introduced during autumn and winter in the three years produced 57.2±6.0kg and 60.7±7.5kg of honey, respectively. In the first year of production activity, after the introduction of queens in the initial colonies, values were significantly higher than those obtained in colonies with queens introduced in the summer (39.3±7.6kg and spring (41.8±3.7kg. Egg laying rates of queens were higher in spring (98.2±3.9% and summer (88.4±7%, indicating greater food flow (flowerings in these seasons compared to the averages in autumn (30.3±8.1% and winter (24.5±7.2%. Produce and introduce queens of Africanized Apis mellifera in colonies initiated during autumn and winter was found to be economically feasible. Honey production of colonies initiated in these periods were higher and they had greater population stability in times of scarcity of flowerings.

  4. Sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues in brood comb on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera development and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous surveys reveal high levels of pesticide residue contamination in honey bee comb. We conducted studies to examine possible direct and indirect effects of pesticide exposure from contaminated brood comb on developing worker bees and adult worker lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Worker bees were reared in brood comb containing high levels of known pesticide residues (treatment or in relatively uncontaminated brood comb (control. Delayed development was observed in bees reared in treatment combs containing high levels of pesticides particularly in the early stages (day 4 and 8 of worker bee development. Adult longevity was reduced by 4 days in bees exposed to pesticide residues in contaminated brood comb during development. Pesticide residue migration from comb containing high pesticide residues caused contamination of control comb after multiple brood cycles and provided insight on how quickly residues move through wax. Higher brood mortality and delayed adult emergence occurred after multiple brood cycles in contaminated control combs. In contrast, survivability increased in bees reared in treatment comb after multiple brood cycles when pesticide residues had been reduced in treatment combs due to residue migration into uncontaminated control combs, supporting comb replacement efforts. Chemical analysis after the experiment confirmed the migration of pesticide residues from treatment combs into previously uncontaminated control comb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to demonstrate sub-lethal effects on worker honey bees from pesticide residue exposure from contaminated brood comb. Sub-lethal effects, including delayed larval development and adult emergence or shortened adult longevity, can have indirect effects on the colony such as premature shifts in hive roles and foraging activity. In addition, longer development time for bees may provide a reproductive advantage for parasitic Varroa destructor

  5. Embracing the Village and Tribe: Critical Thinking for Social Workers from an African-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Yarneccia D.; Brice, Tanya Smith

    2016-01-01

    The social work department at a small historically Black college implemented an African-centered approach to the course Critical Thinking for Social Workers for freshmen students who declared social work as their major. We firmly believe that knowing and understanding the history and legacy of people of African descent is extremely important in…

  6. Effects of some insecticides on longevity of the foragers honey bee worker of local honey bee race Apis mellifera jemenatica

    OpenAIRE

    Aljedani, Dalal Musleh; Almehmadi, Roqaya Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Honeybees are constantly exposed to a wide range of vital and non-vital pressures that may interact with each other and affect the health or survival of the insects. Pesticides are the main danger for the insects, and they subsequently have impacts on human and environmental health. Methods Field research was conducted in the apiary of Hada Al Sham Research Station, where the worker honeybees forager Apis mellifera jemenatica were selected to examine the effect of pesticides on w...

  7. Varroa jacobsoni infestation of adult Africanized and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera in mixed colonies in Brazil

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    Geraldo Moretto

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Different levels of infestation with the mite Varroa jacobsoni have been observed in the various Apis mellifera races. In general, bees of European races are more susceptible to the mite than African honey bees and their hybrids. In Brazil honey bee colonies are not treated against the mite, though apparently both climate and bee race influence the mite infestation. Six mixed colonies were made with Italian and Africanized honey bees. The percentage infestation by this parasite was found to be significantly lower in adult Africanized (1.69 ± 0.44 than Italian bees (2.79 ± 0.65. This ratio was similar to that found in Mexico, even though the Africanized bees tested there had not been in contact with varroa, compared to more than 20 years of the coexistence in Brazil. However, mean mite infestation in Brazil on both kinds of bees was only about a third of that found in Mexico.Desde o contato inicial entre o ácaro Varroa jacobsoni e a abelha Apis mellifera, diferentes níveis de infestação foram verificados entre as diversas raças dessa espécie de abelhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o grau de infestação determinado pelo acaro Varroa jacobsoni em abelhas Apis mellifera, africanizadas e italianas puras, quando criadas numa mesma colméia. Para isso, o grau de infestação foi obtido em seis colônias de abelhas constituídas de operárias de ambas as raças. O resultado de dezesseis repetições mostrou que as abelhas africanizadas foram menos infestadas que as abelhas italianas. Esse resultado sugere que, nas condições naturais de infestação, as abelhas africanizadas são mais defensivas ao parasita Varroa jacobsoni, garantindo a essa raça de abelhas a resistência à praga varroosis.

  8. Differential responses of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) to viral replication following mechanical transmission or Varroa destructor parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Goodwin, Paul H; Reyes-Quintana, Mariana; Koleoglu, Gun; Correa-Benítez, Adriana; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, adults and brood of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) were compared for relative virus levels over 48 h following Varroa destructor parasitism or injection of V. destructor homogenate. Rates of increase of deformed wing virus (DWV) for Africanized versus European bees were temporarily lowered for 12h with parasitism and sustainably lowered over the entire experiment (48 h) with homogenate injection in adults. The rates were also temporarily lowered for 24h with parasitism but were not affected by homogenate injection in brood. Rates of increase of black queen cell virus (BQCV) for Africanized versus European bees were similar with parasitism but sustainably lowered over the entire experiment with homogenate injection in adults and were similar for parasitism and homogenate injection in brood. Analyses of sac brood bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus were limited as detection did not occur after both homogenate injection and parasitism treatment, or levels were not significantly higher than those following control buffer injection. Lower rates of replication of DWV and BQCV in Africanized bees shows that they may have greater viral resistance, at least early after treatment. PMID:25527405

  9. Differential responses of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) to viral replication following mechanical transmission or Varroa destructor parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Goodwin, Paul H; Reyes-Quintana, Mariana; Koleoglu, Gun; Correa-Benítez, Adriana; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, adults and brood of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) were compared for relative virus levels over 48 h following Varroa destructor parasitism or injection of V. destructor homogenate. Rates of increase of deformed wing virus (DWV) for Africanized versus European bees were temporarily lowered for 12h with parasitism and sustainably lowered over the entire experiment (48 h) with homogenate injection in adults. The rates were also temporarily lowered for 24h with parasitism but were not affected by homogenate injection in brood. Rates of increase of black queen cell virus (BQCV) for Africanized versus European bees were similar with parasitism but sustainably lowered over the entire experiment with homogenate injection in adults and were similar for parasitism and homogenate injection in brood. Analyses of sac brood bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus were limited as detection did not occur after both homogenate injection and parasitism treatment, or levels were not significantly higher than those following control buffer injection. Lower rates of replication of DWV and BQCV in Africanized bees shows that they may have greater viral resistance, at least early after treatment.

  10. Consumption of tyrosine in royal jelly increases brain levels of dopamine and tyramine and promotes transition from normal to reproductive workers in queenless honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Syuhei; Nagao, Takashi; Sasaki, Ken

    2015-01-15

    Dopamine (DA) and tyramine (TA) have neurohormonal roles in the production of reproductive workers in queenless colonies of honey bees, but the regulation of these biogenic amines in the brain are still largely unclear. Nutrition is an important factor in promoting reproduction and might be involved in the regulation of these biogenic amines in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of oral treatments of tyrosine (Tyr; a common precursor of DA, TA and octopamine, and a component of royal jelly) in queenless workers and quantified the resulting production of biogenic amines. Tyrosine treatments enhanced the levels of DA, TA and their metabolites in the brain. Workers fed royal jelly had significantly larger brain levels of Tyr, DA, TA and the metabolites in the brains compared with those bees fed honey or sucrose (control). Treatment with Tyr also inhibited the behavior of workers outside of the hive and promoted ovarian development. These results suggest that there is a link between nutrition and the regulation of DA and TA in the brain to promote the production of reproductive workers in queenless honey bee colonies. PMID:25448251

  11. Consumption of tyrosine in royal jelly increases brain levels of dopamine and tyramine and promotes transition from normal to reproductive workers in queenless honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Syuhei; Nagao, Takashi; Sasaki, Ken

    2015-01-15

    Dopamine (DA) and tyramine (TA) have neurohormonal roles in the production of reproductive workers in queenless colonies of honey bees, but the regulation of these biogenic amines in the brain are still largely unclear. Nutrition is an important factor in promoting reproduction and might be involved in the regulation of these biogenic amines in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of oral treatments of tyrosine (Tyr; a common precursor of DA, TA and octopamine, and a component of royal jelly) in queenless workers and quantified the resulting production of biogenic amines. Tyrosine treatments enhanced the levels of DA, TA and their metabolites in the brain. Workers fed royal jelly had significantly larger brain levels of Tyr, DA, TA and the metabolites in the brains compared with those bees fed honey or sucrose (control). Treatment with Tyr also inhibited the behavior of workers outside of the hive and promoted ovarian development. These results suggest that there is a link between nutrition and the regulation of DA and TA in the brain to promote the production of reproductive workers in queenless honey bee colonies.

  12. Microbial gut diversity of Africanized and European honey bee larval instars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Rehan, Sandra M; Anderson, Kirk E

    2013-01-01

    The first step in understanding gut microbial ecology is determining the presence and potential niche breadth of associated microbes. While the core gut bacteria of adult honey bees is becoming increasingly apparent, there is very little and inconsistent information concerning symbiotic bacterial communities in honey bee larvae. The larval gut is the target of highly pathogenic bacteria and fungi, highlighting the need to understand interactions between typical larval gut flora, nutrition and disease progression. Here we show that the larval gut is colonized by a handful of bacterial groups previously described from guts of adult honey bees or other pollinators. First and second larval instars contained almost exclusively Alpha 2.2, a core Acetobacteraceae, while later instars were dominated by one of two very different Lactobacillus spp., depending on the sampled site. Royal jelly inhibition assays revealed that of seven bacteria occurring in larvae, only one Neisseriaceae and one Lactobacillus sp. were inhibited. We found both core and environmentally vectored bacteria with putatively beneficial functions. Our results suggest that early inoculation by Acetobacteraceae may be important for microbial succession in larvae. This assay is a starting point for more sophisticated in vitro models of nutrition and disease resistance in honey bee larvae. PMID:23991051

  13. Microbial gut diversity of Africanized and European honey bee larval instars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Rehan, Sandra M; Anderson, Kirk E

    2013-01-01

    The first step in understanding gut microbial ecology is determining the presence and potential niche breadth of associated microbes. While the core gut bacteria of adult honey bees is becoming increasingly apparent, there is very little and inconsistent information concerning symbiotic bacterial communities in honey bee larvae. The larval gut is the target of highly pathogenic bacteria and fungi, highlighting the need to understand interactions between typical larval gut flora, nutrition and disease progression. Here we show that the larval gut is colonized by a handful of bacterial groups previously described from guts of adult honey bees or other pollinators. First and second larval instars contained almost exclusively Alpha 2.2, a core Acetobacteraceae, while later instars were dominated by one of two very different Lactobacillus spp., depending on the sampled site. Royal jelly inhibition assays revealed that of seven bacteria occurring in larvae, only one Neisseriaceae and one Lactobacillus sp. were inhibited. We found both core and environmentally vectored bacteria with putatively beneficial functions. Our results suggest that early inoculation by Acetobacteraceae may be important for microbial succession in larvae. This assay is a starting point for more sophisticated in vitro models of nutrition and disease resistance in honey bee larvae.

  14. Microbial gut diversity of Africanized and European honey bee larval instars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svjetlana Vojvodic

    Full Text Available The first step in understanding gut microbial ecology is determining the presence and potential niche breadth of associated microbes. While the core gut bacteria of adult honey bees is becoming increasingly apparent, there is very little and inconsistent information concerning symbiotic bacterial communities in honey bee larvae. The larval gut is the target of highly pathogenic bacteria and fungi, highlighting the need to understand interactions between typical larval gut flora, nutrition and disease progression. Here we show that the larval gut is colonized by a handful of bacterial groups previously described from guts of adult honey bees or other pollinators. First and second larval instars contained almost exclusively Alpha 2.2, a core Acetobacteraceae, while later instars were dominated by one of two very different Lactobacillus spp., depending on the sampled site. Royal jelly inhibition assays revealed that of seven bacteria occurring in larvae, only one Neisseriaceae and one Lactobacillus sp. were inhibited. We found both core and environmentally vectored bacteria with putatively beneficial functions. Our results suggest that early inoculation by Acetobacteraceae may be important for microbial succession in larvae. This assay is a starting point for more sophisticated in vitro models of nutrition and disease resistance in honey bee larvae.

  15. Patriline composition of worker populations in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies headed by queens inseminated with semen from African and European drones

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman,; David R.Tarpy,; Schneider, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    International audience Honeybee queens with either European or African maternity were mated to African and European drones to determine rates of sperm utilization. The first month after the queens were inseminated, they produced equal proportions of workers with African and European paternity. However, for the next 3-4 months, more than 70% of the workers produced by queens of either matriline had African paternity. Overall, the queens produced a majority of workers with African paternity ...

  16. Microbial flora in organic honey samples of africanized honeybees from Parana river islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josiane Sereia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify and compare the main contamination sources and the hygienic/sanitary conditions of organic honey samples of Apis mellifera from Parana River islands. Thirty-three (33 samples were analyzed between January 2005 and August 2006. Eleven (11 samples were collected by beekeepers and twenty-two (22 samples were collected and processed in accordance with ideal personal hygiene norms and good manufacturing practices. The samples underwent microbiological analysis in search of coliforms at 35 ºC and 45 ºC, as well as fungi enumeration analysis. As for fungi counting, the samples harvested by beekeepers showed values above the maximum established by Resolution nº 15/94 of Common Market Group - Mercosul. The results showed that secondary contamination sources are responsible for the reduction of organic honey quality.

  17. The Integration of Geographical Information System and Remotely Sensed Data to Track and Predict the Migration Path of the Africanized Honey Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Charles; Bravo, Jessica; De Luna, Rosalia; Lopez, Gerardo; Pichardo, Itza; Trejo, Danny; Vargas, Gabriel

    1997-01-01

    One of the research groups at the Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES) is researching the northward migration path of Africanized Honey Bees or often referred to in the popular press as killer bees. The goal of the Killer Bee Research Group (KBRG) is to set up a database in the form of a geographical information system, which will be used to track and predict the bees future migration path. Included in this paper is background information on geographical information systems, the SPANS Explorer software package which was used to implement the database, and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data and how each of these is being incorporated in the research. With an accurate means of predicting future migration paths, the negative effects of the Africanized honey bees maybe reduced.

  18. Histories of the Everyday: Domestic Workers in the South African Literary Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Jansen

    2015-01-01

    This article departs from the premise that the South African literary ar­chive has many gaps concerning the experiences of black people and argues that these gaps can perhaps be partially filled by ‘mining’ old and recent literary texts by white Afrikaans authors which feature domestic worker charac

  19. Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus and Nosema ceranae Experimental Co-Infection of Winter Honey Bee Workers (Apis mellifera L.

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    Aleš Gregorc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. Despite comprehensive research, only limited data is available from experimental infection for this virus. In the present study winter worker bees were experimentally infected in three different experiments. Bees were first inoculated per os (p/o or per cuticle (p/c with CBPV field strain M92/2010 in order to evaluate the virus replication in individual bees. In addition, potential synergistic effects of co-infection with CBPV and Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae on bees were investigated. In total 558 individual bees were inoculated in small cages and data were analyzed using quantitative real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR. Our results revealed successful replication of CBPV after p/o inoculation, while it was less effective when bees were inoculated p/c. Dead bees harbored about 1,000 times higher copy numbers of the virus than live bees. Co-infection of workers with CBPV and N. ceranae using either method of virus inoculation (p/c or p/o showed increased replication ability for CBPV. In the third experiment the effect of inoculation on bee mortality was evaluated. The highest level of bee mortality was observed in a group of bees inoculated with CBPV p/o, followed by a group of workers simultaneously inoculated with CBPV and N. ceranae p/o, followed by the group inoculated with CBPV p/c and the group with only N. ceranae p/o. The experimental infection with CBPV showed important differences after p/o or p/c inoculation in winter bees, while simultaneous infection with CBPV and N. ceranae suggesting a synergistic effect after inoculation.

  20. Non-Standard Workers: The South African Context, International Law and Regulation by The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES Fourie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The current labour market has many forms of employment relations that differ from full-time employment. "Atypical," "non-standard," or even "marginal" are terms used to describe these new workers and include, amongst others, part-time work, contract work, self-employment, temporary, fixed-term, seasonal, casual, piece-rate work, employees supplied by employment agencies, home workers and those employed in the informal economy. These workers are often paid for results rather than time. Their vulnerability is linked in many instances to the absence of an employment relationship or the existence of a flimsy one. Most of these workers are unskilled or work in sectors with limited trade union organisation and limited coverage by collective bargaining, leaving them vulnerable to exploitation. They should, in theory, have the protection of current South African labour legislation, but in practice the unusual circumstances of their employment render the enforcement of their rights problematic. The majority of non-standard workers in South Africa are those previously disadvantaged by the apartheid regime, compromising women and unskilled black workers. The exclusion of these workers from labour legislation can be seen as discrimination, which is prohibited by almost all labour legislation in South Africa. This contribution illustrates how the concept of indirect discrimination can be an important tool used to provide labour protection to these workers. The purpose of this article is to explore the scope of the extension of labour rights to non-standard workers in the context of South African labour laws and the international framework.

  1. Selecting honey bees for worker brood that reduces the reproduction of Varroa destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated an effect of Apis mellifera worker brood on the reproduction of Varroa destructor as a resistance trait by conducting seven generations of bidirectional selection. Initial tests showed two-fold differences in mite fecundity (progeny per foundress mites) between colonies of different...

  2. The Effect of an Organic Pesticide on Mortality and Learning in Africanized Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L. in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles I.   Abramson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven experiments were conducted. First, the influence of the consumption of different concentrations of the organic pesticide Bioganic® on mortality was assessed at 11 different time intervals in Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L. as was direct application of the pesticide to the abdomen. Results indicated that the pesticide was not lethal to bees regardless of concentration at any intervals tested whether consumed directly or applied to the abdomen. Second, the effects of different concentrations of the pesticide on Pavlovian conditioning and complex learning were examined in harnessed foragers. Results suggest that the pesticide affected learning; however, this conclusion may be erroneous because the bees would not feed on the pesticide, thus making it impossible to properly assess Pavlovian conditioning and complex learning. Consequently, the effect of the agrochemical on complex learning was examined in free flying bees trained to land on targets. The results of free flying experiments indicated that bees did not avoid a target associated with the smell of the pesticide but did avoid the target if they had to drink the pesticide.

  3. African ILO meeting endorses efforts by employers' and workers' organizations to fight HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    In December 2003, the Tenth African International Labour Organization (ILO) Regional Meeting in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia adopted a resolution on HIV/AIDS calling on African governments to support the efforts of employers and workers to combat HIV/AIDS--by providing an enabling legal and policy framework for workplace action, by providing measures to oppose stigma and discrimination, and by strengthening national AIDS plans through the inclusion of a strategy for the world of work. The resolution also called on workers' and employers' organizations to increase their joint efforts to reduce the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS. Finally, the resolution called on the ILO to give greater priority to its efforts to combat the pandemic in Africa.

  4. The influence of different diets on haemocytes of adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Szymaś, Bozena; Jędruszuk, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    International audience The influence of different diets on the haemolymph of adult honeybee workers was examined. The laboratory experiments took place in early summer. There were three experimental groups fed with one of the following diets: pollen with sugar, pollen substitute alone, or sugar. A sample of haemolymph was taken from 7-8 day old bees and numbers of haemocytes of each type (plasmatocytes, granular haemocytes, and other types of haemocytes pooled together) were recorded and t...

  5. Intestinal Bacterial Community of the Apis Melifera Carpatica Honey Bee Workers, Depending on Season and Area

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Marina Mot; Emil Tirziu; Ileana Margareta Nichita

    2015-01-01

    It is important to know that the intestinal flora of most organisms play a decisive role in nutrient assimilation or diseases defending action and honeybees are not an exception. The importance and composition of the intestinal micro-flora define the health and growth of honeybees. For this study were been collected as far as 10 honeybee workers from each area, from three different areas: Brasov county, near Perşani mountains, Timiş county, from plane area and Arad county. from hillside area,...

  6. Exposure to respirable crystalline silica in South African farm workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although listed in some publications as an activity associated with silica (quartz) exposure, agriculture is not widely recognized as an industry with a potential for silica associated diseases. Because so many people work in agriculture; and because silica exposure and silicosis are associated with serious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), particular in those immunological compromised by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), silica exposure in agriculture is potentially very important. But in South Africa (SA) very little is known about silica exposure in this industry. The objectives of this project are: (a) to measure inhalable and respirable dust and its quartz content on two typical sandy soil farms in the Free State province of SA for all major tasks done on the farms; and (b) to characterise the mineralogy soil type of these farms. Two typical farms in the sandy soil region of the Free State province were studied. The potential health effects faced by these farm workers from exposure to respirable crystalline silica are discussed.

  7. Observation of Varroa destructor behavior in capped worker brood of Africanized honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Rafael A; Chaves, Guisella; Sánchez, Luis A; Calderón, Rolando

    2012-11-01

    The behavioral activity of Varroa destructor was observed using transparent cells. Mite oviposition started at 45.0 ± 25.0 h post capping, followed by the next eggs laid at regular 27.3 ± 2.0 h intervals. On the prepupa, mites were found to feed often and there was no preference for a specific segment as a feeding site. During the pupal stage the mite fed less often and almost always at the same point. Varroa showed a preference for defecation in the posterior part of the cell. A significant association was observed between the position of the feeding point in the pupa and the defecation site on the cell wall. Displacement behavior was observed in 71 % of the infested bee larvae and a major change in the free space available for varroa in the cell occurred when the prepupa molted into a pupa.

  8. Viral diseases in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew

    Honey bees are important insects for human welfare, due to pollination as well as honey production. Viral diseases strongly impact honey bee health, especially since the spread of varroa mites. This dissertation deals with the interactions between honey bees, viruses and varroa mites. A new tool...... was developed to diagnose three viruses in honey bees. Quantitative PCR was used to investigate the distribution of two popular viruses in five different tissues of 86 honey bee queens. Seasonal variation of viral infection in honey bee workers and varroa mites were determined by sampling 23 colonies under...

  9. Diaspora engagement of African migrant health workers – examples from five destination countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Design Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals. PMID:26652910

  10. Enhanced production of parthenocarpic cucumbers pollinated with stingless bees and Africanized honey bees in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Braga Malheiros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crops have different levels of dependence on pollinators; this holds true even for cultivars of the same species, as in the case of cucumber (Cucumis sativus. The aim of this research was to assess the attractiveness of flowers of three Japanese parthenocarpic cucumber cultivars and evaluate the importance of Africanized bees (Apis mellifera, and the Brazilian native stingless bees, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula and Iraí (Nannotrigona testaceicornis on fruit production. Several parameters, including frequency of bee visits to flowers as well as duration of nectar collection and fruit set were examined; additionally, fruit weight, length and diameter were evaluated. Three greenhouses located in Ribeirão Preto, SP, were used for planting three cucumber cultivars (Hokushin, Yoshinari and Soudai. The female flowers were more attractive than male flowers; however, Jataí bees were not observed visiting the flowers. The Africanized and the Iraí bees collected only nectar, with a visitation peak between 10 and 12h. Visits to female flowers had a longer duration than visits to male flower visits in all three cultivars. Africanized bee colonies declined due to loss of bees while in the greenhouse; the native stingless bee colonies did not suffer these losses. When bees were excluded, fruit set was 78%; however, when bees had access to the flowers, fruit set was significantly (19.2% higher. Fruit size and weight did not differ with and without bees. This demonstrates that even in parthenocarpic cucumber cultivars, which do not require pollination in order to from fruits, fruit production is significantly increased by bee pollination.

  11. The representation of sex workers in South African media: Danger, morals and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Hunt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The ideological construct of gender typically positions women below men, and “others” certain types of women even more, especially those distinguished from idealised femininity by aspects of their sexuality. This paper explores the representation of sex work and sex workers in the South African media in 2009 and 2010, a time during which there was an increase in news coverage of sex work during the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Analysis of the two data sets revealed that sex work is still often perceived as immoral and dangerous, and that sex workers – overwhelmingly represented as women – are criminalised for their actions while client agency is largely obscured, which is in line with previous studies of South African newspapers. However, a strong liberal representation of sex workers was also found in one data set, which advocates the decriminalisation of sex work in the context of human rights. The use of the term “sex work” and its derivatives, rather than “prostitution”, was found to index this progressive stance.

  12. Abejas cleptoparasitas, con énfasis en las abejas hospederas colectoras de aceites (Hymenoptera: Apoidea ECOLOGICAL IMPACT ON NATIVE BEES BY THE INVASIVE AFRICANIZED HONEY BEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID W ROUBIK

    Full Text Available Pocos estudios han considerado la dinámica de poblaciones de abejas en bosques o hábitats no alterados por el hombre. La presencia de abejas silvestres Africanizadas de Apis mellifera (Apidae fue estudiado por 10-17 años en áreas previamente sin esta especie. Aquí presento e interpreto resultados de tres bosques neotropicales: Guyana Francesa, Panamá y Yucatán, México (5° a 19° N. latitud. La abeja Africanizada exótica no produjo efecto negativo en las abejas nativas, incluyendo especies altamente sociales y solitarias. Diferencias mayores a través del tiempo fueron encontradas en la abundancia de las abejas de miel en flores cerca de hábitat con mayor grado de disturbio, comparado con el bosque espeso. Al nivel poblacional, muestreado en bloques de nidos trampa, en flores o con trampas ultravioletas de insectos, no hubo disminución pronta de abejas, y sí hubo una población relativamente estable o sinusoidal. Sin embargo, las abejas nativas cambiaron su hora de buscar provisiones o su selección de especies florales. Una conclusión principal es que esta competencia por los recursos es ‘silenciosa';, en las áreas florísticamente ricas estudiadas, porque las mismas abejas compensan con su comportamiento. Otros factores rigen sus poblaciones.Very little effort has been made to investigate bee population dynamics among intact wilderness areas. The presence of newly-arrived feral Africanized honey bee (AHB, Apis mellifera (Apidae, populations was studied for 10-17 years in areas previously with few or no escaped European apiary honey bees. Here I describe and interpret the major results from studies in three neotropical forests: French Guiana, Panama and Yucatan, Mexico (5° to 19° N. latitude. The exotic Africanized honey bees did not produce a negative effect on native bees, including species that were solitary or highly eusocial. Major differences over time were found in honey bee abundance on flowers near habitat

  13. Influence of reward preferences in attracting, retaining, and motivating knowledge workers in South African information technology companies

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Bussin; Wernardt C. Toerien

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The world of work is evolving and the nature of relationships between knowledge workers and their employers has changed distinctly, leading to a change in the type of rewards they prefer. The nature of these preferences in the South African, industry-specific context is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to deepen understanding of the reward preferences of Information technology (IT) knowledge workers in South Africa, specifically as these relate to the attraction, rete...

  14. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Juliana R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. Results The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110 diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp, a target of juvenile hormone (JH. The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Conclusions Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body

  15. Mitosis and cell death in the optic lobes of workers, queens and drones of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) during metamorphosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thaisa Cristina Roat; Carminda Da Cruz Landim

    2010-09-01

    Colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, consist of males and two female castes: workers and queens. The castes and males from A. mellifera have a distinct morphology, physiology and behaviour that correlate with their roles in the society and are characterized by some brain polymorphisms. Compound eyes are one of the characteristics that differ among the castes and sexes. A. mellifera is a holometabolous insect; therefore, the development of adult organs during metamorphosis, which will produce these differences, requires the precise coordination of three main programmed cellular processes: proliferation, differentiation and death. These processes take place simultaneously during pupation. Our purpose was to investigate cell division and death in the optic lobes (OL) of workers, queens and males during pupation to identify how the differences in the compound eyes in adults of these classes are achieved. The results showed that OL differentiation follows a similar pattern in the three classes of individuals studied, without structural differences in their development. The main non-structural differences involve cell division, mortality rates and timing. The results suggest a modelling of the brain during differentiation, which contributes to the specific functions of each individual class.

  16. Mitosis and cell death in the optic lobes of workers, queens and drones of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Landim, Carminda da Cruz

    2010-09-01

    Colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, consist of males and two female castes: workers and queens. The castes and males from A. mellifera have a distinct morphology, physiology and behaviour that correlate with their roles in the society and are characterized by some brain polymorphisms. Compound eyes are one of the characteristics that differ among the castes and sexes. A. mellifera is a holometabolous insect; therefore, the development of adult organs during metamorphosis, which will produce these differences, requires the precise coordination of three main programmed cellular processes: proliferation, differentiation and death. These processes take place simultaneously during pupation. Our purpose was to investigate cell division and death in the optic lobes (OL) of workers, queens and males during pupation to identify how the differences in the compound eyes in adults of these classes are achieved. The results showed that OL differentiation follows a similar pattern in the three classes of individuals studied, without structural differences in their development. The main non-structural differences involve cell division, mortality rates and timing. The results suggest a modelling of the brain during differentiation, which contributes to the specific functions of each individual class.

  17. Does the Spatial Distribution of the Parasitic Mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Worker Brood of Honey Bee Apis Mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Rely on an Aggregative Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, M.; Capowiez, Y.; Le Conte, Y.; Salvy, M.; Clément, J.-L.

    Varroa jacobsoni is an ectoparasite of honey bees which reproduces in capped brood cells. Multi-infestation is frequently observed in worker brood and can be interpreted as an aggregative phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine whether the distribution of V. jacobsoni in worker brood cells relies on a random or an aggregative process. We studied the distribution of Varroa females in capped worker brood at similar age by comparing, by a Monte Carlo test, the observed frequency distribution of mites per cell to simulated distributions based on a random process. A complementary approach, using the "nearest neighbor distances" (NND) with Monte Carlo tests, was investigated to study the spatial distribution (a) between mites in different cells and (b) between infested cells in brood. The observed distributions did not differ significantly from that expected by a random process, and we conclude that there is no aggregation during invasion of V. jacobsoni in worker brood.

  18. Morphometric and genetic changes in a population of Apis mellifera after 34 years of Africanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoy, T M; Wittmann, D; Steinhage, V; Drauschke, M; Müller, S; Cunha, D R; Nascimento, A M; Figueiredo, V L C; Simões, Z L P; De Jong, D; Arias, M C; Gonçalves, L S

    2009-01-01

    Though the replacement of European bees by Africanized honey bees in tropical America has attracted considerable attention, little is known about the temporal changes in morphological and genetic characteristics in these bee populations. We examined the changes in the morphometric and genetic profiles of an Africanized honey bee population collected near where the original African swarms escaped, after 34 years of Africanization. Workers from colonies sampled in 1968 and in 2002 were morphometrically analyzed using relative warps analysis and an Automatic Bee Identification System (ABIS). All the colonies had their mitochondrial DNA identified. The subspecies that mixed to form the Africanized honey bees were used as a comparison for the morphometric analysis. The two morphometric approaches showed great similarity of Africanized bees with the African subspecies, Apis mellifera scutellata, corroborating with other markers. We also found the population of 1968 to have the pattern of wing venation to be more similar to A. m. scutellata than the current population. The mitochondrial DNA of European origin, which was very common in the 1968 population, was not found in the current population, indicating selective pressure replacing the European with the African genome in this tropical region. Both morphometric methodologies were very effective in discriminating the A. mellifera groups; the non-linear analysis of ABIS was the most successful in identifying the bees, with more than 94% correct classifications. PMID:19554770

  19. The ectoparasite mite Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman in southeastern Brazil apiaries: effects of the hygienic behavior of Africanized honey bees on infestation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Pinto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the ectoparasitic mite of bees Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman (Acari: Varroidae remains at low levels of infestation causing no major damage. However, with the introduction and possible dominance of a new haplotype (K of the mite, usually found in areas with high infestation rates (IR, it is necessary to monitor and select beehives that are resistant to the pest in order to avoid future problems. Several factors are listed as potentially being responsible for the dynamics of mite infestation, among which hygienic behavior (HB stands out. In this context we sought to evaluate the HB of Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae compared with the mite IR in apiaries of two municipalities of southeastern Brazil (Taubaté and Viçosa. For the municipality of Taubaté, the average IR was 4.9% (3.4 to 5.8%, while the HB averaged 98.6% (96 to 100%. In Viçosa, the average mite IR was found to be 10.0% (5.4 to 21.0% with an average value for HB of 57.7% (0 to 79.0%. Results from this research show that IR and HB were negatively correlated (R = -0.9627, P<0.01, suggesting that hives with higher HB have lower IR.

  20. Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Costa Rica: population dynamics and its influence on the colony condition of Africanized honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Rafael A; van Veen, Johan W

    2008-12-01

    The development of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) population dynamics in Africanized honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies was monitored from February to July 2004 in Atenas, Costa Rica. A correlation between the mite infestation level and the colony condition was evaluated. For each colony, infestation of varroa in adult bees was measured twice a month. Sticky boards were placed on the bottom boards of each colony to collect fallen mites. The condition of the colonies was evaluated by measuring the amount of brood and adult bees. Our results consistently showed that mite infestation on adult bees increased significantly in the experimental colonies, rising to 10.0% by the end of the experiment. In addition, the mean mite fall increased significantly over the course of the study in the treated (R = 0.72, P varroa infestation coincided with a decrease in the amount of brood. Furthermore, adult bees with deformed wings or even without wings crawling in front of their hive occurred in highly infested colonies (mite infestation = 10.0% or more).

  1. Expression analysis of putative vitellogenin and lipophorin receptors in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queens and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; do Nascimento, Adriana Mendes; Tanaka, Erica Donato; Piulachs, Maria Dolors; Hartfelder, Klaus; Bitondi, Márcia Gentile; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2008-07-01

    Two members of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family were identified as putative orthologs for a vitellogenin receptor (Amvgr) and a lipophorin receptor (Amlpr) in the Apis mellifera genome. Both receptor sequences have the structural motifs characteristic of LDLR family members and show a high degree of similarity with sequences of other insects. RT-PCR analysis of Amvgr and Amlpr expression detected the presence of both transcripts in different tissues of adult female (ovary, fat body, midgut, head and specifically hypopharyngeal gland), as well as in embryos. In the head RNA samples we found two variant forms of AmLpR: a full length one and a shorter one lacking 29 amino acids in the O-linked sugar domain. In ovaries the expression levels of the two honey bee LDLR members showed opposing trends: whereas Amvgr expression was upregulated as the ovaries became activated, Amlpr transcript levels gradually declined. In situ hybridization analysis performed on ovaries detected Amvgr mRNA exclusively in germ line cells and corroborated the qPCR results showing an increase in Amvgr gene expression concomitant with follicle growth.

  2. Influence of reward preferences in attracting, retaining, and motivating knowledge workers in South African information technology companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bussin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The world of work is evolving and the nature of relationships between knowledge workers and their employers has changed distinctly, leading to a change in the type of rewards they prefer. The nature of these preferences in the South African, industry-specific context is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to deepen understanding of the reward preferences of Information technology (IT knowledge workers in South Africa, specifically as these relate to the attraction, retention and motivation of knowledge workers.Design: The research design included a quantitative, empirical and descriptive study of reward preferences, measured with a self-administered survey and analysed using non-parametric tests for variance between dependent and independent groups and non-parametric analysis of variance.Findings: This study found that there are specific reward preferences in knowledge workers in the IT sector in South Africa and that these preferences apply differently when related to the attraction, retention and motivation of employees. It identified the most important reward components in the competition for knowledge workers and also demonstrated that demographic characteristics play a statistically significant role in determining reward preferences.Practical implications: The study’s findings show that a holistic approach to total rewards is required, failing which, companies will find themselves facing increased turnover and jobhopping. Importantly, the study also highlights that different rewards need to form part of knowledge workers’ relationship with their employer in three different scenarios: attraction, retention and motivation.

  3. Variation morphogeometrics of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera in Brazil Variação morfogeométrica das abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. Nunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphometrics of the honey bee Apis mellifera L., 1758 has been widely studied mainly because this species has great ecological importance, high adaptation capacity, wide distribution and capacity to effectively adapt to different regions. The current study aimed to investigate the morphometric variations of wings and pollen baskets of honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 from the five regions in Brazil. We used geometric morphometrics to identify the existence of patterns of variations of shape and size in Africanized honey bees in Brazil 16 years after the classic study with this species, allowing a temporal and spatial comparative analysis using new technological resources to assess morphometrical data. Samples were collected in 14 locations in Brazil, covering the five geographical regions of the country. The shape analysis and multivariate analyses of the wing allowed to observe that there is a geographical pattern among the population of Apis mellifera in Brazil. The geographical variations may be attributed to the large territorial extension of the country in addition to the differences between the bioregions.Apis mellifera L., 1758 têm sido alvo de muitos estudos morfométricos principalmente pela sua importância ecológica, pela sua grande capacidade de adaptação, sua ampla distribuição e por serem capazes de se estabelecer eficientemente em diversas regiões. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as variações da forma em asas e corbículas de operárias de Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 provenientes das cinco regiões biogeográficas do Brasil utilizando análises morfogeométricas, a fim de verificar a existência de padrões de variação de forma e tamanho das abelhas africanizadas no Brasil após 16 anos do estudo clássico realizado com esta espécie, possibilitando uma análise espaço-temporal comparativa utilizando recursos tecnológicos atuais para a avaliação de dados morfom

  4. Q&A: Michael Honey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helicher, Karl

    2007-01-01

    The mid-1960s saw civil rights victories in Congress during Lyndon B. Johnson's presidency. In "Going Down Jericho Road," Michael Honey wrote how Martin Luther King Jr.'s final focus showed that the struggle for black and working class parity continued. The 1968 Memphis sanitation workers strike was a gritty struggle won in the streets by a host…

  5. Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

    This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas are…

  6. Honey Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information on honey ants. These ants are found in dry or desert regions of North America, Africa, and Australia. Also provides a list of activities using local species of ants. (JN)

  7. Produção e desenvolvimento de colônias de abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera l. a partir de diferentes áreas e idades de cria Production and development of africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera l. colonies departing from different comb brood areas and brood ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Henrique Dias da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A apicultura brasileira usa da captura de enxames silvestres de abelhas melíferas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L. para repor e/ou aumentar o número de colônias dos apiários, possuindo inconvenientes como a dependência da natureza para captura dos enxames, a heterogeneidade genética das colônias capturadas e a possibilidade desses enxames serem portadores de doenças e parasitas prejudiciais à sanidade das abelhas. O presente trabalho testa e apresenta uma técnica de divisão de colônias de abelhas melíferas africanizadas para a produção de novas colônias fortes em curto espaço de tempo, a partir de recursos mínimos de cera, cria e alimento. Os resultados mostraram que núcleos de A. mellifera formados inicialmente com uma rainha jovem e fecundada, 1 kg de operárias, um quadro de cria fechada, um quadro de favo puxado e vazio e dois quadros com cera alveolada permitem a produção de novas colônias em 42 dias. Portanto, pode-se concluir que a técnica de divisão de colônias por formação de núcleos como descrito acima, oferece aos apicultores uma alternativa viável para a produção e comercialização em larga escala de novas colônias de abelhas melíferas africanizadas.The Brazilian apiculture relies upon collecting wild swarms of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L. to replace and/or increase the number of colonies in the apiaries. This practice brings problems such as dependence on nature to capture any swarm, diverse genetic make-up of the colonies captured and the possibility of these swarms be carrying diseases and parasites harmful to the bees. The present work tests and presents a technique to split colonies of Africanized honey bees to produce new strong colonies in short time, departing from little resources of wax, brood and food stores. Results showed that A. mellifera nuclei formed by a young and mated queen, 1kg of workers, a frame of sealed brood, an empty frame of drawn beeswax and two frames

  8. The complexity of rural contexts experienced by community disability workers in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Booyens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of rural communities is fundamental to effective community-based rehabilitation work with persons with disabilities. By removing barriers to community participation, persons with disabilities are enabled to satisfy their fundamental human needs. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the challenges that rural community disability workers (CDWs face in trying to realise these objectives. This qualitative interpretive study, involving in-depth interviews with 16 community disability workers in Botswana, Malawi and South Africa, revealed the complex ways in which poverty, inappropriately used power and negative attitudes of service providers and communities combine to create formidable barriers to the inclusion of persons with disabilities in families and rural communities. The paper highlights the importance of understanding and working with the concept of ‘disability’ from a social justice and development perspective. It stresses that by targeting attitudes, actions and relationships, community disability workers can bring about social change in the lives of persons with disabilities and the communities in which they live.

