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Sample records for africanized honeybees apis

  1. Varroa destructor mite in Africanized honeybee colonies Apis mellifera L. under royal jelly or honey production

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    Pedro da Rosa Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the level of invasion of Varroa mite into worker brood cells, the infestation rate on adult worker honeybees, total and effective reproduction rates of the mite in Africanized honeybee colonies under royal jelly or honey production. Invasion and infestation rates were not statistically different between honeybee colonies producing honey or royal jelly and the averages for these parameters were 5.79 and 8.54%, respectively. Colonies producing honey presented a higher (p < 0.05 total and effective reproduction of Varroa than colonies producing royal jelly. There was a negative correlation between levels of invasion and infestation with minimum external temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. The variables month and season influenced the development of the mite, but rates were low and within the range normally found in Brazil for Africanized honeybee colonies, which confirm the greater resistance of these honeybees to Varroa destructor than European honeybees.

  2. Floral biology and behavior of Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera in soybean (Glycine max L. Merril

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    Wainer César Chiari

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the pollination by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera, the floral biology and to observe the hoarding behavior in the soybean flowers (Glycine max Merril, var. BRS-133. The treatments were constituted of demarcated areas for free visitation of insects, covered areas by cages with a honeybee colony (A. mellifera and also covered areas by cage without insects visitation. All areas had 24 m² (4m x 6m. The soybean flowers stayed open for a larger time (82.82 ± 3.48 hours in covered area without honeybees. The stigma of the flowers was also more receptive (P=0.0021 in covered area without honeybees (87.3 ± 33.0% and at 10:42 o'clock was the schedule of greater receptivity. The pollen stayed viable in all treatments, the average was 99.60 ± 0.02%, which did not present differences among treatments. The percentage of abortion of the flowers was 82.91% in covered area without honeybees, this result was superior (P=0.0002 to the 52.66% and 53.95% of the treatments uncovered and covered with honeybees, respectively. Honeybees were responsible for 87.7% of the pollination accomplished by the insects. The medium amounts of total sugar and glucose measured in the nectar of the flowers were, 14.33 ± 0.96 mg/flower and 3.61 ± 0.36 mg/ flower, respectively, not showing differences (PEste experimento teve como objetivos avaliar a polinização realizada por abelhas Apis mellifera, estudar a biologia floral e observar o comportamento de coleta nas flores de soja (Glycine max L. Merril, variedade BRS-133 plantadas na região de Maringá-PR. Os tratamentos constituíram de áreas demarcadas de livre visitação por insetos, áreas cobertas por gaiolas, com uma colônia de abelhas (A. mellifera no seu interior e plantas também cobertas por gaiola que impedia a visitação por insetos. Todas as áreas possuíam 24 m² (4 m x 6 m. As flores de soja permaneceram abertas por um tempo maior (82,82 ± 3,48 horas no

  3. The Africanization of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) of the Yucatan: a study of a massive hybridization event across time.

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    Clarke, Kylea E; Rinderer, Thomas E; Franck, Pierre; Quezada-Euán, Javier G; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2002-07-01

    Until recently, African and European subspecies of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) had been geographically separated for around 10,000 years. However, human-assisted introductions have caused the mixing of large populations of African and European subspecies in South and Central America, permitting an unprecedented opportunity to study a large-scale hybridization event using molecular analyses. We obtained reference populations from Europe, Africa, and South America and used these to provide baseline information for a microsatellite and mitochondrial analysis of the process of Africanization of the bees of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The genetic structure of the Yucatecan population has changed dramatically over time. The pre-Africanized Yucatecan population (1985) comprised bees that were most similar to samples from southeastern Europe and northern and western Europe. Three years after the arrival of Africanized bees (1989), substantial paternal gene flow had occurred from feral Africanized drones into the resident European population, but maternal gene flow from the invading Africanized population into the local population was negligible. However by 1998, there was a radical shift with both African nuclear alleles (65%) and African-derived mitochondria (61%) dominating the genomes of domestic colonies. We suggest that although European mitochondria may eventually be driven to extinction in the feral population, stable introgression of European nuclear alleles has occurred. PMID:12206246

  4. FLIGHT RANGE OF AFRICANIZED HONEYBEES, Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae IN AN APPLE GROVE

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    PARANHOS B.A.J

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Africanized honeybees from five colonies were marked with P-32 and taken to an apple grove for a flight behavior study. The method used to determine the flight range was to put out an array of tagged trees in a cross pattern with the colonies arranged in the center point of a 0.8 ha test area. The tagged trees were located 10 meters apart in the 4 rows of 50 meters each, arranged according to the North, South, East, and West directions. Bees were collected while visiting the tagged tree flowers twice a day, during a ten-day period. The number of honeybees marked decreased in relation to the distance from the hives. Analysis of variance showed that a linear regression was highly significant to describe the process. Geographic directions did not affect the activity of the bees.

  5. Characterization of royal jelly proteins in both Africanized and European honeybees (Apis mellifera) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

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    Sano, Osamu; Kunikata, Toshio; Kohno, Keizo; Iwaki, Kanso; Ikeda, Masao; Kurimoto, Masashi

    2004-01-14

    In this study, the proteins contained in royal jelly (RJ) produced by Africanized honeybees and European honeybees (Apis mellifera) haven been analyzed in detail and compared using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and the N-terminal amino acid sequence of each spot has been determined. Most spots were assigned to major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs). Remarkable differences were found in the heterogeneity of the MRJPs, in particular MRJP3, in terms of molecular weights and isoelectric points between the two species of RJ. Furthermore, during the determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of each spot, for the first time, MRJP4 protein has been identified, the existence of which had been only implied by cloning of its cDNA sequence. The presence of heterogeneous bands of glucose oxidase was also identified. Thus, the results suggest that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides a suitable method for the qualitative analysis of the proteins contained in RJ derived from different honeybee species. PMID:14709007

  6. Estimates of covariance components for hygienic behavior in Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera

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    Fabiana Martins Costa-Maia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and phenotypic parameters considering the genetic effect on hygienic behavior of queen and workers from 40 Africanized honeybees colonies were estimated separately. Maternal origin of queens was controlled whereas the paternal was unknown, and different groups of workers were considered in three seasons, October 2006, April 2007 and August 2007, but with the same queen. Colonies were 21 honey producers and 19 royal jelly producers. After the method of freezing capped brood, hygienic behavior was determined by the ratio between the number of dead capped brood removed at 24, 48 and 72 hours and the total number of capped brood at zero hour. Data was submitted to single and three traits analyses using Bayesian inference. Estimates of direct heritability at 24, 48 and 72 hours (0.10, 0.11 and 0.11 were identical to the motherly ones. Estimates by three trait analysis of direct heritability were 0.28, 0.15, 0.24, and of maternal heritability were 0.23, 0.29, 0.27, at 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Correlations between maternal and genetic effects were 0.12, 0.09 and - 0.08 at, 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Correlation between 24 and 48 hours was 0.49; between 24 and 72 hours, 0.40; and between 48 and 72 hours, 0.47. Moderate genetic correlations with the number of capped brood removed until 48 and 72 hours indicate that after the selection of a few generations, these traits can become an efficient criterion for selection in 24 hours.

  7. Modification of the brain proteome of Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera) exposed to a sub-lethal doses of the insecticide fipronil.

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    Roat, T C; dos Santos-Pinto, J R A; Dos Santos, L D; Santos, K S; Malaspina, O; Palma, M S

    2014-11-01

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that is widely used in Brazilian agriculture for pest control. Although honeybees are not targets of fipronil, studies indicate that this pesticide can be harmful to honeybees. To assess the effects of fipronil in the brain of Africanized Apis mellifera workers, this study focused on the toxico-proteome profiling of the brain of newly emerged and aged honeybee workers that were exposed to a sub-lethal dose (10 pg fipronil per day. i.e. (1)/100 of LD50/bee/day during 5 days) of the insecticide. Proteomic analysis identified 25 proteins that were differentially up-regulated or down-regulated when the fipronil-exposed and non-exposed groups were compared. These proteins are potentially related to pathogen susceptibility, neuronal chemical stress, neuronal protein misfolding, and occurrence of apoptosis, ischemia, visual impairment, damaged synapse formation, brain degeneration, memory and learning impairment. The exposure of honeybees to a very low dose of fipronil, even for a short period of time (5 days), was sufficient to cause a series of important neuroproteomic changes in the brains of honeybees. PMID:25139030

  8. Abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae exploram recursos na floresta amazônica? Do Africanized honeybees explore resources in the amazonian forest?

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    Marcio Luiz de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas africanas (Apis mellifera scutellata foram trazidas para o Brasil na década de 1950 e, por acidente, cruzaram-se com outras subespécies de abelhas melíferas européias introduzidas no século XIX. Isso proporcionou o surgimento de híbridos com características predominantes das abelhas africanas, tais como rusticidade e maior capacidade de enxamear, o que lhes permitiu uma rápida adaptação e expansão por quase todo continente americano. Até hoje existem controvérsias se essas abelhas, denominadas africanizadas, causam algum impacto sobre a fauna de abelhas nativas. Nas Américas, as africanizadas estão restritas a regiões de baixas altitudes e de invernos amenos; no Brasil, ocorrem principalmente em áreas urbanas e formações vegetacionais abertas ou adulteradas, sendo dificilmente vistas ou coletadas no interior de florestas densas como a amazônica. Diante dessa observação, diversas iscas foram disponibilizadas no interior de fragmentos de florestas e de florestas contínuas na Amazônia central, para testar se operárias de abelhas africanizadas seriam capazes de penetrar nos mesmos. Nenhuma operária foi vista visitando as iscas na floresta contínua ou mesmo nos fragmentos de floresta, ocorrendo visitas somente nas áreas desmatadas e capoeiras próximas. Esse resultado, além de indicar a inexistência de competição por recursos com as abelhas nativas no interior da floresta amazônica, também indica que uma apicultura em grande escala na região seria inviável, uma vez que a floresta não é sequer visitada por essas abelhas.The African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata were introduced accidentally to Brazil in 1956 where it subsequently interbred with other subspecies of European honeybee here introduced in the 19th century. This resulted in hybrids with predominantly African honeybee characteristics, such as higher capacity of swarming and survival in inhospitable conditions, allowing them to adapt

  9. Varroa destructor mite in Africanized honeybee colonies Apis mellifera L. under royal jelly or honey production

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro da Rosa Santos; Priscila Wielewski; Andre Luiz Halak; Patrícia Faquinello; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the level of invasion of Varroa mite into worker brood cells, the infestation rate on adult worker honeybees, total and effective reproduction rates of the mite in Africanized honeybee colonies under royal jelly or honey production. Invasion and infestation rates were not statistically different between honeybee colonies producing honey or royal jelly and the averages for these parameters were 5.79 and 8.54%, respectively. Colonies producing honey presented a higher (p < ...

  10. Rare royal families in honeybees, Apis mellifera

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    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Lattorff, H. Michael G.; Neumann, Peter; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Radloff, Sarah E.; Hepburn, H. Randall

    2005-10-01

    The queen is the dominant female in the honeybee colony, Apis mellifera, and controls reproduction. Queen larvae are selected by the workers and are fed a special diet (royal jelly), which determines caste. Because queens mate with many males a large number of subfamilies coexist in the colony. As a consequence, there is a considerable potential for conflict among the subfamilies over queen rearing. Here we show that honeybee queens are not reared at random but are preferentially reared from rare “royal” subfamilies, which have extremely low frequencies in the colony's worker force but a high frequency in the queens reared.

  11. Patriline composition of worker populations in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies headed by queens inseminated with semen from African and European drones

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    Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman,; David R.Tarpy,; Schneider, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    International audience Honeybee queens with either European or African maternity were mated to African and European drones to determine rates of sperm utilization. The first month after the queens were inseminated, they produced equal proportions of workers with African and European paternity. However, for the next 3-4 months, more than 70% of the workers produced by queens of either matriline had African paternity. Overall, the queens produced a majority of workers with African paternity ...

  12. Morphometrics and adaptatives aspects in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera Aspectos morfométricos e adaptativos em abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera

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    W. P. OLIVEIRA-JR

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the African bees (Apis mellifera scutelata in Brazil and their expansion in the American Continent created the opportunity to study the process of species adaptation in a new environment. In that process, within intra-specific variability, normalising selection can favour individuals that present a better adaptative morphology and they will constitute the most frequent type found in the population. To test that hypothesis morphometric analyses in samples of colonies of africanized bees and in samples of the populations were performed. The development of the colonies was also evaluated in terms of the amount of their brood, honey and pollen. Analysis of the data indicates that more developed colonies are formed by individuals closer to the population average with concerning morphological traits.A introdução das abelhas africanas (Apis mellifera scutelata no Brasil e sua expansão pelo Continente Americano criou a oportunidade de se estudar o processo de adaptação de uma espécie em um novo ambiente. Nesse processo, dentro da variabilidade intra-específica, a seleção normalizante pode favorecer os indivíduos que apresentam uma morfologia mais adaptativa, os quais constituirão o tipo mais freqüente encontrado na população. Para testar essa hipótese foram feitas análises morfométricas em amostras de colônias de abelhas africanizadas e em amostras da população. Também foi avaliado o desenvolvimento das colônias em termos da quantidade de cria, mel e pólen. A análise dos dados mostrou que as colônias que mais se desenvolveram são formadas por indivíduos mais próximos da m��dia da população quanto às características morfológicas.

  13. Parasitic Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, evade policing

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    Martin, Stephen J.; Beekman, Madeleine; Wossler, Theresa C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Relocation of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, by bee-keepers from southern to northern South Africa in 1990 has caused widespread death of managed African honeybee, A. m. scutellata, colonies. Apis mellifera capensis worker bees are able to lay diploid, female eggs without mating by means of automictic thelytoky (meiosis followed by fusion of two meiotic products to restore egg diploidy), whereas workers of other honeybee subspecies are able to lay only haploid, male eggs. The A. m. capensis workers, which are parasitizing and killing A. m. scutellata colonies in northern South Africa, are the asexual offspring of a single, original worker in which the small amount of genetic variation observed is due to crossing over during meiosis (P. Kryger, personal communication). Here we elucidate two principal mechanisms underlying this parasitism. Parasitic A. m. capensis workers activate their ovaries in host colonies that have a queen present (queenright colonies), and they lay eggs that evade being killed by other workers (worker policing)-the normal fate of worker-laid eggs in colonies with a queen. This unique parasitism by workers is an instance in which a society is unable to control the selfish actions of its members.

  14. Reevaluation of honeybee (Apis mellifera) microtaxonomy: a geometric morphometric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kandemir, Irfan; Özkan, Ayça; FUCHS, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    International audience In the present study, the microtaxonomy of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) subspecies was reevaluated based on a geometric morphometric method. Wing images of honeybee subspecies, obtained from the Morphometric Bee Data Bank in Oberursel, Germany, were assigned to four honeybee lineages from the indivudial images, and 40 Cartesian coordinates were obtained. Honeybee lineages were significantly different based on individual and colony consensus average wing shapes of hon...

  15. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

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    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas. PMID:25846634

  16. Magnetoreception system in honeybees (Apis mellifera.

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    Chin-Yuan Hsu

    Full Text Available Honeybees (Apis mellifera undergo iron biomineralization, providing the basis for magnetoreception. We showed earlier the presence of superparamagnetic magnetite in iron granules formed in honeybees, and subscribed to the notion that external magnetic fields may cause expansion or contraction of the superparamagnetic particles in an orientation-specific manner, relaying the signal via cytoskeleton (Hsu and Li 1994. In this study, we established a size-density purification procedure, with which quantitative amount of iron granules was obtained from honey bee trophocytes and characterized; the density of iron granules was determined to be 1.25 g/cm(3. While we confirmed the presence of superparamagnetic magnetite in the iron granules, we observed changes in the size of the magnetic granules in the trophycytes upon applying additional magnetic field to the cells. A concomitant release of calcium ion was observed by confocal microscope. This size fluctuation triggered the increase of intracellular Ca(+2 , which was inhibited by colchicines and latrunculin B, known to be blockers for microtubule and microfilament syntheses, respectively. The associated cytoskeleton may thus relay the magnetosignal, initiating a neural response. A model for the mechanism of magnetoreception in honeybees is proposed, which may be applicable to most, if not all, magnetotactic organisms.

  17. Removal of small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) eggs and larvae by African honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera scutellata)

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    Neumann, Peter; Härtel, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    International audience The removal of small hive beetle [SHB] eggs and larvae was studied in seven Apis mellifera scutellata colonies. Because female beetles can protect their eggs by oviposition in small cracks we introduced unprotected eggs and protected eggs into these colonies. Whereas all unprotected eggs were removed within 24 hours, $66 \\pm 12$% of the protected eggs remained, showing that SHB eggs are likely to hatch in infested colonies. However, all larvae introduced into the sam...

  18. Study of the flight range and ideal density of the africanized honeybees, Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) labelled with 32 P on an apple orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ideal density, the flight range, the choice for any flight direction, the influence of temperature and relative humidity of air about the honeybee's activity, Apis mellifera L.. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were studied in an apple orchard, utilizing nuclear techniques. Five hives, with 35,000 bees each, were labelled with syrup (50%) content (2,5 μCi 32 P/ml) and taken one by one, every two days to the blossomed orchard. A circumference area of 100 m diameter (0,8 ha) W staked each 10 m from the center to the limit (50 m), making a cross, pointing out to North, South, East and West. The honeybees were collected on apple flowers, during 5 minutes in each stake, at 10:00 a.m. and 12:30 p.m. (author)

  19. Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) drone embryo proteomes.

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    Li, Jianke; Fang, Yu; Zhang, Lan; Begna, Desalegn

    2011-03-01

    Little attention has been paid to the drone honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) which is a haploid individual carrying only the set of alleles that it inherits from its mother. Molecular mechanisms underlying drone embryogenesis are poorly understood. This study evaluated protein expression profiles of drone embryogenesis at embryonic ages of 24, 48 and 72h. More than 100 reproducible proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry on 2D electrophoresis gels. Sixty-two proteins were significantly changed at the selected three experimental age points. Expression of the metabolic energy requirement-related protein peaked at the embryonic age of 48h, whereas development and metabolizing amino acid-related proteins expressed optimally at 72h. Cytoskeleton, protein folding and antioxidant-related proteins were highly expressed at 48 and 72h. Protein networks of the identified proteins were constructed and protein expressions were validated at the transcription level. This first proteomic study of drone embryogenesis in the honeybee may provide geneticists an exact timetable and candidate protein outline for further manipulations of drone stem cells. PMID:21172355

  20. Características das colônias de abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L., coletadas de alojamentos naturais em Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo Characteristics of african honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L. in nature, in Jaboticabal - SP

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    Regina Helena Nogueira-Couto

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente experimento analisou-se as características de 70 enxames de abelhas africanizadas, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera Apidae, coletados na natureza, durante 16 anos (1981 a 1996, em Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo e arredores. Durante a coleta foram feitas avaliações sobre o enxame quanto à: localização, posição (favos expostos ou em cavidades, presença de rainha, defensividade, áreas de cria e alimento e quantidade de abelhas presentes. Foi observada a posição dos favos em relação à entrada da colônia, classificando-os em perpendicular e paralelo. Observou-se que metade dos enxames (51,4% foi coletada dentro do Câmpus da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal - Unesp, especialmente na área de reflorestamento e no horto. Apenas 18,6% dos enxames coletados estavam expostos ao ar livre, estando preferencialmente em galhos, e 81,4% estavam alojados no interior de cavidades. Foi observado que, nos alojados em cavidades, as abelhas preferiram instalar seus enxames sob telhados (30%, ocos de árvores (20%, dentro de cavidades de cimento (12,9% e buracos no solo (10%. Observou-se que as abelhas não foram consideradas defensivas em 86,2% dos enxames coletados e que preferiram construir seus favos em posição perpendicular (70,4% à entrada da colméia, em relação à posição paralela (29,6%. Em relação à quantidade de indivíduos, cria e alimento, observou-se que 54,7% dos 70 enxames tinham grande quantidade de abelhas, 43,9% tinham área de cria considerada média e 51,7% apresentaram pouco alimento estocado. A rainha foi observada em 56,4% dos enxames coletados.The experiment was conducted to observe characteristics of African honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera Apidae swarms collected in nature, for 16 years (1981 to 1996, in Jaboticabal, state of São Paulo -Brasil. During the collection, location, presence of queen, position of the swarms in the nature (exposed or housed, brood and

  1. Seasonal prevalence of pathogens and parasites in the savannah honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata).

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    Strauss, Ursula; Human, Hannelie; Gauthier, Laurent; Crewe, Robin M; Dietemann, Vincent; Pirk, Christian W W

    2013-09-01

    The loss of Apis mellifera L. colonies in recent years has, in many regions of the world, been alarmingly high. No single cause has been identified for these losses, but the interactions between several factors (mostly pathogens and parasites) have been held responsible. Work in the Americas on honeybees originating mainly from South Africa indicates that Africanised honeybees are less affected by the interplay of pathogens and parasites. However, little is known about the health status of South African honeybees (A. m. scutellata and A. m. capensis) in relation to pathogens and parasites. We therefore compared the seasonal prevalence of honeybee pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi) and parasites (mites, bee lice, wax moth, small hive beetles, A. m. capensis social parasites) between sedentary and migratory A. m. scutellata apiaries situated in the Gauteng region of South Africa. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of pathogens and parasites between sedentary and migratory apiaries. Three (Black queen cell virus, Varroa destructor virus 1 and Israeli acute paralysis virus) of the eight viruses screened were detected, a remarkable difference compared to European honeybees. Even though no bacterial pathogens were detected, Nosema apis and Chalkbrood were confirmed. All of the honeybee parasites were found in the majority of the apiaries with the most common parasite being the Varroa mite. In spite of hosting few pathogens, yet most parasites, A. m. scutellata colonies appeared to be healthy. PMID:23702244

  2. Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina;

    2016-01-01

    the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found...

  3. [New Approach to the Mitotype Classification in Black Honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera and Iberian Honeybee Apis mellifera iberiensis].

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    Ilyasov, R A; Poskryakov, A V; Petukhov, A V; Nikolenko, A G

    2016-03-01

    The black honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera L. is today the only subspecies of honeybee which is suitable for commercial breeding in the climatic conditions of Northern Europe with long cold winters. The main problem of the black honeybee in Russia and European countries is the preservation of the indigenous gene pool purity, which is lost as a result of hybridization with subspecies, A. m. caucasica, A. m. carnica, A. m. carpatica, and A. m. armeniaca, introduced from southern regions. Genetic identification of the subspecies will reduce the extent of hybridization and provide the gene pool conservation of the black honeybee. Modern classification of the honeybee mitotypes is mainly based on the combined use ofthe DraI restriction endonuclease recognition site polymorphism and sequence polymorphism of the mtDNA COI-COII region. We performed a comparative analysis of the mtDNA COI-COII region sequence polymorphism in the honeybees ofthe evolutionary lineage M from Ural and West European populations of black honeybee A. m. mellifera and Spanish bee A. m. iberiensis. A new approach to the classification of the honeybee M mitotypes was suggested. Using this approach and on the basis of the seven most informative SNPs of the mtDNA COI-COII region, eight honeybee mitotype groups were identified. In addition, it is suggested that this approach will simplify the previously proposed complicated mitotype classification and will make it possible to assess the level of the mitotype diversity and to identify the mitotypes that are the most valuable for the honeybee breeding and rearing. PMID:27281852

  4. Virus infections of honeybees Apis Mellifera

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    Giuseppina Tantillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp. and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and wellbeing of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV and Kakugo virus (KV; Sacbrood virus (SBV; Black Queen cell virus (BQCV; Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV; Kashmir bee virus (KBV; Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV; Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV. The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research.

  5. Genetic variation in natural honeybee populations, Apis mellifera capensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Randall; Neumann, Peter; Radloff, Sarah E.

    2004-09-01

    Genetic variation in honeybee, Apis mellifera, populations can be considerably influenced by breeding and commercial introductions, especially in areas with abundant beekeeping. However, in southern Africa apiculture is based on the capture of wild swarms, and queen rearing is virtually absent. Moreover, the introduction of European subspecies constantly failed in the Cape region. We therefore hypothesize a low human impact on genetic variation in populations of Cape honeybees, Apis mellifera capensis. A novel solution to studying genetic variation in honeybee populations based on thelytokous worker reproduction is applied to test this hypothesis. Environmental effects on metrical morphological characters of the phenotype are separated to obtain a genetic residual component. The genetic residuals are then re-calculated as coefficients of genetic variation. Characters measured included hair length on the abdomen, width and length of wax plate, and three wing angles. The data show for the first time that genetic variation in Cape honeybee populations is independent of beekeeping density and probably reflects naturally occurring processes such as gene flow due to topographic and climatic variation on a microscale.

  6. Resistance rather than tolerance explains survival of savannah honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Ursula; Dietemann, Vincent; Human, Hannelie; Crewe, Robin M; Pirk, Christian W W

    2016-03-01

    Varroa destructor is considered the most damaging parasite affecting honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). However, some honeybee populations such as the savannah honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata) can survive mite infestation without treatment. It is unclear if survival is due to resistance mechanisms decreasing parasite reproduction or to tolerance mechanisms decreasing the detrimental effects of mites on the host. This study investigates both aspects by quantifying the reproductive output of V. destructor and its physiological costs at the individual host level. Costs measured were not consistently lower when compared with susceptible honeybee populations, indicating a lack of tolerance. In contrast, reproduction of V. destructor mites was distinctly lower than in susceptible populations. There was higher proportion of infertile individuals and the reproductive success of fertile mites was lower than measured to date, even in surviving populations. Our results suggest that survival of savannah honeybees is based on resistance rather than tolerance to this parasite. We identified traits that may be useful for breeding programmes aimed at increasing the survival of susceptible populations. African honeybees may have benefited from a lack of human interference, allowing natural selection to shape a population of honeybees that is more resistant to Varroa mite infestation. PMID:26690678

  7. Nosema Tolerant Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Escape Parasitic Manipulation of Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurze, Christoph; Le Conte, Yves; Dussaubat, Claudia; Erler, Silvio; Kryger, Per; Lewkowski, Oleg; Müller, Thomas; Widder, Miriam; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is not only pivotal for development, but also for pathogen defence in multicellular organisms. Although numerous intracellular pathogens are known to interfere with the host’s apoptotic machinery to overcome this defence, its importance for host-parasite coevolution has been neglected. We conducted three inoculation experiments to investigate in the apoptotic respond during infection with the intracellular gut pathogen Nosema ceranae, which is considered as potential global threat to the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and other bee pollinators, in sensitive and tolerant honeybees. To explore apoptotic processes in the gut epithelium, we visualised apoptotic cells using TUNEL assays and measured the relative expression levels of subset of candidate genes involved in the apoptotic machinery using qPCR. Our results suggest that N. ceranae reduces apoptosis in sensitive honeybees by enhancing inhibitor of apoptosis protein-(iap)-2 gene transcription. Interestingly, this seems not be the case in Nosema tolerant honeybees. We propose that these tolerant honeybees are able to escape the manipulation of apoptosis by N. ceranae, which may have evolved a mechanism to regulate an anti-apoptotic gene as key adaptation for improved host invasion. PMID:26445372

  8. Nosema Tolerant Honeybees (Apis mellifera Escape Parasitic Manipulation of Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kurze

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is not only pivotal for development, but also for pathogen defence in multicellular organisms. Although numerous intracellular pathogens are known to interfere with the host's apoptotic machinery to overcome this defence, its importance for host-parasite coevolution has been neglected. We conducted three inoculation experiments to investigate in the apoptotic respond during infection with the intracellular gut pathogen Nosema ceranae, which is considered as potential global threat to the honeybee (Apis mellifera and other bee pollinators, in sensitive and tolerant honeybees. To explore apoptotic processes in the gut epithelium, we visualised apoptotic cells using TUNEL assays and measured the relative expression levels of subset of candidate genes involved in the apoptotic machinery using qPCR. Our results suggest that N. ceranae reduces apoptosis in sensitive honeybees by enhancing inhibitor of apoptosis protein-(iap-2 gene transcription. Interestingly, this seems not be the case in Nosema tolerant honeybees. We propose that these tolerant honeybees are able to escape the manipulation of apoptosis by N. ceranae, which may have evolved a mechanism to regulate an anti-apoptotic gene as key adaptation for improved host invasion.

  9. The effect of essential oils of sweet fennel and pignut on mortality and learning in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramson, Charles I.; Michaluk, Lynnette M. [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States). Depts. of Psychology and Zoology. Lab. Comparative Psychology and Behavioral Biology]. E-mail: charles.abramson@okstate.edu; Wanderley, Paulo A.; Wanderley, Maria J.A.; Silva, Jose C.R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Bananeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura

    2007-11-15

    It was recently discovered that exposure to small concentrations of the essential oils of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) or pignut [Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit] can be used to control aphids. What is not known is whether these oils also influence honeybee behavior. Experiments using both harnessed and free-flying foragers at concentrations used to control aphids showed that bees readily associated the odors with a reward, discriminated between them, and were not repelled. Honeybees, however, would not consume the oils when mixed with sucrose to create an unconditioned stimulus. An experiment in which harnessed bees consumed various concentrations showed that concentrations greater than 50% were detrimental. The experiments reported here provide further evidence supporting the use of conditioning techniques to evaluate the use of essential oils on honey bee behavior. (author)

  10. The effect of essential oils of sweet fennel and pignut on mortality and learning in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was recently discovered that exposure to small concentrations of the essential oils of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) or pignut [Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit] can be used to control aphids. What is not known is whether these oils also influence honeybee behavior. Experiments using both harnessed and free-flying foragers at concentrations used to control aphids showed that bees readily associated the odors with a reward, discriminated between them, and were not repelled. Honeybees, however, would not consume the oils when mixed with sucrose to create an unconditioned stimulus. An experiment in which harnessed bees consumed various concentrations showed that concentrations greater than 50% were detrimental. The experiments reported here provide further evidence supporting the use of conditioning techniques to evaluate the use of essential oils on honey bee behavior. (author)

  11. Africanized honeybees in urban areas: a public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zaluski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Africanized honeybees in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, and to implement a program to remove such swarms. Methods The occurrences of Africanized honeybee swarms between 2010 and 2012 were studied and strategies to prevent accidents were developed. Results We noted 1,164 cases of Africanized honeybee occurrences in the city, and 422 swarms were collected. The developed strategies to prevent accidents were disseminated to the population. Conclusions We contributed to reducing the risks represented by Africanized honeybee swarms in urban areas, by collecting swarms and disseminating strategic information for preventing accidents.

  12. Molecular characterization of hemoglobin from the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankeln, Thomas; Klawitter, Sabine; Krämer, Melanie; Burmester, Thorsten

    2006-07-01

    Due to the prevailing importance of the tracheal system for insect respiration, hemoglobins had been considered rare exceptions in this arthropod subphylum. Here we report the identification, cloning and expression analysis of a true hemoglobin gene in the honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera). The deduced amino acid sequence covers 171 residues (19.5kDa) and harbors all globin-typical features, including the proximal and the distal histidines. The protein has no signal peptide for transmembrane transport and was predicted to localize in the cytoplasm. The honeybee hemoglobin gene shows an ancient structure, with introns in positions B12.2 and G7.0, while most other insect globins have divergent intron positions. In situ hybridization studies showed that hemoglobin expression in the honeybee is mainly associated with the tracheal system. We also observe hemoglobin expression in the Malpighi tubes and testis. We further demonstrated that hemoglobins occur in other insect orders (Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera), suggesting that such genes belong to the standard repertoire of an insect genome. Phylogenetic analyses show that globins evolved along with the accepted insect systematics, with a remarkable diversification within the Diptera. Although insect hemoglobins may be in fact involved in oxygen metabolism, it remains uncertain whether they carry out a myoglobin-like function in oxygen storage and delivery. PMID:16698031

  13. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  14. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schott

    Full Text Available Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  15. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors. PMID:26083377

  16. Desenvolvimento de colônias de abelhas Apis mellifera africanizadas na região de Maringá, Estado do Paraná = Growing of Africanized honeybee colonies in Maringá region, State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Martins Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estimar o desenvolvimento das colônias de Apis mellifera africanizadas no período de julho de 1999 a junho de 2000, na Fazenda Experimental, quanto às porcentagens de ocupações por cria, alimento e total dos favos, correlacioná-las com variáveis ambientais e determinar o teor de proteína bruta no pólenestocado pelas abelhas. Foram utilizadas cinco colônias de abelhas A. mellifera africanizadas, realizando-se mapeamentos e coletas de pólen mensalmente. Foram obtidos dados climáticos de temperatura máxima e mínima, umidade relativa máxima e mínima do ar e precipitação pluviométrica de cada mês, coletados na própria Fazenda Experimental. As porcentagens médias de ocupação com cria (ovo-larva + pupa de operárias e zangões, com alimento (mel e pólen e da área total não foram diferentes entre as colônias (p>0,05. As abelhas africanizadas diminuíram sua população com temperaturas externas baixas (invernoe também com excesso de umidade relativa do ar (verão. O teor médio de proteína bruta presente no pólen durante o ano foi de 24,51%, sendo este valor aceitável para um bom desenvolvimento das colônias.This research was carried out to evaluate the growing of Africanized honeybee colonies from July 1999 to June 2000, as for the percentages of occupation area with brood, food, occupied total area, to correlate them with environmental variables and to determine the tenor of crude protein in the pollen stocked in the combs by workers. Five colonies were mapped monthly, which were made the counting of the occupied area with brood, food, occupied total area and also the pollen was collected and submitted to the bromatological analysis to determine the tenor of crude protein. The medium percentages of occupation with brood (egg-larvae plus workers pupa and drones, with food (honey and pollen and of the occupied total area they were not also different among the treatments (p>0.05. The

  17. Pheromonal contest between honeybee workers ( Apis mellifera capensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, R. F. A.; Simon, U. E.; Crewe, R. M.

    2000-10-01

    Queenless workers of the Cape honeybee ( Apis mellifera capensis) can develop into reproductives termed pseudoqueens. Although they morphologically remain workers they become physiologically queenlike, produce offspring, and secrete mandibular gland pheromones similar to those of true queens. However, after queen loss only very few workers gain pseudoqueen status. A strong intracolonial selection governs which workers start oviposition and which remain sterile. The "queen substance", 9-keto-2(E)-decenoic acid (9-ODA), the dominant compound of the queen's mandibular gland pheromones, suppresses the secretion of queenlike mandibular gland pheromones in workers. It may act as an important signal in pseudoqueen selection. By analysing the mandibular gland pheromones of workers kept in pairs, we found that A. m. capensis workers compete to produce the strongest queen-like signal.

  18. Function and distribution of 5-HT2 receptors in the honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Thamm; Daniel Rolke; Nadine Jordan; Sabine Balfanz; Christian Schiffer; Arnd Baumann; Wolfgang Blenau

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serotonin plays a pivotal role in regulating and modulating physiological and behavioral processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera), serotonin has been implicated in division of labor, visual processing, and learning processes. Here, we present the cloning, heterologous expression, and detailed functional and pharmacological characterization of two honeybee 5-HT2 receptors. METHODS: Honeybee 5-HT2 receptor cDNAs were amplified from brain cDNA...

  19. Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina; den Boer, Susanne P A

    2016-05-01

    The queens of eusocial ants, bees, and wasps only mate during a very brief period early in life to acquire and store a lifetime supply of sperm. As sperm cannot be replenished, queens have to be highly economic when using stored sperm to fertilize eggs, especially in species with large and long-lived colonies. However, queen fertility has not been studied in detail, so that we have little understanding of how economic sperm use is in different species, and whether queens are able to influence their sperm use. This is surprising given that sperm use is a key factor of eusocial life, as it determines the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found that queens are remarkably efficient and only use a median of 2 sperm per egg fertilization, with decreasing sperm use in older queens. The number of sperm in storage was always a significant predictor for the number of sperm used per fertilization, indicating that queens use a constant ratio of spermathecal fluid relative to total spermathecal volume of 2.364 × 10(-6) to fertilize eggs. This allowed us to calculate a lifetime fecundity for honeybee queens of around 1,500,000 fertilized eggs. Our data provide the first empirical evidence that honeybee queens do not manipulate sperm use, and fertilization failures in worker-destined eggs are therefore honest signals that workers can use to time queen replacement, which is crucial for colony performance and fitness. PMID:27217944

  20. Modelling the subgenual organ of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Jesper; Kilpinen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    In a recent study on the honeybee (Apis mellifera), the subgenual organ was observed moving inside the leg during sinusoidal vibrations of the leg (Kilpinen and Storm 1997). The subgenual organ of the honeybee is suspended in a haemolymph channel in the tibia of each leg. When the leg accelerates...

  1. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cassava flower honey samples produced by africanized honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Lucimar Peres de Moura Pontara; Edmar Clemente; Dalany Menezes Oliveira; Angela Kwiatkowski; Cássia Inês Lourenzi Franco Rosa; Valter Eugênio Saia

    2012-01-01

    Cassava producers in the region of Marília-São Paulo are integrating their farming activity with beekeeping to diversify their income. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera from cassava flower in 2008. Analysis were carried out for pH, total soluble solids (TSS), acidity, moisture, reducing and total sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, color, ash, proteins, water inso...

  2. HERITABILITY OF STING CHARACTERS IN AFRICANIZED HONEYBEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MELO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed to estimate the heritability of seven morphological characters that compose the sting apparatus of the Africanized honeybee workers. An experimental design to estimate genetic parameters was based on the method developed by Oldroyd and Moran(9. This method was modified to eliminate within-colony environmental effects associated with the additive genetic variance. The estimated h values ranged from 0.17 ± 0.11 (maximum width of bulb of sting stylet and height of the valve of right lancet to 0.74 ± 0.30 (length of the lancet.

  3. EFFECTS OF C60 FULLERENE — CISPLATIN COMPLEX ON HONEYBEE Apis mellifera L.

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    Kuznietsova H. M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of С60 fullerene, traditional cytostatic cisplatin and С60 fullerene-cisplatin complex on honeybee Apis mellifera L. toxicity estimation test system was assessed. Water-soluble pristine C60 fullerenes were nontoxic for honeybee when consumed with the food in doses equivalent nontoxic and effective ones for mammalian. Cisplatin toxicity for honeybee in the doses exceed the same for mammalian in 2 times was observed as fallows: honeybee 56% death occurred after consumption of 60 mg/kg of bee weight. С60 fullerene-cisplatin complex proved to be more toxic for honeybee in comparison with free cisplatin and caused honeybee 50% lethality after consumption of 40 mg/kg bee weight.

  4. Effects of sublethal dose of fipronil on neuron metabolic activity of Africanized honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Carvalho, Stephan M; Nocelli, Roberta C F; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine C M; Palma, Mario Sérgio; Malaspina, Osmar

    2013-04-01

    Fipronil is a neurotoxic insecticide that inhibits the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor and can affect gustative perception, olfactory learning, and motor activity of the honeybee Apis mellifera. This study determined the lethal dose (LD50) and the lethal concentration (LC50) for Africanized honeybee and evaluated the toxicity of a sublethal dose of fipronil on neuron metabolic activity by way of histochemical analysis using cytochrome oxidase detection in brains from worker bees of different ages. In addition, the present study investigated the recovery mechanism by discontinuing the oral exposure to fipronil. The results showed that mushroom bodies of aged Africanized honeybees are affected by fipronil, which causes changes in metabolism by increasing the respiratory activity of mitochondria. In antennal lobes, the sublethal dose of fipronil did not cause an increase in metabolic activity. The recovery experiments showed that discontinued exposure to a diet contaminated with fipronil did not lead to recovery of neural activity. Our results show that even at very low concentrations, fipronil is harmful to honeybees and can induce several types of injuries to honeybee physiology. PMID:23224048

  5. Host Specificity in the Honeybee Parasitic Mite, Varroa spp. in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis L Beaurepaire

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major global threat to the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This mite was originally a parasite of A. cerana in Asia but managed to spill over into colonies of A. mellifera which had been introduced to this continent for honey production. To date, only two almost clonal types of V. destructor from Korea and Japan have been detected in A. mellifera colonies. However, since both A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies are kept in close proximity throughout Asia, not only new spill overs but also spill backs of highly virulent types may be possible, with unpredictable consequences for both honeybee species. We studied the dispersal and hybridisation potential of Varroa from sympatric colonies of the two hosts in Northern Vietnam and the Philippines using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers. We found a very distinct mtDNA haplotype equally invading both A. mellifera and A. cerana in the Philippines. In contrast, we observed a complete reproductive isolation of various Vietnamese Varroa populations in A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies even if kept in the same apiaries. In light of this variance in host specificity, the adaptation of the mite to its hosts seems to have generated much more genetic diversity than previously recognised and the Varroa species complex may include substantial cryptic speciation.

  6. Host Specificity in the Honeybee Parasitic Mite, Varroa spp. in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Truong, Tuan A; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Dinh, Tam Q; Cervancia, Cleofas; Moritz, Robin F A

    2015-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major global threat to the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This mite was originally a parasite of A. cerana in Asia but managed to spill over into colonies of A. mellifera which had been introduced to this continent for honey production. To date, only two almost clonal types of V. destructor from Korea and Japan have been detected in A. mellifera colonies. However, since both A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies are kept in close proximity throughout Asia, not only new spill overs but also spill backs of highly virulent types may be possible, with unpredictable consequences for both honeybee species. We studied the dispersal and hybridisation potential of Varroa from sympatric colonies of the two hosts in Northern Vietnam and the Philippines using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers. We found a very distinct mtDNA haplotype equally invading both A. mellifera and A. cerana in the Philippines. In contrast, we observed a complete reproductive isolation of various Vietnamese Varroa populations in A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies even if kept in the same apiaries. In light of this variance in host specificity, the adaptation of the mite to its hosts seems to have generated much more genetic diversity than previously recognised and the Varroa species complex may include substantial cryptic speciation. PMID:26248192

  7. The Prevalence of Parasites and Pathogens in Asian Honeybees Apis cerana in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jilian; Qin, Haoran; Wu, Jie; Sadd, Ben M.; Wang, Xiuhong; Evans, Jay D.; Peng, Wenjun; Chen, Yanping

    2012-01-01

    Pathogens and parasites represent significant threats to the health and well-being of honeybee species that are key pollinators of agricultural crops and flowers worldwide. We conducted a nationwide survey to determine the occurrence and prevalence of pathogens and parasites in Asian honeybees, Apis cerana, in China. Our study provides evidence of infections of A. cerana by pathogenic Deformed wing virus (DWV), Black queen cell virus (BQCV), Nosema ceranae, and C. bombi species that have been...

  8. Use of oxalic acid to control Varroa destructor in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies

    OpenAIRE

    AKYOL, Ethem; YENİNAR, Halil

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of oxalic acid (OA) on reducing Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) populations in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the fall. Twenty honeybee colonies, in wooden Langstroth hives, were used in this experiment. Average Varroa infestation levels (%) of the OA and control groups were 25.87% and 24.57% on adult workers before the treatments. The OA treatments were applied twice, on 3 November and 13 November 2006. Average Varroa infestation ...

  9. Molecular characterization of the honeybee Apis mellifera carnica in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Nedić N.; Stanisavljević L.; Mladenović M.; Stanisavljević Jelena

    2009-01-01

    The sequences COI-COII of the mitochondrial DNA region in honeybee from four geographically distant regions in Serbia (Vršac, Knjaževac, Kraljevo, and Vranje) are analyzed. The research was conducted on eight different, previously selected honeybee lines preserved (linear selection) in the four reprocenters for queen bees. All four studied honeybee lines differ in morphological and productive traits, each being specific for the corresponding region. In addition to analysis of the mtDNA sequen...

  10. Western honeybee drones and workers (Apis mellifera ligustica) have different olfactory mechanisms than eastern honeybees (Apis cerana cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltedji, Dereje; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Gala, Alemayehu; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2012-09-01

    The honeybees Apis mellifera ligustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) are two different western and eastern bee species that evolved in distinct ecologies and developed specific antennal olfactory systems for their survival. Knowledge of how their antennal olfactory systems function in regards to the success of each respective bee species is scarce. We compared the antennal morphology and proteome between respective sexually mature drones and foraging workers of both species using a scanning electron microscope, two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Despite the general similarities in antennal morphology of the drone and worker bees between the two species, a total of 106 and 100 proteins altered their expression in the drones' and the workers' antennae, respectively. This suggests that the differences in the olfactory function of each respective bee are supported by the change of their proteome. Of the 106 proteins that altered their expression in the drones, 72 (68%) and 34 (32%) were overexpressed in the drones of Aml and Acc, respectively. The antennae of the Aml drones were built up by the highly expressed proteins that were involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, molecular transporters, antioxidation, and fatty acid metabolism in contrast to the Acc drones. This is believed to enhance the antennal olfactory functions of the Aml drones as compared to the Acc drones during their mating flight. Likewise, of the 100 proteins with expression changes between the worker bees of the two species, 67% were expressed in higher levels in the antennae of Aml worker contrasting to 33% in the Acc worker. The overall higher expressions of proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, molecular transporters, and antioxidation in the Aml workers compared with the Acc workers indicate the Aml workers require more antennal proteins for their olfactory

  11. Extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata (Fabricius, 1793)

    OpenAIRE

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Kraus, Bernard F; Koeniger, Gudrun; KOENIGER, Nikolaus; Lim, Herbert; Moritz, Robin F.A.

    2014-01-01

    The giant honeybee Apis dorsata often forms dense colony aggregations which can include up to 200 often closely related nests in the same location, setting the stage for inbred matings. Yet, like in all other Apis species, A. dorsata queens mate in mid-air on lek like drone congregation areas (DCAs) where large numbers of males gather in flight. We here report how the drone composition of A. dorsata DCAs facilitates outbreeding, taking into the account both spatial (three DCAs) and temporal (...

  12. Molecular characterization of the honeybee Apis mellifera carnica in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sequences COI-COII of the mitochondrial DNA region in honeybee from four geographically distant regions in Serbia (Vršac, Knjaževac, Kraljevo, and Vranje are analyzed. The research was conducted on eight different, previously selected honeybee lines preserved (linear selection in the four reprocenters for queen bees. All four studied honeybee lines differ in morphological and productive traits, each being specific for the corresponding region. In addition to analysis of the mtDNA sequences in Serbian honeybee, a comparative analysis of the phylogenetic group of so far known C2 haplotypes was also performed. The results revealed two novel polymorphic positions in the COI-COII mtDNA region, viz., h2 at position 3474 and l2 at position 3534 (a T nucleotide deletion in both cases in honeybees from the regions of Vranje and Knjaževac, respectively. Two novel mtDNA haplotypes in the honeybee C2 phylogenetic group, together with C2I (the new polymorphic position l2 and G-A transition at position 3587 and C2J (the new polymorphic position h2, are described. Also, comparative analysis performed on sequences from GenBank data showed a high degree of similarity (similarity index = 99.4% between the novel C2I mtDNA haplotype and an A. m. cypria haplotype originating from Turkey. Certain domestic Kranjska honeybee populations from Serbia represent an autochthonous gene pool that can be of great importance for further presentation of honeybee biodiversity. The present paper contributes to characterization of mtDNA in honeybee of Serbia.

  13. Involvement of Phosphorylated "Apis Mellifera" CREB in Gating a Honeybee's Behavioral Response to an External Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin B.; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees ("Apis mellifera") we recently demonstrated a particular high…

  14. Biophysics of the subgenual organ of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Storm, Jesper

    1997-01-01

    The subgenual organ of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is suspended in a haemolymph channel in the tibia of each leg. When the leg is accelerated, inertia causes the haemolymph (and the subgenual organ) to lag behind the movement of the rest of the leg. The magnitude of this phase lag determines the...

  15. Ovariole number and ovary activation of Russian honeybee workers (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although functionally sterile under normal hive conditions, honeybee workers retain small ovaries. The size of the worker ovaries varies considerably within Apis mellifera and has been linked to individual reproduction and various aspects of social behavior. Here, we report the ovary size of workers...

  16. Characterization of bifidobacteria in the digestive tract of the Japanese honeybee, Apis cerana japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meihua; Sugimura, Yuya; Takaya, Noriko; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Masaru; Taylor, DeMar; Yoshiyama, Mikio

    2013-01-01

    Bifidobacteria were isolated from the intestinal tract of the Japanese honeybee, Apis cerana japonica, and investigated for potential application as a probiotic agent against Melissococcus plutonius, the causal agent of European foulbrood (EFB), based on the findings of in vitro inhibition assays. A total of 11 bifidobacteria strains (designated as AcjBF1-AcjBF11) were isolated using a culture-dependent method and their 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed. The AcjBF isolates belonged to three distinct bifidobacterial phylotypes that were similar to those found in the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. Although the Japanese and European honeybees are distinct species with different traits and habits, the observation that they share highly similar bifidobacterial phylotypes suggests that bifidobacteria are conserved among honeybee species. Despite having extremely high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the AcjBF isolates had markedly different carbohydrate fermentation profiles. In addition, in vitro growth inhibition assays revealed that the cell-free supernatants of all AcjBF isolates exhibited antagonistic effects on M. plutonius growth. These results indicate that the bifidobacteria isolated from the gut of Japanese honeybee could potentially be employed as a new biological agent to control EFB. PMID:23069130

  17. Nosema Tolerant Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Escape Parasitic Manipulation of Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurze, Christoph; Le Conte, Yves; Dussaubat, Claudia;

    2015-01-01

    conducted three inoculation experiments to investigate in the apoptotic respond during infection with the intracellular gut pathogen Nosema ceranae, which is considered as potential global threat to the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and other bee pollinators, in sensitive and tolerant honeybees. To explore...

  18. Beehold : the colony of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L) as a bio-sampler for pollutants and plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bio-sampling is a function of bio-indication. Bio-indication with honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L) is where the research fields of environmental technology and apiculture overlap. The honeybees are samplers of the environment by collecting unintentionally and simultaneously, along with nectar, p

  19. In vitro effects of thiamethoxam on larvae of Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Daiana Antonia; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine Cristina Mathias; Malaspina, Osmar

    2015-09-01

    Several investigations have revealed the toxic effects that neonicotinoids can have on Apis mellifera, while few studies have evaluated the impact of these insecticides can have on the larval stage of the honeybee. From the lethal concentration (LC50) of thiamethoxam for the larvae of the Africanized honeybee, we evaluated the sublethal effects of this insecticide on morphology of the brain. After determine the LC50 (14.34 ng/μL of diet) of thiamethoxam, larvae were exposed to a sublethal concentration of thiamethoxam equivalent to 1.43 ng/μL by acute and subchronic exposure. Morphological and immunocytochemistry analysis of the brains of the exposed bees, showed condensed cells and early cell death in the optic lobes. Additional dose-related effects were observed on larval development. Our results show that the sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam tested are toxic to Africanized honeybees larvae and can modulate the development and consequently could affect the maintenance and survival of the colony. These results represent the first assessment of the effects of thiamethoxam in Africanized honeybee larvae and should contribute to studies on honey bee colony decline. PMID:25985214

  20. Short-sighted evolution of virulence in parasitic honeybee workers ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Pirk, Christian W. W.; Hepburn, H. Randall; Neumann, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The short-sighted selection hypothesis for parasite virulence predicts that winners of within-host competition are poorer at transmission to new hosts. Social parasitism by self-replicating, female-producing workers occurs in the Cape honeybee Apis mellifera capensis, and colonies of other honeybee subspecies are susceptible hosts. We found high within-host virulence but low transmission rates in a clone of social parasitic A. m. capensis workers invading the neighbouring subspecies A. m. scutellata. In contrast, parasitic workers from the endemic range of A. m. capensis showed low within-host virulence but high transmission rates. This suggests a short-sighted selection scenario for the host-parasite co-evolution in the invasive range of the Cape honeybee, probably facilitated by beekeeping-assisted parasite transmission in apiaries.

  1. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions. PMID:25730368

  2. Survey of diseases and parasites of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the honeybee diseases and parasites including questionnaires were carried out in eight bee areas in Sudan during the season 2002/03. About 117 local colonies and 324 packages of imported colonies of Apis mellifera were inspected, in addition to 25 colonies of Apis florea. All areas were found to be free of most bacterial brood diseases and fungal diseases, except the bacterial brood disease (Serratia marcescens) which was merely detected in 2.6% of Khartoum colonies. However, non infective dysentery was the only adult disease found during this study infecting 18.2% of Kordofan colonies. On the other hand, the parasitic mite (Varroa jacobsoni) was reported as first record in Sudan, detected only in Khartoum State infecting about 75% of colonies in apiaries and 27% of wild colonies. Sudanese honeybees were found to be characterized by hygienic behaviour of colonies which resist most pests and diseases, and no chemicals were used for control.(Author)

  3. Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael;

    2006-01-01

    Here we report the genome sequence of the honeybee Apis mellifera, a key model for social behaviour and essential to global ecology through pollination. Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon families, evolves more...... genes for nectar and pollen utilization, consistent with its ecology and social organization. Compared to Drosophila, genes in early developmental pathways differ in Apis, whereas similarities exist for functions that differ markedly, such as sex determination, brain function and behaviour. Population...

  4. Differences in drone and worker physiology in honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Hrassnigg, Norbert; Crailsheim, Karl

    2005-01-01

    International audience Drones and workers have completely different roles in a honeybee colony. This is reflected in many physiological, morphological and behavioural differences. Our overview mainly focuses on aspects of diet and metabolism in larvae and adults, and on the physiology of digestion. As larvae, drones have different protein and sugar requirements than workers, and in each life stage drones and workers differ in body composition (percentages of glycogen, lipids and proteins)....

  5. Germ cell development in the Honeybee (Apis mellifera; Vasa and Nanos expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dearden Peter K

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of specification of germ-cells in insect embryos has indicated that in many taxa the germ cells form early in development, and their formation is associated with pole plasm, germ plasm or an organelle called the oosome. None of these morphological features associated with germ cell formation have been identified in the Honeybee Apis mellifera. In this study I report the cloning and expression analysis of Honeybee homologues of vasa and nanos, germ cell markers in insects and other animals. Results Apis vasa and nanos RNAs are present in early honeybee embryos, but the RNAs clear rapidly, without any cells expressing these germ cell markers past stage 2. These genes are then only expressed in a line of cells in the abdomen from stage 9 onwards. These cells are the developing germ cells that are moved dorsally by dorsal closure and are placed in the genital ridge. Conclusion This study of the expression of germ cell markers in the honeybee implies that in this species either germ cells are formed by an inductive event, late in embryogenesis, or they are formed early in development in the absence of vasa and nanos expression. This contrasts with germ cell development in other members of the Hymenoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera.

  6. Proteomic analysis of honeybee worker (Apis mellifera hypopharyngeal gland development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypopharyngeal glands (HG of honeybee workers play an important role in honeybee nutrition and caste differentiation. Previous research mainly focused on age-dependent morphological, physiological, biochemical and genomic characters of the HG. Here proteomics and biochemical network analysis were used to follow protein changes during the HG development. Results A total of 87, 76, 85, 74, 71, and 55 proteins were unambiguously identified on day 1, 3, 6, 12, 15 and 20, respectively. These proteins were major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs, metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, cytoskeleton, development regulation, antioxidant, molecule transporter, regulation of transcription/translation, proteins with folding functions. The most interesting is that MRJP's that have been detected in the HG of the newly emerged worker bees. The MRJP's expression is at peak level from 6-12 days, was validated by western blot analysis of MRJP1, 2 and 3. Moreover, 35 key node proteins were found in the biochemical networks of the HG. Conclusions HG secretes RJ at peak level within 6-12 days, but the worker bee can secrete royal jelly (RJ since birth, which is a new finding. Several key node proteins play an important role in the biochemical networks of the developing HG. This provides us some target proteins when genetically manipulating honeybees.

  7. Characterization of an Unusually Conserved Alui Highly Reiterated DNA Sequence Family from the Honeybee, Apis Mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Tares, S.; Cornuet, J. M.; Abad, P.

    1993-01-01

    An AluI family of highly reiterated nontranscribed sequences has been found in the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera. This repeated sequence is shown to be present at approximately 23,000 copies per haploid genome constituting about 2% of the total genomic DNA. The nucleotide sequence of 10 monomers was determined. The consensus sequence is 176 nucleotides long and has an A + T content of 58%. There are clusters of both direct and inverted repeats. Internal subrepeating units ranging from...

  8. Eph Receptor and Ephrin Signaling in Developing and Adult Brain of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Vidovic, Maria; Nighorn, Alan; Koblar, Simon; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2007-01-01

    Roles for Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin signaling in vertebrate brain development are well established. Their involvement in the modulation of mammalian synaptic structure and physiology is also emerging. However, less is known of their effects on brain development and their function in adult invertebrate nervous systems. Here, we report on the characterization of Eph receptor and ephrin orthologs in the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Am), and their role in learning and memory. In situ h...

  9. Proteomic characterization of royal jelly proteins in Chinese (Apis cerana cerana) and European (Apis mellifera) honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ning; Jiang, Jie; Sun, Liangxian; Lai, Changcheng; Sun, Lifang; Wu, Xueji

    2008-06-01

    In this study, the proteins contained in royal jelly (RJ) derived from Chinese and European honeybees have been analyzed in detail and compared. Remarkable differences were found in the heterogeneity of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), MRJP2 and MRJP3, in terms of molecular weight and isoelectric points between the two species of RJ. MRJP2 and MRJP3 produced by Chinese honeybee are less polymorphic than those produced by European honeybee. This study is a contribution to the description of the royal jelly proteome. PMID:18620533

  10. Do honeybees, Apis mellifera scutellata, regulate humidity in their nest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Hannelie; Nicolson, Sue W.; Dietemann, Vincent

    2006-08-01

    Honeybees are highly efficient at regulating the biophysical parameters of their hive according to colony needs. Thermoregulation has been the most extensively studied aspect of nest homeostasis. In contrast, little is known about how humidity is regulated in beehives, if at all. Although high humidity is necessary for brood development, regulation of this parameter by honeybee workers has not yet been demonstrated. In the past, humidity was measured too crudely for a regulation mechanism to be identified. We reassess this issue, using miniaturised data loggers that allow humidity measurements in natural situations and at several places in the nest. We present evidence that workers influence humidity in the hive. However, there are constraints on potential regulation mechanisms because humidity optima may vary in different locations of the nest. Humidity could also depend on variable external factors, such as water availability, which further impair the regulation. Moreover, there are trade-offs with the regulation of temperature and respiratory gas exchanges that can disrupt the establishment of optimal humidity levels. As a result, we argue that workers can only adjust humidity within sub-optimal limits.

  11. Genetic structure of honeybee populations from southern Brazil and Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Nilza Maria Diniz; Ademilson Espencer Egea Soares,; Walter Steve Sheppard; Marco Antonio Del Lama

    2003-01-01

    Apis mellifera scutellata was introduced to Brazil in 1956 and Africanized honeybee populations have now spread from Argentina to the southwestern United States. Temperate climatic restrictions seem to be a natural limit to Africanized honeybee expansion around parallels 35° to 40° SL. We used allozyme loci (Mdh-1 and Hk-1) and mtDNA haplotypes to characterize honeybee populations in southern Brazil and Uruguay and define a possible transition area between Africanized and European bees. Sampl...

  12. The prevalence of parasites and pathogens in Asian honeybees Apis cerana in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilian Li

    Full Text Available Pathogens and parasites represent significant threats to the health and well-being of honeybee species that are key pollinators of agricultural crops and flowers worldwide. We conducted a nationwide survey to determine the occurrence and prevalence of pathogens and parasites in Asian honeybees, Apis cerana, in China. Our study provides evidence of infections of A. cerana by pathogenic Deformed wing virus (DWV, Black queen cell virus (BQCV, Nosema ceranae, and C. bombi species that have been linked to population declines of European honeybees, A. mellifera, and bumble bees. However, the prevalence of DWV, a virus that causes widespread infection in A. mellifera, was low, arguably a result of the greater ability of A. cerana to resist the ectoprasitic mite Varroa destructor, an efficient vector of DWV. Analyses of microbial communities from the A. cerana digestive tract showed that Nosema infection could have detrimental effects on the gut microbiota. Workers infected by N. ceranae tended to have lower bacterial quantities, with these differences being significant for the Bifidobacterium and Pasteurellaceae bacteria groups. The results of this nationwide screen show that parasites and pathogens that have caused serious problems in European honeybees can be found in native honeybee species kept in Asia. Environmental changes due to new agricultural practices and globalization may facilitate the spread of pathogens into new geographic areas. The foraging behavior of pollinators that are in close geographic proximity likely have played an important role in spreading of parasites and pathogens over to new hosts. Phylogenetic analyses provide insights into the movement and population structure of these parasites, suggesting a bidirectional flow of parasites among pollinators. The presence of these parasites and pathogens may have considerable implications for an observed population decline of Asian honeybees.

