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Sample records for africana home ranges

  1. Elephant (Loxodonta africana home ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: a five-year satellite tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindi Thomas

    Full Text Available During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR and Kruger National Park (KNP we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges.

  2. Elephant (Loxodonta africana) home ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: a five-year satellite tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bindi; Holland, John D; Minot, Edward O

    2008-01-01

    During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR) and Kruger National Park (KNP) we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana) from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges.

  3. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  4. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  5. Tusklessness and tusk fractures in free-ranging African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, G; Ferreira, S M; Bester, M N

    2007-06-01

    The incidence of tusklessness varies between free-ranging African elephant populations. Sex-linked genetic drift predicts 2 outcomes--the condition becomes fixed and sex-specific incidences diverge when populations are small and/or heavily poached. By contrast, for large and intact populations, tusklessness diminishes and there is no variation between sexes. We tested these predictions by comparing sex-specific incidences between 15 populations: a small one with a skewed founder effect towards tusklessness; 5 that had experienced intense levels of poaching; 2 that had been subjected to non-selective culling and 7 that are relatively pristine. Patterns of rainfall were studied of tusk fractures amongst these populations to correct for any effect that acquired tusklessness may have on our predictions. The incidence of tusk fractures was related to annual rainfall, but the mechanism that leads to an increase of the condition in drier areas was not clear Incidences of tusk fractures in free-ranging populations implied that the frequency of acquired bilateral tusklessness is low and should not affect our results. All males had tusks. Tusklessness in females was high in the small skewed founder population and some of those where there was a history of poaching. The incidence is expected to decline if the residual population is large.

  6. Tusklessness and tusk fractures in free-ranging African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Steenkamp

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tusklessness varies between free-ranging African elephant populations. Sex-linked genetic drift predicts 2 outcomes - the condition becomes fixed and sex-specific incidences diverge when populations are small and/or heavily poached. By contrast, for large and intact populations, tusklessness diminishes and there is no variation between sexes. We tested these predictions by comparing sex-specific incidences between 15 populations: a small one with a skewed founder effect towards tusklessness; 5 that had experienced intense levels of poaching; 2 that had been subjected to non-selective culling and 7 that are relatively pristine. Patterns of rainfall were studied of tusk fractures amongst these populations to correct for any effect that acquired tusklessness may have on our predictions. The incidence of tusk fractures was related to annual rainfall, but the mechanism that leads to an increase of the condition in drier areas was not clear. Incidences of tusk fractures in free-ranging populations implied that the frequency of acquired bilateral tusklessness is low and should not affect our results. All males had tusks. Tusklessness in females was high in the small skewed founder population and some of those where there was a history of poaching. The incidence is expected to decline if the residual population is large.

  7. The Africana world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    diaspora in order for the unity and renaissance dreamed of to become a reality. The chapters in Africana World: From Fragmentation to Unity and Renaissance address colonial and postcolonial African realities with a view to present a holistic and transcontinental appraisal of questions, issues...... engagements with Africa's rich cultural heritage, its lingering contemporary challenges, its multifaceted systems of knowledge and its future in the exciting context of the twenty-first century. Africana World: From Fragmentation to Unity and Renaissance is put together in order to help develop the study...... and challenges that confront the continent. Contributors are drawn from different parts of the world - Africa, Europe and the Americas - and it is this eclectic range of scholarly views that lends a rich historicity to the meaning of Africanity. The book contains multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary...

  8. Estimated home ranges can misrepresent habitat relationships on patchy landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.S.; Powell, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Home ranges of animals are generally structured by the selective use of resource-bearing patches that comprise habitat. Based on this concept, home ranges of animals estimated from location data are commonly used to infer habitat relationships. Because home ranges estimated from animal locations are largely continuous in space, the resource-bearing patches selected by an animal from a fragmented distribution of patches would be difficult to discern; unselected patches included in the home range estimate would bias an understanding of important habitat relationships. To evaluate potential for this bias, we generated simulated home ranges based on optimal selection of resource-bearing patches across a series of simulated resource distributions that varied in the spatial continuity of resources. For simulated home ranges where selected patches were spatially disjunct, we included interstitial, unselected cells most likely to be traveled by an animal moving among selected patches. We compared characteristics of the simulated home ranges with and without interstitial patches to evaluate how insights derived from field estimates can differ from actual characteristics of home ranges, depending on patchiness of landscapes. Our results showed that contiguous home range estimates could lead to misleading insights on the quality, size, resource content, and efficiency of home ranges, proportional to the spatial discontinuity of resource-bearing patches. We conclude the potential bias of including unselected, largely irrelevant patches in the field estimates of home ranges of animals can be high, particularly for home range estimators that assume uniform use of space within home range boundaries. Thus, inferences about the habitat relationships that ultimately define an animal's home range can be misleading where animals occupy landscapes with patchily distributed resources.

  9. The sexually active states of free-ranging male African elephants (Loxodonta africana): defining musth and non-musth using endocrinology, physical signals, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganswindt, André; Rasmussen, Henrik B; Heistermann, Michael; Hodges, J Keith

    2005-01-01

    Musth in male African elephants, Loxodonta africana, is associated with increased aggressive behavior, continuous discharge of urine, copious secretions from the swollen temporal glands, and elevated androgen levels. During musth, bulls actively seek out and are preferred by estrous females although sexual activity is not restricted to the musth condition. The present study combines recently established methods of fecal hormone analysis with long-term observations on male-female associations as well as the presence and intensity of physical signals to provide a more detailed picture about the physical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics of different states of sexual activity in free-ranging African elephants. Based on quantitative shifts in individual bull association patterns, the presence of different physical signals, and significant differences in androgen levels, a total of three potential sub-categories for sexually active bulls could be established. The results demonstrate that elevations in androgen levels are only observed in sexually active animals showing temporal gland secretion and/or urine dribbling, but are not related to the age of the individual. Further, none of the sexually active states showed elevated glucocorticoid output indicating that musth does not represent an HPA-mediated stress condition. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the term "musth" should be exclusively used for the competitive state in sexually active male elephants and that the presence of urine dribbling should be the physical signal used for defining this state.

  10. The home range of marten and its significance in management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information relative to the home range of marten was obtained in 1951, 1952, and 1953, while the author was a member of the Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit at the...

  11. Fecal 20-oxo-pregnane concentrations in free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with porcine zona pellucida vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, M J; Ganswindt, A; Münscher, S; Bertschinger, H J

    2012-07-01

    Because of overpopulation of African elephants in South Africa and the consequent threat to biodiversity, the need for a method of population control has become evident. In this regard, the potential use of the porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccine as an effective means for population control is explored. While potential effects of pZP treatment on social behavior of African elephants have been investigated, no examination of the influence of pZP vaccination on the endocrine correlates in treated females has been undertaken. In this study, ovarian activity of free-ranging, pZP-treated African elephant females was monitored noninvasively for 1 yr at Thornybush Private Nature Reserve, South Africa, by measuring fecal 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations via enzyme immunoassay. A total of 719 fecal samples from 19 individuals were collected over the study period, averaging 38 samples collected per individual (minimum, maximum: 16, 52). Simultaneously, behavioral observations were made to record the occurrence of estrous behavior for comparison. Each elephant under study showed 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations rising above baseline at some period during the study indicating luteal activity. Average 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations were 1.61 ± 0.46 μg/g (mean ± SD). Within sampled females, 42.9% exhibited estrous cycles within the range reported for captive African elephants, 14.3% had irregular cycles, and 42.9% did not appear to be cycling. Average estrous cycle duration was 14.72 ± 0.85 wk. Estrous behavior coincided with the onset of the luteal phase and a subsequent rise in 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations. Average 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on levels positively correlated with rainfall. No association between average individual 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations or cyclicity status with age or parity were detected. Earlier determination of efficacy was established via fecal hormone analysis with no pregnancies determined 22 mo post

  12. Measurements of Capture Efficiency of Range Hoods in Homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2015-01-01

    want a range hood to use little energy and have high capture efficiency to minimize the required air flow to capture the cooking pollutants. Currently there are no standards for rating range hoods for capture efficiency In this study, measurements of range hood capture efficiency were made a tight......A major source of pollutants in homes is cooking and as homes get tighter in the pursuit of lower energy use (particularly near zero energy), the concentration of cooking pollutants increases. The best way to remove cooking pollutants is to use a range hood above the cooking surface. Ideally, we...... kitchen-room built in a laboratory chamber, and a methodology for standardizing measurement of capture efficiency was developed. The results for a wall mounted range hood, showed that up to half of the cooking pollutants were not captured at a flow rate of 230 m3/h. A more detailed set of measurements...

  13. Home Range, Habitat Selection, and Foraging Rhythm in Mauritanian Spoonbills (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Hacen, E.-H.M.; Overdijk, O.; Lok, T.; Olff, H.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Mauritanian Spoonbills (Platalea leucorodia balsaci) only breed at Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, West Africa. Their populations have declined; however, nothing is known about possible ecological factors involved, including their primary food and foraging habits. Home range sizes, habitat selection, and

  14. Home range dynamics, habitat selection, and survival of Greater Roadrunners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, S.W.; Ransom, D.; Butcher, J.A.; Schulz, G.G.; Surber, B.W.; Pinchak, W.E.; Santamaria, C.A.; Hurtado, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Greater Roadrunners (Geococcyx californianus) are common, poorly studied birds of arid and semi-arid ecosystems in the southwestern United States. Conservation of this avian predator requires a detailed understanding of their movements and spatial requirements that is currently lacking. From 2006 to 2009, we quantified home-range and core area sizes and overlap, habitat selection, and survival of roadrunners (N= 14 males and 20 females) in north-central Texas using radio-telemetry and fixed kernel estimators. Median home-range and core-area sizes were 90.4 ha and 19.2 ha for males and 80.1 ha and 16.7 ha for females, respectively. The size of home range and core areas did not differ significantly by either sex or season. Our home range estimates were twice as large (x??= 108.9 ha) as earlier published estimates based on visual observations (x??= 28-50 ha). Mean percent overlap was 38.4% for home ranges and 13.7% for core areas. Male roadrunners preferred mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna cover types, and avoided the grass-forb cover type. Female roadrunners preferred mesquite savanna and riparian woodland cover types, and avoided grass-forb habitat. Kaplan-Meier annual survival probabilities for females (0.452 ?? 0.118[SE]) were twice that estimated for males (0.210 ?? 0.108), but this difference was not significant. Mortality rates of male roadrunners were higher than those of females during the spring when males call from elevated perches, court females, and chase competing males. Current land use practices that target woody-shrub removal to enhance livestock forage production could be detrimental to roadrunner populations by reducing availability of mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna habitat required for nesting and roosting and increasing the amount of grass-forb habitat that roadrunners avoid. ??2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ??2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  15. Analysis of radiotelemetry data in studies of home range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.E. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville); Gipson, P.S.

    1977-03-01

    In home range studies of wild animals and birds, statistical analysis of radio telemetry data poses special problems due to lack of independence of successive observations along the sample path. Assuming that such data are generated by a continuous, stationary, Gaussian process possessing the Markov property, then a multivariate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck diffusion process is necessarily the source and is proposed here to be a workable model. Its characterization is given in terms of typical descriptive properties of home range such as center of activity and confidence regions. Invariance of the model with respect to choice of an observational coordinate system is established, while data for twin deer are used to illustrate the manner in which the model may be used for study of territorial interaction. An approximate maximum likelihood procedure is proposed with results being reported for deer, coyote, and bird tracking data.

  16. Home range and ranging behaviour of Bornean elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Alfred

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Home range is defined as the extent and location of the area covered annually by a wild animal in its natural habitat. Studies of African and Indian elephants in landscapes of largely open habitats have indicated that the sizes of the home range are determined not only by the food supplies and seasonal changes, but also by numerous other factors including availability of water sources, habitat loss and the existence of man-made barriers. The home range size for the Bornean elephant had never been investigated before. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The first satellite tracking program to investigate the movement of wild Bornean elephants in Sabah was initiated in 2005. Five adult female elephants were immobilized and neck collars were fitted with tracking devices. The sizes of their home range and movement patterns were determined using location data gathered from a satellite tracking system and analyzed by using the Minimum Convex Polygon and Harmonic Mean methods. Home range size was estimated to be 250 to 400 km(2 in a non-fragmented forest and 600 km(2 in a fragmented forest. The ranging behavior was influenced by the size of the natural forest habitat and the availability of permanent water sources. The movement pattern was influenced by human disturbance and the need to move from one feeding site to another. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Home range and movement rate were influenced by the degree of habitat fragmentation. Once habitat was cleared or converted, the availability of food plants and water sources were reduced, forcing the elephants to travel to adjacent forest areas. Therefore movement rate in fragmented forest was higher than in the non-fragmented forest. Finally, in fragmented habitat human and elephant conflict occurrences were likely to be higher, due to increased movement bringing elephants into contact more often with humans.

  17. Virginia Tech Wildlife Student Studies Cheetah Home Ranges

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    The cheetah may be the world's fastest land animal, accelerating to high speeds in just a few steps, but within recent years the cheetahs of South Africa are battling the race for survival. To find remedies for this problem Peter Laver, a graduate student in fisheries and wildlife sciences in the College of Natural Resources at Virginia Tech, is expanding current research on home ranges of the cheetah population located in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania, Africa.

  18. Home range and movements of juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, G.D.; Arendt, W.J.; Kalina, J.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    We studied home range and movements of 15 radio-marked, juvenile Puerto Rican parrots (Amazona vittata) fledging from wild nests during summer and fall, 1985-87. When juvenile parrots remained in the nest valley, home ranges during 1986 (.hivin.x = 32 .+-. 10 [SE] ha, n = 4) were larger (P = 0.0079) than during 1987 (.hivin.x = 13 .+-. 6 ha, n = 5). After radio-marked parrots integrated into adult flocks, home ranges during 1986 (.hivin.x = 1,075 .+-. 135 ha, n = 3) were similar (P = 0.10) to 1987 (.hivin.x = 416 .+-. 62 ha, n = 2). Juvenile parrots restricted their movements to nest valleys an average of 58 .+-. 29 days following fledging. After joining adult flocks, juvenile parrots routinely flew between the east and west slopes of the Luquillo Mountains but did not exhibit a seaonal pattern of movement. We recommend that captive-raised, juvenile parrots used in release programs be .gtoreq. 5 months old to ensure they are mature enough to integrate into wild flocks.

  19. From "No Place" to Home: The Quest for a Western Home in Brewster Higley's "Home on the Range"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 1934, New York attorney Samuel Moanfeldt set out on a trip that would take him through most of the states west of the Mississippi in search of the origins of the popular American folk song "Home on the Range." The reason for his trip was a $500,000 lawsuit filed by William and Mary Goodwin of Tempe, Arizona, who claimed that they…

  20. Home range and habitat use of reintroduced Javan Deer in Panaitan Island, Ujung Kulon National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Javan deer which inhabit Panaitan Island (± 175 Km2 were reintroduced from Peucang Island (± 4.5 Km2 during 1978–1982 (3 males: 13 females. The information of home range and habitat use of these animals were needed for wildlife habitat management especially in the small island habitat. We measured the home range size and habitat use of Javan deer in Peucang Island and Panaitan Island and compared them. The home range size was measured using Minimum Convex Polygon and then the polygon of home ranges were used to measure the habitat use. The results showed that in general the home range size in all age class of Javan deer between both islands did not differ significantly, only subadult males in Peucang Island which have a larger home range size than subadult males in Panaitan Island. Javan deer in Panaitan Island have found suitable conditions.

  1. Home in the heat: dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Melissa; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd Eli

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  2. Optimal use of resources structures home ranges and spatial distribution of black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.S.; Powell, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that territories of animals are economical. Home ranges should be similarly efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources and this should structure their distribution on a landscape, although neither has been demonstrated empirically. To test these hypotheses, we used home range models that optimize resource use according to resource-maximizing and area-minimizing strategies to evaluate the home ranges of female black bears, Ursus americanus, living in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We tested general predictions of our models using 104 home ranges of adult female bears studied in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, North Carolina, U.S.A., from 1981 to 2001. We also used our models to estimate home ranges for each real home range under a variety of strategies and constraints and compared similarity of simulated to real home ranges. We found that home ranges of female bears were efficient with respect to the spatial distribution of resources and were best explained by an area-minimizing strategy with moderate resource thresholds and low levels of resource depression. Although resource depression probably influenced the spatial distribution of home ranges on the landscape, levels of resource depression were too low to quantify accurately. Home ranges of lactating females had higher resource thresholds and were more susceptible to resource depression than those of breeding females. We conclude that home ranges of animals, like territories, are economical with respect to resources, and that resource depression may be the mechanism behind ideal free or ideal preemptive distributions on complex, heterogeneous landscapes. ?? 2007 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. Space use of wintering waterbirds in India: Influence of trophic ecology on home-range size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgail, Tsewang; Takekawa, John Y.; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Sathiyaselvam, Ponnusamy; Mundkur, Taej; Newman, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    Relationship between species' home range and their other biological traits remains poorly understood, especially in migratory birds due to the difficulty associated with tracking them. Advances in satellite telemetry and remote sensing techniques have proved instrumental in overcoming such challenges. We studied the space use of migratory ducks through satellite telemetry with an objective of understanding the influence of body mass and feeding habits on their home-range sizes. We marked 26 individuals, representing five species of migratory ducks, with satellite transmitters during two consecutive winters in three Indian states. We used kernel methods to estimate home ranges and core use areas of these waterfowl, and assessed the influence of body mass and feeding habits on home-range size. Feeding habits influenced the home-range size of the migratory ducks. Carnivorous ducks had the largest home ranges, herbivorous ducks the smallest, while omnivorous species had intermediate home-ranges. Body mass did not explain variation in home-range size. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind on migratory ducks, and it has important implications for their conservation and management.

  4. A state-space model for estimating detailed movements and home range from acoustic receiver data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Weng, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    We present a state-space model for acoustic receiver data to estimate detailed movement and home range of individual fish while accounting for spatial bias. An integral part of the approach is the detection function, which models the probability of logging tag transmissions as a function...... is used to estimate home range and movement of a reef fish in the Pacific Ocean....

  5. Home range sizes for burchell's zebra equus burchelli antiquorum from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Smuts

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Annual home range sizes were determined for 49 marked zebra family groups in the Kruger National Park. Sizes varied from 49 to 566 sq. km, the mean for the Park being 164 square kilometre. Mean home range sizes for different zebra sub-populations and biotic areas were found to differ considerably. Present herbivore densities have not influenced intra- and inter-specific tolerance levels to the extent that home range sizes have increased. Local habitat conditions, and particularly seasonal vegetational changes, were found to have the most profound influence on the shape and mean size of home ranges. The large home range sizes obtained in the Kruger Park, when compared to an area such as the Ngorongoro Crater, can be ascribed to a lower carrying capacity with respect to zebra, large portions of the habitat being sub-optimal, either seasonally or annually.

  6. Free-ranging farm cats: home range size and predation on a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts-Morgan, Susanna E; Caires, Kyle C; Bohannon, Lisa A; Parsons, Elizabeth I; Hilburn, Katharine A

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective was to determine seasonal and diurnal vs. nocturnal home range size, as well as predation for free-ranging farm cats at a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia. Seven adult cats were tracked with attached GPS units for up to two weeks for one spring and two summer seasons from May 2010 through August 2011. Three and five cats were tracked for up to two weeks during the fall and winter seasons, respectively. Feline scat was collected during this entire period. Cats were fed a commercial cat food daily. There was no seasonal effect (P > 0.05) on overall (95% KDE and 90% KDE) or core home range size (50% KDE). Male cats tended (P = 0.08) to have larger diurnal and nocturnal core home ranges (1.09 ha) compared to female cats (0.64 ha). Reproductively intact cats (n = 2) had larger (P cats. Feline scat processing separated scat into prey parts, and of the 210 feline scats collected during the study, 75.24% contained hair. Of these 158 scat samples, 86 contained non-cat hair and 72 contained only cat hair. Other prey components included fragments of bone in 21.43% of scat and teeth in 12.86% of scat. Teeth were used to identify mammalian prey hunted by these cats, of which the Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) was the primary rodent. Other targeted mammals were Peromyscus sp., Sylvilagus sp. and Microtus sp. Invertebrates and birds were less important as prey, but all mammalian prey identified in this study consisted of native animals. While the free-ranging farm cats in this study did not adjust their home range seasonally, sex and reproductive status did increase diurnal and nocturnal home range size. Ultimately, larger home ranges of free-ranging cats could negatively impact native wildlife.