  9. South African farm workers' interpretation of risk assessment data expressed as pictograms on pesticide labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide companies and regulators in developing countries use the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) recommended pictograms on pesticide labels to communicate risk information based on toxicological and environmental risk assessment data. The pesticide label not only is often the only access people have to pesticide risk information, but also in many countries is a legally binding document. As a result of the crucial role pesticide labels play in protecting health and the environment and as a legal instrument, pictograms are used to overcome literacy challenges in transmitting pesticide risk information. Yet, this risk communication tool is often prone to misinterpretations of the risk information which results in hazardous exposures to pesticides for farm workers and end-users generally. In this paper, results are presented from a study with 115 farm workers on commercial vineyards in the Western Cape, South Africa, assessing their interpretations of 10 commonly used pictograms. A standardized questionnaire based on four commonly used pesticide labels was administered. Overall, 50% or more of the study farm workers had misleading, incorrect and critically confused interpretations of the label pictograms. Interpretations often reflected farm workers' social and cultural frames of reference rather than the technically intended risk information. For example, the pictogram indicating a pesticide's toxicity requires boots must be worn, evoked interpretations of 'dangerous to pedestrians' and 'don't walk through pesticides'. Furthermore, there was a gender variation in pictogram comprehension whereby males generally had more correct interpretations than females. This is a result both of a lack of training for women who are assumed to not work with pesticides, as well as a lack of pictograms relevant for female exposures. These findings challenge the viability of the United Nations current initiative to globally harmonize pictograms used on all

  10. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a drone or a worker cell is therefore a crucial step in the life of Varroa m

  11. Actor interfaces and practices of power in a community health worker programme: a South African study of unintended policy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Uta; Gilson, Lucy

    2013-07-01

    This paper makes a contribution to a much-neglected aspect of policy analysis: the practice of power in implementation. Practices of power are at the heart of every policy process, yet are rarely explicitly explored in the health policy literature. This paper provides a detailed study of micro-practices of power by those at the frontline of service delivery in the implementation of a national community health worker policy in one rural South African sub-district. The paper is based on a small-scale qualitative study which collected data through observations, interviews and focus group discussions with health services and facility managers, community health workers and community members. Practices of power were analysed using VeneKlasen and Miller's categorization of multiple dimensions of power, as power over, power with, power to and power within. Furthermore, the concept of 'actor interface analysis' allowed exploration of different actors' experience, interests and their specific location in the landscape of local health system governance. The study revealed that almost all policy actors exercised some form of power, from authoritative power, derived from hierarchy and budget control, to the discretionary power of those working at lower levels to withhold labour or organize in-service training. Each of these practices of power had their rationale in different actors' efforts to make the intervention 'fit' their understandings of local reality. While each had a limited impact on policy outcomes, their cumulative effect produced a significant thinning down of the policy's intent. However, discretionary power was not always used to undermine policy. One manager's use of discretionary power in fact led to a partial reconstruction of the original policy intent. The paper concludes that understanding and being responsive to the complexity of local realities, interests and contexts and the multi-layered practices of power may allow managers to adopt more appropriate

  12. Large pollen loads of a South African asclepiad do not interfere with the foraging behaviour or efficiency of pollinating honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, G.; Dold, A. P.; Brassine, E. I.; Peter, C. I.

    2012-07-01

    The pollen of asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae) and most orchids (Orchidaceae) are packaged as large aggregations known as pollinaria that are removed as entire units by pollinators. In some instances, individual pollinators may accumulate large loads of these pollinaria. We found that the primary pollinator of Cynanchum ellipticum (Apocynaceae—Asclepiadoideae), the honey bee Apis mellifera, accumulate very large agglomerations of pollinaria on their mouthparts when foraging on this species. We tested whether large pollinarium loads negatively affected the foraging behaviour and foraging efficiency of honey bees by slowing foraging speeds or causing honey bees to visit fewer flowers, and found no evidence to suggest that large pollinarium loads altered foraging behaviour. C. ellipticum displayed consistently high levels of pollination success and pollen transfer efficiency (PTE). This may be a consequence of efficiently loading large numbers of pollinaria onto pollinators even when primary points of attachment on pollinators are already occupied and doing so in a manner that does not impact the foraging behaviour of pollinating insects.

  13. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cassava flower honey samples produced by africanized honeybees Caracterização físico-química e microbiológica de amostras de mel de flores de mandioca produzido por abelhas africanizadas

    OpenAIRE

    Lucimar Peres de Moura Pontara; Edmar Clemente; Dalany Menezes Oliveira; Angela Kwiatkowski; Cássia Inês Lourenzi Franco Rosa; Valter Eugênio Saia

    2012-01-01

    Cassava producers in the region of Marília-São Paulo are integrating their farming activity with beekeeping to diversify their income. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera from cassava flower in 2008. Analysis were carried out for pH, total soluble solids (TSS), acidity, moisture, reducing and total sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, color, ash, proteins, water inso...

  14. The vibration signal, modulatory communication and the organization of labor in honey bees, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Stanley; Lewis, Lee

    2004-01-01

    Cooperative activities in honey bee colonies involve the coordinated interactions of multiple workers that perform different, but interrelated tasks. A central objective in the study of honey bee sociality therefore is to understand the communication signals used to integrate behavior within and among worker groups. This paper focuses on the role of the "vibration signal" in organizing labor in honey bee colonies. The vibration signal functions as a type of "modulatory communication signal". ...

  15. Job demands and resources of workers in a South African agricultural organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris N. Asiwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Understanding the job demands and resources experienced by workers in an agricultural organisation.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Adapted Job Demands and Resources Scale (AJDRS as well as to establish prevalent job demands and resources of employees in an agricultural organisation. Demographic differences were also investigated.Motivation of the study: The agricultural sector of any national economy plays a very important role in the overall welfare of the country. Identifying the prevalent job demands and resources in an agricultural organisation is therefore of paramount importance since the negative consequences of employees experiencing very demanding jobs with few resources have been well documented in stress literature.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample consisted of 443 employees in an agricultural organisation. The AJDRS was used to measure the research variables.Main findings: The findings of this research show evidence for the factorial validity and reliability of the AJDRS. Statistical differences were found with regard to the job demands and resources experienced by employees in different positions.Practical/managerial implications: Interventions to improve the perceived job demands and resources in the organisation should focus on physical resources (equipment.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to knowledge concerning the job demands and resources that are prevalent in an agricultural organisation in South Africa.

  16. Genotypic variability and relationships between mite infestation levels, mite damage, grooming intensity, and removal of Varroa destructor mites in selected strains of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Emsen, Berna; Unger, Peter; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate genotypic variability and analyze the relationships between the infestation levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, the rate of damage of fallen mites, and the intensity with which bees of different genotypes groom themselves to remove mites from their bodies. Sets of paired genotypes that are presumably susceptible and resistant to the varroa mite were compared at the colony level for number of mites falling on sticky papers and for proportion of damaged mites. They were also compared at the individual level for intensity of grooming and mite removal success. Bees from the "resistant" colonies had lower mite population rates (up to 15 fold) and higher percentages of damaged mites (up to 9 fold) than bees from the "susceptible" genotypes. At the individual level, bees from the "resistant" genotypes performed significantly more instances of intense grooming (up to 4 fold), and a significantly higher number of mites were dislodged from the bees' bodies by intense grooming than by light grooming (up to 7 fold) in all genotypes. The odds of mite removal were high and significant for all "resistant" genotypes when compared with the "susceptible" genotypes. The results of this study strongly suggest that grooming behavior and the intensity with which bees perform it, is an important component in the resistance of some honey bee genotypes to the growth of varroa mite populations. The implications of these results are discussed.

  17. Concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey, pollen and honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in central Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling, Garry; Al Naggar, Yahya; Giesy, John P; Robertson, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) and their transformation products were detected in honey, pollen and honey bees, (Apis mellifera) from hives located within 30 km of the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were the most frequently detected NIs, found in 68 and 75% of honey samples at mean concentrations of 8.2 and 17.2 ng g(-1) wet mass, (wm), respectively. Clothianidin was also found in >50% of samples of bees and pollen. Concentrations of clothianidin in bees exceed the LD50 in 2 of 28 samples, while for other NIs concentrations were typically 10-100-fold less than the oral LD50. Imidaclorpid was detected in ∼30% of samples of honey, but only 5% of pollen and concentrations were honey and pollen by bees over winter, during which worker bees live longer than in summer, suggested that, in some hives, consumption of honey and pollen during over-wintering might have adverse effects on bees.

  18. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees. PMID:25852743

  19. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Ozge Tozkar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World’s most important centers of apiculture, harboring 5 subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. 60 megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp., neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae, Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, Apis filamentous virus and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus, Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly. We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees.

  20. Juvenile hormone enhances aversive learning performance in 2-day old worker honey bees while reducing their attraction to queen mandibular pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, H James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposing young worker bees (Apis mellifera) to queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) reduces their aversive learning performance, while enhancing their attraction to QMP. As QMP has been found to reduce the rate of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in worker bees, we examined whether aversive learning in 2-day old workers exposed to QMP from the time of adult emergence could be improved by injecting JH (10 µg in a 2 µl volume) into the haemolymph. We examined in addition, the effects of JH treatment on worker attraction to QMP, and on the levels of expression of amine receptor genes in the antennae, as well as in the mushroom bodies of the brain. We found that memory acquisition and 1-hour memory recall were enhanced by JH. In contrast, JH treatment reduced the bees' attraction towards a synthetic strip impregnated with QMP (Bee Boost). Levels of expression of the dopamine receptor gene Amdop1 were significantly lower in the mushroom bodies of JH-treated bees than in bees treated with vehicle alone (acetone diluted with bee ringer). Expression of the octopamine receptor gene, Amoa1, in this brain region was also affected by JH treatment, and in the antennae, Amoa1 transcript levels were significantly lower in JH-treated bees compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that QMP's effects on JH synthesis may contribute to reducing aversive learning performance and enhancing attraction to QMP in young worker bees. PMID:25390885

  1. Origin of Synthetic Particles in Honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebezeit Gerd

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 47 honeys and 22 flowering plants was analysed for their load of synthetic fibres and fragments. In all samples investigated foreign particles were found. These include also black carbon particles which were not enumerated. Fibres and fragments ranged from 10 to 336 kg-1 and 2 to 82 kg-1 honey, respectively. The data of the flowering plants analysed indicate that a major proportion of the particle load may originate from external sources, i.e. these particles are brought into the beehive by the worker bees during nectar collection.

  2. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  3. How honey kills bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.S. Kwakman; A.A. te Velde; L. de Boer; D. Speijer; C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; S.A.J. Zaat

    2010-01-01

    With the rise in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity. To characterize all bactericidal factors in a medical-grade honey, we used a novel approach of successive neutralization of individual honey bactericidal factors. All bacteria t

  4. Multitrophic interaction facilitates parasite-host relationship between an invasive beetle and the honey bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torto, Baldwyn; Boucias, Drion G; Arbogast, Richard T; Tumlinson, James H; Teal, Peter E A

    2007-05-15

    Colony defense by honey bees, Apis mellifera, is associated with stinging and mass attack, fueled by the release of alarm pheromones. Thus, alarm pheromones are critically important to survival of honey bee colonies. Here we report that in the parasitic relationship between the European honey bee and the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, the honey bee's alarm pheromones serve a negative function because they are potent attractants for the beetle. Furthermore, we discovered that the beetles from both Africa and the United States vector a strain of Kodamaea ohmeri yeast, which produces these same honey bee alarm pheromones when grown on pollen in hives. The beetle is not a pest of African honey bees because African bees have evolved effective methods to mitigate beetle infestation. However, European honey bees, faced with disease and pest management stresses different from those experienced by African bees, are unable to effectively inhibit beetle infestation. Therefore, the environment of the European honey bee colony provides optimal conditions to promote the unique bee-beetle-yeast-pollen multitrophic interaction that facilitates effective infestation of hives at the expense of the European honey bee. PMID:17483478

  5. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Boot, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a drone or a worker cell is therefore a crucial step in the life of Varroa mites. In this thesis, individual mites, the population of mites and characteristics of honey bee brood cells have been studied in relation to invasion behaviour. In addition, a simple model has been...

  6. An improved marriage in honey bees optimization algorithm for single objective unconstrained optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Yuksel; Ulker, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    Marriage in honey bees optimization (MBO) is a metaheuristic optimization algorithm developed by inspiration of the mating and fertilization process of honey bees and is a kind of swarm intelligence optimizations. In this study we propose improved marriage in honey bees optimization (IMBO) by adding Levy flight algorithm for queen mating flight and neighboring for worker drone improving. The IMBO algorithm's performance and its success are tested on the well-known six unconstrained test functions and compared with other metaheuristic optimization algorithms.

  7. A New Threat to Honey Bees, the Parasitic Phorid Fly Apocephalus borealis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Core; Charles Runckel; Jonathan Ivers; Christopher Quock; Travis Siapno; Seraphina Denault; Brian Brown; Joseph Derisi; Smith, Christopher D.; John Hafernik

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees s...

  8. The habitat disruption induces immune-suppression and oxidative stress in honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Morimoto, Tomomi; Kojima, Yuriko; Toki, Taku; Komeda, Yayoi; YOSHIYAMA, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The honey bee is a major insect used for pollination of many commercial crops worldwide. Although the use of honey bees for pollination can disrupt the habitat, the effects on their physiology have never been determined. Recently, honey bee colonies have often collapsed when introduced in greenhouses for pollination in Japan. Thus, suppressing colony collapses and maintaining the number of worker bees in the colonies is essential for successful long-term pollination in greenhouses and recycli...

  9. A Look into the Cell: Honey Storage in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Michael; Neumann, Peter; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees, Apis species, obtain carbohydrates from nectar and honeydew. These resources are ripened into honey in wax cells that are capped for long-term storage. These stores are used to overcome dearth periods when foraging is not possible. Despite the economic and ecological importance of honey, little is known about the processes of its production by workers. Here, we monitored the usage of storage cells and the ripening process of honey in free-flying A. mellifera colonies. We provided the colonies with solutions of different sugar concentrations to reflect the natural influx of nectar with varying quality. Since the amount of carbohydrates in a solution affects its density, we used computer tomography to measure the sugar concentration of cell content over time. The data show the occurrence of two cohorts of cells with different provisioning and ripening dynamics. The relocation of the content of many cells before final storage was part of the ripening process, because sugar concentration of the content removed was lower than that of content deposited. The results confirm the mixing of solutions of different concentrations in cells and show that honey is an inhomogeneous matrix. The last stage of ripening occurred when cell capping had already started, indicating a race against water absorption. The storage and ripening processes as well as resource use were context dependent because their dynamics changed with sugar concentration of the food. Our results support hypotheses regarding honey production proposed in earlier studies and provide new insights into the mechanisms involved. PMID:27560969

  10. A Look into the Cell: Honey Storage in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Michael; Neumann, Peter; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees, Apis species, obtain carbohydrates from nectar and honeydew. These resources are ripened into honey in wax cells that are capped for long-term storage. These stores are used to overcome dearth periods when foraging is not possible. Despite the economic and ecological importance of honey, little is known about the processes of its production by workers. Here, we monitored the usage of storage cells and the ripening process of honey in free-flying A. mellifera colonies. We provided the colonies with solutions of different sugar concentrations to reflect the natural influx of nectar with varying quality. Since the amount of carbohydrates in a solution affects its density, we used computer tomography to measure the sugar concentration of cell content over time. The data show the occurrence of two cohorts of cells with different provisioning and ripening dynamics. The relocation of the content of many cells before final storage was part of the ripening process, because sugar concentration of the content removed was lower than that of content deposited. The results confirm the mixing of solutions of different concentrations in cells and show that honey is an inhomogeneous matrix. The last stage of ripening occurred when cell capping had already started, indicating a race against water absorption. The storage and ripening processes as well as resource use were context dependent because their dynamics changed with sugar concentration of the food. Our results support hypotheses regarding honey production proposed in earlier studies and provide new insights into the mechanisms involved. PMID:27560969

  11. Differentiation of Blossom Honey and Honeydew Honey from Northwest Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Seijo María Carmen; Fernández-González María; Escuredo Olga

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of important parameters for honey characterization is an increasing requirement of consumers and the honey industry. In this respect, differentiation between blossom honeys and some honeydew honeys is still an unresolved task. This study includes the results of physicochemical and melissopalynological analysis of 86 honey samples from north-western Spain. The relationship between the microscopic elements in honey, such as Metschnikowia cells and fungal spores from plant pathogen...

  12. "It's In My Veins": Exploring the Role of an Afrocentric, Popular Education-Based Training Program in the Empowerment of African American and African Community Health Workers in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman-Bunyoli, Arika; Mitchell, S Renee; Bin Abdullah, AbdulʼHafeedh M; Schwoeffermann, Ty; Phoenix, Toliver; Goughnour, Cat; Hines-Norwood, Richard; Wiggins, Noelle

    2015-01-01

    The role racism and other social determinants of health play in the creation of health inequities in African American communities in the United States is increasingly understood. In this article, we explore the effectiveness of an Afrocentric, popular education-based community health worker (CHW) training program in creating positive change among CHW participants and their communities in Portland, Oregon. Findings suggest that CHW participants experienced 4 types of awakening, in addition to changes in their interaction with their family members and increased community involvement. The CHWs identified group bond, Afrocentrism, public health knowledge, popular education, facilitators, and time management as important elements of an effective training program for this community. Psychological empowerment, self-reported health status, and health behavior among participants generally increased over time, but changes were not statistically significant. PMID:26353023

  13. Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, George; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…

  14. ‘You can't stay away from your family’: a qualitative study of the ongoing ties and future plans of South African health workers in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Taylor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration of African-trained health workers to countries with higher health care worker densities adds to the severe shortage of health personnel in many African countries. Policy initiatives to reduce migration levels are informed by many studies exploring the reasons for the original decision to migrate. In contrast, there is little evidence to inform policies designed to facilitate health workers returning home or providing other forms of support to the health system of their home country. Objective: This study explores the links that South African-trained health workers who now live and work in the United Kingdom maintain with their country of training and what their future migration plans may be. Design: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with South African trained health workers who are now living in the United Kingdom. Data extracts from the interviews relating to current links with South Africa and future migration plans were studied. Results: All 16 participants reported strong ongoing ties with South Africa, particularly through active communication with family and friends, both face-to-face and remotely. Being South African was a significant part of their personal identity, and many made frequent visits to South Africa. These visits sometimes incorporated professional activities such as medical work, teaching, and charitable or business ventures in South Africa. The presence and location of family and spouse were of principal importance in helping South African-trained health care workers decide whether to return permanently to work in South Africa. Professional aspirations and sense of duty were also important motivators to both returning and to being involved in initiatives remotely from the United Kingdom. Conclusions: The main barrier to returning home was usually the development of stronger family ties in the United Kingdom than in South Africa. The issues that prompted the original migration decision, such as

  15. Economics of Illegal Work and Illegal Workers (Immigrants: Are They Protected under South African Labour Law and the Constitution, 1996?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashele Rapatsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses whether prostitution (illegal work and illegal immigrants have access to the protective ambits of statutory framework regulating employment relations. Its objective is to examine the scope of labour law, considerate of ever changing trends in the modern world of work. It utilizes the two notable precedents founded in Kylie v CCMA and Discovery Health v CCMA. This is considerate of inherent dynamics in contemporary labour relations where the majority of workers have been displaced into grey areas that offer little or no protection, thus rendering workers vulnerable to exploitation. The article highlights a rising tension arising out of exploitative labour practices and socio-economic factors, and the need for labour law to respond. It has been found that courts have creatively invented strategic methods that have successfully aided efforts of protecting vulnerable workers engaged in economic activities under precarious circumstances. This is to the extent that the Constitution, 1996 and the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 have been interpreted in a manner that enhances worker protection, which fulfils the purpose for which labour law was enacted.

  16. Genetic diversity of Iranian honey bee (Apis mellifera meda Skorikow, 1829) populations based on ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A; Mirmoayedi, A; Kahrizi, D; Zarei, L; Jamali, S

    2016-01-01

    Honey bee is one of the most important insects considering its role in agriculture,ecology and economy as a whole. In this study, the genetic diversity of different Iranian honey bee populations was evaluated using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. During May to September 2014, 108 young worker honey bees were collected from six different populations in 30 different geoclimatic locations from Golestan, Mazendaran, Guilan, West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, Ardebil provinces of Iran. DNA was extracted from the worker honey bees. The quality and quantity of extracted DNA were measured. A set of ten primers were screened with the laboratory populations of honey bees. The number of fragments produced in the different honey bee populations varied from 3 to 10, varying within 150 to 1500 bp. The used ten ISSR primers generated 40 polymorphic fragments, and the average heterozygosity for each primer was 0.266. Maximum numbers of bands were recorded for primer A1. A dendrogram based on the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method generated two sub-clusters. Honey bee populations of Golestan, Mazendaran, Guilan provinces were located in the first group. The second group included honey bee populations of Ardebil, West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan provinces, but this group showed a close relationship with other populations. The results showed obviously the ability of the ISSR marker technique to detect the genetic diversity among the honey bee populations. PMID:27188735

  17. Organisational aspects and benchmarking of e-learning initiatives: a case study with South African community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisach, Ulrike; Weilemann, Mitja

    2016-06-01

    South Africa desperately needs a comprehensive approach to fight HIV/AIDS. Education is crucial to reach this goal and Internet and e-learning could offer huge opportunities to broaden and deepen the knowledge basis. But due to the huge societal and digital divide between rich and poor areas, e-learning is difficult to realize in the townships. Community health workers often act as mediators and coaches for people seeking medical and personal help. They could give good advice regarding hygiene, nutrition, protection of family members in case of HIV/AIDS and finding legal ways to earn one's living if they were trained to do so. Therefore they need to have a broader general knowledge. Since learning opportunities in the townships are scarce, a system for e-learning has to be created in order to overcome the lack of experience with computers or the Internet and to enable them to implement a network of expertise. The article describes how the best international resources on basic medical knowledge, HIV/AIDS as well as on basic economic and entrepreneurial skills were benchmarked to be integrated into an e-learning system. After tests with community health workers, researchers developed recommendations on building a self-sustaining system for learning, including a network of expertise and best practice sharing. The article explains the opportunities and challenges for community health workers, which could provide information for other parts of the world with similar preconditions of rural poverty.

  18. Organisational aspects and benchmarking of e-learning initiatives: a case study with South African community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisach, Ulrike; Weilemann, Mitja

    2016-06-01

    South Africa desperately needs a comprehensive approach to fight HIV/AIDS. Education is crucial to reach this goal and Internet and e-learning could offer huge opportunities to broaden and deepen the knowledge basis. But due to the huge societal and digital divide between rich and poor areas, e-learning is difficult to realize in the townships. Community health workers often act as mediators and coaches for people seeking medical and personal help. They could give good advice regarding hygiene, nutrition, protection of family members in case of HIV/AIDS and finding legal ways to earn one's living if they were trained to do so. Therefore they need to have a broader general knowledge. Since learning opportunities in the townships are scarce, a system for e-learning has to be created in order to overcome the lack of experience with computers or the Internet and to enable them to implement a network of expertise. The article describes how the best international resources on basic medical knowledge, HIV/AIDS as well as on basic economic and entrepreneurial skills were benchmarked to be integrated into an e-learning system. After tests with community health workers, researchers developed recommendations on building a self-sustaining system for learning, including a network of expertise and best practice sharing. The article explains the opportunities and challenges for community health workers, which could provide information for other parts of the world with similar preconditions of rural poverty. PMID:25733133

  19. Viabilidade financeira da produção de geleia real com abelhas africanizadas suplementadas com diferentes nutrientes =Financial viability in royal jelly production with Africanized honey bees supplemented with different nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Martins Costa Maia

    2010-10-01

    control without supplementation. In assay II, isolated soy protein plus brewer’s yeast, isolated soy protein, brewer’s yeast, and control without supplementation were evaluated. The following production financial indicators were determined: net operating income, total cost, profit and benefit-cost ratio. Supplements made with mixtures of linseed oil plus palm oil and isolated soy protein plus beer yeast showed ratios between the obtained profit and the calculated values for indirect production costs of 2.58 and 2.50, respectively, differing from the control (p < 0.05, which indicates it is economically viable to supplement Africanized honey bees in royal jelly production when compared to other treatments and control without supplementation.

  20. Differentiation of Blossom Honey and Honeydew Honey from Northwest Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seijo María Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of important parameters for honey characterization is an increasing requirement of consumers and the honey industry. In this respect, differentiation between blossom honeys and some honeydew honeys is still an unresolved task. This study includes the results of physicochemical and melissopalynological analysis of 86 honey samples from north-western Spain. The relationship between the microscopic elements in honey, such as Metschnikowia cells and fungal spores from plant pathogens, together with their physicochemical parameters were analysed. A cluster analysis was performed to differentiate blossom honey samples from honeydew samples. Metschnikowia cells and certain fungal spores were found to be good variables to enable differentiation between blossom honeys and honeydew honeys.

  1. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirica...

  2. Social apoptosis in honey bee superorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Paul; Lin, Zheguang; Buawangpong, Ninat; Zheng, Huoqing; Hu, Fuliang; Neumann, Peter; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Eusocial insect colonies form superorganisms, in which nestmates cooperate and use social immunity to combat parasites. However, social immunity may fail in case of emerging diseases. This is the case for the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, which switched hosts from the Eastern honeybee, Apis cerana, to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, and currently is the greatest threat to A. mellifera apiculture globally. Here, we show that immature workers of the mite's original host, A. cerana, are more susceptible to V. destructor infestations than those of its new host, thereby enabling more efficient social immunity and contributing to colony survival. This counterintuitive result shows that susceptible individuals can foster superorganism survival, offering empirical support to theoretical arguments about the adaptive value of worker suicide in social insects. Altruistic suicide of immature bees constitutes a social analogue of apoptosis, as it prevents the spread of infections by sacrificing parts of the whole organism, and unveils a novel form of transgenerational social immunity in honey bees. Taking into account the key role of susceptible immature bees in social immunity will improve breeding efforts to mitigate the unsustainably high colony losses of Western honey bees due to V. destructor infestations worldwide. PMID:27264643

  3. Social apoptosis in honey bee superorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Paul; Lin, Zheguang; Buawangpong, Ninat; Zheng, Huoqing; Hu, Fuliang; Neumann, Peter; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Eusocial insect colonies form superorganisms, in which nestmates cooperate and use social immunity to combat parasites. However, social immunity may fail in case of emerging diseases. This is the case for the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, which switched hosts from the Eastern honeybee, Apis cerana, to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, and currently is the greatest threat to A. mellifera apiculture globally. Here, we show that immature workers of the mite’s original host, A. cerana, are more susceptible to V. destructor infestations than those of its new host, thereby enabling more efficient social immunity and contributing to colony survival. This counterintuitive result shows that susceptible individuals can foster superorganism survival, offering empirical support to theoretical arguments about the adaptive value of worker suicide in social insects. Altruistic suicide of immature bees constitutes a social analogue of apoptosis, as it prevents the spread of infections by sacrificing parts of the whole organism, and unveils a novel form of transgenerational social immunity in honey bees. Taking into account the key role of susceptible immature bees in social immunity will improve breeding efforts to mitigate the unsustainably high colony losses of Western honey bees due to V. destructor infestations worldwide. PMID:27264643

  4. No intracolonial nepotism during colony fissioning in honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel, Juliana; Mattila, Heather R.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony whose workers belong to multiple patrilines. This colony genetic structure creates a potential for intracolonial nepotism. One context with great potential for such nepotism arises in species, like honey bees, whose colonies reproduce by fissioning. During fissioning, workers might nepotistically choose between serving a young (sister) queen or the old (mother) ...

  5. Characterization of the active microbiotas associated with honey bees reveals healthier and broader communities when colonies are genetically diverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattila, H.R.; Rios, D.; Walker-Sperling, V.E.; Roeselers, G.; Newton, I.L.G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses of honey bee colonies have led to increased interest in the microbial communities that are associated with these important pollinators. A critical function that bacteria perform for their honey bee hosts, but one that is poorly understood, is the transformation of worker-collected poll

  6. EXTERNALITY EFFECTS OF HONEY PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Arvane Vanyi, Georgina; Csapo, Zsolt; Karpati, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Bee-keeping and honey production has a long history in Hungary. Honey is an important and healthy food of people and it can be consumed without any human processing. The honey production has important role, too. Some researchers say that if honey bee will extinct the humanity in the world would also extinct. It is true since plant pollination by honey bees is very important. It is confirmed by researchers’ studies that plant pollination by honey bees has significant positive external impact...

  7. Urbanization Increases Pathogen Pressure on Feral and Managed Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Youngsteadt

    Full Text Available Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus, the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization and management, and the probability of worker survival declined 3-fold along our urbanization gradient. The effect of management on pathogens appears to be mediated by immunity, with feral bees expressing immune genes at nearly twice the levels of managed bees following an immune challenge. The effect of urbanization, however, was not linked with immunity; instead, urbanization may favor viability and transmission of some disease agents. Feral colonies, with lower disease burdens and stronger immune responses, may illuminate ways to improve honey bee management. The previously unexamined effects of urbanization on honey-bee disease are concerning, suggesting that urban areas may favor problematic diseases of pollinators.

  8. Morphological characteristics and microsatellite DNA genetic diversity of Nigeria African honey bee, Anhui Apis mellifera and theirs hybrid generation Ⅱ%尼日利亚非洲蜂和安徽意大利蜜蜂及其杂交二代形态特征与微卫星DNA遗传多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余林生; 解文飞; 巫厚长; 邹运鼎; 南荃耀; 朱林才; 纪鸿; 吴其才

    2012-01-01

    长期存在地理隔离,两个群体间形态指标差异显著,杂交二代群体形态指标低于安徽意蜂,但比尼日利亚非洲蜂均有不同程度的提高,在形态特征上体现了杂交优势,两群体杂交二代等位基因数、基因杂合度及多态信息含量等遗传多样性指标均有显著提高.%In this present work, we have investigated morphological characteristics and microsatellite DNA polymorphisms of Anhui Apis mellifera, Nigeria African honey bee and their Hybrid generation II. The results showed that the average tongue length of Apis mellifera, African honey bee and their hybrid generation II , respectively, is 6. 09mm, 5. 23mm and 5.53mm, and a highly significant difference existed among them (P 0.05) ; and the average index number of cubital vein Ci, respectively, is 3. 31mm, 3. 07mm and 3.17mm.We further detected the microsatellite polymorphisms of Anhui Apis mellifera, Nigeria African honey bee and their Hybrid generation II , and found 121 alleles. The mean number of effective alleles was 8.067, and the number of alleles per locus varied from 3 to 13 , indicating that the three populations all have rich genetic diversities. The expected heterozygosity (He) of the three populations ranged from 0. 5801 to 0. 8526, and the average value of expected heterozygosity was 0.7591 0762. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.5158 to 0.8363, and the average value of the PIC was 0.7283 0879. The average expected heterozygosity of Anhui Apis mellifera, Nigeria African honey bee and their hybrid generation E , respectively, was 0. 6208, 0. 5780 and 0. 7451. Statistical analysis indicated that highly significant difference in average expected heterozygosity existed between Nigeria African honey bee and hybrid generation II , as well as between Anhui Apis mellifera and hybrid generation II , but no significant difference existed between Anhui Apis mellifera and Nigeria African honey bee. The above results displayed that

  9. Show Me the Honey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Africa’s "liquid gold" may yet find a sweet opportunity with China’s quality conscious honey consumers YOU’D never guess Xie Chunming,48.Her smooth glowing face presents an alluring attraction.She is generous too,happy to share her anti-aging secret.On the morning of every third day she treats herself with a special homemade facial mask,made of two tablespoons of honey mixed with the beaten white of one egg.

  10. Métodos para atrair e repelir a abelha Apis mellifera (L. em cultura de maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2036 Methods to attract and repel Africanize honey bees Apis mellifera, L., to passion fruit (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2036

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maria Rossi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido no Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda, Campus Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, e teve como objetivos observar a eficiência dos extratos de capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. e falsa melissa (Lippia alba, como atrativos, e citronela (C. nardus, extratos de orégano, pimenta-do-reino, canela e cravo, como repelentes, que foram comparados a outros atrativos (eugenol e linalol e repelentes (n.octyl.acetato, 2.heptanona e citronellal, obtidos comercialmente, para a A. mellifera. Foram estudados, ainda, os insetos visitantes nas flores do maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg., além de testar plantas-iscas para essas abelhas. Os produtos testados in vitro e, posteriormente, testados tanto pulverizados quanto em tubos, não foram eficientes para atrair ou repelir a abelha Apis mellifera. Os produtos n.octyl.acetato e citronellal repeliram completamente tanto as abelhas africanizadas quanto as Xylocopa, não devendo ser utilizado em cultivos comerciais. O girassol (Hellianthus annuus e o cosmos (Cosmos sulphureus podem ser utilizados como alternativas para afastar a abelha A. mellifera das flores do maracujá.This experiment was carried out at Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda, Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil, to study Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. attractives and repellents in vitro, in tubes and on passion fruit flowers (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg.. Visiting insects were studied in flowers and also, bait-plants to Africanized honey bees were tested. The products were not effective in attracting and repelling the honey bee in vitro and in tube tests. The chemicals n.octyl.acetato and citronellal were repellent to honey bees and Xylocopa bees on passion fruit flowers. Sunflower (Hellianthus annuus and cosmos (Cosmos sulphureus flowers can be used to remove Africanized honey bees from passion fruit crops.

  11. Physicochemical characterization of Gozitan Honey

    OpenAIRE

    Everaldo Attard; Joseph Mizzi

    2013-01-01

    Honey quality is clearly defined in the EU Directive 2001/110/EC, and by Codex Alimentarius (Codex Stan 12-1981) and the International Honey Commission (IHC, 2002). Our investigation aimed to characterize the physicochemical properties of honey produced on a small island, Gozo which is situated near Malta.  Ten randomly collected honey samples were analysed for moisture content, pH, free acidity, water insoluble content, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content and total phenolic compounds.  Moist...

  12. Natural antibacterial characteristics of honey

    OpenAIRE

    Pešić-Mikulec Dragana M.; Dugalić-Vrndić Nada; Baltić Milan Ž.

    2004-01-01

    Honey was used as a medicine in traditional medicine of the Ancient Times ever since the age of Hippocrates. Scientifically based investigations of the medicinal qualities of honey date back to the 19th century. There have been constant polemics, about the medicinal characteristics of honey and parameters that cause them, among scientists and apiculture experts. In this paper, we processed much data from literature, which indicate the antibacterial characteristics of honey through the experim...

  13. A Call to African Unity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    This month's paper, written by Professor Mammo Muchie, examines the necessity for a pan-African monetary union.  Professor Muchie argues for the "the creation of a unified African strategy and unified approach to dealing with the outside donor world by neutralising the poison of money as honey...... that donor aid has come to be in Africa." He provides a historic and contemporary context for the unification of monetary and customs systems across Africa and argues for a dual currency system for the self-financing of African development and for sustained self-determination....

  14. The Chemical Composition of Honey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution, created by bees, and used by human beings as a sweetener. However, honey is more than just a supersaturated sugar solution; it also contains acids, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids in varying quantities. In this article, we will briefly explore the chemical composition of honey. (Contains 2 figures and…

  15. Nectar Sources for the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera adansonii Revealed by Pollen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola ADEKANMBI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nectar sources for the African honeybee Apis mellifera adansonii were investigated. The work involved analysis of three honey samples bought from open markets in Lagos, Nigeria. The pollen sediment of the honeys was acetolysed, mounted on slides and pollen types were identified and counted to determine the relative frequency of the different pollen types in the honey samples. The proportion of pollen from each of the honey samples varied from 196 in sample A, 280 in sample B to 238 in sample C. The most abundant taxa identified from the honey samples were Tridax procumbens and Elaeis guineensis belonging to the families Asteraceae and Palmae. The highest proportion of Palm pollen grain was recorded in sample B with one hundred and ten (110 pollen grains per slide. The pollen grains in the families Palmae and Asteraceae are of great importance to the bees for honey production, this can be seen in the abundance displayed in sample B and C. Other pollen taxa recovered belong to the families Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapotaceae and Anacardiaceae providing a clue on the ecological origin of the pollen grains in the honey sample. Pollen analysis of honey proved to be useful in deciphering nectar sources of Apis mellifera adansonii.

  16. Honey: A Novel Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cancer and Alzheimer's disease is on the rise. These diseases, which constitute the major causes of death globally, are associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is defined as an “imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, potentially leading to damage”. Individuals with chronic diseases are more susceptible to oxidative stress and damage because they have elevated levels of oxidants and/or reduced antioxidants. This, therefore, necessitates supplementation with antioxidants so as to delay, prevent or remove oxidative damage. Honey is a natural substance with many medicinal effects such as antibacterial, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, reproductive, antihypertensive and antioxidant effects. This review presents findings that indicate honey may ameliorate oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, liver, pancreas, kidney, reproductive organs and plasma/serum. Besides, the review highlights data that demonstrate the synergistic antioxidant effect of honey and antidiabetic drugs in the pancreas, kidney and serum of diabetic rats. These data suggest that honey, administered alone or in combination with conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant in the management of chronic diseases commonly associated with oxidative stress. In view of the fact that the majority of these data emanate from animal studies, there is an urgent need to investigate this antioxidant effect of honey in human subjects with chronic or degenerative diseases.

  17. Detecting population admixture in honey bees of Serbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedic, Nebojsa; Francis, Roy Mathew; Stanisavljevic, Ljubisa;

    2014-01-01

    Honey bee workers were sampled across the Serbian territory during 2009-2010 from mostly non-migratory apiaries to determine the population structure of these bees using morphometric, genetic, and spatial information. A total of 134 bees were sampled, of which 77 were analysed using classical wing...... morphometrics and 122 bees were successfully analysed using 24 DNA microsatellite markers. A combination of methods including multivariate statistics and assignment tests (frequency-based and Bayesian) revealed the honey bees of this region to resemble the subspecies Apis mellifera macedonica, Apis mellifera...... carnica or hybrids of these two subspecies. Based on Bayesian assignment (‘Structure’) and spatial PCA, honey bees within the Serbian territory were composed of 56%-58% A. m. carnica and 42%-44% A. m. macedonica. Spatial analysis showed the existence of a north-west to south-east cline in genetic...

  18. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced... merchantable quality deemed by CCC to be suitable for loan; that is, the honey: (1) Is not adulterated; (2)...

  19. An improved marriage in honey bees optimization algorithm for single objective unconstrained optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Yuksel; Ulker, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    Marriage in honey bees optimization (MBO) is a metaheuristic optimization algorithm developed by inspiration of the mating and fertilization process of honey bees and is a kind of swarm intelligence optimizations. In this study we propose improved marriage in honey bees optimization (IMBO) by adding Levy flight algorithm for queen mating flight and neighboring for worker drone improving. The IMBO algorithm's performance and its success are tested on the well-known six unconstrained test functions and compared with other metaheuristic optimization algorithms. PMID:23935416

  20. An Improved Marriage in Honey Bees Optimization Algorithm for Single Objective Unconstrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Celik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marriage in honey bees optimization (MBO is a metaheuristic optimization algorithm developed by inspiration of the mating and fertilization process of honey bees and is a kind of swarm intelligence optimizations. In this study we propose improved marriage in honey bees optimization (IMBO by adding Levy flight algorithm for queen mating flight and neighboring for worker drone improving. The IMBO algorithm’s performance and its success are tested on the well-known six unconstrained test functions and compared with other metaheuristic optimization algorithms.

  1. Modeling Honey Bee Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Torres

    Full Text Available Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population.

  2. Non-lethal sampling of honey bee, Apis mellifera, DNA using wing tips

    OpenAIRE

    Chaline, N.; F.L.W. Ratnieks; Raine, N. E.; Badcock, N.S.; Burke, T

    2004-01-01

    DNA sampling of insects frequently relies upon lethal or invasive methods. Because insect colonies contain numerous workers it is often possible to destructively sample workers for genetic analysis. However, this is not possible if queens or workers must remain alive after sampling. Neither is it possible to remove an entire leg, wing or other appendage as this will often hinder normal behaviour. This study investigates the possibility of genotyping queen honey bees Apis mellifera using DNA e...

  3. Non-lethal sampling of honey bee, Apis mellifera, DNA using wing tips

    OpenAIRE

    Châline, Nicolas; Ratnieks, Francis; Raine, Nigel; Badcock, Nichola; Burke, Terry

    2004-01-01

    International audience DNA sampling of insects frequently relies upon lethal or invasive methods. Because insect colonies contain numerous workers it is often possible to destructively sample workers for genetic analysis. However, this is not possible if queens or workers must remain alive after sampling. Neither is it possible to remove an entire leg, wing or other appendage as this will often hinder normal behaviour. This study investigates the possibility of genotyping queen honey bees ...

  4. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cassava flower honey samples produced by africanized honeybees Caracterização físico-química e microbiológica de amostras de mel de flores de mandioca produzido por abelhas africanizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Peres de Moura Pontara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cassava producers in the region of Marília-São Paulo are integrating their farming activity with beekeeping to diversify their income. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera from cassava flower in 2008. Analysis were carried out for pH, total soluble solids (TSS, acidity, moisture, reducing and total sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, color, ash, proteins, water insoluble solids, diastasic activity, mineral content, microbiological evaluations, and mineral and hydrocyanic acid (HCN content. The honey samples showed physicochemical and microbiological characteristics favorable to commercialization, with the exception of apparent sucrose and acidity, which show the need for a narrow focus of attention to the honey maturation degree at the harvest time and more careful monitoring during production and processing. The commercialization of Brazilian cassava honey, still little explored, can be widely spread in the market since the levels of hydrocyanic acid (HCN showed no consumption risk; in addition the simultaneous production of honey and cassava provides an alternative to family income increase.Produtores de mandioca da região de Marília, Estado de São Paulo, estão consorciando a atividade da apicultura em meio à cultura visando diversificar a renda obtida pela propriedade rural. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade físico-química e microbiológica do mel produzido por abelhas Apis mellifera africanizadas, elaborado a partir de flores de mandioca, no ano de 2008. Foram realizadas análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez, umidade, açúcares redutores e totais, sacarose aparente, hidroximetilfurfural, cor, cinzas, proteínas, sólidos insolúveis em água, atividade diastásica, teor de minerais e monitoramento dos teores de ácido cianídrico (HCN, além de avaliações microbiol

  5. A mixed methods study of a health worker training intervention to increase syndromic referral for gambiense human African trypanosomiasis in South Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J Palmer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active screening by mobile teams is considered the most effective method for detecting gambiense-type human African trypanosomiasis (HAT but constrained funding in many post-conflict countries limits this approach. Non-specialist health care workers (HCWs in peripheral health facilities could be trained to identify potential cases for testing based on symptoms. We tested a training intervention for HCWs in peripheral facilities in Nimule, South Sudan to increase knowledge of HAT symptomatology and the rate of syndromic referrals to a central screening and treatment centre. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We trained 108 HCWs from 61/74 of the public, private and military peripheral health facilities in the county during six one-day workshops and assessed behaviour change using quantitative and qualitative methods. In four months prior to training, only 2/562 people passively screened for HAT were referred from a peripheral HCW (0 cases detected compared to 13/352 (2 cases detected in the four months after, a 6.5-fold increase in the referral rate observed by the hospital. Modest increases in absolute referrals received, however, concealed higher levels of referral activity in the periphery. HCWs in 71.4% of facilities followed-up had made referrals, incorporating new and pre-existing ideas about HAT case detection into referral practice. HCW knowledge scores of HAT symptoms improved across all demographic sub-groups. Of 71 HAT referrals made, two-thirds were from new referrers. Only 11 patients completed the referral, largely because of difficulties patients in remote areas faced accessing transportation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The training increased knowledge and this led to more widespread appropriate HAT referrals from a low base. Many referrals were not completed, however. Increasing access to screening and/or diagnostic tests in the periphery will be needed for greater impact on case-detection in this context. These data

  6. Honey: A Biologic Wound Dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molan, Peter; Rhodes, Tanya

    2015-06-01

    Honey has been used as a wound dressing for thousands of years, but only in more recent times has a scientific explanation become available for its effectiveness. It is now realized that honey is a biologic wound dressing with multiple bioactivities that work in concert to expedite the healing process. The physical properties of honey also expedite the healing process: its acidity increases the release of oxygen from hemoglobin thereby making the wound environment less favorable for the activity of destructive proteases, and the high osmolarity of honey draws fluid out of the wound bed to create an outflow of lymph as occurs with negative pressure wound therapy. Honey has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, but there is much variation in potency between different honeys. There are 2 types of antibacterial activity. In most honeys the activity is due to hydrogen peroxide, but much of this is inactivated by the enzyme catalase that is present in blood, serum, and wound tissues. In manuka honey, the activity is due to methylglyoxal which is not inactivated. The manuka honey used in wound-care products can withstand dilution with substantial amounts of wound exudate and still maintain enough activity to inhibit the growth of bacteria. There is good evidence for honey also having bioactivities that stimulate the immune response (thus promoting the growth of tissues for wound repair), suppress inflammation, and bring about rapid autolytic debridement. There is clinical evidence for these actions, and research is providing scientific explanations for them.