  13. Conditioning procedure and color discrimination in the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurfa, Martin

    We studied the influence of the conditioning procedure on color discrimination by free-flying honeybees. We asked whether absolute and differential conditioning result in different discrimination capabilities for the same pairs of colored targets. In absolute conditioning, bees were rewarded on a single color; in differential conditioning, bees were rewarded on the same color but an alternative, non-rewarding, similar color was also visible. In both conditioning procedures, bees learned their respective task and could also discriminate the training stimulus from a novel stimulus that was perceptually different from the trained one. Discrimination between perceptually closer stimuli was possible after differential conditioning but not after absolute conditioning. Differences in attention inculcated by these training procedures may underlie the different discrimination performances of the bees.

  14. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  15. A comparative study of relational learning capacity in honeybees (Apis mellifera and stingless bees (Melipona rufiventris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mauricio Moreno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera. However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments.

  16. Function and distribution of 5-HT2 receptors in the honeybee (Apis mellifera.

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    Markus Thamm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serotonin plays a pivotal role in regulating and modulating physiological and behavioral processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera, serotonin has been implicated in division of labor, visual processing, and learning processes. Here, we present the cloning, heterologous expression, and detailed functional and pharmacological characterization of two honeybee 5-HT2 receptors. METHODS: Honeybee 5-HT2 receptor cDNAs were amplified from brain cDNA. Recombinant cell lines were established constitutively expressing receptor variants. Pharmacological properties of the receptors were investigated by Ca(2+ imaging experiments. Quantitative PCR was applied to explore the expression patterns of receptor mRNAs. RESULTS: The honeybee 5-HT2 receptor class consists of two subtypes, Am5-HT2α and Am5-HT2β. Each receptor gene also gives rise to alternatively spliced mRNAs that possibly code for truncated receptors. Only activation of the full-length receptors with serotonin caused an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+ concentration. The effect was mimicked by the agonists 5-methoxytryptamine and 8-OH-DPAT at low micromolar concentrations. Receptor activities were blocked by established 5-HT receptor antagonists such as clozapine, methiothepin, or mianserin. High transcript numbers were detected in exocrine glands suggesting that 5-HT2 receptors participate in secretory processes in the honeybee. CONCLUSIONS: This study marks the first molecular and pharmacological characterization of two 5-HT2 receptor subtypes in the same insect species. The results presented should facilitate further attempts to unravel central and peripheral effects of serotonin mediated by these receptors.

  17. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of honeybee ( Apis mellifera ligustica) propolis from subtropical eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Carmelina Flavia; Simpson, Jack Bruce; Powell, Daniel; Brooks, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a material manufactured by bees and contains beeswax, bee salivary secretions and plant resins. Propolis preparations have been used for millennia by humans in food, cosmetics and medicines due to its antibacterial effects. Within the hive, propolis plays an important role in bees' health, with much of its bioactivity largely dependent on the plant resins the bees select for its production. Few chemical studies are available on the chemistry of propolis produced by Australian honeybees ( Apis mellifera, Apidae). This study aimed to determine the chemical composition as well as in vitro antimicrobial effects of propolis harvested from honeybees in subtropical eastern Australia. Honeybee propolis was produced using plastic frames and multiple beehives in two subtropical sites in eastern Australia. Methanolic extracts of propolis were analysed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry (ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-UV-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS)) and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resulting chemical data were dereplicated for compound characterisation. The two crude extracts in abs. ethanol were tested in vitro by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, using a phenol standard solution as the positive control and abs. ethanol as the negative control. Chemical constituents were identified to be pentacyclic triterpenoids and C-prenylated flavonoids, including Abyssinoflavanone VII, Propolin C and Nymphaeol C. The two propolis crude extracts showed bactericidal effects at the minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.37-2.04 mg mL-1 against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. However, the extracts were inactive against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antistaphylococcal potential of propolis was discussed, also in relation to honeybees' health, as it warrants further investigations on the social and

  18. Social encapsulation of beetle parasites by Cape honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera capensis Esch.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, P.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Solbrig, A. J.; Ratnieks, F. L. W.; Elzen, P. J.; Baxter, J. R.

    2001-05-01

    Worker honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis) encapsulate the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida), a nest parasite, in propolis (tree resin collected by the bees). The encapsulation process lasts 1-4 days and the bees have a sophisticated guarding strategy for limiting the escape of beetles during encapsulation. Some encapsulated beetles died (4.9%) and a few escaped (1.6%). Encapsulation has probably evolved because the small hive beetle cannot easily be killed by the bees due to its hard exoskeleton and defensive behaviour.

  19. Confinement of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) by Cape honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis)

    OpenAIRE

    James D. Ellis Jr.,; Hepburn, Randall; Elzen, Patti

    2004-01-01

    International audience In this study we quantify small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybee (A.m. capensis Esch., an African subspecies) behaviours that are associated with beetle confinement in an effort to understand why Cape bees can withstand large beetle infestations. Four observation hives were each inoculated with 25 beetles and were observed for 11-17 days. Data collected included guard bee (worker bees who guard beetle confinement sites) and confined beetle behavi...

  20. Establishment of a bacterial infection model using the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Ishii

    Full Text Available Injection of human pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes into the hemocoel of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. workers kills the infected bees. The bee-killing effects of the pathogens were affected by temperature, and the LD₅₀ values at 37°C were more than 100-fold lower than those at 15°C. Gene-disrupted S. aureus mutants of virulence genes such as agrA, saeS, arlR, srtA, hla, and hlb had attenuated bee-killing ability. Nurse bees were less susceptible than foragers and drones to S. aureus infection. Injection of antibiotics clinically used for humans had therapeutic effects against S. aureus infections of bees, and the ED₅₀ values of these antibiotics were comparable with those determined in mammalian models. Moreover, the effectiveness of orally administered antibiotics was consistent between honeybees and mammals. These findings suggest that the honeybee could be a useful model for assessing the pathogenesis of human-infecting bacteria and the effectiveness of antibiotics.

  1. Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) mob wasps away from the nest by directed visual patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Zierler, Martina; Hötzl, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The open nesting behaviour of giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) accounts for the evolution of a series of defence strategies to protect the colonies from predation. In particular, the concerted action of shimmering behaviour is known to effectively confuse and repel predators. In shimmering, bees on the nest surface flip their abdomens in a highly coordinated manner to generate Mexican wave-like patterns. The paper documents a further-going capacity of this kind of collective defence: the visual patterns of shimmering waves align regarding their directional characteristics with the projected flight manoeuvres of the wasps when preying in front of the bees' nest. The honeybees take here advantage of a threefold asymmetry intrinsic to the prey-predator interaction: (a) the visual patterns of shimmering turn faster than the wasps on their flight path, (b) they "follow" the wasps more persistently (up to 100 ms) than the wasps "follow" the shimmering patterns (up to 40 ms) and (c) the shimmering patterns align with the wasps' flight in all directions at the same strength, whereas the wasps have some preference for horizontal correspondence. The findings give evidence that shimmering honeybees utilize directional alignment to enforce their repelling power against preying wasps. This phenomenon can be identified as predator driving which is generally associated with mobbing behaviour (particularly known in selfish herds of vertebrate species), which is, until now, not reported in insects.

  2. Establishment of a bacterial infection model using the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kenichi; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Injection of human pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) into the hemocoel of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) workers kills the infected bees. The bee-killing effects of the pathogens were affected by temperature, and the LD₅₀ values at 37°C were more than 100-fold lower than those at 15°C. Gene-disrupted S. aureus mutants of virulence genes such as agrA, saeS, arlR, srtA, hla, and hlb had attenuated bee-killing ability. Nurse bees were less susceptible than foragers and drones to S. aureus infection. Injection of antibiotics clinically used for humans had therapeutic effects against S. aureus infections of bees, and the ED₅₀ values of these antibiotics were comparable with those determined in mammalian models. Moreover, the effectiveness of orally administered antibiotics was consistent between honeybees and mammals. These findings suggest that the honeybee could be a useful model for assessing the pathogenesis of human-infecting bacteria and the effectiveness of antibiotics. PMID:24587122

  3. Using Errors by Guard Honeybees (Apis mellifera) to Gain New Insights into Nestmate Recognition Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradella, Duccio; Martin, Stephen J; Dani, Francesca R

    2015-11-01

    Although the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is one of the world most studied insects, the chemical compounds used in nestmate recognition, remains an open question. By exploiting the error prone recognition system of the honeybee, coupled with genotyping, we studied the correlation between cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile of returning foragers and acceptance or rejection behavior by guards. We revealed an average recognition error rate of 14% across 3 study colonies, that is, allowing a non-nestmate colony entry, or preventing a nestmate from entry, which is lower than reported in previous studies. By analyzing CHCs, we found that CHC profile of returning foragers correlates with acceptance or rejection by guarding bees. Although several CHC were identified as potential recognition cues, only a subset of 4 differed consistently for their relative amount between accepted and rejected individuals in the 3 studied colonies. These include a unique group of 2 positional alkene isomers (Z-8 and Z-10), which are almost exclusively produced by the bees Bombus and Apis spp, and may be candidate compounds for further study. PMID:26385960

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals mite (Varroa destructor) resistance-related proteins in Eastern honeybees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, T; Shen, F; Liu, Z; Yin, L; Shen, J; Liang, Q; Luo, Y X

    2015-01-01

    The mite (Varroa destructor) has become the greatest threat to apiculture worldwide. As the original host of the mite, Apis cerana can effectively resist the mite. An increased understanding of the resistance mechanisms of Eastern honeybees against V. destructor may help researchers to protect other species against these parasites. In this study, the proteomes of 4 Apis cerana colonies were analyzed using an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation technology. We determined the differences in gene and protein expression between susceptible and resistant colonies that were either unchallenged or challenged by V. destructor. The results showed that a total of 1532 proteins were identified. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis suggested that the transcription factors and basic metabolic and respiratory processes were efficient and feasible factors controlling this resistance, and 12 differentially expressed proteins were identified in Venn analysis. The results were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This study may provide insight into the genetic mechanisms underlying the resistance of honeybee to mites. PMID:26345948

  5. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Formation of Long-Term Reward Memories and Extinction Memories in the Honeybee ("Apis Mellifera")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    The honeybee ("Apis mellifera") has long served as an invertebrate model organism for reward learning and memory research. Its capacity for learning and memory formation is rooted in the ecological need to efficiently collect nectar and pollen during summer to ensure survival of the hive during winter. Foraging bees learn to associate a…

  6. Aplicação de análises multivariadas para determinação da casta de abelhas Apis mellifera L. (Africanizadas, obtidas em laboratório Aplication of multivariate analysis for caste determination in Honeybees Apis mellifera L. (Africanized obtained in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Christina da Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de criação de larvas de abelhas Apis mellifera em laboratório tem sido utilizada freqüentemente em estudos de desenvolvimento larval, determinação de castas e, mais recentemente, em testes de patogênese. A quantidade e a qualidade do alimento fornecido às larvas em laboratório podem levar à formação de castas diferentes (rainha, operárias ou intercastas. Neste trabalho, crias de abelhas africanizadas foram desenvolvidas a partir de larvas de 18-24 horas de idade até atingir a fase adulta, utilizando-se durante a alimentação, 4, 15, 25, 50 e 70 µl de dieta por larva, respectivamente, do primeiro ao quinto dia de alimentação. Para determinar se as abelhas adultas obtidas em laboratório eram pertencentes à casta de operárias, de rainhas ou se eram intermediárias (intercastas, foram comparadas com um controle constituído por operárias e rainhas da mesma origem das operárias desenvolvidas no laboratório, utilizando-se o peso e as medidas dos seguintes caracteres: a comprimento da cabeça; b largura da cabeça; c comprimento do olho composto; d largura do olho composto; e comprimento do mesoscuto; f largura do mesoscuto; g comprimento da tíbia; h largura da tíbia. Foram utilizadas a Função Discriminante de Anderson e a técnica de Componentes Principais, de modo a efetuar a discriminação das castas das abelhas adultas obtidas em laboratório em relação àquelas desenvolvidas naturalmente. Entre os caracteres avaliados, os que menos contribuíram para a determinação das castas foram o comprimento do mesoscuto e a largura da cabeça, sendo, portanto, dispensáveis em estudos futuros.Apis mellifera honeybee brood rearing in laboratory conditions has been frequentely used to search for larval development, caste determination, and more recently for tests of pathogenesis. The amount and quality of food received by larvae during the feeding time can produce different castes (queen, worker or intercaste. In the

  7. Desenvolvimento de colônias de abelhas Apis mellifera africanizadasna região de Maringá, Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.265 Growing of Africanized honeybee colonies in Maringá region, State of Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.265

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainer César Chiari

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estimar o desenvolvimento das colônias de Apis mellifera africanizadas no período de julho de 1999 a junho de 2000, na Fazenda Experimental, quanto às porcentagens de ocupações por cria, alimento e total dos favos,correlacioná-las com variáveis ambientais e determinar o teor de proteína bruta no pólenestocado pelas abelhas. Foram utilizadas cinco colônias de abelhas A. mellifera africanizadas, realizando-se mapeamentos e coletas de pólen mensalmente. Foram obtidos dados climáticos de temperatura máxima e mínima, umidade relativa máxima e mínima do ar eprecipitação pluviométrica de cada mês, coletados na própria Fazenda Experimental. As porcentagens médias de ocupação com cria (ovo-larva + pupa de operárias e zangões, com alimento (mel e pólen e da área total não foram diferentes entre as colônias (p>0,05. As abelhas africanizadas diminuíram sua população com temperaturas externas baixas (invernoe também com excesso de umidade relativa do ar (verão. O teor médio de proteína brutapresente no pólen durante o ano foi de 24,51%, sendo este valor aceitável para um bomdesenvolvimento das colônias.This research was carried out to evaluate the growing of Africanized honeybee colonies from July 1999 to June 2000, as for the percentages of occupation area with brood,food, occupied total area, to correlate them with environmental variables and to determine the tenor of crude protein in the pollen stocked in the combs by workers. Five colonies were mapped monthly, which were made the counting of the occupied area with brood, food, occupied total area and also the pollen was collected and submitted to thebromatological analysis to determine the tenor of crude protein. The medium percentages of occupation with brood (egg-larvae plus workers pupa and drones, with food (honey and pollen and of the occupied total area they were not also different among the treatments (p>0.05. The Africanized

  8. Genetic characterization of slow bee paralysis virus of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Joachim R; Dainat, Benjamin; Locke, Barbara; Cordoni, Guido; Berthoud, Helène; Gauthier, Laurent; Neumann, Peter; Budge, Giles E; Ball, Brenda V; Stoltz, Don B

    2010-10-01

    Complete genome sequences were determined for two distinct strains of slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV) of honeybees (Apis mellifera). The SBPV genome is approximately 9.5 kb long and contains a single ORF flanked by 5'- and 3'-UTRs and a naturally polyadenylated 3' tail, with a genome organization typical of members of the family Iflaviridae. The two strains, labelled 'Rothamsted' and 'Harpenden', are 83% identical at the nucleotide level (94% identical at the amino acid level), although this variation is distributed unevenly over the genome. The two strains were found to co-exist at different proportions in two independently propagated SBPV preparations. The natural prevalence of SBPV for 847 colonies in 162 apiaries across five European countries was <2%, with positive samples found only in England and Switzerland, in colonies with variable degrees of Varroa infestation. PMID:20519455

  9. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoil, M.; Gillis, P.; Gossuin, Y.; Pankhurst, Q. A.; Hautot, D.

    2005-01-01

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe3O4) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin.

  10. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe3O4) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin

  11. Depression of brain dopamine and its metabolite after mating in European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harano, Ken-Ichi; Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2005-07-01

    To explore neuro-endocrinal changes in the brain of European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens before and after mating, we measured the amount of several biogenic amines, including dopamine and its metabolite in the brain of 6- and 12-day-old virgins and 12-day-old mated queens. Twelve-day-old mated queens showed significantly lower amounts of dopamine and its metabolite (N-acetyldopamine) than both 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens, whereas significant differences in the amounts of these amines were not detected between 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens. These results are explained by down-regulation of both synthesis and secretion of brain dopamine after mating. It is speculated that higher amounts of brain dopamine in virgin queens might be involved in activation of ovarian follicles arrested in previtellogenic stages, as well as regulation of their characteristic behaviors.

  12. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desoil, M [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Gillis, P [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Gossuin, Y [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Pankhurst, Q A [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1E 7HN (United Kingdom); Hautot, D [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1E 7HN (United Kingdom); Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Thornburrow Drive, Hartshill, Stoke-en-Trent, ST4 7QB (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin.

  13. A selective sweep in a Varroa destructor resistant honeybee (Apis mellifera) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattorff, H Michael G; Buchholz, Josephine; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2015-04-01

    The mite Varroa destructor is one of the most dangerous parasites of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) causing enormous colony losses worldwide. Various chemical treatments for the control of the Varroa mite are currently in use, which, however, lead to residues in bee products and often to resistance in mites. This facilitated the exploration of alternative treatment methods and breeding for mite resistant honeybees has been in focus for breeders in many parts of the world with variable results. Another approach has been applied to a honeybee population on Gotland (Sweden) that was exposed to natural selection and survived Varroa-infestation for more than 10years without treatment. Eventually this population became resistant to the parasite by suppressing the reproduction of the mite. A previous QTL mapping study had identified a region on chromosome 7 with major loci contributing to the mite resistance. Here, a microsatellite scan of the significant candidate QTL regions was used to investigate potential footprints of selection in the original population by comparing the study population on Gotland before (2000) and after selection (2007). Genetic drift had caused an extreme loss of genetic diversity in the 2007 population for all genetic markers tested. In addition to this overall reduction of heterozygosity, two loci on chromosome 7 showed an even stronger and significant reduction in diversity than expected from genetic drift alone. Within the selective sweep eleven genes are annotated, one of them being a putative candidate to interfere with reduced mite reproduction. A glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase (GMCOX18) might be involved in changing volatiles emitted by bee larvae that might be essential to trigger oogenesis in Varroa. PMID:25660040

  14. Homology differences between complete Sacbrood virus genomes from infected Apis mellifera and Apis cerana honeybees in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Yoo, Mi Sun; Kim, Young-Ha; Kim, Nam-Hee; Ramya, Mummadireddy; Jung, Ha-Na; Thao, Le Thi Bich; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kang, Seung-Won

    2016-04-01

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) represents a serious threat to the health of managed honeybees. We determined four complete SBV genomic sequences (AmSBV-Kor1, AmSBV-Kor2, AcSBV-Kor3, and AcSBV-Kor4) isolated from Apis mellifera and Apis cerana in various regions of South Korea. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from the complete genomic sequences of these Korean SBVs (KSBVs) and 21 previously reported SBV sequences from other countries. Three KSBVs (not AmSBV-Kor1) clustered with previously reported Korean genomes, but separately from SBV genomes from other countries. The KSBVs shared 90-98 % identity, and 89-97 % identity with the genomes from other countries. AmSBV-Kor1 was least similar (~90 % identity) to the other KSBVs, and was most similar to previously reported strains AmSBV-Kor21 (97 %) and AmSBV-UK (93 %). Phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP1 region sequences indicated that SBVs clustered by host species and country of origin. The KSBVs were aligned with nine previously reported complete SBV genomes and compared. The KSBVs were most different from the other genomes at the end of the 5' untranslated region and in the entire open reading frame. A SimPlot graph of the VP1 region confirmed its high variability, especially between the SBVs infecting A. mellifera and A. cerana. In this genomic region, SBVs from A. mellifera species contain an extra continuous 51-nucleotide sequence relative to the SBVs from A. cerana. This genomic diversity may reflect the adaptation of SBV to specific hosts, viral cross-infections, and the spatial distances separating the KSBVs from other SBVs. PMID:26810400

  15. Evaluation of Apis mellifera syriaca Levant region honeybee conservation using comparative genome hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Batainh, Ahmed; Saini, Deepti; Migdadi, Osama; Aiyaz, Mohamed; Manchiganti, Rushiraj; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Al-Shagour, Banan; Brake, Mohammad; Bourgeois, Lelania; De Guzman, Lilia; Rinderer, Thomas; Hamouri, Zayed Mahoud

    2016-06-01

    Apis mellifera syriaca is the native honeybee subspecies of Jordan and much of the Levant region. It expresses behavioral adaptations to a regional climate with very high temperatures, nectar dearth in summer, attacks of the Oriental wasp and is resistant to Varroa mites. The A. m. syriaca control reference sample (CRS) in this study was originally collected and stored since 2001 from "Wadi Ben Hammad", a remote valley in the southern region of Jordan. Morphometric and mitochondrial DNA markers of these honeybees had shown highest similarity to reference A. m. syriaca samples collected in 1952 by Brother Adam of samples collected from the Middle East. Samples 1-5 were collected from the National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension breeding apiary which was established for the conservation of A. m. syriaca. Our objective was to determine the success of an A. m. syriaca honey bee conservation program using genomic information from an array-based comparative genomic hybridization platform to evaluate genetic similarities to a historic reference collection (CRS). Our results had shown insignificant genomic differences between the current population in the conservation program and the CRS indicated that program is successfully conserving A. m. syriaca. Functional genomic variations were identified which are useful for conservation monitoring and may be useful for breeding programs designed to improve locally adapted strains of A. m. syriaca. PMID:27010806

  16. Bee-hawking by the wasp, Vespa velutina, on the honeybees Apis cerana and A. mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K.; Radloff, S. E.; Li, J. J.; Hepburn, H. R.; Yang, M. X.; Zhang, L. J.; Neumann, P.

    2007-06-01

    The vespine wasps, Vespa velutina, specialise in hawking honeybee foragers returning to their nests. We studied their behaviour in China using native Apis cerana and introduced A. mellifera colonies. When the wasps are hawking, A. cerana recruits threefold more guard bees to stave off predation than A. mellifera. The former also utilises wing shimmering as a visual pattern disruption mechanism, which is not shown by A. mellifera. A. cerana foragers halve the time of normal flight needed to dart into the nest entrance, while A. mellifera actually slows down in sashaying flight manoeuvres. V. velutina preferentially hawks A. mellifera foragers when both A. mellifera and A. cerana occur in the same apiary. The pace of wasp-hawking was highest in mid-summer but the frequency of hawking wasps was three times higher at A. mellifera colonies than at the A. cerana colonies. The wasps were taking A. mellifera foragers at a frequency eightfold greater than A. cerana foragers. The final hawking success rates of the wasps were about three times higher for A. mellifera foragers than for A. cerana. The relative success of native A. cerana over European A. mellifera in thwarting predation by the wasp V. velutina is interpreted as the result of co-evolution between the Asian wasp and honeybee, respectively.

  17. The proboscis extension reflex to evaluate learning and memory in honeybees ( Apis mellifera): some caveats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Elisabeth H.; Shutler, Dave; Hillier, Neil Kirk

    2012-09-01

    The proboscis extension reflex (PER) is widely used in a classical conditioning (Pavlovian) context to evaluate learning and memory of a variety of insect species. The literature is particularly prodigious for honeybees ( Apis mellifera) with more than a thousand publications. Imagination appears to be the only limit to the types of challenges to which researchers subject honeybees, including all the sensory modalities and a broad diversity of environmental treatments. Accordingly, some remarkable insights have been achieved using PER. However, there are several challenges to evaluating the PER literature that warrant a careful and thorough review. We assess here variation in methods that makes interpretation of studies, even those researching the same question, tenuous. We suggest that the numerous variables that might influence experimental outcomes from PER be thoroughly detailed by researchers. Moreover, the influence of individual variables on results needs to carefully evaluated, as well as among two or more variables. Our intent is to encourage investigation of the influence of numerous variables on PER results.

  18. Involvement of phosphorylated Apis mellifera CREB in gating a honeybee's behavioral response to an external stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin B; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-05-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees(Apis mellifera)we recently demonstrated a particular high abundance of the phosphorylated honeybee CREB homolog (pAmCREB) in the central brain and in a subpopulation of mushroom body neurons. We hypothesize that these high pAmCREB levels are related to learning and memory formation. Here, we tested this hypothesis by analyzing brain pAmCREB levels in classically conditioned bees and bees experiencing unpaired presentations of conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). We demonstrate that both behavioral protocols display differences in memory formation but do not alter the level of pAmCREB in bee brains directly after training. Nevertheless, we report that bees responding to the CS during unpaired stimulus presentations exhibit higher levels of pAmCREB than nonresponding bees. In addition, Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that is thought to enhance histone acetylation by CREB-binding protein, increases the bees' CS responsiveness. We conclude that pAmCREB is involved in gating a bee's behavioral response driven by an external stimulus. PMID:27084927

  19. Honeybees (Apis mellifera) learn to discriminate the smell of organic compounds from their respective deuterated isotopomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronenberg, Wulfila; Raikhelkar, Ajay; Abshire, Eric; Stevens, Jennifer; Epstein, Eric; Loyola, Karin; Rauscher, Michael; Buchmann, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    The understanding of physiological and molecular processes underlying the sense of smell has made considerable progress during the past three decades, revealing the cascade of molecular steps that lead to the activation of olfactory receptor (OR) neurons. However, the mode of primary interaction of odorant molecules with the OR proteins within the sensory cells is still enigmatic. Two different concepts try to explain these interactions: the 'odotope hypothesis' suggests that OR proteins recognize structural aspects of the odorant molecule, whereas the 'vibration hypothesis' proposes that intra-molecular vibrations are the basis for the recognition of the odorant by the receptor protein. The vibration hypothesis predicts that OR proteins should be able to discriminate compounds containing deuterium from their common counterparts which contain hydrogen instead of deuterium. This study tests this prediction in honeybees (Apis mellifera) using the proboscis extension reflex learning in a differential conditioning paradigm. Rewarding one odour (e.g. a deuterated compound) with sucrose and not rewarding the respective analogue (e.g. hydrogen-based odorant) shows that honeybees readily learn to discriminate hydrogen-based odorants from their deuterated counterparts and supports the idea that intra-molecular vibrations may contribute to odour discrimination. PMID:24452031

  20. Extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata (Fabricius, 1793).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Kraus, Bernard F; Koeniger, Gudrun; Koeniger, Nikolaus; Lim, Herbert; Moritz, Robin F A

    2014-12-01

    The giant honeybee Apis dorsata often forms dense colony aggregations which can include up to 200 often closely related nests in the same location, setting the stage for inbred matings. Yet, like in all other Apis species, A. dorsata queens mate in mid-air on lek like drone congregation areas (DCAs) where large numbers of males gather in flight. We here report how the drone composition of A. dorsata DCAs facilitates outbreeding, taking into the account both spatial (three DCAs) and temporal (subsequent sampling days) dynamics. We compared the drones' genotypes at ten microsatellite DNA markers with those of the queen genotypes of six drone-producing colonies located close to the DCAs (Tenom, Sabah, Malaysia). None of 430 sampled drones originated from any of these nearby colonies. Moreover, we estimated that 141 unidentified colonies were contributing to the three DCAs. Most of these colonies were participating multiple times in the different locations and/or during the consecutive days of sampling. The drones sampled in the DCAs could be attributed to six subpopulations. These were all admixed in all DCA samples, increasing the effective population size an order of magnitude and preventing matings between potentially related queens and drones. PMID:25558361

  1. In-Depth N-Glycosylation Reveals Species-Specific Modifications and Functions of the Royal Jelly Protein from Western (Apis mellifera) and Eastern Honeybees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Han, Bin; Xu, Xiang; Fan, Pei; Hao, Yue; Qi, Yuping; Hu, Han; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2015-12-01

    Royal jelly (RJ), secreted by honeybee workers, plays diverse roles as nutrients and defense agents for honeybee biology and human health. Despite being reported to be glycoproteins, the glycosylation characterization and functionality of RJ proteins in different honeybee species are largely unknown. An in-depth N-glycoproteome analysis and functional assay of RJ produced by Apis mellifera lingustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) were conducted. RJ produced by Aml yielded 80 nonredundant N-glycoproteins carrying 190 glycosites, of which 23 novel proteins harboring 35 glycosites were identified. For Acc, all 43 proteins glycosylated at 138 glycosites were reported for the first time. Proteins with distinct N-glycoproteomic characteristics in terms of glycoprotein species, number of N-glycosylated sites, glycosylation motif, abundance level of glycoproteins, and N-glycosites were observed in this two RJ samples. The fact that the low inhibitory efficiency of N-glycosylated major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJP2) against Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) and the absence of antibacterial related glycosylated apidaecin, hymenoptaecin, and peritrophic matrix in the Aml RJ compared to Acc reveal the mechanism for why the Aml larvae are susceptible to P. larvae, the causative agent of a fatal brood disease (American foulbrood, AFB). The observed antihypertension activity of N-glycosylated MRJP1 in two RJ samples and a stronger activity found in Acc than in Aml reveal that specific RJ protein and modification are potentially useful for the treatment of hypertensive disease for humans. Our data gain novel understanding that the western and eastern bees have evolved species-specific strategies of glycosylation to fine-tune protein activity for optimizing molecular function as nutrients and immune agents for the good of honeybee and influence on the health promoting activity for human as well. This serves as a valuable resource for the targeted probing of the biological

  2. Genetic characterization of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) population of Rodrigues Island, based on microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Techer, Maéva Angélique; Clémencet, Johanna; Turpin, Patrick; Volbert, Nicolas; Reynaud, Bernard; Delatte, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    International audience AbstractApis mellifera is present in Rodrigues, an island in the South-West Indian Ocean. The history of the established honeybee population is poorly known, and its biodiversity has never been studied. In this study, maternal origins of A. mellifera in Rodrigues have been assessed with the DraI test and sequencing of the mitochondrial COI-COII region. Nuclear genetic diversity was investigated with 18 microsatellite markers. A total of 524 colonies were sampled from...

  3. Aspects of neuronal plasticity in the mushroom body calyx during adult maturation in the honeybee Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Münz, Thomas Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Division of labor represents a major advantage of social insect communities that accounts for their enormous ecological success. In colonies of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, division of labor comprises different tasks of fertile queens and drones (males) and, in general, sterile female workers. Division of labor also occurs among workers in form of an age-related polyethism. This helps them to deal with the great variety of tasks within the colony. After adult eclosion, workers spend around t...

  4. Eph receptor and ephrin signaling in developing and adult brain of the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic, Maria; Nighorn, Alan; Koblar, Simon; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2007-02-01

    Roles for Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin signaling in vertebrate brain development are well established. Their involvement in the modulation of mammalian synaptic structure and physiology is also emerging. However, less is known of their effects on brain development and their function in adult invertebrate nervous systems. Here, we report on the characterization of Eph receptor and ephrin orthologs in the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Am), and their role in learning and memory. In situ hybridization for mRNA expression showed a uniform distribution of expression of both genes across the developing pupal and adult brain. However, in situ labeling with Fc fusion proteins indicated that the AmEphR and Amephrin proteins were differentially localized to cell body regions in the mushroom bodies and the developing neuropiles of the antennal and optic lobes. In adults, AmEphR protein was localized to regions of synaptic contacts in optic lobes, in the glomeruli of antennal lobes, and in the medial lobe of the mushroom body. The latter two regions are involved in olfactory learning and memory in the honeybee. Injections of EphR-Fc and ephrin-Fc proteins into the brains of adult bees, 1 h before olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, significantly reduced memory 24 h later. Experimental amnesia in the group injected with ephrin-Fc was apparent 1 h post-training. Experimental amnesia was also induced by post-training injections with ephrin-Fc suggesting a role in recall. This is the first demonstration that Eph molecules function to regulate the formation of memory in insects. PMID:17443785

  5. RNAi-mediated silencing of vitellogenin gene function turns honeybee ( Apis mellifera) workers into extremely precocious foragers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Antonio, David Santos; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Do Nascimento, Adriana Mendes; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2008-10-01

    The switch from within-hive activities to foraging behavior is a major transition in the life cycle of a honeybee ( Apis mellifera) worker. A prominent regulatory role in this switch has long been attributed to juvenile hormone (JH), but recent evidence also points to the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin as a major player in behavioral development. In the present study, we injected vitellogenin double-stranded RNA (dsVg) into newly emerged worker bees of Africanized genetic origin and introduced them together with controls into observation hives to record flight behavior. RNA interference-mediated silencing of vitellogenin gene function shifted the onset of long-duration flights (>10 min) to earlier in life (by 3 4 days) when compared with sham and untreated control bees. In fact, dsVg bees were observed conducting such flights extremely precociously, when only 3 days old. Short-duration flights (<10 min), which bees usually perform for orientation and cleaning, were not affected. Additionally, we found that the JH titer in dsVg bees collected after 7 days was not significantly different from the controls. The finding that depletion of the vitellogenin titer can drive young bees to become extremely precocious foragers could imply that vitellogenin is the primary switch signal. At this young age, downregulation of vitellogenin gene activity apparently had little effect on the JH titer. As this unexpected finding stands in contrast with previous results on the vitellogenin/JH interaction at a later age, when bees normally become foragers, we propose a three-step sequence in the constellation of physiological parameters underlying behavioral development.

  6. Energetic feedings influence beeswax production by Apis mellifera L. honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Pedraza Carrillo; Samir Moura Kadri; Nabor Veiga; Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different types of energy feeding (sugar syrup, inverted sugar and juice of sugar-cane) on beeswax production and its economic feasibility are evaluated. Twenty beehives of Africanized Apis mellifera were selected, and five were used for each type of feeding. The treatments were T1 (sugar-cane juice), T2 (sugar syrup) and T3 (inverted sugar). Feedings was provided by Boardman feeders and the amount was adjusted according to consumption. A layer of beeswax was manually set up int...

  7. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cassava flower honey samples produced by africanized honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Peres de Moura Pontara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cassava producers in the region of Marília-São Paulo are integrating their farming activity with beekeeping to diversify their income. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera from cassava flower in 2008. Analysis were carried out for pH, total soluble solids (TSS, acidity, moisture, reducing and total sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, color, ash, proteins, water insoluble solids, diastasic activity, mineral content, microbiological evaluations, and mineral and hydrocyanic acid (HCN content. The honey samples showed physicochemical and microbiological characteristics favorable to commercialization, with the exception of apparent sucrose and acidity, which show the need for a narrow focus of attention to the honey maturation degree at the harvest time and more careful monitoring during production and processing. The commercialization of Brazilian cassava honey, still little explored, can be widely spread in the market since the levels of hydrocyanic acid (HCN showed no consumption risk; in addition the simultaneous production of honey and cassava provides an alternative to family income increase.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study of a Varroa-Specific Defense Behavior in Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spötter, Andreas; Gupta, Pooja; Mayer, Manfred; Reinsch, Norbert; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2016-05-01

    Honey bees are exposed to many damaging pathogens and parasites. The most devastating is Varroa destructor, which mainly affects the brood. A promising approach for preventing its spread is to breed Varroa-resistant honey bees. One trait that has been shown to provide significant resistance against the Varroa mite is hygienic behavior, which is a behavioral response of honeybee workers to brood diseases in general. Here, we report the use of an Affymetrix 44K SNP array to analyze SNPs associated with detection and uncapping of Varroa-parasitized brood by individual worker bees (Apis mellifera). For this study, 22 000 individually labeled bees were video-monitored and a sample of 122 cases and 122 controls was collected and analyzed to determine the dependence/independence of SNP genotypes from hygienic and nonhygienic behavior on a genome-wide scale. After false-discovery rate correction of the P values, 6 SNP markers had highly significant associations with the trait investigated (α < 0.01). Inspection of the genomic regions around these SNPs led to the discovery of putative candidate genes. PMID:26774061

  9. Selection on worker honeybee responses to queen pheromone (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiw, T.; Winston, Mark L.; Fondrk, M. Kim; Slessor, Keith N.

    Disruptive selection for responsiveness to queen mandibular gland pheromone (QMP) in the retinue bioassay resulted in the production of high and low QMP responding strains of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Strains differed significantly in their retinue response to QMP after one generation of selection. By the third generation the high strain was on average at least nine times more responsive than the low strain. The strains showed seasonal phenotypic plasticity such that both strains were more responsive to the pheromone in the spring than in the fall. Directional selection for low seasonal variation indicated that phenotypic plasticity was an additional genetic component to retinue response to QMP. Selection for high and low retinue responsiveness to QMP was not an artifact of the synthetic blend because both strains were equally responsive or non-responsive to whole mandibular gland extracts compared with QMP. The use of these strains clearly pointed to an extra-mandibular source of retinue pheromones (Pankiw et al. 1995; Slessor et al. 1998; Keeling et al. 1999).

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Algerian honeybee, Apis mellifera intermissa (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Lu, Zhi-Xiang; Haddad, Nizar; Noureddine, Adjlane; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Zhao, Ren-Bin; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Guan, Xin; Zhang, Hai-Xi; Niu, Hua

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Algerian honeybee, Apis mellifera intermissa, is analyzed for the first time. The results show that this genome is 16,336 bp in length, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). The overall base composition is A (43.2%), C (9.8%), G (5.6%), and T (41.4%), so the percentage of A and T (84.6%) is considerably higher than that of G and C. All the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for four subunit genes (ND1, ND4, ND4L, and ND5), two rRNA genes (12S and 16S rRNA), and eight tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here would be useful for further phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetic studies in A. m. intermissa. PMID:25259457

  11. The research progress of ovary activation in honeybee (Apis)%蜜蜂卵巢激活研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛德芳; 陈璇; 胡福良

    2012-01-01

    As an eusocial insects, the honeybee Apis, is characterized by the extreme reproductive division of labor. Ovary activation is an important factor for the honeybee reproductive capacity. Factors affecting ovary activation, gene expression involved in ovary activation and the possible role of microRNA in ovary activation of the honeybee were introduced in this paper. It will provide a basis for the study on the molecular mechanism of the honeybee caste differentiation and reproductive division of labor.%蜜蜂Apis作为典型的社会性昆虫,最重要的特征就是生殖劳动分工.卵巢激活是蜜蜂发挥生殖能力的重要影响因素.本文对蜜蜂卵巢激活的影响因素、蜜蜂卵巢激活相关的基因表达及microRNA在蜜蜂卵巢激活过程中的可能作用进行了介绍,为研究蜜蜂级型分化和生殖劳动分工的分子机制提供依据.

  12. MtDNA COI-COII marker and drone congregation area: an efficient method to establish and monitor honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) conservation centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Bénédicte; Alburaki, Mohamed; Legout, Hélène; Moulin, Sibyle; Mougel, Florence; Garnery, Lionel

    2015-05-01

    Honeybee subspecies have been affected by human activities in Europe over the past few decades. One such example is the importation of nonlocal subspecies of bees which has had an adverse impact on the geographical repartition and subsequently on the genetic diversity of the black honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera. To restore the original diversity of this local honeybee subspecies, different conservation centres were set up in Europe. In this study, we established a black honeybee conservation centre Conservatoire de l'Abeille Noire d'Ile de France (CANIF) in the region of Ile-de-France, France. CANIF's honeybee colonies were intensively studied over a 3-year period. This study included a drone congregation area (DCA) located in the conservation centre. MtDNA COI-COII marker was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of CANIF's honeybee populations and the drones found and collected from the DCA. The same marker (mtDNA) was used to estimate the interactions and the haplotype frequency between CANIF's honeybee populations and 10 surrounding honeybee apiaries located outside of the CANIF. Our results indicate that the colonies of the conservation centre and the drones of the DCA show similar stable profiles compared to the surrounding populations with lower level of introgression. The mtDNA marker used on both DCA and colonies of the conservation centre seems to be an efficient approach to monitor and maintain the genetic diversity of the protected honeybee populations. PMID:25335970

  13. Abundance of phosphorylated Apis mellifera CREB in the honeybee's mushroom body inner compact cells varies with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin B; Heufelder, Karin; Kersting, Isabella; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-04-15

    Hymenopteran eusociality has been proposed to be associated with the activity of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein). The honeybee (Apis mellifera) is a eusocial insect displaying a pronounced age-dependent division of labor. In honeybee brains, CREB-dependent genes are regulated in an age-dependent manner, indicating that there might be a role for neuronal honeybee CREB (Apis mellifera CREB, or AmCREB) in the bee's division of labor. In this study, we further explore this hypothesis by asking where in the honeybee brain AmCREB-dependent processes might take place and whether they vary with age in these brain regions. CREB is activated following phosphorylation at a conserved serine residue. An increase of phosphorylated CREB is therefore regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. Thus, we here examine the localization of phosphorylated AmCREB (pAmCREB) in the brain and its age-dependent variability. We report prominent pAmCREB staining in a subpopulation of intrinsic neurons of the mushroom bodies. In these neurons, the inner compact cells (IC), pAmCREB is located in the nuclei, axons, and dendrites. In the central bee brain, the IC somata and their dendritic region, we observed an age-dependent increase of pAmCREB. Our results demonstrate the IC to be candidate neurons involved in age-dependent division of labor. We hypothesize that the IC display a high level of CREB-dependent transcription that might be related to neuronal and behavioral plasticity underlying a bee's foraging behavior. PMID:26355639

  14. Survival rate of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid

    OpenAIRE

    Blacquiere, T.

    2010-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a commonly used systemic insecticide which can induce several sublethal effects. Previous research has not shown any increased mortality in bees that were fed with sublethal doses. However, there is very little research conducted with the focus on survival rate of honeybees in the field. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of imidacloprid on the survival rate of honeybees under field conditions. Honeybees from different colonies were administered a single dose of ...

  15. Molecular Identification and Expressive Characterization of an Olfactory Co-Receptor Gene in the Asian Honeybee, Apis cerana cerana

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Huiting; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Chunxiang; Ma, Weihua; Jiang, Yusuo

    2013-01-01

    Olfaction recognition process is extraordinarily complex in insects, and the olfactory receptors play an important function in the process. In this paper, a highly conserved olfactory co-receptor gene, AcerOr2 (ortholog to the Drosophila melanogaster Or83b), cloned from the antennae of the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae), using reverse transcriptase PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length sequence of the gene was 1763 bp long, and the cDNA ...

  16. Identification and characterization of an Egr ortholog as a neural immediate early gene in the European honeybee (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugajin, Atsushi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Kubo, Takeo

    2013-10-01

    To date, there are only few reports of immediate early genes (IEGs) available in insects. Aiming at identifying a conserved IEG in insects, we characterized an Egr homolog of the honeybee (AmEgr: Apis mellifera Egr). AmEgr was transiently induced in whole worker brains after seizure induction. In situ hybridization for AmEgr indicated that neural activity of a certain mushroom body (a higher brain center) neuron subtype, which is the same as that we previously identified using another non-coding IEG, termed kakusei, is more enhanced in forager brains. These findings suggest that Egr can be utilized as an IEG in insects. PMID:23994532

  17. A Mathematical Model of Intra-Colony Spread of American Foulbrood in European Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatulan, Eduardo O; Rabajante, Jomar F; Banaay, Charina Gracia B; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Jose, Editha C

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood (AFB) is one of the severe infectious diseases of European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and other Apis species. This disease is caused by a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. In this paper, a compartmental (SI framework) model is constructed to represent the spread of AFB within a colony. The model is analyzed to determine the long-term fate of the colony once exposed to AFB spores. It was found out that without effective and efficient treatment, AFB infection eventually leads to colony collapse. Furthermore, infection thresholds were predicted based on the stability of the equilibrium states. The number of infected cell combs is one of the factors that drive disease spread. Our results can be used to forecast the transmission timeline of AFB infection and to evaluate the control strategies for minimizing a possible epidemic. PMID:26674357

  18. A selective sweep in a microsporidian parasite Nosema-tolerant honeybee population, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Q.; Lattorff, H. M. G.; Kryger, P.;

    2014-01-01

    Nosema is a microsporidian parasite of the honeybee, which infects the epithelial cells of the gut. In Denmark, honeybee colonies have been selectively bred for the absence of Nosema over decades, resulting in a breeding line that is tolerant toward Nosema infections. As the tolerance toward the ...

  19. Quality of royal jelly produced by Africanized honeybees fed a supplemented diet

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Josiane Sereia; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of artificial supplements prepared with soybean protein isolate, brewer's yeast, mixture of soybean protein isolate with brewer's yeast, linseed oil, palm oil, and a mixture of linseed oil with palm oil on the physicochemical and microbiological composition of royal jelly produced by Africanized honey bee colonies. Considering these results, providing supplements for Africanized honeybee colonies subjected to royal jelly production can help an...

  20. Parental Analysis of Introgressive Hybridization between African and European Honeybees Using Nuclear DNA Rflps

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, H G

    1990-01-01

    African honeybees, introduced into Brazil 33 years ago, have spread through most of South and Central America and have largely replaced the extant European bees. Due to a paucity of genetic markers, genetic interactions between European and African bees are not well understood. Three restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), detected with random, nuclear DNA probes, are described. The polymorphisms are specific to bees of European descent, possibly specific to certain European races....

  1. Honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), leaf damage on Alnus species in Uganda: a blessing or curse in agroforestry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeko, P; Edwards-Jones, G; Day, R K

    2002-10-01

    It is a dictum that Apis mellifera Linnaeus is innocuous in agricultural ecosystems. This study provides the first record of A. mellifera as a significant defoliator of Alnus species. Careful field observations coupled with microscopic examination provided convincing evidence implicating A. mellifera as the cause of leaf perforation on Alnus species in Uganda. Apis mellifera was observed foraging selectively on young Alnus leaves and buds in search of a sticky substance, apparently propolis. In so doing, the bee created wounds that enlarged and caused tattering of Alnus leaves as they matured. Biological surveys indicated that the damage was prevalent and occurred widely, particularly on Alnus acuminata Kunth in Uganda. Incidence of the Apis mellifera damage on Alnus acuminata peaked in the dry season, with up to 90% of leaves emerging per shoot per month damaged, and was lowest in the wet months during peak leaf emergence. Apis mellifera leaf damage was consistently higher on Alnus acuminata than A. nepalensis D. Don., on saplings than mature trees, and on sun exposed than shaded leaves. The activity of honeybees may be detrimental to the productivity of Alnus, yet the substance for which the insect forages on Alnus is a resource with potential economic importance. PMID:12241565

  2. Efeito tóxico de alimentos alternativos para abelhas Apis mellifera Toxic effect of alternative feeds for honeybees Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia de Mello Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar a existência de efeito tóxico em alimentos protéicos alternativos fornecidos para abelhas Apis mellifera. Medindo-se o tempo médio de mortalidade e o índice de mortalidade de abelhas confinadas, avaliou-se a existência de efeito tóxico do: (a feno das folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta; (b feno das folhas de leucena (Leucaena leococephala; (c farinha de vagem de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora; (d farinha de vagem de bordão-de-velho (Pithecellobium cf. saman; (e farelo de babaçu (Orbygnia martiana e (f sucedâneo do leite para bezerros da marca Purina®. O tempo médio de mortalidade variou de 4,46 a 11,74 e o índice de mortalidade variou de 4,58 a 12,80. Durante o experimento, obsevou-se que as abelhas alimentadas com farinha de bordão-de-velho ficavam envoltas em uma crosta de alimento, morrendo asfixiadas posteriormente. Os resultados demonstraram que a farinha de bordão-de-velho não deve ser fornecida às abelhas. Não foi observado efeito tóxico nos demais alimentos estudados.The objective of this research was to study toxic effects of alternative feeds for honeybees Apis mellifera. The average mortality time and the mortality index of cagged honeybees were assessed to evaluate any possible toxic effect of: (a cassava hay (Manihot esculenta; (b leucaena hay (Leucaena leococephala; (c mesquite pod meal (Prosopis juliflora; (d "bordão-de-velho" pod meal (Pithecellobium cf. saman; (e babassu bran (Orbygnia martiana and (f succedaneous for calfskin from Purina®. The mortality time average varied from 4.46 to 11.74 and the mortality index varied between 4.58 and 12.80. It was obseved that honeybees fed with "bordão-de-velho" pod meal got involved by stichy layer of food and died asphyxiated. Results showed that the flour of Pithecellobium cf. saman should not be used for feeding honeybees, considering the early mortality of workers fed with this meal. The other food studied

  3. Produção de geléia real por abelhas Apis mellifera italianas, africanizadas e descendentes de seus cruzamentos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1254 Royal jelly production by Italian and Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera, descendants of their crossing - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1254

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Nogueira Couto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento objetivou comparar a produção de geléia real de abelhas descendentes de rainhas italianas irmãs, inseminadas com zangões africanizados (T1, ou com zangões italianos (T2, e de rainhas africanizadas irmãs, fecundadas no vôo (T3, comparando-a com fatores ambientais. As operárias híbridas (T1 aceitaram mais larvas transferidas (45,41 %, embora a diferença não tenha sido significativa, e depositaram maior (P This work aimed at comparing royal jelly production among descendants of Italian queen sisters inseminated by Africanized drones (T1, Italian drones (T2 and Africanized queen sisters in natural mating (T3. The workers cross-bred (T1 accepted more transferred larvae (45.41% but there was no significant difference. They deposited more (P < 0.05 royal jelly in each cup (243.5 mg than Italians (T2 – 31.36% and 214.7 mg and Africanized workers (T3 – 33.63% and 209.3 mg, respectively. The result showed a best production in each colony which suggests heterosis. These parameters showed positive relation with pollen and workers quantities and with environmental temperature. The best production occurred in February and March, period of absence of flower in orange and eucalyptus culture in this region

  4. The prevalence of the honeybee brood pathogens Ascosphaera apis, Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius in Spanish apiaries determined with a new multiplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Bailón, Encarna; Higes, Mariano; Martínez-Salvador, Amparo; Antúnez, Karina; Botías, Cristina; Meana, Aránzazu; Prieto, Lourdes; Martín-Hernández, Raquel

    2013-11-01

    The microorganisms Ascosphaera apis, Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius are the three most important pathogens that affect honeybee brood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of these pathogens in honeybee colonies and to elucidate their role in the honeybee colony losses in Spain. In order to get it, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to simultaneously amplify the16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene of P. larvae and M. plutonius, and the 5.8S rRNA gene of A. apis. The multiplex PCR assay provides a quick and specific tool that successfully detected the three infectious pathogens (P. larvae, M. plutonius and A. apis) in brood and adult honeybee samples without the need for microbiological culture. This technique was then used to evaluate the prevalence of these pathogens in Spanish honeybee colonies in 2006 and 2007, revealing our results a low prevalence of these pathogens in most of the geographic areas studied. PMID:23919248

  5. High-performance liquid chromatography combined with intrinsic fluorescence detection to analyse melittin in individual honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiangtao; Ying, Bihua; Huang, Shaokang; Ma, Shuangqin; Long, Peng; Tu, Xijuan; Yang, Wenchao; Wu, Zhenhong; Chen, Wenbin; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2015-10-01

    Melittin is the major toxin peptide in bee venom, which has diverse biological effects. In the present study, melittin was separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and was then detected using intrinsic fluorescence signal of tryptophan residue. The accuracy, linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ), intra-day and inter-day precision of the method were carefully validated in this study. Results indicate that the intrinsic fluorescence signal of melittin has linear range from 0.04μg/mL to 20μg/mL with LOQ of 0.04μg/mL. The recovery range of spiked samples is between 81.93% and 105.25%. The precision results are expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), which is in the range of 2.1-7.4% for intra-day precision and 6.2-10.8% for inter-day precision. Because of the large linear dynamic range and the high sensitivity, intrinsic fluorescence detection (IFD) can be used for analyzing melittin contents in individual venom sac of honeybee (Apis mellifera). The detected contents of melittin in individual bee venom sac are 0.18±0.25μg for one-day old honeybees (n=30), and 114.98±43.51μg for 25-day old (n=30) honeybees, respectively. Results indicate that there is large bee-to-bee difference in melittin contents. The developed method can be useful for discovering the melittin related honeybee biology information, which might be covered in the complex samples. PMID:26319802

  6. Phantom alternatives influence food preferences in the eastern honeybee Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ken; Dong, Shihao; Liu, Xiwen; Chen, Weiweng; Wang, Yuchong; Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Latty, Tanya

    2015-03-01

    Most models of animal choice behaviour assume that desirable but unavailable options, such as a high quality, but inhabited nest sites, do not influence an individual's preferences for the remaining options. However, experiments suggest that in mammals, the mere presence of such 'phantom' alternatives can alter, and even reverse, an individual's preferences for other items in a choice set. Phantom alternatives may be widespread in nature, as they occur whenever a resource is visible, but unavailable at the time of choice. They are particularly relevant for nectar-foraging animals, where previously rewarding flowers may sometimes be empty. Here, we investigate the effect of phantom alternatives on feeder preferences in the eastern honeybee, Apis cerana. First, we tested the effects of unattractive and attractive phantom alternatives by presenting individual bees with either a binary choice set containing two feeders that differed strongly in two qualities, but were equally preferred overall ('option 1' and 'option 2'), or a ternary choice set containing option 1, option 2 and one of two phantom types (unattractive and attractive). Secondly, we determined whether phantoms increase (similarity effect) or decrease (dissimilarity effect) preference for phantom-similar choices. In binary trials, bees had no significant preference for option 1 or option 2. However, after encountering an attractive phantom alternative, individual bees preferred option 2. The unattractive phantom did not influence bee preferences. Phantoms consistently changed individual bee preferences in favour of the phantom-similar choice. This means that the presence of an attractive food source, even if it is unavailable, can influence preference relationships between remaining items in the choice set. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the potential for phantom effects when studying the foraging behaviour of animals. Our results are particularly relevant for nectarivores, where

  7. Quality of royal jelly produced by Africanized honeybees fed a supplemented diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josiane Sereia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of artificial supplements prepared with soybean protein isolate, brewer's yeast, mixture of soybean protein isolate with brewer's yeast, linseed oil, palm oil, and a mixture of linseed oil with palm oil on the physicochemical and microbiological composition of royal jelly produced by Africanized honey bee colonies. Considering these results, providing supplements for Africanized honeybee colonies subjected to royal jelly production can help and strengthen the technological development of the Brazilian beekeeping industry increasing its consumption in the national market. This research presents values of royal jelly a little different from those established by the Brazilian legislation. This fact shows that is important to discuss or change the official method for royal jelly analysis. The characterization of physicochemical and microbiological parameters is important in order to standardize fresh, frozen, and lyophilized royal jelly produced by Africanized honeybees.

  8. Expression and characterization of honeybee, Apis mellifera, larva chymotrypsin-like protease

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Takuma; Takasaki, Akihiko; Mishima, Tomoyuki; Kawashima, Takuji; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Tadasi; Yabe, Tomio

    2015-01-01

    International audience Previously, we found three enzyme fractions containing activities for the hydrolysis of royal jelly proteins from honeybee queen larvae. In this study, we identified a honeybee chymotrypsin-like protease (HCLPase) by LC-MS/MS and expressed it as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. The protease had an estimated molecular weight of around 26 kDa and showed high specificity for succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide as a proteolytic substrate. Furthermore, the p...

  9. The Genetic Architecture of Sucrose Responsiveness in the Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rueppell, Olav; Chandra, Sathees B.C.; Pankiw, Tanya; Fondrk, M. Kim; Beye, Martin; Hunt, Greg; Page, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    One of the best examples of a natural behavioral syndrome is the pollen-hoarding syndrome in honeybees that ties together multiple behavioral phenotypes, ranging from foraging behavior to behavioral ontogeny and learning performance. A central behavioral factor is the bees' responsiveness to sucrose, measured as their proboscis extension reflex. This study examines the genetics of this trait in diploid worker and haploid male honeybees (drones) to learn more about the genetic architecture of ...

  10. Variation morphogeometrics of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. Nunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphometrics of the honey bee Apis mellifera L., 1758 has been widely studied mainly because this species has great ecological importance, high adaptation capacity, wide distribution and capacity to effectively adapt to different regions. The current study aimed to investigate the morphometric variations of wings and pollen baskets of honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 from the five regions in Brazil. We used geometric morphometrics to identify the existence of patterns of variations of shape and size in Africanized honey bees in Brazil 16 years after the classic study with this species, allowing a temporal and spatial comparative analysis using new technological resources to assess morphometrical data. Samples were collected in 14 locations in Brazil, covering the five geographical regions of the country. The shape analysis and multivariate analyses of the wing allowed to observe that there is a geographical pattern among the population of Apis mellifera in Brazil. The geographical variations may be attributed to the large territorial extension of the country in addition to the differences between the bioregions.

  11. MRJP microsatellite markers in Africanized Apis mellifera colonies selected on the basis of royal jelly production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpinelli, R S; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, M C C; Toledo, V A A

    2014-01-01

    It is important to select the best honeybees that produce royal jelly to identify important molecular markers, such as major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), and hence contribute to the development of new breeding strategies to improve the production of this substance. Therefore, this study focused on evaluating the genetic variability of mrjp3, mrjp5, and mrjp8 and associated allele maintenance during the process of selective reproduction in Africanized Apis mellifera individuals, which were chosen based on royal jelly production. The three loci analyzed were polymorphic, and produced a total of 16 alleles, with 4 new alleles, which were identified at mrjp5. The effective number of alleles at mrjp3 was 3.81. The observed average heterozygosity was 0.4905, indicating a high degree of genetic variability at these loci. The elevated FIS values for mrjp3, mrjp5, and mrjp8 (0.4188, 0.1077, and 0.2847, respectively) indicate an excess of homozygotes. The selection of Africanized A. mellifera queens for royal jelly production has maintained the mrjp3 C, D, and E alleles; although, the C allele occurred at a low frequency. The heterozygosity and FIS values show that the genetic variability of the queens is decreasing at the analyzed loci, generating an excess of homozygotes. However, the large numbers of drones that fertilize the queens make it difficult to develop homozygotes at mrjp3. Mating through instrumental insemination using the drones of known genotypes is required to increase the efficiency of Africanized A. mellifera-breeding programs, and to improve the quality and efficiency of commercial royal jelly apiaries. PMID:25177952

  12. Characterization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor in the honeybee (Apis mellifera): implications for memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, R; Mitri, C; Grau, Y; Maleszka, R

    2007-06-01

    G-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptors (GPC mGluRs) are important constituents of glutamatergic synapses where they contribute to synaptic plasticity and development. Here we characterised a member of this family in the honeybee. We show that the honeybee genome encodes a genuine mGluR (AmGluRA) that is expressed at low to medium levels in both pupal and adult brains. Analysis of honeybee protein sequence places it within the type 3 GPCR family, which includes mGlu receptors, GABA-B receptors, calcium-sensing receptors, and pheromone receptors. Phylogenetic comparisons combined with pharmacological evaluation in HEK 293 cells transiently expressing AmGluRA show that the honeybee protein belongs to the group II mGluRs. With respect to learning and memory AmGluRA appears to be required for memory formation. Both agonists and antagonists selective against the group II mGluRs impair long-term (24 h) associative olfactory memory formation when applied 1 h before training, but have no effect when injected post-training or pre-testing. Our results strengthen the notion that glutamate is a key neurotransmitter in memory processes in the honeybee. PMID:17372777

  13. Long-term maintenance of in vitro cultured honeybee (Apis mellifera embryonic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamodt Randi M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro cultivation of cells allows novel investigation of in vivo- mechanisms and is a helpful tool in developmental biology, biochemistry and functional genomics. Numerous cell lines of insect species, e.g., silkworm and mosquito, have been reported. However, this is not the case for successful long-term cultivation of cells in honeybees. Results Methods for cultivation of honeybee embryonic cells are discussed here. Pre-gastrula stage embryos were used to initiate cultures, and cells were reared on 96-wells microplates with Grace insect medium, supplemented with Fetal Bovine Serum. Cells proliferated in clusters, and maintained viable and mitotic for more than three months. Conclusion We report here, for the first time, long-term cultivation of honeybee cells. Results represent a highly useful in vitro-system for studying a model organism of increasing importance in areas such as aging, sociality and neurobiology.