  7. Social learning in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Brian J; Brown, Tracey K; Andrews, Jeff R M; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Caine, Nancy G

    2013-05-01

    Social learning is a more efficient method of information acquisition and application than trial and error learning and is prevalent across a variety of animal taxa. Social learning is assumed to be important for elephants, but evidence in support of that claim is mostly anecdotal. Using a herd of six adult female African bush elephants (Loxodonta africana africana) at the San Diego Zoo's Safari Park, we evaluated whether viewing a conspecific's interactions facilitated learning of a novel task. The tasks used feeding apparatus that could be solved in one of two distinct ways. Contrary to our hypothesis, the method the demonstrating animal used did not predict the method used by the observer. However, we did find evidence of social learning: After watching the model, subjects spent a greater percentage of their time interacting with the apparatus than they did in unmodeled trials. These results suggest that the demonstrations of a model may increase the motivation of elephants to explore novel foraging tasks.

  8. Factors Affecting Home Ranges of Red Foxes in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tserendorj Munkhzul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in red fox home range size in relation to environmental and intrinsic factors were studied using radio-telemetry during 2006–2008 in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, southeastern Mongolia. We captured a total of 12 red foxes (8 females and 4 males and fi tted them with VHF radio-collars. Marked animals were tracked up to fi ve times a week to estimate home ranges. We also trapped small mammal and insects in different biotopes for 3 years to estimate relative abundance of prey. Our results showed that mean individual home range sizes varied widely and differed among years. There was variation in home ranges between adults versus juveniles, but no signifi cant difference was found between males versus females. In addition, mean home range size did not differ seasonally for pooled years. Variation in home ranges was best explained by a model that included covariates of year and age. We suggest that spatiotemporal changes in resource availability across years infl uenced home range dynamics of red foxes in our study.

  9. Estimating home-range size: when to include a third dimension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterroso, Pedro; Sillero, Neftalí; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Loureiro, Filipa; Alves, Paulo Célio

    2013-07-01

    Most studies dealing with home ranges consider the study areas as if they were totally flat, working only in two dimensions, when in reality they are irregular surfaces displayed in three dimensions. By disregarding the third dimension (i.e., topography), the size of home ranges underestimates the surface actually occupied by the animal, potentially leading to misinterpretations of the animals' ecological needs. We explored the influence of considering the third dimension in the estimation of home-range size by modeling the variation between the planimetric and topographic estimates at several spatial scales. Our results revealed that planimetric approaches underestimate home-range size estimations, which range from nearly zero up to 22%. The difference between planimetric and topographic estimates of home-ranges sizes produced highly robust models using the average slope as the sole independent factor. Moreover, our models suggest that planimetric estimates in areas with an average slope of 16.3° (±0.4) or more will incur in errors ≥5%. Alternatively, the altitudinal range can be used as an indicator of the need to include topography in home-range estimates. Our results confirmed that home-range estimates could be significantly biased when topography is disregarded. We suggest that study areas where home-range studies will be performed should firstly be scoped for its altitudinal range, which can serve as an indicator for the need for posterior use of average slope values to model the surface area used and/or available for the studied animals.

  10. Summer Home Range Size and Habitat Use by River Otters in Ohio

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    David A. Helon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Reintroduced river otters (Lontra canadensis are an important component of Ohio’s biological diversity, and are a key indicator of wetland and watershed health and quality. However, few data are available on their home range sizes and habitat use. We monitored river otters using radio-telemetry in the Killbuck Watershed, in northeastern Ohio, during 2002 and 2003 to determine home range and habitat use. Overall, mean home range size was 802.4 ha (range = 84.5–3,376.3, SE = 448.2 for female river otters and 1,101.7 ha (range = 713.8–1,502.6, SE = 102.2 for male river otters. Home range size of female and male river otters did not differ in 2002 (P = 0.763, but males had larger home range size than females during 2003 (P = 0.001. Based on compositional analysis, habitat use differed in proportion to availability of the 5 habitat types available in the study area (marsh, wet meadow, riparian/floodplain, open water, and flooded upland (P < 0.0001. Overall, river otters used marsh habitat with a diverse association of floating aquatics and emergent vegetation in greater proportion than was available. Knowledge and understanding of river otter habitat use and home range size in Ohio will help managers identify habitats suitable for river otters in the Midwestern United States.

  11. Home-range size and overlap within an introduced population of the Cuban Knight Anole, Anolis equestris (Squamata: Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Richards

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the spatial relationships of terrestrial lizards, but arboreal species remain poorly studiedbecause they are difficult to observe. The conventional view of home-range size and overlap among territorial, polygynous species of lizards is that: (1 male home ranges are larger than those of females; (2 male home ranges usually encompass, or substantiallyoverlap, those of several females; and (3 male home-range overlap varies but often is minimal, but female home ranges frequently overlap extensively. However, the paucity of pertinent studies makes it difficult to generalize these patterns to arboreal lizards. Weinvestigated home-range size and overlap in the arboreal Knight Anole, Anolis equestris, and compared our findings to published home-range data for 15 other species of Anolis. Using radiotelemetry and mark-recapture/resight techniques, we analyzed the home rangesof individuals from an introduced population of Knight Anoles in Miami, Florida. The home ranges of both sexes substantially overlapped those of the same- and different-sex individuals. In addition, male and female home ranges did not differ significantly, an unusual observation among lizard species. If one compares both male and female home ranges to those of other Anolis species, Knight Anoles have significantly larger home ranges, except for two species for which statistical comparisons were not possible. Our results suggest that home ranges and sex-specific spatial arrangements of canopy lizards may differ from those of more terrestrial species.

  12. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E; Nagy, John A

    2013-01-01

    The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  13. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Edwards

    Full Text Available The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  14. Home range and movements of Feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Dan M.; Hess, S.C.; Brinck, K.W.; Banko, P.C.; Danner, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Feral cats Felis catus in dry subalpine woodland of Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, live in low density and exhibit some of the largest reported home ranges in the literature. While 95% fixed kemel home range estimates for three females averaged 772 ha, four males averaged 1 418 ha, and one male maintained a home range of 2 050 ha. Mean daily movement rates between sexes overlapped widely and did not differ significantly (P = 0.083). Log-transformed 95% kernel home ranges for males were significantly larger than those of females (P = 0.024), but 25% kernel home ranges for females were larger than those of males (P = 0.017). Moreover, log-transformed home ranges of males were also significantly larger than those of females in this and seven other studies from the Pacific region (P = 0.044). Feral cats present a major threat to endangered Hawaiian birds, but knowledge of their ecology can be used for management by optimizing trap spacing and creating buffer zones around conservation areas.

  15. Experimental evidence of spatial memory and home range affinity in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    The role of spatial memory in the movement of animals through landscapes remains elusive. To examine spatial memory and home range affinity of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota during 1995–2007, I translocated 17 adult does with known home ranges to unfamiliar sites and radio-tracked them after their release. Twelve does wearing transmitting radio-collars returned to their home ranges. Death and collar expiration precluded determination of whether the remaining five does would have returned to home ranges. Three of five does wearing global positioning system collars traveled throughout hundreds of square kilometres, circling, backtracking, and returning to release sites, while two others exhibited directional movement for tens of kilometres. Four does that survived to parturition stopped traveling and moved at hourly rates similar to those of control does during the first three weeks of the typical fawn-rearing period, but continued traveling later. Their aberrant extensive travel before and after interruption by parturition suggests that they recognized they were in unfamiliar areas, demonstrating both their capacity and propensity to search for and occupy the familiar space of their individual home ranges. Their successful return to home ranges provided experimental evidence of spatial memory and further elucidated its pervasive role in White-tailed Deer spatial ecology.

  16. Movement and Home Range of Nile Crocodiles in Ndumo Game Reserve, South Africa

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    Peter M. Calverley

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of movement patterns and home range is fundamental in understanding the spatial requirements of animals and is important in generating information for the conservation and management of threatened species. Ndumo Game Reserve, in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, bordering Mozambique, has the third largest Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus population in South Africa. Movement patterns of 50 Nile crocodiles with a total length of between 202 cm and 472 cm were followed over a period of 18 months, using mark-resight, radio and satellite telemetry. The duration of radio transmitter attachment (131 ± 11.4 days was significantly and negatively related to total length and reproductive status. Satellite transmitters failed after an average of 15 ± 12.5 days. Home range was calculated for individuals with 10 or more radio locations, spanning a period of at least 6 months. There was a significant relationship between home range size and total length, with sub-adults (1.5 m – 2.5 m occupying smaller, more localised home ranges than adults (> 2.5 m. The largest home ranges were for adults (> 2.5 m. Home ranges overlapped extensively, suggesting that territoriality, if present, does not result in spatially discrete home ranges of Nile crocodiles in Ndumo Game Reserve during the dry season. Larger crocodiles moved farther and more frequently than smaller crocodiles. The reserve acts as a winter refuge and spring breeding site for an estimated 846 crocodiles, which also inhabit the Rio Maputo during the summer months. Nile crocodile movement out of the reserve and into the Rio Maputo starts in November and crocodiles return to the reserve as water levels in the floodplain recede in May.Conservation implications: Movement patterns of Nile crocodiles show the important role the reserve plays in the conservation of Nile crocodile populations within the greater Ndumo Game Reserve–Rio Maputo area.

  17. Microhabitat selection, demography, and correlates of home range size for the King Rail (Rallus elegans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Bradley A.; King, Sammy L.

    2013-01-01

    Animal movements and habitat selection within the home range, or microhabitat selection, can provide insights into habitat requirements, such as foraging and area requirements. The King Rail (Rallus elegans) is a wetland bird of high conservation concern in the United States, but little is known about its movements, habitats, or demography. King Rails (n = 34) were captured during the 2010–2011 breeding seasons in the coastal marshes of southwest Louisiana and southeast Texas. Radio telemetry and direct habitat surveys of King Rail locations were conducted to estimate home ranges and microhabitat selection. Within home ranges, King Rails selected for greater plant species richness and comparatively greater coverage of Phragmites australis, Typha spp., and Schoenoplectus robustus. King Rails were found closer to open water compared to random locations placed 50 m from King Rail locations. Home ranges (n = 22) varied from 0.8–32.8 ha and differed greatly among sites. Home range size did not vary by year or sex; however, increased open water, with a maximum of 29% observed in the study, was correlated with smaller home ranges. Breeding season cumulative survivorship was 89% ± 22% in 2010 and 61% ± 43% in 2011, which coincided with a drought. With an equal search effort, King Rail chicks and juveniles observed in May-June decreased from 110 in 2010 to only 16 in the drier year of 2011. The findings show King Rail used marsh with ≤ 29% open water and had smaller home ranges when open water was more abundant.

  18. Feature Optimization for Long-Range Visual Homing in Changing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidan Zhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a feature optimization method for robot long-range feature-based visual homing in changing environments. To cope with the changing environmental appearance, the optimization procedure is introduced to distinguish the most relevant features for feature-based visual homing, including the spatial distribution, selection and updating. In the previous research on feature-based visual homing, less effort has been spent on the way to improve the feature distribution to get uniformly distributed features, which are closely related to homing performance. This paper presents a modified feature extraction algorithm to decrease the influence of anisotropic feature distribution. In addition, the feature selection and updating mechanisms, which have hardly drawn any attention in the domain of feature-based visual homing, are crucial in improving homing accuracy and in maintaining the representation of changing environments. To verify the feasibility of the proposal, several comprehensive evaluations are conducted. The results indicate that the feature optimization method can find optimal feature sets for feature-based visual homing, and adapt the appearance representation to the changing environments as well.

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF RANGE HOODS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A REAL ESTATE WEB SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, Victoria; Singer, Brett; Bedrosian, Tod; DCruz, Chris

    2011-09-02

    Venting range hoods are important residential ventilation components that remove pollutants generated by cooking activities and natural gas cooking burners. To address the lack of data on range hood installations in California, we conducted a survey by examining photographs of homes for sale or rent listed on a popular real estate web site. The survey was conducted in November 2010 and April–May 2011. Posted photos of the homes were reviewed to determine if a hood was installed, the type of hood, and two installation details that can impact performance, namely the height above the cooktop and the degree to which the hood covers the cooktop burners. We additionally collected information about the homes, including asking price for purchase or rent, type of building (e.g. detached house, townhouse or apartment), building age, floor area, and cooktop fuel type. Listings were first sampled to focus on homes built since 2005, then randomly sampled to include varied prices and locations around the state. Data were obtained for 1002 homes built between 1865 and 2011 (median year built 1989). Homes for sale varied in asking price from $16,000 to $16,500,000 (median $353,000) and homes for rent varied from $500 to $25,000 (median $2125) per month. Approximately 74% of the sample had natural gas cooktops. In this sample, natural gas cooktops were more prevalent in more expensive homes than in less expensive homes. Across the entire sample, 7.4 % appeared to have no hood installed, 33% had a short hood, 13% had a deep hood and 47% had a microwave over the range. The percentage of these hoods that vent to the outdoors could not be determined. Hood type was related to coverage of the cooktop. For deep hoods, 76% appeared to cover most or all of the cooktop burners. For short hoods, 70% covered about three quarters of the cooktop. And for microwaves the vast majority (96%) covered the back burners but not the front burners. Hood type was also correlated with asking price or

  20. Home ranges and satellite tactics of male green swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri) in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, D; Klamroth, B; Taebel-Hellwig, A; Schartl, M

    1998-05-01

    Dominance relationships were studied between marked or otherwise individually recognizable male green swordtails in a creek at Lake Catemaco and in a tributary of the Rio Atoyac (Veracruz, Mexico). The Atoyac population is unique because of a high degree of polymorphism, including both macromelanophore spotting and a micromelanophore tailspot pattern. During the dry season males living in the same area maintained a linear social hierarchy for periods of many days. The subordinate males settled down either in the same home ranges or in home ranges largely overlapping with that of dominant males. Although dominant males untiringly chased the subordinate males away, they returned persistently and achieved the status of non-tolerated satellites. Females were less stationary and presumably passed through many male home ranges during their feeding activities. The data clearly demonstrate that green swordtails live in complex social systems in which male-male competition and probably also female mate choice are likely to be essential factors for individual reproductive success.

  1. Quantifying home range habitat requirements for bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Vermont, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Therese; Freeman, Mark; Abouelezz, Hanem; Royar, K.; Howard, Alan D.; Mickey, R.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate how home range and habitat use analysis can inform landscape-scale conservation planning for the bobcat, Lynx rufus, in Vermont USA. From 2005 to 2008, we outfitted fourteen bobcats with GPS collars that collected spatially explicit locations from individuals every 4 h for 3–4 months. Kernel home range techniques were used to estimate home range size and boundaries, and to quantify the utilization distribution (UD), which is a spatially explicit, topographic mapping of how different areas within the home range are used. We then used GIS methods to quantify both biotic (e.g. habitat types, stream density) and abiotic (e.g. slope) resources within each bobcat’s home range. Across bobcats, upper 20th UD percentiles (core areas) had 18% less agriculture, 42% less development, 26% more bobcat habitat (shrub, deciduous, coniferous forest, and wetland cover types), and 33% lower road density than lower UD percentiles (UD valleys). For each bobcat, we used Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) to evaluate and compare 24 alternative Resource Utilization Functions (hypotheses) that could explain the topology of the individual’s UD. A model-averaged population-level Resource Utilization Function suggested positive responses to shrub, deciduous, coniferous forest, and wetland cover types within 1 km of a location, and negative responses to roads and mixed forest cover types within 1 km of a location. Applying this model-averaged function to each pixel in the study area revealed habitat suitability for bobcats across the entire study area, with suitability scores ranging between −1.69 and 1.44, where higher values were assumed to represent higher quality habitat. The southern Champlain Valley, which contained ample wetland and shrub habitat, was a concentrated area of highly suitable habitat, while areas at higher elevation areas were less suitable. Female bobcat home ranges, on average, had an average habitat suitability score of near 0, indicating

  2. Modeling Coral Reef Fish Home Range Movements in Dry Tortugas, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Farmer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Underestimation of reef fish space use may result in marine reserves that are too small to effectively buffer a portion of the stock from fishing mortality. Commonly used statistical home range models, such as minimum convex polygon (MCP or 95% kernel density (95% KD methods, require the exclusion of individuals who move beyond the bounds of the tracking study. Spatially explicit individual-based models of fish home range movements parameterized from multiple years of acoustic tracking data were developed for three exploited coral reef fishes (red grouper Epinephelus morio, black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci, and mutton snapper Lutjanus analis in Dry Tortugas, Florida. Movements were characterized as a combination of probability of movement, distance moved, and turning angle. Simulations suggested that the limited temporal and geographic scope of most movement studies may underestimate home range size, especially for fish with home range centers near the edges of the array. Simulations provided useful upper bounds for home range size (red grouper: 2.28±0.81 km2 MCP, 3.60±0.89 km2 KD; black grouper: 2.06±0.84 km2 MCP, 3.93±1.22 km2 KD; mutton snapper: 7.72±2.23 km2 MCP, 6.16±1.11 km2 KD. Simulations also suggested that MCP home ranges are more robust to artifacts of passive array acoustic detection patterns than 95% KD methods.

  3. Home range characteristics of Mexican Spotted Owls in the Rincon Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David W.; Van Riper, Charpes III

    2014-01-01

    We studied a small isolated population of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) from 1996–1997 in the Rincon Mountains of Saguaro National Park, southeastern Arizona, USA. All mixed-conifer and pine-oak forest patches in the park were surveyed for Spotted Owls, and we located, captured, and radio-tagged 10 adult birds representing five mated pairs. Using radio-telemetry, we examined owl home range characteristics, roost habitat, and monitored reproduction within these five territories. Breeding season (Mar–Sep) home range size for 10 adult owls (95% adaptive kernel isopleths) averaged 267 ha (±207 SD), and varied widely among owls (range 34–652 ha). Mean home range size for owl pairs was 478 ha (±417 ha SD), and ranged from 70–1,160 ha. Owls that produced young used smaller home ranges than owls that had no young. Six habitat variables differed significantly between roost and random sites, including: percent canopy cover, number of trees, number of vegetation layers, average height of trees, average diameter of trees, and tree basal area. Radio-marked owls remained in their territories following small prescribed management fires within those territories, exhibiting no proximate effects to the presence of prescribed fire.

  4. Nutrient content of Prosopis africana seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barminas, J T; Maina, H M; Ali, J

    1998-01-01

    The proximate and mineral compositions of Prosopis africana seeds used in the preparation of a local condiment in Nigeria and as animal feed were investigated. The proximate analysis showed that protein, ash and fiber values were comparable to Parkia africana seeds. However, the crude lipid content was lower than Parkia filicoidea seeds and decorticated groundnut. Phosphorus, potassium and calcium were the major mineral elements of the seeds, thereby suggesting that they could contribute partially to the overall daily intake of these elements.

  5. Changes in lion (Panthera leo) home range size in Waza National Park, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumenta, P.N.; Van't Zelfde, M.; Croes, B.M.; Buij, R.; Funston, P.J.; Haes, de H.A.U.; longh, De H.H.