  7. Grayanotoxin (Mad Honey) - Ongoing Consumption After Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    EROĞLU, Serkan Emre; Urgan, Oğuz; Onur, Özge Ecmel; Denizbaşı, Arzu; Akoğlu, Haldun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some honey types in certain geographical regions may cause toxic effects on people. This type of honey is known as “mad honey” in Turkey. The toxic ingredient of this honey is called Grayanotoxin I. The consumption of mad honey can cause severe bradycardia, hypotension, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Aims: Our study is aimed at analysing patients diagnosed with mad honey poisoning and their behaviour towards the consumption of this honey after diagnosis. Stud...

  8. THERAPEUTIC AND NUTRITIONAL VALUES OF HONEY [MADHU

    OpenAIRE

    Bagde A. B.; Sawant R. S.; Bingare S. D.; Sawai R.V.; Nikumbh M. B.

    2013-01-01

    Honey is the name given to the sweet, yellowish liquid that is produced by honey bees. Bee's honey is one of the most valued and appreciated natural substances known to mankind since ancient times. The medicinal properties of honey have been known since ancient times. There are many types of bee's honey mentioned in Ayurveda. Their effects differ and 'Makshika' is considered medicinally the best. According to Modern scientific view, the best bee's honey is made by Apis mellifera Capensis. The...

  9. The Honey Trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    Michael F. Wagner: The Honey Trap –The democratization of leisure through automobilism The automobile has achieved a central position in modern everyday life as an essential artefact to mobility. This raises the question how automobiles have been mediated for mass consumption? The central thesis...

  10. DNA Barcoding for Honey Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Valentini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Honey is produced by honeybees from nectar and from secretions of living plants. It reflects the honeybees’ diet and the local plant communities. Honey also shows different plant compositions in different geographical locations. We propose a new method for studying the plant diversity and the geographical origin of honey using a DNA barcoding approach that combines universal primers and massive parallel pyrosequencing. To test this method we use two commercial honeys, one from a regional origin and one composed of a worldwide mix of different honeys. We demonstrate that the method proposed here is fast, simple to implement, more robust than classical methods, and therefore suitable for analyzing plant diversity in honey.

  11. INTRUSION DETECTION THROUGH HONEY POTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMMI ASHOK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A honey pot is a security resource whose value lies in being probed, attacked, or compromised. Honey pots are different in that they aren't limited to solving a single, specific problem. Instead, honey pots are a highly flexible tool that can be applied to a variety of different situations. The purpose of honey pots is to providesecurity from intruders by deceiving and trapping them through honey pots and develop alert detection system. The honey pots are located behind the firewall. These are the virtual ports and environment acting as real ones in the network. As the intruder assumes it to be vulnerability in the system and carries out all his activates whichare in fact being scanned and observed by the security administrators and following necessary actions can be taken like depending on the threat posed by the intruder.

  12. Honey bees are essential for pollination of Vitellaria paradoxa subsp. paradoxa (Sapotaceae) in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Lompo, Djingdia;

    2016-01-01

    Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) is an important fruit tree in West African parklands, and its successful pollination is a requirement for fruit production. Size-based pollinator exclusion experiments combined with visual observations showed that presence of honey bees (Apis mellifera jemenitica......) was important for pollination and thereby the production of fruits and seeds. Smaller insects, mainly species of stingless bees (Hypotrigona spp. and Liotrigona cf. bottegoi) and solitary bees (Compsomelissa borneri) could partly compensate pollination in absence of honey bees, but fertilisation and fruit yield...... was reduced. A positive correlation between fertilisation percentage and number of honey bee colonies within radii of 900 and 1000 m was observed. The percentage of fertilisation and number of mature fruits per fascicle were higher in trees with colonies of stingless bees in the trunk when honey bees were...

  13. Honey bees are essential for pollination of Vitellaria paradoxa subsp. paradoxa (Sapotaceae) in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Dupont, Yoko Luise;

    2016-01-01

    Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) is an important fruit tree in West African parklands, and its successful pollination is a requirement for fruit production. Size-based pollinator exclusion experiments combined with visual observations showed that presence of honey bees (Apis mellifera jemenitica......) was important for pollination and thereby the production of fruits and seeds. Smaller insects, mainly species of stingless bees (Hypotrigona spp. and Liotrigona cf. bottegoi) and solitary bees (Compsomelissa borneri) could partly compensate pollination in absence of honey bees, but fertilisation and fruit yield...... was reduced. A positive correlation between fertilisation percentage and number of honey bee colonies within radii of 900 m and 1,000 m was observed. The percentage of fertilisation and number of mature fruits per fascicle were higher in trees with colonies of stingless bees in the trunk when honey bees were...

  14. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa, Siti A. Sulaiman, Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic ...

  15. Fipronil promotes motor and behavioral changes in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and affects the development of colonies exposed to sublethal doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluski, Rodrigo; Kadri, Samir Moura; Alonso, Diego Peres; Martins Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira Orsi, Ricardo

    2015-05-01

    Bees play a crucial role in pollination and generate honey and other hive products; therefore, their worldwide decline is cause for concern. New broad-spectrum systemic insecticides such as fipronil can harm bees and their use has been discussed as a potential threat to bees' survival. In the present study, the authors evaluate the in vitro toxicity of fipronil and note behavioral and motor activity changes in Africanized adult Apis mellifera that ingest or come into contact with lethal or sublethal doses of fipronil. The effects of sublethal doses on brood viability, population growth, behavior, and the expression of the defensin 1 gene in adult bees were studied in colonies fed with contaminated sugar syrup (8 µg fipronil L(-1) ). Fipronil is highly toxic to bees triggering agitation, seizures, tremors, and paralysis. Bees that are exposed to a lethal or sublethal doses showed reduced motor activity. The number of eggs that hatched, the area occupied by worker eggs, and the number of larvae and pupae that developed were reduced, adult bees showed lethargy, and colonies were abandoned when they were exposed to sublethal doses of fipronil. No change was seen in the bees' expression of defensin 1. The authors conclude that fipronil is highly toxic to honey bees and even sublethal doses may negatively affect the development and maintenance of colonies.

  16. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie-Jeanne Richard

    Full Text Available Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI. We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone. The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the

  17. Towards integrated control of varroa: effect of variation in hygienic behaviour among honey bee colonies on mite population increase and deformed wing virus incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Al Toufailia, Hasan M; Amiri, Esmaeil; Scandian, Luciano; Kryger, Per; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic behaviour in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is the uncapping and removal of dead, diseased or infected brood from sealed cells by worker bees. We determined the effect of hygienic behaviour on varroa population growth and incidence of deformed wing virus (DWV), which can be transmitted by varroa. We treated 42 broodless honey bee colonies with oxalic acid in early January 2013 to reduce varroa populations to low levels, which we quantified by extracting mites from a sample of worker ...

  18. Reproduction of Varroa destructor in sealed worker bee brood cells of Apis mellifera carnica and Apis mellifera syriaca in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Alattal, Yehya; Rosenkranz, Peter; Zebitz, Claus Paul Walter

    2008-01-01

    The reproduction of the honey bee mite, Varroa destructor in sealed worker bee brood cells represents an important factor for the population development of this parasite in honey bee colonies. In this study, the relative infestation levels of worker brood cells, mite fertility (mites that lay at least one egg) and reproductive rate (number of viable adult daughters per mother mite) of Varroa mite in worker brood cells of Apis m. carnica and Apis m. syriaca were compared in fall 2003 and summe...

  19. Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2013-01-01

    The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately...... by two real-time PCRs: one for the presence of deformed wing virus (DWV), and one that would detect sequences of acute bee-paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus (AKI complex). Worker bees accompanying the queen were also analysed. The queens could be divided into three...

  20. Honey bee toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed M

    2015-01-01

    Insecticides are chemicals used to kill insects, so it is unsurprising that many insecticides have the potential to harm honey bees (Apis mellifera). However, bees are exposed to a great variety of other potentially toxic chemicals, including flavonoids and alkaloids that are produced by plants; mycotoxins produced by fungi; antimicrobials and acaricides that are introduced by beekeepers; and fungicides, herbicides, and other environmental contaminants. Although often regarded as uniquely sensitive to toxic compounds, honey bees are adapted to tolerate and even thrive in the presence of toxic compounds that occur naturally in their environment. The harm caused by exposure to a particular concentration of a toxic compound may depend on the level of simultaneous exposure to other compounds, pathogen levels, nutritional status, and a host of other factors. This review takes a holistic view of bee toxicology by taking into account the spectrum of xenobiotics to which bees are exposed. PMID:25341092

  1. Honey bee toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed M

    2015-01-01

    Insecticides are chemicals used to kill insects, so it is unsurprising that many insecticides have the potential to harm honey bees (Apis mellifera). However, bees are exposed to a great variety of other potentially toxic chemicals, including flavonoids and alkaloids that are produced by plants; mycotoxins produced by fungi; antimicrobials and acaricides that are introduced by beekeepers; and fungicides, herbicides, and other environmental contaminants. Although often regarded as uniquely sensitive to toxic compounds, honey bees are adapted to tolerate and even thrive in the presence of toxic compounds that occur naturally in their environment. The harm caused by exposure to a particular concentration of a toxic compound may depend on the level of simultaneous exposure to other compounds, pathogen levels, nutritional status, and a host of other factors. This review takes a holistic view of bee toxicology by taking into account the spectrum of xenobiotics to which bees are exposed.

  2. 7 CFR 1437.106 - Honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Honey. 1437.106 Section 1437.106 Agriculture... Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.106 Honey. (a) Honey production eligible for benefits under this part includes table and non-table honey produced commercially. (b) All of a...

  3. Ultrasound-assisted liquefaction of honey

    OpenAIRE

    Kabbani, Dania

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization of honey is a common process of the honey industry. Liquid honey is preferred by most of the consumers and by food companies for ease of handling. Honey is commonly heated during pasteurization in order to liquefy it and inhibit any microbial growth. However, heating can degrade the main quality parameters of honey. A better method compared to expensive and time-consuming heating is desirable to pasteurize, accelerate the liquefaction and retard the crystallization process...

  4. Antimicrobial Effects of Honey on Bacillus Cereus

    OpenAIRE

    This paper should be cited as: Javadzadeh M, Najafi M, Rezaei M, Dastoor M, Behzadi AS, Amiri A . [ Antimicrobial Effects of Honey on Bacillus Cereus ]. MLJ. 201 4 ; 8 ( 2 ): 55 - 61 [Article in Persian] Javadzadeh, M. (MSc; M Najafi; Rezaei, M. (MSc; Dastoor, M. (BSc; Behzadi, AS. (MSc; Amiri, A. (MSc

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Honey is a healthy and nutritious food that has been used for a long time as a treatment for different diseases. One of the applied properties of honey is its antimicrobial effect, which differs between different types of honey due to variation of phenolic and antioxidant compositions. This study aimed to assess antimicrobial effect of honey on Bacillus cereus, considering its chemical properties. Material and Methods: Three samples of honey (A1 and A2 of Khorasan Ra...

  5. The Architecture of the Pollen Hoarding Syndrome in Honey Bees: Implications for Understanding Social Evolution, Behavioral Syndromes, and Selective Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Rueppell, Olav

    2013-01-01

    International audience Social evolution has influenced every aspect of contemporary honey bee biology, but the details are difficult to reconstruct. The reproductive ground plan hypothesis of social evolution proposes that central regulators of the gonotropic cycle of solitary insects have been co-opted to coordinate social complexity in honey bees, such as the division of labor among workers. The predicted trait associations between reproductive physiology and social behavior have been id...

  6. Characterization of the active microbiotas associated with honey bees reveals healthier and broader communities when colonies are genetically diverse

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Heather R.; Daniela Rios; Walker-Sperling, Victoria E.; Guus Roeselers; Newton, Irene L.G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses of honey bee colonies have led to increased interest in the microbial communities that are associated with these important pollinators. A critical function that bacteria perform for their honey bee hosts, but one that is poorly understood, is the transformation of worker-collected pollen into bee bread, a nutritious food product that can be stored for long periods in colonies. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to comprehensively characterize in genetically diverse and genetically ...

  7. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa, Siti A. Sulaiman, Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects.

  8. Honey Bees, Satellites and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaias, W.

    2008-05-01

    -derived plant phenology and land cover data to improve estimates of the northern limits of Africanized Honey Bee invasion in North America.

  9. MICROBIOLOGICAL COMPARISON BETWEEN HONEY IN JAR AND HONEY IN COMB FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Formato

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana, during August-July 2007 analyzed, for the microbial aspects, 37 samples of jar honey and 53 samples of honey in comb obtained from 37 farms of Latium Region. In the jar honey there weren’t values up to 1*103 colony-forming unit (CFU/g of bacteria mesophiles, while in the honey in comb it was not up to 2*103 CFU/g. Bacillus cereus was found in 22 samples (41,5% of honey in comb and in 18 samples (48,6% of jar honey; Clostridium perfringens was found in 6 (11,3% samples of honey in comb and in 6 samples (16,2% of jar honey; Clostridium baratii was found in 1 (1,9% sample of honey in comb and in 1 sample (2,7% of jar honey; coagulase-positive staphylococci were found in 4 (11,3% samples of honey in comb and in 4 samples (10,8% of jar honey; Clostridium sordelli was found in 2 samples (3,8% of honey in comb and in 1 sample (2,7% of jar honey. Only 2 samples of honey in comb and 1 sample of jar honey had yeasts up to 1000 CFU/g. Finally, 9 samples (24,3% of jar honey and 16 samples (30,2% of honey in jar were positives for moulds.

  10. Educational Adaptation and Pan-Africanism: Trends in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marah, John Karefah

    1987-01-01

    European colonialists believed that Africans should be educated in African traditional values, and that Africans should be made into dedicated workers, not holders of power. The African nationalists of the 1960s, in contrast, rejected most of the arduous aspects of European education as instruments of domination, and lay the foundation for the…

  11. Nutritional status influences socially regulated foraging ontogeny in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Amy L; Kantarovich, Sara; Meisel, Adam F; Robinson, Gene E

    2005-12-01

    In many social insects, including honey bees, worker energy reserve levels are correlated with task performance in the colony. Honey bee nest workers have abundant stored lipid and protein while foragers are depleted of these reserves; this depletion precedes the shift from nest work to foraging. The first objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that lipid depletion has a causal effect on the age at onset of foraging in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). We found that bees treated with a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor (TOFA) were more likely to forage precociously. The second objective of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between social interactions, nutritional state and behavioral maturation. Since older bees are known to inhibit the development of young bees into foragers, we asked whether this effect is mediated nutritionally via the passage of food from old to young bees. We found that bees reared in social isolation have low lipid stores, but social inhibition occurs in colonies in the field, whether young bees are starved or fed. These results indicate that although social interactions affect the nutritional status of young bees, social and nutritional factors act independently to influence age at onset of foraging. Our findings suggest that mechanisms linking internal nutritional physiology to foraging in solitary insects have been co-opted to regulate altruistic foraging in a social context.

  12. Physicochemical characterization of Gozitan Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo Attard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey quality is clearly defined in the EU Directive 2001/110/EC, and by Codex Alimentarius (Codex Stan 12-1981 and the International Honey Commission (IHC, 2002. Our investigation aimed to characterize the physicochemical properties of honey produced on a small island, Gozo which is situated near Malta.  Ten randomly collected honey samples were analysed for moisture content, pH, free acidity, water insoluble content, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF content and total phenolic compounds.  Moisture content, pH, free acidity, water insoluble content, and HMF content were within the range specified in standards but the electrical conductivity was generally higher than 0.800 mS cm-1. This may be the result of the relatively high atmospheric and soil salinity on this small island. All the samples analysed were within the 40 mg kg-1 HMF limit, which is an indicator of honey quality. The total phenolic compounds, which represent some of the constituents derived from the nectar and pollen obtained during foraging, ranged between 236.555 and 294.209 GAE kg-1 honey. Principal Component Analysis showed the properties of polyfloral honey samples obtained from the southern part of the island to be different from those obtained from the northern part.

  13. Expression of insulin/insulin-like signalling and TOR pathway genes in honey bee caste determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D E; Buck, N A; Evans, J D

    2014-02-01

    The development of queen and worker castes in honey bees is induced by differential nutrition, with future queens and workers receiving diets that are qualitatively and quantitatively different. We monitored the gene expression of 14 genes for components of the insulin/insulin-like signalling and TOR pathways in honey bee larvae from 40-88 h after hatching. We compared normally fed queen and normally fed worker larvae and found that three genes showed expression differences in 40-h-old larvae. Genes that show such early differences in expression may be part of the mechanism that transduces nutrition level into a hormone signal. We then compared changes in expression after shifts in diet with those in normally developing queens and workers. Following a shift to the worker diet, the expression of 9/14 genes was upregulated in comparison with queens. Following a shift to the queen diet, expression of only one gene changed. The honey bee responses may function together as a homeostatic mechanism buffering larvae from caste-disrupting variation in nutrition. The different responses would be part of the canalization of both the queen and worker developmental pathways, and as such, a signature of advanced sociality. PMID:24224645

  14. Expression of insulin/insulin-like signalling and TOR pathway genes in honey bee caste determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D E; Buck, N A; Evans, J D

    2014-02-01

    The development of queen and worker castes in honey bees is induced by differential nutrition, with future queens and workers receiving diets that are qualitatively and quantitatively different. We monitored the gene expression of 14 genes for components of the insulin/insulin-like signalling and TOR pathways in honey bee larvae from 40-88 h after hatching. We compared normally fed queen and normally fed worker larvae and found that three genes showed expression differences in 40-h-old larvae. Genes that show such early differences in expression may be part of the mechanism that transduces nutrition level into a hormone signal. We then compared changes in expression after shifts in diet with those in normally developing queens and workers. Following a shift to the worker diet, the expression of 9/14 genes was upregulated in comparison with queens. Following a shift to the queen diet, expression of only one gene changed. The honey bee responses may function together as a homeostatic mechanism buffering larvae from caste-disrupting variation in nutrition. The different responses would be part of the canalization of both the queen and worker developmental pathways, and as such, a signature of advanced sociality.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana cerana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Long Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eastern hive honey bee, Apis cerana cerana is a native and widely bred honey bee species in China. Molecular biology research about this honey bee species is scarce, and genomic information for A. c. cerana is not currently available. Transcriptome and expression profiling data for this species are therefore important resources needed to better understand the biological mechanisms of A. c. cerana. In this study, we obtained the transcriptome information of A. c. cerana by RNA-sequencing and compared gene expression differences between queens and workers of A. c. cerana by digital gene expression (DGE analysis. RESULTS: Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing we obtained 51,581,510 clean reads corresponding to 4.64 Gb total nucleotides from a single run. These reads were assembled into 46,999 unigenes with a mean length of 676 bp. Based on a sequence similarity search against the five public databases (NR, Swissport, GO, COG, KEGG with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5 using BLASTX, a total of 24,630 unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. Using these transcriptome data as references we analyzed the gene expression differences between the queens and workers of A. c. cerana using a tag-based digital gene expression method. We obtained 5.96 and 5.66 million clean tags from the queen and worker samples, respectively. A total of 414 genes were differentially expressed between them, with 189 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated in queens. CONCLUSIONS: Our transcriptome data provide a comprehensive sequence resource for future A. c. cerana study, establishing an important public information platform for functional genomic studies in A. c. cerana. Furthermore, the DGE data provide comprehensive gene expression information for the queens and workers, which will facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the different physiological aspects of the two castes.

  16. Characterization of the active microbiotas associated with honey bees reveals healthier and broader communities when colonies are genetically diverse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R Mattila

    Full Text Available Recent losses of honey bee colonies have led to increased interest in the microbial communities that are associated with these important pollinators. A critical function that bacteria perform for their honey bee hosts, but one that is poorly understood, is the transformation of worker-collected pollen into bee bread, a nutritious food product that can be stored for long periods in colonies. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to comprehensively characterize in genetically diverse and genetically uniform colonies the active bacterial communities that are found on honey bees, in their digestive tracts, and in bee bread. This method provided insights that have not been revealed by past studies into the content and benefits of honey bee-associated microbial communities. Colony microbiotas differed substantially between sampling environments and were dominated by several anaerobic bacterial genera never before associated with honey bees, but renowned for their use by humans to ferment food. Colonies with genetically diverse populations of workers, a result of the highly promiscuous mating behavior of queens, benefited from greater microbial diversity, reduced pathogen loads, and increased abundance of putatively helpful bacteria, particularly species from the potentially probiotic genus Bifidobacterium. Across all colonies, Bifidobacterium activity was negatively correlated with the activity of genera that include pathogenic microbes; this relationship suggests a possible target for understanding whether microbes provide protective benefits to honey bees. Within-colony diversity shapes microbiotas associated with honey bees in ways that may have important repercussions for colony function and health. Our findings illuminate the importance of honey bee-bacteria symbioses and examine their intersection with nutrition, pathogen load, and genetic diversity, factors that are considered key to understanding honey bee decline.

  17. Characterization of the active microbiotas associated with honey bees reveals healthier and broader communities when colonies are genetically diverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Heather R; Rios, Daniela; Walker-Sperling, Victoria E; Roeselers, Guus; Newton, Irene L G

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses of honey bee colonies have led to increased interest in the microbial communities that are associated with these important pollinators. A critical function that bacteria perform for their honey bee hosts, but one that is poorly understood, is the transformation of worker-collected pollen into bee bread, a nutritious food product that can be stored for long periods in colonies. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to comprehensively characterize in genetically diverse and genetically uniform colonies the active bacterial communities that are found on honey bees, in their digestive tracts, and in bee bread. This method provided insights that have not been revealed by past studies into the content and benefits of honey bee-associated microbial communities. Colony microbiotas differed substantially between sampling environments and were dominated by several anaerobic bacterial genera never before associated with honey bees, but renowned for their use by humans to ferment food. Colonies with genetically diverse populations of workers, a result of the highly promiscuous mating behavior of queens, benefited from greater microbial diversity, reduced pathogen loads, and increased abundance of putatively helpful bacteria, particularly species from the potentially probiotic genus Bifidobacterium. Across all colonies, Bifidobacterium activity was negatively correlated with the activity of genera that include pathogenic microbes; this relationship suggests a possible target for understanding whether microbes provide protective benefits to honey bees. Within-colony diversity shapes microbiotas associated with honey bees in ways that may have important repercussions for colony function and health. Our findings illuminate the importance of honey bee-bacteria symbioses and examine their intersection with nutrition, pathogen load, and genetic diversity, factors that are considered key to understanding honey bee decline.

  18. Neonicotinoid-contaminated pollinator strips adjacent to cropland reduce honey bee nutritional status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Christina L.; Lundgren, Jonathan G.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide pollinator declines are attributed to a number of factors, including pesticide exposures. Neonicotinoid insecticides specifically have been detected in surface waters, non-target vegetation, and bee products, but the risks posed by environmental exposures are still not well understood. Pollinator strips were tested for clothianidin contamination in plant tissues, and the risks to honey bees assessed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) quantified clothianidin in leaf, nectar, honey, and bee bread at organic and seed-treated farms. Total glycogen, lipids, and protein from honey bee workers were quantified. The proportion of plants testing positive for clothianidin were the same between treatments. Leaf tissue and honey had similar concentrations of clothianidin between organic and seed-treated farms. Honey (mean±SE: 6.61 ± 0.88 ppb clothianidin per hive) had seven times greater concentrations than nectar collected by bees (0.94 ± 0.09 ppb). Bee bread collected from organic sites (25.8 ± 3.0 ppb) had significantly less clothianidin than those at seed treated locations (41.6 ± 2.9 ppb). Increasing concentrations of clothianidin in bee bread were correlated with decreased glycogen, lipid, and protein in workers. This study shows that small, isolated areas set aside for conservation do not provide spatial or temporal relief from neonicotinoid exposures in agricultural regions where their use is largely prophylactic. PMID:27412495

  19. Neonicotinoid-contaminated pollinator strips adjacent to cropland reduce honey bee nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Christina L; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide pollinator declines are attributed to a number of factors, including pesticide exposures. Neonicotinoid insecticides specifically have been detected in surface waters, non-target vegetation, and bee products, but the risks posed by environmental exposures are still not well understood. Pollinator strips were tested for clothianidin contamination in plant tissues, and the risks to honey bees assessed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) quantified clothianidin in leaf, nectar, honey, and bee bread at organic and seed-treated farms. Total glycogen, lipids, and protein from honey bee workers were quantified. The proportion of plants testing positive for clothianidin were the same between treatments. Leaf tissue and honey had similar concentrations of clothianidin between organic and seed-treated farms. Honey (mean±SE: 6.61 ± 0.88 ppb clothianidin per hive) had seven times greater concentrations than nectar collected by bees (0.94 ± 0.09 ppb). Bee bread collected from organic sites (25.8 ± 3.0 ppb) had significantly less clothianidin than those at seed treated locations (41.6 ± 2.9 ppb). Increasing concentrations of clothianidin in bee bread were correlated with decreased glycogen, lipid, and protein in workers. This study shows that small, isolated areas set aside for conservation do not provide spatial or temporal relief from neonicotinoid exposures in agricultural regions where their use is largely prophylactic. PMID:27412495

  20. Neonicotinoid-contaminated pollinator strips adjacent to cropland reduce honey bee nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Christina L; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2016-07-14

    Worldwide pollinator declines are attributed to a number of factors, including pesticide exposures. Neonicotinoid insecticides specifically have been detected in surface waters, non-target vegetation, and bee products, but the risks posed by environmental exposures are still not well understood. Pollinator strips were tested for clothianidin contamination in plant tissues, and the risks to honey bees assessed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) quantified clothianidin in leaf, nectar, honey, and bee bread at organic and seed-treated farms. Total glycogen, lipids, and protein from honey bee workers were quantified. The proportion of plants testing positive for clothianidin were the same between treatments. Leaf tissue and honey had similar concentrations of clothianidin between organic and seed-treated farms. Honey (mean±SE: 6.61 ± 0.88 ppb clothianidin per hive) had seven times greater concentrations than nectar collected by bees (0.94 ± 0.09 ppb). Bee bread collected from organic sites (25.8 ± 3.0 ppb) had significantly less clothianidin than those at seed treated locations (41.6 ± 2.9 ppb). Increasing concentrations of clothianidin in bee bread were correlated with decreased glycogen, lipid, and protein in workers. This study shows that small, isolated areas set aside for conservation do not provide spatial or temporal relief from neonicotinoid exposures in agricultural regions where their use is largely prophylactic.

  1. Absconding and migratory behaviors of feral Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in NE Brazil = Comportamentos de abandono e migração de colônias silvestres da abelha melífera africanizada (Apis mellifera L. no nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Magalhães Freitas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the annual movements of feral Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the state of Ceará, Brazil, aiming to understand seasonal variations in their population. Arrival and absconding of Africanized honey bee (AHB colonies in the semiaridmunicipality of Canindé and the coastal humid city of Fortaleza (120 km apart were recorded weekly from January 1999 to December 2001, and the data compared to rainfall records in both areas. Results showed that AHB colonies only nest in the semiarid during the rainy season and abscond during the dry season, the opposite from observations taken in Fortaleza. Only 5% of colonies remained in the semiarid area for the entire year due to ant (Camponotus sp. attacks and shortage of nectar and water during the dry season, with most colonies migrating to coastal areas where the weather is milder and many plant species bloom at that time of year. Excessive rainfallprobably pushes AHB colonies back to the semiarid during the rainy season. We concluded that absconding and migration are strategies that allow AHB colonies to survive in the semiarid NE of Brazil, contrary to European honeybees, which have never succeeded in establishing wild colonies in the region.Os movimentos de colônias silvestres da abelha melífera africanizada (Apis mellifera L. no Estado do Ceará, Brasil, foram investigados com o objetivo de compreender variações anuais em sua população. A chegada e a partida de colônias de abelhas africanizadas (AHB,no município semi-árido de Canindé e na úmida cidade litorânea de Fortaleza (separadas por 120 km, foram monitoradas semanalmente, de janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2001, e comparados com os dados pluviométricos de chuvas em ambas as áreas. Os resultadosdemonstraram que as abelhas africanizadas somente nidificaram no semi-árido durante a estação chuvosa e o abandonaram na estação seca, ao contrário do observado em Fortaleza. Apenas 5% das col

  2. Melissopalynological Characterization of North Algerian Honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Nair

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A pollen analysis of Algerian honey was conducted on a total of 10 honey samples. The samples were prepared using the methodology described by Louveaux et al., that was then further adapted by Ohe et al. The samples were subsequently observed using light microscopy. A total of 36 pollen taxa were discovered and could be identified in the analyzed honey samples. Seventy percent of the studied samples belonged to the group ofmonofloral honeys represented by Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus vulgaris, Citrus sp. and Lavandula angustifolia. Multifloral honeys comprised 30% of the honey samples, with pollen grains of Lavandula stoechas (28.49% standing out as the most prevalent. Based on cluster analysis, two different groups of honey were observed according to different pollen types found in the samples. The identified pollen spectrum of honey confirmed their botanical origin.

  3. Selling sex in the time of AIDS: the psycho-social context of condom use by sex workers on a Southern African mine

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Cathy

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the social organisation of commercial sex work in a squatter camp in a South African gold mining community. On the basis of in-depth interviews with 21 women, living in conditions of poverty and violence, the paper examines factors which might serve to help or hinder a newly implemented community-based peer education and condom distribution project aimed at vulnerable single women. Attention is given to the way in which the routine organisation of sex...

  4. The Composition and Biological Activity of Honey: A Focus on Manuka Honey

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Massimiliano Gasparrini; Tamara Y. Forbes-Hernández; Luca Mazzoni; Francesca Giampieri

    2014-01-01

    Honey has been used as a food and medical product since the earliest times. It has been used in many cultures for its medicinal properties, as a remedy for burns, cataracts, ulcers and wound healing, because it exerts a soothing effect when initially applied to open wounds. Depending on its origin, honey can be classified in different categories among which, monofloral honey seems to be the most promising and interesting as a natural remedy. Manuka honey, a monofloral honey derived from the m...

  5. A honey bee odorant receptor for the queen substance 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin W Wanner; Nichols, Andrew S.; Walden, Kimberly K. O.; Brockmann, Axel; Luetje, Charles W.; Robertson, Hugh M

    2007-01-01

    By using a functional genomics approach, we have identified a honey bee [Apis mellifera (Am)] odorant receptor (Or) for the queen substance 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (9-ODA). Honey bees live in large eusocial colonies in which a single queen is responsible for reproduction, several thousand sterile female worker bees complete a myriad of tasks to maintain the colony, and several hundred male drones exist only to mate. The “queen substance” [also termed the queen retinue pheromone (QRP)] is an eig...

  6. Nutritional regulation of division of labor in honey bees: toward a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Seth A; Wang, Ying; Robinson, Gene E

    2010-01-01

    Organisms adapt their behavior and physiology to environmental conditions through processes of phenotypic plasticity. In one well-studied example, the division of labor among worker honey bees involves a stereotyped yet plastic pattern of behavioral and physiological maturation. Early in life, workers perform brood care and other in-hive tasks and have large internal nutrient stores; later in life, they forage for nectar and pollen outside the hive and have small nutrient stores. The pace of maturation depends on colony conditions, and the environmental, physiological, and genomic mechanisms by which this occurs are being actively investigated. Here we review current knowledge of the mechanisms by which a key environmental variable, nutritional status, influences worker honey bee division of labor. These studies demonstrate that changes in individual nutritional status and conserved food-related molecular and hormonal pathways regulate the age at which individual bees begin to forage. We then outline ways in which systems biology approaches, enabled by the sequencing of the honey bee genome, will allow researchers to gain deeper insight into nutritional regulation of honey bee behavior, and phenotypic plasticity in general.

  7. Low-Temperature Stress during Capped Brood Stage Increases Pupal Mortality, Misorientation and Adult Mortality in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Xu, Xinjian; Zhu, Xiangjie; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Shujing; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zhou, Bingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are key pollinators, playing a vital role in ecosystem maintenance and stability of crop yields. Recently, reduced honey bee survival has attracted intensive attention. Among all other honey bee stresses, temperature is a fundamental ecological factor that has been shown to affect honey bee survival. Yet, the impact of low temperature stress during capped brood on brood mortality has not been systematically investigated. In addition, little was known about how low temperature exposure during capped brood affects subsequent adult longevity. In this study, capped worker broods at 12 different developmental stages were exposed to 20°C for 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 hours, followed by incubation at 35°C until emergence. We found that longer durations of low temperature during capped brood led to higher mortality, higher incidences of misorientation inside cells and shorter worker longevity. Capped brood as prepupae and near emergence were more sensitive to low-temperature exposure, while capped larvae and mid-pupal stages showed the highest resistance to low-temperature stress. Our results suggest that prepupae and pupae prior to eclosion are the most sensitive stages to low temperature stress, as they are to other stresses, presumably due to many physiological changes related to metamorphosis happening during these two stages. Understanding how low-temperature stress affects honey bee physiology and longevity can improve honey bee management strategies. PMID:27149383

  8. Low-Temperature Stress during Capped Brood Stage Increases Pupal Mortality, Misorientation and Adult Mortality in Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera are key pollinators, playing a vital role in ecosystem maintenance and stability of crop yields. Recently, reduced honey bee survival has attracted intensive attention. Among all other honey bee stresses, temperature is a fundamental ecological factor that has been shown to affect honey bee survival. Yet, the impact of low temperature stress during capped brood on brood mortality has not been systematically investigated. In addition, little was known about how low temperature exposure during capped brood affects subsequent adult longevity. In this study, capped worker broods at 12 different developmental stages were exposed to 20°C for 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 hours, followed by incubation at 35°C until emergence. We found that longer durations of low temperature during capped brood led to higher mortality, higher incidences of misorientation inside cells and shorter worker longevity. Capped brood as prepupae and near emergence were more sensitive to low-temperature exposure, while capped larvae and mid-pupal stages showed the highest resistance to low-temperature stress. Our results suggest that prepupae and pupae prior to eclosion are the most sensitive stages to low temperature stress, as they are to other stresses, presumably due to many physiological changes related to metamorphosis happening during these two stages. Understanding how low-temperature stress affects honey bee physiology and longevity can improve honey bee management strategies.

  9. The Benefits of Honey in Holy Quran

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasali Purbafrani; Seyed Amirhosein Ghazizade Hashemi; Saeed Bayyenat; Habibolah Taghizade Moghaddam; Masumeh Saeidi

    2014-01-01

    Honey contains a wide variety of vitamins, minerals, amino acids and antioxidants. The vitamins found in honey include niacin, riboflavin and pantothenic acid; minerals present include calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium and zinc. In addition honey contains a variety of flavonoids and phenolic acids which act as antioxidants, scavenging and eliminating free radicals. Honey has had a long history in human consumption, and is used in various foods and beverages as...

  10. Melissopalynological Characterization of North Algerian Honeys

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Nair; Boumedienne Meddah; Abdelkader Aoues

    2013-01-01

    A pollen analysis of Algerian honey was conducted on a total of 10 honey samples. The samples were prepared using the methodology described by Louveaux et al., that was then further adapted by Ohe et al. The samples were subsequently observed using light microscopy. A total of 36 pollen taxa were discovered and could be identified in the analyzed honey samples. Seventy percent of the studied samples belonged to the group ofmonofloral honeys represented by Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus vulgaris,...

  11. Viral diseases in honey bee queens

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Roy Mathew

    2012-01-01

    Honey bees are one of the most important insects useful to human beings. They provide us with several biological products such as honey and wax, but more importantly carries out the invaluable laborious work of pollination. The honey bee industry in Europe and elsewhere has been plagued by recently introduced pests such as varroa mites and subsequent rise of viruses which has resulted in widespread decline of bee population. Of the numerous pathogens of honey bees that are being studied, viru...

  12. Detection of honey adulteration by carbohydrage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J W

    1980-01-01

    Thirteen market samples of falsified honey containing invert sirups or conventional corn sirup and 2 labeled mixtures have been analyzed. Results are interpreted in relation to literature values for various carbohydrate constituents of honey and their vulnerability. Published data on composition of United States honey have been refined for this purpose of eliminating samples containing a major portion of honeydew, thus narrowing the compositional ranges for known honey. PMID:7380780

  13. Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Ostadrahimi; Jabiz Modaresi; Abdolrasoul Safaiyan; Mohammad H Somi; Aida Ghaffari

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is acomplex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumorproperties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates therisk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisiverole in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship betweenconsumption of honey and apop...

  14. Honey bee protein atlas at organ-level resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Queenie W T; Chan, Man Yi; Logan, Michelle; Fang, Yuan; Higo, Heather; Foster, Leonard J

    2013-11-01

    Genome sequencing has provided us with gene lists but cannot tell us where and how their encoded products work together to support life. Complex organisms rely on differential expression of subsets of genes/proteins in organs and tissues, and, in concert, evolved to their present state as they function together to improve an organism's overall reproductive fitness. Proteomics studies of individual organs help us understand their basic functions, but this reductionist approach misses the larger context of the whole organism. This problem could be circumvented if all the organs in an organism were comprehensively studied by the same methodology and analyzed together. Using honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) as a model system, we report here an initial whole proteome of a complex organism, measuring 29 different organ/tissue types among the three honey bee castes: queen, drone, and worker. The data reveal that, e.g., workers have a heightened capacity to deal with environmental toxins and queens have a far more robust pheromone detection system than their nestmates. The data also suggest that workers altruistically sacrifice not only their own reproductive capacity but also their immune potential in favor of their queen. Finally, organ-level resolution of protein expression offers a systematic insight into how organs may have developed. PMID:23878156

  15. 7 CFR 1212.9 - Honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Honey. 1212.9 Section 1212.9 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  16. 7 CFR 1212.10 - Honey products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  17. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  18. THERAPEUTIC AND NUTRITIONAL VALUES OF HONEY [MADHU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagde A. B.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey is the name given to the sweet, yellowish liquid that is produced by honey bees. Bee's honey is one of the most valued and appreciated natural substances known to mankind since ancient times. The medicinal properties of honey have been known since ancient times. There are many types of bee's honey mentioned in Ayurveda. Their effects differ and 'Makshika' is considered medicinally the best. According to Modern scientific view, the best bee's honey is made by Apis mellifera Capensis. The aim of this study is to emphasize the importance of bee's honey and its multitude of medicinal, cosmetic and general values. Synonyms, constitution, properties and the uses of bee's honey are gathered from text books, traditional and Ayurvedic physicians and from few search engines. Honey has been useful in the treatment of surgical wounds, burns, and decubitus ulcers, eye diseases, throat infections, Tamak Shwas (Bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, hiccups, thirst, dizziness, fatigue, hepatitis, Krimi (Worm infestation, constipation, Arsha (piles, eczema and the antibacterial and antifungal properties of honey have been well documented. It is used as a nutritious, easily digestible food for weak people. It promotes semen and mental health. Aged honey is used to treat vomiting, diarrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Honey is highly popular in cosmetic treatment.