  14. Four quantitative trait loci associated with low Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia) spore load in the honeybee Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qiang; Kryger, Per; Le Conte, Yves;

    2014-01-01

    Nosema ceranae has been recently introduced into the honeybee Apis mellifera as a novel microsporidian gut parasite. To locate the genetic region involved in N. ceranae infection tolerance, we fed N. ceranae spores to haploid drones of a F1 hybrid queen produced from a cross between a queen...... of a Nosema-resistant bred strain and drones of susceptible colonies. The spore loads of the infected F1 drones were used as the phenotype to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with N. ceranae spore load. One hundred forty-eight infected drones were individually genotyped with microsatellite...... markers at an average marker distance of 20 cM along the genome. Four QTLs were significantly associated with low spore load, explaining 20.4 % of total spore load variance. Moreover, a candidate gene Aubergine (Aub) within the major QTL region was significantly overexpressed in drones with low spore...

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Honeybee (Apis Mellifera) Haploid and Diploid Embryos Reveals Early Zygotic Transcription during Cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Camilla Valente; Freitas, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Cristino, Alexandre S.; Dearden, Peter K.; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2016-01-01

    In honeybees, the haplodiploid sex determination system promotes a unique embryogenesis process wherein females develop from fertilized eggs and males develop from unfertilized eggs. However, the developmental strategies of honeybees during early embryogenesis are virtually unknown. Similar to most animals, the honeybee oocytes are supplied with proteins and regulatory elements that support early embryogenesis. As the embryo develops, the zygotic genome is activated and zygotic products gradually replace the preloaded maternal material. The analysis of small RNA and mRNA libraries of mature oocytes and embryos originated from fertilized and unfertilized eggs has allowed us to explore the gene expression dynamics in the first steps of development and during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). We localized a short sequence motif identified as TAGteam motif and hypothesized to play a similar role in honeybees as in fruit flies, which includes the timing of early zygotic expression (MZT), a function sustained by the presence of the zelda ortholog, which is the main regulator of genome activation. Predicted microRNA (miRNA)-target interactions indicated that there were specific regulators of haploid and diploid embryonic development and an overlap of maternal and zygotic gene expression during the early steps of embryogenesis. Although a number of functions are highly conserved during the early steps of honeybee embryogenesis, the results showed that zygotic genome activation occurs earlier in honeybees than in Drosophila based on the presence of three primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) (ame-mir-375, ame-mir-34 and ame-mir-263b) during the cleavage stage in haploid and diploid embryonic development. PMID:26751956

  16. Effect of Olfactory Stimulus on the Flight Course of a Honeybee, Apis mellifera, in a Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Ikeno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the honeybee, Apis mellifera, uses olfactory stimulus as important information for orienting to food sources. Several studies on olfactory-induced orientation flight have been conducted in wind tunnels and in the field. From these studies, optical sensing is used as the main information with the addition of olfactory signals and the navigational course followed by these sensory information. However, it is not clear how olfactory information is reflected in the navigation of flight. In this study, we analyzed the detailed properties of flight when oriented to an odor source in a wind tunnel. We recorded flying bees with a video camera to analyze the flight area, speed, angular velocity and trajectory. After bees were trained to be attracted to a feeder, the flight trajectories with or without the olfactory stimulus located upwind of the feeder were compared. The results showed that honeybees flew back and forth in the proximity of the odor source, and the search range corresponded approximately to the odor spread area. It was also shown that the angular velocity was different inside and outside the odor spread area, and trajectories tended to be bent or curved just outside the area.

  17. Am5-HT7: molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first serotonin receptor of the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Jana; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2006-09-01

    The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) plays a key role in the regulation and modulation of many physiological and behavioural processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. These functions are mediated through the binding of serotonin to its receptors, of which 13 subtypes have been characterized in vertebrates. We have isolated a cDNA from the honeybee Apis mellifera (Am5-ht7) sharing high similarity to members of the 5-HT(7) receptor family. Expression of the Am5-HT(7) receptor in HEK293 cells results in an increase in basal cAMP levels, suggesting that Am5-HT(7) is expressed as a constitutively active receptor. Serotonin application to Am5-ht7-transfected cells elevates cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) levels in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50) = 1.1-1.8 nm). The Am5-HT(7) receptor is also activated by 5-carboxamidotryptamine, whereas methiothepin acts as an inverse agonist. Receptor expression has been investigated by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and western blotting experiments. Receptor mRNA is expressed in the perikarya of various brain neuropils, including intrinsic mushroom body neurons, and in peripheral organs. This study marks the first comprehensive characterization of a serotonin receptor in the honeybee and should facilitate further analysis of the role(s) of the receptor in mediating the various central and peripheral effects of 5-HT. PMID:16945110

  18. Nectar and Pollen Sources for Honeybee (Apis cerana cerana Fabr.) in Qinglan Mangrove Area, Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Feng Yao; Subir Bera; Yu-Fei Wang; Cheng-Sen Li

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, nectar and pollen sources for honeybee (Apis cerana cerana Fabr.) were studied in Qinglan mangrove area, Hainan Island, China, based on microscopic analysis of honey and pollen load (corbicular and gut contents) from honeybees collected in October and November 2004. Qualitative and quantitative melittopalynological analysis of the natural honey sample showed that the honey is of unifloral type with Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae) as the predominant (89.14%) source of nectar and pollen for A.cerana cerana in October. Members of Araceae are an important minor (3%-15%) pollen type, whereas those of Arecaceae are a minor (<3%) pollen type. Pollen grains of Nypa fruticans Wurmb., Rhizophora spp.,Excoecaria agallocha L., Lumnitzera spp., Bruguiera spp., Kandelia candel Druce, and Ceriops tagal (Perr.)C. B. Rob. are among the notable mangrove taxa growing in Qinglan mangrove area recorded as minor taxa in the honey, The absolute pollen count (i.e. the number of pollen grains/10 g honey sample) suggests that the honey belongs to Group Ⅴ (>1 000 000). Pollen analysis from the corbicular and gut contents of A. cerana cerana revealed the highest representation (95.60%) of members of Sonneratia spp. (Sonneratiaceae),followed by Bruguiera spp. (Rhizophoraceae), Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Arecaceae, Araceae,Anacardiaceae, and Rubiaceae. Of these plants, those belonging to Sonneratia plants are the most important nectar and pollen sources for A. cerana cerana and are frequently foraged and pollinated by these bees in November.

  19. Molecular characterization and population structure of the honeybees from the balearic islands (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    De la Rúa, Pilar; Galián, José; Serrano, José; Moritz, R.

    2001-01-01

    International audience Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) were collected from 23 localities on the Balearic islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) was surveyed for diagnostic restriction sites and characterized with DraI digestion of the tRNA$^{{\\rm leu}}$-COII intergenic region. Both approaches demonstrated that honeybees bearing either African or west European haplotypes coexist on the Balearic islands. Two African and two west European haplotypes were found with d...

  20. Physicochemical characteristics of organic honey samples of africanized honeybees from Paraná River islands.

    OpenAIRE

    Eloi Machado Alves; Maria Josiane Sereia; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut Toledo; Luis Carlos Marchini; Carolina Antunes Neves; Tiago Cleyton Simões de Oliveira Arnaut de Toledo; Daniela de Almeida-Anacleto

    2011-01-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate the physicochemical composition of organic honey in Paraná River islands, in Porto Brasílio, State of Paraná. Honey was harvested directly from super of the colonies in three apiaries spread in the Floresta and Laranjeira Islands, from August 2005 to August 2006. Twenty-four samples of organic honey produced by Africanized honeybees were evaluated. The following parameters were analyzed: pH, acidity, formol index, hydroxymethylfurfural, ashes, color, ...

  1. Survival rate of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, T.

    2010-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a commonly used systemic insecticide which can induce several sublethal effects. Previous research has not shown any increased mortality in bees that were fed with sublethal doses. However, there is very little research conducted with the focus on survival rate of honeybees in the fi

  2. Parasites and Pathogens of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera and Their Influence on Inter-Colonial Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Forfert

    Full Text Available Pathogens and parasites may facilitate their transmission by manipulating host behavior. Honeybee pathogens and pests need to be transferred from one colony to another if they are to maintain themselves in a host population. Inter-colony transmission occurs typically through honeybee workers not returning to their home colony but entering a foreign colony ("drifting". Pathogens might enhance drifting to enhance transmission to new colonies. We here report on the effects infection by ten honeybee viruses and Nosema spp., and Varroa mite infestation on honeybee drifting. Genotyping of workers collected from colonies allowed us to identify genuine drifted workers as well as source colonies sending out drifters in addition to sink colonies accepting them. We then used network analysis to determine patterns of drifting. Distance between colonies in the apiary was the major factor explaining 79% of drifting. None of the tested viruses or Nosema spp. were associated with the frequency of drifting. Only colony infestation with Varroa was associated with significantly enhanced drifting. More specifically, colonies with high Varroa infestation had a significantly enhanced acceptance of drifters, although they did not send out more drifting workers. Since Varroa-infested colonies show an enhanced attraction of drifting workers, and not only those infected with Varroa and its associated pathogens, infestation by Varroa may also facilitate the uptake of other pests and parasites.

  3. Parasites and Pathogens of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera) and Their Influence on Inter-Colonial Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Eva; Rosenkranz, Peter; Paxton, Robert J.; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens and parasites may facilitate their transmission by manipulating host behavior. Honeybee pathogens and pests need to be transferred from one colony to another if they are to maintain themselves in a host population. Inter-colony transmission occurs typically through honeybee workers not returning to their home colony but entering a foreign colony (“drifting”). Pathogens might enhance drifting to enhance transmission to new colonies. We here report on the effects infection by ten honeybee viruses and Nosema spp., and Varroa mite infestation on honeybee drifting. Genotyping of workers collected from colonies allowed us to identify genuine drifted workers as well as source colonies sending out drifters in addition to sink colonies accepting them. We then used network analysis to determine patterns of drifting. Distance between colonies in the apiary was the major factor explaining 79% of drifting. None of the tested viruses or Nosema spp. were associated with the frequency of drifting. Only colony infestation with Varroa was associated with significantly enhanced drifting. More specifically, colonies with high Varroa infestation had a significantly enhanced acceptance of drifters, although they did not send out more drifting workers. Since Varroa-infested colonies show an enhanced attraction of drifting workers, and not only those infected with Varroa and its associated pathogens, infestation by Varroa may also facilitate the uptake of other pests and parasites. PMID:26451849

  4. Functional Morphology of the Divided Compound Eye of the Honeybee Drone (Apis mellifera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menzel, J.G.; Wunderer, H.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Using different approaches, the functional morphology of the compound eye of the honeybee drone was examined. The drone exhibits an extended acute zone in the dorsal part of its eye. The following specializations were found here: enlarged facet diameters; smaller interommatidial angles; red-leaky sc

  5. Excitable properties of adult skeletal muscle fibres from the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Claude; Belzunces, Luc

    2007-02-01

    In the hive, a wide range of honeybees tasks such as cell cleaning, nursing, thermogenesis, flight, foraging and inter-individual communication (waggle dance, antennal contact and trophallaxy) depend on proper muscle activity. However, whereas extensive electrophysiological studies have been undertaken over the past ten years to characterize ionic currents underlying the physiological neuronal activity in honeybee, ionic currents underlying skeletal muscle fibre activity in this insect remain, so far, unexplored. Here, we show that, in contrast to many other insect species, action potentials in muscle fibres isolated from adult honeybee metathoracic tibia, are not graded but actual all-or-none responses. Action potentials are blocked by Cd(2+) and La(3+) but not by tetrodotoxin (TTX) in current-clamp mode of the patch-clamp technique, and as assessed under voltage-clamp, both Ca(2+) and K(+) currents are involved in shaping action potentials in single muscle fibres. The activation threshold potential for the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) current is close to -40 mV, its mean maximal amplitude is -8.5+/-1.9 A/F and the mean apparent reversal potential is near +40 mV. In honeybees, GABA does not activate any ionic membrane currents in muscle fibres from the tibia, but L-glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular synapse induces fast activation of an inward current when the membrane potential is voltage clamped close to its resting value. Instead of undergoing desensitization as is the case in many other preparations, a component of this glutamate-activated current has a sustained component, the reversal potential of which is close to 0 mV, as demonstrated with voltage ramps. Future investigations will allow extensive pharmacological characterization of membrane ionic currents and excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle from honeybee, a useful insect that became a model to study many physiological phenomena and which plays a major role in

  6. Molecular identification and expressive characterization of an olfactory co-receptor gene in the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huiting; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Chunxiang; Ma, Weihua; Jiang, Yusuo

    2013-01-01

    Olfaction recognition process is extraordinarily complex in insects, and the olfactory receptors play an important function in the process. In this paper, a highly conserved olfactory co-receptor gene, AcerOr2 (ortholog to the Drosophila melanogaster Or83b), cloned from the antennae of the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae), using reverse transcriptase PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length sequence of the gene was 1763 bp long, and the cDNA open reading frame encoded 478 amino acid residues, including 7 putative transmembrane domains. Alignment analysis revealed that AcerOr2 shares high homology (> 74%) with similar olfactory receptors found in other Hymenoptera species. The amino acid identity with the closely related species Apis mellifera reached 99.8%. The developmental expression analysis using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR suggested that the AcerOr2 transcript was expressed at a relatively low level in the larval stage, whereas it was expressed broadly in the pupal and adult stages, with a significantly high level on the days just before and after eclosion. In situ hybridization showed that AcerOr2 mRNA was expressed in sensilla placodea and on the basal region of the worker antennal cuticle, in accordance with the previous conclusions that the conserved genes are expressed in most olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:24224665

  7. Lactobacillus apis sp. nov., from the stomach of honeybees (Apis mellifera), having an in vitro inhibitory effect on the causative agents of American and European foulbrood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killer, J; Dubná, S; Sedláček, I; Švec, P

    2014-01-01

    A taxonomic study was performed on Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative and regular rod-shaped bacterial strains R4B(T) and R4C, isolated from the stomachs of honeybees. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the phylogenetic position of the novel strains was within the genus Lactobacillus; the highest sequence similarity to R4B(T) was shown by Lactobacillus acidophilus BCRC 10695(T) (93.6 %). Lower sequence similarities were found to other obligately homofermentative lactobacilli. A PCR-DGGE method could detect the sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of strain R4B(T) at different developmental stages of honeybees occurring in two different locations in the Czech Republic. The distinctiveness of the strains from other lactobacilli was also confirmed by analysis of sequences of other phylogenetic markers applicable to the taxonomy of the genus Lactobacillus, ribotyping and rep-PCR analysis. The DNA G+C content of strain R4B(T) was 41.3 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain R4B(T) were C18 : 1ω9c, summed C19 : 1ω6c/C19 : 0 cyclo ω10c, C16 : 0, summed C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c and summed C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c. The major polar lipids of strain R4B(T) were glycolipids, lipids and phospholipids. Phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics also confirmed the independent status of the strains at the species level. Interestingly, strain R4B(T) was able to inhibit growth in vitro of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (causal agent of American foulbrood in honeybees) and Melissococcus plutonius (causal agent of European foulbrood). The name Lactobacillus apis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel taxon; the type strain is R4B(T) ( = CCM 8403(T) = LMG 26964(T)). PMID:24096349

  8. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Collet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.

  9. Experimental Wing Damage Affects Foraging Effort and Foraging Distance in Honeybees Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Higginson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bees acquire wing damage as they age, and loss of wing area affects longevity and behaviour. This may influence colony performance via effects on worker behaviour. The effects of experimental wing damage were studied in worker honeybees in observation hives by recording survivorship, how often and for how long bees foraged, and by decoding waggle dances. Mortality rate increased with both age and wing damage. Damaged bees carried out shorter and/or less frequent foraging trips, foraged closer to the hive, and reported the profitability of flower patches to be lower than did controls. These results suggest that wing damage caused a reduction in foraging ability, and that damaged bees adjusted their foraging behaviour accordingly. Furthermore, the results suggest that wing damage affects the profitability of nectar sources. These results have implications for the colony dynamics and foraging efficiency in honeybees.

  10. Lower disease infections in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies headed by polyandrous vs monandrous queens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2006-04-01

    We studied the relationship between genetic diversity and disease susceptibility in honeybee colonies living under natural conditions. To do so, we created colonies in which each queen was artificially inseminated with sperm from either one or ten drones. Of the 20 colonies studied, 80% showed at least one brood disease. We found strong differences between the two types of colonies in the infection intensity of chalkbrood and in the total intensity of all brood diseases (chalkbrood, sacbrood, American foulbrood, and European foulbrood) with both variables lower for the colonies with higher genetic diversity. Our findings demonstrate that disease can be an important factor in the ecology of honeybee colonies and they provide strong support for the disease hypothesis for the evolution of polyandry by social insect queens.

  11. Functional Morphology of the Divided Compound Eye of the Honeybee Drone (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Menzel, J.G.; Wunderer, H.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Using different approaches, the functional morphology of the compound eye of the honeybee drone was examined. The drone exhibits an extended acute zone in the dorsal part of its eye. The following specializations were found here: enlarged facet diameters; smaller interommatidial angles; red-leaky screening pigment; enlarged rhabdom diameters; photopigment composition different from the drone’s ventral eye region and the worker bee’s eye. Thus, similar to other male insects, the drone compound...

  12. Identification, recombinant production and structural characterization of four silk proteins from the Asiatic honeybee Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiahai; Lua, Shixiong; Du, Ning; Liu, Xiangyang; Song, Jianxing

    2008-06-01

    Unlike silkworm and spider silks assembled from very large and repetitive fibrous proteins, the bee and ant silks were recently demonstrated to consist of four small and non-repetitive coiled-coil proteins. The design principle for this silk family remains largely unknown and so far no structural study is available on them in solution. The present study aimed to identify, express and characterize the Asiatic honeybee silk proteins using DLS, CD and NMR spectroscopy. Consequently, (1) four silk proteins are identified, with approximately 6, 10, 9 and 8% variations, respectively, from their European honeybee homologs. Strikingly, their recombinant forms can be produced in Escherichia coil with yields of 10-60 mg/l. (2) Despite containing approximately 65% coiled-coil sequences, four proteins have very low alpha-helix (9-27%) but unusually high random coil (45-56%) contents. Surprisingly, beta-sheet is also detected in four silk proteins (26-35%), implying the possible presence of beta-sheet in the bee and ant silks. (3) Four proteins lacking of the tight tertiary packing appear capable of interacting with each other weakly but this interaction triggers no significant formation of the tight tertiary packing. The study not only implies the promising potential to produce recombinant honeybee silk proteins for the development of various biomaterials; but also provides the first structural insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of the coiled-coil silks. PMID:18394700

  13. Detection of Methyl Salicylate Transforted by Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Using Solid Phase Microextration (SPME) Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; RODACY, PHILIP J.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; BENDER, GARY L.

    2001-12-01

    The ultimate goal of many environmental measurements is to determine the risk posed to humans or ecosystems by various contaminants. Conventional environmental monitoring typically requires extensive sampling grids covering several media including air, water, soil and vegetation. A far more efficient, innovative and inexpensive tactic has been found using honeybees as sampling mechanisms. Members from a single bee colony forage over large areas ({approx}2 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 2}), making tens of thousands of trips per day, and return to a fixed location where sampling can be conveniently conducted. The bees are in direct contact with the air, water, soil and vegetation where they encounter and collect any contaminants that are present in gaseous, liquid and particulate form. The monitoring of honeybees when they return to the hive provides a rapid method to assess chemical distributions and impacts (1). The primary goal of this technology is to evaluate the efficiency of the transport mechanism (honeybees) to the hive using preconcentrators to collect samples. Once the extent and nature of the contaminant exposure has been characterized, resources can be distributed and environmental monitoring designs efficiently directed to the most appropriate locations. Methyl salicylate, a chemical agent surrogate was used as the target compound in this study.

  14. Detection of Methyl Salicylate Transforted by Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Using Solid Phase Microextration (SPME) Fibers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate goal of many environmental measurements is to determine the risk posed to humans or ecosystems by various contaminants. Conventional environmental monitoring typically requires extensive sampling grids covering several media including air, water, soil and vegetation. A far more efficient, innovative and inexpensive tactic has been found using honeybees as sampling mechanisms. Members from a single bee colony forage over large areas ((approx)2 x 10(sup 6) m(sup 2)), making tens of thousands of trips per day, and return to a fixed location where sampling can be conveniently conducted. The bees are in direct contact with the air, water, soil and vegetation where they encounter and collect any contaminants that are present in gaseous, liquid and particulate form. The monitoring of honeybees when they return to the hive provides a rapid method to assess chemical distributions and impacts (1). The primary goal of this technology is to evaluate the efficiency of the transport mechanism (honeybees) to the hive using preconcentrators to collect samples. Once the extent and nature of the contaminant exposure has been characterized, resources can be distributed and environmental monitoring designs efficiently directed to the most appropriate locations. Methyl salicylate, a chemical agent surrogate was used as the target compound in this study

  15. Impact of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. density on wild bee foraging behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goras Georgios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are globally regarded as important crop pollinators and are also valued for their honey production. They have been introduced on an almost worldwide scale. During recent years, however, several studies argue their possible competition with unmanaged pollinators. Here we examine the possible effects of honey bees on the foraging behaviour of wild bees on Cistus creticus flowers in Northern Greece. We gradually introduced one, five, and eight honey-bee hives per site, each containing ca. 20,000 workers. The visitation frequency and visit duration of wild bees before and after the beehive introductions were measured by flower observation. While the visitation frequencies of wild bees were unaffected, the average time wild bees spent on C. creticus increased with the introduction of the honey-bee hives. Although competition between honey bees and wild bees is often expected, we did not find any clear evidence for significant effects even in honey-bee densities much higher than the European-wide average of 3.1 colonies/km2.

  16. Diversity of honey stores and their impact on pathogenic bacteria of the honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Silvio; Denner, Andreas; Bobiş, Otilia; Forsgren, Eva; Moritz, Robin F A

    2014-10-01

    Honeybee colonies offer an excellent environment for microbial pathogen development. The highest virulent, colony killing, bacterial agents are Paenibacillus larvae causing American foulbrood (AFB), and European foulbrood (EFB) associated bacteria. Besides the innate immune defense, honeybees evolved behavioral defenses to combat infections. Foraging of antimicrobial plant compounds plays a key role for this "social immunity" behavior. Secondary plant metabolites in floral nectar are known for their antimicrobial effects. Yet, these compounds are highly plant specific, and the effects on bee health will depend on the floral origin of the honey produced. As worker bees not only feed themselves, but also the larvae and other colony members, honey is a prime candidate acting as self-medication agent in honeybee colonies to prevent or decrease infections. Here, we test eight AFB and EFB bacterial strains and the growth inhibitory activity of three honey types. Using a high-throughput cell growth assay, we show that all honeys have high growth inhibitory activity and the two monofloral honeys appeared to be strain specific. The specificity of the monofloral honeys and the strong antimicrobial potential of the polyfloral honey suggest that the diversity of honeys in the honey stores of a colony may be highly adaptive for its "social immunity" against the highly diverse suite of pathogens encountered in nature. This ecological diversity may therefore operate similar to the well-known effects of host genetic variance in the arms race between host and parasite. PMID:25505523

  17. Purification and Characterization of α-Glucosidase I from Japanese Honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) and Molecular Cloning of Its cDNA

    OpenAIRE

    WONGCHAWALIT, Jintanart; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Kim, Young-Min; Sato, Natsuko; Nishimoto, Mamoru; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Saji, Osamu; Chanchao, Chanpen; Wongsiri, Siriwat; Surarits, Rudee; Svasti, Jisnuson; Chiba, Seiya; KIMURA, Atsuo

    2006-01-01

    α-Glucosidase (JHGase I) was purified from a Japanese subspecies of eastern honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) as an electrophoretically homogeneous protein. Enzyme activity of the crude extract was mainly separated into two fractions (component I and II) by salting-out chromatography. JHGase I was isolated from component I by further purification procedure using CM-Toyopearl 650M and Sephacryl S-100. JHGase I was a monomeric glycoprotein (containing 15% carbohydrate), of which the molecular wei...

  18. A virulent strain of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) of Honeybees (Apis mellifera) prevails after Varroa destructor-mediated, or in vitro, transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Ryabov, Eugene V.; Graham R. Wood; Fannon, Jessica M.; Moore, Jonathan D.; Bull, James C.; Dave Chandler; Andrew Mead; Nigel Burroughs; Evans, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Date of Acceptance: 30/04/2014 The globally distributed ectoparasite Varroa destructor is a vector for viral pathogens of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera), in particular the Iflavirus Deformed Wing Virus (DWV). In the absence of Varroa low levels DWV occur, generally causing asymptomatic infections. Conversely, Varroa-infested colonies show markedly elevated virus levels, increased overwintering colony losses, with impairment of pupal development and symptomatic workers. To determine ...

  19. Phenology of Migration and Decline in Colony Numbers and Crop Hosts of Giant Honeybee (Apis dorsata F. in Semiarid Environment of Northwest India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Chander Sihag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The colonies of the giant honeybee (Apis dorsata immigrate in the semiarid environment of Northwest India in October-November with the onset of flowering on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan/toria (Brassica campestris var. toria, stay here during the rich pollen and nectar flow period from December to mid-May, and emigrate in late May/early June when floral dearth is witnessed. This honeybee was free from any conspicuous viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases and also did not have any serious predators and enemies. However, about 20 percent of the old colonies were infested with Tropilaelaps clareae and 100 percent of the old colonies with Galleria mellonella; none of the swarm colonies had these pests. While the migration schedule of this honeybee remained similar year after year, the number of colonies immigrating in this region declined markedly over the years; the number in 2012 was even less than half of that recorded in 1984. During its stay in this region, this honeybee acted as an important pollinator of more than 30 crop plants of this region. The causes of seasonal migration and decline in the number of colonies of this honeybee and its importance in crop pollination have been discussed.

  20. RRH: envenoming syndrome due to 200 stings from Africanized honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Envenoming syndrome from Africanized bee stings is a toxic syndrome caused by the inoculation of large amounts of venom from multiple bee stings, generally more than five hundred. The incidence of severe toxicity from Africanized bee stings is rare but deadly. This report reveals that because of the small volume of distribution, having fewer stings does not exempt a patient from experiencing an unfavorable outcome, particularly in children, elderly people or underweight people.

  1. Frischella perrara gen. nov., sp. nov., a gammaproteobacterium isolated from the gut of the honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Philipp; Kwong, Waldan K; Moran, Nancy A

    2013-10-01

    The gut of the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, is colonized by a characteristic set of bacteria. Two distinct gammaproteobacteria are consistent members of this unique microbial community, and one has recently been described in a new genus and species with the name Gilliamella apicola. Here, we present the isolation and characterization of PEB0191(T), a strain belonging to the second gammaproteobacterial species present in the honeybee gut microbiota, formerly referred to as 'Gammaproteobacterium-2'. Cells of strain PEB0191(T) were mesophilic and had a mean length of around 2 µm, and optimal growth was achieved under anaerobic conditions. Growth was not obtained under aerobic conditions and was reduced in a microaerophilic environment. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain PEB0191(T) belongs to the family Orbaceae, and its closest relatives, with around 95 % sequence similarity, are species of the genera Orbus and Gilliamella. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that PEB0191(T) is more closely related to the genus Orbus than to the genus Gilliamella. In accordance with its evolutionary relationship, further similarities between strain PEB0191(T) and other members of the family Orbaceae were revealed based on the respiratory quinone type (ubiquinone 8), the fatty acid profile and the DNA G+C content. Interestingly, like strains of the genus Gilliamella, PEB0191(T) exhibited a high level of resistance to oxytetracycline. The similar levels of sequence divergence from the genera Gilliamella and Orbus and its uncertain phylogenetic position within the family Orbaceae indicate that strain PEB0191(T) represents a novel species of a new genus, with the proposed name Frischella perrara gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Frischella perrara is PEB0191(T) ( = NCIMB 14821(T) = ATCC BAA-2450(T)). PMID:23606484

  2. Honeybees (Apis mellifera learn color discriminations via differential conditioning independent of long wavelength (green photoreceptor modulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Reser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies on colour discrimination suggest that experience is an important factor in how a visual system processes spectral signals. In insects it has been shown that differential conditioning is important for processing fine colour discriminations. However, the visual system of many insects, including the honeybee, has a complex set of neural pathways, in which input from the long wavelength sensitive ('green' photoreceptor may be processed either as an independent achromatic signal or as part of a trichromatic opponent-colour system. Thus, a potential confound of colour learning in insects is the possibility that modulation of the 'green' photoreceptor could underlie observations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested honeybee vision using light emitting diodes centered on 414 and 424 nm wavelengths, which limit activation to the short-wavelength-sensitive ('UV' and medium-wavelength-sensitive ('blue' photoreceptors. The absolute irradiance spectra of stimuli was measured and modelled at both receptor and colour processing levels, and stimuli were then presented to the bees in a Y-maze at a large visual angle (26°, to ensure chromatic processing. Sixteen bees were trained over 50 trials, using either appetitive differential conditioning (N = 8, or aversive-appetitive differential conditioning (N = 8. In both cases the bees slowly learned to discriminate between the target and distractor with significantly better accuracy than would be expected by chance. Control experiments confirmed that changing stimulus intensity in transfers tests does not significantly affect bee performance, and it was possible to replicate previous findings that bees do not learn similar colour stimuli with absolute conditioning. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that honeybee colour vision can be tuned to relatively small spectral differences, independent of 'green' photoreceptor contrast and brightness cues. We thus show that colour vision is

  3. Sperm numbers in drone honeybees (Apis mellifera) depend on body size

    OpenAIRE

    Schlüns, Helge; Schlüns, Ellen; Van Praagh, Job; Moritz, Robin

    2003-01-01

    International audience The effect of drone honeybee's body size on semen production was evaluated. In the same colonies, drones were either reared in drone cells (large drones) or in worker cells (small drones). Wing lengths (size indicator) and sperm numbers of small and large drones were compared. Small drones (~13% reduced wing size) produce significantly fewer spermatozoa ($7.5 \\pm 0.5$ million) than normally sized drones ($11.9 \\pm 1.0$ million spermatozoa). There is a significant pos...

  4. Characterization of the two distinct subtypes of metabotropic glutamate receptors from honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funada, Masahiro; Yasuo, Shinobu; Yoshimura, Takashi; Ebihara, Shizufumi; Sasagawa, Hiromi; Kitagawa, Yasuo; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2004-04-15

    L-Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter at the excitatory synapses in the vertebrate brain. It is also the excitatory neurotransmitter at neuromuscular junctions in insects, however its functions in their brains remain to be established. We identified and characterized two different subtypes (AmGluRA and AmGluRB) of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) from an eusocial insect, honeybee. Both AmGluRA and AmGluRB form homodimers independently on disulfide bonds, and bind [3H]glutamate with K(D) values of 156.7 and 80.7 nM, respectively. AmGluRB is specifically expressed in the brain, while AmGluRA is expressed in the brain and other body parts, suggesting that AmGluRA is also present at the neuromuscular junctions. Both mGluRs are expressed in the mushroom bodies and the brain regions of honeybees, where motor neurons are clustered. Their expression in the brain apparently overlaps, suggesting that they may interact with each other to modulate the glutamatergic neurotransmission. PMID:15050695

  5. Effects of honeybee (Apis mellifera venom on keratinocyte migration in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Mi Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the ancient times the skin aging application of honeybee venom (BV is practiced and persisted until nowadays. The present study evaluated the effect of the honeybee venom (BV on keratinocyte migration in wound healing model in vitro. Objective: To access BV further as a cosmetic ingredient and a potential external application for topical uses, we performed studies to investigate the biologic effect of BV treatment on keratinocyte proliferation and migration in vitro. Material and Methods: BV cytotoxicity was assessed by using a 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay over 24 h. To assess BV genotoxicity, damage to human epidermal keratinocyte (HEK was evaluated using the Comet assay. HEK migration was evaluated using a commercial wound healing kit. The skin pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were examined to evaluate the pro-inflammatory response to BV. Results: It was found that BV (<100 μg/ml was not cytotoxic and stimulated more HEK proliferation and migration compared to negative control, and did not induce DNA damage. There were also decreases in IL-8 and TNF-α expression levels in HEK at all time points. Conclusion: These findings highlight the potential of topical application of BV for promoting cell regeneration and wound treatment.

  6. [Study on foraging behaviors of honeybee Apis mellifera based on RFID technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liu-Qing; He, Xu-Jiang; Wu, Xiao-Bo; Gan, Hai-Yan; Han, Xu; Liu, Hao; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Honeybee foragers can flexibly adjust their out-hive activities to ensure growth and reproduction of the colony. In order to explore the characteristics of honey bees foraging behaviors, in this study, their flight activities were monitored 24 hours per day for a duration of 38 days, using an radio frequency identification (RFID) system designed and manufactured by the Honeybee Research Institute of Jiangxi Agricultural University in cooperation with the Guangzhou Invengo Information Technology Co., Ltd. Our results indicated that 63.4% and 64.5% of foragers were found rotating more than one day off during the foraging period in two colonies, and 22.5% and 26.4% of the total foraging days were used for rest respectively. Further, although the total foraging time between rotating day-off foragers and continuously working foragers was equal, the former had a significant longer lifespan than the latter. Additionally, the lifespan of the early developed foragers was significantly lower than that of the normally developed foragers. This study enriched the content of foraging behaviors of honey bees, and it could be used as the basis for the further explorations on evolutionary mechanism of foraging behaviors of eusocial insects. PMID:24984504

  7. Differential antennal proteome comparison of adult honeybee drone, worker and queen (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Li, Jianke

    2012-01-01

    To understand the olfactory mechanism of honeybee antennae in detecting specific volatile compounds in the atmosphere, antennal proteome differences of drone, worker and queen were compared using 2-DE, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Therefore, 107 proteins were altered their expressions in the antennae of drone, worker and queen bees. There were 54, 21 and 32 up-regulated proteins in the antennae of drone, worker and queen, respectively. Proteins upregulated in the drone antennae were involved in fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, protein folding and cytoskeleton. Proteins upregulated in the antennae of worker and queen bees were related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production while molecular transporters were upregulated in the queen antennae. Our results explain the role played by the antennae of drone is to aid in perceiving the queen sexual pheromones, in the worker antennae to assist for food search and social communication and in the queen antennae to help pheromone communication with the worker and the drone during the mating flight. This first proteomic study significantly extends our understanding of honeybee olfactory activities and the possible mechanisms played by the antennae in response to various environmental, social, biological and biochemical signals. PMID:21982827

  8. The chemosensory protein of Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana: Molecular cloning of cDNA, immunocytochemical localization and expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HongLiang; LOU BingGan; CHENG Jia'An; GAO QiKang

    2007-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are ubiquitous soluble small proteins isolated from sensory organs thought to be involved in chemical communication.Here we report the first cDNA of CSPs,called Ac-ASP3,cloned and characterized from antennas of adult worker bees in Chinese honeybee,Apis cerana cerana.The Ac-ASP3 cDNA comprises 2 exons,with an ORF of 393-bp encoding 130 aa.Protein signature analyses show that the protein consists of four conserved cysteines and a signal peptide with 19 aa in the N-terminal sequence.The deduced protein sequence shares high homology with Am-ASP3 of Apis mellifera and low similarity with other species of insects.Immunocytochemical localization shows that Ac-ASP3 is only specifically expressed on the antenna contact chemosensilla such as sensilla trichodea B and sensilla basiconica,whereas Ac-ASP3 is scarcely expressed on olfactory chemosensilla such as sensilla placodea.Real-time PCR of Ac-ASP3 transcripts shows that Ac-ASP3 is highly expressed on wings and legs,but expression is lower on antenna.Temporal expression patterns suggest that Ac-ASP3 is expressed during the period of pupa and adults from 1-d to 6-d stages when bees act as house bees,cleaning the comb and taking care of the queen and larvae in comb.The above evidence suggests that Ac-ASP3 is unique in species and is generally not involved in olfaction during searching for honey and pollen.Rather,the protein seems to function in recognition of chemosensory substances on bees' cuticle and mechanical movement of antenna.

  9. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cassava flower honey samples produced by africanized honeybees Caracterização físico-química e microbiológica de amostras de mel de flores de mandioca produzido por abelhas africanizadas

    OpenAIRE

    Lucimar Peres de Moura Pontara; Edmar Clemente; Dalany Menezes Oliveira; Angela Kwiatkowski; Cássia Inês Lourenzi Franco Rosa; Valter Eugênio Saia

    2012-01-01

    Cassava producers in the region of Marília-São Paulo are integrating their farming activity with beekeeping to diversify their income. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera from cassava flower in 2008. Analysis were carried out for pH, total soluble solids (TSS), acidity, moisture, reducing and total sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, color, ash, proteins, water inso...

  10. Use of geometric morphometrics to differentiate selected lines of Carniolan honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašić Slađan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a selection of honeybees from autochthonous ecotypes, different lines must be identified. Honeybee lineages are usually distinguished by classical morphometrics and molecular markers, but these approaches are both costly and time-consuming to implement. Recognition of the purity of races is very important for regional and country regulations to allow a sustainable conservation of the huge variety of local honeybees. A geometric morphometric approach has been frequently used. In this work, honeybee samples were collected from stationary apiaries (belonging to the centers for honeybee queen selection from two different Serbian areas: Vršac (northeastern Serbia, mostly flatland and Vranje (southern Serbia, mostly mountainous, and two different Montenegrin areas: Bijelo Polje (northern Montenegro, mountainous region and Sutomore (southern Montenegro, coastal region. Each sample consisted of 150 honeybee workers, collected from 10 hives (15 specimens each. On the honeybee left forewings, a total of 19 vein intersections were used to determine the differences among the honeybees using MorphoJ 1.4a software. Canonical variate analysis (CVA slightly separated the honeybee lines into one overlapping cloud of specimens at the individual level. The first canonical variable (60.57% of the total variability discriminated mainly between Bijelo Polje and Sutomore honeybee lines. Therefore, on the colony level, CVA separated all four groups of breeding honeybee lines. The results show that geometric morphometrics are reliable in the discrimination of honeybee lines within subspecies only at the colony level. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43001

  11. MOLECULAR EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY OF CRUDE VENOM AS AN AUXILIARY TOOL TO IDENTIFY HYBRID HONEYBEE POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. PALMA

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison among the profiles of molecular exclusion chromatography in Sephadex G 100 column of venoms from Apis mellifera adansonii and Africanized honeybees revealed unique peaks which might be used to identify these populations. The venoms from hybrid populations resulting from the reciprocal mating of Apis mellifera adansonii and Africanized honeybees presented unique peaks, probably resulting from a synergistic effect between the parental genomes. The occurrence of characteristic peaks in venoms of hybrid populations might be used to identify these populations as well as to distinguish them from their parents.

  12. Influences of octopamine and juvenile hormone on locomotor behavior and period gene expression in the honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Guy; Meshi, Avital

    2007-02-01

    Octopamine (OA) and juvenile hormone (JH) are implicated in the regulation of age-based division of labor in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. We tested the hypothesis that these two neuroendocrine signals influence task-associated plasticity in circadian and diurnal rhythms, and in brain expression of the clock gene period (per). Treatment with OA, OA antagonist (epinastine), or both, did not affect the age at onset of circadian rhythmicity or the free running period in constant darkness (DD). Young bees orally treated with OA in light-dark (LD) illumination regime for 6 days followed by DD showed reduced alpha (the period between the daily onset and offset of activity) during the first 4 days in LD and the first 4 days in DD. Oral treatment with OA, epinastine, or both, but not manipulations of JH levels, caused increased average daily levels and aberrant patterns of brain per mRNA oscillation in young bees. These results suggest that OA and JH do not influence the development or function of the central pacemaker but rather that OA influences the brain expression of a clock gene and characteristics of locomotor behavior that are not thought to be under direct control of the circadian pacemaker. PMID:17082965

  13. Foraging reactivation in the honeybee Apis mellifera L.: factors affecting the return to known nectar sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariana; Farina, Walter Marcelo

    2002-05-01

    This paper addresses, what determines that experienced forager honeybees return to places where they have previously exploited nectar. Although there was already some evidence that dance and trophallaxis can cause bees to return to feed, the fraction of unemployed foragers that follow dance or receive food from employed foragers before revisiting the feeder was unknown. We found that 27% of the experienced foragers had no contact with the returning foragers inside the hive. The most common interactions were dance following (64%) and trophallaxis (21%). The great variability found in the amount of interactions suggests that individual bees require different stimulation before changing to the foraging mode. This broad disparity negatively correlated with the number of days after marking at the feeder, a variable that is closely related to the foraging experience, suggesting that a temporal variable might affect the decision-making in reactivated foragers.

  14. Reassessing the role of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) Dufour's gland in egg marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen; Jones, Graeme; Châline, Nicolas; Middleton, Helen; Ratnieks, Francis

    2002-10-01

    Dufour's gland secretion may allow worker honeybees to discriminate between queen-laid and worker-laid eggs. To investigate this, we combined the chemical analysis of individually treated eggs with an egg removal bioassay. We partitioned queen Dufour's gland into hydrocarbon and ester fractions. The bioassay showed that worker-laid eggs treated with either whole gland extract, ester fraction or synthetic gland esters were removed more slowly than untreated worker-laid eggs. However, the effect only lasted up to 20 h. Worker-laid eggs treated with the hydrocarbon fraction were removed at the same rate as untreated eggs. The amount of ester which reduced the egg removal rate was far higher than that naturally found on queen-laid or worker-laid eggs, and at natural ester levels no effect was found. Our results indicate that esters or hydrocarbons probably do not function as the signal by which eggs can be discriminated.

  15. APIs

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Daniel; Woods, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Programmers used to be the only people excited about APIs, but now a growing number of companies see them as a hot new product channel. This concise guide describes the tremendous business potential of APIs, and demonstrates how you can use them to provide valuable services to clients, partners, or the public via the Internet. You'll learn all the steps necessary for building a cohesive API business strategy from experts in the trenches. Facebook and Twitter APIs continue to be extremely successful, and many other companies find that API demand greatly exceeds website traffic. This book offe

  16. Expression of melittin gene in the venom gland of the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiang-Hong; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Tang, Zhen-Hua

    2005-01-01

    International audience Melittin is the principal component of bee venom. Melittin in Apis cerana (Ac-melt) is a single copy gene. A full length Ac-melt cDNA is 389 bp, with a single 191 bp intron in the genome. Its mRNA level was high during the first week of adult life and low during the rest of adult life. Melittin or its precursor could not be detected in the pupal stage. Melittin level increased rapidly to its maximum (about 95 $\\mu$g per worker bee) during the first 8-10 days of adult...

  17. Chemosensory proteins of the eastern honeybee, Apis cerana: Identification, tissue distribution and olfactory related functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Liang; Ni, Cui-Xia; Tan, Jing; Zhang, Lin-Ya; Hu, Fu-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs), a class of small soluble proteins, are thought to be involved in insect chemoreceptive behavior. Here, six CSP genes, AcerCSP1-6 from Apis cerana, were cloned and characterized from worker bees' antennae. Results revealed that the AcerCSPs' amino acid sequences shared high similarity with the homologous genes of Apis mellifera, but low similarity with other insect species. Compared with corresponding CSPs of A. mellifera, AcerCSPs (1, 3, 4, and 6) exhibit quite similar gene expression profiling. On the contrary, AcerCSP2 showed a higher expression level in the forager antennae and legs than CSP2 of A. mellifera. Furthermore, AcerCSP5 was not specifically expressed in larvae, unlike CSP5 of A. mellifera. In a ligand-binding assay, AcerCSP1 and AcerCSP2, which exhibited the highest expression in antennae of A. cerana, had a stronger affinity with candidate floral chemicals and pheromones than AcerCSP4, the results of which was supported by docking analysis, suggesting that the relevance of them with A. cerana olfactory functions. Taken together, these results suggest that despite the quasi-similarity of protein sequences between A. cerana and A. mellifera, differences in tissue expression and functional characteristics between the two species still exist, indicating that homologous proteins potentially perform different tasks even in related species. PMID:26773657

  18. Optimization of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 from Honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Tajabadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dominant strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from honey bees were evaluated for their γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-producing ability. Out of 24 strains, strain Taj-Apis362 showed the highest GABA-producing ability (1.76 mM in MRS broth containing 50 mM initial glutamic acid cultured for 60 h. Effects of fermentation parameters, including initial glutamic acid level, culture temperature, initial pH and incubation time on GABA production were investigated via a single parameter optimization strategy. The optimal fermentation condition for GABA production was modeled using response surface methodology (RSM. The results showed that the culture temperature was the most significant factor for GABA production. The optimum conditions for maximum GABA production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 were an initial glutamic acid concentration of 497.97 mM, culture temperature of 36 °C, initial pH of 5.31 and incubation time of 60 h, which produced 7.15 mM of GABA. The value is comparable with the predicted value of 7.21 mM.

  19. Six quantitative trait loci influence task thresholds for hygienic behaviour in honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Peter R; Spivak, Marla; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2010-04-01

    Honeybee hygienic behaviour provides colonies with protection from many pathogens and is an important model system of the genetics of a complex behaviour. It is a textbook example of complex behaviour under simple genetic control: hygienic behaviour consists of two components--uncapping a diseased brood cell, followed by removal of the contents--each of which are thought to be modulated independently by a few loci of medium to large effect. A worker's genetic propensity to engage in hygienic tasks affects the intensity of the stimulus required before she initiates the behaviour. Genetic diversity within colonies leads to task specialization among workers, with a minority of workers performing the majority of nest-cleaning tasks. We identify three quantitative trait loci that influence the likelihood that workers will engage in hygienic behaviour and account for up to 30% of the phenotypic variability in hygienic behaviour in our population. Furthermore, we identify two loci that influence the likelihood that a worker will perform uncapping behaviour only, and one locus that influences removal behaviour. We report the first candidate genes associated with engaging in hygienic behaviour, including four genes involved in olfaction, learning and social behaviour, and one gene involved in circadian locomotion. These candidates will allow molecular characterization of this distinctive behavioural mode of disease resistance, as well as providing the opportunity for marker-assisted selection for this commercially significant trait. PMID:20298472

  20. Trophallaxis in filled-crop honeybees (Apis mellifera L.): food-loading time affects unloading behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainselboim, A. J.; Farina, W. M.

    Honeybees ingested 50% w/w (1.8M) sucrose solution at a rate feeder offering either 16.5, 32.5 or 65 μl/min. While the time spent ingesting solution at the feeder decreased significantly with increasing flow of solution, bees attained maximum crop loads with this range of flows. Different parameters related to mouth-to-mouth food exchange (trophallaxis) showed important modulations as the offered flow of solution was incremented. Trophallactic transfer rate, i.e. the speed at which liquid food is transferred from donor to recipient bee, was found to increase along with increasing profitability at the rate feeder. In the present case, food source profitability could have been evaluated by foragers either by measuring the time invested in ingesting the solution, or by direct assessment of the flow rate of the feeder. Thus it seems that perception of profitability conditions at the food sourcesuffices for later representation in the hive through trophallactic contacts, independently of crop-filling state.

  1. An alarm pheromone modulates appetitive olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Urlacher

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In honeybees, associative learning is embedded in a social context as bees possess a highly complex social organization in which communication among individuals is mediated by dance behavior informing about food sources, and by a high variety of pheromones that maintain the social links between individuals of a hive. Proboscis extension response (PER conditioning is a case of appetitive learning, in which harnessed bees learn to associate odor stimuli with sucrose reward in the laboratory. Despite its recurrent use as a tool for uncovering the behavioral, cellular and molecular bases underlying associative learning, the question of whether social signals (pheromones affect appetitive learning has not been addressed in this experimental framework. This situation contrasts with reports underlining that foraging activity of bees is modulated by alarm pheromones released in the presence of a potential danger. Here, we show that appetitive learning is impaired by the sting alarm pheromone (SAP which, when released by guards, recruits foragers to defend the hive. This effect is mimicked by the main component of SAP, isopentyl acetate (IPA, is dose-dependent and lasts up to 24h. Learning impairment is specific to alarm signal exposure and is independent of the odorant used for conditioning. Our results suggest that learning impairment may be a response to the biological significance of SAP as an alarm signal, which would detract bees from responding to any appetitive stimuli in a situation in which such responses would be of secondary importance.

  2. Differentially methylated obligatory epialleles modulate context-dependent LAM gene expression in the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedd, Laura; Kucharski, Robert; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    Differential intragenic methylation in social insects has been hailed as a prime mover of environmentally driven organismal plasticity and even as evidence for genomic imprinting. However, very little experimental work has been done to test these ideas and to prove the validity of such claims. Here we analyze in detail differentially methylated obligatory epialleles of a conserved gene encoding lysosomal α-mannosidase (AmLAM) in the honeybee. We combined genotyping of progenies derived from colonies founded by single drone inseminated queens, ultra-deep allele-specific bisulfite DNA sequencing, and gene expression to reveal how sequence variants, DNA methylation, and transcription interrelate. We show that both methylated and non-methylated states of AmLAM follow Mendelian inheritance patterns and are strongly influenced by polymorphic changes in DNA. Increased methylation of a given allele correlates with higher levels of context-dependent AmLAM expression and appears to affect the transcription of an antisense long noncoding RNA. No evidence of allelic imbalance or imprinting involved in this process has been found. Our data suggest that by generating alternate methylation states that affect gene expression, sequence variants provide organisms with a high level of epigenetic flexibility that can be used to select appropriate responses in various contexts. This study represents the first effort to integrate DNA sequence variants, gene expression, and methylation in a social insect to advance our understanding of their relationships in the context of causality. PMID:26507253

  3. Uncoupling fertility from fertility-associated pheromones in worker honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Osnat; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Hefetz, Abraham

    2009-03-01

    Fertility-associated pheromones, chemical signals delineating ovarian development, were favourably selected in the course of evolution because it is in the best interest of both the signallers (in recruiting help from other colony members) and the receivers (in assisting them to reach an informed decision of how to maximize fitness). Such signals therefore should constitute honest, deception-proof indicators of ovarian development, suggesting, theoretically, that the processes of ovarian development and signal production are irreversibly coupled. Here we demonstrate that these processes can be uncoupled by treating queenless (QL) honeybee callow workers with methoprene, a juvenile hormone (JH) analog. While methoprene effectively inhibited ovarian development, it neither inhibited Dufour's fertility signal nor the mandibular glands' dominance signal. In fact, there was even a slight augmentation of both in the methoprene-treated bees. Thus, although fertility and fertility signals are tightly associated, they can be uncoupled by experimental manipulation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that ovarian development and fertility-associated signal production are triggered by a common event/signal (e.g. queen pheromone disappearance) but comprise different regulatory systems. The evolutionary implication is that these two traits have evolved independently and may have been co-opted to emphasize the reproductive status of workers in the competition for reproduction. PMID:19041321

  4. Genetic and morphometric variation in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) populations of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kandemir, Irfan; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut

    2000-01-01

    Variation génétique et morphométrique des populations d'abeilles domestiques (Apis mellifera L.) en Turquie. Selon l'analyse statistique multivariée des données morphométriques, l'Asie mineure semble être un centre de diversification génétique pour les races d'abeilles domestiques qui peuplent cette région, mais peu d'études ont été consacrées à la diversité génétique et morphométrique des abeilles d'Anatolie. Six systèmes enzymatiques ont été étudiés pour déterminer la variabilité génétique ...

  5. Morphometric and genetic variation of small dwarf honeybees Apis andreniformis Smith, 1858 in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ATSALEK RATTANAWANNEE; CHANPEN CHANCHAO; SIRIWAT WONGSIRI

    2007-01-01

    The small dwarf honey bee, Apis andreniformis, is a rare and patchily distributed Apis spp. and is one of the native Thai honey bees, yet little is known about its biodiversity. Thirty (27 Thai and 3 Malaysian) and 37 (32 Thai and 5 Malaysian) colonies of A.andreniformis were sampled for morphometric and genetic analysis, respectively. For morphometric analysis, 20 informative characters were used to determine the variation. After plotting the factor scores, A. andreniformis from across Thailand were found to belong to one group, a notion further supported by a cluster analysis generated dendrogram.However, clinal patterns in groups of bee morphometric characters were revealed by linear regression analysis. The body size of bees increases from South to North but decreases from West to East, although this may reflect altitude rather than longitude. Genetic variation was determined by sequence analysis of a 520 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit b (cytb). DNA polymorphism among bees from the mainland of Thailand is lower than that from Phuket Island and Chiang Mai. Although two main different groups of bees were obtained from phylogenetic trees constructed by neighbor-joining and unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages programs, no clear geographic signal was present. Thus, while the minor group (B) contained all of the samples from the only island sampled (Phuket in the south), but not the southern mainland colonies, it also contained samples from the far northern inland region of Chiang Mai, other samples of which were firmly rooted in the major group (A).

  6. Brain modulation of Dufour's gland ester biosynthesis in vitro in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Hefetz, Abraham; Soroker, Victoria

    2007-05-01

    Caste-specific pheromone biosynthesis is a prerequisite for reproductive skew in the honeybee. Nonetheless, this process is not hardwired but plastic, in that egg-laying workers produce a queen-like pheromone. Studies with Dufour’s gland pheromone revealed that, in vivo, workers’ gland biosynthesis matches the social status of the worker, i.e., sterile workers showed a worker-like pattern whereas fertile workers showed a queen-like pattern (production of the queen-specific esters). However, when incubated in vitro, the gland spontaneously exhibits the queen-like pattern, irrespective of its original worker type, prompting the notion that ester production in workers is under inhibitory control that is queen-dependent. We tested this hypothesis by exposing queen or worker Dufour’s glands in vitro to brain extracts of queens, queenright (sterile) workers and males. Unexpectedly, worker brain extracts activated the queen-like esters biosynthesis in workers’ Dufour’s gland. This stimulation was gender-specific; queen or worker brains demonstrated a stimulatory activity, but male brains did not. Queen gland could not be further stimulated. Bioassays with heated and filtered extracts indicate that the stimulatory brain factor is below 3,000 Da. We suggest that pheromone production in Dufour’s gland is under dual, negative positive control. Under queenright conditions, the inhibitor is released and blocks ester biosynthesis, whereas under queenless conditions, the activator is released, activating ester biosynthesis in the gland. This is consistent with the hypothesis that queenright workers are unequivocally recognized as non-fertile, whereas queenless workers try to become “false queens” as part of the reproductive competition.

  7. Transcriptional profiling reveals multifunctional roles for transferrin in the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kucharski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Transferrins belong to a family of iron-binding proteins that have been implicated in innate immunity and in vitellogenesis in insects. Here we have sequenced and characterized a full-length cDNA encoding a putative iron-binding transferrin (AmTRF in the honeybee. AmTRF shows high level of sequence identity with transferrins in both vertebrates and insects (26-46% suggesting that the primary function of the predicted 712 amino acid protein is binding and transporting of iron. AmTRF is expressed ubiquitously, but particularly high levels of its mRNA are found in the central brain and in the compound eye. Using northern blotting and a microarray based approach we have examined the levels of AmTRF mRNA by expression profiling under a wide range of conditions including developmental stages, septic injury and juvenile hormone treatment. Increased expression of AmTRF is seen during early pupal stages, in the brain of mature foragers and in the abdomen of virgin queens, whereas treatment with juvenile hormone leads to a decrease of AmTRF levels in the abdomen. We show that a transcriptional response of transferrin to septic injury with E. coli is relatively moderate as compared to a dramatic up-regulation of an antibacterial polypeptide, Hymenoptaecin, under similar conditions. We conclude that major fluctuations of AmTRF mRNA in time and space are consistent with context-dependent functional significance and suggest broader multifunctional roles for transferrin in insects.

  8. How does the mite Varroa destructor kill the honeybee Apis mellifera? Alteration of cuticular hydrcarbons and water loss in infested honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annoscia, Desiderato; Del Piccolo, Fabio; Nazzi, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Several factors threaten the health of honeybees; among them the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the Deformed Wing Virus play a major role. Recently, the dangerous interplay between the mite and the virus was studied in detail and the transition, triggered by mite feeding, from a benign covert infection to a devastating viral outbreak, characterized by an intense viral replication, associated with some characteristic symptoms, was described. In order to gain insight into the events preceding that crucial transition we carried out standardized lab experiments aiming at studying the effects of parasitization in asymptomatic bees to establish a relationship between such effects and bee mortality. It appears that parasitization alters the capacity of the honeybee to regulate water exchange; this, in turn, has severe effects on bee survival. These results are discussed in light of possible novel strategies aiming at mitigating the impact of the parasite on honeybee health. PMID:23041382

  9. Differential Gene Transcription in Honeybee (Apis cerana Larvae Challenged by Chinese Sacbrood Virus (CSBV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are economically important social insect. They are suffering from all kinds of pathogens, especially the virus. In response to pathogens, different immune pathways such as Toll, Imd, Jak-Stat and RNAi are involved. In the present study, the transcription analysis of 32 immune-related genes from Apis cerana challenged by Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV, the most widely distributed virus in A. cerana, was carried out by qRT-PCR to provide cues for the antiviral mechanism and the effective control of bee viruses. The expression level of 22 genes were statistically changed, including 11 up-regulated genes (catus-2, lys-2, vir, s3a, mta1, faa, vhdl, co-1-iv, ago-1, ago-3, aub in which 3 (ago-1, ago-3, aub were related to RNAi pathway, and 11 down-regulated genes (kenny, pgrp-lc, pgrp-s2, abaecin, lys-1, lys-3, domeless, tepa, mlc, dscam, rpl8 related to Toll, Imd, and Jak-Stat pathways. The results indicated CSBV infection in A. cerana may activate a RNA-based antiviral immunity system. This work constituted the first report, under laboratory conditions, about induction of immune related genes in response to CSBV.

  10. Use of repellents for honeybees (Apis mellifera L. in vitro in the yellow passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis Deg crop and in confined beef cattle feeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nicodemo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Apis mellifera in places such as candy and soft drink factories, restaurants, and ice-cream shops has been a concern to many people. In the yellow passion-fruit crop, Apis mellifera is able to collect all anther pollen but has no active role in pollination. Honeybees also visit animal feeders with chopped sugar cane, preventing the cattle from eating. This work studied the effect of natural and synthetic substances as Apis mellifera repellents in vitro in the yellow passion-fruit crop and in confined beef cattle feeders. There was a repellent effect in vitro with the following substances in decreasing order: tobacco, rue, garlic, parsley, and century plant extracts; average effect was twenty-five minutes. For the yellow passion-fruit, garlic extracts and 2-heptanone were equally efficient with a two and a half hour repellent action. Garlic and citronella extracts were efficient in repelling Apis mellifera from confined beef cattle feeder for six hours. Garlic repellent action was higher than citronella.

  11. Purification and characterization of alpha-glucosidase I from Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) and molecular cloning of its cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongchawalit, Jintanart; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Kim, Young-Min; Sato, Natsuko; Nishimoto, Mamoru; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Saji, Osamu; Chanchao, Chanpen; Wongsiri, Siriwat; Surarit, Rudee; Svasti, Jisnuson; Chiba, Seiya; Kimura, Atsuo

    2006-12-01

    alpha-Glucosidase (JHGase I) was purified from a Japanese subspecies of eastern honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) as an electrophoretically homogeneous protein. Enzyme activity of the crude extract was mainly separated into two fractions (component I and II) by salting-out chromatography. JHGase I was isolated from component I by further purification procedure using CM-Toyopearl 650M and Sephacryl S-100. JHGase I was a monomeric glycoprotein (containing 15% carbohydrate), of which the molecular weight was 82,000. Enzyme displayed the highest activity at pH 5.0, and was stable up to 40 degrees C and in a pH-range of 4.5-10.5. JHGase I showed unusual kinetic features: the negative cooperative behavior on the intrinsic reaction on cleavage of sucrose, maltose, and p-nitrophenyl alpha-glucoside, and the positive cooperative behavior on turanose. We isolated cDNA (1,930 bp) of JHGase I, of which the deduced amino-acid sequence (577 residues) confirmed that JHGase I was a member of alpha-amylase family enzymes. Western honeybees (Apis mellifera) had three alpha-glucosidase isoenzymes (WHGase I, II, and III), in which JHGase I was considered to correspond to WHGase I. PMID:17151473

  12. A scientific note on the lactic acid bacterial flora within the honeybee subspecies Apis mellifera (Buckfast), A.m. scutellata, A.m. mellifera, and A.m. monticola

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was discovered by Olofsson and Vásquez (2008) that a novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota with numerous LAB, comprising the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, live in a symbiotic relationship with honeybees (Apis mellifera) in their honey stomach. Previous results from 16S rRNA gene...