    2013-01-01

    The spatial ecology of Africa lions (Panthera leo) was studied from 2007 to 2009 in Waza National Park, Cameroon, by equipping individual lions with GPS/VHF radio-collars. Mean home range estimates using 100% minimum convex polygons (MCP) and 95% kernel-density estimation (KDE) were respectively 101

  6. Selection and spatial arrangement of rest sites within northern tamandua home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D. D.; Montgomery, R. A.; Millspaugh, J. J.; Jansen, P. A.; Garzon-Lopez, C. X.; Kays, R.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of suitable rest sites is considered to be a key determinant of spatial patterns in animal activity. However, it is not immediately evident which landscape features satisfy rest site requirements or how these sites are configured within the home range. We used Global Positioning Sys

  7. Selection and spatial Arrangement of rest sites within Northern tamandua (Tamandua mexicana) home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D.D.; Montgomery, R.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Jansen, P.A.; Garzon-Lopez, C.X.; Kays, R.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of suitable rest sites is considered to be a key determinant of spatial patterns in animal activity. However, it is not immediately evident which landscape features satisfy rest site requirements or how these sites are configured within the home range. We used Global Positioning Sys

  8. Variation in Bachman's Sparrow home-range size at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, J.M.; Krementz, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Using radiotelemetry, we studied variation in home-range size of the Bachman's Sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, during the 1995 breeding season. At SRS, sparrows occurred primarily in two habitats: mature pine habitats managed for Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) and pine plantations 1 to 6 years of age. The mean 95% minimum convex polygon home-range size for males and females combined (n = 14) was 2.95 ha + 0.57 SE, across all habitats. Mean homerange size for males in mature pine stands (4.79 ha + 0.27, n = 4) was significantly larger than that in 4-year-old (3.00 ha + 0.31, n = 3) and 2-year-old stands (1.46 ha + 0.31, it = 3). Home-range sizes of paired males and females (it = 4 pairs) were similar within habitat type; mean distances between consecutive locations differed by habitat type and sex. We hypothesize that a gradient in food resources drives home-range dynamics.

  9. [Home range of Aspidoscelis cozumela (Squamata: Teiidae): a parthenogenetic lizard microendemic to Cozumel Island, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Gallegos, Oswaldo; López-Moreno, Ana Esthela; Méndez-Sánchez, José Fernando; Rheubert, Justin Lloyd; Méndez-de la Cruz, Fausto Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Home range is defined as the area within which an individual moves to acquire resources necessary to increase their fitness and may vary inter and intra-specifically with biotic and abiotic factors. This study details the home range of the parthenogenic lizard, Aspidoscelis cozumela, an active forager microendemic to Cozumel Island, México, with high preference for open sand beaches. The home range of A. cozumela was compared with other species of Aspidoscelis (gonochoric and parthenogenetic) and other lizards that occupy coastal habitats. Furthermore, the biotic and abiotic factors that may influence home range were analyzed. This study was conducted in the beach located on the East side of the island (area of 4,000 M2) that is composed primarily of halophyte vegetation with high levels of sunlight. From 1999 to 2001, nine samples were taken which included the dry, rainy, "nortes", and breeding seasons. During each sampling, capture-mark-recapture techniques were conducted and the date, time of day, and snout-vent length (SVL) were recorded to the nearest millimeter. Individuals were located in the study area using a bi-coordinate reference using 10 x 10 m subdivisions of the habitat. Home range and home range overlap were calculated using the convex polygon method in McPaal and home range/SVL correlation was tested using Pearson's correlation. To calculate females home range, three or more recaptures were considered. A total of 20 home ranges that averaged 45.1 ± 14.0 m2 were obtained and no correlation between SVL and home range size was detected (p = 0.9229, n = 20). However, removing individuals with outlier home ranges (females with home ranges > 100 m2, n = 2) resulted in a positive correlation with SVL (r = 0.61, p = 0.0072, n = 18). A 22.9 ± 5.7% overlap in home range was also detected. The small home range of A. cozumela represents the smallest home range within the Aspidoscelis genus recorded to date (including both parthenogenetic and gonochoric

  10. Individual and spatio-temporal variations in the home range behaviour of a long-lived, territorial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioni, Letizia; Delgado, María del Mar; Lourenço, Rui; Bastianelli, Giulia; Fernández, Nestor; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2013-06-01

    Despite the fact that investigations of home range behaviour have exponentially evolved on theoretical, analytical and technological grounds, the factors that shape animal home range behaviour still represent an unsolved question and a challenging field of research. However, home range studies have recently begun to be approached under a new integrated conceptual framework, considering home range behaviour as the result of the simultaneous influences of temporal, spatial and individual-level processes, with potential consequences at the population level. Following an integrated approach, we studied the influence of both external and internal factors on variations in the home range behaviour of 34 radiotagged eagle owl (Bubo bubo) breeders. Home range behaviour was characterised through complementary analysis of space use, movement patterns and rhythms of activity at multiple spatio-temporal scales. The effects of the different phases of the biological cycle became considerably evident at the level of movement patterns, with males travelling longer distances than females during incubation and nestling periods. Both external (i.e. habitat structure and composition) and internal (i.e. sex and health state) factors explained a substantial amount of the variation in home range behaviour. At the broader temporal scale, home range and core area size were negatively correlated with landscape heterogeneity. Males showed (1) smaller home range and core area sizes, (2) more complex home range internal structure and (3) higher rates of movement. The better the physiological condition of the individuals, the simpler the internal home range structure. Finally, inter- and intra-individual effects contributed to shaping space use and movement patterns during the biological cycle. Because of the plurality of behavioural and ecological processes simultaneously involved in home range behaviour, we claim that an integrative approach is required for adequate investigation of its

  11. Home range and use of habitat of western yellow-billed cuckoos on the middle Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juddson Sechrist, jschrist@nsbr.gov; Darrell Ahlers, dahlers@usbr.gov; Katherine Potak Zehfuss, kzehfuss@usbr.gov; Robert Doster, rob_doster@fws.gov; Paxton, Eben; Ryan, Vicky M.

    2013-01-01

    The western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis) is a Distinct Population Segment that has been proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act, yet very little is known about its spatial use on the breeding grounds. We implemented a study, using radio telemetry, of home range and use of habitat for breeding cuckoos along the Middle Rio Grande in central New Mexico in 2007 and 2008. Nine of 13 cuckoos were tracked for sufficient time to generate estimates of home range. Overall size of home ranges for the 2 years was 91 ha for a minimum-convex-polygon estimate and 62 ha for a 95%-kernel-home-range estimate. Home ranges varied considerably among individuals, highlighting variability in spatial use by cuckoos. Additionally, use of habitat differed between core areas and overall home ranges, but the differences were nonsignificant. Home ranges calculated for western yellow-billed cuckoos on the Middle Rio Grande are larger than those in other southwestern riparian areas. Based on calculated home ranges and availability of riparian habitat in the study area, we estimate that the study area is capable of supporting 82-99 nonoverlapping home ranges of cuckoos. Spatial data from this study should contribute to the understanding of the requirements of area and habitat of this species for management of resources and help facilitate recovery if a listing occurs.

  12. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (Lepus timidus in the Swiss Alps

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    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (Lepus timidus. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (Lepus timidus nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (Lepus timidus sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'home range è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli home range (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell home range non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (core area ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  13. Home range utilisation and long-range movement of estuarine crocodiles during the breeding and nesting season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Hamish A; Dwyer, Ross G; Irwin, Terri R; Franklin, Craig E

    2013-01-01

    The estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the apex-predator in waterways and coastlines throughout south-east Asia and Australasia. C. porosus pose a potential risk to humans, and management strategies are implemented to control their movement and distribution. Here we used GPS-based telemetry to accurately record geographical location of adult C. porosus during the breeding and nesting season. The purpose of the study was to assess how C. porosus movement and distribution may be influenced by localised social conditions. During breeding, the females (2.92 ± 0.013 metres total length (TL), mean ± S.E., n = 4) occupied an area<1 km length of river, but to nest they travelled up to 54 km away from the breeding area. All tagged male C. porosus sustained high rates of movement (6.49 ± 0.9 km d(-1); n = 8) during the breeding and nesting period. The orientation of the daily movements differed between individuals revealing two discontinuous behavioural strategies. Five tagged male C. porosus (4.17 ± 0.14 m TL) exhibited a 'site-fidelic' strategy and moved within well-defined zones around the female home range areas. In contrast, three males (3.81 ± 0.08 m TL) exhibited 'nomadic' behaviour where they travelled continually throughout hundreds of kilometres of waterway. We argue that the 'site-fidelic' males patrolled territories around the female home ranges to maximise reproductive success, whilst the 'nomadic' males were subordinate animals that were forced to range over a far greater area in search of unguarded females. We conclude that C. porosus are highly mobile animals existing within a complex social system, and mate/con-specific interactions are likely to have a profound effect upon population density and distribution, and an individual's travel potential. We recommend that impacts on socio-spatial behaviour are considered prior to the implementation of management interventions.

  14. Home range utilisation and long-range movement of estuarine crocodiles during the breeding and nesting season.

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    Hamish A Campbell

    Full Text Available The estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus is the apex-predator in waterways and coastlines throughout south-east Asia and Australasia. C. porosus pose a potential risk to humans, and management strategies are implemented to control their movement and distribution. Here we used GPS-based telemetry to accurately record geographical location of adult C. porosus during the breeding and nesting season. The purpose of the study was to assess how C. porosus movement and distribution may be influenced by localised social conditions. During breeding, the females (2.92 ± 0.013 metres total length (TL, mean ± S.E., n = 4 occupied an area<1 km length of river, but to nest they travelled up to 54 km away from the breeding area. All tagged male C. porosus sustained high rates of movement (6.49 ± 0.9 km d(-1; n = 8 during the breeding and nesting period. The orientation of the daily movements differed between individuals revealing two discontinuous behavioural strategies. Five tagged male C. porosus (4.17 ± 0.14 m TL exhibited a 'site-fidelic' strategy and moved within well-defined zones around the female home range areas. In contrast, three males (3.81 ± 0.08 m TL exhibited 'nomadic' behaviour where they travelled continually throughout hundreds of kilometres of waterway. We argue that the 'site-fidelic' males patrolled territories around the female home ranges to maximise reproductive success, whilst the 'nomadic' males were subordinate animals that were forced to range over a far greater area in search of unguarded females. We conclude that C. porosus are highly mobile animals existing within a complex social system, and mate/con-specific interactions are likely to have a profound effect upon population density and distribution, and an individual's travel potential. We recommend that impacts on socio-spatial behaviour are considered prior to the implementation of management interventions.

  15. Distribution and home range of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off Veracruz, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    I Martínez-Serrano; Serrano, A.; Heckel, G; Y Schramm

    2011-01-01

    With the goal of gathering ecological data to develop future cetacean management and conservation plans, the distribution, home range, and residency of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were studied in the central-north Mexican Gulf of Mexico. Between July 2005 and June 2008, 59 boat surveys were carried out for a total of 313 h of effort at sea. During these surveys, 471 individuals were observed in 88 different groups. Photographs of naturally marked animals resulted in 275 different...

  16. Home-range allometry in coral reef fishes: comparison to other vertebrates, methodological issues and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kirsty L; Welsh, Justin Q; Graham, Nicholas A J; Bellwood, David R

    2015-01-01

    Body size has been identified as a key driver of home-range area. Despite considerable research into home-range allometry, the relatively high variability in this relationship among taxa means that the mechanisms driving this relationship are still under debate. To date, studies have predominantly focused on terrestrial taxa, and coral reef fishes in particular have received little attention. We quantitatively reviewed studies examining home range in reef fishes, and assessed the interspecific relationship between body mass and home-range area. Body mass and home range are positively related in reef fishes (slopes of 1.15-1.72), with predators having larger home ranges than herbivorous species. This may be attributed to the mobility and lower abundance of predators' food items. Coral reef fishes, and fishes in general, appear to occupy a smaller area per unit mass than terrestrial vertebrates (intercepts of -0.92 to 0.07 versus ≥1.14). This is likely linked to the relative metabolic costs of moving through water compared to air. The small home ranges of reef fishes and their apparent reluctance to cross open areas suggest that reserves aimed at protecting fish species may be more effective if located across whole reefs, even if those reefs are comparatively small, rather than if they cover subsections of contiguous reef, as home ranges in the former are less likely to cross reserve boundaries.

  17. Microhabitat use, home range, and movements of the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii, in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedle, J.D.; Shipman, P.A.; Fox, S. F.; Leslie, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the ecology of the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii, particularly dentography and behavior. To learn more about the species in Oklahoma, we conducted a telemetry project on 2 small streams at Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge, an 8,417.5-ha refuge located in east-central Oklahoma. Between June 1999 and August 2000, we fitted 19 M. temminckii with ultrasonic telemetry tags and studied turtle movements and microhahitat use. Turtles were checked 2 to 3 times weekly in summer and sporadically in winter. Several microhabitat variables were measured at each turtle location and a random location to help quantify microhabitat use vs. availability. We recorded 147 turtle locations. Turtles were always associated with submerged cover with a high percentage of overhead canopy cover. Turtles used deeper depths in late summer (but not deeper depths than random locations) and deeper depths in mid-winter (and deeper depths than random locations) than in early summer. They used shallower depths than random locations in early summer. This seasonal shift in depth use might be thermoregulatory, although evidence for this is indirect. The mean linear home range for all turtles was 777.8 m. Females had larger home ranges than males, and juveniles had larger home ranges than adults, although the latter was not statistically significant. Macrochelys temminckii used submerged structures as a core site, and stayed at each core site for an average of 12.3 d.

  18. The home-range concept: are traditional estimators still relevant with modern telemetry technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kie, John G; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Fieberg, John; Powell, Roger A; Cagnacci, Francesca; Mitchell, Michael S; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2010-07-27

    Recent advances in animal tracking and telemetry technology have allowed the collection of location data at an ever-increasing rate and accuracy, and these advances have been accompanied by the development of new methods of data analysis for portraying space use, home ranges and utilization distributions. New statistical approaches include data-intensive techniques such as kriging and nonlinear generalized regression models for habitat use. In addition, mechanistic home-range models, derived from models of animal movement behaviour, promise to offer new insights into how home ranges emerge as the result of specific patterns of movements by individuals in response to their environment. Traditional methods such as kernel density estimators are likely to remain popular because of their ease of use. Large datasets make it possible to apply these methods over relatively short periods of time such as weeks or months, and these estimates may be analysed using mixed effects models, offering another approach to studying temporal variation in space-use patterns. Although new technologies open new avenues in ecological research, our knowledge of why animals use space in the ways we observe will only advance by researchers using these new technologies and asking new and innovative questions about the empirical patterns they observe.

  19. Home range and density of three sympatric felids in the Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    C. B. Kasper

    Full Text Available Abstract Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus, margay (Lepardus wiedii and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area.

  20. Combined Home Exercise Is More Effective Than Range-of-Motion Home Exercise in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Lin-Fen Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Home exercise is often recommended for management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS; however, what kind of home exercise is more beneficial for patients with AS has not been determined yet. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of combined home exercise (COMB and range-of-motion home exercise (ROM in patients with AS. Nineteen subjects with AS completed either COMB (n=9 or ROM (n=10 program. The COMB program included range-of-motion, strengthening, and aerobic exercise while the ROM program consisted of daily range-of-motion exercise only. After exercise instruction, subjects in each group performed home exercise for 3 months. Assessment included cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function test, spinal mobility measurement, chest expansion, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI, and other functional ability and laboratory tests. After exercise, the COMB group showed significant improvement in peak oxygen uptake (12.3%, P=0.008 and BASFI (P=0.028, and the changed score between pre- and postexercise data was significantly greater in the COMB group regarding peak oxygen uptake and BASFI. Significant improvement in finger-to-floor distance after 3-month exercise was found only in the COMB group (P=0.033. This study demonstrates that a combined home exercise is more effective than range-of-motion home exercise alone in aerobic capacity and functional ability.

  1. Predicting animal home-range structure and transitions using a multistate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck biased random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breed, Greg A; Golson, Emily A.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2017-01-01

    The home-range concept is central in animal ecology and behavior, and numerous mechanistic models have been developed to understand home range formation and maintenance. These mechanistic models usually assume a single, contiguous home range. Here we describe and implement a simple home-range model that can accommodate multiple home-range centers, form complex shapes, allow discontinuities in use patterns, and infer how external and internal variables affect movement and use patterns. The model assumes individuals associate with two or more home-range centers and move among them with some estimable probability. Movement in and around home-range centers is governed by a two-dimensional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, while transitions between centers are modeled as a stochastic state-switching process. We augmented this base model by introducing environmental and demographic covariates that modify transition probabilities between home-range centers and can be estimated to provide insight into the movement process. We demonstrate the model using telemetry data from sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in California. The model was fit using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, which estimated transition probabilities, as well as unique Ornstein-Uhlenbeck diffusion and centralizing tendency parameters. Estimated parameters could then be used to simulate movement and space use that was virtually indistinguishable from real data. We used Deviance Information Criterion (DIC) scores to assess model fit and determined that both wind and reproductive status were predictive of transitions between home-range centers. Females were less likely to move between home-range centers on windy days, less likely to move between centers when tending pups, and much more likely to move between centers just after weaning a pup. These tendencies are predicted by theoretical movement rules but were not previously known and show that our model can extract meaningful behavioral insight from complex

  2. How predictability of feeding patches affects home range and foraging habitat selection in avian social scavengers?

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    Sophie Monsarrat

    Full Text Available Feeding stations are commonly used to sustain conservation programs of scavengers but their impact on behaviour is still debated. They increase the temporal and spatial predictability of food resources while scavengers have supposedly evolved to search for unpredictable resources. In the Grands Causses (France, a reintroduced population of Griffon vultures Gyps fulvus can find carcasses at three types of sites: 1. "light feeding stations", where farmers can drop carcasses at their farm (spatially predictable, 2. "heavy feeding stations", where carcasses from nearby farms are concentrated (spatially and temporally predictable and 3. open grasslands, where resources are randomly distributed (unpredictable. The impact of feeding stations on vulture's foraging behaviour was investigated using 28 GPS-tracked vultures. The average home range size was maximal in spring (1272 ± 752 km(2 and minimal in winter (473 ± 237 km(2 and was highly variable among individuals. Analyses of home range characteristics and feeding habitat selection via compositional analysis showed that feeding stations were always preferred compared to the rest of the habitat where vultures can find unpredictable resources. Feeding stations were particularly used when resources were scarce (summer or when flight conditions were poor (winter, limiting long-ranging movements. However, when flight conditions were optimal, home ranges also encompassed large areas of grassland where vultures could find unpredictable resources, suggesting that vultures did not lose their natural ability to forage on unpredictable resources, even when feeding stations were available. However during seasons when food abundance and flight conditions were not limited, vultures seemed to favour light over heavy feeding stations, probably because of the reduced intraspecific competition and a pattern closer to the natural dispersion of resources in the landscape. Light feeding stations are interesting tools

  3. Home ranges and habitat vegetation characters in breeding season of Narcissus Flycatcher and Yellow-rumped Flycatcher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning; ZHANG Yanyun; ZHENG Guangmei

    2007-01-01

    The home ranges of the Narcissus Flycatcher (Ficedula narcissina elisae) and the Yellow-rumped Flycatcher (F.zanthopygia) are measured by radio telemetry in a subalpine forest near Beijing,China.The home range is calculated by 100% Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP),and the area varies from 2,000 to 5,000 m2.The majority of flycatchers can be found in the bottom of valleys and the underside of mountains.It is fairly rare for both Flycatcher species to leave their nests more than 70 m.Individuals of the species in pair-banding and nest-detecting periods have larger home ranges than those in incubation and rearing periods.The levels of canopy coverage in the home ranges of Narcissus Flycatchers are significantly higher than that of Yellowrumped Flycatchers.There are also more tall trees and stumps in the home ranges of Narcissus Flycatchers than in that of Yellow-rumped Flycatchers.The dominant tree species in the home ranges of Narcissus Flycatchers is Dahurian Birch (Betula dahurica),whereas Manchurian Walnut (Juglans mandshurica) is the dominant tree species in the home ranges of Yellow-rumped Flycatchers.

  4. Whitebark pine, population density, and home-range size of grizzly bears in the greater yellowstone ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornlie, Daniel D; Van Manen, Frank T; Ebinger, Michael R; Haroldson, Mark A; Thompson, Daniel J; Costello, Cecily M

    2014-01-01

    Changes in life history traits of species can be an important indicator of potential factors influencing populations. For grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), recent decline of whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis), an important fall food resource, has been paired with a slowing of population growth following two decades of robust population increase. These observations have raised questions whether resource decline or density-dependent processes may be associated with changes in population growth. Distinguishing these effects based on changes in demographic rates can be difficult. However, unlike the parallel demographic responses expected from both decreasing food availability and increasing population density, we hypothesized opposing behavioral responses of grizzly bears with regard to changes in home-range size. We used the dynamic changes in food resources and population density of grizzly bears as a natural experiment to examine hypotheses regarding these potentially competing influences on grizzly bear home-range size. We found that home-range size did not increase during the period of whitebark pine decline and was not related to proportion of whitebark pine in home ranges. However, female home-range size was negatively associated with an index of population density. Our data indicate that home-range size of grizzly bears in the GYE is not associated with availability of WBP, and, for female grizzly bears, increasing population density may constrain home-range size.