  19. Conservation in Mammals of Genes Associated with Aggression-Related Behavioral Phenotypes in Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of sociogenomics explores the relations between social behavior and genome structure and function. An important question is the extent to which associations between social behavior and gene expression are conserved among the Metazoa. Prior experimental work in an invertebrate model of social behavior, the honey bee, revealed distinct brain gene expression patterns in African and European honey bees, and within European honey bees with different behavioral phenotypes. The present work is a computational study of these previous findings in which we analyze, by orthology determination, the extent to which genes that are socially regulated in honey bees are conserved across the Metazoa. We found that the differentially expressed gene sets associated with alarm pheromone response, the difference between old and young bees, and the colony influence on soldier bees, are enriched in widely conserved genes, indicating that these differences have genomic bases shared with many other metazoans. By contrast, the sets of differentially expressed genes associated with the differences between African and European forager and guard bees are depleted in widely conserved genes, indicating that the genomic basis for this social behavior is relatively specific to honey bees. For the alarm pheromone response gene set, we found a particularly high degree of conservation with mammals, even though the alarm pheromone itself is bee-specific. Gene Ontology identification of human orthologs to the strongly conserved honey bee genes associated with the alarm pheromone response shows overrepresentation of protein metabolism, regulation of protein complex formation, and protein folding, perhaps associated with remodeling of critical neural circuits in response to alarm pheromone. We hypothesize that such remodeling may be an adaptation of social animals to process and respond appropriately to the complex patterns of conspecific communication essential for

  20. Conservation in Mammals of Genes Associated with Aggression-Related Behavioral Phenotypes in Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Robinson, Gene E; Jakobsson, Eric

    2016-06-01

    The emerging field of sociogenomics explores the relations between social behavior and genome structure and function. An important question is the extent to which associations between social behavior and gene expression are conserved among the Metazoa. Prior experimental work in an invertebrate model of social behavior, the honey bee, revealed distinct brain gene expression patterns in African and European honey bees, and within European honey bees with different behavioral phenotypes. The present work is a computational study of these previous findings in which we analyze, by orthology determination, the extent to which genes that are socially regulated in honey bees are conserved across the Metazoa. We found that the differentially expressed gene sets associated with alarm pheromone response, the difference between old and young bees, and the colony influence on soldier bees, are enriched in widely conserved genes, indicating that these differences have genomic bases shared with many other metazoans. By contrast, the sets of differentially expressed genes associated with the differences between African and European forager and guard bees are depleted in widely conserved genes, indicating that the genomic basis for this social behavior is relatively specific to honey bees. For the alarm pheromone response gene set, we found a particularly high degree of conservation with mammals, even though the alarm pheromone itself is bee-specific. Gene Ontology identification of human orthologs to the strongly conserved honey bee genes associated with the alarm pheromone response shows overrepresentation of protein metabolism, regulation of protein complex formation, and protein folding, perhaps associated with remodeling of critical neural circuits in response to alarm pheromone. We hypothesize that such remodeling may be an adaptation of social animals to process and respond appropriately to the complex patterns of conspecific communication essential for social organization

  1. Conservation in Mammals of Genes Associated with Aggression-Related Behavioral Phenotypes in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gene E.; Jakobsson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of sociogenomics explores the relations between social behavior and genome structure and function. An important question is the extent to which associations between social behavior and gene expression are conserved among the Metazoa. Prior experimental work in an invertebrate model of social behavior, the honey bee, revealed distinct brain gene expression patterns in African and European honey bees, and within European honey bees with different behavioral phenotypes. The present work is a computational study of these previous findings in which we analyze, by orthology determination, the extent to which genes that are socially regulated in honey bees are conserved across the Metazoa. We found that the differentially expressed gene sets associated with alarm pheromone response, the difference between old and young bees, and the colony influence on soldier bees, are enriched in widely conserved genes, indicating that these differences have genomic bases shared with many other metazoans. By contrast, the sets of differentially expressed genes associated with the differences between African and European forager and guard bees are depleted in widely conserved genes, indicating that the genomic basis for this social behavior is relatively specific to honey bees. For the alarm pheromone response gene set, we found a particularly high degree of conservation with mammals, even though the alarm pheromone itself is bee-specific. Gene Ontology identification of human orthologs to the strongly conserved honey bee genes associated with the alarm pheromone response shows overrepresentation of protein metabolism, regulation of protein complex formation, and protein folding, perhaps associated with remodeling of critical neural circuits in response to alarm pheromone. We hypothesize that such remodeling may be an adaptation of social animals to process and respond appropriately to the complex patterns of conspecific communication essential for social organization

  2. Comparing the Antibacterial and Functional Properties of Cameroonian and Manuka Honeys for Potential Wound Healing—Have We Come Full Cycle in Dealing with Antibiotic Resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Boateng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has generated renewed interest in “traditional” antimicrobials, such as honey. This paper reports on a study comparing physico-chemical, antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics (that potentially contribute in part, to the functional wound healing activity of Cameroonian honeys with those of Manuka honey. Agar well diffusion was used to generate zones of inhibition against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus while broth dilutions were used to study the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs. Non-peroxide activity was investigated by catalase for hydrogen peroxide reduction. The Cameroonian honeys demonstrated functional properties similar to Manuka honey, with strong correlations between the antioxidant activity and total phenol content of each honey. They were also as effective as Manuka honey in reducing bacteria load with an MIC of 10% w/v against all three bacteria and exhibited non-peroxide antimicrobial activity. These Cameroon honeys have potential therapeutic activity and may contain compounds with activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Antibacterial agents from such natural sources present a potential affordable treatment of wound infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, which are a leading cause of amputations and deaths in many African countries.

  3. Effects of Long Distance Transportation on Honey Bee Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiheung Ahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the requirement of long distance transportation of honey bees used for pollination, we understand little how transportation affects honey bees. Three trials in three different states (CA, GA, and MI were conducted to study the effects of long distance transportation on honey bee physiology. Newly emerged bees from one colony were split into two groups and introduced into a transported (T colony or a stationary (S colony in each trial. Volumes of hypopharyngeal gland acini in T colonies were significantly smaller than S colonies in all three trials. There were no significant differences between S and T colonies in juvenile hormone titers. Protein content in head showed no significant differences between S and T either in 7-day-old or 17-day-old bees of MI trial, but GA trial showed a significant reduction in bees experiencing transportation. Protein content in thorax was only measured in GA trial and was not significantly different between the two groups. Lipid content in abdomen was not significantly different between the S and T colonies in all three trials. This study suggests that bees experiencing transportation have trouble fully developing their food glands and this might affect their ability to nurse the next generation of workers.

  4. Characterization of Coffea arabica monofloral honey from Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Samir Moura; Zaluski, Rodrigo; Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Mazzafera, Paulo; de Oliveira Orsi, Ricardo

    2016-07-15

    In this study, samples of coffee honey produced in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, were characterized based on their melissopalynology, physicochemical and nutritional properties, and mineral and caffeine contents. The caffeine content in the nectar from coffee flowers was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Blends of honey were obtained from three Coffea arabica crops, each with 10 colonies of Africanized Apis mellifera. All honey samples contained monofloral (75-78%) pollen belonging to C. arabica. Physicochemical parameters (total acidity, pH, moisture, dry matter, ash, and qualitative hydroxymethylfurfural) were within the approved limits established by EU legislation. Coffee honey contains high levels of ascorbic acid (294.68 mg kg(-1)) and low amounts of total flavonoids (3.51 ± 0.18 mg QE kg(-1)). The most abundant minerals were potassium and calcium (962.59 ± 154.3 and 343.75 ± 25.56 mg kg(-1), respectively). The caffeine content in coffee nectar (1.64 mg kg(-1)) was approximately 8-fold lower than that in honey (12.02 ± 0.81 mg kg(-1)). PMID:26948612

  5. Characterization of Coffea arabica monofloral honey from Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Samir Moura; Zaluski, Rodrigo; Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Mazzafera, Paulo; de Oliveira Orsi, Ricardo

    2016-07-15

    In this study, samples of coffee honey produced in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, were characterized based on their melissopalynology, physicochemical and nutritional properties, and mineral and caffeine contents. The caffeine content in the nectar from coffee flowers was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Blends of honey were obtained from three Coffea arabica crops, each with 10 colonies of Africanized Apis mellifera. All honey samples contained monofloral (75-78%) pollen belonging to C. arabica. Physicochemical parameters (total acidity, pH, moisture, dry matter, ash, and qualitative hydroxymethylfurfural) were within the approved limits established by EU legislation. Coffee honey contains high levels of ascorbic acid (294.68 mg kg(-1)) and low amounts of total flavonoids (3.51 ± 0.18 mg QE kg(-1)). The most abundant minerals were potassium and calcium (962.59 ± 154.3 and 343.75 ± 25.56 mg kg(-1), respectively). The caffeine content in coffee nectar (1.64 mg kg(-1)) was approximately 8-fold lower than that in honey (12.02 ± 0.81 mg kg(-1)).

  6. Two Major Medicinal Honeys Have Different Mechanisms of Bactericidal Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.S. Kwakman; A.A. te Velde; L. de Boer; C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; S.A.J. Zaat

    2011-01-01

    Honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity, but knowledge regarding the mechanism of action is still incomplete. We assessed the bactericidal activity and mechanism of action of Revamil (R) source (RS) honey and manuka honey, the sources of two major medical-grade honeys. RS honey k

  7. A Push-pull Protocol to Reduce Colonization of Bird Nest Boxes by Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathion, Caroline A; Kern, William H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of the invasive Africanized honey bee (AHB) into the Neotropics is a serious problem for many cavity nesting birds, specifically parrots. These bees select cavities that are suitable nest sites for birds, resulting in competition. The difficulty of removing bees and their defensive behavior makes a prevention protocol necessary. Here, we describe a push-pull integrated pest management protocol to deter bees from inhabiting bird boxes by applying a bird safe insecticide, permethrin, to repel bees from nest boxes, while simultaneously attracting them to pheromone-baited swarm traps. Shown here is an example experiment using Barn Owl nest boxes. This protocol successfully reduced colonization of Barn Owl nest boxes by Africanized honey bees. This protocol is flexible, allowing adjustments to accommodate a wide range of bird species and habitats. This protocol could benefit conservation efforts where AHB are located. PMID:27685258

  8. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

    2013-08-01

    Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 ± 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ≤ 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

  9. Protein content and pattern during mucus gland maturation and its ecdysteroid control in honey bee drones

    OpenAIRE

    Colonello, Nínive; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    International audience We analyzed mucus gland protein content and pattern for drones of Africanized honey bees. The effect of exogenous ecdysteroids on mucus gland maturation was judged against the endogenous ecdysteroid titer. During the first 5 days of adult life, the mucus protein content increases steeply, whereas the protein pattern becomes reduced in complexity. Subsequently, the protein content decreases, reaching a plateau level at day 8. The protein pattern of mature glands is ch...

  10. Effect of Microwave Treatment on Microbial Contamination of Honeys and on Their Physicochemical and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Moliné María de la

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, microwave heating has become a common method for pasteurization and sterilization of food. Honey is a sweet substance produced by worker honeybees from nectar of flowers. The major microbial contaminants include moulds and yeasts, as well as the spore-forming bacteria, being their counts indicative of honeys’ commercial quality and safety. Paenibacillus larvae is also of interest since it causes American foulbrood (AFB in honeybee larvae. The main quality factors that are used in the honey international trade are moisture, hydroxymethylfurfural content (HMF, and enzymatic indices. Moreover, honey exhibits several thermal events, the most important being the glass transition temperature (Tg. The aim of this work was to evaluate microwave effect (800 watts during 45 and 90 seconds on microbial content in particular over P. larvae spores retained in honey, and on physicochemical and thermal properties. Microwave promoted a decrease of microbial count with time of exposure, including P. larvae. Moisture content diminished after treatment, while Tg increased linearly, and acidity decremented in the majority of cases. Honeys darkened and HMF exceeded the permissible value. Diastase and glucose-oxidase enzymes were totally inactivated by microwave treatment.

  11. Response of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) to honey bee (Apis mellifera) and beehive-produced volatiles

    OpenAIRE

    Suazo, Alonso; Torto, Baldwyn; Teal, Peter; Tumlinson, James

    2003-01-01

    International audience The response of male and female Small Hive Beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida, to air-borne volatiles from adult worker bees, (Apis mellifera), pollen, unripe honey, beeswax, wax by-products ("slumgum"), and bee brood, was investigated in olfactometric and flight-tunnel choice bioassays. In both bioassay systems, males and females responded strongly to the volatiles from worker bees, freshly collected pollen and slumgum but not to those from commercially available pollen, ...

  12. Genomic analysis of the interaction between pesticide exposure and nutrition in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmehl, Daniel R; Teal, Peter E A; Frazier, James L; Grozinger, Christina M

    2014-12-01

    Populations of pollinators are in decline worldwide. These declines are best documented in honey bees and are due to a combination of stressors. In particular, pesticides have been linked to decreased longevity and performance in honey bees; however, the molecular and physiological pathways mediating sensitivity and resistance to pesticides are not well characterized. We explored the impact of coumaphos and fluvalinate, the two most abundant and frequently detected pesticides in the hive, on genome-wide gene expression patterns of honey bee workers. We found significant changes in 1118 transcripts, including genes involved in detoxification, behavioral maturation, immunity, and nutrition. Since behavioral maturation is regulated by juvenile hormone III (JH), we examined effects of these miticides on hormone titers; while JH titers were unaffected, titers of methyl farnesoate (MF), the precursor to JH, were decreased. We further explored the association between nutrition- and pesticide-regulated gene expression patterns and demonstrated that bees fed a pollen-based diet exhibit reduced sensitivity to a third pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Finally, we demonstrated that expression levels of several of the putative pesticide detoxification genes identified in our study and previous studies are also upregulated in response to pollen feeding, suggesting that these pesticides and components in pollen modulate similar molecular response pathways. Our results demonstrate that pesticide exposure can substantially impact expression of genes involved in several core physiological pathways in honey bee workers. Additionally, there is substantial overlap in responses to pesticides and pollen-containing diets at the transcriptional level, and subsequent analyses demonstrated that pollen-based diets reduce workers' pesticide sensitivity. Thus, providing honey bees and other pollinators with high quality nutrition may improve resistance to pesticides. PMID:25450567

  13. Nutritional Effect of Alpha-Linolenic Acid on Honey Bee Colony Development (Apis Mellifera L.

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    Ma Lanting

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, which is an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, influences honey bee feed intake and longevity. The objective of this study was to research the effect of six dietary ALA levels on the growth and development of Apis mellifera ligustica colonies. In the early spring, a total of 36 honey bee colonies of equal size and queen quality were randomly allocated into 6 groups. The six groups of honey bees were fed a basal diet with supplementation of ALA levels at 0 (group A, 2 (group B, 4 (group C, 6 (group D, 8 (group E, and 10% (group F. In this study, there were significant effects of pollen substitute ALA levels on the feeding amounts of the bee colony, colony population, sealed brood amount, and weight of newly emerged workers (P<0.05. The workers’ midgut Lipase (LPS activity of group C was significantly lower than that of the other groups (P<0.01. The worker bees in groups B, C, and D had significantly longer lifespans than those in the other groups (P<0.05. However, when the diets had ALA concentrations of more than 6%, the mortality of the honey bees increased (P<0.01. These results indicate that ALA levels of 2 ~ 4% of the pollen substitute were optimal for maintaining the highest reproductive performance and the digestion and absorption of fatty acids in honey bees during the period of spring multiplication. Additionally, ALA levels of 2 ~ 6% of the pollen substitute, improved worker bee longevity.

  14. Genomic analysis of the interaction between pesticide exposure and nutrition in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmehl, Daniel R; Teal, Peter E A; Frazier, James L; Grozinger, Christina M

    2014-12-01

    Populations of pollinators are in decline worldwide. These declines are best documented in honey bees and are due to a combination of stressors. In particular, pesticides have been linked to decreased longevity and performance in honey bees; however, the molecular and physiological pathways mediating sensitivity and resistance to pesticides are not well characterized. We explored the impact of coumaphos and fluvalinate, the two most abundant and frequently detected pesticides in the hive, on genome-wide gene expression patterns of honey bee workers. We found significant changes in 1118 transcripts, including genes involved in detoxification, behavioral maturation, immunity, and nutrition. Since behavioral maturation is regulated by juvenile hormone III (JH), we examined effects of these miticides on hormone titers; while JH titers were unaffected, titers of methyl farnesoate (MF), the precursor to JH, were decreased. We further explored the association between nutrition- and pesticide-regulated gene expression patterns and demonstrated that bees fed a pollen-based diet exhibit reduced sensitivity to a third pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Finally, we demonstrated that expression levels of several of the putative pesticide detoxification genes identified in our study and previous studies are also upregulated in response to pollen feeding, suggesting that these pesticides and components in pollen modulate similar molecular response pathways. Our results demonstrate that pesticide exposure can substantially impact expression of genes involved in several core physiological pathways in honey bee workers. Additionally, there is substantial overlap in responses to pesticides and pollen-containing diets at the transcriptional level, and subsequent analyses demonstrated that pollen-based diets reduce workers' pesticide sensitivity. Thus, providing honey bees and other pollinators with high quality nutrition may improve resistance to pesticides.

  15. No intracolonial nepotism during colony fissioning in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Juliana; Mattila, Heather R; Seeley, Thomas D

    2009-11-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony whose workers belong to multiple patrilines. This colony genetic structure creates a potential for intracolonial nepotism. One context with great potential for such nepotism arises in species, like honey bees, whose colonies reproduce by fissioning. During fissioning, workers might nepotistically choose between serving a young (sister) queen or the old (mother) queen, preferring the former if she is a full-sister but the latter if the young queen is only a half-sister. We examined three honeybee colonies that swarmed, and performed paternity analyses on the young (immature) queens and samples of workers who either stayed with the young queens in the nest or left with the mother queen in the swarm. For each colony, we checked whether patrilines represented by immature queens had higher proportions of staying workers than patrilines not represented by immature queens. We found no evidence of this. The absence of intracolonial nepotism during colony fissioning could be because the workers cannot discriminate between full-sister and half-sister queens when they are immature, or because the costs of behaving nepotistically outweigh the benefits. PMID:19692398

  16. Therapeutic Manuka Honey: No Longer So Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Dee A; Blair, Shona E; Cokcetin, Nural N; Bouzo, Daniel; Brooks, Peter; Schothauer, Ralf; Harry, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as "alternative", we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliable studies and case reports have demonstrated that certain honeys are very effective wound treatments; third, therapeutic honey commands a premium price, and the honey industry is actively promoting studies that will allow it to capitalize on this; and finally, the very complex and rather unpredictable nature of honey provides an attractive challenge for laboratory scientists. In this paper we review manuka honey research, from observational studies on its antimicrobial effects through to current experimental and mechanistic work that aims to take honey into mainstream medicine. We outline current gaps and remaining controversies in our knowledge of how honey acts, and suggest new studies that could make honey a no longer "alternative" alternative. PMID:27148246

  17. Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ostadrahimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is acomplex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumorproperties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates therisk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisiverole in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship betweenconsumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa.Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred totwo hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire(FFQ and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve tofind the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis.Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024.Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honeyamount - 0.533(honey amount2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount7.Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis ingastric mucosa.

  18. Characterization of filtered honey by electrophoresis of enzyme fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, Klaus; Beckh, Gudrun; Luellmann, Cord; Speer, Karl

    2011-01-01

    International audience According to both the European Council's Honey Directive 2001/110/EC and the present Codex Aliminerius Honey Standard, filtration of honey is permitted. After this filtration process, the microscopic determination of the botanical and geographical origin of honeys is no longer possible since all the pollen has been removed. In many honey countries, there is a considerable difference in the price of honey depending on the botanical and geographical origin. There is th...

  19. Viabilidade financeira da produção de geleia real com abelhas africanizadas suplementadas com diferentes nutrientes - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.7895 Financial viability in royal jelly production with Africanized honey bees supplemented with different nutrients - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.7895

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Faquinello

    2010-10-01

    control without supplementation. In assay II, isolated soy protein plus brewer’s yeast, isolated soy protein, brewer’s yeast, and control without supplementation were evaluated. The following production financial indicators were determined: net operating income, total cost, profit and benefit-cost ratio. Supplements made with mixtures of linseed oil plus palm oil and isolated soy protein plus beer yeast showed ratios between the obtained profit and the calculated values for indirect production costs of 2.58 and 2.50, respectively, differing from the control (p < 0.05, which indicates it is economically viable to supplement Africanized honey bees in royal jelly production when compared to other treatments and control without supplementation.

  20. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  1. Sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

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    Gina Retschnig

    Full Text Available Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone and female (worker honey bees (Apis mellifera, inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV. These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels.

  2. Sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retschnig, Gina; Williams, Geoffrey R; Mehmann, Marion M; Yañez, Orlando; de Miranda, Joachim R; Neumann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone) and female (worker) honey bees (Apis mellifera), inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV). These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels. PMID:24465518

  3. The Benefits of Honey in Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Purbafrani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Honey contains a wide variety of vitamins, minerals, amino acids and antioxidants. The vitamins found in honey include niacin, riboflavin and pantothenic acid; minerals present include calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium and zinc. In addition honey contains a variety of flavonoids and phenolic acids which act as antioxidants, scavenging and eliminating free radicals. Honey has had a long history in human consumption, and is used in various foods and beverages as a sweetener and flavoring. It also has a role in religion and symbolism. Medicinal importance of honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. More than 1,400 years ago, honey is described as a source of healing in the Quran and it is also mentioned as one of the foods of Paradise.

  4. Characterization of queen-specific components of the fluid released by fighting honey bee queens

    OpenAIRE

    Bernasconi, Giorgina; Bigler, Laurent; Hesse, Manfred; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2009-01-01

    Swarming honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies rear supernumerary young queens that compete for the limited resources (workers) necessary for founding a new colony. Young queens often fight to death. During fights, queens often release rectal fluid with a strong smell of grapes, after which they temporarily stop fighting. This potentially reduces the risk of deadly injury. The fluid and one of its components, ortho-aminoacetophenone, were previously found to have a pheromonal effect on worke...

  5. Swarm prevention and spring treatment against Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, B.; Gerritsen, L.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005 experiments were carried out to test the efficacy and efficiency of Varroa control combined with swarm prevention methods in spring. Honey bee colonies were split in an artificial swarm and a brood carrier. Hereafter the swarms were treated with oxalic acid and the brood carriers either with formic acid (2004) or Thymovar (2005). Both the oxalic acid and the formic acid were very effective, resulting in an average efficacy of 97% and 96%, respectively. There was some worker b...

  6. Genetic Architecture of a Hormonal Response to Gene Knockdown in Honey Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Ihle, Kate E.; Rueppell, Olav; Huang, Zachary Y.; Ying WANG; Fondrk, M. Kim; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in endocrine signaling is proposed to underlie the evolution and regulation of social life histories, but the genetic architecture of endocrine signaling is still poorly understood. An excellent example of a hormonally influenced set of social traits is found in the honey bee (Apis mellifera): a dynamic and mutually suppressive relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg) regulates behavioral maturation and foraging of workers. Several ...

  7. Effects of insect growth regulators on honey bees and non-Apis bees. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Tasei, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    International audience The insect growth regulators (IGRs) are ecdysone or juvenile hormone mimics, or chitin synthesis inhibitors. They are more likely to be hazardous to larval insects than to adults. Application of JH mimics to adult honey bees may affect foraging behaviour and some physiological traits. Topical and feeding tests revealed that application of IGRs to larvae may result in death and larval ejection by workers, malformed larvae and pupae with typical rimmed eyes, or malform...

  8. Detection of honey adulteration using HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cwiková

    2015-10-01

    We have further assessed whether honey samples comply with legislative requirements relating to this product or consumer misleading practices take place. Our analysed samples often lacked indication whether it is a floral honey or honeydew honey; this information was missing in eight out of 21 samples. Samples 5 and 9 did not mention the name of manufacturer. Sample 10 did not mention the country of origin.

  9. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian; Adriana Hitomi Matsuda; Deborah Helena Markowicz Bastos

    2007-01-01

    Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee an...

  10. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of spanish honeys

    OpenAIRE

    Paloma Morales; Ana Isabel Haza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Current evidence supports that consumption of polyphenols has beneficial effects against numerous diseases mostly associated with their antioxidant activity. Honey is a good source of antioxidants since it contains a great variety of phenolic compounds. Objective: The main objective of this work was to investigate the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of three crude commercial honeys of different floral origin (heather, rosemary and polyfloral honey) from Madrid Autonomic Co...

  11. Neuropharmacological Effects of Nigerian Honey in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Akanmu, Moses Atanda; Olowookere, Temitope Adunni; Atunwa, Soliu Abiola; Ibrahim, Basirat Olufunmilola; Lamidi, Oluwafunmilayo Fatima; Adams, Philomena Arekekhuegbe; Ajimuda, Bolanle Olubunmi; Adeyemo, Lilian Edelauvo

    2011-01-01

    Honey is a natural sweet substance that bees produce by transforming flower nectar or other sweet secretions of plants. It has widespread use in traditional medicine in various parts of the world. It has been reported to assist in building the entire central nervous system. The beneficial effects of honey have been attributed to the possible polyphenolic contents and some other constituents. The geographical locations and the sources of plant nectars may contribute to the effects of honey sam...

  12. Unique honey bee (Apis mellifera hive component-based communities as detected by a hybrid of phospholipid fatty-acid and fatty-acid methyl ester analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk J Grubbs

    Full Text Available Microbial communities (microbiomes are associated with almost all metazoans, including the honey bee Apis mellifera. Honey bees are social insects, maintaining complex hive systems composed of a variety of integral components including bees, comb, propolis, honey, and stored pollen. Given that the different components within hives can be physically separated and are nutritionally variable, we hypothesize that unique microbial communities may occur within the different microenvironments of honey bee colonies. To explore this hypothesis and to provide further insights into the microbiome of honey bees, we use a hybrid of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA analysis to produce broad, lipid-based microbial community profiles of stored pollen, adults, pupae, honey, empty comb, and propolis for 11 honey bee hives. Averaging component lipid profiles by hive, we show that, in decreasing order, lipid markers representing fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria have the highest relative abundances within honey bee colonies. Our lipid profiles reveal the presence of viable microbial communities in each of the six hive components sampled, with overall microbial community richness varying from lowest to highest in honey, comb, pupae, pollen, adults and propolis, respectively. Finally, microbial community lipid profiles were more similar when compared by component than by hive, location, or sampling year. Specifically, we found that individual hive components typically exhibited several dominant lipids and that these dominant lipids differ between components. Principal component and two-way clustering analyses both support significant grouping of lipids by hive component. Our findings indicate that in addition to the microbial communities present in individual workers, honey bee hives have resident microbial communities associated with different colony components.

  13. Worker Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    The philosophy and workability of the concept of worker participation in management decisions is discussed in the context of British society. It is recommended that four interests be represented in any kind of Workers' Council: management, workers, shareholders, and consumers. (AG)

  14. A pilot study of an mHealth application for healthcare workers: poor uptake despite high reported acceptability at a rural South African community-based MDR-TB treatment program.

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    Krisda H Chaiyachati

    Full Text Available As the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal addresses a growing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB epidemic by shifting care and treatment from trained specialty centers to community hospitals, delivering and monitoring MDR-TB therapy has presented new challenges. In particular, tracking and reporting adverse clinical events have been difficult for mobile healthcare workers (HCWs, trained health professionals who travel daily to patient homes to administer and monitor therapy. We designed and piloted a mobile phone application (Mobilize for mobile HCWs that electronically standardized the recording and tracking of MDR-TB patients on low-cost, functional phones.We assess the acceptability and feasibility of using Mobilize to record and submit adverse events forms weekly during the intensive phase of MDR-TB therapy and evaluate mobile HCW perceptions throughout the pilot period.All five mobile HCWs at one site were trained and provided with phones. Utilizing a mixed-methods evaluation, mobile HCWs' usage patterns were tracked electronically for seven months and analyzed. Qualitative focus groups and questionnaires were designed to understand the impact of mobile phone technology on the work environment.Mobile HCWs submitted nine of 33 (27% expected adverse events forms, conflicting with qualitative results in which mobile HCWs stated that Mobilize improved adverse events communication, helped their daily workflow, and could be successfully expanded to other health interventions. When presented with the conflict between their expressed views and actual practice, mobile HCWs cited forgetfulness and believed patients should take more responsibility for their own care.This pilot experience demonstrated poor uptake by HCWs despite positive responses to using mHealth. Though our results should be interpreted cautiously because of the small number of mobile HCWs and MDR-TB patients in this study, we recommend carefully exploring the motivations

  15. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  16. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  17. MICROSATELLITE ANALYSIS OF THE SLOVAK CARNIOLAN HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA CARNICA

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    Dušan Paál

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the selection and testing of suitable microsatellite markers for evaluation of the Slovak carniolan honey bee, particularly the population structure, genetic diversity, breed assignment and paternity testing of honey bee queens in Slovakia. Fourteen microsatellite markers running in two multiplex PCR reactions have been tested on 40 randomly selected workers and queens and further verified by PIC index, expected heterozygosity (HE and observed heterozygosity (HO. Chi-squared test of goodness of fit (α = 0,05 was used to check the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE of genotype for each marker. For the comparison tests the workers of A. mellifera mellifera x ligurica, A. mellifera macedonica and A. mellifera iberica were analyzed, using the same set of markers. We identified a total of 123 alleles in the Slovak carniolan honey bee samples, with the mean value of 8,78 allele per locus. Eleven markers showed the PIC value greater than 0,5 and thus were highly informative. The mean value of expected heterozygosity HE for all loci was 0,705 ± 0,15, the mean value of observed heterozygosity HO was 0,704 ± 0,18. The frequencies of genotypes for most tested markers were in The aim of this study was the selection and testing of suitable microsatellite markers for evaluation of the Slovak carniolan honey bee, particularly the population structure, genetic diversity, breed assignment and paternity testing of honey bee queens in Slovakia. Fourteen microsatellite markers running in two multiplex PCR reactions have been tested on 40 randomly selected workers and queens and further verified by PIC index, expected heterozygosity (HE and observed heterozygosity (HO. Chi-squared test of goodness of fit (α = 0,05 was used to check the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE of genotype for each marker. For the comparison tests the workers of A. mellifera mellifera x ligurica, A. mellifera macedonica and A. mellifera iberica were analyzed, using

  18. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

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    Sebastian Gisder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus, or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus, and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach applied in the field.

  19. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of spanish honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current evidence supports that consumption of polyphenols has beneficial effects against numerous diseases mostly associated with their antioxidant activity. Honey is a good source of antioxidants since it contains a great variety of phenolic compounds. Objective: The main objective of this work was to investigate the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of three crude commercial honeys of different floral origin (heather, rosemary and polyfloral honey from Madrid Autonomic Community (Spain as well as of an artificial honey in human peripheral blood promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60. Material and Methods: HL-60 cells were cultured in the presence of honeys at various concentrations for up to 72 hours and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were identified by chromatin condensation and flow cytometry analysis. ROS production was determined using 2΄,7΄-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H 2 DCFDA. Results: The three types of crude commercial honey induced apoptosis in a concentration and time dependent-manner. In addition, honeys with the higher phenolic content, heather and polyfloral, were the most effective to induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells. However, honeys did not generate reactive oxygen species (ROS and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC could not block honeys-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Conclusion: These data support that honeys induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells through a ROS-independent cell death pathway.Moreover, our findings indicate that the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of honey varied according to the floral origin and the phenolic content.

  20. Insemination of Honey Bee Queens

    OpenAIRE

    SOJKOVÁ, Lada

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental insemination honey bee queen is in Czech Republic only possibility, how make controlled mating bees. Main significance lies in expanding desirable feature in the bee colony. Instrumental inseminations are thus obtained the required feature, that are the mildness of bees, sitting on the comb, or resistance to disease. Insemination must precede controlled breeding drones and controlled breeding queens. That drones were sexually mature at the time of insemination must be breeding dr...

  1. Cocaine Tolerance in Honey Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Eirik Søvik; Jennifer L. Cornish; Barron, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly invertebrates are being used to investigate the molecular and cellular effects of drugs of abuse to explore basic mechanisms of addiction. However, in mammals the principle factors contributing to addiction are long-term adaptive responses to repeated drug use. Here we examined whether adaptive responses to cocaine are also seen in invertebrates using the honey bee model system. Repeated topical treatment with a low dose of cocaine rendered bees resistant to the deleterious motor...

  2. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas. PMID:25846634

  3. Two major medicinal honeys have different mechanisms of bactericidal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus H S Kwakman

    Full Text Available Honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity, but knowledge regarding the mechanism of action is still incomplete. We assessed the bactericidal activity and mechanism of action of Revamil® source (RS honey and manuka honey, the sources of two major medical-grade honeys. RS honey killed Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 2 hours, whereas manuka honey had such rapid activity only against B. subtilis. After 24 hours of incubation, both honeys killed all tested bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, but manuka honey retained activity up to higher dilutions than RS honey. Bee defensin-1 and H₂O₂ were the major factors involved in rapid bactericidal activity of RS honey. These factors were absent in manuka honey, but this honey contained 44-fold higher concentrations of methylglyoxal than RS honey. Methylglyoxal was a major bactericidal factor in manuka honey, but after neutralization of this compound manuka honey retained bactericidal activity due to several unknown factors. RS and manuka honey have highly distinct compositions of bactericidal factors, resulting in large differences in bactericidal activity.

  4. The study of honey qualitative parameters after decontamination by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to determine the physical-chemical parameters of a good quality honey. These parameters could be altered upon germ decontamination of honey be means of ionizing radiation. The study analyzed the evolution of germ contamination in honey and the physical-chemical parameters that characterizes the quality of honey. (author)

  5. Honey bee lines selected for high propolis production also have superior hygienic behavior and increased honey and pollen stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicodemo, D; De Jong, D; Couto, R H N; Malheiros, E B

    2013-01-01

    Honey bees use propolis to defend against invaders and disease organisms. As some colonies produce much more propolis than others, we investigated whether propolis collecting is associated with disease resistance traits, including hygienic behavior and resistance to the parasitic bee mite, Varroa destructor. The three highest (HP) and three lowest propolis-producing (LP) colonies among 36 Africanized honey bee colonies were initially selected. Queens and drones from these colonies were crossed through artificial insemination to produce five colonies of each of the following crosses: HP♀ X HP♂, LP♀ X HP♂, HP♀ X LP♂, and LP♀ X LP♂. Colonies headed by HP♀ X HP♂ queens produced significantly more propolis than those with HP♀ X LP♂ and LP♀ X HP♂ queens and these in turn produced significantly more propolis than those headed by LP♀ X LP♂ queens. The brood cell uncapping rate of the high-propolis-producing colonies in the hygienic behavior test was significantly superior to that of the other groups. The LP X LP group was significantly less hygienic than the two HP X LP crosses, based on the evaluation of the rate of removal of pin-killed pupae. The HP X HP colonies were significantly more hygienic than the other crosses. No significant differences were found in mite infestation rates among the groups of colonies; although overall, colony infestation rates were quite low (1.0 to 3.2 mites per 100 brood cells), which could have masked such effects. Honey and pollen stores were significantly and positively correlated with propolis production. PMID:24391041

  6. Application of Infrared Spectroscopy in Honey Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Svečnjak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and sensory characteristics vary significantly within different honey types. In order to determine botanical origin of honey, it is necessary to conduct rather complicated and time consuming analytical methods. IR spectroscopy has not yet been experimentally explored for honey analysis in Croatia, so the aim of this study was to determine claimed botanical origin of honey using both, standard and alternative (IR spectroscopy methods, for the purpose of their comparison, Altogether 144 samples of nine different unifloral honey types (black locust, sweet chestnut, lime, sage, heath, rosemary, lavender, mandarin and strawberry tree were collected from different Croatian regions directly from the beekeepers. In order to confirm claimed botanical origin of collected honey samples, melissopalinological analysis, moisture and electrical conductivity measurements were conducted. Infrared spectra of honey samples were recorded using the ABB Bomem MB102 Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR spectrometer. Selected IR spectral regions were analyzed by multivariate data analysis, principal components analysis (PCA. Preliminary PCA of IR spectra showed significant clustering of the analyzed samples by botanical origin. The results of this study showed that IR spectroscopy provides reliable results, but also represents rapid and cheap analytical tool in comparison to commonly used standard analytical methods. This research has also provided the first insight in infrared spectra of Croatian honeys.

  7. Honey bee genotypes and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meixner, Marina D; Büchler, Ralph; Costa, Cecilia;

    2014-01-01

    Although knowledge about honey bee geographic and genetic diversity has increased tremendously in recent decades, the adaptation of honey bees to their local environment has not been well studied. The current demand for high economic performance of bee colonies with desirable behavioural...

  8. Evaluation of the distribution and impacts of parasites, pathogens, and pesticides on honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muli, Elliud; Patch, Harland; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, James; Torto, Baldwyn; Baumgarten, Tracey; Kilonzo, Joseph; Kimani, James Ng'ang'a; Mumoki, Fiona; Masiga, Daniel; Tumlinson, James; Grozinger, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In East Africa, honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide critical pollination services and income for small-holder farmers and rural families. While honey bee populations in North America and Europe are in decline, little is known about the status of honey bee populations in Africa. We initiated a nationwide survey encompassing 24 locations across Kenya in 2010 to evaluate the numbers and sizes of honey bee colonies, assess the presence of parasites (Varroa mites and Nosema microsporidia) and viruses, identify and quantify pesticide contaminants in hives, and assay for levels of hygienic behavior. Varroa mites were present throughout Kenya, except in the remote north. Levels of Varroa were positively correlated with elevation, suggesting that environmental factors may play a role in honey bee host-parasite interactions. Levels of Varroa were negatively correlated with levels of hygienic behavior: however, while Varroa infestation dramatically reduces honey bee colony survival in the US and Europe, in Kenya Varroa presence alone does not appear to impact colony size. Nosema apis was found at three sites along the coast and one interior site. Only a small number of pesticides at low concentrations were found. Of the seven common US/European honey bee viruses, only three were identified but, like Varroa, were absent from northern Kenya. The number of viruses present was positively correlated with Varroa levels, but was not correlated with colony size or hygienic behavior. Our results suggest that Varroa, the three viruses, and Nosema have been relatively recently introduced into Kenya, but these factors do not yet appear to be impacting Kenyan bee populations. Thus chemical control for Varroa and Nosema are not necessary for Kenyan bees at this time. This study provides baseline data for future analyses of the possible mechanisms underlying resistance to and the long-term impacts of these factors on African bee populations. PMID:24740399

  9. Evaluation of the distribution and impacts of parasites, pathogens, and pesticides on honey bee (Apis mellifera populations in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliud Muli

    Full Text Available In East Africa, honey bees (Apis mellifera provide critical pollination services and income for small-holder farmers and rural families. While honey bee populations in North America and Europe are in decline, little is known about the status of honey bee populations in Africa. We initiated a nationwide survey encompassing 24 locations across Kenya in 2010 to evaluate the numbers and sizes of honey bee colonies, assess the presence of parasites (Varroa mites and Nosema microsporidia and viruses, identify and quantify pesticide contaminants in hives, and assay for levels of hygienic behavior. Varroa mites were present throughout Kenya, except in the remote north. Levels of Varroa were positively correlated with elevation, suggesting that environmental factors may play a role in honey bee host-parasite interactions. Levels of Varroa were negatively correlated with levels of hygienic behavior: however, while Varroa infestation dramatically reduces honey bee colony survival in the US and Europe, in Kenya Varroa presence alone does not appear to impact colony size. Nosema apis was found at three sites along the coast and one interior site. Only a small number of pesticides at low concentrations were found. Of the seven common US/European honey bee viruses, only three were identified but, like Varroa, were absent from northern Kenya. The number of viruses present was positively correlated with Varroa levels, but was not correlated with colony size or hygienic behavior. Our results suggest that Varroa, the three viruses, and Nosema have been relatively recently introduced into Kenya, but these factors do not yet appear to be impacting Kenyan bee populations. Thus chemical control for Varroa and Nosema are not necessary for Kenyan bees at this time. This study provides baseline data for future analyses of the possible mechanisms underlying resistance to and the long-term impacts of these factors on African bee populations.

  10. Bioactive properties of honey with propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osés, S M; Pascual-Maté, A; Fernández-Muiño, M A; López-Díaz, T M; Sancho, M T

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, propolis is used as an innovative preservative and as a bioactive food supplement. Due to its bitter and astringent flavour, propolis is hardly accepted by consumers. The aim of this study was to obtain a likeable food product made with honey and propolis, whose antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties were enhanced in comparison with those of the base honeys used. 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% soft propolis extracts were added to honeys and the products that most appealed to the users were subjected to further research. Total phenolics, flavonoids, ABTS free radical and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities increased in all mixtures. Antimicrobial activity of the combined products showed synergic effects, resulting in higher results than those of the base honeys and propolis extracts. Therefore, honeys enriched with small amounts of propolis extracts are promising functional foods. PMID:26593609

  11. The ectoparasitic mite Tropilaelaps mercedesae reduces western honey bee, Apismellifera, longevity and emergence weight, and promotes Deformed wing virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; Neumann, Peter; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Williams, Geoffrey R

    2016-06-01

    Historically an ectoparasite of the native Giant honey bee Apis dorsata, the mite Tropilaelaps mercedesae has switched hosts to the introduced western honey bee Apis mellifera throughout much of Asia. Few data regarding lethal and sub-lethal effects of T. mercedesae on A. mellifera exist, despite its similarity to the devastating mite Varroa destructor. Here we artificially infested worker brood of A. mellifera with T. mercedesae to investigate lethal (longevity) and sub-lethal (emergence weight, Deformed wing virus (DWV) levels and clinical symptoms of DWV) effects of the mite on its new host. The data show that T. mercedesae infestation significantly reduced host longevity and emergence weight, and promoted both DWV levels and associated clinical symptoms. Our results suggest that T. mercedesae is a potentially important parasite to the economically important A. mellifera honey bee. PMID:27126517

  12. Potential Role of Honey in Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Zahiruddin Othman; Rahimah Zakaria; Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain; Asma' Hassan; Nazlahshaniza Shafin; Badriya Al-Rahbi; Asma Hayati Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The composition and physicochemical properties of honey are variable depending on its floral source and often named according to the geographical location. The potential medicinal benefits of Tualang honey, a multifloral jungle honey found in Malaysia, have recently been attracting attention because of its reported beneficial effects in various diseases. This paper reviews the effects of honey, particularly Tualang honey, on learning and memory. Information regarding the effects of Tualang ho...

  13. Physicochemical characterization of natural honeys from different regions in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Sudzina, M.; Melich, Martin; Kňazovická, Vladimíra; Felšöciová, Soňa; Kociubinski, Guillermo; Andreji, Jaroslav; Pavličová, Simona; Kráčmar, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    This study is intended to determine the physicochemical characteristics of Slovakian honeys, and compare them with specifications described in the Codex Alimentarius Standard, the European Honey directive, the Slovak Codex Alimentarius and Slovak standard No. 1/2006. In addition, we tried to find out correlations between individual constituents of honeys. Physicochemical characterization was carried out following the harmonized methods dictated by the International Honey Commission IHC. Honey...

  14. Honey promotes angiogeneic activity in the rat aortic ring assay

    OpenAIRE

    Rossiter, K.; Cooper, Alan; Voegeli, D.; Lwaleed, B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible effects of honey on angiogenesis, using in vitro analogues of angiogenesis and an endothelial proliferation assay. Method: Using an in vitro rat aortic ring assay we compared pseudotubule formation by medicinal honey (Activon), supermarket honey (Rowse) and a honey-based ointment (Mesitran), with that of artificial honey (70% w/w sugar glucose/fructose). Pseudotubules were analysed using TCS Cellworks AngioSys software. The Angiokit sytem was used to validat...