  13. Behavioral studies of learning in the Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I; Aquino, Italo S

    2002-01-01

    Experiments on basic classical conditioning phenomena in adult and young Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are described. Phenomena include conditioning to various stimuli, extinction (both unpaired and CS only), conditioned inhibition, color and odor discrimination. In addition to work on basic phenomena, experiments on practical applications of conditioning methodology are illustrated with studies demonstrating the effects of insecticides on learning and the reaction of bees to consumer products. Electron microscope photos are presented of Africanized workers, drones, and queen bees. Possible sub-species differences between Africanized and European bees are discussed. PMID:12097861

  14. A Locomotor Deficit Induced by Sublethal Doses of Pyrethroid and Neonicotinoid Insecticides in the Honeybee Apis mellifera.

    OpenAIRE

    Mercédès Charreton; Axel Decourtye; Mickaël Henry; Guy Rodet; Jean-Christophe Sandoz; Pierre Charnet; Claude Collet

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of pesticides used in agriculture towards non-targeted organisms and especially pollinators has recently drawn the attention from a broad scientific community. Increased honeybee mortality observed worldwide certainly contributes to this interest. The potential role of several neurotoxic insecticides in triggering or potentiating honeybee mortality was considered, in particular phenylpyrazoles and neonicotinoids, given that they are widely used and highly toxic for insects. Along...

  15. Lactobacillus apis sp. nov., from the stomach of honeybees (Apis mellifera), having an in vitro inhibitory effect on the causative agents of American and European foulbrood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Dubná, S.; Sedláček, I.; Švec, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2014), s. 152-157. ISSN 1466-5026 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0183 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : honeybees Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2014

  16. Isolation and characterization of proteases that hydrolyze royal jelly proteins from queen bee larvae of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Takuma; Kawashima, Takuji; Nakamura, Tadashi; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2012-01-01

    International audience Royal jelly is a nutritious substance secreted from the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of worker bees that serves as the only food on which honeybee queen larvae and adults are fed and which causes them to develop into queen bees. Royal jelly is a protein-rich food and one of the most crucial factors for the growth of queen bees. In this study, we characterized the hydrolytic activity of enzymes from the homogenates of honeybee queen larvae on royal jelly prote...

  17. Identification and characterization of a novel corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein (CRH-BP) gene from Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Yu, Xiaoli; Meng, Fei; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2011-11-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein (CRH-BP) is an essential secreted glycoprotein for coordinating the neuroendocrine responses to stress by binding either CRHs or its related peptides. A novel CRH-BP gene AccCRH-BP from Apis cerana cerana was identified and characterized. Its genomic DNA was consisted of seven exons and six introns, and shared high similarity with the homologous members from other insects and vertebrates. Homologous and phylogenetic analysis indicated that AccCRH-BP was highly conserved, suggesting the maintenance of conservative structure might be necessary for its biological function. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that AccCRH-BP was highly expressed in pupa and adult, especially in the head of pupa. However, there was no expression in larval stage. Furthermore, the transcripts of AccCRH-BP in the brain of honeybees were induced by exposure to environmental stresses including UV-light, heat, and cold. The expression level of AccCRH-BP in workers or queens was significantly higher than that of drones. Additionally, analysis of 5'-flanking region of AccCRH-BP revealed a number of putative development and stress transcription factor-binding sites. These data suggest that AccCRH-BP may play important roles in the regulation of honeybee development, and in the central nervous system of the brain to regulate the neuroendocrine stress responses. PMID:22006535

  18. Laboratory bioassays on the impact of cadmium, copper and lead on the development and survival of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae and foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Ning; Hladun, Kristen R; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Tong-Xian; Trumble, John T

    2016-06-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) have been widely distributed around the world to serve as pollinators for agriculture. They can encounter metal pollutants through various routes of exposure, including foraging on contaminated plant resources. Chronic and acute toxicity tests were conducted on larvae using artificial diets and on foragers using solutions of 50% sucrose, which contained cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb). We found that mortality increased in both larvae and foragers in a dose-dependent manner. Control larvae had higher relative growth indices (RGI) from day 6 to day 10 compared to all metal treatments, demonstrating substantial negative effects of metals on development. Copper was the least toxic to larvae with an LC50 of 6.97 mg L(-1). For foragers, Pb had the highest LC50, which was 345 mg L(-1). Foragers and larvae accumulated substantial quantities of all metals, and subsequent sucrose consumption decreased after dosing. Overall, honeybee larvae and foragers suffered detrimental effects when they were exposed to ecologically-relevant concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb. PMID:27011322

  19. Performance of Africanized honeybee colonies settled by queens selected for different traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Patrícia Schafaschek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated varroa infestation and the performance of Africanized honeybee colonies with queens selected for honey and royal jelly production, and also unselected queens, correlating with climatic variables. In Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, the experiment I used 10 Langstroth hives and in Mafra, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, the experiment II was performed with 15 Schenk hives. A mapping in areas of sealed and unsealed brood, honey and pollen was carried out on days zero, 45 and 90 days after the introduction of the queen. In the experiment I, there was interaction between the type of queen selection and the evaluation period for areas of sealed brood, honey, and total stored food. The group selected for royal jelly production presented larger sealed brood area and smaller honey area at 90 days. Varroa infestation was lower (p < 0.05 at 90 days. The type of queen selection and the evaluation period influenced the sealed brood area, the total brood and the total area occupied in the colony. The high relative humidity caused greater honey storage for the local group. The different groups of queens presented different behavior according to the environment in which they are settled.

  20. Physicochemical characteristics of organic honey samples of africanized honeybees from Parana River islands

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    Eloi Machado Alves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the physicochemical composition of organic honey in Paraná River islands, in Porto Brasílio, State of Paraná. Honey was harvested directly from super of the colonies in three apiaries spread in the Floresta and Laranjeira Islands, from August 2005 to August 2006. Twenty-four samples of organic honey produced by Africanized honeybees were evaluated. The following parameters were analyzed: pH, acidity, formol index, hydroxymethylfurfural, ashes, color, electric conductivity and moisture. Three replications per sample were performed for laboratorial analysis, giving the means and standard deviation. Most honey samples were in conformity with the Normative Instruction 11 from October 20, 2000. However, 4.17% were not in accordance with the moisture standards, 8.33% showed high concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, thus, totalizing 12.50% of non-complying samples. Nevertheless, 87.50% of the analyzed honey samples are within the standards, being characterized as an organic product of excellent quality, with good commercialization perspectives in the market.

  1. Analysis of the Differentiation of Kenyon Cell Subtypes Using Three Mushroom Body-Preferential Genes during Metamorphosis in the Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okude, Genta; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Shirai, Kenichi; Kubo, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    The adult honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) mushroom bodies (MBs, a higher center in the insect brain) comprise four subtypes of intrinsic neurons: the class-I large-, middle-, and small-type Kenyon cells (lKCs, mKCs, and sKCs, respectively), and class-II KCs. Analysis of the differentiation of KC subtypes during metamorphosis is important for the better understanding of the roles of KC subtypes related to the honeybee behaviors. In the present study, aiming at identifying marker genes for KC subtypes, we used a cDNA microarray to comprehensively search for genes expressed in an MB-preferential manner in the honeybee brain. Among the 18 genes identified, we further analyzed three genes whose expression was enriched in the MBs: phospholipase C epsilon (PLCe), synaptotagmin 14 (Syt14), and discs large homolog 5 (dlg5). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that expression of PLCe, Syt14, and dlg5 was more enriched in the MBs than in the other brain regions by approximately 31-, 6.8-, and 5.6-fold, respectively. In situ hybridization revealed that expression of both Syt14 and dlg5 was enriched in the lKCs but not in the mKCs and sKCs, whereas expression of PLCe was similar in all KC subtypes (the entire MBs) in the honeybee brain, suggesting that Syt14 and dlg5, and PLCe are available as marker genes for the lKCs, and all KC subtypes, respectively. In situ hybridization revealed that expression of PLCe is already detectable in the class-II KCs at the larval fifth instar feeding stage, indicating that PLCe expression is a characteristic common to the larval and adult MBs. In contrast, expression of both Syt14 and dlg5 became detectable at the day three pupa, indicating that Syt14 and dlg5 expressions are characteristic to the late pupal and adult MBs and the lKC specific molecular characteristics are established during the late pupal stages. PMID:27351839

  2. Influence of agrochemicals fipronil and imidacloprid on the learning behavior of Apis mellifera L. honeybees - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i4.18683

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pedraza Carrillo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agrochemicals on crop cultivated areas is a source of contamination for bees and may cause physiological and behavioral disorders and mortality. The LD50 of the pesticides fipronil and imidacloprid was determined and their effect on the learning behavior of Apis mellifera L. honeybee evaluated. LD50 was determined by the ingestion of contaminated food with different concentrations of insecticide concentrations: Fipronil (0, 0.8, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 µg bee-1 and imidacloprid (0, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1, 0.05 and 0.025 µg bee-1. The method of proboscis extension reflection (PER and learning through citral odor evaluated their responses to food stimulation. LD50 obtained were 0.28 ± 0.11 and 0.10 ± 0.04 µg bee-1 for fipronil and imidacloprid, respectively. The PER test showed no significant difference (p Apis mellifera bees.  

  3. Potential impacts of synergism in honeybees (Apis mellifera) of exposure to neonicotinoids and sprayed fungicides in crops

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Helen; Fryday, Steven; Harkin, Sarah; Milner, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    International audience Assessment of the toxicity of individual pesticides to honeybees is routinely assessed. However, few data have been generated for realistic mixtures of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides particularly with regard to exposure levels used. Assessment of the effects of exposure of bees to predicted residues following sprayed applications of ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor fungicides on the contact and oral toxicity of a range of neonicotinoid insecticides (thiam...

  4. Response of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) to a blend of chemicals identified from honeybee (Apis mellifera) volatiles

    OpenAIRE

    Torto, Baldwyn; Suazo, Alonso; Alborn, Hans; H. Tumlinson, James; E.A. Teal, Peter

    2005-01-01

    International audience Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of Super Q collected worker honey bee volatiles revealed several components that elicited antennal responses by the small hive beetle Aethina tumida. However, GC-MS analysis showed that eight of these EAD-active components dominated the volatile profile released into a wind tunnel by living adult worker honeybees and rubber septa impregnated with a Super Q extract of the volatiles of the be...

  5. A Locomotor Deficit Induced by Sublethal Doses of Pyrethroid and Neonicotinoid Insecticides in the Honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreton, Mercédès; Decourtye, Axel; Henry, Mickaël; Rodet, Guy; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Charnet, Pierre; Collet, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of pesticides used in agriculture towards non-targeted organisms and especially pollinators has recently drawn the attention from a broad scientific community. Increased honeybee mortality observed worldwide certainly contributes to this interest. The potential role of several neurotoxic insecticides in triggering or potentiating honeybee mortality was considered, in particular phenylpyrazoles and neonicotinoids, given that they are widely used and highly toxic for insects. Along with their ability to kill insects at lethal doses, they can compromise survival at sublethal doses by producing subtle deleterious effects. In this study, we compared the bee's locomotor ability, which is crucial for many tasks within the hive (e.g. cleaning brood cells, feeding larvae…), before and after an acute sublethal exposure to one insecticide belonging to the two insecticide classes, fipronil and thiamethoxam. Additionally, we examined the locomotor ability after exposure to pyrethroids, an older chemical insecticide class still widely used and known to be highly toxic to bees as well. Our study focused on young bees (day 1 after emergence) since (i) few studies are available on locomotion at this stage and (ii) in recent years, pesticides have been reported to accumulate in different hive matrices, where young bees undergo their early development. At sublethal doses (SLD48h, i.e. causing no mortality at 48 h), three pyrethroids, namely cypermethrin (2.5 ng/bee), tetramethrin (70 ng/bee), tau-fluvalinate (33 ng/bee) and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (3.8 ng/bee) caused a locomotor deficit in honeybees. While the SLD48h of fipronil (a phenylpyrazole, 0.5 ng/bee) had no measurable effect on locomotion, we observed high mortality several days after exposure, an effect that was not observed with the other insecticides. Although locomotor deficits observed in the sublethal range of pyrethroids and thiamethoxam would suggest deleterious effects in the field, the case of

  6. Dimorphic ovary differentiation in honeybee (Apis mellifera larvae involves caste-specific expression of homologs of ark and buffy cell death genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires Dallacqua

    Full Text Available The establishment of the number of repeated structural units, the ovarioles, in the ovaries is one of the critical events that shape caste polyphenism in social insects. In early postembryonic development, honeybee (Apis mellifera larvae have a pair of ovaries, each one consisting of almost two hundred ovariole primordia. While practically all these ovarioles continue developing in queen-destined larvae, they undergo massive programmed cell death (PCD in worker-destined larvae. So as to gain insight into the molecular basis of this fundamental process in caste differentiation we used quantitative PCR (qPCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH to investigate the expression of the Amark and Ambuffy genes in the ovaries of the two honeybee castes throughout the fifth larval instar. These are the homologs of ark and buffy Drosophila melanogaster genes, respectively, involved in activating and inhibiting PCD. Caste-specific expression patterns were found during this time-window defining ovariole number. Amark transcript levels were increased when ovariole resorption was intensified in workers, but remained at low levels in queen ovaries. The transcripts were mainly localized at the apical end of all the worker ovarioles, but appeared in only a few queen ovarioles, thus strongly suggesting a function in mediating massive ovariolar cell death in worker larvae. Ambuffy was mainly expressed in the peritoneal sheath cells covering each ovariole. The levels of Ambuffy transcripts increased earlier in the developing ovaries of queens than in workers. Consistent with a protective role against cell death, Ambuffy transcripts were localized in practically all queen ovarioles, but only in few worker ovarioles. The results are indicative of a functional relationship between the expression of evolutionary conserved cell death genes and the morphological events leading to caste-specific ovary differentiation in a social insect.

  7. A virulent strain of deformed wing virus (DWV of honeybees (Apis mellifera prevails after Varroa destructor-mediated, or in vitro, transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene V Ryabov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The globally distributed ectoparasite Varroa destructor is a vector for viral pathogens of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera, in particular the Iflavirus Deformed Wing Virus (DWV. In the absence of Varroa low levels DWV occur, generally causing asymptomatic infections. Conversely, Varroa-infested colonies show markedly elevated virus levels, increased overwintering colony losses, with impairment of pupal development and symptomatic workers. To determine whether changes in the virus population were due Varroa amplifying and introducing virulent virus strains and/or suppressing the host immune responses, we exposed Varroa-naïve larvae to oral and Varroa-transmitted DWV. We monitored virus levels and diversity in developing pupae and associated Varroa, the resulting RNAi response and transcriptome changes in the host. Exposed pupae were stratified by Varroa association (presence/absence and virus levels (low/high into three groups. Varroa-free pupae all exhibited low levels of a highly diverse DWV population, with those exposed per os (group NV exhibiting changes in the population composition. Varroa-associated pupae exhibited either low levels of a diverse DWV population (group VL or high levels of a near-clonal virulent variant of DWV (group VH. These groups and unexposed controls (C could be also discriminated by principal component analysis of the transcriptome changes observed, which included several genes involved in development and the immune response. All Varroa tested contained a diverse replicating DWV population implying the virulent variant present in group VH, and predominating in RNA-seq analysis of temporally and geographically separate Varroa-infested colonies, was selected upon transmission from Varroa, a conclusion supported by direct injection of pupae in vitro with mixed virus populations. Identification of a virulent variant of DWV, the role of Varroa in its transmission and the resulting host transcriptome changes furthers

  8. INFLUENCE OF HONEYBEE QUEENS ORIGIN TO THE PRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CARNIOLAN BEES (APIS MELLIFERA CARNICA) IN SLOVENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Poklukar, J

    2002-01-01

    Total amount of 4.355 records of honeybee colonies production characteristics was estimated on the 251 bee yards in Slovenia from 1993 to 2001. Queens were produced on 29 queen producing yards. The average lsmeans of honey yields increased by 0,41 kg a year. The swarming behaviour and the defensive behaviour of bees increased as well by - 0,091 points, and –0,038 points respectively. According to the last two years records, the honey yields of bee colonies were significantly influ...

  9. Genetic characterization of a polymorphic dipeptidyl aminopeptidase of Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Del Lama,; Boraschi, Daniele; Ademilson Espencer Egea Soares,; Duran, Ximena

    2004-01-01

    International audience Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (DAP) activity towards L-leucylglycine-$\\beta$-naphthylamide (Leu-Gly NA) was characterized in pupae and adult extracts of Apis mellifera. Enzyme activity was more conspicuous in pupae than in adult extracts and it seemed to be concentrated in digestive tract tissues. Two genetically determined electrophoretic variants were observed in honeybee samples from the USA and Chile; in Brazilian Africanized bees, two additional variants were observ...

  10. Efficacy of honeybees (Apis mellifera on the production of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. seeds in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Abd Elmhmoud Altayeb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Study was conducted to test the efficacy of the honeybees in the production of sunflower seeds. This experiment was conducted in Complete Randomized Block Design in the cropping season of 2011- 2012 at Sinnar region, Sudan. Three different patterns of pollination i.e. pollination with honey bee (H, open pollination (O and control without pollination (C were tested for the seed set in sun flower. Each treatments contains twenty (20 plants. Results of study revealed significant differences among the tested pollination pattern. Among these highest seed set ratios (80% and 79% were obtained in the open (O and honey bee (H pollination system. While only 45.2% seed set was reported in the control (C where plants kept in closed system and away from insect pollination. Furthermore, the mean seeds weights per head (27.65g and 26.88g were also reported higher in open and honey bee pollinated system and it was 162.3% and 155% higher than the control respectively. Similar types of trends was reported in the weight parameters of hundred seeds, the superiority was shown by open and honey bee pollination. This weight was 52% and 45% higher than the control treatment (C respectively. Therefore, the results of the study revealed that use of honeybees as pollinator for sunflower can contribute in hybrid seed production in better manner.

  11. Characterization of the 5-HT1A receptor of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and involvement of serotonin in phototactic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamm, Markus; Balfanz, Sabine; Scheiner, Ricarda; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    Serotonin plays a key role in modulating various physiological and behavioral processes in both protostomes and deuterostomes. The vast majority of serotonin receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. We report the cloning of a cDNA from the honeybee (Am5-ht1A) sharing high similarity with members of the 5-HT(1) receptor class. Activation of Am5-HT(1A) by serotonin inhibited the production of cAMP in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50) = 16.9 nM). Am5-HT(1A) was highly expressed in brain regions known to be involved in visual information processing. Using in vivo pharmacology, we could demonstrate that Am5-HT(1A) receptor ligands had a strong impact on the phototactic behavior of individual bees. The data presented here mark the first comprehensive study-from gene to behavior-of a 5-HT(1A) receptor in the honeybee, paving the way for the eventual elucidation of additional roles of this receptor subtype in the physiology and behavior of this social insect. PMID:20349263

  12. Effect of a thymol application on olfactory memory and gene expression levels in the brain of the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnafé, Elsa; Drouard, Florian; Hotier, Lucie; Carayon, Jean-Luc; Marty, Pierre; Treilhou, Michel; Armengaud, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Essential oils are used by beekeepers to control the Varroa mites that infest honeybee colonies. So, bees can be exposed to thymol formulations in the hive. The effects of the monoterpenoid thymol were explored on olfactory memory and gene expression in the brain of the honeybee. In bees previously exposed to thymol (10 or 100 ng/bee), the specificity of the response to the conditioned stimulus (CS) was lost 24 h after learning. Besides, the octopamine receptor OA1 gene Amoa1 showed a significant decrease of expression 3 h after exposure with 10 or 100 ng/bee of thymol. With the same doses, expression of Rdl gene, coding for a GABA receptor subunit, was not significantly modified but the trpl gene was upregulated 1 and 24 h after exposure to thymol. These data indicated that the genes coding for the cellular targets of thymol could be rapidly regulated after exposure to this molecule. Memory and sensory processes should be investigated in bees after chronic exposure in the hive to thymol-based preparations. PMID:24590599

  13. South American native bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) infected by Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia), an emerging pathogen of honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plischuk, Santiago; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Prieto, Lourdes; Lucía, Mariano; Botías, Cristina; Meana, Aránzazu; Abrahamovich, Alberto H; Lange, Carlos; Higes, Mariano

    2009-04-01

    As pollination is a critical process in both human-managed and natural terrestrial ecosystems, pollinators provide essential services to both nature and humans. Pollination is mainly due to the action of different insects, such as the bumblebee and the honeybee. These important ecological and economic roles have led to widespread concern over the recent decline in pollinator populations that has been detected in many regions of the world. While this decline has been attributed in some cases to changes in the use of agricultural land, the effects of parasites could play a significant role in the reduction of these populations. For the first time, we describe here the presence of Nosema ceranae, an emerging honeybee pathogen, in three species of Argentine native bumblebees. A total of 455 bumblebees belonging to six species of genus Bombus were examined. PCR results showed that three of the species are positive to N. ceranae (Bombus atratus, Bombus morio and Bombus bellicosus). We discuss the appearance of this pathogen in the context of the population decline of this pollinators. PMID:23765744

  14. Proteome Analysis Unravels Mechanism Underling the Embryogenesis of the Honeybee Drone and Its Divergence with the Worker (Apis mellifera lingustica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Han, Bin; Qi, Yuping; Hu, Han; Fan, Pei; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Li, Jianke

    2015-09-01

    The worker and drone bees each contain a separate diploid and haploid genetic makeup, respectively. Mechanisms regulating the embryogenesis of the drone and its mechanistic difference with the worker are still poorly understood. The proteomes of the two embryos at three time-points throughout development were analyzed by applying mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We identified 2788 and 2840 proteins in the worker and drone embryos, respectively. The age-dependent proteome driving the drone embryogenesis generally follows the worker's. The two embryos however evolve a distinct proteome setting to prime their respective embryogenesis. The strongly expressed proteins and pathways related to transcriptional-translational machinery and morphogenesis at 24 h drone embryo relative to the worker, illustrating the earlier occurrence of morphogenesis in the drone than worker. These morphogenesis differences remain through to the middle-late stage in the two embryos. The two embryos employ distinct antioxidant mechanisms coinciding with the temporal-difference organogenesis. The drone embryo's strongly expressed cytoskeletal proteins signify key roles to match its large body size. The RNAi induced knockdown of the ribosomal protein offers evidence for the functional investigation of gene regulating of honeybee embryogenesis. The data significantly expand novel regulatory mechanisms governing the embryogenesis, which is potentially important for honeybee and other insects. PMID:26260241

  15. Characterization of a sigma class glutathione S-transferase gene in the larvae of the honeybee (Apis cerana cerana) on exposure to mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoli; Sun, Rujiang; Yan, Huiru; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2012-04-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes that are mainly involved in detoxification of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds and oxidative stress resistance in insects. In this study, we identified a sigma class GST from Apis cerana cerana (AccGSTs4). The open reading frame of cDNA was 612 bp and encoded a 203 amino acid polypeptide, which exhibited the structural motif and domain organization characteristic of GST. Homology and evolutionary analysis indicated that the induced amino acid sequence of AccGSTs4 belonged to an insect sigma class group. Expression analysis indicated that AccGSTs4 was presented in all stages of development with high level in 4th instar larvae. Immunolocalization further revealed the distribution of AccGSTs4 in 4th instar larvae. RT-qPCR showed that the transcripts of AccGSTs4 from the larvae were upregulated under dietary HgCl(2). The GST activity under stress was higher than the controls fed on HgCl(2)-free diet. Disc diffusion assay provided evidence of recAccGSTs4 resistance to long-term exposure of HgCl(2) stress. Additionally, analysis of 5'-flanking region further clarified the probable expression patterns of AccGSTs4. Taken together, our findings indicate that the larvae AccGSTs4 may play a role in mercury stress response, and it will help to protect honeybees from heavy metals. PMID:22248933

  16. Controlling Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae colonies by using Thymovar® and BeeVital®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Yeninar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of Thymovar® and BeeVital® on reducing Varroa mite (Varroa destructor damage in honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in spring season. Average percentage of Varroa infestation level was determined as 24.27 on adult workers before the treatments. The drugs were applied two times on 25 September and 16 October 2006. Average percentage of Varroa infestation levels were determined as 5.18%, 10.78% and 35.45% after the first application, 1.90%, 7.05% and 61.15% after the second application in Thymovar®, BeeVital® and control groups, respectively. Average efficacies of Thymovar® and BeeVital® were found to be 96.91% and 88.66%, respectively. Difference between drug efficacies on Varroa mite was found significant (P<0.01. There was no queen, brood and adult honeybee mortality in all group colonies during the research.

  17. Evaluation of different glycoforms of honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) produced in insect cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Plum, Melanie;

    2011-01-01

    were analyzed for their glycosylation and proved to show advantageous properties regarding cross-reactivity in sIgE-based assays. Additionally, in contrast to the enzymatically active native protein the inactivated allergen did not induce IgE-independent effector cell activation. Thus, insect cell......-derived recombinant Api m 1 with defined CCD phenotypes might provide further insights into hymenoptera venom IgE reactivities and contribute to an improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy....

  18. INFLUENCE OF HONEYBEE QUEENS ORIGIN TO THE PRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CARNIOLAN BEES (APIS MELLIFERA CARNICA IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J POKLUKAR

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Total amount of 4.355 records of honeybee colonies production characteristics was estimated on the 251 bee yards in Slovenia from 1993 to 2001. Queens were produced on 29 queen producing yards. The average lsmeans of honey yields increased by 0,41 kg a year. The swarming behaviour and the defensive behaviour of bees increased as well by - 0,091 points, and –0,038 points respectively. According to the last two years records, the honey yields of bee colonies were significantly influenced by the drone gene pool at queen production yards. The swarming behaviour was in contrary more influenced by the queen mothers on queen production yards. The defensive behaviour of bee colonies and the daily varroa mite fall were not significantly influenced by parents.

  19. MicroRNA signatures characterizing caste-independent ovarian activity in queen and worker honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, L M F; Nunes, F M F; Freitas, F C P; Pires, C V; Tanaka, E D; Martins, J R; Piulachs, M-D; Cristino, A S; Pinheiro, D G; Simões, Z L P

    2016-06-01

    Queen and worker honeybees differ profoundly in reproductive capacity. The queen of this complex society, with 200 highly active ovarioles in each ovary, is the fertile caste, whereas the workers have approximately 20 ovarioles as a result of receiving a different diet during larval development. In a regular queenright colony, the workers have inactive ovaries and do not reproduce. However, if the queen is sensed to be absent, some of the workers activate their ovaries, producing viable haploid eggs that develop into males. Here, a deep-sequenced ovary transcriptome library of reproductive workers was used as supporting data to assess the dynamic expression of the regulatory molecules and microRNAs (miRNAs) of reproductive and nonreproductive honeybee females. In this library, most of the differentially expressed miRNAs are related to ovary physiology or oogenesis. When we quantified the dynamic expression of 19 miRNAs in the active and inactive worker ovaries and compared their expression in the ovaries of virgin and mated queens, we noted that some miRNAs (miR-1, miR-31a, miR-13b, miR-125, let-7 RNA, miR-100, miR-276, miR-12, miR-263a, miR-306, miR-317, miR-92a and miR-9a) could be used to identify reproductive and nonreproductive statuses independent of caste. Furthermore, integrative gene networks suggested that some candidate miRNAs function in the process of ovary activation in worker bees. PMID:26853694

  20. Effects of an insect growth regulator and a solvent on honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) brood development and queen viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchreit, Kathrin; Ruhnke, Haike; Wegener, Jakob; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2016-04-01

    Honeybee toxicology is complex because effects on individual bees are modulated by social interactions between colony members. In the present study, we applied high doses of the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb to honeybee colonies to elucidate a possible interplay of individually- and colony-mediated effects regarding honey bee toxicology. Additionally, possible effects of the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were assessed. We conducted studies on egg hatching and brood development to assess brood care by nurse bees as well as queen viability. Egg hatching was determined by the eclosion rate of larvae from eggs originating from colonies (i) treated with sugar syrup only, (ii) treated with sugar syrup containing DMSO and (iii) treated with sugar syrup containing fenoxycarb (dissolved in DMSO). To evaluate brood development, combs with freshly laid eggs were reciprocally transferred between colonies, and development of brood was examined in the recipient hive. Brood reared inside DMSO- and fenoxycarb-treated colonies as well as brood from DMSO- and from fenoxycarb-exposed queens showed higher mortality than brood not exposed to the chemicals. No differences were found in egg hatching among the treatments, but there was a higher variability of eclosion rates after queens were exposed to fenoxycarb. We also observed queen loss and absconding of whole colonies. Based on our results we infer that fenoxycarb has queen- as well as nurse bee-mediated effects on brood quality and development which can lead to the queen's death. There also is an effect of DMSO on the nurse bees' performance that could disturb the colony's equilibrium, at least for a delimited timespan. PMID:26821233

  1. Transmedulla Neurons in the Sky Compass Network of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera Are a Possible Site of Circadian Input.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Zeller

    Full Text Available Honeybees are known for their ability to use the sun's azimuth and the sky's polarization pattern for spatial orientation. Sky compass orientation in bees has been extensively studied at the behavioral level but our knowledge about the underlying neuronal systems and mechanisms is very limited. Electrophysiological studies in other insect species suggest that neurons of the sky compass system integrate information about the polarization pattern of the sky, its chromatic gradient, and the azimuth of the sun. In order to obtain a stable directional signal throughout the day, circadian changes between the sky polarization pattern and the solar azimuth must be compensated. Likewise, the system must be modulated in a context specific way to compensate for changes in intensity, polarization and chromatic properties of light caused by clouds, vegetation and landscape. The goal of this study was to identify neurons of the sky compass pathway in the honeybee brain and to find potential sites of circadian and neuromodulatory input into this pathway. To this end we first traced the sky compass pathway from the polarization-sensitive dorsal rim area of the compound eye via the medulla and the anterior optic tubercle to the lateral complex using dye injections. Neurons forming this pathway strongly resembled neurons of the sky compass pathway in other insect species. Next we combined tracer injections with immunocytochemistry against the circadian neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor and the neuromodulators serotonin, and γ-aminobutyric acid. We identified neurons, connecting the dorsal rim area of the medulla to the anterior optic tubercle, as a possible site of neuromodulation and interaction with the circadian system. These neurons have conspicuous spines in close proximity to pigment dispersing factor-, serotonin-, and GABA-immunoreactive neurons. Our data therefore show for the first time a potential interaction site between the sky compass pathway

  2. Métodos para atrair a abelha Apis mellifera L. em cultura de abacate (Persea americana Mill. Methods to attract honeybee Apis mellifera L. to avocado tree (Persea americana Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento teve como objetivo avaliar métodos de atração da abelha Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae em duas variedades de abacate (Persea americana Mill.. Os atrativos utilizados foram extratos de Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, Lippia alba, folha de Citrus sp, folha de Eucaliptus sp. e o eugenol e o linalol (SIGMA. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: coberto; descoberto pulverizado (DP; descoberto com tubos e descoberto não pulverizado (DNP. Observou-se que a atratividade das substâncias testadas desapareceu minutos após a sua aplicação, utilizando ou não a glicerina, em ambas as variedades. A pulverização dos extratos de falsa melissa, folhas de eucalipto e folhas de laranja apresentaram um aumento no número de abelhas Apis mellifera, na variedade Quintal. Os dados mostraram que a freqüência das abelhas A. mellifera foi maior na variedade Quintal comparada à variedade Fortuna. Isto pode ter ocorrido devido à maior concentração de açúcares do néctar de suas flores. Observou-se que as abelhas A. mellifera preferiram visitar as flores do abacateiro da variedade Quintal, tanto para néctar quanto para coleta de pólen, comparada à variedade Fortuna. Com relação aos frutos, nenhuma das características apresentou diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, em ambas as variedades. Entretanto, observou-se que na variedade Quintal os frutos decorrentes dos tratamentos DP e DNP foram mais pesados, mais compridos e com maior espessura da polpa, comparados ao único fruto obtido do tratamento coberto. Os produtos testados em tubos não foram eficientes para atrair a abelha Apis mellifera, em ambas as variedades.The present experiment was carried out to evaluate some methods to attract honeybee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae to two avocado varieties (Persea americana Mill.. Extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, Lippia alba, Citrus sp leaf, Eucalyptus sp leaf, the eugenol and linalol

  3. Varroa jacobsoni infestation of adult Africanized and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera) in mixed colonies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moretto Geraldo; Mello Jr. Leonidas João de

    1999-01-01

    Different levels of infestation with the mite Varroa jacobsoni have been observed in the various Apis mellifera races. In general, bees of European races are more susceptible to the mite than African honey bees and their hybrids. In Brazil honey bee colonies are not treated against the mite, though apparently both climate and bee race influence the mite infestation. Six mixed colonies were made with Italian and Africanized honey bees. The percentage infestation by this parasite was found to b...

  4. Fine scale analysis of crossover and non-crossover and detection of recombination sequence motifs in the honeybee (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bessoltane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Meiotic exchanges are non-uniformly distributed across the genome of most studied organisms. This uneven distribution suggests that recombination is initiated by specific signals and/or regulations. Some of these signals were recently identified in humans and mice. However, it is unclear whether or not sequence signals are also involved in chromosomal recombination of insects. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed recombination frequencies in the honeybee, in which genome sequencing provided a large amount of SNPs spread over the entire set of chromosomes. As the genome sequences were obtained from a pool of haploid males, which were the progeny of a single queen, an oocyte method (study of recombination on haploid males that develop from unfertilized eggs and hence are the direct reflect of female gametes haplotypes was developed to detect recombined pairs of SNP sites. Sequences were further compared between recombinant and non-recombinant fragments to detect recombination-specific motifs. CONCLUSIONS: Recombination events between adjacent SNP sites were detected at an average distance of 92 bp and revealed the existence of high rates of recombination events. This study also shows the presence of conversion without crossover (i. e. non-crossover events, the number of which largely outnumbers that of crossover events. Furthermore the comparison of sequences that have undergone recombination with sequences that have not, led to the discovery of sequence motifs (CGCA, GCCGC, CCGCA, which may correspond to recombination signals.

  5. Caps and gaps: a computer model for studies on brood incubation strategies in honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehler, Manuel; Kleinhenz, Marco; Klügl, Franziska; Puppe, Frank; Tautz, Jürgen

    2007-08-01

    In addition to heat production on the comb surface, honeybee workers frequently visit open cells (“gaps”) that are scattered throughout the sealed brood area, and enter them to incubate adjacent brood cells. We examined the efficiency of this heating strategy under different environmental conditions and for gap proportions from 0 to 50%. For gap proportions from 4 to 10%, which are common to healthy colonies, we find a significant reduction in the incubation time per brood cell to maintain the correct temperature. The savings make up 18 to 37% of the time, which would be required for this task in completely sealed brood areas without any gaps. For unnatural high proportions of gaps (>20%), which may be the result of inbreeding or indicate a poor condition of the colony, brood nest thermoregulation becomes less efficient, and the incubation time per brood cell has to increase to maintain breeding temperature. Although the presence of gaps is not essential to maintain an optimal brood nest temperature, a small number of gaps make heating more economical by reducing the time and energy that must be spent on this vital task. As the benefit depends on the availability, spatial distribution and usage of gaps by the bees, further studies need to show the extent to which these results apply to real colonies.

  6. Modes of worker reproduction, reproductive dominance and brood cell construction in queenless honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Peter; Randall Hepburn, H.; Radloff, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    Modes de reproduction des ouvrières, dominance de reproduction et construction des cellules de couvain dans des colonies orphelines d'Apis mellifera L. Le long d'un transect à travers la zone d'hybridation naturelle entre A. mellifera capensis, à reproduction thélytoque, et A. mellifera scutellata, à reproduction arrhénotoque, 70 colonies indigènes ont été récoltées (voir tableau pour les lieux). Toutes les reines et tous les rayons ont été ôtés et les abeilles adultes ont été transférées dan...

  7. Differences in long-term memory stability and AmCREB level between forward and backward conditioned honeybees (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eFelsenberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In classical conditioning a predictive relationship between a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus; CS and a meaningful stimulus (unconditioned stimulus; US is learned when the CS precedes the US. In backward conditioning the sequence of the stimuli is reversed. In this situation animals might learn that the CS signals the end or the absence of the US. In honeybees 30 min and 24 h following backward conditioning a memory for the excitatory and inhibitory properties of the CS could be retrieved, but it remains unclear whether a late long-term memory is formed that can be retrieved 72 h following backward conditioning. Here we examine this question by studying late long-term memory formation in forward and backward conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER. We report a difference in the stability of memory formed upon forward and backward conditioning with the same number of conditioning trials. We demonstrate a transcription-dependent memory 72 h after forward conditioning but do not observe a 72 h memory after backward conditioning. Moreover we find that protein degradation is differentially involved in memory formation following these two conditioning protocols. We report differences in the level of a transcription factor, the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB known to induce transcription underlying long-term memory formation, following forward and backward conditioning. Our results suggest that these alterations in CREB levels might be regulated by the proteasome. We propose that the differences observed are due to the sequence of stimulus presentation between forward and backward conditioning and not to differences in the strength of the association of both stimuli.

  8. Influence of agrochemicals fipronil and imidacloprid on the learning behavior of Apis mellifera L. honeybees - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i4.18683

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Pedraza Carrillo; Thaís de Souza Bovi; Adriana Fava Negrão; Ricardo Oliveira Orsi

    2013-01-01

    Agrochemicals on crop cultivated areas is a source of contamination for bees and may cause physiological and behavioral disorders and mortality. The LD50 of the pesticides fipronil and imidacloprid was determined and their effect on the learning behavior of Apis mellifera L. honeybee evaluated. LD50 was determined by the ingestion of contaminated food with different concentrations of insecticide concentrations: Fipronil (0, 0.8, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 µg bee-1) and imidacloprid (0, 0.4, 0.2, ...

  9. Cloning, structural characterization and expression analysis of a novel lipid storage droplet protein-1 (LSD-1) gene in Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Gong, Zhihong; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2012-03-01

    Lipid storage droplet 1 (LSD-1), a PAT family protein located around lipid droplets in insects, is intimately linked to lipid droplets formation and lipid metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and rosiglitazone (Rosi) have previously been shown to modulate the expression of several PAT family proteins through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). In the present study, we isolated and characterized a novel LSD-1 gene, referred to AccLSD-1, from Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana). Sequence analysis indicated that the central region of LSD-1 protein had significant sequence similarity and a typical LSD-1 gene was composed of 8 exons and 7 introns. Interestingly, the first intron of AccLSD-1 including several PPARγ-response elements (PPREs) was located in 5' UTR. Analysis of 5'-flanking region of AccLSD-1 revealed a number of putative cis-acting elements, including three PPREs. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AccLSD-1 expressed ubiquitously from feeding larva to adult, and its expression level was highest at brown-eyed pupae (Pb) stage. The effect of CLA, Rosi and combination on AccLSD-1 expressions indicated 1% CLA and 0.5 mg/ml Rosi were considered as the suitable diets for rearing adult workers in laboratory, and AccLSD-1 was down-regulated by CLA whereas up-regulated by Rosi. Furthermore, the combination of CLA and Rosi remarkly rescued the suppression of AccLSD-1 expression by CLA alone. These results suggest that AccLSD-1 is associated with A. cerana cerana development, especially during pupal metamorphosis, and can be regulated by CLA or Rosi possibly via activating PPARγ. PMID:21695433

  10. Induced thiacloprid insensitivity in honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) is associated with up-regulation of detoxification genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, S; Bass, C; Nicholls, C; Paine, M J I; Clark, S J; Field, L; Moores, G D

    2016-04-01

    Honey bees, Apis mellifera, are markedly less sensitive to neonicotinoid insecticides containing a cyanoimino pharmacophore than to those with a nitroimino group. Although previous work has suggested that this results from enhanced metabolism of the former by detoxification enzymes, the specific enzyme(s) involved remain to be characterized. In this work, a pretreatment of honey bees with a sublethal dose of thiacloprid resulted in induced insensitivity to the same compound immediately following thiacloprid feeding. A longer pretreatment time resulted in no, or increased, sensitivity. Transcriptome profiling, using microarrays, identified a number of genes encoding detoxification enzymes that were over-expressed significantly in insecticide-treated bees compared with untreated controls. These included five P450s, CYP6BE1, CYP305D1, CYP6AS5, CYP315A1, CYP301A1, and a carboxyl/cholinesterase (CCE) CCE8. Four of these P450s were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and their ability to metabolize thiacloprid examined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. PMID:26790026

  11. Variable induction of vitellogenin genes in the varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman) by the honeybee, Apis mellifera L, host and its environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcript levels of vitellogenins (Vgs) in the varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman) were variably induced by interactions between the developing honeybee as a food source and the capped honeybee cell environment. Transcripts for 2 Vgs of varroa mites were sequenced and putative Vg pr...

  12. Expression and characterization of α-glucosidase Ⅲ in the dwarf honeybee, Apis florea (Hymenoptera: Apoidea:Apidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANPEN CHANCHAO; RUMPALAI PADOONGSUPALAI; POLKIT SANGVANICH

    2007-01-01

    Alpha-glucosidase is synthesized in the hypopharyngeal glands located in the head of worker bees including Apis florea. To analyze the developmental stage-specific expression of the α-glucosidase gene in A. florea, total RNA was isolated from eggs, and the heads of nurse and forager bees. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR), it was shown that the highest expression levels of the α-glucosidase Ⅲ gene, in the three examined developmental stadia, were found in forager bees, with much lower expression levels in nurse bees and no detectable expression in eggs. A complete α-glucosidase Ⅲ cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR and sequenced. The 1 701 bp cDNA nucleotide sequence and the predicted 567 amino acids it encodes were assayed by BLASTn,BLASTp and BLASTx programs and revealed a 95% and 94% similarity to the A. mellifera α-glucosidase Ⅲ gene at the DNA and amino acid sequence levels, respectively. For purification of the active encoded enzyme, forager bee heads were homogenized in sodium phosphate buffer solution and the crude extract (0.30 U/mg) sequentially precipitated with 95% saturated ammonium sulfate (0.18 U/mg), and purified by DEAE cellulose ion exchange chromatography (0.17 U/mg), and gel filtration on Superdex 200 (0.52 U/mg).After resolution through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a single enzymically active band (73 kDa) was identified from renatured substrate gels.Excision of this band, elution of the protein and tryptic peptide digestives identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) revealed six matching masses to the A. mellifera (Q17958) and predicted A. florea α-glucosidase Ⅲ protein with 12% coverage, supporting the probable purification of the same α-glucosidase Ⅲ protein as that encoded by the cloned cDNA.

  13. Effects of sublethal doses of imidacloprid in Malpighian tubules of Africanized Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Caroline de Almeida; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Tavares, Daiana Antonia; Cintra-Socolowski, Priscila; Malaspina, Osmar

    2013-05-01

    In Brazil, imidacloprid is a widely used insecticide on agriculture and can harm bees, which are important pollinators. The active ingredient imidacloprid has action on the nervous system of the insects. However, little has been studied about the actions of the insecticide on nontarget organs of insects, such as the Malpighian tubules that make up the excretory and osmoregulatory system. Hence, in this study, we evaluated the effects of chronic exposure to sublethal doses of imidacloprid in Malpighian tubules of Africanized Apis mellifera. In the tubules of treated bees, we found an increase in the number of cells with picnotic nuclei, the lost of part of the cell into the lumen, and a homogenization of coloring cytoplasm. Furthermore, we observed the presence of cytoplasmic vacuolization. We confirmed the increased occurrence of picnotic nuclei by using the Feulgan reaction, which showed the chromatin compaction was more intense in the tubules of bees exposed to the insecticide. We observed an intensification of the staining of the nucleus with Xylidine Ponceau, further verifying the cytoplasmic negative regions that may indicate autophagic activity. Additionally, immunocytochemistry experiments showed TUNEL positive nuclei in exposed bees, implicating increased cell apoptosis after chronic imidacloprid exposure. In conclusion, our results indicate that very low concentrations of imidacloprid lead to cytotoxic activity in the Malpighian tubules of exposed bees at all tested times for exposure and imply that this insecticide can alter honey bee physiology. PMID:23483717

  14. Brain morphophysiology of Africanized bee Apis mellifera exposed to sublethal doses of imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Rossi, Caroline; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Tavares, Daiana Antonia; Cintra-Socolowski, Priscila; Malaspina, Osmar

    2013-08-01

    Several synthetic substances are used in agricultural areas to combat insect pests; however, the indiscriminate use of these products may affect nontarget insects, such as bees. In Brazil, one of the most widely used insecticides is imidacloprid, which targets the nervous system of insects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to sublethal doses of imidacloprid on the brain of the Africanized Apis mellifera. The organs of both control bees and bees exposed to insecticide were subjected to morphological, histochemical and immunocytochemical analysis after exposure to imidacloprid, respectively, for 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days. In mushroom bodies of bees exposed to imidacloprid concentrations of LD50/10 and in optic lobes of bees exposed to imidacloprid concentrations of LD50/10, LD50/100, and LD50/50, we observed the presence of condensed cells. The Feulgen reaction revealed the presence of some cells with pyknotic nuclei, whereas Xylidine Ponceau stain revealed strongly stained cells. These characteristics can indicate the occurrence of cell death. Furthermore, cells in mushroom bodies of bees exposed to imidacloprid concentrations of LD50/10 appeared to be swollen. Cell death was confirmed by immunocytochemical technique. Therefore, it was concluded that sublethal doses of imidacloprid have cytotoxic effects on exposed bee brains and that optic lobes are more sensitive to the insecticide than other regions of the brain. PMID:23563487

  15. Genetic structure of Balearic honeybee populations based on microsatellite polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Robin FA

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic variation of honeybee colonies collected in 22 localities on the Balearic Islands (Spain was analysed using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Previous studies have demonstrated that these colonies belong either to the African or west European evolutionary lineages. These populations display low variability estimated from both the number of alleles and heterozygosity values, as expected for the honeybee island populations. Although genetic differentiation within the islands is low, significant heterozygote deficiency is present, indicating a subpopulation genetic structure. According to the genetic differentiation test, the honeybee populations of the Balearic Islands cluster into two groups: Gimnesias (Mallorca and Menorca and Pitiusas (Ibiza and Formentera, which agrees with the biogeography postulated for this archipelago. The phylogenetic analysis suggests an Iberian origin of the Balearic honeybees, thus confirming the postulated evolutionary scenario for Apis mellifera in the Mediterranean basin. The microsatellite data from Formentera, Ibiza and Menorca show that ancestral populations are threatened by queen importations, indicating that adequate conservation measures should be developed for protecting Balearic bees.

  16. Microbial flora in organic honey samples of africanized honeybees from Parana river islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josiane Sereia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify and compare the main contamination sources and the hygienic/sanitary conditions of organic honey samples of Apis mellifera from Parana River islands. Thirty-three (33 samples were analyzed between January 2005 and August 2006. Eleven (11 samples were collected by beekeepers and twenty-two (22 samples were collected and processed in accordance with ideal personal hygiene norms and good manufacturing practices. The samples underwent microbiological analysis in search of coliforms at 35 ºC and 45 ºC, as well as fungi enumeration analysis. As for fungi counting, the samples harvested by beekeepers showed values above the maximum established by Resolution nº 15/94 of Common Market Group - Mercosul. The results showed that secondary contamination sources are responsible for the reduction of organic honey quality.

  17. Cytotoxic effects of thiamethoxam in the midgut and malpighian tubules of Africanized Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catae, Aline Fernanda; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; De Oliveira, Regiane Alves; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira; Malaspina, Osmar

    2014-04-01

    Due to its expansion, agriculture has become increasingly dependent on the use of pesticides. However, the indiscriminate use of insecticides has had additional effects on the environment. These products have a broad spectrum of action, and therefore the insecticide affects not only the pests but also non-target insects such as bees, which are important pollinators of agricultural crops and natural environments. Among the most used pesticides, the neonicotinoids are particularly harmful. One of the neonicotinoids of specific concern is thiamethoxam, which is used on a wide variety of crops and is toxic to bees. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the effects of this insecticide in the midgut and Malpighian tubule cells of Africanized Apis mellifera. Newly emerged workers were exposed until 8 days to a diet containing a sublethal dose of thiamethoxam equal to 1/10 of LC₅₀ (0.0428 ng a.i./l L of diet). The bees were dissected and the organs were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that thiamethoxam is cytotoxic to midgut and Malpighian tubules. In the midgut, the damage was more evident in bees exposed to the insecticide on the first day. On the eighth day, the cells were ultrastructurally intact suggesting a recovery of this organ. The Malpighian tubules showed pronounced alterations on the eighth day of exposure of bees to the insecticide. This study demonstrates that the continuous exposure to a sublethal dose of thiamethoxam can impair organs that are used during the metabolism of the insecticide. PMID:24470251

  18. Effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory sensitivity of the honeybee( Apis mellifera ligustica)%亚致死剂量杀虫剂对意蜂工蜂嗅觉敏感性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋怀磊; 周婷; 王强; 代平礼; 罗其花; 徐书法; 吴艳艳

    2011-01-01

    喙伸反应(PER)试验适用于评价杀虫剂对蜜蜂行为的影响.本实验利用喙伸反应研究了亚致死剂量(LD50/100~LD50/10)溴氰菊酯和吡虫啉对意蜂Apis mellifera ligustica L.工蜂嗅觉敏感性的影响.结果发现,经口饲喂溴氰菊酯5 ng和10 ng后,工蜂对0.1%的蔗糖溶液的敏感性显著下降(P<0.05),水应激指数降低,但对0.3%,1%,3%,10%和30%的蔗糖溶液的敏感性没有显著变化;而经口饲喂吡虫啉0.3 ng和0.6 ng后,工蜂对上述各浓度蔗糖溶液的敏感性变化不明显,但其水应激指数升高.%Previous studies have shown that observations of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) are of interest for assessing the behavioral effects of insecticides on the honeybee. In the present study, the effects of sublethal doses ( LD50/ 100-LD50/10) of deltamethrin and imidacloprid on the olfactory sensitivity of honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica L. )were determined under controlled laboratory conditions using a conditioned PER assay. After oral consumption,deltamethrin reduced both sensitivity to antennal stimulation by sucrose solutions and the water-induced proboscis extension reflex at doses of 5 ng/bee and 10 ng/bee. Unlike deltamethrin, imidacloprid had no effect in olfactory sensitivity assays but increased the water-induced proboscis extension reflex.

  19. Role of the Varroa mite in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colony loss: A case study for adverse outcome pathway development with a nonchemical stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant honeybee colony losses have been reported across North America and Europe in recent years. A number of factors, both chemical and nonchemical, have been associated with such losses. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) provide a conceptual framework to describe and evalu...

  20. Africanization of a feral honey bee (Apis mellifera) population in South Texas: does a decade make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Juliana; Giresi, Melissa; Pinto, Maria Alice; Baum, Kristen A; Rubink, William L; Coulson, Robert N; Johnston, John Spencer

    2016-04-01

    The arrival to the United States of the Africanized honey bee, a hybrid between European subspecies and the African subspecies Apis mellifera scutellata, is a remarkable model for the study of biological invasions. This immigration has created an opportunity to study the dynamics of secondary contact of honey bee subspecies from African and European lineages in a feral population in South Texas. An 11-year survey of this population (1991-2001) showed that mitochondrial haplotype frequencies changed drastically over time from a resident population of eastern and western European maternal ancestry, to a population dominated by the African haplotype. A subsequent study of the nuclear genome showed that the Africanization process included bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honey bees, giving rise to a new panmictic mixture of A. m. scutellata- and European-derived genes. In this study, we examined gene flow patterns in the same population 23 years after the first hybridization event occurred. We found 28 active colonies inhabiting 92 tree cavities surveyed in a 5.14 km(2) area, resulting in a colony density of 5.4 colonies/km(2). Of these 28 colonies, 25 were of A. m. scutellata maternal ancestry, and three were of western European maternal ancestry. No colonies of eastern European maternal ancestry were detected, although they were present in the earlier samples. Nuclear DNA revealed little change in the introgression of A. m. scutellata-derived genes into the population compared to previous surveys. Our results suggest this feral population remains an admixed swarm with continued low levels of European ancestry and a greater presence of African-derived mitochondrial genetic composition. PMID:27069571

  1. Síndrome de envenenamento por 2000 picadas de abelhas africanizadas. Relato de caso Poisoning syndrome due to 2,000 stings of africanized honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vianna de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As abelhas empregadas inicialmente na produção melífera eram de origem européia, sendo de baixa produtividade e mansas. Em 1956 foram trazidas espécies africanas com maior capacidade produtiva, porém extremamente agressivas. Houve soltura acidental destas abelhas na natureza e ocorreu cruzamento entre as espécies, gerando linhagem de abelhas africanizadas. O objetivo deste relato é sugerir uma padronização de atendimento a pacientes vítimas da síndrome de envenenamento dado o número crescente de casos de ataques maciços por estas abelhas e a literatura escassa sobre o assunto. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 19 anos, que durante treinamento militar foi atacado por enxame de abelhas africanizadas. CONCLUSÕES: As abelhas africanizadas por serem muito agressivas, atacam suas vítimas com elevado numero de picadas inoculando grande quantidade de veneno. As reações às picadas podem variar desde reação inflamatória local em indivíduos não sensibilizados, reação de hipersensibilidade e choque anafilático em indivíduos sensibilizados ou síndrome de envenenamento, quando devido a grande quantidade de veneno inoculado, os efeitos tóxicos se sobrepõem à reação anafilática. O atendimento a este tipo de acidente deve ser o mais precoce possível, com a realização de suporte clínico adequado e remoção mecânica dos ferrões. A estabilização hemodinâmica é de suma importância.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Honeybees first used in the honey production came from Europe. They were gentle but their productivity was very low. In 1956 it was brought from Africa some species of honeybees that were more productible but also extremely aggressive. There was an accidental release of those bees, that proliferated by hybridizing with the European honeybees generating a new specimen of bees: the Africanized honeybees. The objective of this article is to suggest a pattern of treatment for this

  2. Determination of a seasonal variation in the food exchanges between worker honeybees (Apis mellifica ligustica S.) by means of a radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food exchanges have been studied during the whole year between workers of unknown age and 4-days old workers. Variations exist between both groups. The mean percentage of shared food is 27% in the group of honeybees of unknown age and 40% in the group of 4-days old workers with respect to the initial intake of the giver. The effect of the season appears among workers of unknown are particularly

  3. In situ hybridization analysis of the expression of futsch, tau, and MESK2 homologues in the brain of the European honeybee (Apis mellifera L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumi Kaneko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of visual sense in Hymenopteran social behavior is suggested by the existence of a Hymenopteran insect-specific neural circuit related to visual processing and the fact that worker honeybee brain changes morphologically according to its foraging experience. To analyze molecular and neural bases that underlie the visual abilities of the honeybees, we used a cDNA microarray to search for gene(s expressed in a neural cell-type preferential manner in a visual center of the honeybee brain, the optic lobes (OLs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Expression analysis of candidate genes using in situ hybridization revealed two genes expressed in a neural cell-type preferential manner in the OLs. One is a homologue of Drosophila futsch, which encodes a microtubule-associated protein and is preferentially expressed in the monopolar cells in the lamina of the OLs. The gene for another microtubule-associated protein, tau, which functionally overlaps with futsch, was also preferentially expressed in the monopolar cells, strongly suggesting the functional importance of these two microtubule-associated proteins in monopolar cells. The other gene encoded a homologue of Misexpression Suppressor of Dominant-negative Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (MESK2, which might activate Ras/MAPK-signaling in Drosophila. MESK2 was expressed preferentially in a subclass of neurons located in the ventral region between the lamina and medulla neuropil in the OLs, suggesting that this subclass is a novel OL neuron type characterized by MESK2-expression. These three genes exhibited similar expression patterns in the worker, drone, and queen brains, suggesting that they function similarly irrespective of the honeybee sex or caste. CONCLUSIONS: Here we identified genes that are expressed in a monopolar cell (Amfutsch and Amtau or ventral medulla-preferential manner (AmMESK2 in insect OLs. These genes may aid in visualizing neurites of monopolar cells and ventral

  4. Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) have low infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor in different ecological regions in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Flores, C A; Guzmán-Novoa, E; Hamiduzzaman, M M; Aréchiga-Flores, C F; López-Carlos, M A

    2014-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies of African and European descent were compared for levels of Varroa destructor infestation in 3 different ecological regions in Mexico. The 300 colonies that were studied were located in subtropical, temperate sub-humid, and temperate dry climates. The morphotype and mitotype of adult bees as well as their rates of infestation by varroa mites were determined. Additionally, the number of combs with brood and covered with bees was recorded for each colony. The highest frequency of colonies that were classified as African-derived was found in the subtropical environment, whereas the lowest occurred in the temperate dry region. Overall, the colonies of African genotype had significantly lower mite infestation rates (3.5±0.34%) than the colonies of European genotype (4.7±0.49%) regardless of the region sampled. Significant effects of genotype and region on Varroa infestation rates were evident, and there were no differences in bee population or capped brood between genotypes. Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in the colonies of the temperate dry region than in the colonies of the other 2 regions. These results are discussed within the context of results from studies that were previously conducted in Brazil. This is the first study that demonstrates the effects of Africanization and ecological environment on V. destructor infestation rates in honey bee colonies in North America. PMID:24634296

  5. Differential responses of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) to viral replication following mechanical transmission or Varroa destructor parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Goodwin, Paul H; Reyes-Quintana, Mariana; Koleoglu, Gun; Correa-Benítez, Adriana; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, adults and brood of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) were compared for relative virus levels over 48 h following Varroa destructor parasitism or injection of V. destructor homogenate. Rates of increase of deformed wing virus (DWV) for Africanized versus European bees were temporarily lowered for 12h with parasitism and sustainably lowered over the entire experiment (48 h) with homogenate injection in adults. The rates were also temporarily lowered for 24h with parasitism but were not affected by homogenate injection in brood. Rates of increase of black queen cell virus (BQCV) for Africanized versus European bees were similar with parasitism but sustainably lowered over the entire experiment with homogenate injection in adults and were similar for parasitism and homogenate injection in brood. Analyses of sac brood bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus were limited as detection did not occur after both homogenate injection and parasitism treatment, or levels were not significantly higher than those following control buffer injection. Lower rates of replication of DWV and BQCV in Africanized bees shows that they may have greater viral resistance, at least early after treatment. PMID:25527405

  6. An environmentally friendly approach to the control of Varroa destructor mite and Nosema ceranae disease in Carniolan honeybee (Apis mellifera Carnica colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tlak-Gajger Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data following the periodic checking of fallen mites Varroa destructor to determine the mite fall, and the presence and number of Nosema ceranae spores in samples of bees, determined by counting prior to and after BeeCleanse treatments. Because of the possibility of chemical resistance development, the variable efficiencies of current varroosis and nosemosis treatments and consequent contamination of honeybee products create a need for alternative treatment methods and the use of natural phytopharmacological preparations. BeeCleanse is a natural preparation containing different herbal, vitamin, mineral and essential oil recipes. The aims of the study were to establish the dynamics of the fallen mites and determine Nosema spores before and after treating honeybee colonies in order to establish the effectiveness of BeeCleanse for the control of varroosis and nosema disease in colonies during the brood season in order to reduce parasite populations to tolerable levels. In addition, the strength (number of populated and brood frames of treated and untreated honeybee colonies was checked during the clinical examination in field conditions.

  7. Varroa jacobsoni infestation of adult Africanized and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera in mixed colonies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Moretto

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Different levels of infestation with the mite Varroa jacobsoni have been observed in the various Apis mellifera races. In general, bees of European races are more susceptible to the mite than African honey bees and their hybrids. In Brazil honey bee colonies are not treated against the mite, though apparently both climate and bee race influence the mite infestation. Six mixed colonies were made with Italian and Africanized honey bees. The percentage infestation by this parasite was found to be significantly lower in adult Africanized (1.69 ± 0.44 than Italian bees (2.79 ± 0.65. This ratio was similar to that found in Mexico, even though the Africanized bees tested there had not been in contact with varroa, compared to more than 20 years of the coexistence in Brazil. However, mean mite infestation in Brazil on both kinds of bees was only about a third of that found in Mexico.Desde o contato inicial entre o ácaro Varroa jacobsoni e a abelha Apis mellifera, diferentes níveis de infestação foram verificados entre as diversas raças dessa espécie de abelhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o grau de infestação determinado pelo acaro Varroa jacobsoni em abelhas Apis mellifera, africanizadas e italianas puras, quando criadas numa mesma colméia. Para isso, o grau de infestação foi obtido em seis colônias de abelhas constituídas de operárias de ambas as raças. O resultado de dezesseis repetições mostrou que as abelhas africanizadas foram menos infestadas que as abelhas italianas. Esse resultado sugere que, nas condições naturais de infestação, as abelhas africanizadas são mais defensivas ao parasita Varroa jacobsoni, garantindo a essa raça de abelhas a resistência à praga varroosis.