  5. Whitebark pine, population density, and home-range size of grizzly bears in the greater yellowstone ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D Bjornlie

    Full Text Available Changes in life history traits of species can be an important indicator of potential factors influencing populations. For grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE, recent decline of whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis, an important fall food resource, has been paired with a slowing of population growth following two decades of robust population increase. These observations have raised questions whether resource decline or density-dependent processes may be associated with changes in population growth. Distinguishing these effects based on changes in demographic rates can be difficult. However, unlike the parallel demographic responses expected from both decreasing food availability and increasing population density, we hypothesized opposing behavioral responses of grizzly bears with regard to changes in home-range size. We used the dynamic changes in food resources and population density of grizzly bears as a natural experiment to examine hypotheses regarding these potentially competing influences on grizzly bear home-range size. We found that home-range size did not increase during the period of whitebark pine decline and was not related to proportion of whitebark pine in home ranges. However, female home-range size was negatively associated with an index of population density. Our data indicate that home-range size of grizzly bears in the GYE is not associated with availability of WBP, and, for female grizzly bears, increasing population density may constrain home-range size.

  6. Rigorous home range estimation with movement data: a new autocorrelated kernel density estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, C H; Fagan, W F; Mueller, T; Olson, K A; Leimgruber, P; Calabrese, J M

    2015-05-01

    Quantifying animals' home ranges is a key problem in ecology and has important conservation and wildlife management applications. Kernel density estimation (KDE) is a workhorse technique for range delineation problems that is both statistically efficient and nonparametric. KDE assumes that the data are independent and identically distributed (IID). However, animal tracking data, which are routinely used as inputs to KDEs, are inherently autocorrelated and violate this key assumption. As we demonstrate, using realistically autocorrelated data in conventional KDEs results in grossly underestimated home ranges. We further show that the performance of conventional KDEs actually degrades as data quality improves, because autocorrelation strength increases as movement paths become more finely resolved. To remedy these flaws with the traditional KDE method, we derive an autocorrelated KDE (AKDE) from first principles to use autocorrelated data, making it perfectly suited for movement data sets. We illustrate the vastly improved performance of AKDE using analytical arguments, relocation data from Mongolian gazelles, and simulations based upon the gazelle's observed movement process. By yielding better minimum area estimates for threatened wildlife populations, we believe that future widespread use of AKDE will have significant impact on ecology and conservation biology.

  7. Identifying Space Use at Foraging Arena Scale within the Home Ranges of Large Herbivores.

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    Norman Owen-Smith

    Full Text Available An intermediate spatiotemporal scale of food procurement by large herbivores is evident within annual or seasonal home ranges. It takes the form of settlement periods spanning several days or weeks during which foraging activity is confined to spatially discrete foraging arenas, separated by roaming interludes. Extended by areas occupied for other activities, these foraging arenas contribute towards generating the home range structure. We delineated and compared the foraging arenas exploited by two African large herbivores, sable antelope (a ruminant and plains zebra (a non-ruminant, using GPS-derived movement data. We developed a novel approach to specifically delineate foraging arenas based on local change points in distance relative to adjoining clusters of locations, and compared its output with modifications of two published methods developed for home range estimation and residence time estimation respectively. We compared how these herbivore species responded to seasonal variation in food resources and how they differed in their spatial patterns of resource utilization. Sable antelope herds tended to concentrate their space use locally, while zebra herds moved more opportunistically over a wider set of foraging arenas. The amalgamated extent of the foraging arenas exploited by sable herds amounted to 12-30 km2, compared with 22-100 km2 for the zebra herds. Half-day displacement distances differed between settlement periods and roaming interludes, and zebra herds generally shifted further over 12h than sable herds. Foraging arenas of sable herds tended to be smaller than those of zebra, and were occupied for period twice as long, and hence exploited more intensively in days spent per unit area than the foraging arenas of zebra. For sable both the intensity of utilization of foraging arenas and proportion of days spent in foraging arenas relative to roaming interludes declined as food resources diminished seasonally, while zebra showed no

  8. Identifying Space Use at Foraging Arena Scale within the Home Ranges of Large Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Smith, Norman; Martin, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    An intermediate spatiotemporal scale of food procurement by large herbivores is evident within annual or seasonal home ranges. It takes the form of settlement periods spanning several days or weeks during which foraging activity is confined to spatially discrete foraging arenas, separated by roaming interludes. Extended by areas occupied for other activities, these foraging arenas contribute towards generating the home range structure. We delineated and compared the foraging arenas exploited by two African large herbivores, sable antelope (a ruminant) and plains zebra (a non-ruminant), using GPS-derived movement data. We developed a novel approach to specifically delineate foraging arenas based on local change points in distance relative to adjoining clusters of locations, and compared its output with modifications of two published methods developed for home range estimation and residence time estimation respectively. We compared how these herbivore species responded to seasonal variation in food resources and how they differed in their spatial patterns of resource utilization. Sable antelope herds tended to concentrate their space use locally, while zebra herds moved more opportunistically over a wider set of foraging arenas. The amalgamated extent of the foraging arenas exploited by sable herds amounted to 12-30 km2, compared with 22-100 km2 for the zebra herds. Half-day displacement distances differed between settlement periods and roaming interludes, and zebra herds generally shifted further over 12h than sable herds. Foraging arenas of sable herds tended to be smaller than those of zebra, and were occupied for period twice as long, and hence exploited more intensively in days spent per unit area than the foraging arenas of zebra. For sable both the intensity of utilization of foraging arenas and proportion of days spent in foraging arenas relative to roaming interludes declined as food resources diminished seasonally, while zebra showed no seasonal variation

  9. Impact of severe climate variability on lion home range and movement patterns in the Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya

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    J.H. Tuqa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we were interested in understanding if droughts influence the home range of predators such as lions, and if it does, in what ways the droughts influenced lions to adjust their home range, in response to prey availability. We monitored movements of ten lions fitted with GPS-GSM collars in order to analyze their home range and movement patterns over a six year period (2007–2012. We assessed the impact of a severe drought on the lion home range and movement patterns in the Amboseli ecosystem. There was a strong positive correlation between the home range size and distance moved in 24 h before and during the drought (2007–2009, while after the drought there was a significant negative correlation. A weak positive correlation was evident between the lion home range and rainfall amounts (2010–2012. The male and female home ranges varied over the study period. The home range size and movement patterns coincided with permanent swamps and areas of high prey density inside the protected area. Over the course of the dry season and following the drought, the ranges initially shrank and then expanded in response to decreasing prey densities. The lions spent considerable time outside the park boundaries, particularly after severe the drought. We conclude that under conditions of fragmented habitats, severe climate conditions create new challenges for lion conservation due to effects on prey availability and subsequent influences on carnivore species ranging patterns. Stochastic weather patterns can force wide-ranging species beyond current reserve boundaries, into areas where there will be greater conflicts with humans.

  10. Home ranges and habitat use of sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus in Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, S.; Van Manen, F.T.; Padmalal, U.K.G.K.

    2007-01-01

    We studied home ranges and habitat selection of 10 adult sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus at Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka during 2002-2003. Very little is known about the ecology and behaviour of M. u. inornatus, which is a subspecies found in Sri Lanka. Our study was undertaken to assess space and habitat requirements typical of a viable population of M. u. inornatus to facilitate future conservation efforts. We captured and radio-collared 10 adult sloth bears and used the telemetry data to assess home-range size and habitat use. Mean 95% fixed kernel home ranges were 2.2 km2 (SE = 0.61) and 3.8 km2 (SE = 1.01) for adult females and males, respectively. Although areas outside the national park were accessible to bears, home ranges were almost exclusively situated within the national park boundaries. Within the home ranges, high forests were used more and abandoned agricultural fields (chenas) were used less than expected based on availability. Our estimates of home-range size are among the smallest reported for any species of bear. Thus, despite its relatively small size, Wasgomuwa National Park may support a sizeable population of sloth bears. The restriction of human activity within protected areas may be necessary for long-term viability of sloth bear populations in Sri Lanka as is maintenance of forest or scrub cover in areas with existing sloth bear populations and along potential travel corridors. ?? Wildlife Biology 2007.

  11. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) within a Temperate Marine Protected Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasti, David; Lee, Kate A; Gallen, Christopher; Hughes, Julian M; Stewart, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs). We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae); a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing), with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high). Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days). The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years.

  12. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus within a Temperate Marine Protected Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harasti

    Full Text Available Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs. We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae; a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing, with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high. Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days. The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years.

  13. Home range and survival of breeding painted buntings on Sapelo Island, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springborn, E.G.; Meyers, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern United States population of the painted bunting (Passerina ciris) has decreased approximately 75% from 1966-1996 based on Breeding Bird Survey trends. Partners in Flight guidelines recommend painted bunting conservation as a high priority with a need for management by state and federal agencies. Basic information on home range and survival of breeding painted buntings will provide managers with required habitat types and estimates of land areas necessary to maintain minimum population sizes for this species. We radiotracked after-second-year male and after-hatching-year female buntings on Sapelo Island, Georgia, during the breeding seasons (late April-early August) of 1997 and 1998. We used the animal movement extension in ArcView to determine fixed-kernel home range in an unmanaged maritime shrub and managed 60-80-year-old pine (Pinus spp.)-oak Quercus spp.) forest. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, we estimated an adult breeding season survival of 1.00 for males (n = 36) and 0.94 (SE = 0.18) for females(n=27). Painted bunting home ranges were smaller in unmanaged maritime shrub (female: kernel (x) over bar = 3.5 ha [95% CI: 2.5-4.51; male: kernel (x) over bar = 3.1 ha [95% CI: 2.3-3.9]) compared to those in managed pine-oak forests (female: kernel (x) over bar = 4.7 ha [95% CI: 2.8-6.6]; male: kernel (x) over bar = 7.0 ha [95% CI: 4.9-9.1]). Buntings nesting in the managed pine-oak forest flew long distances (>= 300 m) to forage in salt marshes, freshwater wetlands, and moist forest clearings. In maritime shrub buntings occupied a compact area and rarely moved long distances. The painted bunting population of Sapelo Island requires conservation of maritime shrub as potential optimum nesting habitat and management of nesting habitat in open-canopy pine-oak sawtimber forests by periodic prescribed fire (every 4-6 years) and timber thinning within a landscape that contains salt marsh or freshwater wetland openings within 700 m of those forests.

  14. Constructing a Home on the Range: Homemaking in Early-Twentieth-Century Plains Photograph Albums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Christina E.

    2008-01-01

    For people living near the coasts or mountains of America, it must be hard to imagine longing for a "home on the plains"--but many Americans have had, and still have, a home on the Plains. The stereotypical American image of the Plains is flatness, austerity, emptiness. Not all would consider this an ideal landscape for home. So how did the people…

  15. Home range and activity of African goshawks Accipiter tachiro in relation to their predation on bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Rautenbach

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter radio-tracking of three African goshawks Accipiter tachiro showed that they each occupied well-wooded home ranges of at least 28 hectares. They perched and roosted mainly within densely foliaged trees and an adult female changed perches on average 4,7 times per hour. No crepuscular predation of bats was recorded, in contrast to regular summer predation on colonies of little free-tailed bats, Tadarida pumila, but winter emergence rates of these bats at dusk had dropped to < 5 of the previous summer. We predict that many accipiters will be regular predators of bats and that skewed sex ratios and high fecundity may be two means by which bats counter this predation.

  16. Using a data-constrained model of home range establishment to predict abundance in spatially heterogeneous habitats.

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    Mark C Vanderwel

    Full Text Available Mechanistic modelling approaches that explicitly translate from individual-scale resource selection to the distribution and abundance of a larger population may be better suited to predicting responses to spatially heterogeneous habitat alteration than commonly-used regression models. We developed an individual-based model of home range establishment that, given a mapped distribution of local habitat values, estimates species abundance by simulating the number and position of viable home ranges that can be maintained across a spatially heterogeneous area. We estimated parameters for this model from data on red-backed vole (Myodes gapperi abundances in 31 boreal forest sites in Ontario, Canada. The home range model had considerably more support from these data than both non-spatial regression models based on the same original habitat variables and a mean-abundance null model. It had nearly equivalent support to a non-spatial regression model that, like the home range model, scaled an aggregate measure of habitat value from local associations with habitat resources. The home range and habitat-value regression models gave similar predictions for vole abundance under simulations of light- and moderate-intensity partial forest harvesting, but the home range model predicted lower abundances than the regression model under high-intensity disturbance. Empirical regression-based approaches for predicting species abundance may overlook processes that affect habitat use by individuals, and often extrapolate poorly to novel habitat conditions. Mechanistic home range models that can be parameterized against abundance data from different habitats permit appropriate scaling from individual- to population-level habitat relationships, and can potentially provide better insights into responses to disturbance.

  17. Design and Implementation of Remote/Short-range Smart Home Monitoring System Based on ZigBee and STM32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Lin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As the continuous development of Internet of Things (IOT, life intelligent gradually. Therefore, home devices of remote/short-range monitoring become the inevitable trend of development. Based on this background, the smart home monitoring system is presented based on the STM32 and ZigBee technology. The system uses a low-power-cost STM32 processor as the main controller and porting of µC/OS-II and µC/GUI on the system is achieved. The system uses a resistive touch screen as the human-computer interaction interface, combined with the ZigBee technology to achieve a short-range monitoring of home devices. The system transplanted and modified the procedures of UIP network protocol. The master controller is connected to the Ethernet and erected a WEB server, achieved the remote monitoring of home devices. And finally give the implementation details of the prototype system and functional testing.

  18. Permissible Home Range Estimation (PHRE in Restricted Habitats: A New Algorithm and an Evaluation for Sea Otters.

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    L Max Tarjan

    Full Text Available Parametric and nonparametric kernel methods dominate studies of animal home ranges and space use. Most existing methods are unable to incorporate information about the underlying physical environment, leading to poor performance in excluding areas that are not used. Using radio-telemetry data from sea otters, we developed and evaluated a new algorithm for estimating home ranges (hereafter Permissible Home Range Estimation, or "PHRE" that reflects habitat suitability. We began by transforming sighting locations into relevant landscape features (for sea otters, coastal position and distance from shore. Then, we generated a bivariate kernel probability density function in landscape space and back-transformed this to geographic space in order to define a permissible home range. Compared to two commonly used home range estimation methods, kernel densities and local convex hulls, PHRE better excluded unused areas and required a smaller sample size. Our PHRE method is applicable to species whose ranges are restricted by complex physical boundaries or environmental gradients and will improve understanding of habitat-use requirements and, ultimately, aid in conservation efforts.

  19. Permissible Home Range Estimation (PHRE) in restricted habitats: A new algorithm and an evaluation for sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarjan, Lily M; Tinker, M. Tim

    2016-01-01

    Parametric and nonparametric kernel methods dominate studies of animal home ranges and space use. Most existing methods are unable to incorporate information about the underlying physical environment, leading to poor performance in excluding areas that are not used. Using radio-telemetry data from sea otters, we developed and evaluated a new algorithm for estimating home ranges (hereafter Permissible Home Range Estimation, or “PHRE”) that reflects habitat suitability. We began by transforming sighting locations into relevant landscape features (for sea otters, coastal position and distance from shore). Then, we generated a bivariate kernel probability density function in landscape space and back-transformed this to geographic space in order to define a permissible home range. Compared to two commonly used home range estimation methods, kernel densities and local convex hulls, PHRE better excluded unused areas and required a smaller sample size. Our PHRE method is applicable to species whose ranges are restricted by complex physical boundaries or environmental gradients and will improve understanding of habitat-use requirements and, ultimately, aid in conservation efforts.

  20. Home range utilisation and territorial behaviour of lions (Panthera leo on Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika B Lehmann

    Full Text Available Interventionist conservation management of territorial large carnivores has increased in recent years, especially in South Africa. Understanding of spatial ecology is an important component of predator conservation and management. Spatial patterns are influenced by many, often interacting, factors making elucidation of key drivers difficult. We had the opportunity to study a simplified system, a single pride of lions (Panthera leo after reintroduction onto the 85 km(2 Karongwe Game Reserve, from 1999-2005, using radio-telemetry. In 2002 one male was removed from the paired coalition which had been present for the first three years. A second pride and male were in a fenced reserve adjacent of them to the east. This made it possible to separate social and resource factors in both a coalition and single male scenario, and the driving factors these seem to have on spatial ecology. Male ranging behaviour was not affected by coalition size, being driven more by resource rather than social factors. The females responded to the lions on the adjacent reserve by avoiding the area closest to them, therefore females may be more driven by social factors. Home range size and the resource response to water are important factors to consider when reintroducing lions to a small reserve, and it is hoped that these findings lead to other similar studies which will contribute to sound decisions regarding the management of lions on small reserves.

  1. Long-term home range use in white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Thad Q; Light, Lydia E O; Brockelman, Warren Y

    2016-02-01

    Ranging behavior is an important element of how nonhuman primates obtain sufficient resources to ensure biological maintenance and reproductive success. As most primates live in permanent social groups, group members must balance the benefits of group living with the costs of intragroup competition for resources. One way to mitigate the cost of intragroup feeding competition is to increase foraging-related travel, thereby increasing the number of patches visited. As a result we might expect home range size to increase as a function of group size. On the other hand, for perennially territorial species, ranging behavior may be constrained by the ranging requirements of territorial defense or by the location of neighboring territories, which would result in long-term stability in the size and location of a group's home range. In this study, we examined changes in range-use characteristics in one well-habituated group of white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) during three study periods over a 10-year span. Group size changed from five members, two adults, two juveniles, and one infant, in 1994, to two adults in 2002, and to three adults and one sub-adult in 2004. Despite inter-annual changes in core area use we found that home range location was highly stable across years. Nevertheless, home range size was larger and daily path length significantly longer in 2002 relative to 1994 when a dependent infant was present in the group. The percentage of time adults spent resting was also significantly greater in 1994 when the infant was present. These findings highlight the importance of considering group composition, in addition to group size, when evaluating the determinants of ranging behavior. We also consider the influence of individual and shared knowledge on home range stability.

  2. Exploratory rigid laparoscopy in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Julia; Hendrickson, Dean A; Stetter, Mark; Neiffer, Donald L

    2014-12-01

    In March 2009, a 25-yr-old captive female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) underwent an exploratory laparoscopy after several weeks of diarrhea, submandibular and ventral edema, and swelling on medial and lateral aspects of all feet. Although there have been recent advances in laparoscopic vasectomies in free-ranging African elephants in South Africa utilizing specially designed rigid laparoscopes and insufflation devices, this was the first attempt at using these same techniques for an exploratory purpose. The elephant was sedated in a static restraint chute and remained standing for the duration of the procedure. Laparoscopy provided visibility of the dorsal abdomen, enabled collection of reproductive tract biopsies and peritoneal fluid samples, and allowed for instillation of antibiotics and crystalloid fluids directly into the abdominal cavity. Abdominal exploration, collection of tissue samples, and local therapy is possible via standing laparoscopy in megavertebrates.

  3. Home Range Characteristics and Habitat Selection by Daurian Hedgehogs ( Mesechinus dauuricus in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirka Zapletal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined home range characteristics and habitat selection of Daurian hedgehogs in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia. Home ranges of hedgehogs varied from 113.15 ha to 2,171.97 ha, and were larger in early summer than late summer. Hedgehogs showed relative preference for rocky outcrops and low-density shrub habitats, and relative avoidance of high- density shrub areas. Habitat selection also changed between early and late summer, shifting to greater use of low-density shrub areas and decreased use of forb-dominated short grass. Our baseline data on home ranges and habitat selection expand understanding of hedgehog ecology and provide guidance for future management decisions in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve and elsewhere in Mongolia.