  15. Honey promotes angiogenic activity in the rat aortic ring assay

    OpenAIRE

    Rossiter, K.; Cooper, A. J.; Voegeli, D.; Lwaleed, B A

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible effects of honey on angiogenesis, using in vitro analogues of angiogenesis and an endothelial proliferation assay. Method: Using an in vitro rat aortic ring assay we compared pseudotubule formation by medicinal honey (Activon), supermarket honey (Rowse) and a honey-based ointment (Mesitran), with that of artificial honey (70% w/w sugar glucose/fructose). Pseudotubules were analysed using TCS Cellworks AngioSys software. The Angiokit sytem was used t...

  16. Nutraceutical values of natural honey and its contribution to human health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibola, Abdulwahid; Chamunorwa, Joseph P; Erlwanger, Kennedy H

    2012-06-20

    The use of natural honey (NH) as a nutraceutical agent is associated with nutritional benefits and therapeutic promises. NH is widely accepted as food and medicine by all generations, traditions and civilizations, both ancient and modern. The nutritional profiles, including its use in infant and children feeding reported in different literatures as well as health indices and biomarkers observed by various researchers are illustrated in this manuscript. The review documents folk medicine, experimentation with animal models, and orthodox medical practices shown by clinical trials. This covers virtually all human organs and body systems extensively studied by different workers. The sources and adverse effects of NH contamination, as well as the preventive methods are identified. This could promote the availability of residue free honey and a wholesome natural product for domestic consumption and international market. This could also help to prevent health problems associated with NH poisoning. In addition, apicultural practices and the economic importance of honey are well documented. This report also includes information about a relatively unknown and uncommon South American stingless bee species. We concluded this review by identifying important roles for Ethno-entomologists, other Scientists and Apiculturists in the development of stingless bees to boost honey production, consumption and economic earnings.

  17. The neonicotinoids thiacloprid, imidacloprid, and clothianidin affect the immunocompetence of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Annely; Gorenflo, Anna; Siede, Reinhold; Meixner, Marina; Büchler, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    A strong immune defense is vital for honey bee health and colony survival. This defense can be weakened by environmental factors that may render honey bees more vulnerable to parasites and pathogens. Honey bees are frequently exposed to neonicotinoid pesticides, which are being discussed as one of the stress factors that may lead to colony failure. We investigated the sublethal effects of the neonicotinoids thiacloprid, imidacloprid, and clothianidin on individual immunity, by studying three major aspects of immunocompetence in worker bees: total hemocyte number, encapsulation response, and antimicrobial activity of the hemolymph. In laboratory experiments, we found a strong impact of all three neonicotinoids. Thiacloprid (24h oral exposure, 200 μg/l or 2000 μg/l) and imidacloprid (1 μg/l or 10 μg/l) reduced hemocyte density, encapsulation response, and antimicrobial activity even at field realistic concentrations. Clothianidin had an effect on these immune parameters only at higher than field realistic concentrations (50-200 μg/l). These results suggest that neonicotinoids affect the individual immunocompetence of honey bees, possibly leading to an impaired disease resistance capacity. PMID:26776096

  18. Nutraceutical values of natural honey and its contribution to human health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibola, Abdulwahid; Chamunorwa, Joseph P; Erlwanger, Kennedy H

    2012-01-01

    The use of natural honey (NH) as a nutraceutical agent is associated with nutritional benefits and therapeutic promises. NH is widely accepted as food and medicine by all generations, traditions and civilizations, both ancient and modern. The nutritional profiles, including its use in infant and children feeding reported in different literatures as well as health indices and biomarkers observed by various researchers are illustrated in this manuscript. The review documents folk medicine, experimentation with animal models, and orthodox medical practices shown by clinical trials. This covers virtually all human organs and body systems extensively studied by different workers. The sources and adverse effects of NH contamination, as well as the preventive methods are identified. This could promote the availability of residue free honey and a wholesome natural product for domestic consumption and international market. This could also help to prevent health problems associated with NH poisoning. In addition, apicultural practices and the economic importance of honey are well documented. This report also includes information about a relatively unknown and uncommon South American stingless bee species. We concluded this review by identifying important roles for Ethno-entomologists, other Scientists and Apiculturists in the development of stingless bees to boost honey production, consumption and economic earnings. PMID:22716101

  19. Differential sensitivity of honey bees and bumble bees to a dietary insecticide (imidacloprid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, James E; Page, Christopher J; Uygun, Mehmet B; Holmbergh, Marie; Li, Yueru; Wheeler, Jonathan G; Laycock, Ian; Pook, Christopher J; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Smirnoff, Nick; Tyler, Charles R

    2012-12-01

    Currently, there is concern about declining bee populations and the sustainability of pollination services. One potential threat to bees is the unintended impact of systemic insecticides, which are ingested by bees in the nectar and pollen from flowers of treated crops. To establish whether imidacloprid, a systemic neonicotinoid and insect neurotoxin, harms individual bees when ingested at environmentally realistic levels, we exposed adult worker bumble bees, Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), and honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), to dietary imidacloprid in feeder syrup at dosages between 0.08 and 125μg l(-1). Honey bees showed no response to dietary imidacloprid on any variable that we measured (feeding, locomotion and longevity). In contrast, bumble bees progressively developed over time a dose-dependent reduction in feeding rate with declines of 10-30% in the environmentally relevant range of up to 10μg l(-1), but neither their locomotory activity nor longevity varied with diet. To explain their differential sensitivity, we speculate that honey bees are better pre-adapted than bumble bees to feed on nectars containing synthetic alkaloids, such as imidacloprid, by virtue of their ancestral adaptation to tropical nectars in which natural alkaloids are prevalent. We emphasise that our study does not suggest that honey bee colonies are invulnerable to dietary imidacloprid under field conditions, but our findings do raise new concern about the impact of agricultural neonicotinoids on wild bumble bee populations. PMID:23044068

  20. Nutraceutical values of natural honey and its contribution to human health and wealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibola Abdulwahid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of natural honey (NH as a nutraceutical agent is associated with nutritional benefits and therapeutic promises. NH is widely accepted as food and medicine by all generations, traditions and civilizations, both ancient and modern. The nutritional profiles, including its use in infant and children feeding reported in different literatures as well as health indices and biomarkers observed by various researchers are illustrated in this manuscript. The review documents folk medicine, experimentation with animal models, and orthodox medical practices shown by clinical trials. This covers virtually all human organs and body systems extensively studied by different workers. The sources and adverse effects of NH contamination, as well as the preventive methods are identified. This could promote the availability of residue free honey and a wholesome natural product for domestic consumption and international market. This could also help to prevent health problems associated with NH poisoning. In addition, apicultural practices and the economic importance of honey are well documented. This report also includes information about a relatively unknown and uncommon South American stingless bee species. We concluded this review by identifying important roles for Ethno-entomologists, other Scientists and Apiculturists in the development of stingless bees to boost honey production, consumption and economic earnings.

  1. Trace elements determination in Syrian honey using x-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major and trace elements of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr in 27 Syrian honey samples, which collected from different areas in the country, in addition to 3 imported honey samples, were determined by dry ashing method for XRF analysis. The samples were diluted and homogenized with a binder made from cellulose powder. The analyzed elements were divided into three groups, relating to the secondary targets used for X-ray excitation. The internal standard method for XRF analysis with a Mo secondary target was used for the determination of the first group of elements: Sr, Rb, Se, As, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Fe. While, the external standard method for XRF analysis with Cu and Ti secondary targets was used for the determination of the second: Mn, Cr, Ti, Ca, K, and third: Cl, and S group of elements, respectively. The results were accurate with a relative standard error less than 4.2 %. The problem of element loss was overcome by the complete drying of honey samples before their ashing. The moisture content was obtained using mass loss and refractive index methods. As a result, the lower limits of detection (LLD) obtained by Mo-XRF was in the range from 0.011 μg Sr/g to 0.064 μg Fe/g, resulting for samples containing 0.1 % ash and collecting live time 1000 s; while, LLD obtained by Cu-XRF was in the range 0.014 μg Mn/g to 0.057 μg K/g. LLD for S and Cl using Ti secondary target was with values of 0.503 μg/g and 1.96 μg/g, respectively. The enhancement factor obtained by drying method for XRF was in the range from 147 to 1667. Normal concentration of elements in Syrian honey was obtained. The concentration of elements was comparable to those obtained by other workers for honeys in different countries. Elements of K, Ca, and Cl were predominantly distributed in all Syrian honey samples. Elements of Sr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Ti, and S were well distributed in all honey samples. While, the concentrations of Rb, Ni, Mn, Cr elements in some honey samples were below the

  2. Sperm viability and gene expression in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) following exposure to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid and the organophosphate acaricide coumaphos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, Veeranan; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yanping; Jackson, Caitlin; Pettis, Jeffery S

    2016-06-01

    Honey bee population declines are of global concern. Numerous factors appear to cause these declines including parasites, pathogens, malnutrition and pesticides. Residues of the organophosphate acaricide coumaphos and the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid, widely used to combat Varroa mites and for crop protection in agriculture, respectively, have been detected in wax, pollen and comb samples. Here, we assess the effects of these compounds at different doses on the viability of sperm stored in the honey bee queens' spermatheca. Our results demonstrate that sub-lethal doses of imidacloprid (0.02ppm) decreased sperm viability by 50%, 7days after treatment. Sperm viability was a downward trend (about 33%) in queens treated with high doses of coumaphos (100ppm), but there was not significant difference. The expression of genes that are involved in development, immune responses and detoxification in honey bee queens and workers exposed to chemicals was measured by qPCR analysis. The data showed that expression levels of specific genes were triggered 1day after treatment. The expression levels of P450 subfamily genes, CYP306A1, CYP4G11 and CYP6AS14 were decreased in honey bee queens treated with low doses of coumaphos (5ppm) and imidacloprid (0.02ppm). Moreover, these two compounds suppressed the expression of genes related to antioxidation, immunity and development in queens at day 1. Up-regulation of antioxidants by these compounds in worker bees was observed at day 1. Coumaphos also caused a repression of CYP306A1 and CYP4G11 in workers. Antioxidants appear to prevent chemical damage to honey bees. We also found that DWV replication increased in workers treated with imidacloprid. This research clearly demonstrates that chemical exposure can affect sperm viability in queen honey bees. PMID:26979384

  3. Diet-dependent gene expression in honey bees: honey vs. sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Marsha M; Robinson, Gene E

    2014-01-01

    Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture. PMID:25034029

  4. Diet-dependent gene expression in honey bees: honey vs. sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Marsha M; Robinson, Gene E

    2014-07-17

    Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture.

  5. Quality of royal jelly produced by Africanized honeybees fed a supplemented diet

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Josiane Sereia; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of artificial supplements prepared with soybean protein isolate, brewer's yeast, mixture of soybean protein isolate with brewer's yeast, linseed oil, palm oil, and a mixture of linseed oil with palm oil on the physicochemical and microbiological composition of royal jelly produced by Africanized honey bee colonies. Considering these results, providing supplements for Africanized honeybee colonies subjected to royal jelly production can help an...

  6. csd alleles in the red dwarf honey bee (Apis florea,Hymenoptera: Apidae) show exceptionally high nucleotide diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong Liu; Zi-Long Wang; Xiao-Bo Wu; Wei-Yu Yan; Zhi-Jiang Zeng

    2011-01-01

    The single locus complementary sex determination (sl-csd) gene is the primary gene determining the gender of honey bees (Apis spp.).While the csd gene has been well studied in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera),and comparable data exist in both the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) and the giant honey bee (Apis dorsata),no studies have been conducted in the red dwarf honey bee,Apisflorea.In this study we cloned the genomic region 3 of the A.florea csd gene from 60 workers,and identified 12 csd alleles.Analysis showed that similar to A.mellifera,region 3 of the csd gene contains a RS domain at the N terminal,a proline-rich domain at the C terminal,and a hypervariable region in the middle.However,the A.florea csd gene possessed a much higher level of nucleotide diversity,compared to A.mellifera,A.cerana and Apis dorsata.We also show that similar to the other three Apis species,in A.florea,nonsynonymous mutations in the csd gene are selectively favored in young alleles.

  7. Effects of host age on susceptibility to infection and immune-gene expression in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) inoculated with Nosema ceranae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosema ceranae is a microsporidium parasite infecting honey bees worldwide. All colony members including workers, drones and queens can become infected. In this study, we inoculated queens of age 1, 6 and 12 days post adult emergence, with N. ceranae spores of different doses and allowed them to age...

  8. The distribution of Aspergillus spp. opportunistic parasites in hives and their pathogenicity to honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kirsten; Fazio, Géraldine; Jensen, Annette B; Hughes, William O H

    2014-03-14

    Stonebrood is a disease of honey bee larvae caused by fungi from the genus Aspergillus. As very few studies have focused on the epidemiological aspects of stonebrood and diseased brood may be rapidly discarded by worker bees, it is possible that a high number of cases go undetected. Aspergillus spp. fungi are ubiquitous and associated with disease in many insects, plants, animals and man. They are regarded as opportunistic pathogens that require immunocompromised hosts to establish infection. Microbiological studies have shown high prevalences of Aspergillus spp. in apiaries which occur saprophytically on hive substrates. However, the specific conditions required for pathogenicity to develop remain unknown. In this study, an apiary was screened to determine the prevalence and diversity of Aspergillus spp. fungi. A series of dose-response tests were then conducted using laboratory reared larvae to determine the pathogenicity and virulence of frequently occurring isolates. The susceptibility of adult worker bees to Aspergillus flavus was also tested. Three isolates (A. flavus, Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus phoenicis) of the ten species identified were pathogenic to honey bee larvae. Moreover, adult honey bees were also confirmed to be highly susceptible to A. flavus infection when they ingested conidia. Neither of the two Aspergillus fumigatus strains used in dose-response tests induced mortality in larvae and were the least pathogenic of the isolates tested. These results confirm the ubiquity of Aspergillus spp. in the apiary environment and highlight their potential to infect both larvae and adult bees.

  9. BEES, HONEY AND HEALTH IN ANTIQUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cilliers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    In antiquity bees and honey had a very special significance. Honey was indeed considered to drip from heaven as the food of the gods. As an infant Zeus was fed on honey in the cave of Dicte, by bees and the beautiful Melissa, whose name became the Greek word for “bee”. When the ancient Romans wished you luck they said “May honey drip on you!” and for the Israelites Palestine was a “land of milk and honey” (Forbes 1957:85-87. In his Georgics Vergil likened the inhabitants of the new Golden Age to an orderly swarm of bees (Johnson 1980:90-105, and the word “honeymoon” probably derived from the ancient custom of newlyweds to drink mead (honey-wine for a month after their wedding (Hajar 2002:5-6. Allsop and Miller state that even today honey is popularly associated with warmth, nostalgia, goodness and flattery (1996:513-520.

    In this study the origins of apiculture (bee-keeping and the status and uses of honey in antiquity are analysed – with emphasis on its assumed value as a health promoting agent.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Honey on Cariogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khamverdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Honey has antibacterial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of honey on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, solutions containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 50% and100%(w/v of natural Hamadan honey were prepared. Each blood (nutrient agar plate was then filled with dilutions of the honey. The strains of bacteria were inoculated in blood agar for 24 hours at 37oC and were adjusted according to the McFarland scale (10×10 cfumcl -1. All assays were repeated 10 times for each of the honey concentrations. Data were analyzed by non parametric Chi-Square test. Statistical significance was set at α=0.05.Results: Significant antibacterial activity was detected for honey on Streptococcus mutans in concentrations more than 20% and on Lactobacillus in 100% concentration (P<0.05.Conclusion: It seems that antibacterial activity of honey could be used for prevention and reduction of dental caries.

  11. Review of the Medicinal Effects of Tualang Honey and a Comparison with Manuka Honey

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Sarfarz; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2013-01-01

    Tualang honey (TH) is a Malaysian multifloral jungle honey. In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the number of studies published in medical databases regarding its potential health benefits. The honey is produced by the rock bee (Apis dorsata), which builds hives on branches of tall Tualang trees located mainly in the north-western region of Peninsular Malaysia. This review collates the results of the various studies of TH that range from research on tissue culture to randomis...

  12. Physiological and behavioral changes in honey bees (Apis mellifera) induced by Nosema ceranae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goblirsch, Mike; Huang, Zachary Y; Spivak, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Persistent exposure to mite pests, poor nutrition, pesticides, and pathogens threaten honey bee survival. In healthy colonies, the interaction of the yolk precursor protein, vitellogenin (Vg), and endocrine factor, juvenile hormone (JH), functions as a pacemaker driving the sequence of behaviors that workers perform throughout their lives. Young bees perform nursing duties within the hive and have high Vg and low JH; as older bees transition to foraging, this trend reverses. Pathogens and parasites can alter this regulatory network. For example, infection with the microsporidian, Nosema apis, has been shown to advance behavioral maturation in workers. We investigated the effects of infection with a recent honey bee pathogen on physiological factors underlying the division of labor in workers. Bees infected with N. ceranae were nearly twice as likely to engage in precocious foraging and lived 9 days less, on average, compared to controls. We also show that Vg transcript was low, while JH titer spiked, in infected nurse-aged bees in cages. This pattern of expression is atypical and the reverse of what would be expected for healthy, non-infected bees. Disruption of the basic underpinnings of temporal polyethism due to infection may be a contributing factor to recent high colony mortality, as workers may lose flexibility in their response to colony demands. PMID:23483987

  13. Physiological and behavioral changes in honey bees (Apis mellifera) induced by Nosema ceranae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goblirsch, Mike; Huang, Zachary Y; Spivak, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Persistent exposure to mite pests, poor nutrition, pesticides, and pathogens threaten honey bee survival. In healthy colonies, the interaction of the yolk precursor protein, vitellogenin (Vg), and endocrine factor, juvenile hormone (JH), functions as a pacemaker driving the sequence of behaviors that workers perform throughout their lives. Young bees perform nursing duties within the hive and have high Vg and low JH; as older bees transition to foraging, this trend reverses. Pathogens and parasites can alter this regulatory network. For example, infection with the microsporidian, Nosema apis, has been shown to advance behavioral maturation in workers. We investigated the effects of infection with a recent honey bee pathogen on physiological factors underlying the division of labor in workers. Bees infected with N. ceranae were nearly twice as likely to engage in precocious foraging and lived 9 days less, on average, compared to controls. We also show that Vg transcript was low, while JH titer spiked, in infected nurse-aged bees in cages. This pattern of expression is atypical and the reverse of what would be expected for healthy, non-infected bees. Disruption of the basic underpinnings of temporal polyethism due to infection may be a contributing factor to recent high colony mortality, as workers may lose flexibility in their response to colony demands.

  14. Physiological and behavioral changes in honey bees (Apis mellifera induced by Nosema ceranae infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Goblirsch

    Full Text Available Persistent exposure to mite pests, poor nutrition, pesticides, and pathogens threaten honey bee survival. In healthy colonies, the interaction of the yolk precursor protein, vitellogenin (Vg, and endocrine factor, juvenile hormone (JH, functions as a pacemaker driving the sequence of behaviors that workers perform throughout their lives. Young bees perform nursing duties within the hive and have high Vg and low JH; as older bees transition to foraging, this trend reverses. Pathogens and parasites can alter this regulatory network. For example, infection with the microsporidian, Nosema apis, has been shown to advance behavioral maturation in workers. We investigated the effects of infection with a recent honey bee pathogen on physiological factors underlying the division of labor in workers. Bees infected with N. ceranae were nearly twice as likely to engage in precocious foraging and lived 9 days less, on average, compared to controls. We also show that Vg transcript was low, while JH titer spiked, in infected nurse-aged bees in cages. This pattern of expression is atypical and the reverse of what would be expected for healthy, non-infected bees. Disruption of the basic underpinnings of temporal polyethism due to infection may be a contributing factor to recent high colony mortality, as workers may lose flexibility in their response to colony demands.

  15. Honey, Hadza, hunter-gatherers, and human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette; Wood, Brian; Crittenden, Alyssa; Porter, Claire; Mabulla, Audax

    2014-06-01

    Honey is the most energy dense food in nature. It is therefore not surprising that, where it exists, honey is an important food for almost all hunter-gatherers. Here we describe and analyze widespread honey collecting among foragers and show that where it is absent, in arctic and subarctic habitats, honey bees are also rare to absent. Second, we focus on one hunter-gatherer society, the Hadza of Tanzania. Hadza men and women both rank honey as their favorite food. Hadza acquire seven types of honey. Hadza women usually acquire honey that is close to the ground while men often climb tall baobab trees to raid the largest bee hives with stinging bees. Honey accounts for a substantial proportion of the kilocalories in the Hadza diet, especially that of Hadza men. Cross-cultural forager data reveal that in most hunter-gatherers, men acquire more honey than women but often, as with the Hadza, women do acquire some. Virtually all warm-climate foragers consume honey. Our closest living relatives, the great apes, take honey when they can. We suggest that honey has been part of the diet of our ancestors dating back to at least the earliest hominins. The earliest hominins, however, would have surely been less capable of acquiring as much honey as more recent, fully modern human hunter-gatherers. We discuss reasons for thinking our early ancestors would have acquired less honey than foragers ethnographically described, yet still significantly more than our great ape relatives.

  16. New data on African health professionals abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries.

  17. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  18. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M; Locatelli, Fernando F

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  19. MICROBIAL QUALITY OF HONEY MIXTURE WITH POLLEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of this study was evaluation of microbial quality in raw materials (honey, pollen and evaluation of microbial quality in honey mixture with pollen (2.91 % and 3.85 % and also dynamics of microbial groups in honey mixtures with pollen after 14 days storage at the room temperature (approximately 25 °C and in cold store (8 °C. We used dilution plating method for testing of samples. Detections of total plate microbial count (aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, sporulating bacteria, coliform bacteria, Bifidobacterium sp., Lactobacillus sp. and microscopic fungi were performed. In general, counts of microorganisms decreased in honey mixture with pollen compared to raw pollen and these counts increased compared to natural honey. Total plate count was 5.37 log KTJ.g-1 in pollen; 1.36 log KTJ.g-1 in honey; 2.97 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen and 2.04 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen. Coliform bacteria were detected in pollen (1.77 log KTJ.g-1. Then, we found coliform bacteria in one sample of honey mixtures with pollen (2.91 % - 1.00 log KTJ.g-1.Bifidobacterium species were detected only in raw pollen. We did not findLactobacillus sp. in any of the samples. Microscopic fungi were detected on two cultivating media. Yeasts were present in pollen sample (average 5.39 log KTJ.g-1, honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 2.51 log KTJ.g-1 and honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (average 1.58 log KTJ.g-1. Filamentous microscopic fungi were detectable in pollen (average 3.38 log KTJ.g-1, in honey (only on one medium: 1.00 log KTJ.g-1, in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 1.15 log KTJ.g-1 and in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (1.71 %. Raw pollen contained microscopic fungi as Absidiasp., Mucor sp., Alternaria sp. andEmericella nidulans. Honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen after storage (14 days contained lower microbial counts when compared with the sample

  20. Quality Control of Wild Berries Honey Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quality control parameters of wild berries honey syrup . The product was created in laboratory (wild berries: honey, 1:4 w/w and there were no changes recorded in overall quality over 6 months preservation at 1-2°C. Basic quality parameters of the product were evaluated: humidity, pH, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase, total sugars and ascorbic acid. Methods developed by Internantional Honey Commission and Romanian Food Quality Standards were applied during this study. The product presented qood quality criteria and it was highly appreciated by consumers who tasted it. This study presents a valuable method to preserve fresh widberries in honey over a long period of time. The economical value of this experiment resides in making these fruits available outside the harvesting season.

  1. Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Manisha Deb; Mandal, Shyamapada

    2011-01-01

    Indeed, medicinal importance of honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. The healing property of honey is due to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound condition, and its high viscosity helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection. Its immunomodulatory property is relevant to wound repair too. The antimic...

  2. Determination of volatile compounds of pine honeys

    OpenAIRE

    SİLİCİ, Sibel

    2011-01-01

    The volatile compounds of 13 Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) honey samples were characterized by solid phase microextraction (SPME) analysis, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 42 volatile compounds were identified, but volatile compounds such as nonana1, benzene, 4-hexen-3-ol, alpha-pinene, and 2-heptanone were recognized to be specific floral origin markers of the pine honey. The SPME extraction method was proposed as an alternative way to carry o...

  3. A review on honeys antibacterial properties

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhri, Said F.; Kucukyildiz, Harun; Ishaque, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can cause a wide range of infectious diseases in health care facilities and community. There are only few antibiotics that are useful against MRSA and that they may develop resistance to these antibiotics is just matter of time. These issues emphasize the need to develop alternative and effective methods to treat MRSA. Honey has been used in many cultures through history to treat wound and in the last decades honey has been rediscovered. T...

  4. Therapeutic manuka honey: no longer so alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dee A Carter; Blair, Shona E.; Nural eCokcetin; Daniel eBouzo; Peter eBrooks; Schlothauer, Ralf C.; Elizabeth J. Harry

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as alternative, we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliabl...

  5. Therapeutic Manuka Honey: No Longer So Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dee A Carter; Blair, Shona E.; Cokcetin, Nural N.; Bouzo, Daniel; Brooks, Peter; Schothauer, Ralf; Elizabeth J. Harry

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as “alternative”, we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliabl...

  6. Studies on the physicochemical characteristics of heated honey, honey mixed with ghee and their food consumption pattern by rats

    OpenAIRE

    Annapoorani, A.; Anilakumar, K. R.; Khanum, Farhath; Murthy, N. Anjaneya; Bawa, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Honey and ghee are the two food substances used widely in our diet. In Ayurveda, it is quoted that heated honey and honey mixed with equal amount of ghee produce deleterious effects. Hence, it was of our interest to study the physicochemical characteristics and chemical constituents of heated honey and honey mixed with ghee, and their effect on daily food intake and organ weights of rats. The specific gravity of samples showed a significant decrease in honey and ghee samples heated to 140°C. ...

  7. Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of 17 commercial Moroccan honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazza, Smail; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Antunes, Dulce; Miguel, Maria Graça

    2014-06-01

    In this study, 17 commercial honey samples from Morocco were analyzed. Four samples did not meet the international physicochemical standards due to high hydroxymethylfurfural content and low diastase activity. Phenol content varied from 163.82 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg in citrus honey to 923.70 mg (GAE)/kg in thyme honey from Rachidia; flavonoid content ranged from 4.26 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/kg in citrus honey to 139.62 mg QE/kg in black cumin honey. Black cumin honey had the highest peroxyl scavenging activity; oregano (from Zaraphyt) and thyme honeys (from Rachidia) had the highest ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid]) scavenging activity; and thyme honey (Saouira) had the highest NO scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Moroccan honeys was correlated with the phenol, flavonoid, and melanoidin contents. Dark honeys had higher antioxidant activity than light honeys. Samples with high sodium levels had lower free radical scavenging activity. On the other hand, calcium and magnesium increased the ABTS and peroxyl scavenging capacity, respectively, of honey samples. According to cluster and discriminant analyses, the honey samples were grouped in three clusters with respect to the phenol, flavonoid, melanoidin, proline, mineral and sugar contents, and free radical scavenging capacity. PMID:24438231

  8. A neonicotinoid impairs olfactory learning in Asian honey bees (Apis cerana) exposed as larvae or as adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Tan; Weiwen Chen; Shihao Dong; Xiwen Liu; Yuchong Wang; Nieh, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Xenobiotics such as the neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, are used globally, but their effects on native bee species are poorly understood. We studied the effects of sublethal doses of imidacloprid on olfactory learning in the native honey bee species, Apis cerana, an important pollinator of agricultural and native plants throughout Asia. We provide the first evidence that imidacloprid can impair learning in A. cerana workers exposed as adults or as larvae. Adults that ingested a single ...

  9. Functional morphology of the honey stomach wall of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The honey bee crop, or honey stomach, is designed with cords of muscles that are numerous enough in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to fully enclose and confine the underlying, cuticle-lines epithelium. Although appressed against the inner wall of this enclosure by the crop's contents,...

  10. A first approach to the characterization of portuguese honeydew honey

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Vânia; Rodrigues, E; Vilas-Boas, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    At the moment, the Portuguese honey sector is mostly focused on the production of monofloral nectar honeys that simultaneously have a greater market demand and commercially represent higher incomes for beekeepers.

  11. Honey shows potent inhibitory activity against the bovine testes hyaluronidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolayli, Sevgi; Sahin, Huseyin; Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Sahin, Kübra

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-hyaluronidase activities of honeys from different botanical origins honeys in order to determine their anti-inflammatory properties. The total phenolic contents, total flavonoids and total tannin levels of six types of honey, chestnut, oak, heather, pine, buckwheat and mixed blossom, were determined. Concentration-related inhibition values were tested turbidimetrically on bovine testis hyaluronidase (BTHase) as IC50 (mg/mL). All honeys exhibited various concentration-dependent degrees of inhibition against BTHase. Inhibition values varied significantly depending on honeys' levels of phenolic contents, flavonoid and tannin. The honeys with the highest anti-hyaluronidase activity were oak, chestnut and heather. In conclusion, polyphenol-rich honeys have high anti-hyaluronidase activity, and these honeys have high protective and complementary potential against hyaluronidase-induced anti-inflammatory failures. PMID:26076195

  12. Honey discrimination of three Portuguese beekeepers associations by phenolic pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, L. G.; Barros, Lillian; Girante, Sónia; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Leticia M. Estevinho

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic compounds (phenolics acids and flavonoids) in honey are known to have healthpromoting effects as antioxidants and anticarcinogens". These compounds, considered as the phytochemical profile, have also been used as biochemical markers for the honey geographic origin.

  13. Antibiofilm Activity of Manuka Honey in Combination with Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Campeau, Michelle E. M.; Robin Patel

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the in vitro activity of Manuka honey against biofilm bacteria in combination with antibiotics and visualized the effect of Manuka honey on bacterial biofilms using scanning electron microscopy. The fractional biofilm eradication concentration (∑FBEC ) index for vancomycin plus Manuka honey against S. aureus IDRL-4284 biofilms was 0.34, indicating a synergistic interaction. The ∑FBEC  index for gentamicin plus Manuka honey against P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms was 0.78–0.82, indicat...

  14. Absence of bacterial resistance to medical-grade manuka honey

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, R A; Jenkins, L.; Henriques, A. F. M.; Duggan, R. S.; Burton, N. F.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Clinical use of honey in the topical treatment of wounds has increased in Europe and North America since licensed wound care products became available in 2004 and 2007, respectively. Honey-resistant bacteria have not been isolated from wounds, but there is a need to investigate whether honey has the potential to select for honey resistance. Two cultures of bacteria from reference collections (Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 10017 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853) and four ...

  15. Neurological Effects of Honey: Current and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mijanur Rahman; Siew Hua Gan; Md. Ibrahim Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Honey is the only insect-derived natural product with therapeutic, traditional, spiritual, nutritional, cosmetic, and industrial value. In addition to having excellent nutritional value, honey is a good source of physiologically active natural compounds, such as polyphenols. Unfortunately, there are very few current research projects investigating the nootropic and neuropharmacological effects of honey, and these are still in their early stages. Raw honey possesses nootropic effects, such as ...

  16. Estimating reproductive success of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in honey bee colonies by trapping emigrating larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Richard T; Torto, Baldwyn; Willms, Steve; Fombong, Ayuka T; Duehl, Adrian; Teal, Peter E A

    2012-02-01

    The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) is a scavenger and facultative predator in honey bee colonies, where it feeds on pollen, honey, and bee brood. Although a minor problem in its native Africa, it is an invasive pest of honey bees in the United States and Australia. Adult beetles enter bee hives to oviposit and feed. Larval development occurs within the hive, but mature larvae leave the hive to pupate in soil. The numbers leaving, which can be estimated by trapping, measure the reproductive success of adult beetles in the hive over any given period of time. We describe a trap designed to intercept mature larvae as they reach the end of the bottom board on their way to the ground. Trap efficiency was estimated by releasing groups of 100 larvae into empty brood boxes and counting the numbers trapped. Some larvae escaped, but mean efficiency ranged from 87.2 to 94.2%. We envision the trap as a research tool for study of beetle population dynamics, and we used it to track numbers of larvae leaving active hives for pupation in the soil. The traps detected large increases and then decreases in numbers of larvae leaving colonies that weakened and died. They also detected small numbers of larvae leaving strong European and African colonies, even when no larvae were observed in the hives. PMID:22525070

  17. Complex tool sets for honey extraction among chimpanzees in Loango National Park, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Christophe; Head, Josephine; Robbins, Martha M

    2009-06-01

    Homo faber was once proposed as a label for humans specifically to highlight their unique propensity for tool use. However, new observations on complex tool use by the chimpanzees of Loango National Park, Gabon, expand our knowledge about tool-using abilities in Pan troglodytes. Chimpanzees in Loango, when using tools to extract honey from three types of bee nests, were observed to regularly use three- to five-element tool sets. In other words, different types of tools were used sequentially to access a single food source. Such tool sets included multi-function tools that present typical wear for two distinct uses. In addition, chimpanzees exploited underground bee nests and used ground-perforating tools to locate nest chambers that were not visible from the ground surface. These new observations concur with others from Central African chimpanzees to highlight the importance of honey extraction in arguments favoring the emergence of complex tool use in hominoids, including different tool types, expanded tool sets, multifunction tools, and the exploitation of underground resources. This last technique requires sophisticated cognitive abilities concerning unseen objects. A sequential analysis reveals a higher level of complexity in honey extraction than previously proposed for nut cracking or hunting tools, and compares with some technologies attributed to early hominins from the Early and Middle Stone Age. A better understanding of similarities in human and chimpanzee tool use will allow for a greater understanding of tool-using skills that are uniquely human. PMID:19457542

  18. Estimates of covariance components for hygienic behavior in Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera

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    Fabiana Martins Costa-Maia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and phenotypic parameters considering the genetic effect on hygienic behavior of queen and workers from 40 Africanized honeybees colonies were estimated separately. Maternal origin of queens was controlled whereas the paternal was unknown, and different groups of workers were considered in three seasons, October 2006, April 2007 and August 2007, but with the same queen. Colonies were 21 honey producers and 19 royal jelly producers. After the method of freezing capped brood, hygienic behavior was determined by the ratio between the number of dead capped brood removed at 24, 48 and 72 hours and the total number of capped brood at zero hour. Data was submitted to single and three traits analyses using Bayesian inference. Estimates of direct heritability at 24, 48 and 72 hours (0.10, 0.11 and 0.11 were identical to the motherly ones. Estimates by three trait analysis of direct heritability were 0.28, 0.15, 0.24, and of maternal heritability were 0.23, 0.29, 0.27, at 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Correlations between maternal and genetic effects were 0.12, 0.09 and - 0.08 at, 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Correlation between 24 and 48 hours was 0.49; between 24 and 72 hours, 0.40; and between 48 and 72 hours, 0.47. Moderate genetic correlations with the number of capped brood removed until 48 and 72 hours indicate that after the selection of a few generations, these traits can become an efficient criterion for selection in 24 hours.

  19. Mitochondrial structure and dynamics as critical factors in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) caste development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Douglas Elias; Alberici, Luciane Carla; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between nutrition and phenotype is an especially challenging question in cases of facultative polyphenism, like the castes of social insects. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, unexpected modifications in conserved signaling pathways revealed the hypoxia response as a possible mechanism underlying the regulation of body size and organ growth. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate possible causes of why the three hypoxia core genes are overexpressed in worker larvae. Parting from the hypothesis that this has an endogenous cause and is not due to differences in external oxygen levels we investigated mitochondrial numbers and distribution, as well as mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates in fat body cells of queen and worker larvae during the caste fate-critical larval stages. By immunofluorescence and electron microscopy we found higher densities of mitochondria in queen larval fat body, a finding further confirmed by a citrate synthase assay quantifying mitochondrial functional units. Oxygen consumption measurements by high-resolution respirometry revealed that queen larvae have higher maximum capacities of ATP production at lower physiological demand. Finally, the expression analysis of mitogenesis-related factors showed that the honey bee TFB1 and TFB2 homologs, and a nutritional regulator, ERR, are overexpressed in queen larvae. These results are strong evidence that the differential nutrition of queen and worker larvae by nurse bees affects mitochondrial dynamics and functionality in the fat body of these larvae, hence explaining their differential hypoxia response. PMID:27058771

  20. Comparing alternative methods for holding virgin honey bee queens for one week in mailing cages before mating.

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    Gianluigi Bigio

    Full Text Available In beekeeping, queen honey bees are often temporarily kept alive in cages. We determined the survival of newly-emerged virgin honey bee queens every day for seven days in an experiment that simultaneously investigated three factors: queen cage type (wooden three-hole or plastic, attendant workers (present or absent and food type (sugar candy, honey, or both. Ten queens were tested in each of the 12 combinations. Queens were reared using standard beekeeping methods (Doolittle/grafting and emerged from their cells into vials held in an incubator at 34C. All 12 combinations gave high survival (90 or 100% for three days but only one method (wooden cage, with attendants, honey gave 100% survival to day seven. Factors affecting queen survival were analysed. Across all combinations, attendant bees significantly increased survival (18% vs. 53%, p<0.001. In addition, there was an interaction between food type and cage type (p<0.001 with the honey and plastic cage combination giving reduced survival. An additional group of queens was reared and held for seven days using the best method, and then directly introduced using smoke into queenless nucleus colonies that had been dequeened five days previously. Acceptance was high (80%, 8/10 showing that this combination is also suitable for preparing queens for introduction into colonies. Having a simple method for keeping newly-emerged virgin queens alive in cages for one week and acceptable for introduction into queenless colonies will be useful in honey bee breeding. In particular, it facilitates the screening of many queens for genetic or phenotypic characteristics when only a small proportion meets the desired criteria. These can then be introduced into queenless hives for natural mating or insemination, both of which take place when queens are one week old.

  1. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  2. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the Eur

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF THE BOTANIC ORIGIN OF HONEY PLANTS ON THE QUALITY OF HONEY

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    Z. Tucak

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous parameters affect the quality of honey from different beehive types (Albert – Žindaršić AŽ, Langstroth – Roott LR i Dadant – Blatt DB, i.e. the material of beehives are made of, the origin of queen bees (natural and selected, etc. Our research focuses on the influence of the botanic origin of honey plants (Tilia sp. L. (lime, Amorpha fructirosa L. (desert false indigo, Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower, Brassica napus subsp. olifera DC. (oil beet and Robina pseudoacacia L. (acacia on the quality of honey. The physical and chemical analyses of honey (N=133 (water %, water insoluble compounds %, acidity level, mmol of acid per kg, electrical conductivity, mS/cm, reducing sugar %, sucrose %, HMF, mg/kg, and diastasic number were conducted by Harmonised methods of the European Honey. The pollen analysis was conducted by Harmonised methods of melissopalynology. The pollen analysis indicates that the botanic origin has had a statistically significant influence (P<0.001 on the quality of all investigated characteristics of honey, except on the share of the non–dissolving substances (P=0.088. The research was conducted in the Vukovar-Srijem County, the Republic of Croatia. All bees used in this research belong to the Carniolan honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica, the European bee species.

  4. Acaricide, fungicide and drug interactions in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

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    Reed M Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical analysis shows that honey bees (Apis mellifera and hive products contain many pesticides derived from various sources. The most abundant pesticides are acaricides applied by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Beekeepers also apply antimicrobial drugs to control bacterial and microsporidial diseases. Fungicides may enter the hive when applied to nearby flowering crops. Acaricides, antimicrobial drugs and fungicides are not highly toxic to bees alone, but in combination there is potential for heightened toxicity due to interactive effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laboratory bioassays based on mortality rates in adult worker bees demonstrated interactive effects among acaricides, as well as between acaricides and antimicrobial drugs and between acaricides and fungicides. Toxicity of the acaricide tau-fluvalinate increased in combination with other acaricides and most other compounds tested (15 of 17 while amitraz toxicity was mostly unchanged (1 of 15. The sterol biosynthesis inhibiting (SBI fungicide prochloraz elevated the toxicity of the acaricides tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and fenpyroximate, likely through inhibition of detoxicative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. Four other SBI fungicides increased the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate in a dose-dependent manner, although possible evidence of P450 induction was observed at the lowest fungicide doses. Non-transitive interactions between some acaricides were observed. Sublethal amitraz pre-treatment increased the toxicity of the three P450-detoxified acaricides, but amitraz toxicity was not changed by sublethal treatment with the same three acaricides. A two-fold change in the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate was observed between years, suggesting a possible change in the genetic composition of the bees tested. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Interactions with acaricides in honey bees are similar to drug interactions in other animals in that P450-mediated detoxication

  5. Olfactory interference during inhibitory backward pairing in honey bees.

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    Matthieu Dacher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Restrained worker honey bees are a valuable model for studying the behavioral and neural bases of olfactory plasticity. The proboscis extension response (PER; the proboscis is the mouthpart of honey bees is released in response to sucrose stimulation. If sucrose stimulation is preceded one or a few times by an odor (forward pairing, the bee will form a memory for this association, and subsequent presentations of the odor alone are sufficient to elicit the PER. However, backward pairing between the two stimuli (sucrose, then odor has not been studied to any great extent in bees, although the vertebrate literature indicates that it elicits a form of inhibitory plasticity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: If hungry bees are fed with sucrose, they will release a long lasting PER; however, this PER can be interrupted if an odor is presented 15 seconds (but not 7 or 30 seconds after the sucrose (backward pairing. We refer to this previously unreported process as olfactory interference. Bees receiving this 15 second backward pairing show reduced performance after a subsequent single forward pairing (excitatory conditioning trial. Analysis of the results supported a relationship between olfactory interference and a form of backward pairing-induced inhibitory learning/memory. Injecting the drug cimetidine into the deutocerebrum impaired olfactory interference. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Olfactory interference depends on the associative link between odor and PER, rather than between odor and sucrose. Furthermore, pairing an odor with sucrose can lead either to association of this odor to PER or to the inhibition of PER by this odor. Olfactory interference may provide insight into processes that gate how excitatory and inhibitory memories for odor-PER associations are formed.