  8. Honeybees attractant in hybrid colored sunflower seed production crop/
    Atrativo para abelhas em campos de produção de sementes de girassol colorido híbrido

    OpenAIRE

    José Lopes; Renato José Pires Machado; Emerson Augusto Castilho Martins

    2005-01-01

    Africanized honeybee (Apis mellifera), in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed production crop, show male-fertile head preference, which decreases seed production. This research work aimed the honeybee visitation increase in male-sterile sunflower heads, with 0.0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% (w/v) sucrose solution, applied at sunflower heads in completely randomized design, on 1 ha seed crop production of colored ornamental sunflower strain, in Londrina County, Paraná State, Brazil. It was utilized 15...

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF SEASON AND VOLATILE COMPOUNDS ON ACCEPTANCE RATES OF INTRODUCED EUROPEAN HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) QUEENS INTO EUROPEAN AND AFRICANIZED COLONIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We introduced mated European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queens into Africanized and European colonies during three different seasons to determine if there were differences in queen acceptance rates. We also sampled volatile compounds emitted by the queens prior to their introduction to determine...

  10. RNAi-induced phenotypes suggest a novel role for a chemosensory protein CSP5 in the development of embryonic integument in the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleszka, J; Forêt, S; Saint, R; Maleszka, R

    2007-03-01

    Small chemosensory proteins (CSPs) belong to a conserved, but poorly understood, protein family found in insects and other arthropods. They exhibit both broad and restricted expression patterns during development. In this paper, we used a combination of genome annotation, transcriptional profiling and RNA interference to unravel the functional significance of a honeybee gene (csp5) belonging to the CSP family. We show that csp5 expression resembles the maternal-zygotic pattern that is characterized by the initiation of transcription in the ovary and the replacement of maternal mRNA with embryonic mRNA. Blocking the embryonic expression of csp5 with double-stranded RNA causes abnormalities in all body parts where csp5 is highly expressed. The treated embryos show a "diffuse", often grotesque morphology, and the head skeleton appears to be severely affected. They are 'unable-to-hatch' and cannot progress to the larval stages. Our findings reveal a novel, essential role for this gene family and suggest that csp5 (unable-to-hatch) is an ectodermal gene involved in embryonic integument formation. Our study confirms the utility of an RNAi approach to functional characterization of novel developmental genes uncovered by the honeybee genome project and provides a starting point for further studies on embryonic integument formation in this insect. PMID:17216269

  11. Eficiência polinizadora de Apis mellifera L. e polinização entomófila em pimentão 'Cascadura Ikeda' Pollination efficiency of honeybees and entomophilous pollination in sweet pepper 'Cascadura Ikeda'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Ribeiro Faria Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar a entomofauna visitante das flores de Capsicum annuum L. var. Cascadura Ikeda, e avaliar os efeitos da polinização entomófila, mais especificamente de Apis mellifera L., nesta cultura. O estudo realizou-se em Taubaté (SP, a 21º01'S; 45º29'W; altitude de 570 m entre abril e setembro de 2002. Na ocasião, foram observadas 36 plantas de pimentão, das 6h às 17h (10 minutos/hora, durante quatro dias no período de floração máximo da cultura, sendo coletados os insetos visitantes florais. Doze parcelas receberam os seguintes tratamentos: (1 livremente visitadas por insetos; (2 isoladas em gaiolas de polinização; (3 parcelas em gaiolas de polinização contendo uma colméia de Apis mellifera. Foram observadas 12 espécies de insetos visitando as flores de pimentão, sendo as mais freqüentes espécies de abelhas do gênero Exomalopsis (53,9% das visitas. Os frutos produzidos nos tratamentos (1 e (3 tinham maior massa, diâmetro, espessura de pericarpo e número de sementes do que os produzidos no tratamento (2. Concluiu-se, assim, que a polinização por insetos influenciou na produção de frutos de maior qualidade que os produzidos na ausência destes quando se considera os parâmetros aqui avaliados. Ademais, conclui-se que Apis mellifera foi tão eficiente quanto os demais insetos na polinização deste cultivo.The aim of this research was to identify the insects visiting flowers of sweet pepper and evaluate the effects of entomophilous pollination as a whole and, more especifically, of honeybees as pollinators of this crop. This study was carried out in the municipality of Taubaté, State of São Paulo, Brazil (21º01'S; 45º29'W; altitude: 570 m from April to September, 2002. Insects were collected in thirty-six plants during 10 minutes/hour between 6:00 and 17:00h during days of maximum blooming. Twelve plots were subjected to the following treatments: (1 open-pollinated plots, freely

  12. Honeybee Conservation centers in Western Europe: an innovative strategy using sustainable beekeeping to reduce honeybee decline

    OpenAIRE

    Vilas Boas, Miguel; Pinto, Maria Alice; Neves, Catia; Garnery, Lionel; Legout, Hélène; Houte, Sylvie; Odoux, Jean Francois; Estonba, Andone; Miguel, Irati; Montes, Iratxe; Mallet, Noël; Grenier, Claude; Labat, Jean-Charles; Champin, Luc; Colombet, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Apis mellifera is subdivided into at least 26 physiologically, behaviourally and morphologically distinct subspecies. As an agronomical species of interest, the natural distribution of honeybee subspecies has been disturbed for many decades by beekeeping activities, particularly because of international trade of honeybees. These movements were particularly amplified this last decade due to livestock rebuilding to counter the effects of colony losses. An interesting assumption is that current ...

  13. Control del Ácaro Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae en Colmenas de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae mediante la Aplicación de distintos Principios Activos Control of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera Hymenoptera: Apidae by means of different active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto Marcangeli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia acaricida de cuatro productos utilizados para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman en colmenas de Apis mellifera (L.. Se seleccionaron 25 colmenas dividivas en cinco lotes iguales a las que se les suministró Apistan®, Bayvarol®, Apitol® y Folbex®. El último lote representó el control. Los ácaros muertos se recolectaron en pisos especiales que se controlaron semanalmente. Finalizada la experiencia cada lote fue sometido a un cruzamiento con otros productos con el fin de eliminar los ácaros remanentes y poder calcular las eficacias. El producto Apistan® fue el más efectivo con un valor promedio de 85,38% seguido por el Bayvarol® (83,83%, Apitol® (71,77% y Folbex® (62,78%. En todos los casos, los valores obtenidos resultaron inferiores a los estipulados por los laboratorios productores. Estos resultados alertan sobre la posible generación de resistencias por parte de las poblaciones del ácaro y la necesidad de buscar nuevos agentes de control eficaces para esta enfermedad.The aim of this work was to evaluate the acaricide efficacy of four commercial products against the mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera (L.. Twenty five honeybee colonies divided in five equal groups were selected. Groups received Apistan®, Bayvarol®, Apitol® and Folbex®. Final group was the control. Dead mites were collected weekly in special floors. After treatment, each colony received a shock treatment with the other three products to kill remnant mites and to obtain acaricide efficacy. Average values of efficacy were Apistan® 85,38%, Bayvarol® 83,83%, Apitol® 71,77% and Folbex® 62,78%. In all cases these values were lower than those reported by the laboratories that produce them. These results alert about the possible generation of resistant mite populations and justify research directed to search for alternative products for the

  14. Nutrition and dopamine: An intake of tyrosine in royal jelly can affect the brain levels of dopamine in male honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Precursors of neuroactive substances can be obtained from dietary sources, which can affect the resulting production of such substances in the brain. In social species, an intake of the precursor in food could be controlled by social interactions. To test the effects of dietary tyrosine on the brain dopamine levels in social insect colonies, male and worker honeybees were fed tyrosine or royal jelly under experimental conditions and the brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite were then measured. The results showed that the levels of dopamine and its metabolite in the brains of 4- and 8-day-old workers and 8-day-old males were significantly higher in tyrosine-fed bees than in control bees, but the levels in 4-day-old males were not. The brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite in 4- and 8-day-old males and workers were significantly higher in royal jelly-fed bees than in control bees, except for one group of 4-day-old workers. Food exchanges with workers were observed in males during 1-3 days, but self-feedings were also during 5-7 days. These results suggest that the brain levels of dopamine in males can be controlled by an intake of tyrosine in food via exchanging food with nestmates and by self-feeding. PMID:26868722

  15. Comparative study of food transfers in the three castes of the honeybee (Apis mellifica ligustica S.) in which four distal sections of both antennae have been cut off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of food transfers between the three castes of Apis mellifica ligustica S., in which four distal sections have been cut off, has been carried out by means of a radioactive tracer 198Au, which cannot be metabolized. The begging behavior of queens with cut off antennae towards 4-day-old worker Bees and workers of unknown age is not changed. So it is with drones and operated worker Bees which beg food of a worker Bee, that is 4 days old and undamaged. On the other hand the begging behavior of drones and workers of unknown age is reduced towards other worker Bees of unknown age that are undamaged. The two-sided amputation of antennal sections of donor worker Bees of both categories does not change their behavior towards undamaged worker Bees

  16. Aminergic Control and Modulation of Honeybee Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Scheiner, R; Baumann, A.; Blenau, W

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic amines are important messenger substances in the central nervous system and in peripheral organs of vertebrates and of invertebrates. The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is excellently suited to uncover the functions of biogenic amines in behaviour, because it has an extensive behavioural repertoire, with a number of biogenic amine receptors characterised in this insect.

  17. Éster de sacarose no controle do Varroa destructor em abelhas africanizadas = Sucrose ester in the control of Varroa destructor in Africanized honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Laércio Castagnino

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o efeito do éster de sacarose no controle da infestação do ácaro Varroa destructor em abelhas africanizadas. Nos testes “in vitro”, testou-se o produto em abelhas e ácaros com cinco concentrações diluídas em água (T0: 100% de água destilada; T1: 0,5%; T2: 1%; T3: 2,0%; T4: 5% e T5: 10% de éster de sacarose. Nos testes de campo, o delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e sete repetições, totalizando 28 colônias, sendo sete delas como controle, sete com 0,1% de éster de sacarose, sete com 0,2% de éster de sacarosee sete colmeias com 0,5% éster de sacarose, diluídas em água. Nos testes “in vitro” com concentração de 0,5%, o éster de sacarose promoveu a mortalidade dos ácaros e das abelhas. Os testes em campo demonstraram que o produto reduziu a infestação do Varroa destructorem abelhas na concentração de 0,2% e pode ser uma ferramenta no controle dessa praga. Nas concentrações de 0,1; 0,2 e 0,5%, não prejudicou o desenvolvimento de área de cria aberta, operculada e de alimento estocado na colmeia, sugerindo que não é tóxico para as abelhas.This study aimed to determine the effect of sucrose ester on the control of Varroa destructor mite infestation in Africanized honeybees. For the in vitro experiments, the product was tested in bees and mites at five concentrations obtained through dilution in water (T0: 100% distilled water; T1: 0.5%; T2: 1%; T3: 2%; T4: 5%; and T5: 10% sucrose ester. For the field studies, the experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and seven replicates, totaling 28 colonies, from which seven were the controls,seven were treated with 0.1% sucrose ester, seven with 0.2% sucrose ester, and seven hives with 0.5% sucrose ester diluted in water. In the in vitro study, the sucrose ester at 0.5% concentration caused mite and bee mortality. In the field tests, the

  18. Effects of Nosema ceranae and thiametoxam in Apis mellifera: A comparative study in Africanized and Carniolan honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorc, Ales; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine C M; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Kramberger, Doris; Teixeira, Erica W; Malaspina, Osmar

    2016-03-01

    Multiple stressors, such as chemicals and pathogens, are likely to be detrimental for the health and lifespan of Apis mellifera, a bee species frequently exposed to both factors in the field and inside hives. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate comparatively the health of Carniolan and Africanized honey bees (AHB) co-exposed to thiamethoxam and Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae) spores. Newly-emerged worker honey bees were exposed solely with different sublethal doses of thiamethoxam (2% and 0.2% of LD50 for AHB), which could be consumed by bees under field conditions. Toxicity tests for the Carniolan bees were performed, and the LD50 of thiamethoxam for Carniolan honey bees was 7.86 ng bee(-1). Immunohistological analyses were also performed to detect cell death in the midgut of thiamethoxam and/or N. ceranae treated bees. Thiamethoxam exposure had no negative impact on Nosema development in experimental conditions, but it clearly inhibited cell death in the midgut of thiamethoxam and Nosema-exposed bees, as demonstrated by immunohistochemical data. Indeed, thiamethoxam exposure only had a minor synergistic toxic effect on midgut tissue when applied as a low dose simultaneously with N. ceranae to AHB and Carniolan honey bees, in comparison with the effect caused by both stressors separately. Our data provides insights into the effects of the neonicotenoid thiamethoxam on the AHB and Carniolan honey bee life span, as well as the effects of simultaneous application of thiamethoxam and N. ceranae spores to honey bees. PMID:26774296

  19. The Effect of an Organic Pesticide on Mortality and Learning in Africanized Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L. in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles I.   Abramson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven experiments were conducted. First, the influence of the consumption of different concentrations of the organic pesticide Bioganic® on mortality was assessed at 11 different time intervals in Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L. as was direct application of the pesticide to the abdomen. Results indicated that the pesticide was not lethal to bees regardless of concentration at any intervals tested whether consumed directly or applied to the abdomen. Second, the effects of different concentrations of the pesticide on Pavlovian conditioning and complex learning were examined in harnessed foragers. Results suggest that the pesticide affected learning; however, this conclusion may be erroneous because the bees would not feed on the pesticide, thus making it impossible to properly assess Pavlovian conditioning and complex learning. Consequently, the effect of the agrochemical on complex learning was examined in free flying bees trained to land on targets. The results of free flying experiments indicated that bees did not avoid a target associated with the smell of the pesticide but did avoid the target if they had to drink the pesticide.

  20. Evaluation of pesticide toxicity at their field recommended doses to honeybees, Apis cerana and A. mellifera through laboratory, semi-field and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Johnson; Sah, Khushboo; Jain, S K; Bhatt, J C; Sushil, S N

    2015-01-01

    A series of experiments were carried out to determine the acute toxicity of pesticides in the laboratory, toxicity through spray on flowering plants of mustard (Tier II evaluation) and field on both Apis cerana and A. mellifera bees. The overall mortality of honey bees through topical (direct contact) were found significantly higher than that of indirect filter paper contamination assays. Insecticides viz., chlorpyriphos, dichlorvos, malathion, profenofos, monocrotophos and deltamethrin when exposed directly or indirectly at their field recommended doses caused very high mortality up to 100% to both the bees at 48 HAT. The insecticides that caused less mortality through filter paper contamination viz., flubendiamide, methyl demeton, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam caused very high morality through direct exposure. Apart from all the fungicides tested, carbendazim, mancozeb, chlorothalonil and propiconazole, insecticides acetamiprid and endosulfan were found safer to both the bees either by direct or indirect exposures. Tier II evaluation by spray of pesticides at their field recommended doses on potted mustard plants showed monocrotophos as the highly toxic insecticide with 100% mortality even with 1h of exposure followed by thiamethoxam, dichlorvos, profenofos and chlorpyriphos which are not to be recommended for use in pollinator attractive flowering plants. Acetamiprid and endosulfan did not cause any repellent effect on honey bees in the field trials endorse the usage of acetamiprid against sucking pest in flowering plants. PMID:25150969

  1. Índices de prevalencia del ácaro Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en cuadros de cría nuevos o previamente utilizados por Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae Infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in new and old honeybee brood combs of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge, A. Marcangeli

    2007-07-01

    evaluate infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman in new and old honeybee brood combs of creole honeybee (hybrid of Apis mellifera mellifera Linnaeus and Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola. Work was done at Coronel Vidal city on 20 Langstroth hives during spring months 2005. In each colony an old frame (2 years and a new one were selected and placed in the middle of brood chamber. When both frames were operculated, they were carried to the laboratory for inspection. Each cell was desoperculated and total number of mite adult female was registered. Infestation level was calculated as number of infested cells divided by total number of desoperculated cells. Results showed significant differences between old and new comb infestation levels (13.52% ± 3.35 and 6.18% ± 2.12 respectively; t = 10.62; p = 1.9 E-9; g. l.= 19. Same results were observed in the average number of mites in combs (443.3 ± 70.54 and 217.85 ± 51.76 for old and new combs respectively; t = 23.87; p = 1.24 E-15; g. l.= 19. Mites show a strong preference for old combs directed by attractant alien scents of brood cells. Also, these scents masked the mites and prevent to honeybees to eliminate them by hygienic behaviour.

  2. Physicochemical attributes of Nigerian natural honey from honeybees (Apis mellifera adansonii) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and its shelf life in storage at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasasi, K A

    2012-11-01

    Nigerian honey competes globally in the world honey market. The physicochemical parameters of honey samples sourced from colonies of Apis mellifera adansonii were studied with the effect of storage-time over a period of two years. This was done by analyzing and evaluating eleven common physicochemical parameters including colour, moisture content, ash content, sugar content, acidity, pH value, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase activity, nitrogen content, insoluble matter and viscosity of honey samples with the effect of storage-time on the physicochemical parameters using Association of Official Analytical Chemists methods. Most of the honey samples showed proper maturity considering the moisture content (17.9 +/- 2.0%). The total acidity (21.5 +/- 5.6 meq kg(-1)) indicated absence of undesirable fermentation after harvest and extraction. The Mean +/- SD pH value (3.9 +/- 0.2) of the honey samples was within acceptable standards of Economic European Community (EEC) and Codex. The ash content (0.4 +/- 0.2%) (0.2-0.6%) was slightly higher than 0-0.50% of EEC and Codex standards. The fructose and glucose mean values were 38.9 +/- 0.8% and 28.3 +/- 2.4%, respectively. The Mean +/- S.D value of hydroxymethylfurfural content (8.5 +/- 2.7 mg kg(-1)) was low, while the Mean +/- SD value of diastase activity was high depicting freshness. The evaluated physicochemical parameters of two years old honey samples exhibited no significant deviation (p > 0.05) from that of the fresh samples. This study showed that natural honey if properly harvested, extracted hygienically, preserved and stored can maintain their stability relatively for at least two years at room temperature without undue interference. PMID:24163945

  3. Nepotism in swarminh honeybees(Apis cerana cerana)%中华蜜蜂自然分蜂中的亲属优惠行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄强; 曾志将

    2009-01-01

    以3群中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana Fabricius为材料,研究自然分蜂中的亲属优惠行为.分蜂开始后,分别对参与分蜂的工蜂和留在原巢内的工蜂随机取样,用95%酒精保存待用.取下所有王台,放人培养箱中培养出房,每30 min观察1次,记录处女王的出房顺序.运用3个MRJP(major royal jelly protein)标记分析蜂群的亲缘关系和亚家系组成.3群实验蜂群分别由13,12和9个亚家系组成.分蜂过程中,王台的全同胞姐妹工蜂绝大多数都选择留在原巢内,说明工蜂能够辨认出全同胞姐妹王台,并且给予优惠.参与分蜂的工蜂和留在原巢内的工蜂间亚家系分布差异极显著,说明一些亚家系分蜂性更强,而另一些亚家系分蜂性较弱.实验首次运用MRJP分子标记技术证明:在自然分蜂过程中,工蜂和王台之问存在亲属优惠行为,并且这种优惠行为可能会刺激其它工蜂产生分蜂趋向性.

  4. 中华蜜蜂急造王台的工蜂亲属优惠%Worker nepotism during emergency queen rearing in Chinese honeybees Apis cerana cerana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢宪兵; 孙亮先; 黄康; 曾志将

    2008-01-01

    人为使3群中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)失王而出现急造王台后,应用3个蜜蜂微卫星位点A14、A107和B124对蜂群、急造王台中的幼虫及其哺育蜂的亚家庭进行鉴别,以此来研究中华蜜蜂急造王台的工蜂亲属优惠.结果显示:在3个实验蜂群Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ中分别检测到11、13和14个亚家庭,各蜂群各亚家庭之间的工蜂分布差异不显著.然而各蜂群中急造王台却分别只出现在少数的3、4和5个亚家庭中,各亚家庭之间在王台出现率上存在极显著的差异.另外,各急造王台的所有哺育蜂并非只来自幼虫所在的亚家庭,而是分布在更多的亚家庭里,并且各亚家庭之间差异不显著.以上结果证明:中华蜜蜂急造王台时,在蜂王幼虫的选择过程中存在工蜂亲属优惠行为,但蜂王幼虫与它们的哺育工蜂之间并不存在工蜂亲属优惠

  5. Análise físico-química dos méis das abelhas Apis mellifera e Melipona scutellaris produzidos em regiões distintas no Estado da Paraíba Physical-Chemical analysis of honeybee Apis mellifera and Melipona scutellaris on two regions at Paraiba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Evangelista-Rodrigues

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O mel de abelhas é um produto muito apreciado, no entanto, de fácil adulteração com açúcares ou xaropes. Desta forma, é necessário que haja algumas análises para a determinação da sua qualidade para que seja comercializado. Este trabalho teve como objetivo fazer a análise físico-química dos méis de abelha Apis mellifera. e Melipona scutellaris para a comparação entre as espécies e entre as localidades do Brejo e do Cariri (regiões do Estado da Paraíba. Observou-se que o mel de abelha nativa apresenta um maior teor de água (umidade de 25,25% quando comparado com o mel de abelha africanizada (18,76%, dificultando o seu armazenamento, pois o alto teor de água do produto diminui a sua vida útil de prateleira. Para as análises de hidroximetilfurfural, o valor mais alto foi para o mel produzido na região do Cariri, quando comparado com o mel produzido na região do Brejo, o que pode ser explicado pela diferença de temperatura, sendo mais alta no Cariri. Para os valores de pH, obteve-se diferença significativa entre os méis, com o mel do Cariri apresentando valor mais baixo (3,8. Para Acidez Total, o mel de abelha africanizada do Brejo Paraibano apresentou 41,6 meq/kg de mel, enquanto o mel de abelha nativa apresentou 28,3 meq/kg de mel. Para os demais parâmetros estudados, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Conclui-se que os méis produzidos pelas abelhas africanizadas (A. mellifera e pela abelha nativa Melipona scutellaris na Estação Experimental do Cariri e da Chã-de-Jardim pertencentes ao CCA/UFPB apresentam valores diferentes dos padrões da Regulamento Técnico de Identidade e Qualidade do Mel (Ministério da Agricultura e do Abastecimento para alguns parâmetros, o que pode dificultar o seu armazenamento por um longo período.The honeybee is a product very appreciated, however, of easy adulteration with sugars or boiled musts. Then, it is necessary that it has some analyses for the

  6. Evaluation of Yield Component Traits of Honeybee-Pollinated (Apis mellifera L.Rapeseed Canola (Brassica napus L. Evaluación de Parámetros de Rendimiento del Raps (Brassica napus L. Polinizado por Abejas (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Araneda Durán

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent introduction of hybrid varieties raises the question if bees (Apis mellifera L. contribute as pollinator agents in developing the full yield potential of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. In order to evaluate the yield achieved by B. napus cv. Artus pollinated by A. mellifera testing was carried out in the district of Freire, La Araucanía Region, Chile. This consisted in isolating or excluding rapeseed plants from pollinators with exclusion cages. Treatments applied were total exclusion (T1, partial exclusion (T2 and free pollination (T0 with a density of 6.5 hives ha-1, in order to determine the following yield components traits: grains per silique, siliques per plant, 1000 grain weight and yield. The experimental design used was randomized complete blocks with three treatments and three replicates. Results obtained show that the parameter least affected by bee intervention was the grains per silique variable. In contrast, siliques per plant and 1000 grain weight parameters presented significant differences, contributing to a yield greater than 5 t ha-1; which represented a figure 50.34% higher than in the treatment without bees. It may be concluded that the inclusion of bees in crops is fully justified as a production tool.La reciente introducción de variedades híbridas plantea la interrogante de la contribución que pueda tener la presencia de abejas (Apis mellifera L. como agentes polinizadores para desarrollar en pleno el potencial productivo del raps (Brassica napus L.. Con el objetivo de evaluar el rendimiento alcanzado por B. napus cv. Artus polinizado por A. mellifera, se realizó un ensayo en la localidad de Freire, Región de La Araucanía, Chile. Éste consistió en aislar o excluir las plantas de raps de los polinizadores mediante el uso de jaulas excluidoras. Los tratamientos consistieron en la exclusión total (T1, exclusión parcial (T2 y libre polinización (T0 con una densidad de 6,5 colmenas ha-1, con el fin de determinar

  7. East learns from West: Asiatic honeybees can understand dance language of European honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songkun Su

    Full Text Available The honeybee waggle dance, through which foragers advertise the existence and location of a food source to their hive mates, is acknowledged as the only known form of symbolic communication in an invertebrate. However, the suggestion, that different species of honeybee might possess distinct 'dialects' of the waggle dance, remains controversial. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether different species of honeybee can learn from and communicate with each other. This study reports experiments using a mixed-species colony that is composed of the Asiatic bee Apis cerana cerana (Acc, and the European bee Apis mellifera ligustica (Aml. Using video recordings made at an observation hive, we first confirm that Acc and Aml have significantly different dance dialects, even when made to forage in identical environments. When reared in the same colony, these two species are able to communicate with each other: Acc foragers could decode the dances of Aml to successfully locate an indicated food source. We believe that this is the first report of successful symbolic communication between two honeybee species; our study hints at the possibility of social learning between the two honeybee species, and at the existence of a learning component in the honeybee dance language.

  8. Managed European-Derived Honey Bee, Apis mellifera sspp, Colonies Reduce African-Matriline Honey Bee, A. m. scutellata, Drones at Regional Mating Congregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Ashley N; Ellis, James D

    2016-01-01

    African honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) dramatically changed the South American beekeeping industry as they rapidly spread through the Americas following their introduction into Brazil. In the present study, we aimed to determine if the management of European-derived honey bees (A. mellifera sspp.) could reduce the relative abundance of African-matriline drones at regional mating sites known as drone congregation areas (DCAs). We collected 2,400 drones at six DCAs either 0.25 km or >2.8 km from managed European-derived honey bee apiaries. The maternal ancestry of each drone was determined by Bgl II enzyme digestion of an amplified portion of the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene. Furthermore, sibship reconstruction via nuclear microsatellites was conducted for a subset of 1,200 drones to estimate the number of colonies contributing drones to each DCA. Results indicate that DCAs distant to managed European apiaries (>2.8 km) had significantly more African-matriline drones (34.33% of the collected drones had African mitochondrial DNA) than did DCAs close (0.25 km) to managed European apiaries (1.83% of the collected drones had African mitochondrial DNA). Furthermore, nuclear sibship reconstruction demonstrated that the reduction in the proportion of African matriline drones at DCAs near apiaries was not simply an increase in the number of European matriline drones at the DCAs but also the result of fewer African matriline colonies contributing drones to the DCAs. Our data demonstrate that the management of European honey bee colonies can dramatically influence the proportion of drones with African matrilines at nearby drone congregation areas, and would likely decreasing the probability that virgin European queens will mate with African drones at those drone congregation areas. PMID:27518068

  9. Comparison of flight design of Asian honeybee drones

    OpenAIRE

    Radloff, Sarah; Randall Hepburn, H.; Koeniger, Gudrun

    2003-01-01

    International audience The excess power index (integrating body dry mass, thorax-to-body dry mass and wing surface area) was compared in drones of seven Asian Apis species. There are two statistically distinct groups of drones: drones of the dwarf honeybees form one class, all other Asian species belong to the second. Drones of dwarf honeybees have a 36% ergonomic advantage in power availability and 20% advantage in available excess power over all other drones. Comparisons of flight dimens...

  10. Behavioural and neurophysiological study of olfactory perception and learning in honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Christophe eSandoz

    2011-01-01

    The honeybee Apis mellifera has been a central insect model in the study of olfactory perception and learning for more than a century, starting with pioneer work by Karl von Frisch. Research on olfaction in honeybees has greatly benefited from the advent of a range of behavioural and neurophysiological paradigms in the Lab. Here I review major findings about how the honeybee brain detects, processes, and learns odours, based on behavioural, neuroanatomical and neurophysiological approaches. I...

  11. Risks of neonicotinoid insecticides to honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Fairbrother, Anne; Purdy, John; Anderson, Troy; Fell, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The European honeybee, Apis mellifera, is an important pollinator of agricultural crops. Since 2006, when unexpectedly high colony losses were first reported, articles have proliferated in the popular press suggesting a range of possible causes and raising alarm over the general decline of bees. Suggested causes include pesticides, genetically modified crops, habitat fragmentation, and introduced diseases and parasites. Scientists have concluded that multiple factors in various combinations—i...

  12. MicroRNA expression correlated with hygienic behaviour in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Dell'Orco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Honeybees (Apis mellifera play important roles in modern agriculture regarding zootechnical production and crop pollination. Recently, honeybees have received more attention from the public, beekeepers and researchers due to emerging heath issues. Thus, scientific interest for honeybee health and selection resistance to major pathogens is sharply increasing. Honeybees evolved social immunity mechanisms consisting in the cooperation of individuals to control disease level in the hive, and in particular hygienic behavior (HB, as based on the uncapping and removal of dead, diseased or parasitized brood. HB is affected by heritable and environmental factors, and specific neurogenomic states can be inferred based on the coordinated brain expression of transcription factors and their predicted target genes, including Mblk-1 (transcription factor that function in the mushroom body and Obp4 (sensitive olfactory detection in the antennae of adult bees. Besides, microRNAs are known to influence neurological status linked to age-related social behaviour in honeybees7. In order to investigate the relationship between microRNA expression and HB, the present work performed the expression profile of selected honeybee brain microRNA in individual’s honeybee from field colonies with high HB level compared to low HB level, in comparison with the expression profile of Mblk-1 and Obp4. The genetic information resulting from this project could help to understand the role of microRNAs in HB and to drive honeybee selection schemes for production, health, and behavioral traits favoring pathogen control.

  13. Analysis of the waggle dance motion of honeybees for the design of a biomimetic honeybee robot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Landgraf

    Full Text Available The honeybee dance "language" is one of the most popular examples of information transfer in the animal world. Today, more than 60 years after its discovery it still remains unknown how follower bees decode the information contained in the dance. In order to build a robotic honeybee that allows a deeper investigation of the communication process we have recorded hundreds of videos of waggle dances. In this paper we analyze the statistics of visually captured high-precision dance trajectories of European honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica. The trajectories were produced using a novel automatic tracking system and represent the most detailed honeybee dance motion information available. Although honeybee dances seem very variable, some properties turned out to be invariant. We use these properties as a minimal set of parameters that enables us to model the honeybee dance motion. We provide a detailed statistical description of various dance properties that have not been characterized before and discuss the role of particular dance components in the commmunication process.

  14. First Detection of Nosema ceranae, a Microsporidian Protozoa of European Honey­bees (Apis mellifera) In Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Gerami Sadeghian, A; S Nabian; Ahmadi, K; MH Nazem Shirazi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nosemosis of European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is present in bee colonies world­wide. Until recently, Nosema apis had been regarded as the causative agent of the disease, that causes heavy economic losses in apicultures. Nosema ceranae is an emerging microsporidian para­site of European honeybees, A. mellifera, but its distribution is not well known. Previously, nosemosis in honeybees in Iran was attributed exclusively to N. apis.Methods: Six Nosema positive samples (determined ...

  15. Genetic characterization of Lithuanian honeybee lines based on ISSR polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Ceksteryte, Violeta; Paplauskiene, Vanda; Tamasauskiene, Diana; Pasakinskiene, Izolda; Mazeikiene, Ingrida

    2012-01-01

    International audience This study presents the first results from the selection and evaluation of inter-simple sequence repeat markers for the genetic assessment of honeybee lines developed in Lithuania and introduced subspecies. Two Lithuania-bred lines of Apis mellifera carnica were compared to those introduced from Czech Republic and Slovenia and also to a subspecies introduced from the Caucasus (Apis mellifera caucasica) and local Buckfast hybrids. The genetic constitution was assayed ...

  16. The remarkable conservation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-binding protein in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) dates the CRH system to a common ancestor of insects and vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, M.O.; Flik, G.

    2005-01-01

    CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP) is a key factor in the regulation of CRH signaling; it modulates the bioactivity and bioavailability of CRH and its related peptides. The conservation of CRH-BP throughout vertebrates was only recently demonstrated. Here we report the presence of CRH-BP in the honeybee (

  17. Ocorrência e coleta de colônias e de enxames de abelhas africanizadas na zona urbana de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Occurrence and collection of Africanized honeybee swarm and colonies on the urbane zone of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, um grande número de enxames de abelhas africanizadasmigrou para a zona urbana de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, o que vem causando uma grande preocupação nos moradores, principalmente para aqueles que moram em casas com crianças, idosos e/ou com pessoas alérgicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar e retirar as colônias e os enxames que foram comunicados ao Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, nos anos de 1997 a 1999, a fim de evitar eventuais problemas causados pelas abelhas (Apis mellifera à comunidade e utilizá-los para fins de pesquisa e de ensino. Foram registradas 283 ocorrências, sendo 226 (79,9% colônias e 57 (20,1% enxames. Destas, foram coletadas 191 (67,5%, sendo 169 (88,5% colônias e 22 (11,5% enxames. As colônias e os enxames estavam alojados, em sua maioria, em telhados (123; 43,5%, em caixas (64; 22,6%, em assoalhos (59; 20,8% e em árvores (37; 13,1%.During the last years, a great number of swarms of Africanized honey bees migrated to the urban zone of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil, causing a great concern, mainly in those who live at home with children, elderly and allergic people. This study aimed to record and remove the colonies and swarms reported to the Animal Science Department at Universidade Estadual de Maringá from 1997 to 1999, inorder to avoid possible problems caused by honey bees (Apis mellifera to the community and use them for research and teaching purposes. 283 reports were recorded, being 226 (79.9% colonies and 57 (20.1% swarms. 191 (67.5% of the total reports were collected, being 169 (88.5% colonies and 22 (11.5% swarms. The honeybees were generally located in roofs (123; 43.5%, boxes (64; 22.6%, floors (59; 20.8% and trees (37; 13.1%.

  18. DEFORMED WING VIRUS IN Apis mellifera L.: PREVALENCE, MORPHOLOGY, AND PATHOGENICITY (review)

    OpenAIRE

    V.E. VOLYKHINA

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections are not considered the most dangerous honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) diseases though being rather harmful. Virus-caused honeybee pathologies are mainly symptomless (N.J. Dimmock et al., 1987; A.C.F. Hung et al., 1996), nevertheless, a rapid replication of the viruses can be triggered leading to clinical manifestation and even death of the insects (R. Singh et al., 2010). In honeybee families a simultaneous circulation of several viruses can occur. Acute bee paralysis virus (ABP...

  19. Concurrent infestations by Aethina tumida and Varroa destructor alters thermoregulation in Apis mellifera winter clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, and the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, are parasites of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Both parasites overwinter in honeybee colonies. The efficacy of thermoregulation might be reduced in beetle and mite infested clusters, due to altered activity of host...

  20. Notch signalling mediates reproductive constraint in the adult worker honeybee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Hyink, Otto; Dearden, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of eusociality is the reproductive division of labour, in which one female caste reproduces, while reproduction is constrained in the subordinate caste. In adult worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) reproductive constraint is conditional: in the absence of the queen and brood, adult worker honeybees activate their ovaries and lay haploid male eggs. Here, we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of Notch signalling can overcome the repressive effect of queen pheromone and promote ovary activity in adult worker honeybees. We show that Notch signalling acts on the earliest stages of oogenesis and that the removal of the queen corresponds with a loss of Notch protein in the germarium. We conclude that the ancient and pleiotropic Notch signalling pathway has been co-opted into constraining reproduction in worker honeybees and we provide the first molecular mechanism directly linking ovary activity in adult worker bees with the presence of the queen. PMID:27485026

  1. Deformed wing virus is a recent global epidemic in honeybees driven by Varroa mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfert, L; Long, G; Leggett, H C; Schmid-Hempel, P; Butlin, R; Martin, S J M; Boots, M

    2016-02-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) and its vector, the mite Varroa destructor, are a major threat to the world's honeybees. Although the impact of Varroa on colony-level DWV epidemiology is evident, we have little understanding of wider DWV epidemiology and the role that Varroa has played in its global spread. A phylogeographic analysis shows that DWV is globally distributed in honeybees, having recently spread from a common source, the European honeybee Apis mellifera. DWV exhibits epidemic growth and transmission that is predominantly mediated by European and North American honeybee populations and driven by trade and movement of honeybee colonies. DWV is now an important reemerging pathogen of honeybees, which are undergoing a worldwide manmade epidemic fueled by the direct transmission route that the Varroa mite provides. PMID:26912700

  2. Strategies of the honeybee Apis mellifera during visual search for vertical targets presented at various heights: a role for spatial attention? [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3yb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Morawetz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available When honeybees are presented with a colour discrimination task, they tend to choose swiftly and accurately when objects are presented in the ventral part of their frontal visual field. In contrast, poor performance is observed when objects appear in the dorsal part. Here we investigate if this asymmetry is caused by fixed search patterns or if bees can use alternative search mechanisms such as spatial attention, which allows flexible focusing on different areas of the visual field. We asked individual honeybees to choose an orange rewarded target among blue distractors. Target and distractors were presented in the ventral visual field, the dorsal field or both. Bees presented with targets in the ventral visual field consistently had the highest search efficiency, with rapid decisions, high accuracy and direct flight paths. In contrast, search performance for dorsally located targets was inaccurate and slow at the beginning of the test phase, but bees increased their search performance significantly after a few learning trials: they found the target faster, made fewer errors and flew in a straight line towards the target. However, bees needed thrice as long to improve the search for a dorsally located target when the target’s position changed randomly between the ventral and the dorsal visual field. We propose that honeybees form expectations of the location of the target’s appearance and adapt their search strategy accordingly. Different possible mechanisms of this behavioural adaptation are discussed.

  3. Honeybees (Apis mellifera exhibit flexible visual search strategies for vertical targets presented at various heights [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/51p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Morawetz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When honeybees are presented with a colour discrimination task, they tend to choose swiftly and accurately when objects are presented in the ventral part of their frontal visual field. In contrast, poor performance is observed when objects appear in the dorsal part. Here we investigate if this asymmetry is caused by fixed search patterns or if bees can increase their detection ability of objects in search scenarios when targets appear frequently or exclusively in the dorsal area of the visual field. We trained individual honeybees to choose an orange rewarded target among blue distractors. Target and distractors were presented in the ventral visual field, the dorsal field or both. Bees presented with targets in the ventral visual field consistently had the highest search efficiency, with rapid decisions, high accuracy and direct flight paths. In contrast, search performance for dorsally located targets was inaccurate and slow at the beginning of the experimental phase, but bees increased their search performance significantly after a few foraging bouts: they found the target faster, made fewer errors and flew in a straight line towards the target. However, bees needed thrice as long to improve the search for a dorsally located target when the target’s position changed randomly between the ventral and the dorsal visual field. We propose that honeybees form expectations of the location of the target’s appearance and adapt their search strategy accordingly. A variety of possible mechanisms underlying this behavioural adaptation, for example spatial attention, are discussed.

  4. A descriptive study of the prevalence of parasites and pathogens in Chinese black honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenjun; Li, Jilian; Zhao, Yazhou; Chen, Yanping; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2015-09-01

    The Chinese black honey bee is a distinct honey bee subspecies distributed in the Xinjiang, Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces of China. We conducted a study to investigate the genetic origin and the parasite/pathogen profile on Chinese black honeybees. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that Chinese black honeybees were two distinct groups: one group of bees formed a distinct clade that was most similar to Apis mellifera mellifera and the other group was a hybrid of the subspecies, Apis mellifera carnica, Apis mellifera anatolica and Apis mellifera caucasica. This suggests that the beekeeping practices might have promoted gene flow between different subspecies. Screening for pathogens and parasites showed that Varroa destructor and viruses were detected at low prevalence in Chinese black honeybees, compared with Italian bees. Further, a population of pure breeding black honeybees, A. m. mellifera, displayed a high degree of resistance to Varroa. No Varroa mites or Deformed wing virus could be detected in any examined bee colonies. This finding suggests that a population of pure breeding Chinese black honeybees possess some natural resistance to Varroa and indicated the need or importance for the conservation of the black honeybees in China. PMID:26291681

  5. The function of resilin in honeybee wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yun; Ning, Jian Guo; Ren, Hui Lan; Zhang, Peng Fei; Zhao, Hong Yan

    2015-07-01

    The present work aimed to reveal morphological characteristics of worker honeybee (Apis mellifera) wings and demonstrate the function of resilin on camber changes during flapping flight. Detailed morphological investigation of the wings showed that different surface characteristics appear on the dorsal and ventral side of the honeybee wings and the linking structure connecting the forewing and hindwing plays an indispensable role in honeybee flapping flight. Resilin stripes were found on both the dorsal and ventral side of the wings, and resilin patches mostly existed on the ventral side. On the basis of resilin distribution, five flexion lines and three cambered types around the lines of passive deformation of the coupled-wing profile were obtained, which defined the deformation mechanism of the wing along the chord, i.e. concave, flat plate and convex. From a movie obtained using high-speed photography from three orthogonal views of free flight in honeybees, periodic changes of the coupled-wing profile were acquired and further demonstrated that the deformation mechanism is a fundamental property for variable deformed shapes of the wing profile during flapping flight, and, in particular, the flat wing profile achieves a nice transition between downstrokes and upstrokes. PMID:25987733

  6. Evidence of trapline foraging in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, Alexis; Lihoreau, Mathieu

    2016-08-15

    Central-place foragers exploiting floral resources often use multi-destination routes (traplines) to maximise their foraging efficiency. Recent studies on bumblebees have showed how solitary foragers can learn traplines, minimising travel costs between multiple replenishing feeding locations. Here we demonstrate a similar routing strategy in the honeybee (Apis mellifera), a major pollinator known to recruit nestmates to discovered food resources. Individual honeybees trained to collect sucrose solution from four artificial flowers arranged within 10 m of the hive location developed repeatable visitation sequences both in the laboratory and in the field. A 10-fold increase of between-flower distances considerably intensified this routing behaviour, with bees establishing more stable and more efficient routes at larger spatial scales. In these advanced social insects, trapline foraging may complement cooperative foraging for exploiting food resources near the hive (where dance recruitment is not used) or when resources are not large enough to sustain multiple foragers at once. PMID:27307487

  7. Quantitative comparison of caste differences in honeybee hemolymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Queenie W T; Howes, Charles G; Foster, Leonard J

    2006-12-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is an invaluable partner in agriculture around the world both for its production of honey and, more importantly, for its role in pollination. Honeybees are largely unexplored at the molecular level despite a long and distinguished career as a model organism for understanding social behavior. Like other eusocial insects, honeybees can be divided into several castes: the queen (fertile female), workers (sterile females), and drones (males). Each caste has different energetic and metabolic requirements, and each differs in its susceptibility to pathogens, many of which have evolved to take advantage of the close social network inside a colony. Hemolymph, arthropods' equivalent to blood, distributes nutrients throughout the bee, and the immune components contained within it form one of the primary lines of defense against invading microorganisms. In this study we have applied qualitative and quantitative proteomics to gain a better understanding of honeybee hemolymph and how it varies among the castes and during development. We found large differences in hemolymph protein composition, especially between larval and adult stage bees and between male and female castes but even between adult workers and queens. We also provide experimental evidence for the expression of several unannotated honeybee genes and for the detection of biomarkers of a viral infection. Our data provide an initial molecular picture of honeybee hemolymph, to a greater depth than previous studies in other insects, and will pave the way for future biochemical studies of innate immunity in this animal. PMID:16920818

  8. Hygienic Behavior of Africanized Honey Bees Apis mellifera Directed towards Brood in Old and New Combs during Diurnal and Nocturnal Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago M. Francoy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic behavior in honey bees, Apis mellifera, is measured by determining the rate at which the bees uncap and remove dead sealed brood. We analyzed individual behavior of house-cleaning Africanized honey bees in order to focus on some poorly understood aspects of hygienic behavior. Two observation hives, each with approximately 3,000 individually marked bees, were used in this study. The efficiency of hygienic behavior was evaluated in hygienic and non-hygienic strains of bees using two types of combs (new and old, as well as at different periods of the day (night and day. We also recorded the age of workers that performed this task of removing dead brood. In both strains, the workers that performed tasks related to hygienic behavior were within the same age cohort; we found no influence of age on the amount of time dedicated to the task, independent of the type of comb or period of the day. The total time from perforation of the cell capping until the dead brood had been completely removed, and was significantly shorter during daytime than at night. Hygienic behavior directed towards dead brood in new combs was also significantly more efficient (faster than for brood in old combs. The type of comb had significantly more effect than did the time of day. We conclude that the type of comb and time of day should be taken into consideration when evaluating hygienic behavior in honey bees.

  9. So Near and Yet So Far: Harmonic Radar Reveals Reduced Homing Ability of Nosema Infected Honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Wolf; McMahon, Dino P; Lim, Ka S.; Pull, Christopher D.; Clark, Suzanne J.; Paxton, Robert J.; Osborne, Juliet L.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens may gain a fitness advantage through manipulation of the behaviour of their hosts. Likewise, host behavioural changes can be a defence mechanism, counteracting the impact of pathogens on host fitness. We apply harmonic radar technology to characterize the impact of an emerging pathogen - Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia) - on honeybee (Apis mellifera) flight and orientation performance in the field. Honeybees are the most important commercial pollinators. Emerging diseases have been pr...

  10. PRELIMINARY RESEARCHES REGARDING THE GENETIC AND MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF HONEYBEES (A. MELLIFERA L.) FROM ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    ELIZA CAUIA; DANIELA USURELU; LAURA MONICA MAGDALENA; Cimponeriu, D; POMPILIA APOSTOL; A. SICEANU; ALINA HOLBAN; L. Gavrila

    2013-01-01

    The international investigations regarding the honeybees’ diversity carried out until now have revealed a certain degree of genetic pollution in different countries from Europe, because of the import of more productive honeybees’ races or of some interracial honeybees’ hybrids. This fact might have a negative impact on the success adaptability of honeybees at the ecosystem. Although, the Romanian honeybees (Apis mellifera carpathica) are well adapted to the local conditions and express a good...

  11. Effects of Sublethal Doses of Imidacloprid on Young Adult Honeybee Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Mengoni Goñalons; Walter Marcelo Farina

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid used for its high selective toxicity to insects, is one of the most commonly used pesticides. However, its effect on beneficial insects such as the honeybee Apis mellifera L is still controversial. As young adult workers perform in-hive duties that are crucial for colony maintenance and survival, we aimed to assess the effect of sublethal IMI doses on honeybee behaviour during this period. Also, because this insecticide acts as a cholinergic-nicotinic agoni...

  12. Genome characterization, prevalence and distribution of a Macula-like virus from Apis mellifera and Varroa destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous viruses have been detected in honeybees, which can be roughly divided into 14 unique and distinct species-complexes, each with one or more strains or sub-species. Here we present the initial characterization of an entirely new virus species-complex discovered in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.)...

  13. Comparison of Varroa destructor and Worker Honeybee Microbiota Within Hives Indicates Shared Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Nesvorna, Marta; Ledvinka, Ondrej; Kopecky, Jan; Erban, Tomas

    2016-08-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major pest of the honeybee Apis mellifera. In a previous study, bacteria were found in the guts of mites collected from winter beehive debris and were identified using Sanger sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes. In this study, community comparison and diversity analyses were performed to examine the microbiota of honeybees and mites at the population level. The microbiota of the mites and honeybees in 26 colonies in seven apiaries in Czechia was studied. Between 10 and 50 Varroa females were collected from the bottom board, and 10 worker bees were removed from the peripheral comb of the same beehive. Both bees and mites were surface sterilized. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed significant differences in the Varroa and honeybee microbiota. The Varroa microbiota was less diverse than was the honeybee microbiota, and the relative abundances of bacterial taxa in the mite and bee microbiota differed. The Varroa mites, but not the honeybees, were found to be inhabited by Diplorickettsia. The relative abundance of Arsenophonus, Morganella, Spiroplasma, Enterococcus, and Pseudomonas was higher in Varroa than in honeybees, and the Diplorickettsia symbiont detected in this study is specific to Varroa mites. The results demonstrated that there are shared bacteria between Varroa and honeybee populations but that these bacteria occur in different relative proportions in the honeybee and mite bacteriomes. These results support the suggestion of bacterial transfer via mites, although only some of the transferred bacteria may be harmful. PMID:27129319

  14. Detection of Neural Activity in the Brains of Japanese Honeybee Workers during the Formation of a “Hot Defensive Bee Ball”

    OpenAIRE

    Ugajin, Atsushi; Kiya, Taketoshi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Ono, Masato; Yoshida, Tadaharu; Kubo, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Anti-predator behaviors are essential to survival for most animals. The neural bases of such behaviors, however, remain largely unknown. Although honeybees commonly use their stingers to counterattack predators, the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) uses a different strategy to fight against the giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia japonica). Instead of stinging the hornet, Japanese honeybees form a “hot defensive bee ball” by surrounding the hornet en masse, killing it with heat. The Europe...

  15. Duration of the Unconditioned Stimulus in Appetitive Conditioning of Honeybees Differentially Impacts Learning, Long-Term Memory Strength, and the Underlying Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marter, Kathrin; Grauel, M. Katharina; Lewa, Carmen; Morgenstern, Laura; Buckemüller, Christina; Heufelder, Karin; Ganz, Marion; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of stimulus duration in learning and memory formation of honeybees ("Apis mellifera"). In classical appetitive conditioning honeybees learn the association between an initially neutral, conditioned stimulus (CS) and the occurrence of a meaningful stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Thereby the CS…

  16. Expression of recombinant AccMRJP1 protein from royal jelly of Chinese honeybee in Pichia pastoris and its proliferation activity in an insect cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1) is the most abundant member of the main royal jelly protein (MRJP) family among honeybees. Mature MRJP1 cDNA of the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana MRJP1, or AccMRJP1) was expressed in Pichia pastoris. SDS-PAGE showed that recombinant AccMRJP1 was identical in...

  17. Produção de geleia real em colônias de abelhas africanizadas considerando diferentes suplementos proteicos e a influência de fatores ambientais = Royal jelly production in Africanized honeybee colonies considering different protein supplements and the influence of environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação proteica sobre a produção de geleia real em colônias de Apis mellifera e correlacionar esta produção com as variáveis climáticas. Os tratamentos foram: colônias que receberam uma ração elaborada com 35% de proteína; colônias que receberam suplemento proteico comercial com 35% de proteína bruta e colônias que não receberam ração proteica. Não houve diferença (p > 0,05 entre os tratamentos para as variáveis de produção. As médias foram: quantidade de larvas aceitas, 8,56 ± 6,76; porcentagem de aceitação, 29,20 ± 22,03%; quantidade de geleia real produzida por colônia, 1,83 ± 0,82 g e quantidade produzida por cúpula, 213,58 ± 108,36 mg. A precipitação pluviométrica não influenciou (p > 0,05 a produção de geleia real. Os modelos selecionados evidenciaram que houve efeito negativo da temperatura máxima e umidade relativa mínima do ar com número de larvas aceitas. Observou-se que a porcentagem de aceitação de larvas e a produção de geleia real por colônias apresentaram correlação positiva com a umidade relativa máxima e negativa com a umidade relativa mínima. Pode-se concluir que a adição de suplemento proteico (35% nãoaumentou a produção de geleia real das colônias de abelhas africanizadas e seu uso para esta finalidade foi economicamente inviável.This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of proteic supplement on royal jelly production in honeybee colonies and its correlation with environmental variables. The treatments were: colonies that had received a diet formulated with 35% crude protein, colonies that had received a commercial supplement with 35% crude protein, and colonies that did not receive protein diet. There was nodifference (p > 0.05 among the treatments for parameters of production. The average for each variable was: amount accepted larvae, 8.56 ± 6.76; acceptance percentage, 29.20 ± 22.03%; amount of royal jelly

  18. Impact of bifenthrin on honeybees and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De; Zhong, He

    2010-06-01

    The impact of bifenthrin on honeybees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was evaluated in both laboratory and semifield assays. Ten serial dilutions of bifenthrin and an acetone control using the bottle bioassay protocol were used in the laboratory to determine killing time after 15-, 30-, and 60-min honeybee exposure. Both dose and exposure time significantly affected honeybee mortality (df = 6, F = 10.9, P star) and Duranta erecta L. (golden dewdrop); a water control was also used. Bee mortality was significantly higher (P < 0.05, df = 2, F = 20.8) at 29.5 ml/liter compared to the mortality at 19.5-ml/liter and 9.7-ml/liter application rates after 24-h exposure to the treated vegetation. Mortality of Culex quinquefasciatus exposed to treated vegetation was significantly (P < 0.05, df = 10, F = 114) different by week and by application rate. PMID:20649134

  19. ТОЧКА КРИСТАЛЛИЗАЦИИ ТКАНЕЙ РАЗНЫХ ОТДЕЛОВ ТЕЛА МЕДОНОСНЫХ ПЧЕЛ APIS MELLIFERA MELLIFERA L. И APIS MELLIFERA CARNICA В УСЛОВИЯХ ПЕРМСКОГО КРАЯ

    OpenAIRE

    Мурылёв, Александр; Петухов, Александр

    2012-01-01

    The year cycle of crystallization point of different departments of a body of honeybee is shown in dynamics. Distinction of crystallization point of tissues of honeybee in Apis mellifera mellifera and Apis mellifera carnica is noted. The given indicator will allow to explain the mechanism of adaptation of bees at physiological level to adverse winter conditions and acclimatization on the north of the range.

  20. Effect of flumethrin on survival and olfactory learning in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tan

    Full Text Available Flumethrin has been widely used as an acaricide for the control of Varroa mites in commercial honeybee keeping throughout the world for many years. Here we test the mortality of the Asian honeybee Apis cerana cerana after treatment with flumethrin. We also ask (1 how bees react to the odor of flumethrin, (2 whether its odor induces an innate avoidance response, (3 whether its taste transmits an aversive reinforcing component in olfactory learning, and (4 whether its odor or taste can be associated with reward in classical conditioning. Our results show that flumethrin has a negative effect on Apis ceranàs lifespan, induces an innate avoidance response, acts as a punishing reinforcer in olfactory learning, and interferes with the association of an appetitive conditioned stimulus. Furthermore flumethrin uptake within the colony reduces olfactory learning over an extended period of time.

  1. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Recalls API allows you to tap into a list of (1) drug and food safety recalls from the Food and Drug Administration, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and...

  2. Helioviewer API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Helioviewer Project maintains a set of Public APIs with the goal of improving access to solar and heliospheric datasets to scientists, educators, developers,...

  3. Jobs API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Jobs API returns job openings across the federal government and includes all current openings posted on USAJobs.gov that are open to the public and located in...

  4. A primary report on honeybee space-flight breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The semen of honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica and Apis mellifera carnica) was carried by the recoverable satellite for a spaceflight and was inseminated instrumentally to the virgin queens after returning to the earth. The preliminary results showed that both the vitality of the sperm and the survival rate of SP1 queen were lower than those of the control. Obvious variations in morphology appeared on the progeny workers of queens in SP2 and in SP3 generations, but most of variation were unfavorable. Mutants with desirable characters were not found after the space fight. (authors)

  5. Facebook API

    OpenAIRE

    Hlaváček, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor Thesis deals with Facebook Platform utilization in web application development. Thesis is devided into five chapters, three of them are theoretical and two are pracical. First chapter deals with web APIs in general view and provides information about the basic comunication methods. The second chapter focuses on Facebook architecture, specific Facebook APIs, FQL and the Facebook Platform. The third chapter introduces Facebook Developer tools, CakePHP framework and describes setting up...

  6. Efecto de la cantidad de cría de abeja Apis mellifera (Apidae sobre la eficacia del Oxavar® para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor (Varroidae Effect of Apis mellifera (Apidae honeybee brood amount on Oxavar® acaricide efficacy against the mite Varroa destructor (Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcangeli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia acaricida del Oxavar® en el control del ácaro ectoparásito Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman. El trabajo fue realizado en el apiario experimental del Centro de Extensión Apícola ubicado en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se seleccionaron diez colmenas tipo Langstroth que fueron divididas en dos grupos: a cinco colmenas con tres cuadros cubiertos completamente de cría en desarrollo y b cinco colmenas con seis cuadros cubiertos por cría. Ambos grupos recibieron cinco ml of Oxavar® (Apilab, Argentina; 64,6 g/l de ácido oxálico en agua destilada por cuadro cubierto por abejas adultas en tres dosis a intervalos de siete días. Semanalmente, se colectaron los ácaros muertos de los pisos especiales provistos a las colmenas de estudio con el objeto de evitar su remoción por parte de las abejas. Una vez concluido el tratamiento, en cada colmena se introdujeron dos tiras plásticas de Apistan® (Roteh, Argentina para eliminar los ácaros remanentes y poder así calcular la eficacia acaricida del Oxavar®. Los resultados mostraron que la eficacia del Oxavar® en el primer grupo (85,6% ± 1,4 resultó significativamente superior a la registrada en el segundo grupo (75,7 ± 1,7. Estas diferencias fueron testeadas a partir del número total de ácaros eliminados por el Oxavar® y Apistan® en ambos grupos de colmenas (pThe aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of honeybee brood on acaricide efficacy of Oxavar® to control the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman. Work was done at Centro de Extensión Apícola experimental apiary located at Coronel Vidal, province of Buenos Aires. Ten Langstroth hives were selected and divided in two groups: a hives containing three honeybee combs full of brood and b hives containing six honeybee brood combs. Both groups received five ml of Oxavar® (Laboratorio Apilab, Argentina; 64.6 g/l oxalic acid in destilled water

  7. Nosema spp. infections cause no energetic stress in tolerant honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurze, Christoph; Mayack, Christopher; Hirche, Frank; Stangl, Gabriele I; Le Conte, Yves; Kryger, Per; Moritz, Robin F A

    2016-06-01

    Host-pathogen coevolution leads to reciprocal adaptations, allowing pathogens to increase host exploitation or hosts to minimise costs of infection. As pathogen resistance is often associated with considerable costs, tolerance may be an evolutionary alternative. Here, we examined the effect of two closely related and highly host dependent intracellular gut pathogens, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, on the energetic state in Nosema tolerant and sensitive honeybees facing the infection. We quantified the three major haemolymph carbohydrates fructose, glucose, and trehalose using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a measure for host energetic state. Trehalose levels in the haemolymph were negatively associated with N. apis infection intensity and with N. ceranae infection regardless of the infection intensity in sensitive honeybees. Nevertheless, there was no such association in Nosema spp. infected tolerant honeybees. These findings suggest that energy availability in tolerant honeybees was not compromised by the infection. This result obtained at the individual level may also have implications at the colony level where workers in spite of a Nosema infection can still perform as well as healthy bees, maintaining colony efficiency and productivity. PMID:26976406

  8. Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early neolithic farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Roffet-Salque, M.; Regert, M.; Evershed, R.P.; Outram, A.K.; Cramp, L.J.E.; Decavallas, O.; Dunne, J.; Gerbault, P.; Mileto, S.; Mirabaud, S.; Pääkkönen, M.; Smyth, J; Šoberl, L.; Whelton, H.L.; Alday-Ruiz, A. (Alfonso)

    2015-01-01

    The pressures on Honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations, resulting from threats by modern pesticides, parasites, predators and diseases, have raised awareness of the economic importance and critical role this insect plays in agricultural societies across the globe. However, human’s association with A. mellifera predates post-industrial revolution agriculture, as evidenced by the widespread presence of ancient Egyptian bee iconography dating to the Old Kingdom (ca. 2400 BC). There are also hint...

  9. Control of reproductive dominance by the thelytoky gene in honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Lattorff, H Michael G; Moritz, Robin F.A.; Crewe, Robin M.; Solignac, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Differentiation into castes and reproductive division of labour are a characteristics of eusocial insects. Caste determination occurs at an early stage of larval development in social bees and is achieved via differential nutrition irrespective of the genotype. Workers are usually subordinate to the queen and altruistically refrain from reproduction. Workers of the Cape honeybee (Apis mellifera capensis) do not necessarily refrain from reproduction. They have the unique ability to produce fem...