  4. Sympatric woodland Myotis bats form tight-knit social groups with exclusive roost home ranges.

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    Tom A August

    Full Text Available The structuring of wild animal populations can influence population dynamics, disease spread, and information transfer. Social network analysis potentially offers insights into these processes but is rarely, if ever, used to investigate more than one species in a community. We therefore compared the social, temporal and spatial networks of sympatric Myotis bats (M. nattereri (Natterer's bats and M. daubentonii (Daubenton's bats, and asked: (1 are there long-lasting social associations within species? (2 do the ranges occupied by roosting social groups overlap within or between species? (3 are M. daubentonii bachelor colonies excluded from roosting in areas used by maternity groups?Using data on 490 ringed M. nattereri and 978 M. daubentonii from 379 colonies, we found that both species formed stable social groups encompassing multiple colonies. M. nattereri formed 11 mixed-sex social groups with few (4.3% inter-group associations. Approximately half of all M. nattereri were associated with the same individuals when recaptured, with many associations being long-term (>100 days. In contrast, M. daubentonii were sexually segregated; only a quarter of pairs were associated at recapture after a few days, and inter-sex associations were not long-lasting. Social groups of M. nattereri and female M. daubentonii had small roost home ranges (mean 0.2 km2 in each case. Intra-specific overlap was low, but inter-specific overlap was high, suggesting territoriality within but not between species. M. daubentonii bachelor colonies did not appear to be excluded from roosting areas used by females.Our data suggest marked species- and sex-specific patterns of disease and information transmission are likely between bats of the same genus despite sharing a common habitat. The clear partitioning of the woodland amongst social groups, and their apparent reliance on small patches of habitat for roosting, means that localised woodland management may be more important to

  5. Home range, habitat selection, and foraging rhythm in Mauritanian spoonbills (Platalea leucorodia balsaci) : A satellite tracking study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Hacen, El-Hacen Mohamed; Overdijk, Otto; Lok, Tamar; Olff, Han; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Mauritanian Spoonbills (Platalea leucorodia balsaci) only breed at Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, West Africa. Their populations have declined; however, nothing is known about possible ecological factors involved, including their primary food and foraging habits. Home range sizes, habitat selection, and

  6. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam. Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.

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    Christian Agyare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl–hydrazyl (DPPH method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5–7.5 mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25–7.5 mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5–7.5 mg/mL and 2.5–10 mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7 μg/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1 μg/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w showed significant ( wound contraction at day 7 with 72% of wound closure whiles significant ( wound contractions were observed on day 11 for stem bark of K. africana, leaf and root extracts of S. hispidus. Wound tissues treated with the extracts showed improved collagenation, re-epitheliazition and rapid granulation formation compared with untreated wound tissues. The extracts were found to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these

  7. LoCoH: nonparameteric kernel methods for constructing home ranges and utilization distributions.

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    Wayne M Getz

    Full Text Available Parametric kernel methods currently dominate the literature regarding the construction of animal home ranges (HRs and utilization distributions (UDs. These methods frequently fail to capture the kinds of hard boundaries common to many natural systems. Recently a local convex hull (LoCoH nonparametric kernel method, which generalizes the minimum convex polygon (MCP method, was shown to be more appropriate than parametric kernel methods for constructing HRs and UDs, because of its ability to identify hard boundaries (e.g., rivers, cliff edges and convergence to the true distribution as sample size increases. Here we extend the LoCoH in two ways: "fixed sphere-of-influence," or r-LoCoH (kernels constructed from all points within a fixed radius r of each reference point, and an "adaptive sphere-of-influence," or a-LoCoH (kernels constructed from all points within a radius a such that the distances of all points within the radius to the reference point sum to a value less than or equal to a, and compare them to the original "fixed-number-of-points," or k-LoCoH (all kernels constructed from k-1 nearest neighbors of root points. We also compare these nonparametric LoCoH to parametric kernel methods using manufactured data and data collected from GPS collars on African buffalo in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results demonstrate that LoCoH methods are superior to parametric kernel methods in estimating areas used by animals, excluding unused areas (holes and, generally, in constructing UDs and HRs arising from the movement of animals influenced by hard boundaries and irregular structures (e.g., rocky outcrops. We also demonstrate that a-LoCoH is generally superior to k- and r-LoCoH (with software for all three methods available at http://locoh.cnr.berkeley.edu.

  8. LoCoH: Non-parameteric kernel methods for constructing home ranges and utilization distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Wayne M.; Fortmann-Roe, Scott; Cross, Paul C.; Lyons, Andrew J.; Ryan, Sadie J.; Wilmers, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    Parametric kernel methods currently dominate the literature regarding the construction of animal home ranges (HRs) and utilization distributions (UDs). These methods frequently fail to capture the kinds of hard boundaries common to many natural systems. Recently a local convex hull (LoCoH) nonparametric kernel method, which generalizes the minimum convex polygon (MCP) method, was shown to be more appropriate than parametric kernel methods for constructing HRs and UDs, because of its ability to identify hard boundaries (e.g., rivers, cliff edges) and convergence to the true distribution as sample size increases. Here we extend the LoCoH in two ways: ‘‘fixed sphere-of-influence,’’ or r -LoCoH (kernels constructed from all points within a fixed radius r of each reference point), and an ‘‘adaptive sphere-of-influence,’’ or a -LoCoH (kernels constructed from all points within a radius a such that the distances of all points within the radius to the reference point sum to a value less than or equal to a ), and compare them to the original ‘‘fixed-number-of-points,’’ or k -LoCoH (all kernels constructed from k -1 nearest neighbors of root points). We also compare these nonparametric LoCoH to parametric kernel methods using manufactured data and data collected from GPS collars on African buffalo in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results demonstrate that LoCoH methods are superior to parametric kernel methods in estimating areas used by animals, excluding unused areas (holes) and, generally, in constructing UDs and HRs arising from the movement of animals influenced by hard boundaries and irregular structures (e.g., rocky outcrops). We also demonstrate that a -LoCoH is generally superior to k - and r -LoCoH (with software for all three methods available at http://locoh.cnr.berkeley.edu).

  9. Anti-Quorum Sensing Potential of Crude Kigelia africana Fruit Extracts

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    Hafizah Y. Chenia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has stimulated the search for novel anti-virulence compounds. Although many phytochemicals show promising antimicrobial activity, their power lies in their anti-virulence properties. Thus the quorum sensing (QS inhibitory activity of four crude Kigelia africana fruit extracts was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using the Chromobacterium violaceum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens biosensor systems. Inhibition of QS-controlled violacein production in C. violaceum was assayed using the qualitative agar diffusion assay as well as by quantifying violacein inhibition using K. africana extracts ranging from 0.31–8.2 mg/mL. Qualitative modulation of QS activity was investigated using the agar diffusion double ring assay. All four extracts showed varying levels of anti-QS activity with zones of violacein inhibition ranging from 9–10 mm. The effect on violacein inhibition was significant in the following order: hexane > dichloromethane > ethyl acetate > methanol. Inhibition was concentration-dependent, with the ≥90% inhibition being obtained with ≥1.3 mg/mL of the hexane extract. Both LuxI and LuxR activity were affected by crude extracts suggesting that the phytochemicals target both QS signal and receptor. K. africana extracts with their anti-QS activity, have the potential to be novel therapeutic agents, which might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of drug-resistant bacteria in vivo.

  10. Non-invasive assessment of the reproductive cycle in free-ranging female African elephants (Loxodonta africana treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH vaccine for inducing anoestrus

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    Benavides Valades Gabriela

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In southern Africa, various options to manage elephant populations are being considered. Immunocontraception is considered to be the most ethically acceptable and logistically feasible method for control of smaller and confined populations. In this regard, the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH vaccine has not been investigated in female elephants, although it has been reported to be safe and effective in several domestic and wildlife species. The aims of this study were to monitor the oestrous cycles of free-ranging African elephant cows using faecal progestagen metabolites and to evaluate the efficacy of a GnRH vaccine to induce anoestrus in treated cows. Methods Between May 2009 - June 2010, luteal activity of 12 elephant cows was monitored non-invasively using an enzyme immunoassay detecting faecal 5alpha-reduced pregnanes (faecal progestagen metabolites, FPM on a private game reserve in South Africa. No bulls of breeding age were present on the reserve prior to and for the duration of the study. After a 3-month control period, 8 randomly-selected females were treated twice with 600 micrograms of GnRH vaccine (Improvac®, Pfizer Animal Health, Sandton, South Africa 5-7 weeks apart. Four of these females had been treated previously with the porcine zona pellucida (pZP vaccine for four years (2004-2007. Results All 12 monitored females (8 treated and 4 controls showed signs of luteal activity as evidenced by FPM concentrations exceeding individual baseline values more than once. A total of 16 oestrous cycles could be identified in 8 cows with four of these within the 13 to 17 weeks range previously reported for captive African elephants. According to the FPM concentrations the GnRH vaccine was unable to induce anoestrus in the treated cows. Overall FPM levels in samples collected during the wet season (mean 4.03 micrograms/gram dry faeces were significantly higher (P Conclusions The GnRH vaccination protocol failed

  11. The impact of range anxiety and home, workplace, and public charging infrastructure on simulated battery electric vehicle lifetime utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility due to factors including driver range anxiety and access to charging infrastructure. In this paper we apply NREL's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to range anxiety and different charging infrastructure scenarios, including variable time schedules, power levels, and locations (home, work, and public installations). We find that the effects of range anxiety can be significant, but are reduced with access to additional charging infrastructure. We also find that (1) increasing home charging power above that provided by a common 15 A, 120 V circuit offers little added utility, (2) workplace charging offers significant utility benefits to select high mileage commuters, and (3) broadly available public charging can bring many lower mileage drivers to near-100% utility while strongly increasing the achieved miles of high mileage drivers.

  12. Perspectives for sustainable Prunus africana production and trade. Factsheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Loo, van J.; Dawson, I.; Vinceti, B.; Duminil, J.; Muchugi, A.; Awono, A.; Asaah, E.

    2015-01-01

    This brief documents current knowledge about pygeum (Prunus africana). It aims to inform decision makers in governments in producing and consumer countries, international and civil society organisations and researchers, about sustainable (international) trade and governance of the species.

  13. Determining Home Range and Preferred Habitat of Feral Horses on the Nevada National Security Site Using Geographic Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Ashley V. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States)

    2014-05-30

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are free-roaming descendants of domesticated horses and legally protected by the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971, which mandates how feral horses and burros should be managed and protected on federal lands. Using a geographic information system to determine the home range and suitable habitat of feral horses on the federally managed Nevada National Security Site can enable wildlife biologists in making best management practice recommendations. Home range was estimated at 88.1 square kilometers. Site suitability was calculated for elevation, forage, slope, water presence and horse observations. These variables were combined in successive iterations into one polygon. Suitability rankings established that 85 square kilometers are most suitable habitat, with 2,052 square kilometers of good habitat 1,252 square kilometers of fair habitat and 122 square kilometers of least suitable habitat.

  14. Home range and habitat use of little owl (Athene noctua in an agricultural landscape in coastal Catalonia, Spain

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    Framis, H.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades agricultural landscapes in Catalonia have undergone a profound transformation as in most of Europe. Reforestation and urban development have reduced farmland and therefore the availability of suitable habitat for some bird species such as the little owl (Athene noctua. The outskirts of the city of Mataró by the Mediterranean Sea exemplify this landscape change, but still support a population of little owl where agriculture is carried out. Three resident little owls were monitored with telemetry weekly from November 2007 until the beginning of August 2008 in this suburban agricultural landscape. Mean home range ± SD was 10.9 ± 5.5 ha for minimum convex polygon (MCP100 and 7.4 ± 3.8 ha for Kernel 95% probability function (K95. Home ranges of contiguous neighboring pairs overlapped 18.4% (MCP100 or 6% (K95. Home range varied among seasons reaching a maximum between March and early August but always included the nesting site. Small forested patches were associated with roosting and nesting areas where cavities in Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua were important. When foraging in crop fields, the owls typically fed where crops had recently been harvested and replanted. All three owls bred successfully.

  15. Conservation priorities for Prunus africana defined with the aid of spatial analysis of genetic data and climatic variables.

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    Barbara Vinceti

    Full Text Available Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1 was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2 at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species' range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts.

  16. Conservation priorities for Prunus africana defined with the aid of spatial analysis of genetic data and climatic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Barbara; Loo, Judy; Gaisberger, Hannes; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Kadu, Caroline A C; Geburek, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1) was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2) at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species' range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania) were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts.

  17. Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea home range and habitat use during the non-breeding season in Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgail, T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Sivananinthaperumal, B.; Areendran, G.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Mundkur, T.; Mccracken, T.; Newman, S.

    2011-01-01

    India is an important non-breeding ground for migratory waterfowl in the Central Asian Flyway. Millions of birds visit wetlands across the country, yet information on their distribution, abundance, and use of resources is rudimentary at best. Limited information suggests that populations of several species of migratory ducks are declining due to encroachment of wetland habitats largely by agriculture and industry. The development of conservation strategies is stymied by a lack of ecological information on these species. We conducted a preliminary assessment of the home range and habitat use of Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea in the northeast Indian state of Assam. Seven Ruddy Shelducks were fitted with solar-powered Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite transmitters, and were tracked on a daily basis during the winter of 2009-2010. Locations from all seven were used to describe habitat use, while locations from four were used to quantify their home range, as the other three had too few locations (2 (range = 22-87 km2) and an average home range (95% contour) of 610 km2 (range = 222-1,550 km2). Resource Selection Functions (RSF), used to describe habitat use, showed that the birds frequented riverine wetlands more than expected, occurred on grasslands and shrublands in proportion to their availability, and avoided woods and cropland habitats. The core use areas for three individuals (75%) were on the Brahmaputra River, indicating their preference for riverine habitats. Management and protection of riverine habitats and nearby grasslands may benefit conservation efforts for the Ruddy Shelduck and waterfowl species that share these habitats during the non-breeding season.

  18. Home ranges of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: environmental correlates and implications for management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoil, Marilyn; Reif, John S; Youngbluth, Marsh; Murdoch, M Elizabeth; Bechdel, Sarah E; Howells, Elisabeth; McCulloch, Stephen D; Hansen, Larry J; Bossart, Gregory D

    2008-09-01

    Photo-identification surveys conducted between 2002 and 2005 were used to determine dolphin home ranges and site fidelity within the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida. The IRL was divided into six segments based on hydrodynamics and geographic features for purposes of characterization. Among the 615 dolphins with identifiable dorsal fins, 339 had > or =6 sightings and were used in segment and linear range analyses. The majority (98%) of dolphins were seen in River). However, the highest density of dolphins was found in segment 2 (North-Central Indian River). Re-sighting rates for dolphins with > or =6 sightings ranged from 2.8 to 8.7 times observed. The mean linear home range varied from 22 to 54 km. Distributional analyses indicated that at least three different dolphin communities exist within the IRL: Mosquito Lagoon, and the North and South Indian River. No statistically significant correlations were found between the total number or density per km(2 )of dolphins and surface water area, salinity, or contaminant loads within segments of the lagoon. These results suggest that dolphins do not selectively avoid areas with relatively unfavorable water quality. IRL dolphins should be studied on smaller spatial scales than currently practiced, and potential anthropogenic impacts should be evaluated based on geographic partitioning.

  19. Neuronal morphology in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bob; Lubs, Jessica; Hannan, Markus; Anderson, Kaeley; Butti, Camilla; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Manger, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Virtually nothing is known about the morphology of cortical neurons in the elephant. To this end, the current study provides the first documentation of neuronal morphology in frontal and occipital regions of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Cortical tissue from the perfusion-fixed brains of two free-ranging African elephants was stained with a modified Golgi technique. Neurons of different types (N=75), with a focus on superficial (i.e., layers II-III) pyramidal neurons, were quantified on a computer-assisted microscopy system using Neurolucida software. Qualitatively, elephant neocortex exhibited large, complex spiny neurons, many of which differed in morphology/orientation from typical primate and rodent pyramidal neurons. Elephant cortex exhibited a V-shaped arrangement of bifurcating apical dendritic bundles. Quantitatively, the dendrites of superficial pyramidal neurons in elephant frontal cortex were more complex than in occipital cortex. In comparison to human supragranular pyramidal neurons, elephant superficial pyramidal neurons exhibited similar overall basilar dendritic length, but the dendritic segments tended to be longer in the elephant with less intricate branching. Finally, elephant aspiny interneurons appeared to be morphologically consistent with other eutherian mammals. The current results thus elaborate on the evolutionary roots of Afrotherian brain organization and highlight unique aspects of neural architecture in elephants.

  20. Enhancing the use of Argos satellite data for home range and long distance migration studies of marine animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Hoenner

    Full Text Available Accurately quantifying animals' spatial utilisation is critical for conservation, but has long remained an elusive goal due to technological impediments. The Argos telemetry system has been extensively used to remotely track marine animals, however location estimates are characterised by substantial spatial error. State-space models (SSM constitute a robust statistical approach to refine Argos tracking data by accounting for observation errors and stochasticity in animal movement. Despite their wide use in ecology, few studies have thoroughly quantified the error associated with SSM predicted locations and no research has assessed their validity for describing animal movement behaviour. We compared home ranges and migratory pathways of seven hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata estimated from (a highly accurate Fastloc GPS data and (b locations computed using common Argos data analytical approaches. Argos 68(th percentile error was 4 km for LC ≤ 0. Argos error structure was highly longitudinally skewed and was, for all LC, adequately modelled by a Student's t distribution. Both habitat use and migration routes were best recreated using SSM locations post-processed by re-adding good Argos positions (LC 1, 2 and 3 and filtering terrestrial points (mean distance to migratory tracks ± SD = 2.2 ± 2.4 km; mean home range overlap and error ratio = 92.2% and 285.6 respectively. This parsimonious and objective statistical procedure however still markedly overestimated true home range sizes, especially for animals exhibiting restricted movements. Post-processing SSM locations nonetheless constitutes the best analytical technique for remotely sensed Argos tracking data and we therefore recommend using this approach to rework historical Argos datasets for better estimation of animal spatial utilisation for research and evidence-based conservation purposes.

  1. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Chynoweth

    Full Text Available Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the conservation and restoration of some of the world's most critically endangered ecosystems. We hypothesized that feral goats would respond to resource pulses in vegetation by traveling to areas of recent green-up. To address this hypothesis, we fitted six male and seven female feral goats with Global Positioning System (GPS collars equipped with an Argos satellite upload link to examine goat movements in relation to the plant phenology using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. Movement patterns of 50% of males and 40% of females suggested conditional movement between non-overlapping home ranges throughout the year. A shift in NDVI values corresponded with movement between primary and secondary ranges of goats that exhibited long-distance movement, suggesting that vegetation phenology as captured by NDVI is a good indicator of the habitat and movement patterns of feral goats in tropical island dry landscapes. In the context of conservation and restoration of tropical island landscapes, the results of our study identify how non-native feral goats use resources across a broad landscape to sustain their populations and facilitate invasion of native plant communities.

  2. Home range and habitat use of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Stephens, Brail S.; Hackett, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    Background: For imperiled marine turtles, use of satellite telemetry has proven to be an effective method in determining long distance movements. However, the large size of the tag, relatively high cost and low spatial resolution of this method make it more difficult to examine fine-scale movements of individuals, particularly at foraging grounds where animals are frequently submerged. Acoustic telemetry offers a more suitable method of assessing fine-scale movement patterns with a smaller tag that provides more precise locations. We used acoustic telemetry to define home ranges and describe habitat use of juvenile green turtles at a temperate foraging ground in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  3. [Treatment of prostatic disorders with a combination of Prunus africana and benzidamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Samhan, K

    1980-01-01

    A combination of Prunus africana and benzidamine has been administered to thirty-seven patients suffering from several prostate processes, with a predominance of prostatites and prostate adenoma into first two phases in the male and pseudoprostatism in the female. The patients' ages ranged between 28 and 82 years. Good results were achieved in 90% of the cases and there was perfect tolerance in 85%. The authors explain the methods of study and discuss the results. As there are no toxic or hormone risks, their final conclusion is to recommend this combination for prostate patients before attempting any other solution.

  4. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX): Instructions for Implementing the Test Procedure, Calibration Test Reference Results, and Example Acceptance-Range Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.; Kennedy, M.

    2011-08-01

    This publication summarizes building energy simulation test for existing homes (BESTEST-EX): instructions for implementing the test procedure, calibration tests reference results, and example acceptance-range criteria.