  6. The bacterial communities associated with honey bee (Apis mellifera foragers.

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    Vanessa Corby-Harris

    Full Text Available The honey bee is a key pollinator species in decline worldwide. As part of a commercial operation, bee colonies are exposed to a variety of agricultural ecosystems throughout the year and a multitude of environmental variables that may affect the microbial balance of individuals and the hive. While many recent studies support the idea of a core microbiota in guts of younger in-hive bees, it is unknown whether this core is present in forager bees or the pollen they carry back to the hive. Additionally, several studies hypothesize that the foregut (crop, a key interface between the pollination environment and hive food stores, contains a set of 13 lactic acid bacteria (LAB that inoculate collected pollen and act in synergy to preserve pollen stores. Here, we used a combination of 454 based 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the microbial communities of forager guts, crops, and corbicular pollen and crop plate counts to show that (1 despite a very different diet, forager guts contain a core microbiota similar to that found in younger bees, (2 corbicular pollen contains a diverse community dominated by hive-specific, environmental or phyllosphere bacteria that are not prevalent in the gut or crop, and (3 the 13 LAB found in culture-based studies are not specific to the crop but are a small subset of midgut or hindgut specific bacteria identified in many recent 454 amplicon-based studies. The crop is dominated by Lactobacillus kunkeei, and Alpha 2.2 (Acetobacteraceae, highly osmotolerant and acid resistant bacteria found in stored pollen and honey. Crop taxa at low abundance include core hindgut bacteria in transit to their primary niche, and potential pathogens or food spoilage organisms seemingly vectored from the pollination environment. We conclude that the crop microbial environment is influenced by worker task, and may function in both decontamination and inoculation.

  7. The antibacterial properties of Malaysian tualang honey against wound and enteric microorganisms in comparison to manuka honey

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    Sulaiman Siti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic resistance of bacteria is on the rise, thus the discovery of alternative therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Honey possesses therapeutic potential, including wound healing properties and antimicrobial activity. Although the antimicrobial activity of honey has been effectively established against an extensive spectrum of microorganisms, it differs depending on the type of honey. To date, no extensive studies of the antibacterial properties of tualang (Koompassia excelsa honey on wound and enteric microorganisms have been conducted. The objectives of this study were to conduct such studies and to compare the antibacterial activity of tualang honey with that of manuka honey. Methods Using a broth dilution method, the antibacterial activity of tualang honey against 13 wound and enteric microorganisms was determined; manuka honey was used as the control. Different concentrations of honey [6.25-25% (w/v] were tested against each type of microorganism. Briefly, two-fold dilutions of honey solutions were tested to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against each type of microorganism, followed by more assays within a narrower dilution range to obtain more precise MIC values. MICs were determined by both visual inspection and spectrophotometric assay at 620 nm. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC also was determined by culturing on blood agar plates. Results By visual inspection, the MICs of tualang honey ranged from 8.75% to 25% compared to manuka honey (8.75-20%. Spectrophotometric readings of at least 95% inhibition yielded MIC values ranging between 10% and 25% for both types of honey. The lowest MBC for tualang honey was 20%, whereas that for manuka honey was 11.25% for the microorganisms tested. The lowest MIC value (8.75% for both types of honey was against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Tualang honey had a lower MIC (11.25% against Acinetobacter baumannii compared to manuka honey (12

  8. Determination of streptomycin residues in honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cristina Cara,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey was the first sweet substance used in human food as a precursor sugar cane or beet. Honey production by bees is a complex process of transformation, from harvesting and ending with a striking honeycomb cells. Immediately after extraction, honey is always clear and liquid. This is due to the high content of fructose, which makes some items, such as locust always remain liquid. If the glucose is higher than that of fructose, honey will crystallize at temperatures below 18°C. Honey is easily susceptible to heat, so they should be stored at room temperature. Bees, like all living organisms, can become ill with various diseases. These, by mortality that occur among individuals of the colony, thereby reducing the number of bees and beefamilies are emptied and become unproductive. In many cases, it appears significant damage resulting in large losses for beekeepers. Prevention, detection and treatment of diseases with antibiotics is an extremely important factor in ensuring the health of bee.

  9. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

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    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee and Melipona seminigra merribae bee. Honey analyses were performed as described by the official methods. The mean results were: moisture (30.13%, pH (3.65, acidity (24.57 mEq/kg, water activity (0.75, fructose (31.91%, glucose (29.30% and sucrose (0.19%. These results reinforce the need for a specific regulation for stingless bee honey. This will only be feasible when enough data is available to establish upper and lower limits for the physicochemical parameters used for quality control.

  10. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-06-01

    Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels. PMID:26110586

  11. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses

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    Katie F. Daughenbaugh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV, and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  12. Potential biological activity of acacia honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Ibrahim, Mohammed A; Sallau, Abdullahi B; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Aimola, Idown A; Malami, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in functional foods-based research have increasingly become an area of major interest because it affects human health and activities. Functional foods are classes of foods with health promoting and disease preventing properties in addition to multiple nutritional values and of such type is honey. Acacia honey is a type of honey produced by bees (Apis mellifera) fed on Acacia flowers, hence the name. This review focuses on the potential biological activities of Acacia honey which includes quality, antioxidant, immuno-modulatory, antiproliferative and neurological properties at in vitro and in vivo levels. Based on our review, Acacia honey used from various researches is of high purity, contains some bioactive compounds ranging from vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids and fatty acids. It's highly nutritional with strong antioxidant and immuno-modulatory potentials which may therefore be considered a potential candidate for both cancer prevention and treatment. Neurologically, it may be considered as a viable therapeutic agent in the management of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26709666

  13. Honey as an alternative fixative for oral tissue:An evaluation of processed and unprocessed honey

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    Vidushi Lalwani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fixation is the most imperative step in the practice of diagnostic histopathology, which is intimately linked to 10% formalin. As a result of increasing concerns about the potential carcinogenicity of the formaldehyde, attempt to find safer alternatives is necessary. Honey has been shown to possess antimicrobial, antiviral and antimutagenic properties. Many studies have reported that honey possesses dehydrating and preserving effects also. Aims and Objectives: To study the fixative properties of processed and unprocessed honey in oral tissues followed by comparision with formalin. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 12 different tissues. Each tissue was cut into 3 segments and were immediately fixed in bottles containing 10% unprocessed honey, 10% processed honey and 10% formalin, respectively, for 24 h at room temperature. After fixation, tissues were processed using the routine standard processing protocol followed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation and percentage. Kruskal–Wallis test followed by post hoc Dunn's multiple comparisons test and Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test for small sample size. A P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Data analysis was done by using software Minitab v14.0. Results: When all the stained sections were assessed for the parameters, there was no statistically significant difference between tissues fixed in processed and unprocessed honey compared to formalin (P = 0.004. The tissue morphology and staining adequacy for diagnosis in honey fixed tissue was at par with formalin fixed tissue. Hence, our results suggest that both processed honey and unprocessed honey can be used as a safe alternative for formalin.

  14. PKG in honey bees: spatial expression, Amfor gene expression, sucrose responsiveness, and division of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamm, Markus; Scheiner, Ricarda

    2014-06-01

    Division of labor is a hallmark of social insects. In honey bees, division of labor involves transition of female workers from one task to the next. The most distinct tasks are nursing (providing food for the brood) and foraging (collecting pollen and nectar). The brain mechanisms regulating this form of behavioral plasticity have largely remained elusive. Recently, it was suggested that division of labor is based on nutrition-associated signaling pathways. One highly conserved gene associated with food-related behavior across species is the foraging gene, which encodes a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Our analysis of this gene reveals the presence of alternative splicing in the honey bee. One isoform is expressed in the brain. Expression of this isoform is most pronounced in the mushroom bodies, the subesophageal ganglion, and the corpora allata. Division of labor and sucrose responsiveness in honey bees correlate significantly with foraging gene expression in distinct brain regions. Activating PKG selectively increases sucrose responsiveness in nurse bees to the level of foragers, whereas the same treatment does not affect responsiveness to light. These findings demonstrate a direct link between PKG signaling in distinct brain areas and division of labor. Furthermore, they demonstrate that the difference in sensory responsiveness between nurse bees and foragers can be compensated for by activating PKG. Our findings on the function of PKG in regulating specific sensory responsiveness and social organization offer valuable indications for the function of the cGMP/PKG pathway in many other insects and vertebrates.

  15. 78 FR 38941 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and Partial... Order The products covered by the order are natural honey, artificial honey containing more than 50 percent natural honey by weight, preparations of natural honey containing more than 50 percent...

  16. Dynamics of Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus (AmFV) Infections in Honey Bees and Relationships with Other Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ulrike; Forsgren, Eva; Charrière, Jean-Daniel; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    Apis mellifera filamentous virus (AmFV) is a large double stranded DNA virus of honey bees, but its relationship with other parasites and prevalence are poorly known. We analyzed individual honey bees from three colonies at different times post emergence in order to monitor the dynamics of the AmFV gut colonization under natural conditions. Prevalence and loads of microsporidia and trypanosomes were also recorded, as well as five common honey bee RNA viruses. The results show that a high proportion of bees get infected with AmFV during the first week post-emergence (75%) and that AmFV DNA levels remained constant. A similar pattern was observed for microsporidia while trypanosomes seem to require more time to colonize the gut. No significant associations between these three infections were found, but significant positive correlations were observed between AmFV and RNA viruses. In parallel, the prevalence of AmFV in France and Sweden was assessed from pooled honey bee workers. The data indicate that AmFV is almost ubiquitous, and does not seem to follow seasonal patterns, although higher viral loads were significantly detected in spring. A high prevalence of AmFV was also found in winter bees, without obvious impact on overwintering of the colonies.

  17. Dynamics of Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus (AmFV Infections in Honey Bees and Relationships with Other Parasites

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    Ulrike Hartmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera filamentous virus (AmFV is a large double stranded DNA virus of honey bees, but its relationship with other parasites and prevalence are poorly known. We analyzed individual honey bees from three colonies at different times post emergence in order to monitor the dynamics of the AmFV gut colonization under natural conditions. Prevalence and loads of microsporidia and trypanosomes were also recorded, as well as five common honey bee RNA viruses. The results show that a high proportion of bees get infected with AmFV during the first week post-emergence (75% and that AmFV DNA levels remained constant. A similar pattern was observed for microsporidia while trypanosomes seem to require more time to colonize the gut. No significant associations between these three infections were found, but significant positive correlations were observed between AmFV and RNA viruses. In parallel, the prevalence of AmFV in France and Sweden was assessed from pooled honey bee workers. The data indicate that AmFV is almost ubiquitous, and does not seem to follow seasonal patterns, although higher viral loads were significantly detected in spring. A high prevalence of AmFV was also found in winter bees, without obvious impact on overwintering of the colonies.

  18. Development of honey hydrogel dressing for enhanced wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Norimah [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: norimah@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ainul Hafiza, A.H.; Zohdi, Rozaini M. [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Bakar, Md Zuki A. [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2007-11-15

    Radiation at 25 and 50 kGy showed no effect on the acidic pH of the local honey, Gelam, and its antimicrobial property against Staphylococcus aureus but significantly reduced the viscosity. Honey stored up to 2 years at room temperature retained all the properties studied. Radiation sterilized Gelam honey significantly stimulated the rate of burn wound healing in Sprague-Dawley rats as demonstrated by the increased rate of wound contraction and gross appearance. Gelam honey attenuates wound inflammation; and re-epithelialization was well advanced compared to the treatment using silver sulphadiazine (SSD) cream. To enhance further the use of honey in wound treatment and for easy handling, Gelam honey was incorporated into our hydrogel dressing formulation, which was then cross-linked and sterilized using electron beam at 25 kGy. Hydrogel with 6% of honey was selected based on the physical appearance.

  19. Fractionation of acacia honey affects its antioxidant potential in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Aliyu; Oyeronke A Odunola; Ahsana D Farooq; Ahmed M Mesaik; Muhammad I Choudhary; Ochuko L Erukainure; Shahida Perveen; Almas Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of fractionation of acacia honey on its antioxidant potential in contrast with the pure honey from whole blood, brain and liver in vitro. Methods: Honey was partitioned into three fractions (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and aqueous). Their immuno-modulatory effect on whole blood was assayed using Luminol-amplified chemiluminescence technique. Their antioxidant activities on rat brain and hepatic tissues which covers for catalase, SOD activities and lipid peroxidation. Results: Fractions of the honey enhanced the production of radicals with no significant (P>0.05) antioxidant activity on whole blood where as pure honey does. Pure honey significantly (P0.05) effects on lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: Fractionation of acacia honey negatively affects its antioxidant potential thereby making it a radical generating agent in contrast with the unfractionated.

  20. The Efficacy of Gelam Honey Dressing towards Excisional Wound Healing

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    Mui Koon Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey is one of the oldest substances used in wound management. Efficacy of Gelam honey in wound healing was evaluated in this paper. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of 24 rats each (untreated group, saline group, Intrasite Gel group, and Gelam honey group with 2 cm by 2 cm full thickness, excisional wound created on neck area. Wounds were dressed topically according to groups. Rats were sacrificed on days 1, 5, 10, and 15 of treatments. Wounds were then processed for macroscopic and histological observations. Gelam-honey-dressed wounds healed earlier (day 13 than untreated and saline treated groups, as did wounds treated with Intrasite Gel. Honey-treated wounds exhibited less scab and only thin scar formations. Histological features demonstrated positive effects of Gelam honey on the wounds. This paper showed that Gelam honey dressing on excisional wound accelerated the process of wound healing.

  1. Honey: Chemical composition, stability and authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Priscila Missio; Gauche, Cony; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the chemical characteristics of compounds present in honey, their stability when heated or stored for long periods of time and the parameters of identity and quality. Therefore, the chemical characteristics of these compounds were examined, such as sugars, proteins, amino acids, enzymes, organic acids, vitamins, minerals, phenolic and volatile compounds present in honey. The stability of these compounds in relation to the chemical reactions that occur by heating or prolonged storage were also discussed, with increased understanding of the behavior regarding the common processing of honey that may compromise its quality. In addition, the identity and quality standards were described, such as sugars, moisture, acidity, ash and electrical conductivity, color, 5-HMF and diastase activity, along with the minimum and maximum limits established by the Codex Alimentarius. PMID:26593496

  2. MICROSCOPIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POLISH HONEY

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    Soňa Felšöciová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of some honey samples from Poland was carried out on the basis of their microbiological (fungi and yeasts analysis. Most of the samples contained less than 20 % water. The amount of fungi found in the honey samples was less than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 but 19 % of the samples had more yeasts than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 – up to 5.7 x 102 CFU.g-1. The isolated fungi were Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Mycelia sterilia, Rhizopus spp. and Penicillium spp. The last genus was isolated very frequently. A total number of eight fungal Penicillium species were identified namely, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. commune, P. corylophilum, P. crustosum, P. expansum, P. griseofulvum, P. chrysogenum and P. polonicum. They were isolated using dilution plate method. The results showed that honeys produced in this region are of good microbiological quality.

  3. Honey: Chemical composition, stability and authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Priscila Missio; Gauche, Cony; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the chemical characteristics of compounds present in honey, their stability when heated or stored for long periods of time and the parameters of identity and quality. Therefore, the chemical characteristics of these compounds were examined, such as sugars, proteins, amino acids, enzymes, organic acids, vitamins, minerals, phenolic and volatile compounds present in honey. The stability of these compounds in relation to the chemical reactions that occur by heating or prolonged storage were also discussed, with increased understanding of the behavior regarding the common processing of honey that may compromise its quality. In addition, the identity and quality standards were described, such as sugars, moisture, acidity, ash and electrical conductivity, color, 5-HMF and diastase activity, along with the minimum and maximum limits established by the Codex Alimentarius.

  4. QUALITY OF IMPORTED HONEYS MARKETED IN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Haderbache

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey is mostly used for therapeutic purposes, that’s why its quality must be closely monitored. This study focuses on the controle of 40 imported honeys coming from 13 countries (2004 – 2011. We revealed that they do not always have the required quality to be consumed as such. In addition to the labeling and organoleptic problems, often they contains too much moisture (≥18%; 70 % of these samples had an average HMF of 78 mg/kg and a pH less than 3.5, indicating an advanced aging and inapropriate thermal past. Pollen analysis and electrical conductivity was used to confirm presumed origins, and proline rate reveals some inverted sugar fraud. We aim by this work to catch consumers and local authorities attention in order to strengthen honey control. It is about everyone's health, and it concerns the prosperity of the national beekeeping which faces unfair competition.

  5. Cocaine tolerance in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Søvik

    Full Text Available Increasingly invertebrates are being used to investigate the molecular and cellular effects of drugs of abuse to explore basic mechanisms of addiction. However, in mammals the principle factors contributing to addiction are long-term adaptive responses to repeated drug use. Here we examined whether adaptive responses to cocaine are also seen in invertebrates using the honey bee model system. Repeated topical treatment with a low dose of cocaine rendered bees resistant to the deleterious motor effects of a higher cocaine dose, indicating the development of physiological tolerance to cocaine in bees. Cocaine inhibits biogenic amine reuptake transporters, but neither acute nor repeated cocaine treatments caused measurable changes in levels of biogenic amines measured in whole bee brains. Our data show clear short and long-term behavioural responses of bees to cocaine administration, but caution that, despite the small size of the bee brain, measures of biogenic amines conducted at the whole-brain level may not reveal neurochemical effects of the drug.

  6. Honey characteristics after extraction and half-year storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the fresh honey after extracting and after half-year storage at room temperature. Overall, we analyzed 10 samples of rape (Brassica napus honey coming from district Vranov nad Toplou located in the eastern Slovakia. The analysis consisted of the evaluation of the physico-chemical parameters (water content, free acidity and electrical conductivity and microbiological evaluation (total plate count (TPC, counts of coliform bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, sporulating microorganisms and microscopic fungi. Water content, free acidity and electrical conductivity were measured according to IHC (2009, namely these parameters were detected by refractometer, titration and conductometer, respectively. We used dilution plating method for microbiological analysis. Fresh rape honey contained 18.3 ±1.0% of water. Free acidity of fresh rape honey was 12.7 ±2.0 meq.kg-1 and electrical conductivity was 0.14 mS.cm-1. After half a year of storage, water content and electrical conductivity decreased nonsignificantly and free acidity increased nonsignificantly. Stored honey samples meet the requirements of Decree 41/2012 and 106/2012. From microbiological point of view, fresh rape honey showed relatively high microbial counts. Mean values of TPC, sporulating microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts exceeded 2.00 log cfu/g. All spotted microbial groups decreased in the stored honey comparing with the fresh honey. We found significant (p ˂0.01 differences of TPC, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts comparing the fresh and stored honey samples. Evaluating microbiological parameters, one sample of stored honey did not meet the requirements of Codex Alimentarius SR (2014. TPC exceeded the limit value. Based on the results we can conclude that all samples meet the requirements for good quality honey. Microbial counts in the honey decreased gradually. Probably, various microorganisms have important role in creation of the honey from

  7. Characterization of the nematicidal activity of natural honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Azim, M Kamran

    2012-08-01

    Antimicrobial activities of honey against bacteria and fungi are extensively reported in the scientific literature. However, its nematicidal potential has not been characterized so far. This study examined the effect of natural honey on model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and analyzed the honey component(s) responsible for nematicidal activity. Characterization of honey-treated C. elegans was done using fluorescence and phase contrast microscopy. Egg-laying and egg-hatching defects of honey-treated C. elegans were studied. For identification of nematicidal component(s), bioactivity-directed fractionation of honey samples was carried out using dialysis, ultrafiltration, chromatographic, and spectroscopic techniques. Natural honeys of different floral sources showed nematicidal activity against different developmental stages of C. elegans. The nematicidal components of honey induced cell death in intestinal lumen and gonads of C. elegans as revealed by microscopy. The nematicidal action of honey was found to be due to reproductive anomaly as manifested by defects in egg-laying and -hatching by C. elegans. Honey with concentration as low as 0.03% exerted profound egg-laying defects, whereas 6% honey showed defects in egg hatching. The major sugar components of honey were not involved in observed nematicidal activity. The bioactive components responsible for anti-C. elegans activity were found in the 2-10 kDa fraction of honey, which was resolved into ∼25 peaks by reverse phase HPLC. LC-MS followed by further spectroscopic characterization revealed a glycoconjugate with the molecular mass of 5511 as the major nematicidal component of honey. PMID:22783999

  8. Bioactive Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Some Carpathian Basin honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyergyák, Kinga; Boros, Borbála; Marton, Krisztina; Felinger, Attila; Papp, Nóra; Farkas, Ágnes

    2016-02-01

    Unifloral honeys have a high commercial value and should undergo a strict quality control before marketing. This study aimed at determining floral origin, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in 7 samples marketed as lavender and thyme honeys. The samples were subjected to pollen analysis to confirm their botanical origin. Coupled chromatographic techniques (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) were optimized for the separation and identification of polyphenolic compounds. The antioxidant properties of the samples were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Pollen profile analysis revealed that only 3 out of 5 alleged lavender honeys contained a low percentage (0.6-1.5) of lavender pollen; and there were only traces (0.1-0.6%) of thyme pollen in the alleged thyme honeys. Polyphenolic constituents did not allow for the clear separation of honey samples, revealing no marker compounds previously associated with lavender and thyme honeys. All samples contained large amounts of chlorogenic acid, chrysin, hesperetin, kaempferol and p-coumaric acid; as well as abscisic acid, a plant hormone known to be present in floral nectar and honey. Our results suggest that only one of five alleged lavender honeys and neither of the two alleged thyme honeys are true unifloral honeys. However, they can still provide various health benefits, such as being good sources of antioxidants. There was no relationship between the antioxidant activity and the uni- or multifloral character of the honey samples. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was the lowest in the honey sample with lavender and the highest in one of the alleged lavender honeys. Our findings highlight the importance of microscopical and phytochemical analyses of honeys before marketing, to ensure satisfactory quality for customers. PMID:27032212

  9. Older workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ybema, J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the European Union. The way in which several factors, including health, working conditions, skills and knowledge, and social and financial factors influence sustainable employability and the early retirem...

  10. An observation study on the effects of queen age on some characteristics of honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Çakmak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of the queen’s age on performance of the honeybee (A. mellifera anatoliaca colonies at nomad beekeeping conditions. Performances of the colonies, which had 0, 1, 2 and 3 year-old queens, were compared. The number of combs, brood areas, wintering ability survival rate and honey yield were determined as performance criteria. The average number of combs with bees throughout the experiment in Group I, Group II, Group III and Group IV was 10.92±0.78, 14.68±0.55, 10.10±0.60, 7.88±0.45 number combs/colony; the average of brood areas was 3078±372.5 cm2, 3668±460.3 cm2, 2215±294.0 cm2, 1665.38±241.8 cm2; the average of wintering ability was 84.3±2.9%, 88.0±3.7%, 46.6±19.0%, 26.8±16.5%; the survival rate was 100%, 100%, 60%, 40%; and the average of honey yields was 31.4±1.89 kg, 41.5±1.05 kg, 20.4±2.62 kg and 12.0±1.41 kg per colony, respectively. A significant and negative correlation between queen age and brood production (r=-80.2, colony strength (r=-62.5, wintering ability (r=-66 and honey yield (r=-75.6 were calculated (P<0.01. The colonies headed by young queens had more brood areas, longer worker colony population, better wintering ability and greater honey yield in comparison to colonies headed by old queens.

  11. MICROSCOPIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POLISH HONEY

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Felšöciová; Miroslava Kačániová; Lukáš Hleba; Jana Petrová; Adriana Pavelková; Malgorzata Džugan; Dorota Grabek-Lejko

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of some honey samples from Poland was carried out on the basis of their microbiological (fungi and yeasts) analysis. Most of the samples contained less than 20 % water. The amount of fungi found in the honey samples was less than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 but 19 % of the samples had more yeasts than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 – up to 5.7 x 102 CFU.g-1. The isolated fungi were Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Mycelia sterilia, Rhizopus spp. and Penicillium s...

  12. Acute paralysis viruses of the honey bee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunsheng; Hou; Nor; Chejanovsky

    2014-01-01

    <正>The alarming decline of honey bee(Apis mellifera)colonies in the last decade drove the attention and research to several pathogens of the honey bee including viruses.Viruses challenge the development of healthy and robust colonies since they manage to prevail in an asymptomatic mode and reemerge in acute infections following external stresses,as well as they are able to infect new healthy colonies(de Miranda J R,et al.,2010a;de Miranda J R,et al.,2010b;Di Prisco G,et al.,2013;Nazzi F,et al.,2012;Yang X L,et al.,2005).

  13. An RP-HPLC determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in honey The case of strawberry tree honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Nadia; Casula, Lucia; Panzanelli, Angelo; Pilo, Maria I; Piu, Paola C; Scanu, Roberta; Tapparo, Andrea; Sanna, Gavino

    2006-02-15

    The use of the RP-HPLC official method of the International Honey Commission (IHC) for the determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in strawberry tree honey (Arbutus unedo, a typical Sardinian honey) has brought to light a specific and heavy chromatographic interference that prevents accurate quantification. The interference has been identified as homogentisic acid (HA), i.e. the marker of the botanical origin of the honey. For this reason, an alternative RP-HPLC method is proposed. The bias-free method allows a complete separation of HMF from HA to the baseline level and is faster and more precise than the RP-HPLC official method: the detection and quantification limits are 1.9 and 4.0mgkg(-1), respectively, whereas the repeatability is ca. 2% in the HMF concentration range of 5-140mgkg(-1). PMID:18970477

  14. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  15. "African Connection."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  16. Honey as an alternative fixative for oral tissue: An evaluation of processed and unprocessed honey

    OpenAIRE

    Vidushi Lalwani; R Surekha; M Vanishree; Anila Koneru; Santosh Hunasgi; Shamala Ravikumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fixation is the most imperative step in the practice of diagnostic histopathology, which is intimately linked to 10% formalin. As a result of increasing concerns about the potential carcinogenicity of the formaldehyde, attempt to find safer alternatives is necessary. Honey has been shown to possess antimicrobial, antiviral and antimutagenic properties. Many studies have reported that honey possesses dehydrating and preserving effects also. Aims and Objectives: To study the fixativ...

  17. Differentiation of manuka honey from kanuka honey and from jelly bush honey using HS-SPME-GC/MS and UHPLC-PDA-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitlich, Nicole; Koelling-Speer, Isabelle; Oelschlaegel, Stefanie; Speer, Karl

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, pollen-identical pure manuka and kanuka honeys and an Australian jelly bush honey were analyzed for the nonvolatiles by UHPLC-PDA-MS/MS and for the volatiles by HS-SPME-GC/MS. A chromatographic profile matchup by means of characteristic marker compounds achieved a clear discrimination between manuka, kanuka, and jelly bush honey. UHPLC-PDA profiles of manuka honey show leptosin, acetyl-2-hydroxy-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxobutanate, 3-hydroxy-1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-penta-1,4-dione, kojic acid, 5-methyl-3-furancarboxylic acid, and two unknown compounds as prominent, kanuka honey was characterized by 4-methoxyphenyllactic acid, methyl syringate, p-anisic acid, and lumichrome. 2-Methylbenzofuran, 2'-hydroxyacetophenone, and 2'-methoxyacetophenone were markant volatiles for manuka honey, whereas kanuka honey was characterized by 2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1,4-dione, phenethyl alcohol, p-anisaldehyde, and an unknown compound in HS-SPME-GC/MS. The jelly bush honey differed from the manuka honey by higher contents of 2-methoxybenzoic acid and an individual unknown substance in the PDA profile and by lower intensities of 2'-methoxyacetophenone, higher concentrations of cis-linalool oxide, and 3,4,5-trimethylphenol in the HS-SPME-GC/MS profile.

  18. Go East for Better Honey Bee Health: Apis cerana Is Faster at Hygienic Behavior than A. mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zheguang; Page, Paul; Li, Li; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yingying; Hu, Fuliang; Neumann, Peter; Zheng, Huoqing; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The poor health status of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, compared to its Eastern counterpart, Apis cerana, is remarkable. This has been attributed to lower pathogen prevalence in A. cerana colonies and to their ability to survive infestations with the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor. These properties have been linked to an enhanced removal of dead or unhealthy immature bees by adult workers in this species. Although such hygienic behavior is known to contribute to honey bee colony health, comparative data of A. mellifera and A. cerana in performing this task are scarce. Here, we compare for the first time the removal of freeze-killed brood in one population of each species and over two seasons in China. Our results show that A. cerana was significantly faster than A. mellifera at both opening cell caps and removing freeze-killed brood. The fast detection and removal of diseased brood is likely to limit the proliferation of pathogenic agents. Given our results can be generalized to the species level, a rapid hygienic response could contribute to the better health of A. cerana. Promoting the fast detection and removal of worker brood through adapted breeding programs could further improve the social immunity of A. mellifera colonies and contribute to a better health status of the Western honey bee worldwide. PMID:27606819

  19. Go East for Better Honey Bee Health: Apis cerana Is Faster at Hygienic Behavior than A. mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yingying; Hu, Fuliang; Neumann, Peter; Zheng, Huoqing; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The poor health status of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, compared to its Eastern counterpart, Apis cerana, is remarkable. This has been attributed to lower pathogen prevalence in A. cerana colonies and to their ability to survive infestations with the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor. These properties have been linked to an enhanced removal of dead or unhealthy immature bees by adult workers in this species. Although such hygienic behavior is known to contribute to honey bee colony health, comparative data of A. mellifera and A. cerana in performing this task are scarce. Here, we compare for the first time the removal of freeze-killed brood in one population of each species and over two seasons in China. Our results show that A. cerana was significantly faster than A. mellifera at both opening cell caps and removing freeze-killed brood. The fast detection and removal of diseased brood is likely to limit the proliferation of pathogenic agents. Given our results can be generalized to the species level, a rapid hygienic response could contribute to the better health of A. cerana. Promoting the fast detection and removal of worker brood through adapted breeding programs could further improve the social immunity of A. mellifera colonies and contribute to a better health status of the Western honey bee worldwide. PMID:27606819

  20. Spray Toxicity and Risk Potential of 42 Commonly Used Formulations of Row Crop Pesticides to Adult Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Adamczyk, John; Rinderer, Thomas; Yao, Jianxiu; Danka, Robert; Luttrell, Randall; Gore, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    To combat an increasing abundance of sucking insect pests, >40 pesticides are currently recommended and frequently used as foliar sprays on row crops, especially cotton. Foraging honey bees may be killed when they are directly exposed to foliar sprays, or they may take contaminated pollen back to hives that maybe toxic to other adult bees and larvae. To assess acute toxicity against the honey bee, we used a modified spray tower to simulate field spray conditions to include direct whole-body exposure, inhalation, and continuing tarsal contact and oral licking after a field spray. A total of 42 formulated pesticides, including one herbicide and one fungicide, were assayed for acute spray toxicity to 4-6-d-old workers. Results showed significantly variable toxicities among pesticides, with LC50s ranging from 25 to thousands of mg/liter. Further risk assessment using the field application concentration to LC1 or LC99 ratios revealed the risk potential of the 42 pesticides. Three pesticides killed less than 1% of the worker bees, including the herbicide, a miticide, and a neonicotinoid. Twenty-six insecticides killed more than 99% of the bees, including commonly used organophosphates and neonicotinoids. The remainder of the 13 chemicals killed from 1-99% of the bees at field application rates. This study reveals a realistic acute toxicity of 42 commonly used foliar pesticides. The information is valuable for guiding insecticide selection to minimize direct killing of foraging honey bees, while maintaining effective control of field crop pests. PMID:26352753

  1. IRS and TOR nutrient-signaling pathways act via juvenile hormone to influence honey bee caste fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Navdeep S; Dolezal, Adam G; Wolschin, Florian; Mutti, Jasdeep S; Gill, Kulvinder S; Amdam, Gro V

    2011-12-01

    Regardless of genetic makeup, a female honey bee becomes a queen or worker depending on the food she receives as a larva. For decades, it has been known that nutrition and juvenile hormone (JH) signaling determine the caste fate of the individual bee. However, it is still largely unclear how these factors are connected. To address this question, we suppressed nutrient sensing by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene knockdown of IRS (insulin receptor substrate) and TOR (target of rapamycin) in larvae reared on queen diet. The treatments affected several layers of organismal organization that could play a role in the response to differential nutrition between castes. These include transcript profiles, proteomic patterns, lipid levels, DNA methylation response and morphological features. Most importantly, gene knockdown abolished a JH peak that signals queen development and resulted in a worker phenotype. Application of JH rescued the queen phenotype in either knockdown, which demonstrates that the larval response to JH remains intact and can drive normal developmental plasticity even when IRS or TOR transcript levels are reduced. We discuss our results in the context of other recent findings on honey bee caste and development and propose that IRS is an alternative substrate for the Egfr (epidermal growth factor receptor) in honey bees. Overall, our study describes how the interplay of nutritional and hormonal signals affects many levels of organismal organization to build different phenotypes from identical genotypes.

  2. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Methods Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Results Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Conclusions Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth. PMID:23815879

  3. Characterization of gut bacteria at different developmental stages of Asian honey bees, Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Wu, Jie; Chen, Yanping; Evans, Jay D; Dai, Rongguo; Luo, Wenhua; Li, Jilian

    2015-05-01

    Previous surveys have shown that adult workers of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana harbor four major gut microbes (Bifidobacterium, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, and Lactobacillus). Using quantitative PCR we characterized gut bacterial communities across the life cycle of A. cerana from larvae to workers. Our results indicate that the presence and quantity of these four bacteria were low on day 1, increased rapidly after day 5, and then peaked during days 10-20. They stabilized from days 20-25 or days 25-30, then dropped to a low level at day 30. In addition, the larvae infected by Sacbrood virus or European foulbrood had significantly lower copies of 16S rRNA genes than healthy individuals. PMID:25805518

  4. Honey: A Therapeutic Agent for Disorders of the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline McLoone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Problems with conventional treatments for a range of dermatological disorders have led scientists to search for new compounds of therapeutic value. Efforts have included the evaluation of natural products such as honey. Manuka honey, for example, has been scientifically recognised for its anti-microbial and wound healing properties and is now used clinically as a topical treatment for wound infections. In this review, scientific evidence for the effectiveness of honey in the treatment of wounds and other skin conditions is evaluated. A plethora of in vitro studies have revealed that honeys from all over the world have potent anti-microbial activity against skin relevant microbes. Moreover, a number of in vitro studies suggest that honey is able to modulate the skin immune system. Clinical research has shown honey to be efficacious in promoting the healing of partial thickness burn wounds while its effectiveness in the treatment of non-burn acute wounds and chronic wounds is conflicted. Published research investigating the efficacy of honey in the treatment of other types of skin disorders is limited. Nevertheless, positive effects have been reported, for example, kanuka honey from New Zealand was shown to have therapeutic value in the treatment of rosacea. Anti-carcinogenic effects of honey have also been observed in vitro and in a murine model of melanoma.  It can be concluded that honey is a biologically active and clinically interesting substance but more research is necessary for a comprehensive understanding of its medicinal value in dermatology.

  5. Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers. PMID:26719101

  6. Rheology of Indian Honey: Effect of Temperature and Gamma Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Saxena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey brands commonly available in Indian market were characterized for their rheological and thermal properties. Viscosity of all the honey samples belonging to different commercial brands was found to decrease with increase in temperature (5–40°C and their sensitivity towards temperature varied significantly as explained by calculating activation energy based on Arrhenius model and ranged from 54.0 to 89.0 kJ/mol. However, shear rate was not found to alter the viscosity of honey indicating their Newtonian character and the shear stress varied linearly with shear rate for all honey samples. Honey is known to contain pathogenic microbial spores and in our earlier study gamma radiation was found to be effective in achieving microbial decontamination of honey. The effect of gamma radiation (5–15 kGy on rheological properties of honey was assessed, and it was found to remain unchanged upon radiation treatment. The glass transition temperatures (Tg of these honey analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry varied from −44.1 to −54.1°C and remained unchanged upon gamma radiation treatment. The results provide information about some key physical properties of commercial Indian honey. Radiation treatment which is useful for ensuring microbial safety of honey does not alter these properties.

  7. Endosymbiotic bacteria in honey bees: Arsenophonus spp. are not transmitted transovarially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, Orlando; Gauthier, Laurent; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Neumann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria are common and can play a crucial role for insect pathology. Therefore, such bacteria could be a potential key to our understanding of major losses of Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) colonies. However, the transmission and potential effects of endosymbiotic bacteria in A. mellifera and other Apis spp. are poorly understood. Here, we explore the prevalence and transmission of the genera Arsenophonus, Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia in Apis spp. Colonies of A. mellifera (N = 33, with 20 eggs from worker brood cells and 100 adult workers each) as well as mated honey bee queens of A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea (N = 12 each) were screened using PCR. While Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia were not detected, Arsenophonus spp. were found in 24.2% of A. mellifera colonies and respective queens as well as in queens of A. dorsata (8.3%) and A. florea (8.3%), but not in A. cerana The absence of Arsenophonus spp. from reproductive organs of A. mellifera queens and surface-sterilized eggs does not support transovarial vertical transmission. Instead, horizontal transmission is most likely. PMID:27279628

  8. Testing the kinship theory of intragenomic conflict in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, David A; Kocher, Sarah D; Glenn, Tom; Albert, Istvan; Hunt, Greg J; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C; Grozinger, Christina M

    2016-01-26

    Sexual reproduction brings genes from two parents (matrigenes and patrigenes) together into one individual. These genes, despite being unrelated, should show nearly perfect cooperation because each gains equally through the production of offspring. However, an individual's matrigenes and patrigenes can have different probabilities of being present in other relatives, so kin selection could act on them differently. Such intragenomic conflict could be implemented by partial or complete silencing (imprinting) of an allele by one of the parents. Evidence supporting this theory is seen in offspring-mother interactions, with patrigenes favoring acquisition of more of the mother's resources if some of the costs fall on half-siblings who do not share the patrigene. The kinship theory of intragenomic conflict is little tested in other contexts, but it predicts that matrigene-patrigene conflict may be rife in social insects. We tested the hypothesis that honey bee worker reproduction is promoted more by patrigenes than matrigenes by comparing across nine reciprocal crosses of two distinct genetic stocks. As predicted, hybrid workers show reproductive trait characteristics of their paternal stock, (indicating enhanced activity of the patrigenes on these traits), greater patrigenic than matrigenic expression, and significantly increased patrigenic-biased expression in reproductive workers. These results support both the general prediction that matrigene-patrigene conflict occurs in social insects and the specific prediction that honey bee worker reproduction is driven more by patrigenes. The success of these predictions suggests that intragenomic conflict may occur in many contexts where matrigenes and patrigenes have different relatednesses to affected kin. PMID:26755583

  9. PRELIMINARY CONTRIBUTION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF COMMERCIAL UNIFLORAL HONEY SAMPLES BY MELISSOPALYNOLOGY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta IANOVICI; Andreea IONUTI; Simona ZBÎRCEA; Georgeta CRAŞOVAN

    2008-01-01

    Melissopalynology (pollen analysis of honey) is an indispensable method to authenticate honey origin and characteristics. It is very effective to determine and control the geographical origin of honeys and it also provides information about other important quality aspects. Melissopalynologists are challenged not only to identify the pollen found in honey but also decide what to do with the presence of pollen grains that are represented in the honey spectra. Pollen analyses of honey can also ...

  10. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian honey bees are famously resistant to disease, perhaps because of long-term introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata. Recently, colony losses were observed in the Altinópolis region of southeastern Brazil. We sampled 200 colonies from this region for Israeli acute paralysis vir...

  11. Honey for treatment of cough in children

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Question Cough is a very common presentation among sick children in my clinic. There is almost no day without a child being examined for upper respiratory tract infection and cough. While I understand that no medications are recommended for relief of cough—prescribed or over the counter—is it true that honey might help relieve cough symptoms in children?

  12. Testing Honey Bees' Avoidance of Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jesse Wade; Nieh, James C.; Goodale, Eben

    2012-01-01

    Many high school science students do not encounter opportunities for authentic science inquiry in their formal coursework. Ecological field studies can provide such opportunities. The purpose of this project was to teach students about the process of science by designing and conducting experiments on whether and how honey bees (Apis mellifera)…

  13. 77 FR 72385 - Honey From China; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... instituted this review on July 2, 2012 (77 FR 39257) and determined on October 5, 2012 that it would conduct an expedited review (77 FR 65204, October 25, 2012). The Commission transmitted its determination in... COMMISSION Honey From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  14. The Plight of the Honey Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockridge, Emma

    2010-01-01

    The decline of colonies of honey bees across the world is threatening local plant biodiversity and human food supplies. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been implicated as a major cause of the problem and are banned or suspended in several countries. Other factors could also be lowering the resistance of bees to opportunist infections by, for…

  15. Functionality of Varroa-Resistant Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) When Used for Western U.S. Honey Production and Almond Pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, were evaluated for performance when used for honey production in Montana, USA, and for almond pollination the following winter. Colonies of Russian honey bees (RHB) and outcrossed honey bees with...

  16. Towards integrated control of varroa: effect of variation in hygienic behaviour among honey bee colonies on mite population increase and deformed wing virus incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toufailia, Hasan M Al; Amiri, Esmaeil; Scandian, Luciano;

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic behaviour in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is the uncapping and removal of dead, diseased or infected brood from sealed cells by worker bees. We determined the effect of hygienic behaviour on varroa population growth and incidence of deformed wing virus (DWV), which can be transmitted...... by varroa. We treated 42 broodless honey bee colonies with oxalic acid in early January 2013 to reduce varroa populations to low levels, which we quantified by extracting mites from a sample of worker bees. We quantified varroa levels, again when the colonies were broodless, 48 weeks later. During...... the summer the hygienic behaviour in each colony was quantified four times using the Freeze Killed Brood (FKB) removal assay, and ranged from 27.5 % to 100 %. Varroa population increased greatly over the season, and there was a significant negative correlation between varroa increase and FKB removal...

  17. Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of commercial Portuguese honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazza, Smail; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Antunes, Dulce; Miguel, Maria Graça

    2013-08-01

    The present study evaluated the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of 13 commercial honeys from diverse floral origin, produced in Portugal. The values of electrical conductivity of cardoon and pennyroyal honeys were superior to the maximum limits defined by European legislation. Citrus, strawberry tree, and 1 sample of lavender honeys had values of diastase activity below those determined by European legislation. Strawberry tree, pennyroyal, and cardoon honeys had the highest amounts of potassium that coincided with the highest electrical conductivity. Strawberry tree honey was the most effective as antioxidant along with cardoon and heather honeys. This ability was strongly correlated with the amounts of phenols and flavonoids and not with the levels of vitamin C or proline. PMID:23957401

  18. Immunomodulatory effects of honey cannot be distinguished from endotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm, Michael; Bartelt, Stine; Hansen, Erik Wind

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the use of honey has re-emerged as a remedy for wound treatment. Effects of honey have been related to the presence of an unidentified component that induces release of inflammatory cytokines from monocytic cells. The present study was intended to further characterize the reported...... in vitro effects of honey. Our results show that natural honeys induce interleukin-6 release from Mono Mac 6 cells as well as release of reactive oxygen species from all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) differentiated HL-60 cells. The natural honeys contained substantial amounts of endotoxin, and the responses...... observed in the cell based assays were similar to the responses induced by endotoxin alone. In addition, we determined that the immunomodulatory component present in the natural honeys was retained in the ultra filtrated fraction with a molecular weight greater than 20 kDa. The component was resistant...