  10. Honeybee (Apis mellifera Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-A Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration—especially via the nasal or rectal route—could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs.

  11. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cassava flower honey samples produced by africanized honeybees Caracterização físico-química e microbiológica de amostras de mel de flores de mandioca produzido por abelhas africanizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Peres de Moura Pontara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cassava producers in the region of Marília-São Paulo are integrating their farming activity with beekeeping to diversify their income. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera from cassava flower in 2008. Analysis were carried out for pH, total soluble solids (TSS, acidity, moisture, reducing and total sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, color, ash, proteins, water insoluble solids, diastasic activity, mineral content, microbiological evaluations, and mineral and hydrocyanic acid (HCN content. The honey samples showed physicochemical and microbiological characteristics favorable to commercialization, with the exception of apparent sucrose and acidity, which show the need for a narrow focus of attention to the honey maturation degree at the harvest time and more careful monitoring during production and processing. The commercialization of Brazilian cassava honey, still little explored, can be widely spread in the market since the levels of hydrocyanic acid (HCN showed no consumption risk; in addition the simultaneous production of honey and cassava provides an alternative to family income increase.Produtores de mandioca da região de Marília, Estado de São Paulo, estão consorciando a atividade da apicultura em meio à cultura visando diversificar a renda obtida pela propriedade rural. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade físico-química e microbiológica do mel produzido por abelhas Apis mellifera africanizadas, elaborado a partir de flores de mandioca, no ano de 2008. Foram realizadas análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez, umidade, açúcares redutores e totais, sacarose aparente, hidroximetilfurfural, cor, cinzas, proteínas, sólidos insolúveis em água, atividade diastásica, teor de minerais e monitoramento dos teores de ácido cianídrico (HCN, além de avaliações microbiol

  12. Sequence analysis and mRNA expression of mab-21 gene in the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)%中华蜜蜂mab-21基因序列分析及表达特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛菲; 吴鹏杰; 李雨时; 王秀红; 国占宝; 徐书法; 吴杰

    2015-01-01

    [目的]探究中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana Male abnomal 21(mab-21)基因在不同发育阶段的表达特性及染螨条件下mab-21基因表达变化规律.[方法]本研究利用RT-PCR方法,克隆了中华蜜蜂mab-21的基因编码区;采用荧光定量PCR方法检测了中华蜜蜂mab-21在不同发育时期(新出房蜂、哺育蜂、守卫蜂及采集蜂)工蜂头部中mRNA的表达量以及接种大蜂螨Varroa destructor前后mab-21基因的表达变化.[结果]克隆获得中华蜜蜂mab-21cDNA,命名为Accmab21(GenBank登录号KR000001).序列分析显示,该编码区开放阅读框长为1 098 bp,编码365个氨基酸,推测的编码蛋白的相对分子量和等电点分别为41.63 kD和8.53.系统发育分析表明中华蜜蜂mab-21与西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera mab-21、小蜜蜂Apis florea mab-21和熊蜂Bombus impatiens mab-21聚成一支.该基因在中华蜜蜂工蜂的不同发育时期均有表达,其中哺育蜂阶段显著高于新出房蜂、守卫蜂和采集蜂(P<0.05).接种大蜂螨后,哺育蜂和守卫蜂中mab-21基因的表达下降显著(P<0.05);而在新出房蜂和采集蜂中表达量变化不显著.[结论]该基因可能与中华蜜蜂抗螨行为相关.

  13. Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C₃ and C₄ plants) syrups by the carbon isotope ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Ahmet; Kocaokutgen, Hasan; Garipoglu, Ali V; Onder, Hasan; Ekinci, Deniz; Biyik, Selim

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, one hundred pure and adulterated honey samples obtained from feeding honeybee colonies with different levels (5, 20 and 100 L/colony) of various commercial sugar syrups including High Fructose Corn Syrup 85 (HFCS-85), High Fructose Corn Syrup 55 (HFCS-55), Bee Feeding Syrup (BFS), Glucose Monohydrate Sugar (GMS) and Sucrose Sugar (SS) were evaluated in terms of the δ(13)C value of honey and its protein, difference between the δ(13)C value of protein and honey (Δδ(13)C), and C4% sugar ratio. Sugar type, sugar level and the sugar type*sugar level interaction were found to be significant (Psyrup level of all sugar types when the δ(13)C value of honey, Δδ(13)C (protein-honey), and C4% sugar ratio were used as criteria according to the AOAC standards. However, it was possible to detect the adulteration by using the same criteria in the honeys taken from the 20 and 100 L/colony of HFCS-85 and the 100L/colony of HFCS-55. Adulteration at low syrup level (20 L/colony) was more easily detected when the fructose content of HFCS syrup increased. As a result, the official methods (AOAC, 978.17, 1995; AOAC, 991.41, 1995; AOAC 998.12, 2005) and Internal Standard Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis could not efficiently detect the indirect adulteration of honey obtained by feeding the bee colonies with the syrups produced from C3 plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and wheat (Triticium vulgare). For this reason, it is strongly needed to develop novel methods and standards that can detect the presence and the level of indirect adulterations. PMID:24594168

  14. Brood-cell size has no influence on the population dynamics of Varroa destructor mites in the native western honey bee, Apis mellifera mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Coffey, Mary F.; Breen, John; Brown, Mark J.F.; Mcmullan, John B.

    2010-01-01

    The varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is an ectoparasite of the western honeybee Apis mellifera that reproduces in the brood cells. The mite will generally kill colonies unless treatment is given, and this almost universally involves the use of chemicals. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of small cell size on the reproductive success of the mite, as a method of non-chemical control in the Northern European honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera. Test colonies with alternating small an...

  15. Alternative sources of supplements in Africanized honeybees submitted to royal jelly production - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Martins Costa-Maia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplements with isolated soy protein, brewer’s yeast, a mixture of isolated soy protein with brewer’s yeast, linseed oil, palm oil and mixture of linseed oil with palm oil in the royal jelly production of Africanized honey bee colonies. Total royal jelly produced was superior (P

  16. A Strong Immune Response in Young Adult Honeybees Masks Their Increased Susceptibility to Infection Compared to Older Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, James C.; Ryabov, Eugene V.; Gill Prince; Andrew Mead; Cunjin Zhang; Baxter, Laura A.; Pell, Judith K.; Osborne, Juliet L; Dave Chandler

    2012-01-01

    Honeybees, Apis mellifera, show age-related division of labor in which young adults perform maintenance ("housekeeping") tasks inside the colony before switching to outside foraging at approximately 23 days old. Disease resistance is an important feature of honeybee biology, but little is known about the interaction of pathogens and age-related division of labor. We tested a hypothesis that older forager bees and younger "house" bees differ in susceptibility to infection. We coupled an infect...

  17. Protein and peptide composition of male accessory glands of Apis mellifera drones investigated by mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculat...

  18. Identification of Multiple Loci Associated with Social Parasitism in Honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallberg, Andreas; Pirk, Christian W; Allsopp, Mike H; Webster, Matthew T

    2016-06-01

    In colonies of the honeybee Apis mellifera, the queen is usually the only reproductive female, which produces new females (queens and workers) by laying fertilized eggs. However, in one subspecies of A. mellifera, known as the Cape bee (A. m. capensis), worker bees reproduce asexually by thelytoky, an abnormal form of meiosis where two daughter nucleii fuse to form single diploid eggs, which develop into females without being fertilized. The Cape bee also exhibits a suite of phenotypes that facilitate social parasitism whereby workers lay such eggs in foreign colonies so their offspring can exploit their resources. The genetic basis of this switch to social parasitism in the Cape bee is unknown. To address this, we compared genome variation in a sample of Cape bees with other African populations. We find genetic divergence between these populations to be very low on average but identify several regions of the genome with extreme differentiation. The regions are strongly enriched for signals of selection in Cape bees, indicating that increased levels of positive selection have produced the unique set of derived phenotypic traits in this subspecies. Genetic variation within these regions allows unambiguous genetic identification of Cape bees and likely underlies the genetic basis of social parasitism. The candidate loci include genes involved in ecdysteroid signaling and juvenile hormone and dopamine biosynthesis, which may regulate worker ovary activation and others whose products localize at the centrosome and are implicated in chromosomal segregation during meiosis. Functional analysis of these loci will yield insights into the processes of reproduction and chemical signaling in both parasitic and non-parasitic populations and advance understanding of the process of normal and atypical meiosis. PMID:27280405

  19. Identification of Multiple Loci Associated with Social Parasitism in Honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wallberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In colonies of the honeybee Apis mellifera, the queen is usually the only reproductive female, which produces new females (queens and workers by laying fertilized eggs. However, in one subspecies of A. mellifera, known as the Cape bee (A. m. capensis, worker bees reproduce asexually by thelytoky, an abnormal form of meiosis where two daughter nucleii fuse to form single diploid eggs, which develop into females without being fertilized. The Cape bee also exhibits a suite of phenotypes that facilitate social parasitism whereby workers lay such eggs in foreign colonies so their offspring can exploit their resources. The genetic basis of this switch to social parasitism in the Cape bee is unknown. To address this, we compared genome variation in a sample of Cape bees with other African populations. We find genetic divergence between these populations to be very low on average but identify several regions of the genome with extreme differentiation. The regions are strongly enriched for signals of selection in Cape bees, indicating that increased levels of positive selection have produced the unique set of derived phenotypic traits in this subspecies. Genetic variation within these regions allows unambiguous genetic identification of Cape bees and likely underlies the genetic basis of social parasitism. The candidate loci include genes involved in ecdysteroid signaling and juvenile hormone and dopamine biosynthesis, which may regulate worker ovary activation and others whose products localize at the centrosome and are implicated in chromosomal segregation during meiosis. Functional analysis of these loci will yield insights into the processes of reproduction and chemical signaling in both parasitic and non-parasitic populations and advance understanding of the process of normal and atypical meiosis.

  20. Identification of Multiple Loci Associated with Social Parasitism in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirk, Christian W.; Allsopp, Mike H.

    2016-01-01

    In colonies of the honeybee Apis mellifera, the queen is usually the only reproductive female, which produces new females (queens and workers) by laying fertilized eggs. However, in one subspecies of A. mellifera, known as the Cape bee (A. m. capensis), worker bees reproduce asexually by thelytoky, an abnormal form of meiosis where two daughter nucleii fuse to form single diploid eggs, which develop into females without being fertilized. The Cape bee also exhibits a suite of phenotypes that facilitate social parasitism whereby workers lay such eggs in foreign colonies so their offspring can exploit their resources. The genetic basis of this switch to social parasitism in the Cape bee is unknown. To address this, we compared genome variation in a sample of Cape bees with other African populations. We find genetic divergence between these populations to be very low on average but identify several regions of the genome with extreme differentiation. The regions are strongly enriched for signals of selection in Cape bees, indicating that increased levels of positive selection have produced the unique set of derived phenotypic traits in this subspecies. Genetic variation within these regions allows unambiguous genetic identification of Cape bees and likely underlies the genetic basis of social parasitism. The candidate loci include genes involved in ecdysteroid signaling and juvenile hormone and dopamine biosynthesis, which may regulate worker ovary activation and others whose products localize at the centrosome and are implicated in chromosomal segregation during meiosis. Functional analysis of these loci will yield insights into the processes of reproduction and chemical signaling in both parasitic and non-parasitic populations and advance understanding of the process of normal and atypical meiosis. PMID:27280405

  1. Steroid Hormone (20-Hydroxyecdysone) Modulates the Acquisition of Aversive Olfactory Memories in Pollen Forager Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Lisa H.; McQuillan, H. James; Aiken, Alastair; Vergoz, Vanina; Mercer, Alison R.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we examine effects of the steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E), on associative olfactory learning in the honeybee, "Apis mellifera." 20-E impaired the bees' ability to associate odors with punishment during aversive conditioning, but did not interfere with their ability to associate odors with a food reward (appetitive…

  2. Modelling Gene Flow between Fields of White Clover with Honeybees as Pollen Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løjtnant, Christina; Boelt, Birte; Clausen, Sabine Karin;

    2012-01-01

    The portion-dilution model is a parametric restatement of the conventional view of animal pollination; it predicts the level of pollinator-mediated gene dispersal. In this study, the model was applied to white clover (Trifolium repens) and its most frequent pollinator, the honeybee (Apis mellifera...

  3. Nectar Sources for the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera adansonii Revealed by Pollen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola ADEKANMBI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nectar sources for the African honeybee Apis mellifera adansonii were investigated. The work involved analysis of three honey samples bought from open markets in Lagos, Nigeria. The pollen sediment of the honeys was acetolysed, mounted on slides and pollen types were identified and counted to determine the relative frequency of the different pollen types in the honey samples. The proportion of pollen from each of the honey samples varied from 196 in sample A, 280 in sample B to 238 in sample C. The most abundant taxa identified from the honey samples were Tridax procumbens and Elaeis guineensis belonging to the families Asteraceae and Palmae. The highest proportion of Palm pollen grain was recorded in sample B with one hundred and ten (110 pollen grains per slide. The pollen grains in the families Palmae and Asteraceae are of great importance to the bees for honey production, this can be seen in the abundance displayed in sample B and C. Other pollen taxa recovered belong to the families Mimosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapotaceae and Anacardiaceae providing a clue on the ecological origin of the pollen grains in the honey sample. Pollen analysis of honey proved to be useful in deciphering nectar sources of Apis mellifera adansonii.

  4. Outcome of Colonization of Apis mellifera by Nosema ceranae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Meana, Aránzazu; Prieto, Lourdes; Salvador, Amparo Martínez; Garrido-Bailón, Encarna; Higes, Mariano

    2007-01-01

    A multiplex PCR-based method, in which two small-subunit rRNA regions are simultaneously amplified in a single reaction, was designed for parallel detection of honeybee microsporidians (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae). Each of two pairs of primers exclusively amplified the 16S rRNA targeted gene of a specific microsporidian. The multiplex PCR assay was useful for specific detection of the two species of microsporidians related to bee nosemosis, not only in purified spores but also in honeybee...

  5. Purification and characterization of acid phosphatase from the Italian honeybee,Apis mellifera L.(Hymenoptera:Apidae)%意蜂工蜂酸性磷酸酶的纯化及其酶学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江琰; 刘克武; 雷远成; 宋贤丽

    2004-01-01

    从意蜂Apis mellifera工蜂体内分离提纯酸性磷酸酶(ACPase,EC3.1.3.2),并对其性质进行了研究.将工蜂酸性磷酸酶的初提物经分段盐析、DEAE-Sepharose FF离子交换层析及Sephdex G-200凝胶过滤等纯化步骤,得到经聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳为单一蛋白区带的酶液.提纯倍数为77.24,酶液比活力为16.22 U/mg(对硝基苯磷酸二钠作底物).利用凝胶过滤法测定酶的相对分子质量为135 kD,SDS-PAGE测定酶的亚基相对分子质量为63.1 kD.酶的等电点为4.46和4.79.非还原/还原(NR/R)单向、双向SDS-PAGE显示酶分子含有链内二硫键.对二级结构圆二色谱分析显示,酶分子中α-螺旋占13.84%,β-折叠占25.68%,无规则卷曲占56.34%.氨基酸组成分析结果表明,酸性磷酸酶约含有507个氨基酸残基,富含门冬氨酸残基.

  6. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads. PMID:25993642

  7. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alburaki

    Full Text Available Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads.

  8. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads. PMID:25993642

  9. Control del parásito Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) en colmenas de la abeja Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) mediante la aplicación de la técnica de entrampado Control of the parasite Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) applying brood trap combs

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Damiani; Jorge Marcangeli

    2006-01-01

    La parasitosis causada por el ácaro Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman) es, actualmente considerada el mayor escollo para el desarrollo de la apicultura. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la técnica del entrampamiento de ácaros en panales de cría, como posible método de control de la parasitosis. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se trabajó sobre colmenas tipo Langstroth del híbrido regional de Apis mellifera (Linneaus). En cada colmena expe...

  10. Métodos para atrair a abelha Apis mellifera L. em cultura de abacate (Persea americana Mill.) Methods to attract honeybee Apis mellifera L. to avocado tree (Persea americana Mill)

    OpenAIRE

    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza; Simone Rodrigues da Silva; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo

    2002-01-01

    O presente experimento teve como objetivo avaliar métodos de atração da abelha Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae) em duas variedades de abacate (Persea americana Mill.). Os atrativos utilizados foram extratos de Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, Lippia alba, folha de Citrus sp, folha de Eucaliptus sp. e o eugenol e o linalol (SIGMA). Os tratamentos utilizados foram: coberto; descoberto pulverizado (DP); descoberto com tubos e descoberto não pulverizado (DNP). Observou-se que a atrat...

  11. Presence of Nosema ceranae associated with honeybee queen introductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Irene; Cepero, Almudena; Pinto, Maria Alice; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano; De la Rúa, Pilar

    2014-04-01

    Microsporidiosis caused by Nosema species is one of the factors threatening the health of the honeybee (Apis mellifera), which is an essential element in agriculture mainly due to its pollination function. The dispersion of this pathogen may be influenced by many factors, including various aspects of beekeeping management such as introduction of queens with different origin. Herein we study the relation of the presence and distribution of Nosema spp. and the replacement of queens in honeybee populations settled on the Atlantic Canary Islands. While Nosema apis has not been detected, an increase of the presence and distribution of Nosema ceranae during the last decade has been observed in parallel with a higher frequency of foreign queens. On the other hand, a reduction of the number of N. ceranae positive colonies was observed on those islands with continued replacement of queens. We suggest that such replacement could help maintaining low rates of Nosema infection, but healthy queens native to these islands should be used in order to conserve local honeybee diversity. PMID:24568841

  12. Varroa destructor mite mortality rate according to the amount of worker broods in africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies = Taxa de mortalidade do ácaro Varroa destructor de acordo com a quantidade de crias em colônias de abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Moretto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Varroa destructor mite has caused the death of hundreds of thousands of Apis mellifera colonies in several countries worldwide. However, the effects determined by the Varroa mite change according to the A. mellifera subspecies. In Africanized bee colonies from South and Central America, the parasite causes little damage, as the infestation levels are relatively stable and low, thus treatments against the pest are not required. Among several factors, the grooming behavior of Africanized worker bees plays an important role in the maintenance of the low infestation levels. This study determined the daily rate of live and dead mites found at the bottom of the hive in five Africanized honey bee colonies. During fifteen days of observations, a significant increase was verified in the number of live and dead mites at the bottom of the hive as the amount of worker broods from each honey bee colony decreased. This suggests a more intense grooming activity as the Varroa concentration in the adult honey bee population increases.O ácaro Varroa destructor tem causado a mortalidade de centenas de milhares de colônias de abelhas Apis mellifera em várias partes do mundo. Os efeitos determinados pelo ácaro Varroa variam com a subespécie de Apis mellifera. Nas Américas do Sul e Central, o parasita causa poucos danos às colônias de abelhas africanizadas, a taxa de infestação é estável e baixa, não sendo necessário o tratamento químico contra a praga. Entre vários fatores que são responsáveis pela tolerância das abelhas africanizadas a esse parasita, o comportamento de grooming executado pelas operárias deve exercer importante papel na manutenção dos baixos níveis deinfestação. Neste estudo, foram avaliadas as taxas diárias de ácaros vivos e mortos encontrados no fundo das colméias de cinco colônias de abelhas africanizadas. Durante 15 dias de observações, foi verificado significativo aumento de ácaros no fundo da colméia

  13. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  14. Breeding the Mite-Resistant Honeybee by Nutritional Crossbreed Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xian-bing; PENG Wen-jun; ZENG Zhi-jiang

    2008-01-01

    Mite (Varroa destructor) is one of the most serious parasite threats to the honey bee (Apis mellifera) reared in China. The beekeepers mainly use the drug to control and kill the mite in the past years, but the honey products may be contaminated and the mite is becoming drug-resistant. The main idea of this paper is to research the possibility of mite-resistant honeybee rearing by nutritional crossbreed. The larvae (Apis mellifera ligustica) are bred with the royal jelly of Apis carana carana, and then the morphological index of the worker generation, genotypic frequency and gene frequency of the MDH Ⅱ, genetic resemblance, and mite resistance are measured. The results show that: compared to the parent workers, the proboscis length, anterior wing area, the total length of the third and fourth dorsal plate of the abdomen, the length of the fourth dorsal plate of the tuberculum, the area of the sixth abdominal segment, and the area of wax mirrors are significantly different, but the differences in the brachium index, dactylus index, and wing claw are not significant. Moreover, there are some mutations in the genotypic frequency and gene frequency of the MDH Ⅱ. The mite resistance of the nutritional crossbreed worker is significantly higher. The morphological, physical, and biochemical characters, genetic resemblance, and the mite-resistant ability of the worker generation can be changed by nutritional crossbreeding. Nutritional crossbreeding can be a new way to breed the honeybee.

  15. Produção de geleia real em colônias de abelhas africanizadas considerando diferentes suplementos proteicos e a influência de fatores ambientais - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.6836 Royal jelly production in Africanized honeybee colonies considering different protein supplements and the influence of environmental factors - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.6836

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Colla Ruvolo-Takasusuki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação proteica sobre a produção de geleia real em colônias de Apis mellifera e correlacionar esta produção com as variáveis climáticas. Os tratamentos foram: colônias que receberam uma ração elaborada com 35% de proteína; colônias que receberam suplemento proteico comercial com 35% de proteína bruta e colônias que não receberam ração proteica. Não houve diferença (p > 0,05 entre os tratamentos para as variáveis de produção. As médias foram: quantidade de larvas aceitas, 8,56 ± 6,76; porcentagem de aceitação, 29,20 ± 22,03%; quantidade de geleia real produzida por colônia, 1,83 ± 0,82 g e quantidade produzida por cúpula, 213,58 ± 108,36 mg. A precipitação pluviométrica não influenciou (p > 0,05 a produção de geleia real. Os modelos selecionados evidenciaram que houve efeito negativo da temperatura máxima e umidade relativa mínima do ar com número de larvas aceitas. Observou-se que a porcentagem de aceitação de larvas e a produção de geleia real por colônias apresentaram correlação positiva com a umidade relativa máxima e negativa com a umidade relativa mínima. Pode-se concluir que a adição de suplemento proteico (35% não aumentou a produção de geleia real das colônias de abelhas africanizadas e seu uso para esta finalidade foi economicamente inviável.This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of proteic supplement on royal jelly production in honeybee colonies and its correlation with environmental variables. The treatments were: colonies that had received a diet formulated with 35% crude protein, colonies that had received a commercial supplement with 35% crude protein, and colonies that did not receive protein diet. There was no difference (p > 0.05 among the treatments for parameters of production. The average for each variable was: amount accepted larvae, 8.56 ± 6.76; acceptance percentage, 29.20 ± 22.03%; amount of royal jelly

  16. Effects of some insecticides on longevity of the foragers honey bee worker of local honey bee race Apis mellifera jemenatica

    OpenAIRE

    Aljedani, Dalal Musleh; Almehmadi, Roqaya Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Honeybees are constantly exposed to a wide range of vital and non-vital pressures that may interact with each other and affect the health or survival of the insects. Pesticides are the main danger for the insects, and they subsequently have impacts on human and environmental health. Methods Field research was conducted in the apiary of Hada Al Sham Research Station, where the worker honeybees forager Apis mellifera jemenatica were selected to examine the effect of pesticides on w...

  17. Genome Characterization, Prevalence and Distribution of a Macula-Like Virus from Apis mellifera and Varroa destructor

    OpenAIRE

    de Miranda, Joachim R.; R. Scott Cornman; Evans, Jay D; Emilia Semberg; Nizar Haddad; Peter Neumann; Laurent Gauthier

    2015-01-01

    Around 14 distinct virus species-complexes have been detected in honeybees, each with one or more strains or sub-species. Here we present the initial characterization of an entirely new virus species-complex discovered in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) and varroa mite (Varroa destructor) samples from Europe and the USA. The virus has a naturally poly-adenylated RNA genome of about 6500 nucleotides with a genome organization and sequence similar to the Tymoviridae (Tymovirales; Tymoviridae), a p...

  18. Functional characterization of transmembrane adenylyl cyclases from the honeybee brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Sabine; Ehling, Petra; Wachten, Sebastian; Jordan, Nadine; Erber, Joachim; Mujagic, Samir; Baumann, Arnd

    2012-06-01

    The second messenger cAMP has a pivotal role in animals' physiology and behavior. Intracellular concentrations of cAMP are balanced by cAMP-synthesizing adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and cAMP-cleaving phosphodiesterases. Knowledge about ACs in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is rather limited and only an ortholog of the vertebrate AC3 isoform has been functionally characterized, so far. Employing bioinformatics and functional expression we characterized two additional honeybee genes encoding membrane-bound (tm)ACs. The proteins were designated AmAC2t and AmAC8. Unlike the common structure of tmACs, AmAC2t lacks the first transmembrane domain. Despite this unusual topography, AmAC2t-activity could be stimulated by norepinephrine and NKH477 with EC(50s) of 0.07 μM and 3 μM. Both ligands stimulated AmAC8 with EC(50s) of 0.24 μM and 3.1 μM. In brain cryosections, intensive staining of mushroom bodies was observed with specific antibodies against AmAC8, an expression pattern highly reminiscent of the Drosophila rutabaga AC. In a current release of the honeybee genome database we identified three additional tmAC- and one soluble AC-encoding gene. These results suggest that (1) the AC-gene family in honeybees is comparably large as in other species, and (2) based on the restricted expression of AmAC8 in mushroom bodies, this enzyme might serve important functions in honeybee behavior. PMID:22426196

  19. Control del parásito Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en colmenas de la abeja Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae mediante la aplicación de la técnica de entrampado Control of the parasite Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae applying brood trap combs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Damiani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La parasitosis causada por el ácaro Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman es, actualmente considerada el mayor escollo para el desarrollo de la apicultura. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la técnica del entrampamiento de ácaros en panales de cría, como posible método de control de la parasitosis. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se trabajó sobre colmenas tipo Langstroth del híbrido regional de Apis mellifera (Linneaus. En cada colmena experimental se procedió a confinar a la reina en panales trampa específicos, con el fin de poder controlar la oviposición. Estos panales, luego de ser operculados por las obreras, fueron llevados al laboratorio donde se desoperculó cada una de las celdas de cría, y se contabilizó el número de ácaros presentes. Esta técnica se aplicó variando el número de panales trampa (1-3 colocados, tanto para los constituidos por celdas de cría de obreras como de zánganos. También, se evaluó el impacto de la aplicación de esta técnica sobre el desarrollo de las colonias, mediante la medición de su productividad. Los resultados indican, que la técnica empleada sólo es efectiva, cuando se aplican tres panales de cría de zánganos de manera consecutiva, alcanzando una efectividad máxima de 84%. Cuando se aplican tres panales de obreras, la técnica mostró niveles de efectividad muy inferiores (14%. En las colonias sobre las que se aplicó esta técnica, la productividad de miel se redujo significativamente, comparada con las colonias control. Esta técnica resulta ideal para ser combinada con otros mecanismos de control, disminuyendo la aplicación de sustancias químicas que puedan contaminar la miel, y la generación de resistencia por parte del ácaro frente a los principios activos utilizados para su control.At present, Varroosis is considered the major problem to beekeeping development. The aim of this work was to evaluate brood tramp combs

  20. Study of an API migration for two XML APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartholomei, T.T.; Czarnecki, K.; Lämmel, R.; Storm, T. van der; Brand, M.G.J. van den; Gasevic, D.; Gray, J.

    2010-01-01

    API migration refers to adapting an application such that its dependence on a given API (the source API) is eliminated in favor of depending on an alternative API (the target API) with the source and target APIs serving the same domain. One may attempt to automate API migration by code transformatio

  1. 微孢子虫和狄斯瓦螨分别侵染后的意蜂血淋巴蛋白质含量变化%Changes in content of hemolymph protein in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.)workers infected by Nosema apis and Varroa destructor respectively

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婷; 姚军; 王强; 王风忠

    2004-01-01

    微孢子虫Nosema apis和狄斯瓦螨Varroa destructor(Acari:Varroidae)均为危害意蜂Apis mellifera的重要寄生虫,该文对其危害后意蜂血淋巴蛋白质含量的变化进行了研究.用考马斯亮蓝法测定了意蜂受侵染后血淋巴的蛋白质总量,并用高压超薄层等电点聚焦法进行血淋巴蛋白质分类.结果显示,病蜂血淋巴蛋白质总量,在人工感染微孢子虫后1~10天呈上升趋势,然后逐渐下降,感染后12~27天保持在感染前意蜂血淋巴总蛋白质含量水平以下.螨侵染后意蜂血淋巴蛋白质含量明显增高,与健康意蜂相比差异极显著.高压超薄层等电点聚焦分析表明:狄斯瓦螨自然侵染意蜂后,意蜂血淋巴蛋白质组分与健康对照组相比发生了明显改变.这些结果提示,意蜂对于微孢子虫或狄斯瓦螨的侵染产生了一定的免疫反应.

  2. Assessing the Utility of a PCR Diagnostics Marker for the Identification of Africanized Honey Bee, Apis mellifera L., (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Szalanski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of a molecular diagnostic technique for distinguishing Africanized honey bees from European honey bees in the United States was conducted. Results from multiplex PCR diagnostics of a mitochondrial DNA cyt-b marker corresponded with results based on COI-COII sequencing analysis, but differed from morphometric analysis results. We suggest utilizing both multiplex PCR and morphometric methods for Africanized honey bee diagnostics in the United States, when possible.

  3. The corn pollen as a food source for honeybees=O pólen do milho como fonte de alimento para as abelhas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darclet Teresinha Malerbo-Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted on the campus of the University Center Moura Lacerda, Ribeirão Preto, in 2009 and 2010 with the objective of verifying the attractiveness of corn pollen for the Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera. The frequency of these bees, and the foraging behavior and stability were obtained by counting the first 10 min. of each hour, from 7.00 to 18.00, on three different days. Africanized honey bees collected only pollen in male flowers of maize, with a peak frequency of 9.00 in 2009 and between 16.00 and 17.00 in 2010. The corn pollen was very collected by Africanized honey bees, an important food source for these bees. O presente experimento foi conduzido no campus do Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda, Ribeirão Preto, Estado de Sao Paulo, em 2009 e 2010, com o objetivo de verificar a atratividade do pólen do milho para as abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera. A freqüência dessas abelhas, bem como o comportamento de forrageamento e a constância, foram obtidas por contagem nos primeiros 10 minutos de cada horário, das 7 às 18h, em três dias distintos. As abelhas africanizadas coletaram apenas pólen nas flores masculinas do milho, com um pico de frequência às 9h em 2009 e entre 16 e 17h, em 2010. O pólen do milho foi muito coletado pelas abelhas africanizadas, sendo uma importante fonte de alimento para essas abelhas.

  4. Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, D.

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs APIs and web APIs are used to expose existing business logic and, hence, to ease the reuse of functionalities across multiple software systems. Software systems can use the business logic of legacy systems by binding their APIs and web APIs. With the emergence of a new programming paradigm called service-oriented, APIs are exposed as web APIs hiding the technologies used to implement legacy systems. As a consequence, web APIs establish contr...

  5. Exposure to Sublethal Doses of Fipronil and Thiacloprid Highly Increases Mortality of Honeybees Previously Infected by Nosema ceranae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidau, Cyril; Diogon, Marie; Aufauvre, Julie; Fontbonne, Régis; Viguès, Bernard; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Texier, Catherine; Biron, David G.; Blot, Nicolas; El Alaoui, Hicham; Belzunces, Luc P.; Delbac, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Background The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is undergoing a worldwide decline whose origin is still in debate. Studies performed for twenty years suggest that this decline may involve both infectious diseases and exposure to pesticides. Joint action of pathogens and chemicals are known to threaten several organisms but the combined effects of these stressors were poorly investigated in honeybees. Our study was designed to explore the effect of Nosema ceranae infection on honeybee sensitivity to sublethal doses of the insecticides fipronil and thiacloprid. Methodology/Finding Five days after their emergence, honeybees were divided in 6 experimental groups: (i) uninfected controls, (ii) infected with N. ceranae, (iii) uninfected and exposed to fipronil, (iv) uninfected and exposed to thiacloprid, (v) infected with N. ceranae and exposed 10 days post-infection (p.i.) to fipronil, and (vi) infected with N. ceranae and exposed 10 days p.i. to thiacloprid. Honeybee mortality and insecticide consumption were analyzed daily and the intestinal spore content was evaluated 20 days after infection. A significant increase in honeybee mortality was observed when N. ceranae-infected honeybees were exposed to sublethal doses of insecticides. Surprisingly, exposures to fipronil and thiacloprid had opposite effects on microsporidian spore production. Analysis of the honeybee detoxification system 10 days p.i. showed that N. ceranae infection induced an increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity in midgut and fat body but not in 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase activity. Conclusions/Significance After exposure to sublethal doses of fipronil or thiacloprid a higher mortality was observed in N. ceranae-infected honeybees than in uninfected ones. The synergistic effect of N. ceranae and insecticide on honeybee mortality, however, did not appear strongly linked to a decrease of the insect detoxification system. These data support the hypothesis that the combination of the increasing

  6. Exposure to sublethal doses of fipronil and thiacloprid highly increases mortality of honeybees previously infected by Nosema ceranae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Vidau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is undergoing a worldwide decline whose origin is still in debate. Studies performed for twenty years suggest that this decline may involve both infectious diseases and exposure to pesticides. Joint action of pathogens and chemicals are known to threaten several organisms but the combined effects of these stressors were poorly investigated in honeybees. Our study was designed to explore the effect of Nosema ceranae infection on honeybee sensitivity to sublethal doses of the insecticides fipronil and thiacloprid. METHODOLOGY/FINDING: Five days after their emergence, honeybees were divided in 6 experimental groups: (i uninfected controls, (ii infected with N. ceranae, (iii uninfected and exposed to fipronil, (iv uninfected and exposed to thiacloprid, (v infected with N. ceranae and exposed 10 days post-infection (p.i. to fipronil, and (vi infected with N. ceranae and exposed 10 days p.i. to thiacloprid. Honeybee mortality and insecticide consumption were analyzed daily and the intestinal spore content was evaluated 20 days after infection. A significant increase in honeybee mortality was observed when N. ceranae-infected honeybees were exposed to sublethal doses of insecticides. Surprisingly, exposures to fipronil and thiacloprid had opposite effects on microsporidian spore production. Analysis of the honeybee detoxification system 10 days p.i. showed that N. ceranae infection induced an increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity in midgut and fat body but not in 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: After exposure to sublethal doses of fipronil or thiacloprid a higher mortality was observed in N. ceranae-infected honeybees than in uninfected ones. The synergistic effect of N. ceranae and insecticide on honeybee mortality, however, did not appear strongly linked to a decrease of the insect detoxification system. These data support the hypothesis that the combination of the

  7. Drag reduction effects facilitated by microridges inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Chu; Wu, Jia-Ning; Yang, Yun-Qiang; Zhu, Ren-Gao; Yan, Shao-Ze

    2016-01-21

    The mouthpart of a honeybee is a natural well-designed micropump that uses a reciprocating glossa through a temporary tube comprising a pair of galeae and labial palpi for loading nectar. The shapes and sizes of mouthparts differ among castes of honeybees, but the diversities of the functional microstructures inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones remain poorly understood. Through scanning electron microscopy, we found the dimensional difference of uniformly distributed microridges on the inner galeae walls of Apis mellifera ligustica workers and drones. Subsequently, we recorded the feeding process of live honeybees by using a specially designed high-speed camera system. Considering the microridges and kinematics of the glossa, we constructed a hydrodynamic model to calculate the friction coefficient of the mouthpart. In addition, we test the drag reduction through the dimensional variations of the microridges on the inner walls of mouthparts. Theoretical estimations of the friction coefficient with respect to dipping frequency show that inner microridges can reduce friction during the feeding process of honeybees. The effects of drag reduction regulated by specific microridges were then compared. The friction coefficients of the workers and drones were found to be 0.011±0.007 (mean±s.d.) and 0.045±0.010, respectively. These results indicate that the mouthparts of workers are more capable of drag reduction compared with those of drones. The difference was analyzed by comparing the foraging behavior of the workers and drones. Workers are equipped with well-developed hypopharyngeal, and their dipping frequency is higher than that of drones. Our research establishes a critical link between microridge dimensions and drag reduction capability during the nectar feeding of honeybees. Our results reveal that microridges inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones reflect the caste-related life cycles of honeybees. PMID:26542139

  8. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog “alert” is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining d...

  9. Antimicrosporidian activity of sulphated polysaccharides from algae and their potential to control honeybee nosemosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, M; Villay, A; Delbac, F; Michaud, P; Laroche, C; Roriz, D; El Alaoui, H; Diogon, M

    2015-11-20

    Nosemosis is one of the most common and widespread diseases of adult honeybees. The causative agents, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, belong to microsporidia some obligate intracellular eukaryotic parasites. In this study, 10 sulphated polysaccharides from algae were evaluated for their antimicrosporidian activity. They were first shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of the mammal microsporidian model, Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The most efficient polysaccharides were then tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of Nosema ceranae in experimentally-infected adult honeybees. Two polysaccharides extracted from Porphyridium spp. did not show any toxicity in honeybees and one of them allowed a decrease of both parasite load and mortality rate due to N. ceranae infection. A decrease in parasite abundance but not in mortality rate was also observed with an iota carrageenan. Our results are promising and suggest that algal sulphated polysaccharides could be used to prevent and/or control bee nosemosis. PMID:26344274

  10. Interactions among flavonoids of propolis affect antibacterial activity against the honeybee pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Cristina Manuela; Mărghitaş, Liviu Al; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Chirilă, Flore; Moritz, Robin F A; Schlüns, Helge

    2012-05-01

    Propolis is derived from plant resins, collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera) and renown for its antibacterial properties. Here we test the antibacterial effects of ethanolic extracts of propolis from different origins on Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterial pathogen that causes American Foulbrood, a larval disease that can kill the honeybee colony. All tested propolis samples inhibited significantly the growth of P. larvae tested in vitro. The extracts showed major differences in the content of total flavonoids (ranging from 2.4% to 16.4%) and the total polyphenols (ranging between 23.3% and 63.2%). We found that it is not only the content of compounds in propolis, which influences the strength of antimicrobial effects but there is also a significant interaction effect among flavonoids of the propolis extracts. We propose that interaction effects among the various chemical compounds in propolis should be taken into account when considering the antibacterial effects against honeybee pathogens. PMID:22386493

  11. Polinização por Apis mellifera em soja transgênica [Glycine max (L. Merrill] Roundup Ready™ cv. BRS 245 RR e convencional cv. BRS 133 = Pollination by Apis mellifera in transgenic soy (Glycine max (L. Merrill Roundup Ready™ cv. BRS 245 RR and conventional cv. BRS 133

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tais da Silva Lopes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência de Apis mellifera na produção de grãos e qualidade de sementes da soja transgênica Glycine max (L. Merrill Roundup Ready™ e convencional. A soja transgênica foi plantada intercalada com a convencional, em 18 parcelas, em três tratamentos: gaiolas com abelhas A. mellifera, gaiolas sem abelhas e áreas descobertas, com livre visitação de insetos. Na soja transgênica, em três parcelas de cada tratamento, foi aplicado glifosato, 30 dias após a emergência. Os parâmetros analisados foram: produção de grãos; número de vagens por planta; peso de 100 sementes e porcentagem de germinação das sementes. Não houve diferença entre as cultivares, entretanto a produção de 2.757,40 kg ha-1 obtida na área coberta por gaiola com abelhas, e2.828,47 kg ha-1 na área livre para visitação de insetos foram superiores a 2.000,53 kg ha-1 da área coberta por gaiola sem abelhas. O número de vagens por planta foi maior na área coberta por gaiola com abelhas (38,28 e área livre (32,65, quando comparado com o daárea coberta por gaiola sem abelhas (21,19. O peso médio de 100 sementes e a germinação das sementes não foram diferentes entre as cultivares e nem entre os tratamentos. Concluise que, para as cultivares estudadas, houve benefício na produção de grãos de 37,84%,quando foi permitida a visita de abelhas.This research was carried out to evaluate the influence of Africanized honeybees in grain production and seed quality of Glycine max (L. Merrill Roundup Ready™ transgenic soy, as well as of conventional soy. Transgenic soy was interposed with conventional soybean, in 18 plots and three treatments: covered area with Africanized honeybees, covered area without honeybees, and uncovered area with free insect visitation. The herbicide Glyphosate was applied on three plots of each treatment of transgenic soy, 30 days after emergence. Grain production, number of pods/plant, weight per

  12. Produção e desenvolvimento de colônias de abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera l. a partir de diferentes áreas e idades de cria Production and development of africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera l. colonies departing from different comb brood areas and brood ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Henrique Dias da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A apicultura brasileira usa da captura de enxames silvestres de abelhas melíferas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L. para repor e/ou aumentar o número de colônias dos apiários, possuindo inconvenientes como a dependência da natureza para captura dos enxames, a heterogeneidade genética das colônias capturadas e a possibilidade desses enxames serem portadores de doenças e parasitas prejudiciais à sanidade das abelhas. O presente trabalho testa e apresenta uma técnica de divisão de colônias de abelhas melíferas africanizadas para a produção de novas colônias fortes em curto espaço de tempo, a partir de recursos mínimos de cera, cria e alimento. Os resultados mostraram que núcleos de A. mellifera formados inicialmente com uma rainha jovem e fecundada, 1 kg de operárias, um quadro de cria fechada, um quadro de favo puxado e vazio e dois quadros com cera alveolada permitem a produção de novas colônias em 42 dias. Portanto, pode-se concluir que a técnica de divisão de colônias por formação de núcleos como descrito acima, oferece aos apicultores uma alternativa viável para a produção e comercialização em larga escala de novas colônias de abelhas melíferas africanizadas.The Brazilian apiculture relies upon collecting wild swarms of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L. to replace and/or increase the number of colonies in the apiaries. This practice brings problems such as dependence on nature to capture any swarm, diverse genetic make-up of the colonies captured and the possibility of these swarms be carrying diseases and parasites harmful to the bees. The present work tests and presents a technique to split colonies of Africanized honey bees to produce new strong colonies in short time, departing from little resources of wax, brood and food stores. Results showed that A. mellifera nuclei formed by a young and mated queen, 1kg of workers, a frame of sealed brood, an empty frame of drawn beeswax and two frames

  13. Mapping the expression of soluble olfactory proteins in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Francesca Romana; Iovinella, Immacolata; Felicioli, Antonio; Niccolini, Alberto; Calvello, Maria Antonietta; Carucci, Maria Giovanna; Qiao, Huili; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Turillazzi, Stefano; Moneti, Gloriano; Pelosi, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    Chemical communication in insects is mediated by soluble binding proteins, belonging to two large families, Odorant-binding Proteins (OBPs) and Chemosensory Proteins (CSPs). Recently, evidence has been provided that OBPs are involved in recognition of chemical stimuli. We therefore decided to investigate the expression of OBPs and CSPs in the honeybee at the protein level, using a proteomic approach. Our results are in agreement with previous reports of expression at the RNA level and show that 12 of the 21 OBPs predicted in the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera and 2 of the 6 CSPs are present in the foragers' antennae, while the larvae express only three OBPs and a single CSP. MALDI mass spectrometry on crude antennal extracts and MALDI profiling on sections of antennae demonstrated that these techniques can be applied to investigate individual differences in the expression of abundant proteins, such as OBPs and CSPs, as well as to detect the presence of proteins in different regions of the antenna. Finally, as part of a project aimed at the characterization of all OBPs and CSPs of the honeybee, we expressed 5 OBPs and 4 CSPs in a bacterial system and measured their affinity to a number of ligands. Clear differences in their binding spectra have been observed between OBPs, as well as CSPs. PMID:20155982

  14. A comparison of bee bread made by Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) and its effects on hemolymph protein titers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic influence on nutrient acquisition was examined using European and African honey bees (EHB and AHB). Both races collected the same pollen and stored it in comb cells where it was converted to a fermented food called bee bread. We compared pH, protein and amino acid concentrations in the...

  15. Insulin Modifies Honeybee Worker Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Mott

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The insulin signaling pathway has been hypothesized to play a key role in regulation of worker social insect behavior. We tested whether insulin treatment has direct effects on worker honeybee behavior in two contexts, sucrose response thresholds in winter bees and the progression to foraging by summer nurse bees. Treatment of winter worker bees with bovine insulin, used as a proxy for honeybee insulin, increased the bees’ sucrose response threshold. Treatment of summer nurse bees with bovine insulin significantly decreased the age at which foraging was initiated. This work provides further insight into the role of endocrine controls in behavior of in honeybees and insects in general.

  16. TSS identification and cDNA cloning of a cuticular protein gene apd-like from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera)%西方蜜蜂表皮蛋白基因apd-like转录起始位点的定位及cDNA序列的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亮先; 黄周英; 郑华军; 游燕琳

    2011-01-01

    The apidernin(APD)family,named after three cuticular proteins(apidermin 1-3,APD 1-3)in the Western honeybee,Apis mellifera,is a novel insect structural cuticular protein family.A hypothetical gene locus(LOC727145)was found to be located at the upstream of the reported apd gene cluster in the honeybee genomic sequence.In order to characterize this gene,we mapped its transcription start sites(TSSs)by a group of 5' LongSAGE tag sequences,and subsequently cloned its cDNA sequences through RT-PCR by using three different 5' LongSAGE tag sequences as the up-stream primers.The cloned cDNA sequences were submitted to GenBank under the accession numbers GU358197,GU358198 and GU358199.Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the genomic DNA sequence LOC727145 contains two exons and one intron,where the boundary conforms to the GU/AG rule.The cDNA sequenee is extremely GC-rich(70%),and the deduced protein is highly hydrophobic.Five amino acids(Ala,Gly,Pro,Leu and Val)account for 77% of the deduced polypeptide sequence,and Ala is the most abundant residue (29%).These characters are comparative to APD 1-3.Moreover,the deduced polypeptide sequence has 50% identity with APD-1 protein,and both possess a similar predicted hydrophobic signal peptide at the N.terminal.These results suggest that LOC727145 encodes a novel APD protein.The mapping result of 5' LongSAGE tag sequences on genome sequence showed tht LOC727145 was highly expressed in drone head,and RNA Pol Ⅱ initiated transcription of this gene at six alternative TSSs with different efficiency,and 90% of the mRNA molecules came from a dominant TSS. This research identified a novel apidermin protein, named apidermin-like (apd-like).%Apidermin蛋白家族是根据蜜蜂表皮蛋白apidermin 1-3(APD 1-3)而命名的一个新型的昆虫结构性表皮蛋白家族.为了鉴定西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera 基因组序列上毗邻基因簇apd 1-3的一个预测基因座LOC727145是否为

  17. Evidence of Apis cerana Sacbrood virus Infection in Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hong-Ri; Chen, Xiu-Xian; Chen, Yan Ping; Hu, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Jiang-Lin; Lin, Zhe-Guang; Yu, Ji-Wei; Zheng, Huo-Qing

    2016-04-15

    Sacbrood virus(SBV) is one of the most destructive viruses in the Asian honeybeeApis ceranabut is much less destructive inApis mellifera In previous studies, SBV isolates infectingA. cerana(AcSBV) and SBV isolates infectingA. mellifera(AmSBV) were identified as different serotypes, suggesting a species barrier in SBV infection. In order to investigate this species isolation, we examined the presence of SBV infection in 318A. melliferacolonies and 64A. ceranacolonies, and we identified the genotypes of SBV isolates. We also performed artificial infection experiments under both laboratory and field conditions. The results showed that 38A. melliferacolonies and 37A. ceranacolonies were positive for SBV infection. Phylogenetic analysis based on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences indicated thatA. ceranaisolates and mostA. melliferaisolates formed two distinct clades but two strains isolated fromA. melliferawere clustered with theA. ceranaisolates. In the artificial-infection experiments, AcSBV negative-strand RNA could be detected in both adult bees and larvae ofA. mellifera, although there were no obvious signs of the disease, demonstrating the replication of AcSBV inA. mellifera Our results suggest that AcSBV is able to infectA. melliferacolonies with low prevalence (0.63% in this study) and pathogenicity. This work will help explain the different susceptibilities ofA. ceranaandA. melliferato sacbrood disease and is potentially useful for guiding beekeeping practices. PMID:26801569

  18. Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs APIs and web APIs are used to expose existing business logic and, hence, to ease the reuse of functionalities across multiple software systems. Software systems can use the business logic of legacy systems by binding their APIs and web APIs. With t

  19. Healthcare Finder API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — All of the data used on the Finder.HealthCare.gov web application is available through this API. There are multiple collections of data available through the API....

  20. NASA Techport API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA TechPort system provides a RESTful web services API to make technology project data available in a machine-readable format. This API can be used to export...

  1. Neural organization and visual processing in the anterior optic tubercle of the honeybee brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Theo; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Giurfa, Martin; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2011-08-10

    The honeybee Apis mellifera represents a valuable model for studying the neural segregation and integration of visual information. Vision in honeybees has been extensively studied at the behavioral level and, to a lesser degree, at the physiological level using intracellular electrophysiological recordings of single neurons. However, our knowledge of visual processing in honeybees is still limited by the lack of functional studies of visual processing at the circuit level. Here we contribute to filling this gap by providing a neuroanatomical and neurophysiological characterization at the circuit level of a practically unstudied visual area of the bee brain, the anterior optic tubercle (AOTu). First, we analyzed the internal organization and neuronal connections of the AOTu. Second, we established a novel protocol for performing optophysiological recordings of visual circuit activity in the honeybee brain and studied the responses of AOTu interneurons during stimulation of distinct eye regions. Our neuroanatomical data show an intricate compartmentalization and connectivity of the AOTu, revealing a dorsoventral segregation of the visual input to the AOTu. Light stimuli presented in different parts of the visual field (dorsal, lateral, or ventral) induce distinct patterns of activation in AOTu output interneurons, retaining to some extent the dorsoventral input segregation revealed by our neuroanatomical data. In particular, activity patterns evoked by dorsal and ventral eye stimulation are clearly segregated into distinct AOTu subunits. Our results therefore suggest an involvement of the AOTu in the processing of dorsoventrally segregated visual information in the honeybee brain. PMID:21832175

  2. Lysophosphatidylcholine acts in the constitutive immune defence against American foulbrood in adult honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Hernández-López, Javier; Rechberger, Gerald; Crailsheim, Karl; Schuehly, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Honeybee (Apis mellifera) imagines are resistant to the Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae), causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), whereas honeybee larvae show susceptibility against this pathogen only during the first 48 h of their life. It is known that midgut homogenate of adult honeybees as well as a homogenate of aged larvae exhibit strong anti-P. larvae activity. A bioactivity-guided LC-HRMS analysis of midgut homogenate resulted in the identification of 1-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (LPC) pointing to a yet unknown immune defence in adult honeybees against P. larvae. Antimicrobial activity of LPC was also demonstrated against Melissococcus plutonius, causative agent of European Foulbrood. To demonstrate an AFB-preventive effect of LPC in larvae, artificially reared larvae were supplemented with LPC to evaluate its toxicity and to assess whether, after infection with P. larvae spores, LPC supplementation prevents AFB infection. 10 μg LPC per larva applied for 3 d significantly lowered mortality due to AFB in comparison to controls. A potential delivery route of LPC to the larvae in a colony via nurse bees was assessed through a tracking experiment using fluorescent-labelled LPC. This yet undescribed and non-proteinous defense of honeybees against P. larvae may offer new perspectives for a treatment of AFB without the utilization of classic antibiotics. PMID:27480379

  3. Transcriptome analyses of the honeybee response to Nosema ceranae and insecticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Aufauvre

    Full Text Available Honeybees (Apis mellifera are constantly exposed to a wide variety of environmental stressors such as parasites and pesticides. Among them, Nosema ceranae and neurotoxic insecticides might act in combination and lead to a higher honeybee mortality. We investigated the molecular response of honeybees exposed to N. ceranae, to insecticides (fipronil or imidacloprid, and to a combination of both stressors. Midgut transcriptional changes induced by these stressors were measured in two independent experiments combining a global RNA-Seq transcriptomic approach with the screening of the expression of selected genes by quantitative RT-PCR. Although N. ceranae-insecticide combinations induced a significant increase in honeybee mortality, we observed that they did not lead to a synergistic effect. According to gene expression profiles, chronic exposure to insecticides had no significant impact on detoxifying genes but repressed the expression of immunity-related genes. Honeybees treated with N. ceranae, alone or in combination with an insecticide, showed a strong alteration of midgut immunity together with modifications affecting cuticle coatings and trehalose metabolism. An increasing impact of treatments on gene expression profiles with time was identified suggesting an absence of stress recovery which could be linked to the higher mortality rates observed.

  4. Honeybees attractant in hybrid colored sunflower seed production crop/ Atrativo para abelhas em campos de produção de sementes de girassol colorido híbrido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Africanized honeybee (Apis mellifera, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus seed production crop, show male-fertile head preference, which decreases seed production. This research work aimed the honeybee visitation increase in male-sterile sunflower heads, with 0.0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% (w/v sucrose solution, applied at sunflower heads in completely randomized design, on 1 ha seed crop production of colored ornamental sunflower strain, in Londrina County, Paraná State, Brazil. It was utilized 15 head for each treatment, on 3 rows internal to the crop. Two hours after the application, the number of honeybees was recorded walking through the rows and observing the number of bees on the marked flowers. The greatest visitation average was in 7.5% sugar dilution (x=0.43±0.11, which was not different from 5.0% (x=0.42±0.08; p>0.05 but significantly different from control heads (x=0.12±0.04; p0.05. The number of africanized honeybees showed a 2nd order polynomial response to the tested sugar solution ( = 0,11 +8,40x -53,33x2; R2=0,9865. Sucrose 5.0% solution was capable to increase in four times the bee visitation, opening perspectives to new studies aiming adequate sunflower pollination with Africanized honeybees.A abelha Apis mellifera, em campos de produção de sementes híbridas de girassol (Helianthus annuus, apresenta preferência pelas plantas macho-estéreis, diminuindo a produção de sementes. Objetivando aumentar a visitação das abelhas nas plantas macho-estéreis, utilizou-se soluções de sacarose nas concentrações de 0,0%, 2,5%, 5,0% e 7,5% (m/v, aplicadas em diferentes capítulos, numa área plantada com 1 ha de variedades ornamentais coloridas de girassol, em Londrina-PR. Foram utilizados 15 capítulos para cada tratamento, em 3 linhas internas à plantação. Após 2 horas da aplicação, realizou-se as contagens, caminhando-se nas ruas e anotando-se o número de abelhas nas flores marcadas. A maior média de visitação foi na

  5. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  6. Investigations of hygienic behaviour and disease resistance in organic beekeeping of two honeybee ecogeographic varieties from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimirović Zoran Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic behaviour of the carniolan honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica Pollm was investigated in 20 localities in Serbia (10 localities from the Machva region and 10 localities from the Rudnik region. The results revealed that the grey bees from Rudnik have a more expressed form of hygienic behavior compared to the yellow bees from Machva. The obtained data indicate that colonies of both investigated honeybee varieties, yellow bees from Machva and grey bees from Rudnik, belong to a category of the so called "hygienic colonies", as the efficiency of elimination of damaged pupae amounted to 91,45% in Machva honeybees and 93,60% in Rudnik honeybees. Our results point to an indisputable relationship between hygienic behaviour and the strength of honeybee colonies, i.e. the potent colonies have more expressed hygienic behaviour. Both investigated honeybee varieties can be used for improving breeds selection and for organic beekeeping in Serbia, owing to the manifested hygienic behaviour and thence, resistance to some diseases (Varroa, American foulbrood, and especially Chalkbrood.

  7. A comparison of the hygienic response of Africanized and European (Apis mellifera carnica honey bees to Varroa-infested brood in tropical Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Aumeier

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the significance of hygienic behavior for the tolerance to varroosis of Africanized honey bees, they were compared with non-tolerant Carniolans in tropical Brazil. Capped worker brood cells were artificially infested with living Varroa mites, and inspected some days later. Uncapping, disappearance of the introduced mite and removal of the pupa were recorded in a total of manipulated 3,096 cells during three summer seasons. The hygienic response varied between Africanized and Carniolan colonies, but this difference was significant only in one year, during which Africanized honey bees removed a significantly greater proportion of Varroa mites than European honey bees. A high proportion of the mites disappeared from artificially infested brood cells without damage to the pupae. The opening of the cell and the removal of the bee brood are independent traits of a graded response by adult workers towards mite-infested brood cells. We found a higher between-colony variation in the reaction towards Varroa-infested brood of Africanized honey bees compared to Carniolans. The overall similar response of the two bee types indicates that hygienic behavior is not a key factor in the tolerance to varroosis of Africanized bees in Brazil.Com o intuito de examinar o significado do comportamento higiênico na tolerância à varroose de abelhas africanizadas, elas foram comparadas com as não tolerantes Cárnicas no Brasil tropical. Células de cria de operárias operculadas foram artificialmente infestadas com ácaros Varroa vivos e inspecionadas alguns dias depois. Desoperculação, desaparecimento dos ácaros introduzidos e remoção da pupa foram anotados em um total de 3096 células manipuladas durante três verões. A resposta higiênica variou entre as colônias africanizadas e de Cárnicas, mas esta diferença foi significante apenas em um ano, durante o qual as abelhas africanizadas removeram uma proporção significantemente maior de

  8. Multiple reversal olfactory learning in honeybees

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    Theo Mota

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In multiple reversal learning, animals trained to discriminate a reinforced from a non-reinforced stimulus are subjected to various, successive reversals of stimulus contingencies (e.g. A+ vs. B-, A- vs. B+, A+ vs. B-. This protocol is useful to determine whether or not animals learn to learn and solve successive discriminations faster (or with fewer errors with increasing reversal experience. Here we used the olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex to study how honeybees Apis mellifera perform in a multiple reversal task. Our experiment contemplated four consecutive differential conditioning phases involving the same odors (A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+ to A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+. We show that bees in which the weight of reinforced or non-reinforced stimuli was similar mastered the multiple olfactory reversals. Bees which failed the task exhibited asymmetric responses to reinforced and non-reinforced stimuli, thus being unable to rapidly reverse stimulus contingencies. Efficient reversers did not improve their successive discriminations but rather tended to generalize their choice to both odors at the end of conditioning. As a consequence, both discrimination and reversal efficiency decreasedalong experimental phases. This result invalidates a learning-to-learn effect and indicates that bees do not only respond to the actual stimulus contingencies but rather combine these with an average of past experiences with the same stimuli.  