  5. Two Novel Antibacterial Flavonoids from Myrsine Africana L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG,Lu; ZHOU,Jian-Xia; SHEN,Zheng-Wu

    2007-01-01

    Two novel flavonoids, myrsininone A (1), an isoflavone and myrsininone B (2), a flavanone, with very strong antibacterial activities, were isolated from the stems of Myrsine africana L. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The antibacterial activities were determined by modified Resazuric MIC methods.

  6. Movement Patterns, Home Range Size and Habitat Selection of an Endangered Resource Tracking Species, the Black-Throated Finch (Poephila cincta cincta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechetelo, Juliana; Grice, Anthony; Reside, April Elizabeth; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Moloney, James

    2016-01-01

    Understanding movement patterns and home range of species is paramount in ecology; it is particularly important for threatened taxa as it can provide valuable information for conservation management. To address this knowledge gap for a range-restricted endangered bird, we estimated home range size, daily movement patterns and habitat use of a granivorous subspecies in northeast Australia, the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta; BTF) using radio-tracking and re-sighting of colour banded birds. Little is known about basic aspects of its ecology including movement patterns and home range sizes. From 2011-2014 we colour-banded 102 BTF and radio-tracked 15 birds. We generated home ranges (calculated using kernel and Minimum Convex Polygons techniques of the 15 tracked BTF). More than 50% of the re-sightings occurred within 200 m of the banding site (n = 51 out of 93 events) and within 100 days of capture. Mean home-range estimates with kernel (50%, 95% probability) and Minimum Convex Polygons were 10.59 ha, 50.79 ha and 46.27 ha, respectively. Home range size differed between two capture sites but no seasonal differences were observed. BTF home ranges overlapped four habitat types among eight available. Habitat selection was different from random at Site 1 (χ2 = 373.41, df = 42, p<0.001) and Site 2 (χ2 = 1896.1, df = 45, p<0.001); however, the preferred habitats differed between the two sites. BTF moved further than expected on the basis of current knowledge, with three individuals being resighted over 15 km from the banding location. However, BTF maintain small home ranges over short time-frames. Occasional long-distance movements may be related to resource bottleneck periods. Daily movement patterns differed between sites, which is likely linked to the fact that the sites differ in the spatial distribution of resources. The work provides information about home range sizes and local movement of BTF that will be valuable for targeting effective management

  7. Fire and home range expansion: a behavioral response to burning among savanna dwelling vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Nicole M; Parker, Christopher H; Keefe, Earl R; Coxworth, James; Barrett, Alan; Hawkes, Kristen

    2014-08-01

    The behavioral adaptations of primates to fire-modified landscapes are of considerable interest to anthropologists because fire is fundamental to life in the African savanna-the setting in which genus Homo evolved. Here we report the behavioral responses of a savanna-dwelling primate, vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops), to fire-induced ecological change. Using behavioral and spatial data to characterize ranging patterns prior to and postburn and between burn and nonburn years, we show that these primates inhabiting small, spatially bound, riverine habitats take advantage of newly burned savanna landscapes. When subjects encountered controlled fires, they did not flee but instead avoided the path of the fire seemingly unbothered by its approach. After fire, the primates' home range expanded into newly burned but previously unused areas. These results contribute to understanding the response of non-human primates to fire-modified landscapes and can shed light on the nature and scope of opportunities and constraints posed by the emergence of fire-affected landscapes in the past. Results also expose deficiencies in our knowledge of fire-related behavioral responses in the primate lineage and highlight the need for further investigation of these responses as they relate to foraging opportunities, migration, resource use, and especially fire-centric adaptations in our own genus.

  8. Fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by Kloeckera africana: influence of amino-acid supplementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Córdova, Jesús; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared with fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The preference of K. africana for each of the 20 amino-acids was further determined in batch fermentations and we found that asparagine supplementation increased K. africana biomass production, reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production (by 30, 36.7 and 45%, respectively) over fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. Therefore, asparagine appears to overcome K. africana nutritional limitation in Agave juice. Surprisingly, K. africana produced a high concentration of ethanol. This contrasts to poor ethanol productivities reported for other non-Saccharomyces yeasts indicating a relatively high ethanol tolerance for the K. africana K1 strain. Kloeckera spp. strains are known to synthesize a wide variety of volatile compounds and we have shown that amino-acid supplements influenced the synthesis by K. africana of important metabolites involved in the bouquet of tequila. The findings of this study have revealed important nutritional limitations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts fermenting Agave tequilana juice, and have highlighted the potential of K. africana in tequila production processes.

  9. Imagens e palavras: suas correspondências na arte africana

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Corina Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Esta dissertação constitui-se da pesquisa e do estudo bibliográfico sobre cultura material e arte africana tradicional, aqui entendida como a arte de origem anterior ao período da colonização européia, antes do século XIX, mas também a produzida durante este período, especificamente a arte da África central. Nossa pesquisa reflete o fato de haver no Brasil uma omissão considerável de fontes bibliográficas e de informações específicas sobre arte e cultura material africana em língua portuguesa...

  10. Effects of a home-exercise therapy programme on cervical and lumbar range of motion among nurses with neck and lower back pain: a quasi-experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical and lumbar range of motion limitations are usually associated with musculoskeletal pain in the neck and lower back, and are a major health problem among nurses. Physical exercise has been evaluated as an effective intervention method for improving cervical and lumbar range of motion, and for preventing and reducing musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a home-exercise therapy programme on cervical and lumbar range of motion among...

  11. Habitat use and home range of brown-nosed coati, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovati, Roberto Guilherme; Brito, Bernardo Alves de; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2010-09-01

    The brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua) is a carnivorous species found in all the Brazilian biomes, some of which are endangered areas. The aim of this work was to determine the habitat use and selection, home range and core area of N. nasua in the Cerrado biome, central region of Tocantins, Brazil. The study was carried out in an area of approximately 20 000ha from May 2000 to July 2002. A total of seven box traps were placed in the area for 13 months, three of 11 captured animals were followed and monitored by radio-tracking during 13 months. The monitoring was conducted once a day, three times a week using a car and walking through the study area (radio-tracking and visual contact). The results demonstrate that these three males used more frequently the gallery forest formation, followed by cerrado and wetlands. The use of gallery forest by these animals indicated an habitat selection (Proportion test, z=12.98, pcerrado percentage of habitat use. Besides, results also showed a gallery forest selection by adult (Proportion test z=13.62, pCerrado, that may support conservation efforts.

  12. From home range dynamics to population cycles: validation and realism of a common vole population model for pesticide risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Magnus

    2013-04-01

    Despite various attempts to establish population models as standard tools in pesticide risk assessment, population models still receive limited acceptance by risk assessors and authorities in Europe. A main criticism of risk assessors is that population models are often not, or not sufficiently, validated. Hence the realism of population-level risk assessments conducted with such models remains uncertain. We therefore developed an individual-based population model for the common vole, Microtus arvalis, and demonstrate how population models can be validated in great detail based on published data. The model is developed for application in pesticide risk assessment, therefore, the validation covers all areas of the biology of the common vole that are relevant for the analysis of potential effects and recovery after application of pesticides. Our results indicate that reproduction, survival, age structure, spatial behavior, and population dynamics reproduced from the model are comparable to field observations. Also interannual population cycles, which are frequently observed in field studies of small mammals, emerge from the population model. These cycles were shown to be caused by the home range behavior and dispersal. As observed previously in the field, population cycles in the model were also stronger for longer breeding season length. Our results show how validation can help to evaluate the realism of population models, and we discuss the importance of taking field methodology and resulting bias into account. Our results also demonstrate how population models can help to test or understand biological mechanisms in population ecology.

  13. Plasma preparation and storage for African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Sascha; Blad-Stahl, Julia; Lawrenz, Arne; Schuerer, Ulrich; Wehrend, Axel

    2009-03-01

    The use of plasma as a life-saving tool for neonatal African elephants (Loxodonta africana) that failed passive transfer of immunoglobulins is proposed. The methodology of blood sampling, plasma extraction, and plasma storage is described. Values for cellular component sedimentation and biochemical parameters of extracted plasma that was collected from 2 female elephants is presented. The proposal for a central plasma bank for elephants in European zoos is suggested.

  14. New insights on the rarity of the vulnerable Cinereous Warbling-finch (Aves, Emberizidae based on density, home range, and habitat selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Marques-Santos

    Full Text Available The Cinereous Warbling-finch Poospiza cinerea (Emberizidae is a Neotropical grassland bird considered rare, with population declining due to habitat loss and classified as vulnerable. However, the species conspicuously remains in several degraded areas, suggesting that it may be favored by these environments. Studies which focus on this species were inexistent until 2012, making questionable any statement about its threaten status. Here we analyzed population density, home range, and habitat selection of two groups of P. cinerea at independent sites that differ in human impact levels. Density was estimated by counting and mapping birds. Kernel density and minimum convex polygon were used to estimate home ranges. Habitat selection was inferred from use and availability of every habitat identified within the home range boundaries. One group positively selected urban tree vegetation, despite the availability of natural habitats in its home range. Based on a review on the literature and our findings, we assume that it is unlikely that P. cinerea is rare owing to habitat degradation, as previously thought. Nevertheless, this species was always recorded around native Cerrado vegetation and thus habitat modification may still threaten this species at some level. It is suggested that this species might be a woodland edge species, but future studies are necessary to confirm this assumption.

  15. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids in captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, M; Wang, Y; Ghebremeskel, K; Lendl, C E; Streich, W J

    2003-07-12

    The fatty acid components of the plasma triglycerides and the phospholipid fractions of the red blood cells of a captive group of two African (Loxodonta africana) and four Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants were investigated. All the animals received the same diet of hay, fruits and vegetables, and concentrates. A comparison with data from free-ranging African elephants or Asian work-camp elephants showed that the captive elephants had lower proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and for several lipid fractions a higher n-6:n-3 ratio, than their counterparts in the wild or under the more natural, in terms of diet, work-camp conditions. The difference in PUFA content was smaller in the African than in the Asian elephants. The captive Asian elephants tended to have lower levels of n-3 and total unsaturated fatty acids in their red blood cells than the captive African elephants.

  16. Strangulating intestinal obstructions in four captive elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Ellen B; Peddie, James; Peddie, Linda Reeve; Abou-Madi, Noha; Kollias, George V; Doyle, Charles; Lindsay, William A; Isaza, Ramiro; Terrell, Scott; Lynch, Tim M; Johnson, Kari; Johnson, Gary; Sammut, Charlie; Daft, Barbara; Uzal, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Three captive-born (5-day-old, 8-day-old, and 4-yr-old) Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and one captive-born 22-yr-old African elephant (Loxodonta africana) from three private elephant facilities and one zoo in the United States presented with depression, anorexia, and tachycardia as well as gastrointestinal signs of disease including abdominal distention, decreased borborygmi, tenesmus, hematochezia, or diarrhea. All elephants showed some evidence of discomfort including agitation, vocalization, or postural changes. One animal had abnormal rectal findings. Nonmotile bowel loops were seen on transabdominal ultrasound in another case. Duration of signs ranged from 6 to 36 hr. All elephants received analgesics and were given oral or rectal fluids. Other treatments included warm-water enemas or walking. One elephant underwent exploratory celiotomy. Three animals died, and the elephant taken to surgery was euthanized prior to anesthetic recovery. At necropsy, all animals had severe, strangulating intestinal lesions.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Candida africana in Genital Specimens in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida africana, an emerging yeast pathogen, is closely related to Candida albicans and most commonly involved in vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC. However, its prevalence in candidal balanoposthitis is still unclear. In this study, the prevalence of C. africana in both candidal balanoposthitis and VVC in a sexually transmitted diseases (STD clinic in Shanghai, China, was analyzed, and the molecular characterization and susceptible profiles of C. africana isolates were investigated. As results, C. africana was only isolated in 5 out of 79 (6.3% cases of candidal balanoposthitis rather than cases with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Among them, 4 out of 5 isolates share the same genotype of DST 782 with an isolate from vaginal swab in Japan published previously. All C. africana isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and micafungin.

  18. Uncommon mandibular osteomyelitis in a cat caused by Nocardia africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Farias Marconi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nocardiosis is an unusual infection in companion animals characterized by suppurative to pyogranulomatous lesions, localized or disseminated. Cutaneous-subcutaneous, pulmonary and systemic signs are observed in feline nocardiosis. However, osteomyelitis is a rare clinical manifestation in cats. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (formerly N. asteroides sensu stricto, Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, and Nocardia nova are the most common pathogenic species identified in cats, based on recent molecular classification (16S rRNA gene. The present report is, to our knowledge, the first case of mandibular osteomyelitis in a cat caused by Nocardia africana, diagnosed based upon a combination of methods, including molecular techniques. Case presentation A one-year-old non-neutered female cat, raised in a rural area, was admitted to the Companion Animal Hospital-PUCPR, São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Brazil, with a history a progressive facial lesion, difficulty apprehending food, loss of appetite, apathy and emaciation. Clinical examination showed fever, submandibular lymphadenitis, and a painless, 8 cm diameter mass, which was irregularly-shaped, of firm consistency, and located in the region of the left mandible. The skin around the lesion was friable, with diffuse inflammation (cellulitis, multiple draining sinuses, and exudation of serosanguinous material containing whitish “sulfur” granules. Diagnosis was based initially in clinical signs, microbiological culture, cytological, and histopathological findings, and radiographic images. Molecular sequencing of 16S rRNA of isolate allowed diagnosis of Nocardia africana. Despite supportive care and antimicrobial therapy based on in vitro susceptibility testing the animal died. Conclusion The present report describes a rare clinical case of feline osteomyelitis caused by Nocardia africana, diagnosed based upon a combination of clinical signs, microbiological

  19. The use of GPS radio-collars to track elephants (Loxodonta africana in the Tarangire National Park (Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Galanti

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The GPS (Global Positioning System telemetry was used in Tarangire National Park (Tanzania to study migration routes and the use of space by elephants (Loxodonta africana. Five female elephants were captured in November 1997 in five different areas of Tarangire National Park and fitted with GPS collars. The collar consists of a 6 channel Global Positioning System (GPS receiver, a radio-modem for data communication, a non volatile memory, and an independent VHF transmitter. The operator can «communicate» with the collar through a command unit connected to a PC. The GPS collar receives signals from different satellites which permits automatic calculation of its position, with an accuracy of 25 m. The data collected in the period November 1997 - April 1998 show that three female elephants mainly used the northern sector of the park, moving sometimes outside the protected area about 10 to 20 km NE of the park boundary. Also the two female elephants captured in the southern sector of the park moved outside, travelling about 80 km SE of the park boundary. Home range size varied between 159 and 660 km² for the northern elephants (n=3, and between 2104 and 3314 km² for the southern elephants (n=2. The elephants whose ranges extended outside the park exhibited their highest movement rate from 4 p.m. to 12 p.m., while those animals within the park had the highest movement rates during daylight hours (from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.. We discuss the advantages and shortcomings of GPS-telemetry as a means of gathering useful information on space use and movements of elephants for the development of long-term conservation strategies for large herbivores in the whole Tarangire area.

  20. Home range and habitat use of male Reeves's Pheasant(Symaticus reevesii)during winter in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve,Henan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jiliang; Zhang Xiaohui; Zhang Zhengwang; Zheng Guangmei; Ruan Xiangfeng; Zhang Keyin; Xi Bo

    2006-01-01

    Home range and habitat use of male Reeves's Pheasant(syrmaticus reevesii)were studied during winter of 2001~2002 and 2002~2003 in the Dongzhai National Nature Reserve,Henan Province.Results from five individuals of Reeves's Pheasant with over 30 relocations,indicated that the average size of home range was 10.03±1.17 hm2 by Minimum Convex Polygon method.8.60±0.35 hm2 by 90% Harmonic Mean Transformation method,and 9.50±1.90 hm2 by 95% Fixed Kernel method.It was observed that the winter range is smaller than that in the breeding season.The mean core area of the home range was found to be 1.88±0.37 hm2.Although the habitat composition of the core area varied greatly for individuals,a large part of the habitats used were composed of conifer and broadleaf mixed forests,masson pine forests,fir forests,and shrubs.Habitat use within the study area was non-random,while habitats within home ranges were randomly used.Habitat use was dictated by tree diameter at breast height,shrub height and coverage at 2.0 m.The proximity between forests and shrubs were also found to be important in providing refuge for the birds during winter.Recommendations for conservation management include protecting the existing habitats in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve,increasing suitable habitat for Reeves's Pheasant through artificial plantations(e.g.firs),and restoring some parts of the large shrub area into forests.

  1. Dingoes at the Doorstep: Home Range Sizes and Activity Patterns of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs around Urban Areas of North-Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Alice T; Leung, Luke K-P; Goullet, Mark S; Gentle, Matthew N; Allen, Benjamin L

    2016-08-16

    Top-predators around the world are becoming increasingly intertwined with humans, sometimes causing conflict and increasing safety risks in urban areas. In Australia, dingoes and dingo×domesticdoghybridsarecommoninmanyurbanareas,andposeavarietyofhumanhealth and safety risks. However, data on urban dingo ecology is scant. We GPS-collared 37 dingoes in north-easternAustraliaandcontinuouslymonitoredthemeach30minfor11-394days. Mostdingoes were nocturnal, with an overall mean home range size of 17.47 km2. Overall mean daily distance travelled was 6.86 km/day. At all times dingoes were within 1000 m of houses and buildings. Home ranges appeared to be constrained to patches of suitable vegetation fragments within and around human habitation. These data can be used to reallocate dingo management effort towards mitigating actual conflicts between humans and dingoes in urban areas.

  2. The relationship between social behaviour and habitat familiarity in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Isbell, Lynne A; Hart, Lynette A

    2009-03-22

    Social associations with conspecifics can expedite animals' acclimation to novel environments. However, the benefits gained from sociality may change as the habitat becomes familiar. Furthermore, the particular individuals with whom animals associate upon arrival at a new place, familiar conspecifics or knowledgeable unfamiliar residents, may influence the type of information they acquire about their new home. To examine animals' social dynamics in novel habitats, we studied the social behaviour of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) translocated into a novel environment. We found that the translocated elephants' association with conspecifics decreased over time supporting our hypothesis that sociality provides added benefits in novel environments. In addition, we found a positive correlation between body condition and social association, suggesting that elephants gain direct benefits from sociality. Furthermore, the translocated elephants associated significantly less than expected with the local residents and more than expected with familiar, but not necessarily genetically related, translocated elephants. The social segregation between the translocated and resident elephants declined over time, suggesting that elephants can integrate into an existing social setting. Knowledge of the relationship between sociality and habitat familiarity is highly important in our constantly changing world to both conservation practice and our understanding of animals' behaviour in novel environments.

  3. An assessment of elephant home ranges and movement patterns during construction of Hulu Terengganu hydroelectric dam, Terengganu using GPS satellite collars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magintan, D.; Shukorb, M. N.; Lihan, Tukimat; Campos, Ahimza-arceiz; Saaban, Salman; Husin, Shahril Mohd; Ahmad, Mohd Noh

    2016-11-01

    Home ranges and movement patterns of elephants during construction of hydroelectric dams were carried out in Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Two elephants from two herds were captured, collared and released in the catchment area four to five months before inundation started in early October 2014. The two elephants were identified as Puah (female) and Sireh (male). The home range size of each individual during the construction of dams was estimated at 96.53 km2 for Puah and 367.99 km2 for Sireh. The monthly estimates of ranging for Puah was between 5.1 km2 and 38.4 km2 with average monthly ranging of 19.2 ± 4.7, while for Sireh, the monthly ranging estimates were between 20.6 km2 and 184.7 km2 with average monthly ranging at 79.9 ± 34.7. The movement mean rate (based on distance per day) for Puah and Sireh per day were 1.3 ± 0.1 km and 1.9 ± 0.1 km, respectively. Puah movement estimates for the first day after putting the collar was 0.88 km, whereas, the distance movement for Sireh on the first day after the collar was 0.02 km. The total distance travelled for Puah before inundation was 226.18 km, while Sireh covered 267.38 km.