  19. Gonadotropic and physiological functions of juvenile hormone in Bumblebee (Bombus terrestris workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagai Shpigler

    Full Text Available The evolution of advanced sociality in bees is associated with apparent modifications in juvenile hormone (JH signaling. By contrast to most insects in which JH is a gonadotropin regulating female fertility, in the highly eusocial honey bee (Apis mellifera JH has lost its gonadotrophic function in adult females, and instead regulates age-related division of labor among worker bees. In order to shed light on the evolution of JH signaling in bees we performed allatectomy and replacement therapies to manipulate JH levels in workers of the "primitively eusocial" bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Allatectomized worker bees showed remarkable reduction in ovarian development, egg laying, Vitellogenin and Krüppel homolog 1 fat body transcript levels, hemolymph Vitellogenin protein abundance, wax secretion, and egg-cell construction. These effects were reverted, at least partially, by treating allatectomized bees with JH-III, the natural JH of bees. Allatectomy also affected the amount of ester component in Dufour's gland secretion, which is thought to convey a social signal relating to worker fertility. These findings provide a strong support for the hypothesis that in contrast to honey bees, JH is a gonadotropin in bumblebees and lend credence to the hypothesis that the evolution of advanced eusociality in honey bees was associated with major modifications in JH signaling.

  20. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  1. Honey Bee Swarms Aboard the USNS Comfort: Recommendations for Sting Prevention, Swarm Removal, and Medical Readiness on Military Ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, James C; Kronmann, Karl C; Peet, Luke R; Stancil, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    The article provides observations of multiple honey bee (Apis mellifera) swarms aboard the USNS Comfort (TAH-20) during the Continuing Promise 2015 mission. A brief overview of swarming biology is given along with control/removal recommendations to reduce sting exposures. The observations suggest that preventive medicine personnel should provide adequate risk communications about the potential occurrence of bee swarms aboard military ships, and medical department personnel should be prepared for the possibility of treating of multiple sting exposures, especially in the Southern Command Area of Operations where the Africanized genotype of A mellifera is common. PMID:27613207

  2. Performance of Africanized honeybee colonies settled by queens selected for different traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Patrícia Schafaschek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated varroa infestation and the performance of Africanized honeybee colonies with queens selected for honey and royal jelly production, and also unselected queens, correlating with climatic variables. In Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, the experiment I used 10 Langstroth hives and in Mafra, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, the experiment II was performed with 15 Schenk hives. A mapping in areas of sealed and unsealed brood, honey and pollen was carried out on days zero, 45 and 90 days after the introduction of the queen. In the experiment I, there was interaction between the type of queen selection and the evaluation period for areas of sealed brood, honey, and total stored food. The group selected for royal jelly production presented larger sealed brood area and smaller honey area at 90 days. Varroa infestation was lower (p < 0.05 at 90 days. The type of queen selection and the evaluation period influenced the sealed brood area, the total brood and the total area occupied in the colony. The high relative humidity caused greater honey storage for the local group. The different groups of queens presented different behavior according to the environment in which they are settled.

  3. Anaphylaxis to honey in pollinosis to mugwort: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuiano, N; Incorvaia, C; Riario-Sforza, G G; Casino, G

    2006-12-01

    A case of anaphylaxis to honey in a 19 year old female sensitized to Compositae pollen is described. The patient suffered from summer rhinoconjunctivitis since seven years; in January 2006, ten minutes after eating bread and honey she developed angioedema of the lips and tongue, runny nose, cough, dyspnoea, and collapse, requiring hospitalization and treatment with high dose corticosteroids and anti-histamines. After two weeks, skin prick tests (SPT) with a standard panel of inhalant allergens and prick + prick with a number of kinds of honey were performed. SPTs were positive to mugwort, ragweed, dandelion, and goldenrod. Concerning honey, the prick + prick was positive to "Millefiori" (obtained from bees foraging on Compositae) and also to sunflower, limetree, and gum tree honey, while was negative for other kinds of honey, including the frequently used chestnut honey and acacia honey. The allergenic component responsible of anaphylaxis in this case seems to be a molecule occurring in Compositae pollens, as previously reported for other three reports, but also in pollen from plants of different families. Honey contains a large number of components derived from bees, such as gland secretions and wax, as well as from substances related to their foraging activity, such flower nectar and pollens (1, 2). Honey as a food has been associated to allergic reactions and particularly to anaphylaxis (3-6). Among the pollens, the role of Compositae is somewhat controversial, since its responsibility is clear in some studies (3, 5, 6) but considered negligible in others (7). Here we present the case of a patient sensitized to Compositae pollen who had an anaphylactic reaction to the ingestion of honey obtained from bees foraging on Compositae flowers and was tested with a number of different varieties of honey. PMID:17274522

  4. A HONEY BEE SWARM INTELLIGENCE ALGORITHM FOR COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Amol V. Zade; Dr. R. M. Tugnayat

    2015-01-01

    A particular intelligent behavior of a honey bee swarm, foraging behavior, is considered and a new artificial bee colony algorithm simulating this behavior of real honey bees for solving multidimensional and multimodal optimization problems. A new optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm has been described. The proposed algorithm can be used for solving Traveling salesman problem and other applications. The proposed research work combines the ene...

  5. Molecular diagnosis and characterization of honey bee pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Forsgren, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Bees are crucial for maintaining biodiversity by pollination of numerous plant species. The European honey bee, Apis mellifera, is of great importance not only for the honey they produce, but also as vital pollinators of agricultural and horticultural crops. The economical value of pollination has been estimated to be several billion dollars, and pollinator declines are a global biodiversity threat. Hence, honey bee health has great impact on the economy, food production and biodiversity worl...

  6. Antibiotic, Pesticide, and Microbial Contaminants of Honey: Human Health Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori Al-Waili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's pathogens. Many cases of infant botulisms have been attributed to contaminated honey. Honey may be very toxic when produced from certain plants. Ingestion of honey without knowing its source and safety might be problematic. Honey should be labeled to explore its origin, composition, and clear statement that it is free from contaminants. Honey that is not subjected for analysis and sterilization should not be used in infants, and should not be applied to wounds or used for medicinal purposes. This article reviews the extent and health impact of honey contamination and stresses on the introduction of a strict monitoring system and validation of acceptable minimal concentrations of pollutants or identifying maximum residue limits for bee products, in particular, honey.

  7. Honey protein extraction and determination by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Lee Suan; Lee, Jun You; Chan, Giek Far

    2013-04-01

    There are relatively limited studies on the protein of honey samples mainly because of the low amount of protein in honey (0.1-0.5 %), the difficulty in extracting honey protein from the sugar-rich environment, and the hindrance of protein characterization by conventional approaches. Several protein extraction methods such as mechanical (ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation) and chemical (precipitation) techniques have been applied to different types of honey samples. Most of these studies reported the quantity and molecular size of honey protein from gel electrophoresis, but were unable to identify and characterize the protein. This limitation might be due to the low capacity of analytical equipment in those days. Although different precipitants have also been used, not all them are compatible with mass spectrometric methods during downstream analysis. As a result, the sample preparation step is essential in order to confidently characterize the low and varied amount of honey protein. Nowadays, honey protein is getting attention from researchers because of its potential activity in pharmacological applications. Therefore, honey protein extraction and determination by mass spectrometry are critically reviewed in order to stimulate further honey protein research. PMID:23292042

  8. Irradiation of honey for food and medicinal purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey has been used as food and for its medicinal value for centuries. Even though its microbial content is usually low as its acidity and high viscosity can inhibit any microbial growth, some incidents of contamination with Clostridium spores were reported. Therefore, ionising radiation can be considered to decontaminate the pathogens or even sterilise (Pucuk daun, durian, gelam, bunga gelam and Asli) and three imported honeys (manuka Clement, Waitemata and Capilani Sweet Meadow). Results showed that the microbial count was 2.1 rather low in all honey hence membrane filtration method is more suitable than spread plate method to determine the microbial count in honey samples. The lowest microbial count was 2.1 counts/g for bunga gelam and the highest was 33.4 counts/g for capilano sweet in the sensory tests for taste, viscosity, colour and overall acceptance (P<0.05). Gamma irradiation at 25 kGy and 50 kGy (in gelam, pucuk daun, durian, manuka clement and waitemata) did not give any effect on the antibacterial property when the irradiated honey was added into the bacterial suspension of staphylococcus aureus. Heat at 50 degree C did not reduce the antibacterial property of irradiated honey. All local honeys showed antimicrobial indicated for its high medicinal value. The results show that gamma irradiation is useful to decontaminate honey from pathogenic contaminants or even to sterilise honey for safe use without any changes in its organoleptic and antibacterial property. (Author)

  9. Reducing workers' compensation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, M J

    1994-01-01

    Employers can reduce their workers' compensation costs by encouraging internal communication and education before and after injuries occur. Comprehensive workers' compensation programs can be developed by integrating the management of employee benefits and workers' compensation claims. PMID:10133659

  10. Physicochemical properties of honey from Marche, Central Italy: classification of unifloral and multifloral honeys by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldia, Anna; Finale, Carolina; Rossetti, Monica; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the physicochemical characterization and classification of Italian honey from Marche Region with a chemometric approach. A total of 135 honeys of different botanical origins [acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), chestnut (Castanea sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), lime (Tilia spp.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Metcalfa honeydew and multifloral honey] were considered. The average results of electrical conductivity (0.14-1.45 mS cm(-1)), pH (3.89-5.42), free acidity (10.9-39.0 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), lactones (2.4-4.5 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), total acidity (14.5-40.9 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), proline (229-665 mg kg(-1)) and 5-(hydroxy-methyl)-2-furaldehyde (0.6-3.9 mg kg(-1)) content show wide variability among the analysed honey types, with statistically significant differences between the different honey types. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were performed in order to find a relationship between variables and types of honey and to classify honey on the basis of its physicochemical properties. The variables of electrical conductivity, acidity (free, lactones), pH and proline content exhibited higher discriminant power and provided enough information for the classification and distinction of unifloral honey types, but not for the classification of multifloral honey (100% and 85% of samples correctly classified, respectively). PMID:25532290

  11. Physicochemical properties of honey from Marche, Central Italy: classification of unifloral and multifloral honeys by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldia, Anna; Finale, Carolina; Rossetti, Monica; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the physicochemical characterization and classification of Italian honey from Marche Region with a chemometric approach. A total of 135 honeys of different botanical origins [acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), chestnut (Castanea sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), lime (Tilia spp.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Metcalfa honeydew and multifloral honey] were considered. The average results of electrical conductivity (0.14-1.45 mS cm(-1)), pH (3.89-5.42), free acidity (10.9-39.0 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), lactones (2.4-4.5 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), total acidity (14.5-40.9 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), proline (229-665 mg kg(-1)) and 5-(hydroxy-methyl)-2-furaldehyde (0.6-3.9 mg kg(-1)) content show wide variability among the analysed honey types, with statistically significant differences between the different honey types. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were performed in order to find a relationship between variables and types of honey and to classify honey on the basis of its physicochemical properties. The variables of electrical conductivity, acidity (free, lactones), pH and proline content exhibited higher discriminant power and provided enough information for the classification and distinction of unifloral honey types, but not for the classification of multifloral honey (100% and 85% of samples correctly classified, respectively).

  12. The relationship between asymmetry, size and unusual venation in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopuch, S; Tofilski, A

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fact that symmetry is common in nature, it is rarely perfect. Because there is a wide range of phenotypes which differs from the average one, the asymmetry should increase along with deviation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the level of asymmetry in normal individuals as well as in phenodeviants categorized as minor or major based on abnormalities in forewing venation in honey bees. Shape fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was lower in normal individuals and minor phenodeviants compared with major phenodeviants, whereas the former two categories were comparable in drones. In workers and queens, there were not significant differences in FA shape between categories. FA size was significantly lower in normal individuals compared with major phenodeviant drones and higher compared with minor phenodeviant workers. In queens, there were no significant differences between categories. The correlation between FA shape and FA size was significantly positive in drones, and insignificant in workers and queens. Moreover, a considerable level of directional asymmetry was found as the right wing was constantly bigger than the left one. Surprisingly, normal individuals were significantly smaller than minor phenodeviants in queens and drones, and they were comparable with major phenodeviants in all castes. The correlation between wing size and wing asymmetry was negative, indicating that smaller individuals were more asymmetrical. The high proportion of phenodeviants in drones compared with workers and queens confirmed their large variability. Thus, the results of the present study showed that minor phenodeviants were not always intermediate as might have been expected.

  13. The relationship between asymmetry, size and unusual venation in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopuch, S; Tofilski, A

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fact that symmetry is common in nature, it is rarely perfect. Because there is a wide range of phenotypes which differs from the average one, the asymmetry should increase along with deviation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the level of asymmetry in normal individuals as well as in phenodeviants categorized as minor or major based on abnormalities in forewing venation in honey bees. Shape fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was lower in normal individuals and minor phenodeviants compared with major phenodeviants, whereas the former two categories were comparable in drones. In workers and queens, there were not significant differences in FA shape between categories. FA size was significantly lower in normal individuals compared with major phenodeviant drones and higher compared with minor phenodeviant workers. In queens, there were no significant differences between categories. The correlation between FA shape and FA size was significantly positive in drones, and insignificant in workers and queens. Moreover, a considerable level of directional asymmetry was found as the right wing was constantly bigger than the left one. Surprisingly, normal individuals were significantly smaller than minor phenodeviants in queens and drones, and they were comparable with major phenodeviants in all castes. The correlation between wing size and wing asymmetry was negative, indicating that smaller individuals were more asymmetrical. The high proportion of phenodeviants in drones compared with workers and queens confirmed their large variability. Thus, the results of the present study showed that minor phenodeviants were not always intermediate as might have been expected. PMID:27241228

  14. The Foreign Workers and Foreign Workers' German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackshire-Belay, Carol

    Foreign Workers' German (FWG) refers to the acquired German language skills of workers from various countries who were recruited to West Germany between 1955 and 1973 to fill menial, undesirable jobs. Contact between these workers and native German speakers was limited because of the nature of the foreigners' work, the tendency toward residential…

  15. Cane Honey: Process, Quality and Harmlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C. Walter Francisco Quezada Moreno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to obtain hydrolyzed honey, evaluate its quality, harmlessness, and productivity of the process, in order to diversify and make dynamic the panela production. The quality and food safety about the product is determined by the control in every stage of the process especially in natural clarification and concentration. Two pH factors were tested and the final concentration of the solution was tested by response variables such as viscosity, flavor, and the presence of crystals. The results showed that pH and concentration impact considerably the quality and safety. These are objectively valued through a sensorial and microbiological analysis. The production yield regarding hydrolyzed honey is vital for panela and natural sugar production since it increases with the extraction of juice in an efficiency manner

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: honey bee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available honey bee Apis mellifera Arthropoda Apis_mellifera_L.png Apis_mellifera_NL.png Apis_mellife...ra_S.png Apis_mellifera_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=L h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellife...ra&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NS ...

  17. Measurement of optical activity of honey bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Salgado-Verduzco, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Optical activity of some substances, such as chiral molecules, often exhibits circular birefringence. Circular birefringence causes rotation of the vibration plane of the plane polarized light as it passes through the substance. In this work we present optical characterization of honey as function of the optical activity when it is placed in a polariscope that consists of a light source and properly arranged polarizing elements.

  18. Octopamine modulates honey bee dance behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, Andrew B.; Maleszka, Ryszard; Robert K. Vander Meer; Robinson, Gene E.

    2007-01-01

    Honey bees communicate the location and desirability of valuable forage sites to their nestmates through an elaborate, symbolic “dance language.” The dance language is a uniquely complex communication system in invertebrates, and the neural mechanisms that generate dances are largely unknown. Here we show that treatments with controlled doses of the biogenic amine neuromodulator octopamine selectively increased the reporting of resource value in dances by forager bees. Oral and topical octopa...

  19. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Hua Gan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4. Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg, flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg, ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg, AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg, protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90 contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18 and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants.

  20. Antibacterial immune competence of honey bees (Apis mellifera is adapted to different life stages and environmental risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Gätschenberger

    Full Text Available The development of all honey bee castes proceeds through three different life stages all of which encounter microbial infections to a various extent. We have examined the immune strength of honey bees across all developmental stages with emphasis on the temporal expression of cellular and humoral immune responses upon artificial challenge with viable Escherichia coli bacteria. We employed a broad array of methods to investigate defence strategies of infected individuals: (a fate of bacteria in the haemocoel; (b nodule formation and (c induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs. Newly emerged adult worker bees and drones were able to activate efficiently all examined immune reactions. The number of viable bacteria circulating in the haemocoel of infected bees declined rapidly by more than two orders of magnitude within the first 4-6 h post-injection (p.i., coinciding with the occurrence of melanised nodules. Antimicrobial activity, on the other hand, became detectable only after the initial bacterial clearance. These two temporal patterns of defence reactions very likely represent the constitutive cellular and the induced humoral immune response. A unique feature of honey bees is that a fraction of worker bees survives the winter season in a cluster mostly engaged in thermoregulation. We show here that the overall immune strength of winter bees matches that of young summer bees although nodulation reactions are not initiated at all. As expected, high doses of injected viable E.coli bacteria caused no mortality in larvae or adults of each age. However, drone and worker pupae succumbed to challenge with E.coli even at low doses, accompanied by a premature darkening of the pupal body. In contrast to larvae and adults, we observed no fast clearance of viable bacteria and no induction of AMPs but a rapid proliferation of E.coli bacteria in the haemocoel of bee pupae ultimately leading to their death.

  1. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products. PMID:26920304

  2. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïla Even

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine, neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone. Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop. We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress.

  3. Social Work Research on African Americans and Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic 25-year Review

    OpenAIRE

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M.

    2008-01-01

    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work’s empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on Af...

  4. Potential Role of Honey in Learning and Memory

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    Zahiruddin Othman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The composition and physicochemical properties of honey are variable depending on its floral source and often named according to the geographical location. The potential medicinal benefits of Tualang honey, a multifloral jungle honey found in Malaysia, have recently been attracting attention because of its reported beneficial effects in various diseases. This paper reviews the effects of honey, particularly Tualang honey, on learning and memory. Information regarding the effects of Tualang honey on learning and memory in human as well as animal models is gleaned to hypothesize its underlying mechanisms. These studies show that Tualang honey improves morphology of memory-related brain areas, reduces brain oxidative stress, increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and acetylcholine (ACh concentrations, and reduces acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the brain homogenates. Its anti-inflammatory roles in reducing inflammatory trigger and microglial activation have yet to be investigated. It is hypothesized that the improvement in learning and memory following Tualang honey supplementation is due to the significant improvement in brain morphology and enhancement of brain cholinergic system secondary to reduction in brain oxidative damage and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration. Further studies are imperative to elucidate the molecular mechanism of actions.

  5. Characterization of immunomodulatory activities of honey glycoproteins and glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaik, M Ahmed; Dastagir, Nida; Uddin, Nazim; Rehman, Khalid; Azim, M Kamran

    2015-01-14

    Recent evidence suggests an important role for natural honey in modulating immune response. To identify active components responsible, this study investigated the immunomodulatory properties of glycoproteins and glycopeptides fractionated from Ziziphus honey. Honey proteins/peptides were fractionated by size exclusion chromatography into five peaks with molecular masses in the range of 2-450 kDa. The fractionated proteins exhibited potent, concentration-dependent inhibition of reactive oxygen species production in zymosan-activated human neutrophils (IC50 = 6-14 ng/mL) and murine macrophages (IC50 = 2-9 ng/mL). Honey proteins significantly suppressed the nitric oxide production by LPS-activated murine macrophages (IC50 = 96-450 ng/mL). Moreover, honey proteins inhibited the phagocytosis latex bead macrophages. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α by human monocytic cell line in the presence of honey proteins was analyzed. Honey proteins did not affect the production of IL-1β; however, TNF-α production was significantly suppressed. These findings indicated that honey glycoproteins and glycopeptides significantly interfere with molecules of the innate immune system. PMID:25496517

  6. Oxytetracycline Analysis in Honey Using a Portable Specific Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytetracycline (OTC), an antibiotic extensively used in human medicine, is also effective in treatment of American and European foulbrood diseases in honey bees. To protect public health, OTC residue in honey is regulated and monitored. For the beekeeping industry it is highly desirable to perfor...

  7. Irradiation Effects on the Decontamination of Microorganisms in Honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey is usually contaminated with numerous microorganisms. Especially, the presence of the spore of Clostridium in honey is dangerous to infants and small children. To determine the effect of a gamma irradiation on the microorganisms in honey, our kinds of honeys (acacia flower, poly floral flower, native A, and native B) were irradiated (0, 5, and 10 kGy) and the total aerobic bacterial count, yeasts and molds, coliform, and Clostridium spp. were detected. In all the honeys, the coliform bacterial, yeast and molds counts were below. The limit of detection (< 101 cfu/g). Total aerobic bacterial and Clostridium spp counts ranged from 85 to 450 cfu/g and 0 to 450 cfu/g in the samples respectively. Acacia and poly floral flower honey were completely sterilized by a 5 kGy irradiation, and both the native honey A and B showed decreased populations of the total aerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp. with a 5 kGy irradiation. Therefore it is concluded that an irradiation treatment could be an effective tool to disinfect honey

  8. Honey for wound care in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R

    2016-09-01

    This review is written in memory of Professor Peter Molan, who published a paper in the Journal of Wound Care in 1999 describing the therapeutic properties of honey in relation to wound care. It provides an update to show how our understanding of the mode of action of honey has changed within the past 17 years. PMID:27608516

  9. ANTIRADICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PHENOLIC FRACTIONS OBTAINED FROM HONEYS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazol, Irena; Sroka, Zbigniew; Sowa, Alina; Ostrowska, Anna; Dryś, Andrzej; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Honey is a natural product consisting of multiple components which determine its dietary and medicinal properties. In this work there were studied methanol fractions obtained from seven honeys from Lower Silesia (Poland) collected in different seasons of three successive years. Melissopalynologic studies revealed that two of them were polyfloral, and five were classified as monofloral (two buckwheat and three rapes). The amount of phenolic compounds in honeys varied from 0.09 to 0.38 mg per g of honey. Honeys harvested in 2010 were the richest in phenolic compounds and especially rich was buckwheat honey, comparing to 2011- 2012. Determination of antioxidant potential with the DPPH radical revealed that the strongest antiradical activity was exhibited by extracts obtained from polyfloral (1.22 TAU(515/mg)) and buckwheat (1.06 TAU(515lmg)) honeys, while the highest number of antiradical units was observed for rape honey (3.64 TAU(515/g)). Polyphenolic fractions exhibited various bactericidal activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and weak or no activity was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27180430

  10. Socialized Medicine: Individual and communal disease barriers in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bees are attacked by numerous parasites and pathogens toward which they present defenses. In this review, we will briefly introduce the many pathogens and parasites afflicting honey bees, highlighting the biologies of specific taxonomic groups mainly as they relate to virulence and possible de...

  11. Multiyear survey targeting disease incidence in US honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US National Honey Bee Disease Survey sampled colony pests and diseases from 2009 to 2014. We verified the absence of Tropilaelaps spp., the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana), and slow bee paralysis virus. Endemic health threats were quantified, including Varroa destructor, Nosema spp., and eight hon...

  12. Neurological Effects of Honey: Current and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mijanur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey is the only insect-derived natural product with therapeutic, traditional, spiritual, nutritional, cosmetic, and industrial value. In addition to having excellent nutritional value, honey is a good source of physiologically active natural compounds, such as polyphenols. Unfortunately, there are very few current research projects investigating the nootropic and neuropharmacological effects of honey, and these are still in their early stages. Raw honey possesses nootropic effects, such as memory-enhancing effects, as well as neuropharmacological activities, such as anxiolytic, antinociceptive, anticonvulsant, and antidepressant activities. Research suggests that the polyphenol constituents of honey can quench biological reactive oxygen species and counter oxidative stress while restoring the cellular antioxidant defense system. Honey polyphenols are also directly involved in apoptotic activities while attenuating microglia-induced neuroinflammation. Honey polyphenols are useful in improving memory deficits and can act at the molecular level. Therefore, the ultimate biochemical impact of honey on specific neurodegenerative diseases, apoptosis, necrosis, neuroinflammation, synaptic plasticity, and behavior-modulating neural circuitry should be evaluated with appropriate mechanistic approaches using biochemical and molecular tools.

  13. Antibiofilm Activity of Manuka Honey in Combination with Antibiotics

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    Michelle E. M. Campeau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the in vitro activity of Manuka honey against biofilm bacteria in combination with antibiotics and visualized the effect of Manuka honey on bacterial biofilms using scanning electron microscopy. The fractional biofilm eradication concentration (∑FBEC  index for vancomycin plus Manuka honey against S. aureus IDRL-4284 biofilms was 0.34, indicating a synergistic interaction. The ∑FBEC  index for gentamicin plus Manuka honey against P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms was 0.78–0.82, indicating an additive interaction. Scanning electron microscopy of S. aureus IDRL-4284 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms exposed to Manuka honey and artificial honey containing the same sugar composition as Manuka honey showed that the former had more pronounced effects than the latter on both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms. Visualized effects included distorted cell morphologies for both bacteria and a decrease in P. aeruginosa extracellular matrix. In conclusion, Manuka honey has a synergistic interaction with vancomycin against S. aureus biofilms and an additive interaction with gentamicin against P. aeruginosa biofilms.

  14. Flavonoids patterns of French honeys with different floral origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, C.; Gil, M.I.; Garcia-Viguera, C.; Tomás-Barberán, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    The flavonoid profiles of 12 different unifloral French honey samples were analysed by HPLC to evaluate if these substances could be used as markers of the floral origin of honey. In this analysis, the characteristic flavonoids from propolis and/or beeswax (chrysin, galangin, tectochrysin, pinocembr

  15. 76 FR 251 - Country of Origin Labeling of Packed Honey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... final rule published in the Federal Register on July 8, 2009 (74 FR 32389) to include provisions for... Service 7 CFR Part 52 RIN 0581-AC89 Country of Origin Labeling of Packed Honey AGENCY: Agricultural..., establishing new regulations addressing country of origin labeling for packed honey bearing any official...

  16. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation

  17. Deformed wing virus in western honey bees (Apis mellifera) from Atlantic Canada and the first description of an overtly-infected emerging queen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey R; Rogers, Richard E L; Kalkstein, Abby L; Taylor, Benjamin A; Shutler, Dave; Ostiguy, Nancy

    2009-04-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) in western honey bees (Apis mellifera) often remains asymptomatic in workers and drones, and symptoms have never been described from queens. However, intense infections linked to parasitism by the mite Varroa destructor can cause worker wing deformity and death within 67 h of emergence. Ten workers (eight with deformed wings and two with normal wings) and three drones (two with deformed wings and one with normal wings) from two colonies infected with V. destructor from Nova Scotia, Canada, and two newly-emerged queens (one with deformed wings and one with normal wings) from two colonies infected with V. destructor from Prince Edward Island, Canada, were genetically analyzed for DWV. We detected DWV in all workers and drones, regardless of wing morphology, but only in the deformed-winged queen. This is the first report of DWV from Atlantic Canada and the first detection of a symptomatic queen with DWV from anywhere.

  18. PKG in honey bees: spatial expression, Amfor gene expression, sucrose responsiveness, and division of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamm, Markus; Scheiner, Ricarda

    2014-06-01

    Division of labor is a hallmark of social insects. In honey bees, division of labor involves transition of female workers from one task to the next. The most distinct tasks are nursing (providing food for the brood) and foraging (collecting pollen and nectar). The brain mechanisms regulating this form of behavioral plasticity have largely remained elusive. Recently, it was suggested that division of labor is based on nutrition-associated signaling pathways. One highly conserved gene associated with food-related behavior across species is the foraging gene, which encodes a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Our analysis of this gene reveals the presence of alternative splicing in the honey bee. One isoform is expressed in the brain. Expression of this isoform is most pronounced in the mushroom bodies, the subesophageal ganglion, and the corpora allata. Division of labor and sucrose responsiveness in honey bees correlate significantly with foraging gene expression in distinct brain regions. Activating PKG selectively increases sucrose responsiveness in nurse bees to the level of foragers, whereas the same treatment does not affect responsiveness to light. These findings demonstrate a direct link between PKG signaling in distinct brain areas and division of labor. Furthermore, they demonstrate that the difference in sensory responsiveness between nurse bees and foragers can be compensated for by activating PKG. Our findings on the function of PKG in regulating specific sensory responsiveness and social organization offer valuable indications for the function of the cGMP/PKG pathway in many other insects and vertebrates. PMID:24214291

  19. Application of analytical methods in authentication and adulteration of honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Rahman, Atta-Ur-

    2017-02-15

    Honey is synthesized from flower nectar and it is famous for its tremendous therapeutic potential since ancient times. Many factors influence the basic properties of honey including the nectar-providing plant species, bee species, geographic area, and harvesting conditions. Quality and composition of honey is also affected by many other factors, such as overfeeding of bees with sucrose, harvesting prior to maturity, and adulteration with sugar syrups. Due to the complex nature of honey, it is often challenging to authenticate the purity and quality by using common methods such as physicochemical parameters and more specialized procedures need to be developed. This article reviews the literature (between 2000 and 2016) on the use of analytical techniques, mainly NMR spectroscopy, for authentication of honey, its botanical and geographical origin, and adulteration by sugar syrups. NMR is a powerful technique and can be used as a fingerprinting technique to compare various samples. PMID:27664687

  20. High concentration honey chitosan electrospun nanofibers: biocompatibility and antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E

    2015-05-20

    Honey nanofibers represent an attractive formulation with unique medicinal and wound healing advantages. Nanofibers with honey concentrations of chitosan and honey (H) were cospun with polyvinyl alcohol (P) allowing the fabrication of nanofibers with high honey concentrations up to 40% and high chitosan concentrations up to 5.5% of the total weight of the fibers using biocompatible solvents (1% acetic acid). The fabricated nanofibers were further chemically crosslinked, by exposure to glutaraldehyde vapor, and physically crosslinked by heating and freezing/thawing. The new HP-chitosan nanofibers showed pronounced antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus but weak antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The developed HP-chitosan nanofibers revealed no cytotoxicity effects on cultured fibroblasts. In conclusion, biocompatible, antimicrobial crosslinked honey/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan nanofibers were developed which hold potential as effective wound dressing. PMID:25817652

  1. Mating frequencies of honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.) in a population of feral colonies in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R; Delaney, Deborah A; Seeley, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    Across their introduced range in North America, populations of feral honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies have supposedly declined in recent decades as a result of exotic parasites, most notably the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. Nonetheless, recent studies have documented several wild populations of colonies that have persisted. The extreme polyandry of honey bee queens-and the increased intracolony genetic diversity it confers-has been attributed, in part, to improved disease resistance and may be a factor in the survival of these populations of feral colonies. We estimated the mating frequencies of queens in feral colonies in the Arnot Forest in New York State to determine if the level of polyandry of these queens is especially high and so might contribute to their survival success. We genotyped the worker offspring from 10 feral colonies in the Arnot Forest of upstate New York, as well as those from 20 managed colonies closest to this forest. We found no significant differences in mean mating frequency between the feral and managed queens, suggesting that queens in the remote, low-density population of colonies in the Arnot Forest are neither mate-limited nor adapted to mate at an especially high frequency. These findings support the hypothesis that the hyperpolyandry of honey bees has been shaped on an evolutionary timescale rather than on an ecological one. PMID:25775410

  2. Mating frequencies of honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L. in a population of feral colonies in the Northeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Tarpy

    Full Text Available Across their introduced range in North America, populations of feral honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies have supposedly declined in recent decades as a result of exotic parasites, most notably the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. Nonetheless, recent studies have documented several wild populations of colonies that have persisted. The extreme polyandry of honey bee queens-and the increased intracolony genetic diversity it confers-has been attributed, in part, to improved disease resistance and may be a factor in the survival of these populations of feral colonies. We estimated the mating frequencies of queens in feral colonies in the Arnot Forest in New York State to determine if the level of polyandry of these queens is especially high and so might contribute to their survival success. We genotyped the worker offspring from 10 feral colonies in the Arnot Forest of upstate New York, as well as those from 20 managed colonies closest to this forest. We found no significant differences in mean mating frequency between the feral and managed queens, suggesting that queens in the remote, low-density population of colonies in the Arnot Forest are neither mate-limited nor adapted to mate at an especially high frequency. These findings support the hypothesis that the hyperpolyandry of honey bees has been shaped on an evolutionary timescale rather than on an ecological one.

  3. Efficiency in pollen foraging by honey bees: Time, motion and pollen depletion on flowers of Sisyrinchium palmifolium Linnaeus (Asparagales: Iridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno M. Freitas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees depend on flower resources (nectar and pollen to supply individual and colony needs. Although behavioural studies already assessed optimum foraging patterns of bumblebees, honey bees foraging behavioural patterns have been poorly assessed. We used Sysirinchium palmifolium L. (Iridaceae, a low-growing, abundant and anthophilous grassland flower to test the hypotheses that Apis mellifera workers would i spend more time, ii visit a greater number of flowers, and iii travel greater distances within patches of S. palmifolium which were newly opened or not been visited by other pollinators when compared to foraging on patches that were available to pollinators during its whole blooming period (only one day. In two different sunny days, we measured bee activities in an area opened for visitation during the whole anthesis (OP plot treatment and another opened for visitation only half of anthesis (CL plot treatment. We observed bees spending more time, visiting more flowers and travelling more in S. palmifolium CL treatment than the OP plot treatment. Previous studies already showed bees alter their foraging behaviour in the lack of resources. Honey bees are able to remember the period of the day when resources are usually the higher, they probably detect the most promising period to gather resources on S. palmifolium flowers. Since A. mellifera is a pollinator with a wide-distribution and is considered an important cause of changes on native pollinator communities, we support additional studies evaluating its foraging behaviours to better understand how it explores flower resources.

  4. Within-Colony Variation in the Immunocompetency of Managed and Feral Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L. in Different Urban Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Holden Appler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization has the potential to dramatically affect insect populations worldwide, although its effects on pollinator populations are just beginning to be understood. We compared the immunocompetency of honey bees sampled from feral (wild-living and managed (beekeeper-owned honey bee colonies. We sampled foragers from feral and managed colonies in rural, suburban, and urban landscapes in and around Raleigh, NC, USA. We then analyzed adult workers using two standard bioassays for insect immune function (encapsulation response and phenoloxidase activity. We found that there was far more variation within colonies for encapsulation response or phenoloxidase activity than among rural to urban landscapes, and we did not observe any significant difference in immune response between feral and managed bees. These findings suggest that social pollinators, like honey bees, may be sufficiently robust or variable in their immune responses to obscure any subtle effects of urbanization. Additional studies of immune physiology and disease ecology of social and solitary bees in urban, suburban, and natural ecosystems will provide insights into the relative effects of changing urban environments on several important factors that influence pollinator productivity and health.

  5. Compostos voláteis em méis florais Volatile compounds in floral honeys

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Bastos De Maria; Ricardo Felipe Alves Moreira

    2003-01-01

    A review about origin, composition and importance of volatile compounds in floral honeys is presented. Hydrocarbons, aromatic components, acids, diacids, terpenoids, ketones, aldehydes, esters and alcohols have been found in honey aroma of different botanical origin. Cis-rose oxide has been proposed as an indicator for Tilia cordata honey. Citrus honeys are known to contain methyl anthranilate, a compound which other honeys virtually lack. Linalool, phenylethylalcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, p-a...

  6. Heavy metals determination in honey samples using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Aghamirlou, Hasan Mohammadi; Khadem, Monireh; Rahmani, Abdolrasoul; Sadeghian, Marzieh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Akbarzadeh, Arash; NAZMARA, Shahrokh

    2015-01-01

    Background Honey contains a complex mixture of carbohydrates and other minor substances. Elements are minor constituents of honey that may threaten the human health in excess concentrations. So, determining the metals in honey helps its quality control as a food product. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of some metals in Iranian honey. Methods This study was performed in four regions of Ardabil, a province of Iran. Honey samples (n = 25) were digested in microwave ove...

  7. Extraction of Honey Polyphenols: Method Development and Evidence of Cis Isomerization

    OpenAIRE

    Istasse, Thibaut; Jacquet, Nicolas; Berchem, Thomas; Haubruge, Eric; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Richel, Aurore

    2016-01-01

    Honey polyphenols have been studied with the objective of relating honeys to their floral sources. Initially synthesized by plant, these polyphenols can be found in the plant’s nectar, which are collected by bees, which convert the nectar into honey. Consequently, polyphenols constitute minor components of honey. The development of a solid-phase extraction method for honey polyphenols is presented in this study. The technique employs Amberlite XAD-2 adsorbent and was tested on monofloral hone...

  8. Honey Quality as Affected by Handling, Processing and Marketing Channels in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Nabakabya, D.; Kugonza, DR.

    2008-01-01

    The factors that affect honey quality in Uganda were surveyed in 120 beekeeping households. Honey was sampled from supermarkets, hawkers and stall markets along four transects across Kampala, the capital. Honey quality parameters assessed were diastase number (DN), free acidity (FA), moisture content (MC), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and water insoluble solids (WIS). Honey was mostly harvested from basket and grass hives. Pressing, boiling and straining were popular honey processing methods....

  9. The antimicrobial activity of prototype modified honeys that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Jonathan; Dryden, Matthew; Patton, Thomas; Brennan, James; Barrett, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance continues to be a global issue in healthcare organisations. Honey has long been shown to possess wound healing and antimicrobial properties that are dependent on a number of physical and chemical properties of the honey. We tested the antimicrobial activity of a medicinal honey, Surgihoney® (SH) and two prototype modified honeys made by Apis mellifera (honeybee) against Staphylococcus aureus (NCIMB 9518). We also examined the modified honey prototypes for t...

  10. Effects of Three Types of Japanese Honey on Full-Thickness Wound in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yukari Nakajima; Yuki Nakano; Sono Fuwano; Natsumi Hayashi; Yukiho Hiratoko; Ayaka Kinoshita; Megumi Miyahara; Tsuyoshi Mochizuki; Kasumi Nishino; Yusuke Tsuruhara; Yoshika Yokokawa; Terumi Iuchi; Yuka Kon; Kanae Mukai; Yukie Kitayama

    2013-01-01

    Although many previous studies reported that honey promotes wound healing, no study has examined the effects of Japanese honey. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three types of Japanese honey, Acacia, Buckwheat flour, and Chinese milk vetch honey, on wound healing in comparison with hydrocolloid dressing. Circular full-thickness skin wounds were produced on male mice. Japanese honey or hydrocolloid dressing was applied daily to the mice for 14 days. The ratio of wound ar...

  11. Effects of honey dressing for the treatment of DFUs: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Tian; Li-Juan Yi; Li Ma; Lei Zhang; Guo-Min Song; Yan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Honey dressing has been applied to clinical practice for many types of disease for centuries. Many researchers have studied the effects of honey dressing for the treatment of DFUs (diabetic foot ulcers), and no systematic review has considered effects of honey dressing on DFUs. A systematic review performed to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of honey dressing in the treatment of DFUs. Methods: We include all original studies found for the key words honey and diabetic foo...

  12. Intensively Cultivated Landscape and Varroa Mite Infestation Are Associated with Reduced Honey Bee Nutritional State

    OpenAIRE

    Adam G Dolezal; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W. Allen; Bryony C. Bonning; Toth, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    As key pollinators, honey bees are crucial to many natural and agricultural ecosystems. An important factor in the health of honey bees is the availability of diverse floral resources. However, in many parts of the world, high-intensity agriculture could result in a reduction in honey bee forage. Previous studies have investigated how the landscape surrounding honey bee hives affects some aspects of honey bee health, but to our knowledge there have been no investigations of the effects of int...

  13. PALYNOLOGICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF CROATIAN HONEYS - CHRIST’S THORN (PALIURUS SPINA CHRISTI MILL. HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA Kenjerić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine physicochemical parameters and pollen spectrum of Christ’s thorn (Paliurus spina christi Mill. honey. 15 samples of honey from three production seasons were analysed. Pollen spectrum indicated that all honey samples were unifloral, with Paliurus spina Christi pollen content of 46 – 92 %, while number of other botanical species varied in range from 5 to 16. Moisture, electrical conductivity, pH, free, lactone and total acidity, invertase and diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural and proline content and specific rotation were determined, as well as content of sugars. Physicochemical parameters showed that Chist’s thorn honey is characterized by high activity of enzymes diastase (25.39-50.51, mean 42.08 and especially invertase (164.9-299.7 U/kg, mean 245.5 U/ kg, high electrical conductivity (0.45-0.89 mS/cm, mean 0.68 mS/cm and high proline content (346.4-667.1 mg/kg, mean 518.6 mg/kg.

  14. School Social Workers and a Renewed Call to Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Alfred L., Jr.; Slovak, Karen; Broussard, C. Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article calls for school social workers to work in schools to reform school systems that have historically failed and are currently failing African American children. While the hope of education is to assist students to realize their potential, school systems across the nation are not reaching this goal. School social work has a duty, a…

  15. LC-MS/MS analysis of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey: methodology and residue findings in Austrian honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Gina; Czerwenka, Christoph

    2011-12-14

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of residues of eight neonicotinoid insecticides and two metabolites in honey using LC-MS/MS was developed and validated. Two approaches of sample preparation were investigated, with the final method involving acetonitrile extraction and subsequent cleanup by dispersive solid-phase extraction (QuEChERS type). Validation was based on quintuplicate analysis at three fortification levels and showed satisfactory recoveries (60-114%) and high precision (RSDs between 2.7 and 12.8%). Low limits of detection and quantification could be achieved for all analytes ranging from 0.6 to 5 μg/kg and from 2 to 10 μg/kg, respectively. Investigations of Austrian honey samples revealed the presence of acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam residues in honey; however, no sample exceeded the maximum residue limits. On average, flower honey samples contained neonicotinoid residues in higher quantities compared to forest honey samples.