  9. Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L. are more efficient at removing worker brood artificially infested with the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans than are Italian bees or Italian/Africanized hybrids

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    José Carlos Vieira Guerra Jr.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Africanized honey bees are more tolerant of infestations with the mite Varroa jacobsoni than are honey bees of European origin. The capacity of these bees to detect and react to brood infested with this mite could be one of the factors determining this tolerance. We tested colonies of Africanized bees headed by queens from swarms collected in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State. The Italian colonies had queens imported directly from the USA, or from the Brazilian Island of Fernando de Noronha, where varroa-infested Italian colonies have been maintained, untreated, since 1984. Recently sealed worker brood cells were artificially infested by opening the cell capping, inserting live adult female mites and resealing the cells. Control cells were treated in the same way, but without introducing mites. The ability of the Africanized honey bees to recognize and remove this artificially infested brood was compared with that of first generation Italian/Africanized hybrid bees, and with the two groups of "pure" Italian bees, in three separate experiments. Africanized colonies removed a mean of 51% of the infested brood, while Italian/Africanized hybrid colonies removed 25%. Africanized colonies also removed a significantly greater proportion of infested brood than did Italian colonies, headed by queens from the USA (59 vs. 31%, respectively. Similarly, when Africanized colonies were compared with colonies of Italian bees from Fernando de Noronha, the former were found to be significantly more efficient at removing infested brood (61 vs. 35%, respectively, even though the population of Italian bees on this island has been exposed to and survived varroa infestations (without treatment for more than 12 years. Only the Africanized honey bees removed a significant proportion of varroa-infested brood, when the data was corrected for brood removal from control cells.Abelhas africanizadas são mais tolerantes à infestação com o ácaro Varroa jacobsoni do que

  10. Éster de sacarose no controle do Varroa destructor em abelhas africanizadas - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.4988 Sucrose ester in the control of Varroa destructor in Africanized honeybees - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.4988

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    Silvia Regina da Cunha Funari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o efeito do éster de sacarose no controle da infestação do ácaro Varroa destructor em abelhas africanizadas. Nos testes “in vitro”, testou-se o produto em abelhas e ácaros com cinco concentrações diluídas em água (T0: 100% de água destilada; T1: 0,5%; T2: 1%; T3: 2,0%; T4: 5% e T5: 10% de éster de sacarose. Nos testes de campo, o delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e sete repetições, totalizando 28 colônias, sendo sete delas como controle, sete com 0,1% de éster de sacarose, sete com 0,2% de éster de sacarose e sete colmeias com 0,5% éster de sacarose, diluídas em água. Nos testes “in vitro” com concentração de 0,5%, o éster de sacarose promoveu a mortalidade dos ácaros e das abelhas. Os testes em campo demonstraram que o produto reduziu a infestação do Varroa destructor em abelhas na concentração de 0,2% e pode ser uma ferramenta no controle dessa praga. Nas concentrações de 0,1, 0,2, e 0,5%, não prejudicou o desenvolvimento de área de cria aberta, operculada e de alimento estocado na colmeia, sugerindo que não é tóxico para as abelhas.This study aimed to determine the effect of sucrose ester on the control of Varroa destructor mite infestation in Africanized honeybees. For the in vitro experiments, the product was tested in bees and mites at five concentrations obtained through dilution in water (T0: 100% distilled water; T1: 0.5%; T2: 1%; T3: 2%; T4: 5%; and T5: 10% sucrose ester. For the field studies, the experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and seven replicates, totaling 28 colonies, from which seven were the controls, seven were treated with 0.1% sucrose ester, seven with 0.2% sucrose ester, and seven hives with 0.5% sucrose ester diluted in water. In the in vitro study, the sucrose ester at 0.5% concentration caused mite and bee mortality. In the field tests, the

  11. API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Shannon

    2010-09-01

    The API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010 Conference, held in Berlin, included topics covering new developments in the field of global sourcing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). This conference report highlights selected presentations on development in Eastern API markets, specifically India and China, factors influencing changes in global API sourcing, and risk mitigation in API sourcing. PMID:20799139

  12. Taxa de mortalidade do ácaro Varroa destructor de acordo com a quantidade de crias em colônias de abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L. - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.487 Varroa destructor mite mortality rate according to the amount of worker broods in africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.487

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    José Carlos Vieira Guerra Junior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Varroa destructor tem causado a mortalidade de centenas de milhares de colônias de abelhas Apis mellifera em várias partes do mundo. Os efeitos determinados pelo ácaro Varroa variam com a subespécie de Apis mellifera. Nas Américas do Sul e Central, o parasita causa poucos danos às colônias de abelhas africanizadas, a taxa de infestação é estável e baixa, não sendo necessário o tratamento químico contra a praga. Entre vários fatores que são responsáveis pela tolerância das abelhas africanizadas a esse parasita, o comportamento de grooming executado pelas operárias deve exercer importante papel na manutenção dos baixos níveis de infestação. Neste estudo, foram avaliadas as taxas diárias de ácaros vivos e mortos encontrados no fundo das colméias de cinco colônias de abelhas africanizadas. Durante 15 dias de observações, foi verificado significativo aumento de ácaros no fundo da colméia à medida que diminui a quantidade de crias de operárias das colônias de abelhas. Isso sugere que a atividade de grooming é incrementada à medida que aumenta a concentração de ácaros na população de abelhas adultas.The Varroa destructor mite has caused the death of hundreds of thousands of Apis mellifera colonies in several countries worldwide. However, the effects determined by the Varroa mite change according to the A. mellifera subspecies. In Africanized bee colonies from South and Central America, the parasite causes little damage, as the infestation levels are relatively stable and low, thus treatments against the pest are not required. Among several factors, the grooming behavior of Africanized worker bees plays an important role in the maintenance of the low infestation levels. This study determined the daily rate of live and dead mites found at the bottom of the hive in five Africanized honey bee colonies. During fifteen days of observations, a significant increase was verified in the number of live and dead

  13. Dosis Letal Media (DL50 de algunos aceites esenciales y biocidas efectivos para el control de Ascosphaera apis en Apis mellifera L. - Median Lethal Dose (LD50 of some essential oils and biocides effective for the control of Ascosphaera apis on Apis mellifera L

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    Albo, Graciela N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa ascofaeriosis o cría yesificada, es una enfermedad de la abeja melífera (Apis mellifera L. causada por el hongo Ascosphaera apis que produce la momificación de las larvas. Los aceites esenciales poseen efectos antimicrobianos y han sido utilizados para el control de cría yesificada. Por otra parte, a nivel mundial se han probado gran cantidad de productos de síntesis, pero ninguno ha resultado 100 % eficaz. SummaryChalkbrood is a disease of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L caused by the fungus Ascosphaera apis that transforms larvae into mummies. Essential oils have showed antimicrobial activity and have been used in the control of chalkbrood. Moreover, world-wide, great number of synthesized products have been assayed but no one has resulted 100% effective.

  14. Mountain honeybees of Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Hepburn, H.; Radloff, Sarah; Oghiakhe, Sunday

    2000-01-01

    Les abeilles de montagne d'Afrique. Il est un problème particulièrement difficile dans la taxonomie et la biogéographie des abeilles domestiques (Apis mellifera L.): définir des taxons infraspécifiques qui soient quantitativement précis et recouvrent aussi une réalité biologique. Les abeilles de montagne d'Afrique illustrent très bien cette difficulté. Plusieurs formes différentes "de montagne " ont été identifiées ces dernières années par l'analyse multivariée des caractères morphométriques,...

  15. Draft genome sequence of the Algerian bee Apis mellifera intermissa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; Adjlane, Noureddine; Saini, Deepti; Manchiganti, Rushiraj; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; AlShagoor, Banan; Batainh, Ahmed Mahmud; Mugasimangalam, Raja

    2015-06-01

    Apis mellifera intermissa is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A. m. intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. This bee is very important due to its high ability to adapt to great variations in climatic conditions and due to its preferable cleaning behavior. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this honey bee, its Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JSUV00000000. The 240-Mb genome is being annotated and analyzed. Comparison with the genome of other Apis mellifera sub-species promises to yield insights into the evolution of adaptations to high temperature and resistance to Varroa parasite infestation. PMID:26484171

  16. Draft genome sequence of the Algerian bee Apis mellifera intermissa

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    Nizar Jamal Haddad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera intermissa is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A. m. intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. This bee is very important due to its high ability to adapt to great variations in climatic conditions and due to its preferable cleaning behavior. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this honey bee, its Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JSUV00000000. The 240-Mb genome is being annotated and analyzed. Comparison with the genome of other Apis mellifera sub-species promises to yield insights into the evolution of adaptations to high temperature and resistance to Varroa parasite infestation.

  17. The cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) induces neuronal and behavioral changes in honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Okle, Oliver; Rath, Lisa; Galizia, C Giovanni; Dietrich, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The cyanobacterially produced neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is thought to induce amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC)-like symptoms. However, its mechanism of action and its pathway of intoxication are yet unknown. In vivo animal models suitable for investigating the neurotoxic effect of BMAA with applicability to the human are scarce. Hence, we used the honeybee (Apis mellifera) since its nervous system is relatively simple, yet having cognit...

  18. Airflow and optic flow mediate antennal positioning in flying honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Khurana, Taruni; Sane, Sanjay P

    2016-01-01

    To maintain their speeds during navigation, insects rely on feedback from their visual and mechanosensory modalities. Although optic flow plays an essential role in speed determination, it is less reliable under conditions of low light or sparse landmarks. Under such conditions, insects rely on feedback from antennal mechanosensors but it is not clear how these inputs combine to elicit flight-related antennal behaviours. We here show that antennal movements of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, are governed by combined visual and antennal mechanosensory inputs. Frontal airflow, as experienced during forward flight, causes antennae to actively move forward as a sigmoidal function of absolute airspeed values. However, corresponding front-to-back optic flow causes antennae to move backward, as a linear function of relative optic flow, opposite the airspeed response. When combined, these inputs maintain antennal position in a state of dynamic equilibrium. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14449.001 PMID:27097104

  19. Wax combs mediate nestmate recognition by guard honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wenseleers, Tom; Dawson, Jenny;

    2006-01-01

    context of bees at colony entrances. Wax combs constructed by each experimental colony were swapped between hives and the acceptance of nestmate and non-nestmate forager workers was recorded before and after the swap, and in relation to a control hive not involved in the swap. We conducted the experiment......Research has shown that the wax combs are important in the acquisition of colony odour in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. However, many of these studies were conducted in the laboratory or under artificial conditions. We investigated the role of the wax combs in nestmate recognition in the natural...... in the first year, and from 8 to 47% in the second year. This effect wore off within 3 weeks. Chemical analyses showed that the cuticular profile of non-nestmates involved in the experimental comb swap became more similar to each other after the swap, and that acceptance by guards of bees from...

  20. Airflow and optic flow mediate antennal positioning in flying honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Khurana, Taruni; Sane, Sanjay P

    2016-01-01

    To maintain their speeds during navigation, insects rely on feedback from their visual and mechanosensory modalities. Although optic flow plays an essential role in speed determination, it is less reliable under conditions of low light or sparse landmarks. Under such conditions, insects rely on feedback from antennal mechanosensors but it is not clear how these inputs combine to elicit flight-related antennal behaviours. We here show that antennal movements of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, are governed by combined visual and antennal mechanosensory inputs. Frontal airflow, as experienced during forward flight, causes antennae to actively move forward as a sigmoidal function of absolute airspeed values. However, corresponding front-to-back optic flow causes antennae to move backward, as a linear function of relative optic flow, opposite the airspeed response. When combined, these inputs maintain antennal position in a state of dynamic equilibrium. PMID:27097104

  1. Memory formation in reversal learning of the honeybee

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    Randolf Menzel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In reversal learning animals are first trained with a differential learning protocol, where they learn to respond to a reinforced odor (CS+ and not to respond to a nonreinforced odor (CS-. Once they respond correctly to this rule, the contingencies of the conditioned stimuli are reversed, and animals learn to adjust their response to the new rule. This study investigated the effect of a protein synthesis inhibitor (emetine on the memory formed after reversal learning in the honeybee Apis mellifera. Two groups of bees were studied: summer bees and winter bees, each yielded different results. Blocking protein synthesis in summer bees inhibits consolidation of the excitatory learning following reversal learning whereas it blocked the consolidation of the inhibitory learning in winter bees. These findings suggest that excitatory and inhibitory learning may involve different molecular processes in bees, which are seasonally dependent.

  2. PRELIMINARY RESEARCHES REGARDING THE GENETIC AND MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF HONEYBEES (A. MELLIFERA L. FROM ROMANIA

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    ELIZA CAUIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The international investigations regarding the honeybees’ diversity carried out until now have revealed a certain degree of genetic pollution in different countries from Europe, because of the import of more productive honeybees’ races or of some interracial honeybees’ hybrids. This fact might have a negative impact on the success adaptability of honeybees at the ecosystem. Although, the Romanian honeybees (Apis mellifera carpathica are well adapted to the local conditions and express a good resistance to diseases, the introgression (genetic pollution of different honeybees’ races could be an imminent event. So that, starting from 2007, by a cooperation between the Institute for Beekeeping Research and Development from Bucharest and the Institute of Genetics of the University of Bucharest, we have initiated different investigations in order to obtain a more accurate state of the Romanian honeybees’ diversity. We have performed specific molecular analyses, using mtDNA (the COI-COII test extracted from 32 different honeybees samples collected from several regions from Romania. For a better and detailed characterization of the collected honeybee’s samples we have also carried out some morphometric measurements of their wings. Our data have shown that the Romanian population of honeybees is almost homogenous from the genetic and the morphometric points of views. These types of investigations represent a premiere for Romania.

  3. Molecular identification and functional characterization of an adenylyl cyclase from the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachten, Sebastian; Schlenstedt, Jana; Gauss, Renate; Baumann, Arnd

    2006-03-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) serves as an important messenger in virtually all organisms. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera), cAMP-dependent signal transduction has been implicated in behavioural processes as well as in learning and memory. Key components of cAMP-signalling cascades are adenylyl cyclases. However, the molecular identities and biochemical properties of adenylyl cyclases are completely unknown in the honeybee. We have cloned a cDNA (Amac3) from honeybee brain that encodes a membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase. The Amac3 gene is an orthologue of the Drosophila ac39E gene. The corresponding proteins share an overall amino acid similarity of approximately 62%. Phylogenetically, AmAC3 belongs to group 1 adenylyl cyclases. Heterologously expressed AmAC3 displays basal enzymatic activity and efficient coupling to endogenous G protein signalling pathways. Stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors induces AmAC3 activity with an EC(50) of about 3.1 microm. Enzymatic activity is also increased by forskolin (EC(50) approximately 15 microm), a specific agonist of membrane-bound adenylyl cyclases. Similar to certain biogenic amine receptor genes of the honeybee, Amac3 transcripts are expressed in many somata of the brain, especially in mushroom body neurones. These results suggest that the enzyme serves in biogenic amine signal transduction cascades and in higher brain functions that contribute to learning and memory of the bee. PMID:16464235

  4. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

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    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  5. Multiple host shifts by the emerging honeybee parasite, Varroa jacobsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J M K; Anderson, D L; Tay, W T

    2015-05-01

    Host shifts are a key mechanism of parasite evolution and responsible for the emergence of many economically important pathogens. Varroa destructor has been a major factor in global honeybee (Apis mellifera) declines since shifting hosts from the Asian honeybee (Apis cerana) > 50 years ago. Until recently, only two haplotypes of V. destructor (Korea and Japan) had successfully host shifted to A. mellifera. In 2008, the sister species V. jacobsoni was found for the first time parasitizing A. mellifera in Papua New Guinea (PNG). This recent host shift presents a serious threat to world apiculture but also provides the opportunity to examine host shifting in this system. We used 12 microsatellites to compare genetic variation of V. jacobsoni on A. mellifera in PNG with mites on A. cerana in both PNG and surrounding regions. We identified two distinct lineages of V. jacobsoni reproducing on A. mellifera in PNG. Our analysis indicated independent host shift events have occurred through small numbers of mites shifting from local A. cerana populations. Additional lineages were found in the neighbouring Papua and Solomon Islands that had partially host shifted to A. mellifera, that is producing immature offspring on drone brood only. These mites were likely in transition to full colonization of A. mellifera. Significant population structure between mites on the different hosts suggested host shifted V. jacobsoni populations may not still reproduce on A. cerana, although limited gene flow may exist. Our studies provide further insight into parasite host shift evolution and help characterize this new Varroa mite threat to A. mellifera worldwide. PMID:25846956

  6. Reproductive interference between honeybee species in artificial sympatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnant, Emily J; Koetz, Anna; Tan, Ken; Hinson, Eloise; Beekman, Madeleine; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2014-03-01

    Reproductive isolation between closely related species is often incomplete. The Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the Eastern hive bee, Apis cerana, have been allopatric for millions of years, but are nonetheless similar in morphology and behaviour. During the last century, the two species were brought into contact anthropogenically, providing potential opportunities for interspecific matings. Hybrids between A. mellifera and A. cerana are inviable, so natural interspecific matings are of concern because they may reduce the viability of A. cerana and A. mellifera populations - two of the world's most important pollinators. We examined the mating behaviour of A. mellifera and A. cerana queens and drones from Caoba Basin, China and Cairns, Australia. Drone mating flight times overlap in both areas. Analysis of the spermathecal contents of queens with species-specific genetic markers indicated that in Caoba Basin, 14% of A. mellifera queens mated with at least one A. cerana male, but we detected no A. cerana queens that had mated with A. mellifera males. Similarly, in Cairns, no A. cerana queens carried A. mellifera sperm, but one-third of A. mellifera queens had mated with at least one A. cerana male. No hybrid embryos were detected in eggs laid by interspecifically mated A. mellifera queens in either location. However, A. mellifera queens artificially inseminated with A. cerana sperm produced inviable hybrid eggs or unfertilized drones. This suggests that reproductive interference will impact the viability of honeybee populations wherever A. cerana and A. mellifera are in contact. PMID:24443879

  7. Characterization of the honeybee AmNaV1 channel and tools to assess the toxicity of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin-Badaroudine, Pascal; Moreau, Adrien; Delemotte, Lucie; Cens, Thierry; Collet, Claude; Rousset, Matthieu; Charnet, Pierre; Klein, Michael L; Chahine, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Pollination is important for both agriculture and biodiversity. For a significant number of plants, this process is highly, and sometimes exclusively, dependent on the pollination activity of honeybees. The large numbers of honeybee colony losses reported in recent years have been attributed to colony collapse disorder. Various hypotheses, including pesticide overuse, have been suggested to explain the disorder. Using the Xenopus oocytes expression system and two microelectrode voltage-clamp, we report the functional expression and the molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological characterization of the western honeybee's sodium channel (Apis Mellifera NaV1). The NaV1 channel is the primary target for pyrethroid insecticides in insect pests. We further report that the honeybee's channel is also sensitive to permethrin and fenvalerate, respectively type I and type II pyrethroid insecticides. Molecular docking of these insecticides revealed a binding site that is similar to sites previously identified in other insects. We describe in vitro and in silico tools that can be used to test chemical compounds. Our findings could be used to assess the risks that current and next generation pesticides pose to honeybee populations. PMID:26202396

  8. Evidence for the evolutionary nascence of a novel sex determination pathway in honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselmann, Martin; Gempe, Tanja; Schiøtt, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    Sex determination in honeybees (Apis mellifera) is governed by heterozygosity at a single locus harbouring the complementary sex determiner (csd) gene, in contrast to the well-studied sex chromosome system of Drosophila melanogaster. Bees heterozygous at csd are females, whereas homozygotes and...... hemizygotes (haploid individuals) are males. Although at least 15 different csd alleles are known among natural bee populations, the mechanisms linking allelic interactions to switching of the sexual development programme are still obscure. Here we report a new component of the sex-determining pathway in...... honeybees, encoded 12 kilobases upstream of csd. The gene feminizer (fem) is the ancestrally conserved progenitor gene from which csd arose and encodes an SR-type protein, harbouring an Arg/Ser-rich domain. Fem shares the same arrangement of Arg/Ser- and proline-rich-domain with the Drosophila principal sex...

  9. Invertebrate learning and memory: Fifty years of olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2012-02-01

    The honeybee Apis mellifera has emerged as a robust and influential model for the study of classical conditioning, thanks to the existence of a powerful Pavlovian conditioning protocol, the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER). In 2011, the olfactory PER conditioning protocol celebrates 50 years since it was first introduced by Kimihisa Takeda in 1961. Here, we review its origins, developments, and perspectives in order to define future research avenues and necessary methodological and conceptual evolutions. We show that olfactory PER conditioning has become a versatile tool for the study of questions in extremely diverse fields in addition to the study of learning and memory and that it has allowed behavioral characterizations, not only of honeybees, but also of other insect species, for which the protocol was adapted. We celebrate, therefore, Takeda's original work and prompt colleagues to conceive and establish further robust behavioral tools for an accurate characterization of insect learning and memory at multiple levels of analysis. PMID:22251890

  10. Sensing the intruder: a quantitative threshold for recognition cues perception in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Federico; Bruschini, Claudia; Cipollini, Maria; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Cervo, Rita

    2014-02-01

    The ability to discriminate among nestmates and non-nestmate is essential to defend social insect colonies from intruders. Over the years, nestmate recognition has been extensively studied in the honeybee Apis mellifera; nevertheless, the quantitative perceptual aspects at the basis of the recognition system represent an unexplored subject in this species. To test the existence of a cuticular hydrocarbons' quantitative perception threshold for nestmate recognition cues, we conducted behavioural assays by presenting different amounts of a foreign forager's chemical profile to honeybees at the entrance of their colonies. We found an increase in the explorative and aggressive responses as the amount of cues increased based on a threshold mechanism, highlighting the importance of the quantitative perceptual features for the recognition processes in A. mellifera.

  11. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood. PMID:14610654

  12. Mobile phone-induced honeybee worker piping

    OpenAIRE

    Favre, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide maintenance of the honeybee has major ecological, economic, and political implications. In the present study, electromagnetic waves originating from mobile phones were tested for potential effects on honeybee behavior. Mobile phone handsets were placed in the close vicinity of honeybees. The sound made by the bees was recorded and analyzed. The audiograms and spectrograms revealed that active mobile phone handsets have a dramatic impact on the behavior of the bees, namely by ind...

  13. DIRAC RESTful API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a flexible and modular solution that can be adapted to the requirements of any community. Users interact with DIRAC via command line, using the web portal or accessing resources via the DIRAC python API. The current DIRAC API requires users to use a python version valid for DIRAC. Some communities have developed their own software solutions for handling their specific workload, and would like to use DIRAC as their back-end to access distributed computing resources easily. Many of these solutions are not coded in python or depend on a specific python version. To solve this gap DIRAC provides a new language agnostic API that any software solution can use. This new API has been designed following the RESTful principles. Any language with libraries to issue standard HTTP queries may use it. GSI proxies can still be used to authenticate against the API services. However GSI proxies are not a widely adopted standard. The new DIRAC API also allows clients to use OAuth for delegating the user credentials to a third party solution. These delegated credentials allow the third party software to query to DIRAC on behalf of the users. This new API will further expand the possibilities communities have to integrate DIRAC into their distributed computing models.

  14. Honeybee Venom Proteome Profile of Queens and Winter Bees as Determined by a Mass Spectrometric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen L. Danneels

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Venoms of invertebrates contain an enormous diversity of proteins, peptides, and other classes of substances. Insect venoms are characterized by a large interspecific variation resulting in extended lists of venom compounds. The venom composition of several hymenopterans also shows different intraspecific variation. For instance, venom from different honeybee castes, more specifically queens and workers, shows quantitative and qualitative variation, while the environment, like seasonal changes, also proves to be an important factor. The present study aimed at an in-depth analysis of the intraspecific variation in the honeybee venom proteome. In summer workers, the recent list of venom proteins resulted from merging combinatorial peptide ligand library sample pretreatment and targeted tandem mass spectrometry realized with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS/MS. Now, the same technique was used to determine the venom proteome of queens and winter bees, enabling us to compare it with that of summer bees. In total, 34 putative venom toxins were found, of which two were never described in honeybee venoms before. Venom from winter workers did not contain toxins that were not present in queens or summer workers, while winter worker venom lacked the allergen Api m 12, also known as vitellogenin. Venom from queen bees, on the other hand, was lacking six of the 34 venom toxins compared to worker bees, while it contained two new venom toxins, in particularly serine proteinase stubble and antithrombin-III. Although people are hardly stung by honeybees during winter or by queen bees, these newly identified toxins should be taken into account in the characterization of a putative allergic response against Apis mellifera stings.

  15. Honeybee venom proteome profile of queens and winter bees as determined by a mass spectrometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneels, Ellen L; Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; Debyser, Griet; Devreese, Bart; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-11-01

    Venoms of invertebrates contain an enormous diversity of proteins, peptides, and other classes of substances. Insect venoms are characterized by a large interspecific variation resulting in extended lists of venom compounds. The venom composition of several hymenopterans also shows different intraspecific variation. For instance, venom from different honeybee castes, more specifically queens and workers, shows quantitative and qualitative variation, while the environment, like seasonal changes, also proves to be an important factor. The present study aimed at an in-depth analysis of the intraspecific variation in the honeybee venom proteome. In summer workers, the recent list of venom proteins resulted from merging combinatorial peptide ligand library sample pretreatment and targeted tandem mass spectrometry realized with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS/MS). Now, the same technique was used to determine the venom proteome of queens and winter bees, enabling us to compare it with that of summer bees. In total, 34 putative venom toxins were found, of which two were never described in honeybee venoms before. Venom from winter workers did not contain toxins that were not present in queens or summer workers, while winter worker venom lacked the allergen Api m 12, also known as vitellogenin. Venom from queen bees, on the other hand, was lacking six of the 34 venom toxins compared to worker bees, while it contained two new venom toxins, in particularly serine proteinase stubble and antithrombin-III. Although people are hardly stung by honeybees during winter or by queen bees, these newly identified toxins should be taken into account in the characterization of a putative allergic response against Apis mellifera stings. PMID:26529016

  16. Métodos para atrair e repelir a abelha Apis mellifera (L. em cultura de maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2036 Methods to attract and repel Africanize honey bees Apis mellifera, L., to passion fruit (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2036

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maria Rossi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido no Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda, Campus Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, e teve como objetivos observar a eficiência dos extratos de capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. e falsa melissa (Lippia alba, como atrativos, e citronela (C. nardus, extratos de orégano, pimenta-do-reino, canela e cravo, como repelentes, que foram comparados a outros atrativos (eugenol e linalol e repelentes (n.octyl.acetato, 2.heptanona e citronellal, obtidos comercialmente, para a A. mellifera. Foram estudados, ainda, os insetos visitantes nas flores do maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg., além de testar plantas-iscas para essas abelhas. Os produtos testados in vitro e, posteriormente, testados tanto pulverizados quanto em tubos, não foram eficientes para atrair ou repelir a abelha Apis mellifera. Os produtos n.octyl.acetato e citronellal repeliram completamente tanto as abelhas africanizadas quanto as Xylocopa, não devendo ser utilizado em cultivos comerciais. O girassol (Hellianthus annuus e o cosmos (Cosmos sulphureus podem ser utilizados como alternativas para afastar a abelha A. mellifera das flores do maracujá.This experiment was carried out at Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda, Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil, to study Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. attractives and repellents in vitro, in tubes and on passion fruit flowers (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg.. Visiting insects were studied in flowers and also, bait-plants to Africanized honey bees were tested. The products were not effective in attracting and repelling the honey bee in vitro and in tube tests. The chemicals n.octyl.acetato and citronellal were repellent to honey bees and Xylocopa bees on passion fruit flowers. Sunflower (Hellianthus annuus and cosmos (Cosmos sulphureus flowers can be used to remove Africanized honey bees from passion fruit crops.

  17. GIBS API for Developers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — API using Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) designed to deliver global, full-resolution satellite imagery to users in a highly responsive manner, enabling...

  18. Mars Rover Photos API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This API is designed to collect image data gathered by NASA's Curiosity, Opportunity, and Spirit rovers on Mars and make it more easily available to other...

  19. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  20. Viruses associated with ovarian degeneration in Apis mellifera L. queens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gauthier

    Full Text Available Queen fecundity is a critical issue for the health of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. colonies, as she is the only reproductive female in the colony and responsible for the constant renewal of the worker bee population. Any factor affecting the queen's fecundity will stagnate colony development, increasing its susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. We discovered a pathology affecting the ovaries, characterized by a yellow discoloration concentrated in the apex of the ovaries resulting from degenerative lesions in the follicles. In extreme cases, marked by intense discoloration, the majority of the ovarioles were affected and these cases were universally associated with egg-laying deficiencies in the queens. Microscopic examination of the degenerated follicles showed extensive paracrystal lattices of 30 nm icosahedral viral particles. A cDNA library from degenerated ovaries contained a high frequency of deformed wing virus (DWV and Varroa destructor virus 1 (VDV-1 sequences, two common and closely related honeybee Iflaviruses. These could also be identified by in situ hybridization in various parts of the ovary. A large-scale survey for 10 distinct honeybee viruses showed that DWV and VDV-1 were by far the most prevalent honeybee viruses in queen populations, with distinctly higher prevalence in mated queens (100% and 67%, respectively for DWV and VDV-1 than in virgin queens (37% and 0%, respectively. Since very high viral titres could be recorded in the ovaries and abdomens of both functional and deficient queens, no significant correlation could be made between viral titre and ovarian degeneration or egg-laying deficiency among the wider population of queens. Although our data suggest that DWV and VDV-1 have a role in extreme cases of ovarian degeneration, infection of the ovaries by these viruses does not necessarily result in ovarian degeneration, even at high titres, and additional factors are likely to be involved in this pathology.

  1. Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels, Calmodulin, Adenylyl Cyclase, and Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Are Required for Late, but Not Early, Long-Term Memory Formation in the Honeybee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Lormant, Flore; Mizunami, Makoto; Giurfa, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Memory is a dynamic process that allows encoding, storage, and retrieval of information acquired through individual experience. In the honeybee "Apis mellifera," olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) has shown that besides short-term memory (STM) and mid-term memory (MTM), two phases of long-term memory (LTM)…

  2. Work or sleep? : honeybee foragers opportunistically nap during the day when forage is not available

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Barrett; Seeley, Thomas D

    2011-01-01

    Shifts in work schedules test humans’ capacity to be flexible in the timing of both work and sleep. Honeybee, Apis mellifera, foragers also shift their work schedules, but how flexible they are in the timing of sleep as they shift the timing of work is unknown, despite the importance of colony-level plasticity in the face of a changing environment. We hypothesized that sleep schedules of foragers are not fixed and instead vary depending on the time when food is available. We trained bees to v...

  3. IBM System i APIs at Work

    CERN Document Server

    Vining, Bruce; Hawkins, Ron

    2007-01-01

    This new edition of the bestselling i5 application programming interface (API) book includes powerful new APIs and updated code to give programmers a working knowledge of the APIs available under i5/OS. Using real business-world examples, this book explains APIs that serve webpages, list APIs, APIs that work with user spaces, dynamic index APIs, APIs that retrieve system values, job information and job queue information APIs, APIs that work with data queues, APIs for error handling and message handling, and spool file APIs, among many others. Completely revised and including eight new chapters

  4. 中华蜜蜂抗氧化酶基因的基因组鉴定及其在工蜂行为发育中的表达特征%Identification of antioxidant genes from genome of the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana) and characterization of their expression patterns during behavioral development of worker bees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛清秀; 周冰峰; 张明丽; 孙旭; 孙亮先

    2014-01-01

    根据中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)基因组序列,鉴定抗氧化酶系统的主要组分,并用RNA-Seq数据分析了工蜂行为发育中抗氧化基因在脑组织中的转录水平.研究表明,共有47个抗氧化基因,包括34个抗氧化酶基因和13个硫氧还蛋白基因.比较东方蜜蜂(Apis cerana)、西方蜜蜂(Apis mellifera)和黑腹果蝇(Drosophila melanogaster)的抗氧化基因,抗氧化酶系统的主要组分在进化上保守,但抗氧化酶基因家族的成员存在物种间差异.如东方蜜蜂和黑腹果蝇的SOD基因家族含3个成员,而西方蜜蜂有2个;果蝇有43个GST基因,而东方蜜蜂和西方蜜蜂仅有14和13个.RNA-seq分析显示,抗氧化基因的表达水平随着工蜂行为发育而发生规律性变化.工蜂脑表达的46个抗氧化基因,约有60%在由内勤蜂(哺育蜂和守卫蜂)转变为外勤蜂(采集蜂和侦察蜂)时明显表达上调,说明外勤蜂脑组织清除活性氧的酶促反应速率更高.

  5. Reproductive ability and level of infestation of the Varroa destructor mite in Apis mellifera apiaries in Blumenau, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v36i1.20366

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Estevão Carneiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor mite causes mortality of Apis mellifera bees throughout the world. Its greatest damage to these colonies has been reported in European countries and North America. The impact of the mite is related to the climate and the bee race on each region in which the plague has been established. Varroa causes little damage to the colonies of africanized honeybees in Brazil and the levels of infestation are relatively small and stable. The reproductive ability of Varroa females was evaluated in pupae of workers of 17-18 days of age, obtained from eight beehives of africanized bees for twelve months. The average number of offspring (deutonymphs, protonymphs and eggs each Varroa produced was 3.18 ± 0.19. The average total number of deutonymph and protonymph was, respectively, 1.57 ± 0.15 and 1.61 ± 0.14. The levels of infestation demonstrated that the plague continue reaching low levels, the average was 4.11 ± 3.42.

  6. EXPRESSION OF A BEE-VENOM PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 FROM APIS CERANA CERANA IN E,.qCHERICHIA COLI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-rongShen; Jia-anCheng; Chuan-xiZhang

    2004-01-01

    The venomous phospholipase A2 (AcPLA2) coding reading region of the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana), which is composed of 405 bp encoding a mature glycosylated peptide with 134 amino residues was transformed into the expression vector pETblue-1. Then the recombinant vector was introduced into Escherichia coli Tuner (DE3) plac I for expression. Analysis result of SDS-PAGE showed that the expression products had a protein band of about 15 kD. Detection of western blot using ant-European honeybee (Apis mellifera) phospholipase A2 (AmPLA2) polyclonal serum as the first antibody showed that the expression products appeared a special blot same as the native AmPLA2.The result demonstrated that the AcPLA2 peptide had been expressed in E. coli and the AcPLA2 has the similar antigenicity as the AmPLA2.

  7. Contracting the Facebook API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rubinger

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an explosive growth in the popularity of online social networks such as Facebook. In a new twist, third party developers are now able to create their own web applications which plug into Facebook and work with Facebook's "social" data, enabling the entire Facebook user base of more than 400 million active users to use such applications. These client applications can contain subtle errors that can be hard to debug if they misuse the Facebook API. In this paper we present an experience report on applying Microsoft's new code contract system for the .NET framework to the Facebook API.We wrote contracts for several classes in the Facebook API wrapper which allows Microsoft .NET developers to implement Facebook applications. We evaluated the usefulness of these contracts during implementation of a new Facebook application. Our experience indicates that having code contracts provides a better and quicker software development experience.

  8. First Detection of Nosema ceranae, a Microsporidian Protozoa of European Honey­bees (Apis mellifera In Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gerami Sadeghian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosemosis of European honey bee (Apis mellifera is present in bee colonies world­wide. Until recently, Nosema apis had been regarded as the causative agent of the disease, that causes heavy economic losses in apicultures. Nosema ceranae is an emerging microsporidian para­site of European honeybees, A. mellifera, but its distribution is not well known. Previously, nosemosis in honeybees in Iran was attributed exclusively to N. apis.Methods: Six Nosema positive samples (determined from light microscopy of spores of adult worker bees from one province of Iran (Savadkouh- Mazandaran, northern Iran were tested to determine Nosema species using previously- developed PCR primers of the 16 S rRNA gene. As it is difficult to distinguish N. ceranae and N. apis morphologically, a PCR assay based on 16 S ribosomal RNA has been used to differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae.Results: Only N. ceranae was found in all samples, indicating that this species present in Iran apiar­ies.Conclusion: This is the first report of N. ceranae in colonies of A. mellifera in Iran. It seems that intensive surveys are needed to determine the distribution and prevalence of N. ceranae in differ­ent regions of Iran.

  9. Data.gov CKAN API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data.gov catalog is powered by CKAN, a powerful open source data platform that includes a robust API. Please be aware that data.gov and the data.gov CKAN API...

  10. Mars Atmospheric Aggregation System API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The {MAAS} API is an open source REST API built to help make it easier and more efficient to build interactive applications that want to utilize the wealth of...

  11. Effects of Sublethal Doses of Imidacloprid on Young Adult Honeybee Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni Goñalons, Carolina; Farina, Walter Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid used for its high selective toxicity to insects, is one of the most commonly used pesticides. However, its effect on beneficial insects such as the honeybee Apis mellifera L is still controversial. As young adult workers perform in-hive duties that are crucial for colony maintenance and survival, we aimed to assess the effect of sublethal IMI doses on honeybee behaviour during this period. Also, because this insecticide acts as a cholinergic-nicotinic agonist and these pathways take part in insect learning and memory processes; we used IMI to assess their role and the changes they suffer along early adulthood. We focused on appetitive behaviours based on the proboscis extension response. Laboratory reared adults of 2 to 10 days of age were exposed to sublethal IMI doses (0.25 or 0.50ng) administered orally or topically prior to behavioural assessment. Modification of gustatory responsiveness and impairment of learning and memory were found as a result of IMI exposure. These outcomes differed depending on age of evaluation, type of exposure and IMI dose, being the youngest bees more sensitive and the highest oral dose more toxic. Altogether, these results imply that IMI administered at levels found in agroecosystems can reduce sensitivity to reward and impair associative learning in young honeybees. Therefore, once a nectar inflow with IMI traces is distributed within the hive, it could impair in-door duties with negative consequences on colony performance. PMID:26488410

  12. Secreted and immunogenic proteins produced by the honeybee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Evans, Jay D; Zunino, Pablo

    2010-03-24

    American Foulbrood is a severe disease affecting larvae of honeybee Apis mellifera, causing significant decrease in the honeybee population, beekeeping industries and agricultural production. In spite of its importance, little is known about the virulence factors secreted by Paenibacillus larvae during larval infection. The aim of the present work was to perform a first approach to the identification and characterization of P. larvae secretome. P. larvae secreted proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and identified by MALDI-TOF. Protein toxicity was evaluated using an experimental model based on feeding of A. mellifera larvae and immunogenicity was evaluated by Western blot, using an antiserum raised against cells and spores of P. larvae. Ten different proteins were identified among P. larvae secreted proteins, including proteins involved in transcription, metabolism, translation, cell envelope, transport, protein folding, degradation of polysaccharides and motility. Although most of these proteins are cytosolic, many of them have been previously detected in the extracellular medium of different Bacillus spp. cultures and have been related to virulence. The secreted proteins resulted highly toxic and immunogenic when larvae were exposed using an experimental model. This is the first description of proteins secreted by the honeybee pathogen P. larvae. This information may be relevant for the elucidation of bacterial pathogenesis mechanisms. PMID:19781868

  13. Effects of Sublethal Doses of Imidacloprid on Young Adult Honeybee Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Mengoni Goñalons

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid (IMI, a neonicotinoid used for its high selective toxicity to insects, is one of the most commonly used pesticides. However, its effect on beneficial insects such as the honeybee Apis mellifera L is still controversial. As young adult workers perform in-hive duties that are crucial for colony maintenance and survival, we aimed to assess the effect of sublethal IMI doses on honeybee behaviour during this period. Also, because this insecticide acts as a cholinergic-nicotinic agonist and these pathways take part in insect learning and memory processes; we used IMI to assess their role and the changes they suffer along early adulthood. We focused on appetitive behaviours based on the proboscis extension response. Laboratory reared adults of 2 to 10 days of age were exposed to sublethal IMI doses (0.25 or 0.50ng administered orally or topically prior to behavioural assessment. Modification of gustatory responsiveness and impairment of learning and memory were found as a result of IMI exposure. These outcomes differed depending on age of evaluation, type of exposure and IMI dose, being the youngest bees more sensitive and the highest oral dose more toxic. Altogether, these results imply that IMI administered at levels found in agroecosystems can reduce sensitivity to reward and impair associative learning in young honeybees. Therefore, once a nectar inflow with IMI traces is distributed within the hive, it could impair in-door duties with negative consequences on colony performance.

  14. Effects of erectable glossal hairs on a honeybee's nectar-drinking strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heng; Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze

    2014-06-01

    With the use of a scanning electron microscope, we observe specific microstructures of the mouthpart of the Italian bee (Apis mellifera ligustica), especially the distribution and dimensions of hairs on its glossa. Considering the erection of glossal hairs for trapping nectar modifies the viscous dipping model in analyzing the drinking strategy of a honeybee. Theoretical estimations of volume intake rates with respect to sucrose solutions of different concentrations agree with experimental data, which indicates that erectable hairs can significantly increase the ability of a bee to acquire nectar efficiently. The comparison with experimental results also indicates that a honeybee may continuously augment its pumping power, rather than keep it constant, to drink nectar with sharply increasing viscosity. Under the modified assumption of increasing working power, we introduce the rate at which working power increases with viscosity and discuss the nature-preferred nectar concentration of 35% by theoretically calculating optimal concentration maximizing energetic intake rates under varying increasing rates. Finally, the ability of the mouthparts of the honeybee to transfer viscous nectar may inspire a concept for transporting microfluidics with a wide range of viscosities.

  15. Effects of Sublethal Doses of Imidacloprid on Young Adult Honeybee Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni Goñalons, Carolina; Farina, Walter Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid used for its high selective toxicity to insects, is one of the most commonly used pesticides. However, its effect on beneficial insects such as the honeybee Apis mellifera L is still controversial. As young adult workers perform in-hive duties that are crucial for colony maintenance and survival, we aimed to assess the effect of sublethal IMI doses on honeybee behaviour during this period. Also, because this insecticide acts as a cholinergic-nicotinic agonist and these pathways take part in insect learning and memory processes; we used IMI to assess their role and the changes they suffer along early adulthood. We focused on appetitive behaviours based on the proboscis extension response. Laboratory reared adults of 2 to 10 days of age were exposed to sublethal IMI doses (0.25 or 0.50ng) administered orally or topically prior to behavioural assessment. Modification of gustatory responsiveness and impairment of learning and memory were found as a result of IMI exposure. These outcomes differed depending on age of evaluation, type of exposure and IMI dose, being the youngest bees more sensitive and the highest oral dose more toxic. Altogether, these results imply that IMI administered at levels found in agroecosystems can reduce sensitivity to reward and impair associative learning in young honeybees. Therefore, once a nectar inflow with IMI traces is distributed within the hive, it could impair in-door duties with negative consequences on colony performance. PMID:26488410

  16. Honeybees as a model for the study of visually guided flight, navigation, and biologically inspired robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-04-01

    Research over the past century has revealed the impressive capacities of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, in relation to visual perception, flight guidance, navigation, and learning and memory. These observations, coupled with the relative ease with which these creatures can be trained, and the relative simplicity of their nervous systems, have made honeybees an attractive model in which to pursue general principles of sensorimotor function in a variety of contexts, many of which pertain not just to honeybees, but several other animal species, including humans. This review begins by describing the principles of visual guidance that underlie perception of the world in three dimensions, obstacle avoidance, control of flight speed, and orchestrating smooth landings. We then consider how navigation over long distances is accomplished, with particular reference to how bees use information from the celestial compass to determine their flight bearing, and information from the movement of the environment in their eyes to gauge how far they have flown. Finally, we illustrate how some of the principles gleaned from these studies are now being used to design novel, biologically inspired algorithms for the guidance of unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:21527730

  17. Phage Therapy is Effective in Protecting Honeybee Larvae from American Foulbrood Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani-Nezami, Sara; LeBlanc, Lucy; Yost, Diane G; Amy, Penny S

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood disease has a major impact on honeybees (Apis melifera) worldwide. It is caused by a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Paenibacillus larvae. The disease can only affect larval honeybees, and the bacterial endospores are the infective unit of the disease. Antibiotics are not sufficient to combat the disease due to increasing resistance among P. larvae strains. Because of the durability and virulence of P. larvae endospores, infections spread rapidly, and beekeepers are often forced to burn beehives and equipment. To date, very little information is available on the use of bacteriophage therapy in rescuing and preventing American foulbrood disease, therefore the goal of this study was to test the efficacy of phage therapy against P. larvae infection. Out of 32 previously isolated P. larvae phages, three designated F, WA, and XIII were tested on artificially reared honeybee larvae infected with P. larvae strain NRRL B-3650 spores. The presence of P. larvae DNA in dead larvae was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene-specific polymerase chain reaction amplification. Survival rates for phage-treated larvae were approximately the same as for larvae never infected with spores (84%), i.e., the phages had no deleterious effect on the larvae. Additionally, prophylactic treatment of larvae with phages before spore infection was more effective than administering phages after infection, although survival in both cases was higher than spores alone (45%). Further testing to determine the optimal combination and concentration of phages, and testing in actual hive conditions are needed. PMID:26136497

  18. Laurel leaf extracts for honeybee pest and disease management: antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and acaricidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Natalia; Fernández, Natalia J; Porrini, Martín P; Gende, Liesel B; Álvarez, Estefanía; Buffa, Franco; Brasesco, Constanza; Maggi, Matías D; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

    2014-02-01

    A diverse set of parasites and pathogens affects productivity and survival of Apis mellifera honeybees. In beekeeping, traditional control by antibiotics and molecules of synthesis has caused problems with contamination and resistant pathogens. In this research, different Laurus nobilis extracts are tested against the main honeybee pests through an integrated point of view. In vivo effects on bee survival are also evaluated. The ethanol extract showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 208 to 416 μg/mL, having the best antimicrobial effect on Paenibacillus larvae among all substances tested. Similarly, this leaf extract showed a significant antiparasitic activity on Varroa destructor, killing 50 % of mites 24 h after a 30-s exposure, and on Nosema ceranae, inhibiting the spore development in the midgut of adult bees ingesting 1 × 10(4) μg/mL of extract solution. Both ethanol extract and volatile extracts (essential oil, hydrolate, and its main component) did not cause lethal effects on adult honeybees. Thus, the absence of topical and oral toxicity of the ethanol extract on bees and the strong antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and miticidal effects registered in this study place this laurel extract as a promising integrated treatment of bee diseases and stimulates the search for other bioactive phytochemicals from plants. PMID:24288051

  19. 一种适于意大利蜜蜂中肠总蛋白提取方法的建立和应用%Establishment and Application of a Method Suitable for Extracting Midgut Total Proteins from Honeybee Apis mellifera ligustica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素贞; 许金山; 马振刚; 周泽扬

    2015-01-01

    依次采用不锈钢珠破碎结合IPG裂解液法、液氮研磨结合IPG裂解液法、液氮研磨结合PBS裂解液法和不锈钢珠结合PBS裂解液法提取意大利蜜蜂(Apis mellifera ligustica,Ap)中肠总蛋白,并通过SDS-PAGE对获得的总蛋白进行质量检测.结果显示,与其他3种方法相比,利用不锈钢玻璃珠破碎处理结合PBS裂解液法能够提取并获得丰度较高的Ap中肠总蛋白,蛋白质种类较多,分子量大小为18.4~116 kD,样品的电泳条带清晰可见.应用该方法还开展了Ap感染东方蜜蜂微孢子虫(Nosema ceranae,Nc)后中肠组织蛋白质的差异表达分析,结果显示感染Nc的Ap中肠出现了蛋白质的上调表达;同时SDS-PAGE结果显示该方法也适用于中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana Fabricius)中肠总蛋白的提取.利用不锈钢玻璃珠破碎处理结合PBS裂解液法提取Ap中肠总蛋白方法的建立将有助于对蜜蜂中肠蛋白进行鉴定分析,为深入研究蜜蜂中肠蛋白质组成、功能及其肠道免疫机制奠定基础.

  20. Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early Neolithic farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Regert, Martine; Evershed, Richard P; Outram, Alan K; Cramp, Lucy J E; Decavallas, Orestes; Dunne, Julie; Gerbault, Pascale; Mileto, Simona; Mirabaud, Sigrid; Pääkkönen, Mirva; Smyth, Jessica; Šoberl, Lucija; Whelton, Helen L; Alday-Ruiz, Alfonso; Asplund, Henrik; Bartkowiak, Marta; Bayer-Niemeier, Eva; Belhouchet, Lotfi; Bernardini, Federico; Budja, Mihael; Cooney, Gabriel; Cubas, Miriam; Danaher, Ed M; Diniz, Mariana; Domboróczki, László; Fabbri, Cristina; González-Urquijo, Jesus E; Guilaine, Jean; Hachi, Slimane; Hartwell, Barrie N; Hofmann, Daniela; Hohle, Isabel; Ibáñez, Juan J; Karul, Necmi; Kherbouche, Farid; Kiely, Jacinta; Kotsakis, Kostas; Lueth, Friedrich; Mallory, James P; Manen, Claire; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Maurice-Chabard, Brigitte; Mc Gonigle, Martin A; Mulazzani, Simone; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Perić, Olga S; Perić, Slaviša R; Petrasch, Jörg; Pétrequin, Anne-Marie; Pétrequin, Pierre; Poensgen, Ulrike; Pollard, C Joshua; Poplin, François; Radi, Giovanna; Stadler, Peter; Stäuble, Harald; Tasić, Nenad; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Vuković, Jasna B; Walsh, Fintan; Whittle, Alasdair; Wolfram, Sabine; Zapata-Peña, Lydia; Zoughlami, Jamel

    2015-11-12

    The pressures on honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations, resulting from threats by modern pesticides, parasites, predators and diseases, have raised awareness of the economic importance and critical role this insect plays in agricultural societies across the globe. However, the association of humans with A. mellifera predates post-industrial-revolution agriculture, as evidenced by the widespread presence of ancient Egyptian bee iconography dating to the Old Kingdom (approximately 2400 BC). There are also indications of Stone Age people harvesting bee products; for example, honey hunting is interpreted from rock art in a prehistoric Holocene context and a beeswax find in a pre-agriculturalist site. However, when and where the regular association of A. mellifera with agriculturalists emerged is unknown. One of the major products of A. mellifera is beeswax, which is composed of a complex suite of lipids including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and fatty acyl wax esters. The composition is highly constant as it is determined genetically through the insect's biochemistry. Thus, the chemical 'fingerprint' of beeswax provides a reliable basis for detecting this commodity in organic residues preserved at archaeological sites, which we now use to trace the exploitation by humans of A. mellifera temporally and spatially. Here we present secure identifications of beeswax in lipid residues preserved in pottery vessels of Neolithic Old World farmers. The geographical range of bee product exploitation is traced in Neolithic Europe, the Near East and North Africa, providing the palaeoecological range of honeybees during prehistory. Temporally, we demonstrate that bee products were exploited continuously, and probably extensively in some regions, at least from the seventh millennium cal BC, likely fulfilling a variety of technological and cultural functions. The close association of A. mellifera with Neolithic farming communities dates to the early onset of agriculture and may provide

  1. Olfactory subsystems in the honeybee: sensory supply and sex specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Jan; Kelber, Christina; Bieringer, Kathrin; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    The antennae of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers and drones differ in various aspects. One striking difference is the presence of Sensilla basiconica in (female) workers and their absence in (male) drones. We investigate the axonal projection patterns of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in S. basiconica in honeybee workers by using selective anterograde labeling with fluorescent tracers and confocal-microscopy analysis of axonal projections in antennal lobe glomeruli. Axons of S. basiconica-associated ORNs preferentially projected into a specific glomerular cluster in the antennal lobe, namely the sensory input-tract three (T3) cluster. T3-associated glomeruli had previously been shown to be innervated by uniglomerular projection (output) neurons of the medial antennal lobe tract (mALT). As the number of T3 glomeruli is reduced in drones, we wished to determine whether this was associated with the reduction of glomeruli innervated by medial-tract projection neurons. We retrogradely traced mALT projection neurons in drones and counted the innervated glomeruli. The number of mALT-associated glomeruli was strongly reduced in drones compared with workers. The preferential projections of S. basiconica-associated ORNs in T3 glomeruli together with the reduction of mALT-associated glomeruli support the presence of a female (worker)-specific olfactory subsystem that is partly innervated by ORNs from S. basiconica and is associated with the T3 cluster of glomeruli and mALT projection neurons. We propose that this olfactory subsystem supports parallel olfactory processing related to worker-specific olfactory tasks such as the coding of colony odors, colony pheromones and/or odorants associated with foraging on floral resources. PMID:24817103

  2. Giant Asian honeybee or Bambara stings causing myocardial infarction, bowel gangrene and fatal anaphylaxis in Sri Lanka:a case series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Budagoda BDSS; Kularatne SAM; Kodikara KAS; Kularatne WKS; Mudiyanse RM; Edussuriya DH; Edirisinghe JP; Karunaratne IP; Weerakoon KGAD; Medagedara SC

    2010-01-01

    The sting of Giant Asian honeybee (Apis dorsata) or Bambara in Sinhala and Karunge Kulavi in Tamil is a common environmental hazard in Sri Lanka known to cause immediate allergic reactions, which could be fatal in sensitized individuals. We reported myocardial infarction, bowel gangrene and fatal anaphylaxis in a prospectively proven case series and the association of these uncommon complications with delayed removal of stingers from the patients’ skin.

  3. Vitellogenins are new high molecular weight components and allergens (Api m 12 and Ves v 6 of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Anaphylaxis due to hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe clinical outcomes of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, venom immunotherapy is still hampered by severe systemic side effects and incomplete protection. The identification and detailed characterization of all allergens of hymenoptera venoms might result in an improvement in this field and promote the detailed understanding of the allergological mechanism. Our aim was the identification and detailed immunochemical and allergological characterization of the low abundant IgE-reactive 200 kDa proteins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing of a 200 kDa venom protein yielded peptides that could be assigned to honeybee vitellogenin. The coding regions of the honeybee protein as well as of the homologue from yellow jacket venom were cloned from venom gland cDNA. The newly identified 200 kDa proteins share a sequence identity on protein level of 40% and belong to the family of vitellogenins, present in all oviparous animals, and are the first vitellogenins identified as components of venom. Both vitellogenins could be recombinantly produced as soluble proteins in insect cells and assessed for their specific IgE reactivity. The particular vitellogenins were recognized by approximately 40% of sera of venom-allergic patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. CONCLUSION: With the vitellogenins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom a new homologous pair of venom allergens was identified and becomes available for future applications. Due to their allergenic properties the honeybee and the yellow jacket venom vitellogenin were designated as allergens Api m 12 and Ves v 6, respectively.

  4. Effect of proline as a nutrient on hypopharyngeal glands during development of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Darvishzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Proline is known to be an energy source for protein synthesis and appears to have a major role in insect flying metabolism. Insects can detect proline in their food and use it as an energy substrate to start flight and other high energy consuming activities. Honey bee has a feeding preference for nectars with higher concentrations of this amino acid. In this research we present evidence that L-proline can be utilized as a phagostimulant for the honeybee worker (Apis mellifera. We reported the L-proline increase hypopharyngeal glands acini diameter and syrup consumption at the experimental cage. Honeybee workers fed on 1000 ppm treatment prolin consumed 773.9±31.8 ul/bee after 18-days. It is obvious that the honeybee workers consumed 1000 ppm the more than other treatment. The feeding decreased when concentration of L-proline increased to 10000 ppm. The hypopharyngeal glands development increased gradually from honeybee workers emergence and started to decrease after 9 days old. The maximum acini diameter (0.1439±0.001 mm was recorded in the 9th day when newly emerged bees were fed on 1000 ppm proline syrup.

  5. Characterization of the N-glycans of recombinant bee venom hyaluronidase (Api m 2) expressed in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Lyudmila N; Tsai, Chaoming; Dobrovolskaia, Ekaterina; Marković-Housley, Zora; Slater, Jay E

    2007-01-01

    Honeybee venom hyaluronidase (Api m 2) is a major glycoprotein allergen. Previous studies have indicated that recombinant Api m 2 expressed in insect cells has enzyme activity and IgE binding comparable with that of native Api m 2. In contrast, Api m 2 expressed in Escherichia coli does not. In this study, we characterized the carbohydrate side chains of Api m 2 expressed in insect cells, and compared our data with the established carbohydrate structure of native Api m 2. We assessed both the monosaccharide and the oligosaccharide content of recombinant Api m 2 using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis and HPLC. To identify the amino acid residues at which glycosylation occurs, we digested recombinant Api m 2 with endoproteinase Glu-C and identified the fragments that contained carbohydrate by specific staining. Recombinant Api m 2 expressed in insect cells contains N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, and fucose, as well as trace amounts of glucose and galactose, and the oligosaccharide analysis is consistent with heterogeneous oligosaccharide chains consisting of two to seven monosaccharides. No sialic acid or N-acetylgalactosamine were detected. These results are similar to published data for native Api m 2, although some monosaccharide components appear to be absent in the recombinant protein. Analysis of proteolytic digests indicates that of the four candidate N-glycosylation sites, carbohydrate chains are attached at asparagines 115 and 263. Recombinant Api m 2 expressed in insect cells has enzymic activity and IgE binding comparable with the native protein, and its carbohydrate composition is very similar. PMID:17479607

  6. Identification and characterization of a novel calcyclin binding protein (CacyBP) gene from Apis cerana cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoli; Lu, Wenjing; Sun, Rujiang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2012-08-01

    Calcyclin binding protein (CacyBP), a homolog of Sgt1, was shown to interact with some S100 proteins, Skp1, tubulin, actin and ERK1/2 kinases. Studies have also shown that CacyBP is a neuronal protein in mammals. Limited information is available regarding the properties and functions of CacyBP in insects. Here, we cloned and characterized a novel CacyBP gene, named AccCacyBP, from honeybee (Apis cerana cerana). Bioinformatic analysis indicated that AccCacyBP was highly conserved and closely related to the CacyBP of other insects. Promoter analysis revealed a number of putative tissue, development and stress-related transcription factor-binding sites. RT-qPCR demonstrated that AccCacyBP was expressed at all of the stages of development, especially in the brains of honeybees. Moreover, immunohistochemistry analysis showed the presence of AccCacyBP in the brain. The transcript levels of AccCacyBP in the brains of honeybees were developmentally induced and upregulated by exposure to oxidative stresses, including UV-light, acetamiprid and HgCl(2). This study demonstrates that the CacyBP gene in honeybees may be a neuronal protein involved in the developmental regulation and the stress-response of the brain of honeybees. PMID:22539186

  7. Towards a better understanding of Apis mellifera and Varroa destructor microbiomes: introducing 'phyloh' as a novel phylogenetic diversity analysis tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandionigi, A; Vicario, S; Prosdocimi, E M; Galimberti, A; Ferri, E; Bruno, A; Balech, B; Mezzasalma, V; Casiraghi, M

    2015-07-01

    The study of diversity in biological communities is an intriguing field. Huge amount of data are nowadays available (provided by the innovative DNA sequencing techniques), and management, analysis and display of results are not trivial. Here, we propose for the first time the use of phylogenetic entropy as a measure of bacterial diversity in studies of microbial community structure. We then compared our new method (i.e. the web tool phyloh) for partitioning phylogenetic diversity with the traditional approach in diversity analyses of bacteria communities. We tested phyloh to characterize microbiome in the honeybee (Apis mellifera, Insecta: Hymenoptera) and its parasitic mite varroa (Varroa destructor, Arachnida: Parasitiformes). The rationale is that the comparative analysis of honeybee and varroa microbiomes could open new perspectives concerning the role of the parasites on honeybee colonies health. Our results showed a dramatic change of the honeybee microbiome when varroa occurs, suggesting that this parasite is able to influence host microbiome. Among the different approaches used, only the entropy method, in conjunction with phylogenetic constraint as implemented in phyloh, was able to discriminate varroa microbiome from that of parasitized honeybees. In conclusion, we foresee that the use of phylogenetic entropy could become a new standard in the analyses of community structure, in particular to prove the contribution of each biological entity to the overall diversity. PMID:25367306

  8. Morphological characteristics and microsatellite DNA genetic diversity of Nigeria African honey bee, Anhui Apis mellifera and theirs hybrid generation Ⅱ%尼日利亚非洲蜂和安徽意大利蜜蜂及其杂交二代形态特征与微卫星DNA遗传多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余林生; 解文飞; 巫厚长; 邹运鼎; 南荃耀; 朱林才; 纪鸿; 吴其才

    2012-01-01

    长期存在地理隔离,两个群体间形态指标差异显著,杂交二代群体形态指标低于安徽意蜂,但比尼日利亚非洲蜂均有不同程度的提高,在形态特征上体现了杂交优势,两群体杂交二代等位基因数、基因杂合度及多态信息含量等遗传多样性指标均有显著提高.%In this present work, we have investigated morphological characteristics and microsatellite DNA polymorphisms of Anhui Apis mellifera, Nigeria African honey bee and their Hybrid generation II. The results showed that the average tongue length of Apis mellifera, African honey bee and their hybrid generation II , respectively, is 6. 09mm, 5. 23mm and 5.53mm, and a highly significant difference existed among them (P 0.05) ; and the average index number of cubital vein Ci, respectively, is 3. 31mm, 3. 07mm and 3.17mm.We further detected the microsatellite polymorphisms of Anhui Apis mellifera, Nigeria African honey bee and their Hybrid generation II , and found 121 alleles. The mean number of effective alleles was 8.067, and the number of alleles per locus varied from 3 to 13 , indicating that the three populations all have rich genetic diversities. The expected heterozygosity (He) of the three populations ranged from 0. 5801 to 0. 8526, and the average value of expected heterozygosity was 0.7591 0762. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.5158 to 0.8363, and the average value of the PIC was 0.7283 0879. The average expected heterozygosity of Anhui Apis mellifera, Nigeria African honey bee and their hybrid generation E , respectively, was 0. 6208, 0. 5780 and 0. 7451. Statistical analysis indicated that highly significant difference in average expected heterozygosity existed between Nigeria African honey bee and hybrid generation II , as well as between Anhui Apis mellifera and hybrid generation II , but no significant difference existed between Anhui Apis mellifera and Nigeria African honey bee. The above results displayed that

  9. Self-organized defensive behavior in honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Millor, J.; Pham-Delegue, M; Deneubourg, J. L.; Camazine, S

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the defensive behavior of honeybees under controlled experimental conditions. During an attack on two identical targets, the spatial distribution of stings varied as a function of the total number of stings, evincing the classic “pitchfork bifurcation” phenomenon of nonlinear dynamics. The experimental results support a model of defensive behavior based on a self-organizing mechanism. The model helps to explain several of the characteristic features of the honeybee defensive r...