  4. Sociedades y culturas africanas en clave de mujeres y en perspectiva de g??nero

    OpenAIRE

    Vieitez Cerde??o, Soledad

    2011-01-01

    Seg??n cuenta la investigadora Carmen Magall??n en la presentaci??n del texto (Magall??n, 2011: 15): Al aproximarse a la sociedad y las culturas africanas en clave de mujeres, Soledad Vieitez Cerde??o refiere c??mo los movimientos de mujeres africanas hablan de sus enormes avances aunque queda mucho para alcanzar la igualdad de g??nero. De lo que no cabe duda es de la capacidad organizativa y de incidencia de las africanas. Ellas han sabido engarzarse con los mo- vimientos globales para ejerc...

  5. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol stem bark extract of Prosopis africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanwuyi, Lydia O; Yaro, Abdullahi H; Abodunde, Olajumoke M

    2010-03-01

    Prosopis africana (Guill. & Perr.) Taub. (Mimosoideae) is a shrub used for menstrual and general body pain in Nupe land in north central Nigeria. In this study, the methanol extract of the stem bark of Prosopis africana (at doses of 62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities using acetic acid-induced writhing assay and carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats. The extract significantly (P 5000 mg/kg in rats. This study supports the folkloric claim of the use of Prosopis africana in the management of pain.

  6. Vocal communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Research on vocal communication in African elephants has increased in recent years, both in the wild and in captivity, providing an opportunity to present a comprehensive review of research related to their vocal behavior. Current data indicate that the vocal repertoire consists of perhaps nine acoustically distinct call types, "rumbles" being the most common and acoustically variable. Large vocal production anatomy is responsible for the low-frequency nature of rumbles, with fundamental frequencies in the infrasonic range. Additionally, resonant frequencies of rumbles implicate the trunk in addition to the oral cavity in shaping the acoustic structure of rumbles. Long-distance communication is thought possible because low-frequency sounds propagate more faithfully than high-frequency sounds, and elephants respond to rumbles at distances of up to 2.5 km. Elephant ear anatomy appears designed for detecting low frequencies, and experiments demonstrate that elephants can detect infrasonic tones and discriminate small frequency differences. Two vocal communication functions in the African elephant now have reasonable empirical support. First, closely bonded but spatially separated females engage in rumble exchanges, or "contact calls," that function to coordinate movement or reunite animals. Second, both males and females produce "mate attraction" rumbles that may advertise reproductive states to the opposite sex. Additionally, there is evidence that the structural variation in rumbles reflects the individual identity, reproductive state, and emotional state of callers. Growth in knowledge about the communication system of the African elephant has occurred from a rich combination of research on wild elephants in national parks and captive elephants in zoological parks.

  7. Bilateral ovarian cystadenoma in a geriatric African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoby, Stefan; Aloisio, Fabio; Schumacher, Vanessa L

    2014-06-01

    A 59-yr-old, captive female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) died of a cardiovascular collapse. Necropsy revealed bilateral replacement of the ovarian tissue by multiple cystic formations of up to 10 cm in diameter. The cysts were thin walled and filled with clear watery fluid. Smaller solid masses with an irregular surface projected from the wall of a few of the cysts. Histologically, the cystic structures were characterized by a single layer of well-differentiated cuboidal epithelial cells resting on a basement membrane. Occasionally the cysts contained nodular proliferations of single-layered, well-differentiated cuboidal epithelial cells forming anastomosing tubules and occasional papillary projections. The ovarian neoplasia was diagnosed as a bilateral multilocular serous ovarian cystadenoma. The nulliparous status and the advanced age may have contributed to the ovarian pathology.

  8. La Orilla Africana y la búsqueda de Identidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Abdel Salam Awaad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La orilla africana, de Rodrigo Rey Rosa, aborda el tema de la crisis de la identidad y la búsqueda de horizontes nuevos. En Tánger, marco geográfico de la acción, un turista colombiano ha de alargar su estancia en la ciudad tras la pérdida de su pasaporte. A partir de ese momento, el héroe se ve involucrado en la atmósfera de bajos fondos de la ciudad que poco a poco se convierte en la de novela negra con sus consabidos elementos de intriga, acoso, sangre, fuga, etc. El personaje del colombiano es el punto de flexión entre dos mundos, Oriente y Occidente. Asimismo, mediante unos elementos técnicos innovadores basados en la reducción temporal, la constante ruptura de la secuencia narrativa y de narración circular, la novela es también una anatomía de un lugar mítico tan abordado y exaltado por tantos y tantos viajeros. La belleza de Tánger radica en su ambivalente imagen. Por un lado, la ciudad tradicional con su embrujo oriental y, por otro, la urbe del crimen organizado, la droga y la violencia. La novela consagra la maestría de Rey Rosa en crear momentos de tránsito entre dos mundos o entre dos cosmovisiones.Palabras Claves: La orilla africana, identidad, Rodrigo Rey Rosa, Tánger, novela negra.

  9. Tier One: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2. Realignment of Mountain Home Air Force Base and Proposed Expanded Range Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    certain strata were more likely than others to contain cultura resources. Sampling percentages within the area ranged from 19 to 3 percent. For the Bruneau...attributes of a Clovis point. Since G-25 Clovis points date from 10,500 to 12,000 B.P., it can be inferred that the isolate also dates to that period

  10. Antioxidative, anti-inflammatory potentials and phytochemical profile of Commiphora africana(A. Rich.) Engl.(Burseraceae) and Loeseneriella africana(Willd.)(Celastraceae) stem leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Compaoré; Roland Ng-Tiéro Meda; Sahabi Bakasso; Laurian Vlase; Martin Kiendrebeogo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as well as to determine the flavonoids and phenolic acids content of active fractions.Methods: Two medicinal plant samples were extracted successively in Soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, methanol and n-butanol. Five methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was done through the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase enzymes(COX-1 and COX-2).Polyphenolic compounds were analyzed by using a spectrophotometrical and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS) methods.Results: The data showed that the stem leaves extracts of Commiphora africana and Loeseneriella africana possessed significant in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Polar extracts had radical scavenging effects and they reduced iron(III). The prostaglandin production was significantly stopped by acetonitrile and methanol extracts.These biological activities were supported by some bioactive compounds quantified by using the HPLC-MS. p-Coumaric acid, ferulic acid, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin,rutin, kaempferol and apigenin were the most metabolites quantified.Conclusions: The present study may explain the effectiveness of plants in traditional medicine of Burkina Faso, singularly Commiphora africana and Loeseneriella africana.The next investigation was to sub-fractionate the methanol fraction in order to isolate new antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory compounds.

  11. A radio tracking study of home range and movements of the marsupial Micoureus demerarae (Thomas (Mammalia, Didelphidae in the Atlantic forest of south-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edsel Amorim Moraes Junior

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available From August 2001 to July 2002 the home range and movements of seven Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 (three males and four females were investigated using radio tracking in the União Biological Reserve, state of Rio de Janeiro, south-eastern Brazil. A total of 436 locations was obtained and home range estimated with fixed Kernel (95% of data points, and minimum convex polygon (MCP methods, with 100 and 95% of data points. Male home ranges estimated by MCP (100% ranged from 5.4-24.2 ha and females from 0.3-10.7 ha. Corresponding figures calculated with Kernel (95% were 4-10.9 ha for males and 1.3-5.9 ha for females. Animals travelled on average 423 m/night, with males travelling significantly further (582.8 m/night than females (335.1 m/night (t test, t = 3.609, p = 0.001. We concluded that radio tracking produced much larger home ranges than those estimated with traditional live-trapping techniques, suggesting that the latter might underestimate ranging when the area covered with traps is relatively small (ca. 1 ha or less. Radio tracking also indicated that M. demerarae, although predominantly arboreal and weighting only ca. 130 g., has movements similar in magnitude to larger-sized terrestrial didelphimorph marsupials, such as Didelphis Linnaeus, 1758, Philander Linnaeus, 1758 and Metachirus (Desmarest, 1817.No período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002 a área de uso e o movimento de sete Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 (três machos e quatro fêmeas foram acompanhados, através de rádio-telemetria, na Reserva Biológica União, Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Foi obtido um total de 436 localizações e estimou-se a área de uso através dos métodos Kernel fixo (95% das localizações e polígono mínimo convexo (PMC, com 100 e 95% das localizações. A área de uso dos machos estimada pelo PMC (100% variou de 5,4-24,2 ha e fêmeas de 0,3-10,7 ha. Áreas calculadas com Kernel (95% foram 4-10,9 ha para machos e 1,3-5,9 ha para f

  12. Dilated ureters, renal dysplasia, and chronic renal failure in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Gwen; Langan, Jennifer N; Adkesson, Michael J; Terio, Karen A; Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Meehan, Tom; Schmitt, Dennis

    2012-03-01

    An ultrasonographic reproductive health examination of a 26-yr-old female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) revealed bilateral ureteral wall thickening and dilatation. On ultrasonographic examination, the bladder and both ureters were normal near the trigone; however, the cranial-most aspect of each ureter was dilated and thickened for a length of 30-50 cm. The same month, elevated blood creatinine (3.0 mg/dl), and urine protein-creatinine ratio (4.0) were observed. Chronic renal failure was diagnosed based on these abnormalities, and the persistent ureteral dilatation was seen on subsequent ultrasound examinations. Complete blood cell counts, serum chemistries, and urinalyses remained relatively unchanged until 24 mo after diagnosis, at which time azotemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypercalcemia (including elevated ionized calcium) developed. Hydronephrosis of both kidneys and prominent sacculation of the left ureter were noted on ultrasonographic examination. Lethargy, ventral edema, and oral mucosal ulceration acutely developed 30 mo after diagnosis. Although blood urea nitrogen remained elevated, creatinine, total calcium, and ionized calcium returned to within reference ranges at that time. Due to rapid clinical decline and grave prognosis, humane euthanasia was elected. Bilateral ureteral dilatation, dysplasia of the right kidney, and chronic nephritis of the left kidney were identified postmortem.

  13. Movements and home range of a common species of tree-shrew, Tupaia glis, surrounding houses of otoacariasis cases in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariana A; Shukor MN; Muhd Norhazizi H; Intan Nurlemsha B; Ho TM

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document movement patterns, home range, nesting behaviour and social organization of 5 individuals (3 males and 2 females) of a common species of tree-shrew, Tupaia glis (T. glis) surrounding houses of otoacariasis cases. Methods:Each shrew was fitted with a transmitter chip radio-collar which operates between the frequencies of 154.13 MHz to 154.21 MHz. Each transmitter was then tracked with a Portable Telemetry Receiver (Sirtrack, New Zealand) fitted with a 3-element Yagi antenna. Collared shrews were located using standard methods of ground-based triangulation. Each location was taken from at least 2 directional fixes and a minimum of 3 compass bearings. Fixes were taken hourly for each collared individual from the time of emergence from nest (beginning of activity) till time of entry into the nest (end of activity) every day for 5 to 7 continuous days. Three series of radio telemetry observations were carried out. The bearings, time and positions of an observer were recorded and later plotted on a graph paper in order to derive coordinates of the collared animal. [These coordinates then analyzed using Ecological Software Solutions (Biotas Version 1.03)]. Results: Nests were found in a jack fruit tree, long bushes, and 2 houses. Daily telemetry detections demonstrated 2 individuals of different sex having nests (or a nest) in the same house. All shrews emerged from and returned to their nests between 0601 to 0659 hours and 1901 to 1959 hours, respectively. Both the time of exit from and entry into nest were the same between sexes (P>0.05). Their average total active period was 4.90 to 7.00 hours with a total daily travel distant of 270 m to 382 m. A male and a female shrew can move as far as 3 285 m and 4 591 m, respectively. Active movements of T. glis were during daytime. They regularly entered some houses in the area during day and night except for one individual which visited during daytime only. The sizes of home range and core area for the

  14. Birth statistics for African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in human care: history and implications for elephant welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Robert H I

    2010-01-01

    African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have lived in the care of humans for many years, yet there is no consensus concerning some basic parameters describing their newborn calves. This study provides a broad empirical basis for generalizations about the birth heights, birth weights, birth times and gestation periods of elephant calves born in captivity. I obtained data concerning at least one of these four characteristics for 218 newborn calves from 74 institutions. Over the past 30 years, newborn Asian elephants have been taller and heavier than newborn African elephants. Neonatal African elephants exhibited sex differences in both weight and height, whereas neonatal Asian elephants have exhibited sex differences only in height. Primiparous dams ex situ are at least as old as their in situ counterparts, whereas ex situ sires appear to be younger than sires in range countries. Confirming earlier anecdotal evidence, both African [N=47] and Asian [N=91] dams gave birth most often at night.

  15. Bayesian State-Space Modelling of Conventional Acoustic Tracking Provides Accurate Descriptors of Home Range Behavior in a Small-Bodied Coastal Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Balle, Salvador; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2016-01-01

    State-space models (SSM) are increasingly applied in studies involving biotelemetry-generated positional data because they are able to estimate movement parameters from positions that are unobserved or have been observed with non-negligible observational error. Popular telemetry systems in marine coastal fish consist of arrays of omnidirectional acoustic receivers, which generate a multivariate time-series of detection events across the tracking period. Here we report a novel Bayesian fitting of a SSM application that couples mechanistic movement properties within a home range (a specific case of random walk weighted by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) with a model of observational error typical for data obtained from acoustic receiver arrays. We explored the performance and accuracy of the approach through simulation modelling and extensive sensitivity analyses of the effects of various configurations of movement properties and time-steps among positions. Model results show an accurate and unbiased estimation of the movement parameters, and in most cases the simulated movement parameters were properly retrieved. Only in extreme situations (when fast swimming speeds are combined with pooling the number of detections over long time-steps) the model produced some bias that needs to be accounted for in field applications. Our method was subsequently applied to real acoustic tracking data collected from a small marine coastal fish species, the pearly razorfish, Xyrichtys novacula. The Bayesian SSM we present here constitutes an alternative for those used to the Bayesian way of reasoning. Our Bayesian SSM can be easily adapted and generalized to any species, thereby allowing studies in freely roaming animals on the ecological and evolutionary consequences of home ranges and territory establishment, both in fishes and in other taxa. PMID:27119718

  16. Determinants of spatial behavior of a tropical forest seed predator: The roles of optimal foraging, dietary diversification, and home range defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palminteri, Suzanne; Powell, George V N; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    Specialized seed predators in tropical forests may avoid seasonal food scarcity and interspecific feeding competition but may need to diversify their daily diet to limit ingestion of any given toxin. Seed predators may, therefore, adopt foraging strategies that favor dietary diversity and resource monitoring, rather than efficient energy intake, as suggested by optimal foraging theory. We tested whether fine-scale space use by a small-group-living seed predator-the bald-faced saki monkey (Pithecia irrorata)-reflected optimization of short-term foraging efficiency, maximization of daily dietary diversity, and/or responses to the threat of territorial encroachment by neighboring groups. Food patches across home ranges of five adjacent saki groups were widely spread, but areas with higher densities of stems or food species were not allocated greater feeding time. Foraging patterns-specifically, relatively long daily travel paths that bypassed available fruiting trees and relatively short feeding bouts in undepleted food patches-suggest a strategy that maximizes dietary diversification, rather than "optimal" foraging. Travel distance was unrelated to the proportion of seeds in the diet. Moreover, while taxonomically diverse, the daily diets of our study groups were no more species-rich than randomly derived diets based on co-occurring available food species. Sakis preferentially used overlapping areas of their HRs, within which adjacent groups shared many food trees, yet the density of food plants or food species in these areas was no greater than in other HR areas. The high likelihood of depletion by neighboring groups of otherwise enduring food sources may encourage monitoring of peripheral food patches in overlap areas, even if at the expense of immediate energy intake, suggesting that between-group competition is a key driver of fine-scale home range use in sakis.

  17. Home range, habitat use, and migrations of hawksbill turtles tracked from Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Pratt, Harold L.; Morley, Danielle; Feeley, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    To determine habitat-use patterns of sub-adult hawksbills Eretmochelys imbricata, we conducted satellite- and acoustic-tracking of 3 turtles captured in August 2008 within Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO), south Florida, USA, in the Gulf of Mexico; turtles ranged in size from 51.9 to 69.8 cm straight carapace length. After 263, 699, and 655 d of residence in the park, turtles migrated out of the DRTO. Within the park, core-use areas (i.e. 50% kernel density estimates) were 9.2 to 21.5 km2; all 3 turtle core-use areas overlapped in an area 6.1 km2 within a zone of the park with multiple human uses (e.g. fishing, anchoring). Two turtles migrated to Cuba and ceased transmitting after 320 and 687 tracking days; the third turtle migrated toward Key West, Florida, and ceased transmitting after 884 tracking days. The present study highlights previously unknown regional connections for hawksbills, possible turtle-harvest incidents, and fine-scale habitat use of sub-adult hawksbills within a United States National Park.

  18. 红耳龟在海南南渡江半咸水区域的家域研究%Home Range of Trachemys scripta elegans in Brackish Water of Nandu River, Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨江波; 史海涛

    2014-01-01

    The home range of 12 invasive Trachemys scripta elegans was tracked by acoustic and code radio receiving technology in Nandu River,Hainan Island,China,from September 2012 to November 2013.The home range and home range core of each individual (7 males and 5 females) was calculated by minimum convex polygon and home range core domain method.The home range of the turtles was 3.83 hm2 ± 0.76 hm2,with core range of 0.47 hm2 ± 0.21 hm2.The home range and home range core in breeding season,especially for the male turtles,were significantly larger than those in nonbreeding season.While no significant difference was observed in the female ones.In addition,the home range and home range core of the male turtles in breeding season were significantly larger than those of the females.However,no significant difference was observed between genders in non-breeding season.%2012年9月至2013年11月,应用电磁波与声波相结合的技术,在海南南渡江半咸水区域研究了外来物种红耳龟Trachemys scripta elegans的家域.采用核心家域法和最小凸多边形法计算12只红耳龟(7雄,5雌)个体的家域大小.结果表明:(1)红耳龟的家域为3.83 hm2±0.76 hm2,核域为0.47 hm2±0.21 hm2;(2)红耳龟的家域和核域面积在繁殖期显著大于非繁殖期;(3)雄性的家域在繁殖期显著大于非繁殖期,雌性的家域没有明显差异;(4)雄性的家域在繁殖期显著大于雌性,在非繁殖期没有明显差异.

  19. Lack of spatial and behavioral responses to immunocontraception application in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsink, Audrey K; Kirkpatrick, Jay; van Altena, J J; Bertschinger, Henk J; Ferreira, Sam M; Slotow, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Opinions are divided as to whether human intervention to control elephant (Loxodonta africana) population growth is desirable, partly because of elephant welfare concerns. Female contraception through immunization with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) proteins is viable. The effects of sustained use and application of the PZP vaccine on elephant behavioral and spatial responses were examined by evaluating herd ranging, fission-fusion dynamics, association patterns, and reproductive and sexual behaviors. Minimal change was anticipated as a result of long calf dependence on and association with cows, a reduced but not indefinite 0% growth rate and the known mechanism of action of PZP vaccines, and minimal expected change in resource requirements necessitating behavioral or spatial use adaptations. Although behavioral effects identified in previous hormonal contraceptive trials were evident, it was demonstrated that immunocontraception caused no prolonged behavioral, social, or spatial changes over the 11-yr study period. Individually identified elephants were monitored from 1999 to 2011. Minimal, short-term social disruption, with temporary changes to the herds' core ranges, was observed during the annual treatment events, particularly in the first three treatment years, when vaccinations were conducted exclusively from the ground. Thereafter, when vaccinations were conducted aerially, minor disruptions were confined to the morning of administration only. Despite sustained treatments resulting in demographic changes of fewer calves being born, treatments did not alter spatial range use, and no adverse interherd-intraherd relations were observed. Similarly, resource requirements did not change as calving still occurred, although in fewer numbers. It was concluded that PZP immunocontraception has no detectable behavioral or social consequences in elephants over the course of 11 yr, providing a convincing argument for the use of sustained immunocontraception in the medium

  20. Atravessar as fronteiras africanas – migração e mobilidade

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Cristina Udelsmann

    2015-01-01

    O interesse académico e prático sobre as fronteiras africanas na actualidade é quase sempre rapidamente associado às crescentes vagas de migrações do continente para a Europa, envolvendo migrantes em condições de vida – e de atravessamento da própria fronteira – extremamente precárias. Contudo, a reflexão sobre as fronteiras africanas integra não só um conjunto amplo de outros assuntos – e mesmo de outros problemas – como se tem concentrado noutros períodos históricos de rel...