  16. Combination of 1H NMR and chemometrics to discriminate manuka honey from other floral honey types from Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Marc; Rogers, Karyne M; Jamin, Eric; Thomas, Freddy; Guyader, Sophie; Lees, Michèle; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2017-02-15

    Manuka honey is a product produced essentially in New Zealand, and has been widely recognised for its antibacterial properties and specific taste. In this study, 264 honeys from New Zealand and Australia were analysed using proton NMR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics. Known manuka markers, methylglyoxal and dihydroxyacetone, have been characterised and quantified, together with a new NMR marker, identified as being leptosperin. Manuka honey profiling using 1H NMR is shown to be a possible alternative to chromatography with the added advantage that it can measure methylglyoxal (MGO), dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and leptosperin simultaneously. By combining the information from these three markers, we established a model to estimate the proportion of manuka in a given honey. Markers of other botanical origins were also identified, which makes 1H NMR a convenient and efficient tool, complementary to pollen analysis, to control the botanical origin of Oceania honeys. PMID:27664696

  17. The sex determination gene shows no founder effect in the giant honey bee, Apis dorsata.

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    Zhi Yong Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All honey bee species (Apis spp share the same sex determination mechanism using the complementary sex determination (csd gene. Only individuals heterogeneous at the csd allele develop into females, and the homozygous develop into diploid males, which do not survive. The honeybees are therefore under selection pressure to generate new csd alleles. Previous studies have shown that the csd gene is under balancing selection. We hypothesize that due to the long separation from the mainland of Hainan Island, China, that the giant honey bees (Apis dorsata should show a founder effect for the csd gene, with many different alleles clustered together, and these would be absent on the mainland. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sampled A. dorsata workers from both Hainan and Guangxi Provinces and then cloned and sequenced region 3 of the csd gene and constructed phylogenetic trees. We failed to find any clustering of the csd alleles according to their geographical origin, i.e. the Hainan and Guangxi samples did not form separate clades. Further analysis by including previously published csd sequences also failed to show any clade-forming in both the Philippines and Malaysia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from this study and those from previous studies did not support the expectations of a founder effect. We conclude that because of the extremely high mating frequency of A. dorsata queens, a founder effect does not apply in this species.

  18. Activity-dependent gene expression in honey bee mushroom bodies in response to orientation flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Claudia C; Robinson, Gene E

    2013-06-01

    The natural history of adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) provides an opportunity to study the molecular basis of learning in an ecological context. Foragers must learn to navigate between the hive and floral locations that may be up to miles away. Young pre-foragers prepare for this task by performing orientation flights near the hive, during which they begin to learn navigational cues such as the appearance of the hive, the position of landmarks, and the movement of the sun. Despite well-described spatial learning and navigation behavior, there is currently limited information on the neural basis of insect spatial learning. We found that Egr, an insect homolog of Egr-1, is rapidly and transiently upregulated in the mushroom bodies in response to orientation. This result is the first example of an Egr-1 homolog acting as a learning-related immediate-early gene in an insect and also demonstrates that honey bee orientation uses a molecular mechanism that is known to be involved in many other forms of learning. This transcriptional response occurred both in naïve bees and in foragers induced to re-orient. Further experiments suggest that visual environmental novelty, rather than exercise or memorization of specific visual cues, acts as the stimulus for Egr upregulation. Our results implicate the mushroom bodies in spatial learning and emphasize the deep conservation of Egr-related pathways in experience-dependent plasticity.

  19. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in health care workers in South Africa: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Grobler, Liesl; Mehtar, Shaheen; Dheda, Keertan; Adams, Shahieda; Babatunde, Sanni; Van der Walt, Martie; Osman, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Background In South Africa, workplace acquired tuberculosis (TB) is a significant occupational problem among health care workers. In order to manage the problem effectively it is important to know the burden of TB in health care workers. This systematic review describes the epidemiology of TB in South African health care workers. Methods A comprehensive search of electronic databases [MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science (Social Sciences Citation Index/Science Citation Index), Cochrane Library (in...

  20. Overwintering Is Associated with Reduced Expression of Immune Genes and Higher Susceptibility to Virus Infection in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Nadja; Corona, Miguel; Neumann, Peter; Dainat, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The eusocial honey bee, Apis mellifera, has evolved remarkable abilities to survive extreme seasonal differences in temperature and availability of resources by dividing the worker caste into two groups that differ in physiology and lifespan: summer and winter bees. Most of the recent major losses of managed honey bee colonies occur during the winter, suggesting that winter bees may have compromised immune function and higher susceptibility to diseases. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the expression of eight immune genes and naturally occurring infection levels of deformed wing virus (DWV), one of the most widespread viruses in A. mellifera populations, between summer and winter bees. Possible interactions between immune response and physiological activity were tested by measuring the expression of vitellogenin and methyl farnesoate epoxidase, a gene coding for the last enzyme involved in juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Our data show that high DWV loads in winter bees correlate with reduced expression of genes involved in the cellular immune response and physiological activity and high expression of humoral immune genes involved in antibacterial defense compared with summer bees. This expression pattern could reflect evolutionary adaptations to resist bacterial pathogens and economize energy during the winter under a pathogen landscape with reduced risk of pathogenic viral infections. The outbreak of Varroa destructor infestation could have overcome these adaptations by promoting the transmission of viruses. Our results suggest that reduced cellular immune function during the winter may have increased honey bee’s susceptibility to DWV. These results contribute to our understanding of honey bee colony losses in temperate regions. PMID:26121358

  1. Overwintering Is Associated with Reduced Expression of Immune Genes and Higher Susceptibility to Virus Infection in Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Nadja; Corona, Miguel; Neumann, Peter; Dainat, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The eusocial honey bee, Apis mellifera, has evolved remarkable abilities to survive extreme seasonal differences in temperature and availability of resources by dividing the worker caste into two groups that differ in physiology and lifespan: summer and winter bees. Most of the recent major losses of managed honey bee colonies occur during the winter, suggesting that winter bees may have compromised immune function and higher susceptibility to diseases. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the expression of eight immune genes and naturally occurring infection levels of deformed wing virus (DWV), one of the most widespread viruses in A. mellifera populations, between summer and winter bees. Possible interactions between immune response and physiological activity were tested by measuring the expression of vitellogenin and methyl farnesoate epoxidase, a gene coding for the last enzyme involved in juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Our data show that high DWV loads in winter bees correlate with reduced expression of genes involved in the cellular immune response and physiological activity and high expression of humoral immune genes involved in antibacterial defense compared with summer bees. This expression pattern could reflect evolutionary adaptations to resist bacterial pathogens and economize energy during the winter under a pathogen landscape with reduced risk of pathogenic viral infections. The outbreak of Varroa destructor infestation could have overcome these adaptations by promoting the transmission of viruses. Our results suggest that reduced cellular immune function during the winter may have increased honey bee's susceptibility to DWV. These results contribute to our understanding of honey bee colony losses in temperate regions. PMID:26121358

  2. Nutrigenomics in honey bees: digital gene expression analysis of pollen's nutritive effects on healthy and varroa-parasitized bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parrinello Hughes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is a major factor affecting animal health, resistance to disease and survival. In honey bees (Apis mellifera, pollen, which is the main dietary source of proteins, amino acids and lipids, is essential to adult bee physiological development while reducing their susceptibility to parasites and pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pollen's nutritive impact on honey bee health remained to be determined. For that purpose, we investigated the influence of pollen nutrients on the transcriptome of worker bees parasitized by the mite Varroa destructor, known for suppressing immunity and decreasing lifespan. The 4 experimental groups (control bees without a pollen diet, control bees fed with pollen, varroa-parasitized bees without a pollen diet and varroa-parasitized bees fed with pollen were analyzed by performing a digital gene expression (DGE analysis on bee abdomens. Results Around 36, 000 unique tags were generated per DGE-tag library, which matched about 8, 000 genes (60% of the genes in the honey bee genome. Comparing the transcriptome of bees fed with pollen and sugar and bees restricted to a sugar diet, we found that pollen activates nutrient-sensing and metabolic pathways. In addition, those nutrients had a positive influence on genes affecting longevity and the production of some antimicrobial peptides. However, varroa parasitism caused the development of viral populations and a decrease in metabolism, specifically by inhibiting protein metabolism essential to bee health. This harmful effect was not reversed by pollen intake. Conclusions The DGE-tag profiling methods used in this study proved to be a powerful means for analyzing transcriptome variation related to nutrient intake in honey bees. Ultimately, with such an approach, applying genomics tools to nutrition research, nutrigenomics promises to offer a better understanding of how nutrition influences body homeostasis and may help reduce

  3. Overwintering Is Associated with Reduced Expression of Immune Genes and Higher Susceptibility to Virus Infection in Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Steinmann

    Full Text Available The eusocial honey bee, Apis mellifera, has evolved remarkable abilities to survive extreme seasonal differences in temperature and availability of resources by dividing the worker caste into two groups that differ in physiology and lifespan: summer and winter bees. Most of the recent major losses of managed honey bee colonies occur during the winter, suggesting that winter bees may have compromised immune function and higher susceptibility to diseases. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the expression of eight immune genes and naturally occurring infection levels of deformed wing virus (DWV, one of the most widespread viruses in A. mellifera populations, between summer and winter bees. Possible interactions between immune response and physiological activity were tested by measuring the expression of vitellogenin and methyl farnesoate epoxidase, a gene coding for the last enzyme involved in juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Our data show that high DWV loads in winter bees correlate with reduced expression of genes involved in the cellular immune response and physiological activity and high expression of humoral immune genes involved in antibacterial defense compared with summer bees. This expression pattern could reflect evolutionary adaptations to resist bacterial pathogens and economize energy during the winter under a pathogen landscape with reduced risk of pathogenic viral infections. The outbreak of Varroa destructor infestation could have overcome these adaptations by promoting the transmission of viruses. Our results suggest that reduced cellular immune function during the winter may have increased honey bee's susceptibility to DWV. These results contribute to our understanding of honey bee colony losses in temperate regions.

  4. QUALITY EVALUATION OF UNIFLORAL AND MULTIFLORAL HONEYS FROM SLOVAKIA AND OTHER COUNTRIES

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    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the blossom honey samples divided into the three groups: acacia (Robinia psedoacacia honeys (n=14, other unifloral honeys (clover Trifolium pratense, lime Tilia cordata, rape Brassica napus, buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum, chestnut Castanea sativa; n=8 and multifloral honeys (n=16. We tested the physico-chemical and microbiological quality of honeys. Followed physico-chemical parameters were tested: water, water content, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, pH, free acidity and diastase. From microbiological parameters, we found total plate count (TPC, TPC of anaerobic microorganisms, counts of coliform bacteria, sporulating bacteria and microscopic fungi in the honey samples using dilution plating method. Water content ranged from 13.60 to 21.90 g 100g-1 and two samples of multifloral honeys exceeded the limit value for water content (max 20.00 g 100g-1. HMF ranged from 0.77 to 10.93 mg kg-1 that is typical for fresh and heat-untreated honeys. Average values of pH were 5.02 ± 0.25 for acacia honey, 4.98 ± 0.31 for other unifloral honeys and 4.66 ± 0.45 for multifloral honeys. One sample of multifloral honeys exceeded the limit value for free acidity (max 50 meq kg-1. Higher TPC (above 2.00 log CFU g-1 was detected in 2 out of 14 acacia honeys (14.29%, in 2 out of 8 other unifloral honeys (25.00% and in 5 out of 16 multifloral honeys (31.25%. Microscopic fungi were not found in 3 acacia honeys (21.43%, 2 other unifloral honeys (25.00% and 2 multifloral honeys (12.50%. Overall, the obtained results showed good quality of evaluated honeys.

  5. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  6. Genomewide analysis indicates that queen larvae have lower methylation levels in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan Yuan; Yan, Wei Yu; Huang, Zachary Y.; Wang, Zi Long; Wu, Xiao Bo; Zeng, Zhi Jiang

    2013-02-01

    The honey bee is a social insect characterized by caste differentiation, by which a young larva can develop into either a queen or a worker. Despite possessing the same genome, queen and workers display marked differences in reproductive capacity, physiology, and behavior. Recent studies have shown that DNA methylation plays important roles in caste differentiation. To further explore the roles of DNA methylation in this process, we analyzed DNA methylome profiles of both queen larvae (QL) and worker larvae (WL) of different ages (2, 4, and 6 day old), by using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (meDIP-seq) technique. The global DNA methylation levels varied between the larvae of two castes. DNA methylation increased from 2-day- to 4-day-old QL and then decreased in 6-day-old larvae. In WL, methylation levels increased with age. The methylcytosines in both larvae were enriched in introns, followed by coding sequence (CDS) regions, CpG islands, 2 kbp downstream and upstream of genes, and 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). The number of differentially methylated genes (DMGs) in 2-, 4-, and 6-day-old QL and WL was 725, 3,013, and 5,049, respectively. Compared to 4- and 6-day-old WL, a large number of genes in QL were downmethylated, which were involved in many processes including development, reproduction, and metabolic regulation. In addition, some DMGs were concerned with caste differentiation.

  7. Causes and Scale of Winter Flights in Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera Carnica Colonies

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    Węgrzynowicz Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Winter honey bee losses were evaluated during the two overwintering periods of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The research included dead bee workers that fell on the hive bottom board (debris and the ones that flew out of the hive. Differences were observed in the number of bees fallen as debris between the two periods, whereas the number of bees flying out was similar in both years. No differences were found between the numbers of dead bees in strong and weak colonies. The percentage of bees flying out of the colony increased in the presence of Nosema spores, Varroa infestation, increased average air temperature, and insolation during the day. In addition, both the presence of Nosema and insolation during the day had an impact on the number of bees that died and fell on the hive board.

  8. Neuropeptide Y-like signalling and nutritionally mediated gene expression and behaviour in the honey bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, S A; Velarde, R A; Kolodkin, M H; Moyse, D; Robinson, G E

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has led to the idea that derived traits can arise through the evolution of novel roles for conserved genes. We explored whether neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like signalling, a conserved pathway that regulates food-related behaviour, is involved in a derived, nutritionally-related trait, the division of labour in worker honey bees. Transcripts encoding two NPY-like peptides were expressed in separate populations of brain neurosecretory cells, consistent with endocrine functions. NPY-related genes were upregulated in the brains of older foragers compared with younger bees performing brood care ('nurses'). A subset of these changes can be attributed to nutrition, but neuropeptide F peptide treatments did not influence sugar intake. These results contrast with recent reports of more robust associations between division of labour and the related insulin-signalling pathway and suggest that some elements of molecular pathways associated with feeding behaviour may be more evolutionarily labile than others.

  9. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of natural honeys of different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miartina Fikselová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To examine the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of 15 natural honeys, honey samples were collected from different locations of Slovakia, Poland and Serbia. For antimicrobial activity determination honey solutions were prepared at three concentrations: 50, 25 and 12.5 % (by mass per volume. The potential antimicrobial activity of  selected samples against four species of bacteria (Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Pseudomonas aeroginosa CCM 1960, Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418, Bacillus cereus CCM 2010 and two species of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCM 8191, Candida albicans CCM 8216 was studied using the disc diffusion method. After incubation, the zones of inhibition of the growth of the microorganisms around the disks were measured. The strongest antimicrobial activity was shown at honey samples of 50 % concentration against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Staphylococcus epidermis. Against Saccharomyces cerevisae and Candida albicans very low (at 50 %, 25 % concentration or zero antifugal (at 12.5 % concentration activity was determined. From the results obtained it was shown the variable ability of honey samples to scavenge stable free radical DPPH. TEACDPPH values ranged between 0.1-1.0 mmol.kg-1. As the antioxidative best source buckwheat honey was manifested and the lowest antioxidant activity was shown at acacia honey.

  10. A Hybrid Sensing Approach for Pure and Adulterated Honey Classification

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    Ammar Zakaria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison between data from single modality and fusion methods to classify Tualang honey as pure or adulterated using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA statistical classification approaches. Ten different brands of certified pure Tualang honey were obtained throughout peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera, Indonesia. Various concentrations of two types of sugar solution (beet and cane sugar were used in this investigation to create honey samples of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% adulteration concentrations. Honey data extracted from an electronic nose (e-nose and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR were gathered, analyzed and compared based on fusion methods. Visual observation of classification plots revealed that the PCA approach able to distinct pure and adulterated honey samples better than the LDA technique. Overall, the validated classification results based on FTIR data (88.0% gave higher classification accuracy than e-nose data (76.5% using the LDA technique. Honey classification based on normalized low-level and intermediate-level FTIR and e-nose fusion data scored classification accuracies of 92.2% and 88.7%, respectively using the Stepwise LDA method. The results suggested that pure and adulterated honey samples were better classified using FTIR and e-nose fusion data than single modality data.

  11. Saccharide breakdown and fermentation by the honey bee gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fredrick J; Rusch, Douglas B; Stewart, Frank J; Mattila, Heather R; Newton, Irene L G

    2015-03-01

    The honey bee, the world's most important agricultural pollinator, relies exclusively on plant-derived foods for nutrition. Nectar and pollen collected by honey bees are processed and matured within the nest through the activities of honey bee-derived microbes and enzymes. In order to better understand the contribution of the microbial community to food processing in the honey bee, we generated a metatranscriptome of the honey bee gut microbiome. The function of the microbial community in the honey bee, as revealed by metatranscriptome sequencing, resembles that of other animal guts and food-processing environments. We identified three major bacterial classes that are active in the gut (γ-Proteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria), all of which are predicted to participate in the breakdown of complex macromolecules (e.g. polysaccharides and polypeptides), the fermentation of component parts of these macromolecules, and the generation of various fermentation products, such as short-chain fatty acids and alcohol. The ability of the microbial community to metabolize these carbon-rich food sources was confirmed through the use of community-level physiological profiling. Collectively, these findings suggest that the gut microflora of the honey bee harbours bacterial members with unique roles, which ultimately can contribute to the processing of plant-derived food for colonies. PMID:24905222

  12. Saccharide breakdown and fermentation by the honey bee gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fredrick J; Rusch, Douglas B; Stewart, Frank J; Mattila, Heather R; Newton, Irene L G

    2015-03-01

    The honey bee, the world's most important agricultural pollinator, relies exclusively on plant-derived foods for nutrition. Nectar and pollen collected by honey bees are processed and matured within the nest through the activities of honey bee-derived microbes and enzymes. In order to better understand the contribution of the microbial community to food processing in the honey bee, we generated a metatranscriptome of the honey bee gut microbiome. The function of the microbial community in the honey bee, as revealed by metatranscriptome sequencing, resembles that of other animal guts and food-processing environments. We identified three major bacterial classes that are active in the gut (γ-Proteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria), all of which are predicted to participate in the breakdown of complex macromolecules (e.g. polysaccharides and polypeptides), the fermentation of component parts of these macromolecules, and the generation of various fermentation products, such as short-chain fatty acids and alcohol. The ability of the microbial community to metabolize these carbon-rich food sources was confirmed through the use of community-level physiological profiling. Collectively, these findings suggest that the gut microflora of the honey bee harbours bacterial members with unique roles, which ultimately can contribute to the processing of plant-derived food for colonies.

  13. Antioxidant and sensorial properties of linden honey with dried apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Vulić, Jelena; Djilas, Sonja; Tumbas Šaponjac, Vesna

    2014-11-01

    The total phenol (TPh) and flavonoid contents (TFd), and antioxidant and sensorial properties of linden honey (LH) with dried apricots (20, 30, and 40%) were evaluated. TPh increased 4.3 times for LH40 (from 23.96 to 102.87 mg gallic acid equiv./100 g honey), while increase of TFd was slightly lower, ca. 2.9-fold for LH40 (from 18.11 to 51.72 mg rutin equiv./100 g honey). Based on HPLC analysis, the most dominant phenolic compound was gallic acid (11.14 mg/100 g honey in LH and 42.65 mg/100 g honey in LH40). In three different assays, the antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentration of apricots in honey. The values varied from 13.36 for LH to 7.06 mg/ml for LH40; the values ranged from 189.83 for LH to 11.23 mg/ml for LH40; the RP0.5 (reducing power) values ranged from 169.00 for LH to 27.60 mg/ml for LH40. Based on the correlation analysis, it is obvious that TPh and TFd were associated with the antioxidant activities of honey samples. A high degree of correlation existed between antioxidant activities of honey samples and TPh (R from 0.945 to 0.996) and TFd (R from 0.805 to 0.934). Obtained scores for individual sensory properties indicated very good quality of honey with dried apricots. PMID:25408327

  14. Effect of heat treatment on antimycotic activity of Sahara honey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Ahmed; Saad Aissat; Noureddine Djebli

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of the temperature on honey colour, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters. Methods:Sahara honey were heated up to 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min, and their colour intensity, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenol contents (TPC). The antimycotic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida glabrata (C. glabrata). Results:Initial values for TPC in Sahara honey ranged from 0.55 to 1.14 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey, with the average value of 0.78 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey. The TPC values after heat-treatment were 0.54 to 1.54 with the average value of 1.49 mg. The minimal inhibitory concentrations before heat-treatment of Sahara honey against C. albicans and C. glabrata ranged from 3.06%-12.5% and 50% respectively. After heat-treatment the minimal inhibitory concentrations between 12.5% and 50% for C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively. The diameters of inhibition zones of Sahara honey with 50% concentration varied from (12.67-15.00) mm by C. albicans to (14.33-15.67) mm by C. glabrata. The diameters of inhibition zones after heat-treatment at 25 and 50 °C for 15.30 and 60 min ranged from (2.00-18.67) mm by C. albicans to (8.00-16.67) mm by C. glabrata. Statistically significant relations between the TPC and the colour intensity of Sahara honey (r=0.99, P Conclusions:To our knowledge this is the first report on the antimycotic capacity of Sahara honey.

  15. Dissecting the role of Kr-h1 brain gene expression in foraging behavior in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussnecker, B; Grozinger, C

    2008-09-01

    Expression of Krüppel homolog-1 (Kr-h1) in the honey bee brain is strongly associated with foraging behavior. We performed a series of studies to determine if Kr-h1 expression correlates with specific aspects of foraging. We found that Kr-h1 expression is unaffected by flight experience in male bees. Expression was unaffected by behavioral reversion of workers from foraging to brood care, suggesting that expression is not associated with the active performance of foraging, but rather with stable physiological changes. Kr-h1 expression is increased by cGMP treatment in workers, and the Kr-h1 promoter contains a conserved potential cGMP response element. Since cGMP treatment causes precocious foraging, our results suggest that Kr-h1 expression is associated with cGMP-mediated changes in the brain that occur early in the transition to foraging behavior.

  16. Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene on rate of behavioural development, foraging performance and navigation in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lun-Hsien; Barron, Andrew B; Cheng, Ken

    2015-06-01

    Worker honey bees change roles as they age as part of a hormonally regulated process of behavioural development that ends with a specialised foraging phase. The rate of behavioural development is highly plastic and responsive to changes in colony condition such that forager losses, disease or nutritional stresses accelerate behavioural development and cause an early onset of foraging in workers. It is not clear to what degree the behavioural development of workers can be accelerated without there being a cost in terms of reduced foraging performance. Here, we compared the foraging performance of bees induced to accelerate their behavioural development by treatment with the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene with that of controls that developed at a normal rate. Methoprene treatment accelerated the onset of both flight and foraging behaviour in workers, but it also reduced foraging span, the total time spent foraging and the number of completed foraging trips. Methoprene treatment did not alter performance in a short-range navigation task, however. These data indicate a limitation to the physiological plasticity of bees, and a trade off between forager performance and the speed at which bees begin foraging. Chronic stressors will be expected to reduce the mean age of the foraging force, and therefore also reduce the efficiency of the foraging force. This interaction may explain why honey bee colonies react to sustained stressors with non-linear population decline. PMID:25883376

  17. Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene on rate of behavioural development, foraging performance and navigation in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lun-Hsien; Barron, Andrew B; Cheng, Ken

    2015-06-01

    Worker honey bees change roles as they age as part of a hormonally regulated process of behavioural development that ends with a specialised foraging phase. The rate of behavioural development is highly plastic and responsive to changes in colony condition such that forager losses, disease or nutritional stresses accelerate behavioural development and cause an early onset of foraging in workers. It is not clear to what degree the behavioural development of workers can be accelerated without there being a cost in terms of reduced foraging performance. Here, we compared the foraging performance of bees induced to accelerate their behavioural development by treatment with the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene with that of controls that developed at a normal rate. Methoprene treatment accelerated the onset of both flight and foraging behaviour in workers, but it also reduced foraging span, the total time spent foraging and the number of completed foraging trips. Methoprene treatment did not alter performance in a short-range navigation task, however. These data indicate a limitation to the physiological plasticity of bees, and a trade off between forager performance and the speed at which bees begin foraging. Chronic stressors will be expected to reduce the mean age of the foraging force, and therefore also reduce the efficiency of the foraging force. This interaction may explain why honey bee colonies react to sustained stressors with non-linear population decline.

  18. The expression and phylogenetics of the Inhibitor Cysteine Knot peptide OCLP1 in the honey bee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Guy; Cohen, Mira

    2014-06-01

    Small cysteine-rich peptides have diverse functions in insects including antimicrobial defense, phenoloxidase activity regulation, and toxic inhibition of ion channels of prey or predator. We combined bioinformatics and measurements of transcript abundance to start characterizing AmOCLP1, a recently discovered Inhibitor Cysteine Knot peptide in the honey bee Apis mellifera. We found that the genomes of ants, bees, and the wasp Nasonia vitripennis encode orthologous sequences indicating that OCLP1 is a conserved peptide and not unique to the honey bee. Search of available EST libraries and quantitative real time PCR analyses indicate that the transcript of AmOCLP1 is ubiquitous with expression in life stages ranging from embryos to adults and in all tested tissues. In worker honey bees AmOCLP1 expression was not associated with age or task and did not show clear enrichment in any of the tested tissues. There was however a consistent trend toward higher transcript levels in the abdomen of foragers relative to levels in the head or thorax, and compared to levels in the abdomen of younger worker bees. By contrast, in drones AmOCLP1 transcript levels appeared higher in the head relative to the abdomen. Finer analyses of the head and abdomen indicated that the AmOCLP1 transcript is not enriched in the stinger and the associated venom sac or in cephalic exocrine glands. The evolutionary conservation in the Hymenoptera, the ubiquitous expression, and the lack of enrichment in the venom gland, stinger, exocrine glands, and the brain are not consistent with the hypotheses that OCLP1 is a secreted honeybee toxin or an endotoxin acting in the central nervous system. Rather we hypothesize that OCLP1 is a conserved antimicrobial or phenoloxidase inhibitor peptide. PMID:24721445

  19. The expression and phylogenetics of the Inhibitor Cysteine Knot peptide OCLP1 in the honey bee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Guy; Cohen, Mira

    2014-06-01

    Small cysteine-rich peptides have diverse functions in insects including antimicrobial defense, phenoloxidase activity regulation, and toxic inhibition of ion channels of prey or predator. We combined bioinformatics and measurements of transcript abundance to start characterizing AmOCLP1, a recently discovered Inhibitor Cysteine Knot peptide in the honey bee Apis mellifera. We found that the genomes of ants, bees, and the wasp Nasonia vitripennis encode orthologous sequences indicating that OCLP1 is a conserved peptide and not unique to the honey bee. Search of available EST libraries and quantitative real time PCR analyses indicate that the transcript of AmOCLP1 is ubiquitous with expression in life stages ranging from embryos to adults and in all tested tissues. In worker honey bees AmOCLP1 expression was not associated with age or task and did not show clear enrichment in any of the tested tissues. There was however a consistent trend toward higher transcript levels in the abdomen of foragers relative to levels in the head or thorax, and compared to levels in the abdomen of younger worker bees. By contrast, in drones AmOCLP1 transcript levels appeared higher in the head relative to the abdomen. Finer analyses of the head and abdomen indicated that the AmOCLP1 transcript is not enriched in the stinger and the associated venom sac or in cephalic exocrine glands. The evolutionary conservation in the Hymenoptera, the ubiquitous expression, and the lack of enrichment in the venom gland, stinger, exocrine glands, and the brain are not consistent with the hypotheses that OCLP1 is a secreted honeybee toxin or an endotoxin acting in the central nervous system. Rather we hypothesize that OCLP1 is a conserved antimicrobial or phenoloxidase inhibitor peptide.

  20. Major royal jelly proteins as markers of authenticity and quality of honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikova, Katarina; Kristof Krakova, Tatiana; Yamaguchi, Kikuji; Yamaguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-12-01

    Until now, the properties of honey have been defined based exclusively on the content of plant components in the nectar of given plant. We showed that apalbumin1, the major royal jelly (RJ) protein, is an authentic and regular component of honey. Apalbumin1 and other RJ proteins and peptides are responsible for the immunostimulatory properties and antibiotic activity of honey. For the quantification of apalbumin1, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using polyclonal anti-apalbumin1 antibody. The method is suitable for honey authenticity determination; moreover it is useful for detection of the honey, honeybee pollen and RJ in products of medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, and food industry, where presences of these honeybee products are declared. Results from the analysis for presence and amount of apalbumin1 in honeys will be used for high-throughput screening of honey samples over the world. On the basis of our experiments which show that royal jelly proteins are regular and physiologically active components of honey we propose to change the definition of honey (according to the EU Honey Directive 2001/110/EC) as follows: Honey is a natural sweet substance produced by honey bees from nectar of plants or from secretions of plants, or excretions of plant sucking insects, which honey bees collect, transform by combining with major royal jelly proteins and other specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature. PMID:26751857

  1. Major royal jelly proteins as markers of authenticity and quality of honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikova, Katarina; Kristof Krakova, Tatiana; Yamaguchi, Kikuji; Yamaguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-12-01

    Until now, the properties of honey have been defined based exclusively on the content of plant components in the nectar of given plant. We showed that apalbumin1, the major royal jelly (RJ) protein, is an authentic and regular component of honey. Apalbumin1 and other RJ proteins and peptides are responsible for the immunostimulatory properties and antibiotic activity of honey. For the quantification of apalbumin1, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using polyclonal anti-apalbumin1 antibody. The method is suitable for honey authenticity determination; moreover it is useful for detection of the honey, honeybee pollen and RJ in products of medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, and food industry, where presences of these honeybee products are declared. Results from the analysis for presence and amount of apalbumin1 in honeys will be used for high-throughput screening of honey samples over the world. On the basis of our experiments which show that royal jelly proteins are regular and physiologically active components of honey we propose to change the definition of honey (according to the EU Honey Directive 2001/110/EC) as follows: Honey is a natural sweet substance produced by honey bees from nectar of plants or from secretions of plants, or excretions of plant sucking insects, which honey bees collect, transform by combining with major royal jelly proteins and other specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature.

  2. Croatian produced unifloral honey characterized according to the protein and proline content and enzyme activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flanjak Ivana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In honey, the content of proteins, including the enzymes, is relatively low and has a minor nutritive significance. On the other hand, the proteins, including the enzymes, are usually used as honey quality evaluation parameters. This is because protein content and enzyme activities vary regarding the botanical origin of the honey. Since the results of protein content, glucose-oxidase, and acid phosphatase, for honeys produced in Croatia, are not available, four of the most abundant honey types produced in Croatia (black locust, sage, chestnut, and honeydew honey are characterised according to the protein and proline content and enzyme activities. The characterisation was done to determine specificities and contribute to the characterisation of unifloral honeys. Dark honey types (honeydew and chestnut honey had a higher proline content, and diastase, invertase, and glucose-oxidase activity than lighter sage and black locust honey. Black locust honey has a naturally low enzyme activity and showed the highest acid phosphatase activity among the analysed honey types, while honeydew honey, otherwise known to possess high proline content and enzyme activity, had a low protein content comparable to black locust honey. Statistically significant correlations were obtained between all analysed parameters, with the exception of acid phosphatase activity.

  3. REVIEW: The Diversity of Indigenous Honey Bee Species of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOESILAWATI HADISOESILO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that Indonesia has the most diverse honey bee species in the world. At least five out of nine species of honey bees are native to Indonesia namely Apis andreniformis, A. dorsata, A. cerana, A. koschevnikovi, and A. nigrocincta. One species, A. florea, although it was claimed to be a species native to Indonesia, it is still debatable whether it is really found in Indonesia or not. The new species, A. nuluensis, which is found in Sabah, Borneo is likely to be found in Kalimantan but it has not confirmed yet. This paper discusses briefly the differences among those native honey bees.

  4. Widespread occurrence of honey bee pathogens in solitary bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoet, Jorgen; De Smet, Lina; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Wenseleers, Tom; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2014-10-01

    Solitary bees and honey bees from a neighbouring apiary were screened for a broad set of putative pathogens including protists, fungi, spiroplasmas and viruses. Most sampled bees appeared to be infected with multiple parasites. Interestingly, viruses exclusively known from honey bees such as Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus were also discovered in solitary bees. A microsporidium found in Andrena vaga showed most resemblance to Nosema thomsoni. Our results suggest that bee hives represent a putative source of pathogens for other pollinators. Similarly, solitary bees may act as a reservoir of honey bee pathogens. PMID:25196470

  5. The Efficacy of Gelam Honey Dressing towards Excisional Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Mui Koon Tan; Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan Adli; Mohd Amzari Tumiran; Mahmood Ameen Abdulla; Kamaruddin Mohd Yusoff

    2012-01-01

    Honey is one of the oldest substances used in wound management. Efficacy of Gelam honey in wound healing was evaluated in this paper. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of 24 rats each (untreated group, saline group, Intrasite Gel group, and Gelam honey group) with 2 cm by 2 cm full thickness, excisional wound created on neck area. Wounds were dressed topically according to groups. Rats were sacrificed on days 1, 5, 10, and 15 of treatments. Wounds were then processed ...

  6. Honey-based PET or PET/chitosan fibrous wound dressings: effect of honey on electrospinning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Aysu; Simşek, Murat; Aldemir, Sevcan Dalkıranoğlu; Kazaroğlu, Nur Merve; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2014-07-01

    In this study, fibrous mats were fabricated via electrospinning from solutions of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), PET/chitosan, and PET/honey at different concentrations. The effect of honey and chitosan on electrospinning process was investigated and compared. Fibers containing chitosan had a beaded or ribbon-like/branched morphology, but this morphology improved in the presence of honey. The diameter of electrospun fibers decreased with an increased ratio of honey in PET solution. In addition, fiber deposition area in the collector increased by increasing the honey content. PET/chitosan and PET/honey fibrous mats reached an equilibrium water content in 15 min and their water uptake capacities, which are important for exudating wounds, were found in the range of 280-430% on dry basis. Cytotoxicity evaluation demonstrated that fibers exhibited no cytotoxic activity. This study discloses that PET fibrous mats especially electrospun in the presence of honey could be proposed as potential wound dressing materials owing to their improved processing abilities besides their suitable structural properties. PMID:24842308

  7. Honey-based PET or PET/chitosan fibrous wound dressings: effect of honey on electrospinning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Aysu; Simşek, Murat; Aldemir, Sevcan Dalkıranoğlu; Kazaroğlu, Nur Merve; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2014-07-01

    In this study, fibrous mats were fabricated via electrospinning from solutions of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), PET/chitosan, and PET/honey at different concentrations. The effect of honey and chitosan on electrospinning process was investigated and compared. Fibers containing chitosan had a beaded or ribbon-like/branched morphology, but this morphology improved in the presence of honey. The diameter of electrospun fibers decreased with an increased ratio of honey in PET solution. In addition, fiber deposition area in the collector increased by increasing the honey content. PET/chitosan and PET/honey fibrous mats reached an equilibrium water content in 15 min and their water uptake capacities, which are important for exudating wounds, were found in the range of 280-430% on dry basis. Cytotoxicity evaluation demonstrated that fibers exhibited no cytotoxic activity. This study discloses that PET fibrous mats especially electrospun in the presence of honey could be proposed as potential wound dressing materials owing to their improved processing abilities besides their suitable structural properties.

  8. The effect of increasing honey concentration on the properties of the honey/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M

    2016-10-01

    The effect of increasing honey concentrations from 10% to 30% within the Honey (H)/polyvinyl alcohol (P)/chitosan (CS) nanofibers was investigated. Changes in the electrospun nanofiber diameters, crystallinity, thermal behavior, porosity and antibacterial activity have been assessed using SEM, XRD, DSC, TGA, mercury porosimeter and viable cell count technique. The HPCS nanofibers were cross-linked and tested for their swelling abilities and degradation behavior. The mean diameter of HPCS nanofibers increased from 284±97nm to 464±185nm upon increasing the honey concentration from 10% to 30%. Irrespective the honey concentrations, the nanofibers have demonstrated enhanced porosity. Increasing the honey concentration resulted in a reduction in the swelling of the 1h cross-linked HPCS nanofibers containing 10% and 30% H from 520% to 100%; respectively. Degradation after 30days was reduced in the 3h cross-linked HPCS nanofibers compared to the non-crosslinked HPCS nanofibers. Enhanced antibacterial activity was achieved against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli upon increasing the honey concentration. Changing the honey concentration and the extent of nanofiber crosslinking can be used to adjust different parameters of the HPCS nanofibers to suit their applications in wound healing and tissue engineering. PMID:27287123

  9. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis gene expression in the corpora allata of honey bee (Apis mellifera L. female castes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Durvalina Bomtorin

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormone (JH controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s of JH in social evolution.

  10. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis gene expression in the corpora allata of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) female castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Mackert, Aline; Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution. PMID:24489805

  11. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis gene expression in the corpora allata of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) female castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Mackert, Aline; Rosa, Gustavo Conrado Couto; Moda, Livia Maria; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Hartfelder, Klaus; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls key events in the honey bee life cycle, viz. caste development and age polyethism. We quantified transcript abundance of 24 genes involved in the JH biosynthetic pathway in the corpora allata-corpora cardiaca (CA-CC) complex. The expression of six of these genes showing relatively high transcript abundance was contrasted with CA size, hemolymph JH titer, as well as JH degradation rates and JH esterase (jhe) transcript levels. Gene expression did not match the contrasting JH titers in queen and worker fourth instar larvae, but jhe transcript abundance and JH degradation rates were significantly lower in queen larvae. Consequently, transcriptional control of JHE is of importance in regulating larval JH titers and caste development. In contrast, the same analyses applied to adult worker bees allowed us inferring that the high JH levels in foragers are due to increased JH synthesis. Upon RNAi-mediated silencing of the methyl farnesoate epoxidase gene (mfe) encoding the enzyme that catalyzes methyl farnesoate-to-JH conversion, the JH titer was decreased, thus corroborating that JH titer regulation in adult honey bees depends on this final JH biosynthesis step. The molecular pathway differences underlying JH titer regulation in larval caste development versus adult age polyethism lead us to propose that mfe and jhe genes be assayed when addressing questions on the role(s) of JH in social evolution.

  12. Views of the workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is written from the perspective of the worker. As such it presents the workers' viewpoint with respect to the present status and problems to be solved with regard to occupational exposure. (author)

  13. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  14. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  15. Abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae exploram recursos na floresta amazônica? Do Africanized honeybees explore resources in the amazonian forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Luiz de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    quickly and expand throughout nearly of the Americas. Moreover, to date there is much controversy about the probable impact of these bees, called Africanized honey bees, on native bees. In the Americas, Africanized honeybees are limited to regions of low altitude and cool winters, and in Brazil they occur principally in urban areas, and open or disturbed vegetation, not occurring in the interior of dense forest such as the Amazon Forest. We offered various kinds of bait in the interior of continuous forest, and in forest fragments to verify if Africanized honeybees would be capable of penetrate in it. No Africanized honeybee workers visited any baits in continuous forest or in forest fragments, but they did so in deforested/open areas. This result indicates that there is no possibility of source competition between Africanized and native bees within Amazon forest, and also indicates that large-scale beekeeping is unlikely to succeed in this region, because forest is not explored by Africanized bees.

  16. Honey Offers Sweet Relief From Hangovers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷根全

    2001-01-01

    标题里的Hangovers指酒后的影响,即头疼等不适,说得文气点,叫“宿醉”。人们曾经想方设法预防或缓解Hangovers,但收效甚微。本文提出了一个治Hangovers的良法:Eating honey(蜂蜜)!具体的方法是:Honey on a cracker(饼干)or piece of toast(吐司面包),before or after drinking,may prevent ahangover.除了服用蜂蜜之外,本文还提供了其他方法。如果你是“上网一族”,不妨去浏览文末提供的网址。本期《科技英语学习》送到你手中的时候,当在蛇年除夕之前。在你开怀畅饮之时,一读本文,若能避免Hangover对你的困扰,则是我们的莫大欣慰。】

  17. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  18. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  19. Research on the International Export Competitiveness of Honey – Taking Anhui Province as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the data of honey export from 2000 to 2013 (Jan. to Aug. to make an analysis on the fluctuation of honey export number and price in Anhui Province in order to know about the current situation of honey export in Anhui Province. Then it quantitatively makes an analysis on the current situation of international export competitiveness of honey in Anhui Province by market share, trade competitiveness index, export quality index and other methods; It also uses the analysis result to find out the relevant factors that affect the international honey export competitiveness and proposes the relevant countermeasures to improve the international competitiveness of honey in Anhui Province.

  20. Optimization and Validation of kit of detection Antibiotics on Honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Codex Alimentarius and the European Commission Directive each food has a maximum residual antibiotic (MRLs) however, for honey is still no limit set. Among the main methods that guarantee the detection of antibiotic residues include the Premi Test which is a qualitative method for the detection of antibiotics in honey, but it remains a non-specific method for this matrix and long enough (three hours of incubation). Through this work, we were able to develop and optimize a new kit called Honey test. This kit is able to detect the presence of antibiotic residues in honey by a bacterial strain radio-resistant called D.ra. The duration of treatment is only 30 minutes, requiring incubation at 37 Degree C and treatment with UV at 366 nm. This work will be the subject of a national patent.