  10. Prospective and Retrospective Learning in Honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Giurfa, Martin; Benard, Julie

    2006-01-01

    We focus on non-elemental forms of learning in honeybees in order to answer the question of whether retrospective learning can be found in an insect. We analyze three different forms of learning: category learning, rule learning and backward blocking. We provide examples showing that honeybees demonstrate these three forms of learning and propose that causal retrospection underlies them to different extents. We argue that an elemental associative account explains category learning whereas rul...

  11. Acute Contact Toxicity Test of Oxalic Acid on Honeybees in the Southwestern Zone of Uruguay Prueba de Toxicidad Aguda por Contacto de Ácido Oxálico en Abejas de la Zona Sudoeste de Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Leonidas Carrasco-Letelier; Yamandu Mendoza; Gustavo Ramallo

    2012-01-01

    This work studies the acute contact toxicity of oxalic acid (OA) on a honeybee polyhybrid subspecies (Apis mellifera), which is the dominant biotype in southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU) and the country's most important honey-producing region. We determined the mean lethal dose (LD50), as well as the no observed effect level (NOEL) and the lowest observed effect level (LOEL) values. We also estimated the total number of honeybees per hive in the test area. The aim was to assess the relations...

  12. The API petroassist network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past spill responses, such as those in the Exxon Valdez and American Trader incidents, demonstrated the value of companies volunteering their in-house experts and local knowledge to help other companies in spill response. The American Petroleum Institute (API) formed the PetroAssist Network to provide a means for oil companies to readily gain access to the expertise and communications equipment of other oil companies when needed for spill responses. An API work group developed the PetroAssist Network legal agreement and management and activation procedures. To minimize red tape and reduce the burden on members, existing systems were used whenever possible. The network became operational on January 1, 1992, with more than 40 members

  13. Associated particle imaging (API)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Associated Particle Imaging (API) is an active neutron probe technique that provides a 3-D image with elemental composition of the material under interrogation, and so occupies a unique niche in the interrogation of unknown objects. The highly penetrating nature of neutrons enables API to provide detailed information about targets of interest that are hidden from view. Due to the isotropic nature of the induced reactions, radiation detectors can be set on the same side of the object as the neutron source, so that the object can be interrogated from a single side. At the heat of the system is a small generator that produces a continuous, monoenergetic flux of neutrons. By measuring the trajectory of coincident alpha particles that are produced as part of the process, the trajectory of the neutron can be inferred. Interactions between a neutron and the material in its path often produce a gamma ray whose energy is characteristic of that material. When the gamma ray is detected, its energy is measured and combined with the trajectory information to produce a 3-D image of the composition of the object being interrogated. During the course of API development, a number of improvements have been made. A new, more rugged sealed Tube Neutron Generator (STNG) has been designed and fabricated that is less susceptible to radiation damage and better able to withstand the rigors of fielding than earlier designs. A specialized high-voltage power supply for the STNG has also been designed and built. A complete package of software has been written for the tasks of system calibration, diagnostics and data acquisition and analysis. A portable system has been built and field tested, proving that API can be taken out of the lab and into real-world situations, and that its performance in the field is equal to that in the lab.

  14. Toxic Tripterygium hypoglaucum Honey Effect the Lifespan of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana%昆明山海崇蜜对中蜂和意蜂生命力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲玉凤; 汪正威; 杨爽; 胡宗文; 谭垦

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of honeybeesApis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica) were fed with the normal and toxic honey respectively in the same concentration in order to compare their lethal rate in this experiment. The results demonstrated the lethal rate of A.cerana fed with the toxic honey was the highest (100%), while that of A. mellifera fed with the normal honey was the lowest in the later period, and they could survive with an extraordinary long time. The results suggested that the lethal rate of honeybees, no matter it's A.cerana or A. mellifera with the toxic honey was significantly higher than those with the normal honey.%用相似糖浓度的昆明山海棠蜜与藿香蜜分别饲喂中蜂和意蜂(Apis cerana cerana,Apis mellifera ligustica),比较2种蜜蜂的致死率,结果表明在第6天时饲喂山海棠蜜的中蜂致死率高达100%,饲喂藿香蜜的意蜂致死率则为(35.08±0.91)%,且存活时间最长。无论是中蜂还是意蜂,

  15. 中华蜜蜂化学感受蛋白AcerCSP3的配基结合功能分析%Molecular binding characterization with chemical ligands of a chemosensory protein AcerCSP3 in the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana Fabricius ( Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红亮; 张林雅; 倪翠侠; 商晗武

    2011-01-01

    为研究中华蜜蜂和Apis cerana cerana化学感受蛋白AcerCSP3在化学感受系统中的生理功能,本实验通过对AcerCSP3进行原核表达、分离纯化后,利用荧光法研究了体外重组AcerCSP3与1-NPN以及候选化学配基的结合特征.Scatchard方程显示AcerCSP3与1-NPN的解离常数KD为8.29 μmol/L,结合位点数约等于1.在候选配基竞争1-NPN与AcerCSP3结合的实验中,5种配基均能在200 μmol/L浓度下使1-NPN的相对荧光强度下降至50%以下.其中β-紫罗兰酮其至能使1-NPN的相对荧光强度下降至10%左右,表明候选配基均与AcerCSP3有较强的结合能力,而3,4-二甲基苯甲醛与中蜂AcerCSP3的结合能力最强,KD达到18.77 μmol/L.本研究所用化学配基均为植物花与叶片的挥发性的次生代谢产物,表明AcerCSP3可能作为中蜂化学感受系统的一部分,在其搜寻某些植物花粉蜜源时作为气味分子运载体发挥一定的作用.%In order to clarify the physiological function of AcerCSP3, a chemosensory protein (CSP) in Apis cerana cerana, the recombinant protein AcerCSP3 was successfully expressed in a optimized prokaryotic expression system, and the binding properties of the purified AcerCSP3 with 1-NPN was then investigated.Scatchard plot analysis indicated that the dissociation constant between 1-NPN and AcerCSP3 was 8.29 μmol/L and the binding site number was about one. In the competitive binding assays, all the five candidate ligands at the concentration of 200 μmol/L reduced the relative fluorescence intensity of 1-NPN by more than 50% , with β-ionone causing 90% reduction in the relative fluorescence intensity, suggesting that all the tested ligands have strong binding capability with AcerCSP3. 3, 4-Dimethylbenzaldehyde had the strongest binding capability with a dissociation constant as high as 18.77 μmol/L. All the candidate chemical ligands are plant volatile secondary metabolites, indicating that AcerCSP3 may act as a carier for

  16. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression pattern of chemosensory protein 1 gene (Acer-CSP1) in the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)%中华蜜蜂化学感受蛋白基因Acer-CSP1克隆与表达特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红亮; 倪翠侠; 姚瑞; 高其康; 商晗武

    2010-01-01

    化学感受蛋白(ehemosensory proteins,CSPs)是昆虫化学感受系统中重要的组成部分之一.本研究克隆了中华蜜蜂Apis cerazm cerana化学感受蛋白基因Acer-CSP1,其核苷酸全长351 bp(GenBank登录号为FJ157352),编码116个氨基酸残基,预测蛋白分子量为13.85 kD,等电点为4.89,且含有4个保守的半胱氨酸残基,均符合昆虫CSPs的一般特征,且与意蜂CSP1基因具有99.1%的相似性,与其他昆虫也有45.3%~68.0%的相似性.利用2-△△C1法及绝对定昔法的real-time PCR技术对Acer-CSP1在中蜂不同器官表达特征进行了研究,得出的一致结论为Acer-CSP1显著水平地高丰度表达于中华蜜蜂触角,其次大量表达于头部.由于触角为中华蜜蜂最主要的嗅觉器官,而头部则具有发达的感觉神经系统和味觉系统,这也提示Acer-CSP1极有可能参与中华蜜蜂的嗅觉以及其他化学感受功能.

  17. Interactive effects of large- and small-scale sources of feral honey-bees for sunflower in the Argentine Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Sáez

    Full Text Available Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated "sierras", and narrow (3-7 m wide strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus. We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0-10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services.

  18. Radioprotection: mechanism and radioprotective agents including honeybee venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1949, a great deal of research has been carried on the radioprotective action of chemical substances. These substances have shown to reduce mortality when administered to animals prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. This fact is of considerable importance since it permits reduction of radiation-induced damage and provides prophylactic treatment for the damaging effects produced by radiotherapy. The following radioprotection mechanisms were proposed: free radical scavenger, repair by hydrogen donation to target molecules formation of mixed disulfides, delay of cellular division and induction of hypoxia in the tissues. Radioprotective agents have been divided into four major groups: the thiol compounds, other sulfur compounds, pharmacological agents (anesthetic drugs, analgesics, tranquilizers, etc.) and other radioprotective agents (WR-1065, WR-2721, vitamins C and E, glutathione, etc.). Several studies revealed the radioprotective action of Apis mellifera honeybee venom as well as that of its components mellitin and histamine. Radioprotective activity of bee venom involves mainly the stimulation of the hematopoietic system. In addition, release of histamine and reduction in oxygen tension also contribute to the radioprotective action of bee venom. (author)

  19. Radioprotection: mechanism and radioprotective agents including honeybee venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varanda, E.A.; Tavares, D.C. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    1998-07-01

    Since 1949, a great deal of research has been carried on the radioprotective action of chemical substances. These substances have shown to reduce mortality when administered to animals prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. This fact is of considerable importance since it permits reduction of radiation-induced damage and provides prophylactic treatment for the damaging effects produced by radiotherapy. The following radioprotection mechanisms were proposed: free radical scavenger, repair by hydrogen donation to target molecules formation of mixed disulfides, delay of cellular division and induction of hypoxia in the tissues. Radioprotective agents have been divided into four major groups: the thiol compounds, other sulfur compounds, pharmacological agents (anesthetic drugs, analgesics, tranquilizers, etc.) and other radioprotective agents (WR-1065, WR-2721, vitamins C and E, glutathione, etc.). Several studies revealed the radioprotective action of Apis mellifera honeybee venom as well as that of its components mellitin and histamine. Radioprotective activity of bee venom involves mainly the stimulation of the hematopoietic system. In addition, release of histamine and reduction in oxygen tension also contribute to the radioprotective action of bee venom. (author)

  20. Hyphenated LC-MALDI-ToF/ToF and LC-ESI-QToF approach in proteomic characterization of honeybee venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Jan; Hajduk, Joanna; Mayer, Franz; Hebeler, Romano; Kokot, Zenon J

    2016-03-20

    To increase in the depth characterization of venom proteome of Apis mellifera the hyphenated LC-MALDI-ToF/ToF-MS (liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/time of flight tandem mass spectrometry) and LC-ESI-QToF-MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry) techniques combined with combinatorial peptide ligand library enrichment method is proposed in this study. The novel approach simplifies pretreatment protocol in venom investigation. By using the protein preparation kit with sequential multi-step elution, the honeybee venom was dispensed into four different fractions. In total 269 proteins were detected, among these 49 honeybee toxins, allergens and components involved in mechanism of envenoming belonging to venom enzyme classes of esterases, proteases/peptidases, protease inhibitors, hydrolases and major royal jelly proteins. Moreover 5 additional putative toxins were identified. Their role in envenoming process was discussed. We concluded that different mass spectrometry techniques increased the detection of the honeybee venom proteins, underscoring the complementary character of analytical methods. The combination of MALDI and ESI ionization has resulted in numerous proteins identifications, not possible to reach with single proteomic technique. The study will contribute to broadening the knowledge about the complexity of honeybee venom. The newly identified proteins may serve not only as toxins and allergens, but also as substances with potential pharmacological activity. Although, the most detected proteins belong to trace elements of honeybee venom without toxic activity or action on vital system of victims, they should be taken into account in characterization of living organism response on Apis mellifera sting. PMID:26780156

  1. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Khalil, Md. Ibrahim; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples—acacia, pineapple and borneo honey—and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. Methods The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids ...

  2. Web API Fragility: How Robust is Your Web API Client

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinha, T.; Zaidman, A.; Gross, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Web APIs provide a systematic and extensible approach for application-to-application interaction. A large number of mobile applications makes use of web APIs to integrate services into apps. Each Web API’s evolution pace is determined by their respective developer and mobile application developers a

  3. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL L. BANGARE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  4. Learning Bing maps API

    CERN Document Server

    Sinani, Artan

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide with illustrative examples, which will help you explore the vast universe of Bing maps.If you are a developer who wants to learn how to exploit the numerous features of Bing Maps then this book is ideal for you. It can also be useful for more experienced developers who wish to explore other areas of the APIs. It is assumed that you have some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. For some chapters a working knowledge of .Net and Visual Studio is also needed.

  5. Honey and propolis production, hygiene and defense behaviors of two generations of Africanized honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Conceição Garcia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic characters of honeybees, relevant to beekeepers, can be evaluated by studying correlations between them, and the correlated characteristics can be evaluated in the short term to assist in monitoring of annual genetic progress. This work therefore aims to evaluate the production of honey and propolis, the hygiene and defensive behaviours of two generations of Africanized Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae, to estimate the correlations between them and their heritability. We used 30 Langstroth beehives in apiaries in Marechal Cândido Rondon, Paraná State, Brazil. We used a method of drilling pupae to evaluate hygiene behaviour and the velveteen ball method to test defensive behaviour. We selected ten colonies which had the best honey and propolis production, and which produced F1 queens that were then transferred to beehives at an experimental farm, in order to observe honey and propolis production, hygiene and defence behaviours of their female offspring. The estimated differences for each characteristic between the generations, the correlations between them within each generation and their heritability suggest that selection of colonies based on propolis production was more efficient at maintaining this high production than was selection based on honey production according to the performance of the colonies for this characteristic. The selected behavioural characteristics can be used to enhance performance, but not for improving yield characteristics evaluated.

  6. Short communication. First field assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki aerial application on the colony performance of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria del Mar Leza Salord; Gregori Llado; Ana Belen Petro; Ana Alemany

    2014-01-01

    Honeybee populations around the world are experiencing a decrease in colony numbers probably due to a combination of different causes, such as diseases, poor nutrition and frequent applications of insecticides to control pests. Previous studies about the effect of pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) on Apis mellifera L. report different results. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of field aerial applications of Btk on bee colony performance, specifically on the...

  7. Expert explanations of honeybee losses in areas of extensive agriculture in France: Gaucho compared with other supposed causal factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxim, L [Institut des Sciences de la Communication, CNRS UPS 3088, 27 Rue Damesme, 75013 Paris (France); Van der Sluijs, J P, E-mail: laura.maxim@iscc.cnrs.f, E-mail: J.P.vanderSluijs@uu.n [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    Debates on causality are at the core of controversies as regards environmental changes. The present paper presents a new method for analyzing controversies on causality in a context of social debate and the results of its empirical testing. The case study used is the controversy as regards the role played by the insecticide Gaucho, compared with other supposed causal factors, in the substantial honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) losses reported to have occurred in France between 1994 and 2004. The method makes use of expert elicitation of the perceived strength of evidence regarding each of Bradford Hill's causality criteria, as regards the link between each of eight possible causal factors identified in attempts to explain each of five signs observed in honeybee colonies. These judgments are elicited from stakeholders and experts involved in the debate, i.e., representatives of Bayer Cropscience, of the Ministry of Agriculture, of the French Food Safety Authority, of beekeepers and of public scientists. We show that the intense controversy observed in confused and passionate public discourses is much less salient when the various arguments are structured using causation criteria. The contradictions between the different expert views have a triple origin: (1) the lack of shared definition and quantification of the signs observed in colonies; (2) the lack of specialist knowledge on honeybees; and (3) the strategic discursive practices associated with the lack of trust between experts representing stakeholders having diverging stakes in the case.

  8. Expert explanations of honeybee losses in areas of extensive agriculture in France: Gaucho compared with other supposed causal factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debates on causality are at the core of controversies as regards environmental changes. The present paper presents a new method for analyzing controversies on causality in a context of social debate and the results of its empirical testing. The case study used is the controversy as regards the role played by the insecticide Gaucho, compared with other supposed causal factors, in the substantial honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) losses reported to have occurred in France between 1994 and 2004. The method makes use of expert elicitation of the perceived strength of evidence regarding each of Bradford Hill's causality criteria, as regards the link between each of eight possible causal factors identified in attempts to explain each of five signs observed in honeybee colonies. These judgments are elicited from stakeholders and experts involved in the debate, i.e., representatives of Bayer Cropscience, of the Ministry of Agriculture, of the French Food Safety Authority, of beekeepers and of public scientists. We show that the intense controversy observed in confused and passionate public discourses is much less salient when the various arguments are structured using causation criteria. The contradictions between the different expert views have a triple origin: (1) the lack of shared definition and quantification of the signs observed in colonies; (2) the lack of specialist knowledge on honeybees; and (3) the strategic discursive practices associated with the lack of trust between experts representing stakeholders having diverging stakes in the case.

  9. Whole-genome resequencing of honeybee drones to detect genomic selection in a population managed for royal jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, David; Marti-Marimon, Maria; Basso, Benjamin; Bidanel, Jean-Pierre; Labarthe, Emmanuelle; Bouchez, Olivier; Le Conte, Yves; Vignal, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Four main evolutionary lineages of A. mellifera have been described including eastern Europe (C) and western and northern Europe (M). Many apiculturists prefer bees from the C lineage due to their docility and high productivity. In France, the routine importation of bees from the C lineage has resulted in the widespread admixture of bees from the M lineage. The haplodiploid nature of the honeybee Apis mellifera, and its small genome size, permits affordable and extensive genomics studies. As a pilot study of a larger project to characterise French honeybee populations, we sequenced 60 drones sampled from two commercial populations managed for the production of honey and royal jelly. Results indicate a C lineage origin, whilst mitochondrial analysis suggests two drones originated from the O lineage. Analysis of heterozygous SNPs identified potential copy number variants near to genes encoding odorant binding proteins and several cytochrome P450 genes. Signatures of selection were detected using the hapFLK haplotype-based method, revealing several regions under putative selection for royal jelly production. The framework developed during this study will be applied to a broader sampling regime, allowing the genetic diversity of French honeybees to be characterised in detail. PMID:27255426

  10. Sex determination in honeybees: two separate mechanisms induce and maintain the female pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Schiøtt, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    Organisms have evolved a bewildering diversity of mechanisms to generate the two sexes. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) employs an interesting system in which sex is determined by heterozygosity at a single locus (the Sex Determination Locus) harbouring the complementary sex determiner (csd) gene...... the regulatory interactions of genes involved in the sex determination pathway. We show that heterozygous csd is only required to induce the female pathway, while the feminizer (fem) gene maintains this decision throughout development. By RNAi induced knockdown we show that the fem gene is essential...... for entire female development and that the csd gene exclusively processes the heterozygous state. Fem activity is also required to maintain the female determined pathway throughout development, which we show by mosaic structures in fem-repressed intersexuals. We use expression of Fem protein in males...

  11. Study of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co effects on Apis mellifera venom: biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects; Estudo dos efeitos da radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co na peconha de Apis mellifera: aspectos bioquimicos, farmacologicos e imunologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Helena

    2001-07-01

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. Ionizing radiation is able to modify molecular structures affecting the biological properties of proteins. It decreases toxic and enzymatic activities and so, it appears promising as a venom detoxification tool. The main objective of this work was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects. Africanized Apis mellifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M NaCl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a {sup 60}Co source. Native and irradiated bee venoms were submitted to high performance size exclusion chromatography (Tosohaas G2000SW column), high performance reversed phase chromatography in a C-18 column under water/acetonitrile gradient, SDS-PAGE. For both venoms studies have been carried out in UV absorption spectrum, protein concentration, hemolytic activity, and PLA{sub 2} activity analysis, lethality assay (LD{sub 50}). Biodistribution studies was carried out after labelling native and irradiated bee venom with {sup 99m}Tc. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration nor its immunogenicity, although it could be observed that irradiated bee venom UV spectrum and SDS-PAGE profile presented differences when compared to native bee venom. This suggests that some structural alterations in bee venom components could have occurred after irradiation. HPLC-RP profiles showed that gamma radiation could have caused conformational changes, such as unfolding of molecule chains, changing their hydrophobic groups exposuring. The hemolytic and the PLA{sub 2} activities of irradiated bee venom were smaller than the native ones. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of bee venom, but did not abolish its bioactivity, like hemolysis

  12. Trans-generational immune priming in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández López, Javier; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Crailsheim, Karl; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike

    2014-06-22

    Maternal immune experience acquired during pathogen exposure and passed on to progeny to enhance resistance to infection is called trans-generational immune priming (TgIP). In eusocial insects like honeybees, TgIP would result in a significant improvement of health at individual and colony level. Demonstrated in invertebrates other than honeybees, TgIP has not yet been fully elucidated in terms of intensity and molecular mechanisms underlying this response. Here, we immune-stimulated honeybee queens with Paenibacillus larvae (Pl), a spore-forming bacterium causing American Foulbrood, the most deadly bee brood disease worldwide. Subsequently, offspring of stimulated queens were exposed to spores of Pl and mortality rates were measured to evaluate maternal transfer of immunity. Our data substantiate the existence of TgIP effects in honeybees by direct evaluation of offspring resistance to bacterial infection. A further aspect of this study was to investigate a potential correlation between immune priming responses and prohaemocytes-haemocyte differentiation processes in larvae. The results point out that a priming effect triggers differentiation of prohaemocytes to haemocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying TgIP responses are still elusive and require future investigation. PMID:24789904

  13. Honeybees, Butterflies, and Ladybugs: Partners to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Honeybees, butterflies, and ladybugs all have fascinating mutually beneficial relationships with plants and play important ecosystem roles. Children also love these creatures. But how do we teach children about these symbiotic interactions and help them appreciate their vital roles in our environment? One must is to give children direct experience…

  14. Intro to the Zotero API

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Morton

    2013-01-01

    In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use python with the Zotero API to interact with your Zotero library. The Zotero API is a powerful interface that would allow you to build a complete Zotero client from scratch if you so desired. But like most APIs, it works in small, discrete steps, so we have to build our way up to the complicated requests we might want to use to access our Zotero libraries. But this incremental building gives us plenty of time to learn as we go along.

  15. Intro to the Zotero API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Morton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use python with the Zotero API to interact with your Zotero library. The Zotero API is a powerful interface that would allow you to build a complete Zotero client from scratch if you so desired. But like most APIs, it works in small, discrete steps, so we have to build our way up to the complicated requests we might want to use to access our Zotero libraries. But this incremental building gives us plenty of time to learn as we go along.

  16. Metalloprotease production by Paenibacillus larvae during the infection of honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Karina; Arredondo, Daniela; Anido, Matilde; Zunino, Pablo

    2011-05-01

    American foulbrood is a bacterial disease of worldwide distribution that affects larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The causative agent is the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Several authors have proposed that P. larvae secretes metalloproteases that are involved in the larval degradation that occurs after infection. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the production of a metalloprotease by P. larvae during larval infection. First, the complete gene encoding a metalloprotease was identified in the P. larvae genome and its distribution was evaluated by PCR in a collection of P. larvae isolates from different geographical regions. Then, the complete gene was amplified, cloned and overexpressed, and the recombinant metalloprotease was purified and used to generate anti-metalloprotease antibodies. Metalloprotease production was evaluated by immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The gene encoding a P. larvae metalloprotease was widely distributed in isolates from different geographical origins in Uruguay and Argentina. Metalloprotease was detected inside P. larvae vegetative cells, on the surface of P. larvae spores and secreted to the external growth medium. Its production was also confirmed in vivo, during the infection of honeybee larvae. This protein was able to hydrolyse milk proteins as described for P. larvae, suggesting that could be involved in larval degradation. This work contributes to the knowledge of the pathogenicity mechanisms of a bacterium of great economic significance and is one step in the characterization of potential P. larvae virulence factors. PMID:21330433

  17. Simultaneous morphological and functional imaging of the honeybee's brain by two-photon microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanks to its rather simply structured but highly performing brain, the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is an important model for neurobiological studies. Therefore there is a great need for new functional imaging modalities adapted to this species. Herein we give a detailed report on the development and performance of a platform for in vivo functional and morphological imaging of the honeybee's brain, focusing on its primary olfactory centres, the antennal lobes (ALs). The experimental setup consists of a two-photon microscope combined with a synchronized odour stimulus generator. Our imaging platform allows to simultaneously obtain both morphological measurements of the ALs functional units, the glomeruli, and in vivo calcium recording of their neural activity. We were able to record the characteristic glomerular response maps to odour stimuli applied to the bee's antennae. Our approach offers several advantages over the commonly used conventional fluorescence microscopy. Two-photon microscopy provides substantial enhancement in both spatial and temporal resolutions, while minimizing photo damage. Calcium recordings show a more than fourfold improvement in the functional signal with respect to the techniques available up to now. Finally, the extended penetration depth, thanks to the infrared excitation, allows the functional imaging of profound glomeruli which have not been optically accessible up to now.

  18. So near and yet so far: harmonic radar reveals reduced homing ability of Nosema infected honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Wolf

    Full Text Available Pathogens may gain a fitness advantage through manipulation of the behaviour of their hosts. Likewise, host behavioural changes can be a defence mechanism, counteracting the impact of pathogens on host fitness. We apply harmonic radar technology to characterize the impact of an emerging pathogen--Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia--on honeybee (Apis mellifera flight and orientation performance in the field. Honeybees are the most important commercial pollinators. Emerging diseases have been proposed to play a prominent role in colony decline, partly through sub-lethal behavioural manipulation of their hosts. We found that homing success was significantly reduced in diseased (65.8% versus healthy foragers (92.5%. Although lost bees had significantly reduced continuous flight times and prolonged resting times, other flight characteristics and navigational abilities showed no significant difference between infected and non-infected bees. Our results suggest that infected bees express normal flight characteristics but are constrained in their homing ability, potentially compromising the colony by reducing its resource inputs, but also counteracting the intra-colony spread of infection. We provide the first high-resolution analysis of sub-lethal effects of an emerging disease on insect flight behaviour. The potential causes and the implications for both host and parasite are discussed.

  19. Aversive learning in honeybees revealed by the olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Vergoz

    Full Text Available Invertebrates have contributed greatly to our understanding of associative learning because they allow learning protocols to be combined with experimental access to the nervous system. The honeybee Apis mellifera constitutes a standard model for the study of appetitive learning and memory since it was shown, almost a century ago, that bees learn to associate different sensory cues with a reward of sugar solution. However, up to now, no study has explored aversive learning in bees in such a way that simultaneous access to its neural bases is granted. Using odorants paired with electric shocks, we conditioned the sting extension reflex, which is exhibited by harnessed bees when subjected to a noxious stimulation. We show that this response can be conditioned so that bees learn to extend their sting in response to the odorant previously punished. Bees also learn to extend the proboscis to one odorant paired with sugar solution and the sting to a different odorant paired with electric shock, thus showing that they can master both appetitive and aversive associations simultaneously. Responding to the appropriate odorant with the appropriate response is possible because two different biogenic amines, octopamine and dopamine subserve appetitive and aversive reinforcement, respectively. While octopamine has been previously shown to substitute for appetitive reinforcement, we demonstrate that blocking of dopaminergic, but not octopaminergic, receptors suppresses aversive learning. Therefore, aversive learning in honeybees can now be accessed both at the behavioral and neural levels, thus opening new research avenues for understanding basic mechanisms of learning and memory.

  20. API Blender: A Uniform Interface to Social Platform APIs

    OpenAIRE

    Gouriten, Georges; Senellart, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    With the growing success of the social Web, most Web developers have to interact with at least one social Web platform, which implies studying the related API specifications. These are often only informally described, may contain errors, lack harmonization, and generally speaking make the developer's work difficult. Most attempts to solve this problem, proposing formal description languages for Web service APIs, have had limited success outside of B2B applications; we believe it is due to the...

  1. Study of gamma radiation from 60Co effects on Apis mellifera venom: biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. Ionizing radiation is able to modify molecular structures affecting the biological properties of proteins. It decreases toxic and enzymatic activities and so, it appears promising as a venom detoxification tool. The main objective of this work was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects. Africanized Apis mellifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M NaCl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a 60Co source. Native and irradiated bee venoms were submitted to high performance size exclusion chromatography (Tosohaas G2000SW column), high performance reversed phase chromatography in a C-18 column under water/acetonitrile gradient, SDS-PAGE. For both venoms studies have been carried out in UV absorption spectrum, protein concentration, hemolytic activity, and PLA2 activity analysis, lethality assay (LD50). Biodistribution studies was carried out after labelling native and irradiated bee venom with 99mTc. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration nor its immunogenicity, although it could be observed that irradiated bee venom UV spectrum and SDS-PAGE profile presented differences when compared to native bee venom. This suggests that some structural alterations in bee venom components could have occurred after irradiation. HPLC-RP profiles showed that gamma radiation could have caused conformational changes, such as unfolding of molecule chains, changing their hydrophobic groups exposuring. The hemolytic and the PLA2 activities of irradiated bee venom were smaller than the native ones. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of bee venom, but did not abolish its bioactivity, like hemolysis. Biodistribution studies showed

  2. Sex and caste-specific variation in compound eye morphology of five honeybee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streinzer, Martin; Brockmann, Axel; Nagaraja, Narayanappa; Spaethe, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana). In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the timing mechanisms

  3. Sex and caste-specific variation in compound eye morphology of five honeybee species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Streinzer

    Full Text Available Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana. In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the

  4. Winter losses of honeybee colonies (Hymenoptera: Apidae): the role of infestations with Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Marc O; Ritter, Wolfgang; Pettis, Jeff S; Neumann, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Multiple infections of managed honeybee, Apis mellifera, colonies are inevitable due to the ubiquitous ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor and might be an underlying cause of winter losses. Here we investigated the role of adult small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, alone and in combination with V. destructor for winter losses and for infections with the microsporidian endoparasite Nosema ceranae. We found no significant influence of A. tumida and V. destructor alone or in combination on the numbers of N. ceranae spores. Likewise, A. tumida alone had no significant effects on winter losses, which is most likely due to the observed high winter mortality of the adult beetles. Therefore, our data suggest that A. tumida is unlikely to contribute to losses of overwintering honeybee colonies. However, high losses occurred in all groups highly infested with V. destructor, supporting the central role of the mite for colony losses. PMID:20214362

  5. Mechanisms, functions and ecology of colour vision in the honeybee

    OpenAIRE

    Hempel de Ibarra, N.; Vorobyev, M.; Menzel, R

    2014-01-01

    Research in the honeybee has laid the foundations for our understanding of insect colour vision. The trichromatic colour vision of honeybees shares fundamental properties with primate and human colour perception, such as colour constancy, colour opponency, segregation of colour and brightness coding. Laborious efforts to reconstruct the colour vision pathway in the honeybee have provided detailed descriptions of neural connectivity and the properties of photoreceptors and interneurons in the ...

  6. Deformed Wing Virus Implicated in Overwintering Honeybee Colony Losses ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Highfield, Andrea C.; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C. M.; Noël, Laure M.-L.J.; Hall, Matthew J.; Martin, Stephen J; Schroeder, Declan C.

    2009-01-01

    The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics tha...

  7. RFID Tracking of Sublethal Effects of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides on the Foraging Behavior of Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christof W.; Tautz, Jürgen; Grünewald, Bernd; Fuchs, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The development of insecticides requires valid risk assessment procedures to avoid causing harm to beneficial insects and especially to pollinators such as the honeybee Apis mellifera. In addition to testing according to current guidelines designed to detect bee mortality, tests are needed to determine possible sublethal effects interfering with the animal's vitality and behavioral performance. Several methods have been used to detect sublethal effects of different insecticides under laboratory conditions using olfactory conditioning. Furthermore, studies have been conducted on the influence insecticides have on foraging activity and homing ability which require time-consuming visual observation. We tested an experimental design using the radiofrequency identification (RFID) method to monitor the influence of sublethal doses of insecticides on individual honeybee foragers on an automated basis. With electronic readers positioned at the hive entrance and at an artificial food source, we obtained quantifiable data on honeybee foraging behavior. This enabled us to efficiently retrieve detailed information on flight parameters. We compared several groups of bees, fed simultaneously with different dosages of a tested substance. With this experimental approach we monitored the acute effects of sublethal doses of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid (0.15–6 ng/bee) and clothianidin (0.05–2 ng/bee) under field-like circumstances. At field-relevant doses for nectar and pollen no adverse effects were observed for either substance. Both substances led to a significant reduction of foraging activity and to longer foraging flights at doses of ≥0.5 ng/bee (clothianidin) and ≥1.5 ng/bee (imidacloprid) during the first three hours after treatment. This study demonstrates that the RFID-method is an effective way to record short-term alterations in foraging activity after insecticides have been administered once, orally, to individual bees. We contribute further information on

  8. Expression of a secretory α-glucosidase II from Apis cerana indica in Pichia pastoris and its characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Kaewmuangmoon, Jirattikarn; Kilaso, Manlika; Leartsakulpanich, Ubolsree; Kimura, Kiyoshi; KIMURA, Atsuo; Chanchao, Chanpen

    2013-01-01

    Background α–glucosidase (HBGase) plays a key role in hydrolyzing α-glucosidic linkages. In Apis mellifera, three isoforms of HBGase (I, II and III) have been reported, which differ in their nucleotide composition, encoding amino acid sequences and enzyme kinetics. Recombinant (r)HBGase II from A. cerana indica (rAciHBGase II) was focused upon here due to the fact it is a native and economic honeybee species in Thailand. The data is compared to the two other isoforms, AciHBGase I and III from...

  9. Conceptualization of relative size by honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore eAvargues-Weber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to process visual information using relational rules allows for decisions independent of the specific physical attributes of individual stimuli. Until recently, the manipulation of relational concepts was considered as a prerogative of large mammalian brains. Here we show that individual free flying honeybees can learn to use size relationship rules to choose either the larger or smaller stimulus as the correct solution in a given context, and subsequently apply the learnt rule to novel colors and shapes providing that there is sufficient input to the long wavelength (green photoreceptor channel. Our results add a novel, size-based conceptual rule to the set of relational concepts that honeybees have been shown to master and underline the value of bees as an animal model for studying the emergence of conceptualization abilities.

  10. Acute Contact Toxicity Test of Oxalic Acid on Honeybees in the Southwestern Zone of Uruguay Prueba de Toxicidad Aguda por Contacto de Ácido Oxálico en Abejas de la Zona Sudoeste de Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Carrasco-Letelier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the acute contact toxicity of oxalic acid (OA on a honeybee polyhybrid subspecies (Apis mellifera, which is the dominant biotype in southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU and the country's most important honey-producing region. We determined the mean lethal dose (LD50, as well as the no observed effect level (NOEL and the lowest observed effect level (LOEL values. We also estimated the total number of honeybees per hive in the test area. The aim was to assess the relationship between the maximum OA dose used in Uruguay (3.1 g OA per hive and the toxicological parameters of honeybees from SWZU. The current dose of 3.1 g OA per hive corresponds to 132.8 OA per honeybee since determined NOEL is 400 OA per honeybee; our results indicate that the current dose could be increased to 9.3 g OA per hive. The results also highlight some differences between the LD50 value in SWZU honeybees (548.95 OA per honeybee and some published LD50 values for other honeybee subspecies.Este trabajo estudió la toxicidad aguda por contacto del ácido oxálico (AO sobre una subespecie poli-híbrida de abejas (Apis mellifera, la cual es el biotipo dominante en la zona sudoeste de Uruguay (SWZU, la región más importante para la producción de miel en este país. Este estudio determinó la dosis letal 50 (DL50, así como el nivel de efecto no observado (NOEL, el nivel de efecto mínimo observado (LOEL, y el número total de individuos por colmena. El propósito fue evaluar la relación entre la dosis máxima de AO usada en Uruguay (3.1 g AO por colmena y los parámetros toxicológicos de las abejas de la SWZU. Los resultados mostraron que es posible elevar la dosis actual de AO por colmena a 9.3 g, ya que la dosis actual de 3.1 g de AO corresponde a 132.8 AO por abeja, y el NOEL determinado es 400 AO por abeja. Los resultados también destacaron algunas diferencias entre la DL50 de las abejas del SWZU (548.95 AO por abeja y algunos valores de DL50 publicados

  11. Harmful Effects of Biocides on Honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Gürel, Yasemin; Çarhan, Ahmet; KOÇ, Feride; Daş, Yavuz Kürşad

    2015-01-01

    Biocides are chemical substances which are use to fight against harmful insects around residential areas and enviroment. Furthermore, drink water disinfectans, hospital and food industry disinfectants are also included as biocidal products. Recently, biocidal products are blamed for the honeybee loss and colony collapse disorder (CCD). There are several factors have been determined for CCD in some countries (Fletcher and Barnett, 2003, Rortais and col., 2005; Underwood and vanEngelsdorp ve co...

  12. Collective fluid mechanics of honeybee nest ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Combes, Stacey; Wood, Robert J.; Peters, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Honeybees thermoregulate their brood in the warm summer months by collectively fanning their wings and creating air flow through the nest. During nest ventilation workers flap their wings in close proximity in which wings continuously operate in unsteady oncoming flows (i.e. the wake of neighboring worker bees) and near the ground. The fluid mechanics of this collective aerodynamic phenomena are unstudied and may play an important role in the physiology of colony life. We have performed field and laboratory observations of the nest ventilation wing kinematics and air flow generated by individuals and groups of honeybee workers. Inspired from these field observations we describe here a robotic model system to study collective flapping wing aerodynamics. We microfabricate arrays of 1.4 cm long flapping wings and observe the air flow generated by arrays of two or more fanning robotic wings. We vary phase, frequency, and separation distance among wings and find that net output flow is enhanced when wings operate at the appropriate phase-distance relationship to catch shed vortices from neighboring wings. These results suggest that by varying position within the fanning array honeybee workers may benefit from collective aerodynamic interactions during nest ventilation.

  13. Effects of cosmetics containing purified honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom on acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Mi Han

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatologic problem with multiple factors involved in its pathogenesis. Alternative solutions to acne treatment were instigated by antibiotic resistance despite of its extensive use. Purified bee venom (PBV) has been proposed as a promising candidate for that purpose. The present study was designed to confirm the antibacterial effect of PBV and access the efficacy of cosmetics containing PBV in subjects with acne vulgaris. METHODS: The skin bacterium Pro...

  14. Short- and Long-Term Memories Formed upon Backward Conditioning in Honeybees ("Apis Mellifera")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsenberg, Johannes; Plath, Jenny Aino; Lorang, Steven; Morgenstern, Laura; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    In classical conditioning, the temporal sequence of stimulus presentations is critical for the association between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). In forward conditioning, the CS precedes the US and is learned as a predictor for the US. Thus it acquires properties to elicit a behavioral response, defined as…

  15. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda)

    OpenAIRE

    Rasuli Farhang; Rafie Javad Nazemi; Sadeghi Amin

    2015-01-01

    The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (p...

  16. Effects of Colony Creation Method and Beekeeper Education on Honeybee ("Apis mellifera") Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, J. Reed; Eborn, Benjamin; Jones, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The two-part study reported here analyzed the effects of beekeeper education and colony creation methods on colony mortality. The first study examined the difference in hive mortality between hives managed by beekeepers who had received formal training in beekeeping with beekeepers who had not. The second study examined the effect on hive…

  17. Cholinergic pesticides cause mushroom body neuronal inactivation in honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Mary J; Moffat, Christopher; Saranzewa, Nastja; Harvey, Jenni; Wright, Geraldine A.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides that target cholinergic neurotransmission are highly effective, but their use has been implicated in insect pollinator population decline. Honeybees are exposed to two widely used classes of cholinergic pesticide: neonicotinoids (nicotinic receptor agonists) and organophosphate miticides (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors). Although sublethal levels of neonicotinoids are known to disrupt honeybee learning and behaviour, the neurophysiological basis of these effects has not been shown...

  18. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) REST API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This REST-based API is designed to support lightweight Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content consumption by consumers. It is anticipated that this API...

  19. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) SOAP API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The purpose of the SOAP based API is to provide the full Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content to the consumer. It is anticipated that this API will be...

  20. Automated Ply Inspection (API) for AFP Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Ply Inspection (API) system autonomously inspects layups created by high speed automated fiber placement (AFP) machines. API comprises a high accuracy...

  1. Go.USA.gov URL Shortner API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Go.USA.gov REST API allows you interact with Go.USA.gov by shortening URLs, previewing long urls, and getting the number of clicks to a Go.USA.gov URL.. An API...

  2. The Web as an API.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, J. H. (Jorge H.)

    2001-01-01

    As programmers we have worked with many Application Development Interface API development kits. They are well suited for interaction with a particular system. A vast source of information can be made accessible by using the http protocol through the web as an API. This setup has many advantages including the vast knowledge available on setting web servers and services. Also, these tools are available on most hardware and operating system combinations. In this paper I will cover the various types of systems that can be developed this way, their advantages and some drawbacks of this approach. Index Terms--Application Programmer Interface, Distributed applications, Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, Web.

  3. In vitro antiproliferative/cytotoxic activity on cancer cell lines of a cardanol and a cardol enriched from Thai Apis mellifera propolis

    OpenAIRE

    Teerasripreecha Dungporn; Phuwapraisirisan Preecha; Puthong Songchan; Kimura Kiyoshi; Okuyama Masayuki; Mori Haruhide; Kimura Atsuo; Chanchao Chanpen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Propolis is a complex resinous honeybee product. It is reported to display diverse bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties, which are mainly due to phenolic compounds, and especially flavonoids. The diversity of bioactive compounds depends on the geography and climate, since these factors affect the floral diversity. Here, Apis mellifera propolis from Nan province, Thailand, was evaluated for potential anti-cancer activity. Methods...

  4. Nature clinale de la fréquence des ovarioles et des spermathèques observée chez les ouvrières de l'abeille du Cap, Apis mellifera capensis

    OpenAIRE

    Phiancharoen, Mananya; Christian W W Pirk; Radloff, Sarah E.; Hepburn, Randall

    2010-01-01

    International audience It was determined that 300 Cape workers, Apis mellifera capensis (collected from each of 6 colonies at each of 5 localities about 200 km apart along an 800 km transect in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces, South Africa) was the sample size required to statistically estimate the proportions of workers with spermathecae at each location at 95% confidence levels. Because of the extremely clinal nature of this honeybee population, we tested the hypotheses that (1) o...

  5. Advance in Sacbrood Virus Disease in Honeybees%蜜蜂囊状幼虫病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇; 薛菲; Wubie Abebe Jenberie; 黄家兴; 国占宝; 周婷; 徐书法

    2014-01-01

    蜜蜂囊状幼虫病是由蜜蜂囊状幼虫病毒(Sacbrood virus,SBV)引起的一种病毒病,对蜂群危害极其严重,对我国本土蜂种的中华蜜蜂危害更甚。到目前为止,我国有20多个省发现中华蜜蜂感染此病,病害侵袭极其严重。由于该病无特效药物可以治疗,我国部分省份的部分地区由于囊状幼虫病的大流行已经导致该地区中华蜜蜂饲养数量几乎为零,给当地的蜂业生产带来巨大损失。论文从蜜蜂囊状幼虫病的流行规律、病毒的生物学特性、病害诊断方法和蜜蜂抗性机理四个方面对蜜蜂囊状幼虫病研究进展进行概述,旨在为今后有效防控蜜蜂囊状幼虫病提供参考。%Sacbrood virus (SBV)is a viral pathogen causing sacbrood virus disease in honeybees which has become a potential threat to honeybee colonies and even more to the Chinese native species (Apis cerana cerana ).Until now,Sacbrood Virus has been detected in more than 20 provinces of China.In certain areas of the country,SBV has seriously caused a total collapse of apiaries and huge economic losses due to ab-sence of effective treatments.As a result,in order to give important insights,herein,we summarized the evolutionary epidemiology of SBV infection in honeybees,its molecular characterization,diagnostic tech-niques for SBV detection,and honeybee resistance to SBV infections.We believe that this report provide the basis for further SBV based studies in the control of sacbrood virus disease in honeybees.

  6. Activity of telomerase and telomeric length in Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korandová, Michala; Frydrychová, Radmila Čapková

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase is an enzyme that adds repeats of DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes, thereby preventing their shortening. Telomerase activity is associated with proliferative status of cells, organismal development, and aging. We report an analysis of telomerase activity and telomere length in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Telomerase activity was found to be regulated in a development and caste-specific manner. During the development of somatic tissues of larval drones and workers, telomerase activity declined to 10 % of its level in embryos and remained low during pupal and adult stages but was upregulated in testes of late pupae, where it reached 70 % of the embryo level. Upregulation of telomerase activity was observed in the ovaries of late pupal queens, reaching 160 % of the level in embryos. Compared to workers and drones, queens displayed higher levels of telomerase activity. In the third larval instar of queens, telomerase activity reached the embryo level, and an enormous increase was observed in adult brains of queens, showing a 70-fold increase compared to a brain of an adult worker. Southern hybridization of terminal TTAGG fragments revealed a high variability of telomeric length between different individuals, although the same pattern of hybridization signals was observed in different tissues of each individual. PMID:26490169

  7. Molecular characterization and oxidative stress response of a cytochrome P450 gene (CYP4G11) from Apis cerana cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weina; Sun, Jing; Xu, Baohua; Li, Han

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 proteins, widely distributed multifunctional enzymes, are mainly involved in biosynthetic and degradative pathways of endogenous compounds and the detoxification of xenobiotics in insects. Moreover, these enzymes exhibit peroxidase-like activity, therefore they may be involved in protecting organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we cloned a CYP4G11 gene--AccCYP4G11--from the Chinese honey-bee (Apis cerana cerana). The open reading frame of the cDNA was 1656 bp long and encoded a 551 amino acids polypeptide, which shared high sequence identity with homologous cytochrome P450 proteins. In the genomic DNA sequence, a 5'-flanking region consisting of 1168 bp was obtained, and some putative transcription factor binding sites were predicted. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) revealed that the level of AccCYP4G11 was higher in the epidermis than in other tissues, and AccCYP4G11 was expressed in all stages with the highest level in two-week-old adult worker honey-bees. Moreover, the expression patterns under oxidative stress indicated that AccCYP4G11 transcription was significantly influenced by external factors, such as temperature challenges, ultraviolet (UV) light, and insecticide treatment. AccCYP4G11 was regulated differentially in response to oxidative stress and may be involved in protecting honey-bees from oxidative injury. PMID:24601089

  8. Honeybee foraging in differentially structured landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kuhn, Arno

    2003-03-22

    Honeybees communicate the distance and location of resource patches by bee dances, but this spatial information has rarely been used to study their foraging ecology. We analysed, for the first time to the best of the authors' knowledge, foraging distances and dance activities of honeybees in relation to landscape structure, season and colony using a replicated experimental approach on a landscape scale. We compared three structurally simple landscapes characterized by a high proportion of arable land and large patches, with three complex landscapes with a high proportion of semi-natural perennial habitats and low mean patch size. Four observation hives were placed in the centre of the landscapes and switched at regular intervals between the six landscapes from the beginning of May to the end of July. A total of 1137 bee dances were observed and decoded. Overall mean foraging distance was 1526.1 +/- 37.2 m, the median 1181.5 m and range 62.1-10037.1 m. Mean foraging distances of all bees and foraging distances of nectar-collecting bees did not significantly differ between simple and complex landscapes, but varied between month and colonies. Foraging distances of pollen-collecting bees were significantly larger in simple (1743 +/- 95.6 m) than in complex landscapes (1543.4 +/- 71 m) and highest in June when resources were scarce. Dancing activity, i.e. the number of observed bee dances per unit time, was significantly higher in complex than in simple landscapes, presumably because of larger spatial and temporal variability of resource patches in complex landscapes. The results facilitate an understanding of how human landscape modification may change the evolutionary significance of bee dances and ecological interactions, such as pollination and competition between honeybees and other bee species. PMID:12769455

  9. Reproductive biology of varroa mites in colonies of Africanized honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderon Fallas, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reproductive biology of V. destructor in Africanized honeybees (AHB) in Central American conditions, specifically in Costa Rica. Attention was paid to mite fertility and production of viable female mites in worker and drone brood cells. Other reproduction parameters, like fecundi

  10. Hox gene expression leads to differential hind leg development between honeybee castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Moda, Livia Maria; Simoes, Zila Luz Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Beyond the physiological and behavioural, differences in appendage morphology between the workers and queens of Apis mellifera are pre-eminent. The hind legs of workers, which are highly specialized pollinators, deserve special attention. The hind tibia of worker has an expanded bristle-free region used for carrying pollen and propolis, the corbicula. In queens this structure is absent. Although the morphological differences are well characterized, the genetic inputs driving the development of this alternative morphology remain unknown. Leg phenotype determination takes place between the fourth and fifth larval instar and herein we show that the morphogenesis is completed at brown-eyed pupa. Using results from the hybridization of whole genome-based oligonucleotide arrays with RNA samples from hind leg imaginal discs of pre-pupal honeybees of both castes we present a list of 200 differentially expressed genes. Notably, there are castes preferentially expressed cuticular protein genes and members of the P450 family. We also provide results of qPCR analyses determining the developmental transcription profiles of eight selected genes, including abdominal-A, distal-less and ultrabithorax (Ubx), whose roles in leg development have been previously demonstrated in other insect models. Ubx expression in workers hind leg is approximately 25 times higher than in queens. Finally, immunohistochemistry assays show that Ubx localization during hind leg development resembles the bristles localization in the tibia/basitarsus of the adult legs in both castes. Our data strongly indicate that the development of the hind legs diphenism characteristic of this corbiculate species is driven by a set of caste-preferentially expressed genes, such as those encoding cuticular protein genes, P450 and Hox proteins, in response to the naturally different diets offered to honeybees during the larval period. PMID:22848371

  11. Electrophysiological and behavioural characterization of gustatory responses to antennal 'bitter' taste in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Giurfa, Martin; de Paula Mota, Theo Rolla; Gauthier, Monique

    2005-12-01

    We combined behavioural and electrophysiological experiments to study whether bitter taste is perceived at the antennal level in honeybees, Apis mellifera. Our behavioural studies showed that neither quinine nor salicin delivered at one antenna at different concentrations induced a retraction of the proboscis once it was extended in response to 1 M sucrose solution delivered to the opposite antenna. Bees that extended massively their proboscis to 1 M sucrose responded only partially when stimulated with a mixture of 1 M sucrose and 100 mM quinine. The mixture of 1 m sucrose and 100 mM salicin had no such suppressive effect. No behavioural suppression was found for mixtures of salt solution and either bitter substance. Electrophysiological recordings of taste sensillae at the antennal tip revealed sensillae that responded specifically either to sucrose or salt solutions, but none responded to the bitter substances quinine and salicin at the different concentrations tested. The electrophysiological responses of sensillae to 15 mM sucrose solution were inhibited by a mixture of 15 mM sucrose and 0.1 mM quinine, but not by a mixture of 15 mM sucrose and 0.1 mM salicin. The responses of sensillae to 50 mM NaCl were reduced by a mixture of 50 mm NaCl and 1 mM quinine but not by a mixture of 50 mM NaCl and 1 mM salicin. We concluded that no receptor cells for the bitter substances tested, exist at the level of the antennal tip of the honeybee and that antennal bitter taste is not represented as a separate perceptual quality. PMID:16367782

  12. Highly polymorphic DNA markers in an Africanized honey bee population in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo Segura Jorge Arturo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two genetic markers (the mtDNA COI-COII intergenic region and the microsatellite A7 with high levels of variability in South African and European honey bees were analyzed in wild swarms of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera from Costa Rica. Allelic or haplotypic frequencies revealed high levels of genetic variability at these loci in this population. Most of the alleles were African alleles, although some European-derived alleles were also present. Differences in the frequencies of African alleles between African and Africanized samples were minor, which could be explained by founder effects occurring during the introduction of African honey bee populations into South America.

  13. Flight restriction prevents associative learning deficits but not changes in brain protein-adduct formation during honeybee ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolfsen, Christina C; Baker, Nicholas; Kreibich, Claus; Amdam, Gro V

    2011-04-15

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) senesce within 2 weeks after they discontinue nest tasks in favour of foraging. Foraging involves metabolically demanding flight, which in houseflies (Musca domestica) and fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) is associated with markers of ageing such as increased mortality and accumulation of oxidative damage. The role of flight in honeybee ageing is incompletely understood. We assessed relationships between honeybee flight activity and ageing by simulating rain that confined foragers to their colonies most of the day. After 15 days on average, flight-restricted foragers were compared with bees with normal (free) flight: one group that foraged for ∼15 days and two additional control groups, for flight duration and chronological age, that foraged for ∼5 days. Free flight over 15 days on average resulted in impaired associative learning ability. In contrast, flight-restricted foragers did as well in learning as bees that foraged for 5 days on average. This negative effect of flight activity was not influenced by chronological age or gustatory responsiveness, a measure of the bees' motivation to learn. Contrasting their intact learning ability, flight-restricted bees accrued the most oxidative brain damage as indicated by malondialdehyde protein adduct levels in crude cytosolic fractions. Concentrations of mono- and poly-ubiquitinated brain proteins were equal between the groups, whereas differences in total protein amounts suggested changes in brain protein metabolism connected to forager age, but not flight. We propose that intense flight is causal to brain deficits in aged bees, and that oxidative protein damage is unlikely to be the underlying mechanism. PMID:21430210

  14. The cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) induces neuronal and behavioral changes in honeybees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyanobacterially produced neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is thought to induce amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC)-like symptoms. However, its mechanism of action and its pathway of intoxication are yet unknown. In vivo animal models suitable for investigating the neurotoxic effect of BMAA with applicability to the human are scarce. Hence, we used the honeybee (Apis mellifera) since its nervous system is relatively simple, yet having cognitive capabilities. Bees fed with BMAA-spiked sugar water had an increased mortality rate and a reduced ability to learn odors in a classical conditioning paradigm. Using 14C-BMAA we demonstrated that BMAA is biologically available to the bee, and is found in the head, thorax and abdomen with little to no excretion. BMAA is also transferred from one bee to the next via trophallaxis resulting in an exposure of the whole beehive. BMAA bath application directly onto the brain leads to an altered Ca2+ homeostasis and to generation of reactive oxygen species. These behavioral and physiological observations suggest that BMAA may have effects on bee brains similar to those assumed to occur in humans. Therefore the bee could serve as a surrogate model system for investigating the neurological effects of BMAA. - Highlights: • Investigating of neurotoxic effects of BMAA in honeybees • BMAA impairs ALS markers (ROS, Ca2+, learning, memory, odor) in bees. A method for the observation of ROS development in living bees brain was established. • Honeybees are a suitable model to explore neurodegenerative processes. • Neurotoxic BMAA can be spread in bee populations by trophallaxis

  15. The cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) induces neuronal and behavioral changes in honeybees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okle, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.okle@uni-konstanz.de [Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, Jacob-Burckhardt-Strasse 25, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Rath, Lisa; Galizia, C. Giovanni [Zoology and Neurobiology, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstraße 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Dietrich, Daniel R., E-mail: daniel.dietrich@uni-konstanz.de [Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, Jacob-Burckhardt-Strasse 25, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The cyanobacterially produced neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is thought to induce amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC)-like symptoms. However, its mechanism of action and its pathway of intoxication are yet unknown. In vivo animal models suitable for investigating the neurotoxic effect of BMAA with applicability to the human are scarce. Hence, we used the honeybee (Apis mellifera) since its nervous system is relatively simple, yet having cognitive capabilities. Bees fed with BMAA-spiked sugar water had an increased mortality rate and a reduced ability to learn odors in a classical conditioning paradigm. Using {sup 14}C-BMAA we demonstrated that BMAA is biologically available to the bee, and is found in the head, thorax and abdomen with little to no excretion. BMAA is also transferred from one bee to the next via trophallaxis resulting in an exposure of the whole beehive. BMAA bath application directly onto the brain leads to an altered Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis and to generation of reactive oxygen species. These behavioral and physiological observations suggest that BMAA may have effects on bee brains similar to those assumed to occur in humans. Therefore the bee could serve as a surrogate model system for investigating the neurological effects of BMAA. - Highlights: • Investigating of neurotoxic effects of BMAA in honeybees • BMAA impairs ALS markers (ROS, Ca{sup 2+}, learning, memory, odor) in bees. • A method for the observation of ROS development in living bees brain was established. • Honeybees are a suitable model to explore neurodegenerative processes. • Neurotoxic BMAA can be spread in bee populations by trophallaxis.

  16. Focal and temporal release of glutamate in the mushroom bodies improves olfactory memory in Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Fernando; Bundrock, Gesine; Müller, Uli

    2005-12-14

    In contrast to vertebrates, the role of the neurotransmitter glutamate in learning and memory in insects has hardly been investigated. The reason is that a pharmacological characterization of insect glutamate receptors is still missing; furthermore, it is difficult to locally restrict pharmacological interventions. In this study, we overcome these problems by using locally and temporally defined photo-uncaging of glutamate to study its role in olfactory learning and memory formation in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Uncaging glutamate in the mushroom bodies immediately after a weak training protocol induced a higher memory rate 2 d after training, mimicking the effect of a strong training protocol. Glutamate release before training does not facilitate memory formation, suggesting that glutamate mediates processes triggered by training and required for memory formation. Uncaging glutamate in the antennal lobes shows no effect on memory formation. These results provide the first direct evidence for a temporally and locally restricted function of glutamate in memory formation in honeybees and insects. PMID:16354919

  17. Apicystis bombi (Apicomplexa: Neogregarinorida) parasitizing Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plischuk, Santiago; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Lange, Carlos E

    2011-10-01

    The neogregarine Apicystis bombi is considered a low prevalence parasite of Bombus spp. Before our work it has only once been detected in one single specimen of the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This contribution reports the presence of A. bombi parasitizing both A. mellifera and Bombus terrestris at a site in Northwestern Argentine Patagonia (Bariloche, close to the border with Chile) and analyses its possible absence in the Pampas region, the most important beekeeping region of the country. In Bariloche, prevalence of A. bombi in A. mellifera was 7.6% in 2009, and 13.6% in 2010, whereas in B. terrestris it was 12.1%. Infections were not detected in 302 bee hives periodically prospected along 3 years (almost 400 000 honeybee specimens) in the Pampas. Analysis with the probability program FreeCalc2 suggested a possible absence of A. bombi in this area. Because of high virulence showed in several species of Bombus in the Northern hemisphere, A. bombi should be closely monitored in A. mellifera and in native Bombus species or other Apidae. PMID:23761336

  18. Parallel reinforcement pathways for conditioned food aversions in the honeybee

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Geraldine A.; Mustard, Julie A; Simcock, Nicola K.; Ross-Taylor, Alexandra A.R.; McNicholas, Lewis D.; Popescu, Alexandra; Marion-Poll, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Summary Avoiding toxins in food is as important as obtaining nutrition. Conditioned food aversions have been studied in animals as diverse as nematodes and humans [1, 2], but the neural signaling mechanisms underlying this form of learning have been difficult to pinpoint. Honeybees quickly learn to associate floral cues with food [3], a trait that makes them an excellent model organism for studying the neural mechanisms of learning and memory. Here we show that honeybees not only detect toxin...

  19. The Behavioral Relevance of Landmark Texture for Honeybee Homing

    OpenAIRE

    Laura eDittmar; Martin eEgelhaaf; Wolfgang eStürzl; Norbert eBoeddeker

    2011-01-01

    Honeybees visually pinpoint the location of a food source using landmarks. Studies on the role of visual memories have suggested that bees approach the goal by finding a close match between their current view and a memorized view of the goal location. The most relevant landmark features for this matching process seem to be their retinal positions, the size as defined by their edges, and their colour. Recently, we showed that honeybees can use landmarks that are statically camouflaged, suggest...

  20. Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Girling, Robbie D.; Inka Lusebrink; Emily Farthing; Newman, Tracey A.; Poppy, Guy M.

    2013-01-01

    Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals, identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution. Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable. Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix; altering the blend, by...