  1. Home range, residency and movements of Diplodus sargus and Diplodus vulgaris in a coastal lagoon: Connectivity between nursery and adult habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecasis, David; Bentes, Luís; Erzini, Karim

    2009-12-01

    Acoustic telemetry and standard tag-recapture were used to determine the home range and residency of juveniles and sub-adults of Diplodus sargus and Diplodus vulgaris in the Ria Formosa (Portugal) coastal lagoon. Maximum time between recaptures for the standard tag-recapture method was 128 days for D. sargus and 30 days for D. vulgaris. The majority of the fish were recaptured in the vicinity of the tagging location. Fish tagged with acoustic transmitters had a maximum period of time between first and last detections of 62 days for D. sargus and 260 days for D. vulgaris. Minimum convex polygons areas ranged between 148 024 m 2 and 525 930 m 2 for D. sargus and between 23 786 m 2 and 42 134 m 2 for D. vulgaris. Both species presented a high residency index between first and last detections. Two D. sargus tagged with acoustic tags were recaptured by fishermen outside the coastal lagoon at distances of 12 km and 90 km from the tagging position, providing evidence that this species leaves the Ria Formosa during the winter time for the adjacent coastal waters. The results of this study reinforce the importance of Ria Formosa as a nursery for D. sargus and D. vulgaris in the south coast of Portugal.

  2. Tamanho da área de vida e padrão de uso do espaço em grupos de sagüis, Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus (Primates, Callitrichidae Home range size and pattern of range use in common marmoset groups, Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus (Primates, Callitrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Soraia Soares de Castro

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of abundance and distribution of fruits and gums resources in home range size and pattern of range use were investigated in Callithrix jacchus. From October 1996 to January 1998 two groups (QT and PB that lived in a National Forest/IBAMA-RN in northeastern Brazil (6º5'S, 35º12'W, were observed once a week by instantaneous scan sampling. The frequency of quadrant's visit in the home range was recorded at five minute intervals. Trees used for feeding on fruits and/or gum by the study groups were marked with flagging tape and numbered. Samples of the food items were collected for identification. Data on the temporal variation in fruits abundance was based on the monthly phenological observations of the marked trees. Study groups showed small home range size (QT: 2.4 ha and PB: 0.7 ha. No significant differences in home range size between dry and wet months were found, but groups showed a tendency to broadened the range use in the wet months. This revealed a behavioral strategy which marmosets exploited more gums face to decreased in fruits abundance. The abundance and distribution in clusters of fruits and gums resources influenced the pattern of range use and home range size.

  3. Home Sweet Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A family-run nursing home that gives elderly people the feel of a real of a real home Jiang Shaoju’s three-year-old family-run nursing home for the elderly in Dalian breaks all stereotypes people might attach to traditional homes for the aged.There are no nurses in uniforms,no numbered bedding and there is a lot of laughter. Jiang,56,has given almost every one of the 12 elderly women in her nursing home a nickname.She calls 92-year-old Xuan Shoulan"vice principal"because Xuan likes giving orders to others in the house and

  4. The production of 'Kpaye'--a fermented condiment from Prosopis africana (Guill and Perr) Taub. Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omafuvbe, B O; Abiose, S H; Adaraloye, O O

    1999-10-15

    'Kpaye', a fermented condiment from Prosopis africana seeds was produced using the traditional method. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus were consistently isolated in the fermentations lasting 120 h. 'Kpaye'production involved a rise in pH, moisture content and total free amino acids while titratable acidity and reducing sugar decreased gradually after 24 h and 72 h of fermentation respectively.

  5. Notes on the chemical immobilisation and restraint of the Addo Elephant (Loxodonta Africana

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    E Young

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological response of Addo elephants (Loxo- donta africana to etorphine hydrochloride (M-99 and acetylpromazine maleate is discussed. As in the case of Kruger National Park elephants, the described dosage rates of drugs are highly effective for safe anaesthesia of these elephants.

  6. Home range and use of diurnal shelters by the Etendeka round-eared sengi, a newly discovered Namibian endemic desert mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen B. Rathbun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To understand habitat use by the newly described Etendeka round-eared sengi (Macroscelides micus in northwestern Namibia, we radio-tracked five individuals for nearly a month. Home ranges (100% convex polygons in the rocky desert habitat were remarkably large (mean 14.9 ha when compared to sengi species in more mesic habitats (<1.5 ha. The activity pattern of M. micus was strictly nocturnal, which contrasts to the normal diurnal or crepuscular activity of other sengis. The day shelters of M. micus were under single rocks and they likely were occupied by single sengis. One tagged sengi used 22 different day shelters during the study. On average, only 7% of the day shelters were used more than once by the five tagged sengis. The shelters were also unusual for a small mammal in that they were unmodified in terms of excavation or nesting material. Shelter entrances were significantly oriented to face south by south west (average 193°, away from the angle of the prevailing midday sun. This suggests that solar radiation is probably an important aspect of M. micus thermal ecology, similar to other sengis. Compared to published data on other sengis, M. micus generally conforms to the unique sengi adaptive syndrome, but with modifications related to its hyper-arid habitat.

  7. Home range, movement, and distribution patterns of the threatened dragonfly Sympetrum depressiusculum (Odonata: Libellulidae): a thousand times greater territory to protect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolný, Aleš; Harabiš, Filip; Mižičová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Dragonflies are good indicators of environmental health and biodiversity. Most studies addressing dragonfly ecology have focused on the importance of aquatic habitats, while the value of surrounding terrestrial habitats has often been overlooked. However, species associated with temporary aquatic habitats must persist in terrestrial environments for long periods. Little is known about the importance of terrestrial habitat patches for dragonflies, or about other factors that initiate or influence dispersal behaviour. The aim of this study was to reveal the relationship between population dynamics of the threatened dragonfly species Sympetrum depressiusculum at its natal site and its dispersal behaviour or routine movements within its terrestrial home range. We used a mark-release-recapture method (marking 2,881 adults) and exuviae collection with the Jolly-Seber model and generalized linear models to analyse seasonal and spatial patterns of routine movement in a heterogeneous Central European landscape. Our results show that utilisation of terrestrial habitat patches by adult dragonflies is not random and may be relatively long term (approximately 3 mo). Adult dragonflies were present only in areas with dense vegetation that provided sufficient resources; the insects were absent from active agricultural patches (p = 0.019). These findings demonstrate that even a species tightly linked to its natal site utilises an area that is several orders of magnitude larger than the natal site. Therefore, negative trends in the occurrence of various dragonfly species may be associated not only with disturbances to their aquatic habitats, but also with changes in the surrounding terrestrial landscape.

  8. The fluidity of blood in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windberger, U; Plasenzotti, R; Voracek, Th

    2005-01-01

    The large cellular volume of erythrocytes and the increased plasma concentration of proteins in elephants are factors which potentially affect blood rheology adversely. To verify blood rheology, routine hemorheologic variables were analyzed in four African elephants (Loxodonta africana), housed in the zoo of Vienna. Whole blood viscosity at three different shear rates (WBV at low shear rate: WBV 0.7 s(-1) and WBV 2.4 s(-1); WBV at high shear rate: WBV 94 s(-1) done by LS30, Contraves) and erythrocyte aggregation (aggregation indices AI by LS30; aggregation indices M0, M1 by Myrenne aggregometer) were high (WBV 94 s(-1): 5.368 (5.246/5.648); WBV 2.4 s(-1): 16.291 (15.605/17.629); WBV 0.7 s(-1): 28.28 (25.537/32.173) mPa s; AI 2.4 s(-1): 0.25 (0.23/0.30); AI 0.7 s(-1): 0.24 (0.23/0.28); M0: 7.8 (6.4/8.4); M1: 30.2 (25/31)). Plasma viscosity (PV) was increased as well (1.865 (1.857/1.912) mPa s) compared to other mammalian species. These parameters would indicate a decrease in blood fluidity in elephants. However, erythrocyte rigidity (LORCA, Mechatronics) was decreased, which in contrast, has a promotive effect on peripheral perfusion. Blood rheology of the elephants was determined by a high whole blood and plasma viscosity as the result of pronounced erythrocyte aggregation and high plasma protein concentration. Thus, in the terminal vessels the resistance to flow will be increased. The large erythrocytes, which might impede blood flow further due to geometrical reasons, however, had a pronounced flexibility. We conclude that the effect of the increased inner resistance to peripheral blood flow was counteracted by the decreased rigidity of the erythrocytes to enable an adequate blood flow in African elephants.

  9. Molecular characterization of adipose tissue in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Emeli M; Fainberg, Hernan P; Choong, Siew S; Giles, Thomas C; Sells, James; May, Sean; Stansfield, Fiona J; Allen, William R; Emes, Richard D; Mostyn, Alison; Mongan, Nigel P; Yon, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare), and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika). Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and α linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition and body

  10. Molecular characterization of adipose tissue in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeli M Nilsson

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit, Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare, and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika. Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and α linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition

  11. The spatial structure of hunter access determines the local abundance of forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackulic, Charles B; Strindberg, Samantha; Maisels, Fiona; Blake, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    In many previously remote regions in the world, increasing and often unregulated access is leading to dramatic increases in hunting pressure and declines in the densities of prey species, sometimes to the point of local extinction. Not surprisingly, numerous studies have found a correlation between the distance to the closest access point and prey densities. Here we hypothesized that, for many wide-ranging species, local abundances are reduced by hunting associated with multiple access points as opposed to just the closest access points. We also hypothesized that the distribution of hunter access determines both patterns of occupancy and abundance in occupied areas and that these two patterns (occupancy and abundance) respond to access at different spatial scales. Using data on the distribution of abundances of African forest elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in and around five national parks in Central Africa, we tested these hypotheses using a model comparison framework. We found that models including an index based on the distance to multiple roads outperformed models including other access-based covariates, including a model based on distance to the closest road only. We also found that models that allowed us to model occupancy and abundance separately outperformed simpler models. Occupancy responds to access at the same scale as previous estimates of average maximum displacement in the subspecies, while the scale of the response of abundance is more ambiguous, but appears to be greater. Lastly, we show that incorporating indices based on multiple access points and modeling abundance and occupancy has important practical consequences for our understanding of overall regional abundances and the distribution of abundances within regions.

  12. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered ivermectin in African elephants (Loxodonta africana): implications for parasite elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolf, A Rae; Lifschitz, A; Stadler, C; Watson, B; Galvanek, L; Ballent, M; Lanusse, C

    2009-03-01

    Loxodonta africana are susceptible to a wide variety of parasites that are often treated with the broad spectrum antiparasitic ivermectin (IVM) based on empirical knowledge. The objectives of this study were to 1) measure plasma IVM levels following administration of 0.1 mg/kg IVM p.o., 2) compare plasma IVM levels following administration with regular versus restricted feed rations, 3) measure IVM excretion in feces, and 4) use these findings to generate dosing recommendations for this species. Using a crossover design, six African elephants were divided into two groups. Ivermectin was administered and typical grain rations were either provided or withheld for 2 hr. Blood and fecal samples were collected for 7 days following drug administration. After a 5-wk washout period, groups were switched and the procedure repeated. Plasma and fecal IVM were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. There was no statistically significant difference detected in the pharmacokinetic data between the fed and fasted groups. Peak plasma concentration, area under the curve, and half-life for plasma ranged between 5.41-8.49 ng/ml, 17.1-20.3 ng x day/ml, and 3.12-4.47 day, respectively. High IVM concentrations were detected in feces. The peak concentration values in feces were between 264-311-fold higher than those obtained in plasma. The comparatively large area under the curve and short time to maximum concentration in feces indicate elimination prior to absorption of much of the drug. Plasma IVM concentrations were low when compared to other species. Based on these findings, administration of 0.2-0.4 mg/kg p.o. should be appropriate for eliminating many types of parasites in elephants, and could minimize development of parasite resistance.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered phenylbutazone in African and Asian elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, Ursula; Christensen, J Mark; Nguyen, C; Neelkant, R; Bendas, E

    2008-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic parameters of phenylbutazone were determined in 18 elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus) after single-dose oral administration of 2, 3, and 4 mg/kg phenylbutazone, as well as multiple-dose administrations with a 4-wk washout period between trials. After administration of 2 mg/kg phenylbutazone, mean serum concentrations peaked in approximately 7.5 hr at 4.3 +/- 2.02 microg/ml and 9.7 hr at 7.1 +/- 2.36 microg/ml for African and Asian elephants, respectively, while 3 mg/kg dosages resulted in peak serum concentrations of 7.2 +/- 4.06 microg/ml in 8.4 hr and 12.1 +/- 3.13 microg/ml in 14 hr. The harmonic mean half-life was long, ranging between 13 and 15 hr and 39 and 45 hr for African and Asian elephants, respectively. There was evidence of enterohepatic cycling of phenylbutazone in Asian elephants. Significant differences (P < 0.0001) in pharmacokinetic values occurred between African and Asian elephants for clearance (27.9 and 7.6 ml/hr/kg, respectively), terminal half-life (15.0 and 38.7 hr, respectively), and mean residence time (22.5 and 55.5 hr, respectively) using 2-mg/kg dosages as an example. This suggests that different treatment regimens for Asian and African elephants should be used. There were no apparent gender differences in these parameters for either elephant species.

  14. Standing sedation in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) using detomidine-butorphanol combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiffer, Donald L; Miller, Michele A; Weber, Martha; Stetter, Mark; Fontenot, Deidre K; Robbins, P K; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2005-06-01

    Standing sedation was provided for 14 clinical procedures in three African elephants (Loxodonta africana) managed by combined protected and modified-protected contact and trained through operant conditioning. An initial hand-injection of detomidine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate at a ratio of 1:1 on a microg:microg basis was administered intramuscularly, with a dosage range of 50-70 mg (12.9-19.7 microg/kg) for each drug. The initial injection resulted in adequate sedation for initiation and completion of eight procedures, whereas supplemental doses were required for the remaining procedures. The dosage range for the supplemental injections of each drug was 4.0-7.3 microg/kg. Initial effect was noted within 3.0-25 min (mean = 11.6 min, SD +/- 5.9 min), with maximal effect occurring at 25-30 min for those procedures not requiring supplementation. In all but one procedure, this effect was maintained until the end of the procedure, which ranged from 47 to 98 min (mean = 74.7 min, SD +/- 18.8 min). No cardiac or respiratory depression was appreciated. Recovery after administration of reversal agents was rapid and complete, ranging from 2 to 20 min (mean = 9.0 min, SD +/- 7.0 min). On the basis of the authors' experience, recommended dosage ranges for reversal agents would be intravenous yohimbine (73.4-98.5 microg/kg), intravenous naltrexone (48.9-98.5 microg/kg), and intramuscular naltrexone (73.4-98.5 microg/kg). Approximately one-third to one-half of the total naltrexone dose should be administered intravenously. Mild adverse side effects limited to the gastrointestinal tract were observed in association with five procedures including abdominal distention with or without transient anorexia. Administration of reversal agents, encouraging exercise and water consumption, and administration of flunixin meglumine were helpful in the resolution of signs. In addition to gastrointestinal signs, slight ataxia was observed before initiation of surgical stimulation

  15. Home range, movement, and distribution patterns of the threatened dragonfly Sympetrum depressiusculum (Odonata: Libellulidae: a thousand times greater territory to protect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Dolný

    Full Text Available Dragonflies are good indicators of environmental health and biodiversity. Most studies addressing dragonfly ecology have focused on the importance of aquatic habitats, while the value of surrounding terrestrial habitats has often been overlooked. However, species associated with temporary aquatic habitats must persist in terrestrial environments for long periods. Little is known about the importance of terrestrial habitat patches for dragonflies, or about other factors that initiate or influence dispersal behaviour. The aim of this study was to reveal the relationship between population dynamics of the threatened dragonfly species Sympetrum depressiusculum at its natal site and its dispersal behaviour or routine movements within its terrestrial home range. We used a mark-release-recapture method (marking 2,881 adults and exuviae collection with the Jolly-Seber model and generalized linear models to analyse seasonal and spatial patterns of routine movement in a heterogeneous Central European landscape. Our results show that utilisation of terrestrial habitat patches by adult dragonflies is not random and may be relatively long term (approximately 3 mo. Adult dragonflies were present only in areas with dense vegetation that provided sufficient resources; the insects were absent from active agricultural patches (p = 0.019. These findings demonstrate that even a species tightly linked to its natal site utilises an area that is several orders of magnitude larger than the natal site. Therefore, negative trends in the occurrence of various dragonfly species may be associated not only with disturbances to their aquatic habitats, but also with changes in the surrounding terrestrial landscape.

  16. Phytochemical screening by LC-MS and LC-PDA of ethanolic extracts from the fruits of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Pellizzeri, Vito; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-06-01

    Kigelia africana is a tree native to Africa, with a local employment in numerous fields, ranging from traditional medicine to cosmetics and religious rituals. Parts of the plant generally used are stem bark, fruits, roots and leaves. The fruits, which have a singular 'sausage' shape, are widely exploited by local folk, in particular for applications/products involving genito-urinary apparatus of both human genders. The scope of this work was to make a consistent chemical investigation on this plant species, in order to clarify and increase the information at present available in literature. To this aim, ethanolic extracts of K. africana fruits were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) and electrospray-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) detection, revealing the presence of polyphenols and iridoids. The two detection systems used along with standard co-injection and comparison with previous reports, led to the identification and quantification of six phenolic compounds and three iridoids.

  17. Home range dynamics of the Tehuantepec Jackrabbit in Oaxaca, Mexico Dinámica del ámbito hogareño de la liebre de Tehuantepec en Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Carrillo-Reyes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Information on the spatial ecology of the Tehuantepec jackrabbit (Lepus flavigularis is important for developing management strategies to preserve it in its habitat. We radio-collared and monitored 60 jackrabbits from May 2006 to April 2008. We estimated annual and seasonal home ranges and core areas by using the fixed-kernel isopleth to 95% and 50% of confidence, respectively. This jackrabbit showed a highly variable seasonal home range: 1.13 ha to 152.61 ha for females and 0.20 ha to 71.87 ha for males. Annual and seasonal home ranges and core areas of females were significantly wider than male home ranges. There was considerable overlap of ranges within and between sexes, with the home range of each jackrabbit overlapping with the ranges of 1 to 46 other individuals. Home range and overlap analysis confirms that the Tehuantepec jackrabbit is a polygamous and non-territorial species. Conservation of savannas and grassy dunes is indispensable to assure the survival of the species.La información sobre la ecología espacial de la liebre de Tehuantepec (Lepus flavigularis es importante para el desarrollo de estrategias de manejo para conservar su hábitat. Se radio-marcaron y monitorearon 60 liebres, desde mayo del 2006 hasta abril del 2008. Se estimó el valor del ámbito hogareño anual y su área núcleo utilizando el método de la isopleta de Kernel fijo con 95% y 50% de confianza, respectivamente. Esta especie de liebre mostró un ámbito hogareño estacional altamente variable: de 1.13 ha a 152.61 ha para las hembras y de 0.20 ha a 71.87 ha para los machos. El ámbito hogareño anual y estacional así como sus áreas núcleo fueron significativamente mayores para las hembras que para los de los machos. Se encontró un traslape considerable de las áreas de actividad entre sexos y entre individuos, cada liebre traslapó su ámbito hogareño con 1 a 46 individuos. El análisis de ámbito hogareño y traslape confirma que la liebre de

  18. Use of space and habitat use by elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntumi, C.P.; Aarde, van R.J.; Fairall, N.; Boer, de W.F.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite tracking units fitted to five elephants in the Maputo Elephant Reserve provided information on habitat use. We used the CALHOME program with Adaptive Kernel and MCP (minimum convex polygon) techniques to calculate home range sizes. We interpreted vegetation use by elephants using a vegetat

  19. Enhanced seed dispersal of Prunus africana in fragmented and disturbed forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwig, Nina; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Bleher, Bärbel

    2006-03-01

    Forest destruction and disturbance can have long-term consequences for species diversity and ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal. Understanding these consequences is a crucial component of conserving vulnerable ecosystems. In the heavily fragmented and disturbed Kakamega Forest, western Kenya, we studied seed dispersal of Prunus africana (Rosaceae). In the main forest, five forest fragments, and differently disturbed sites, we quantified the overall frugivore community as an indicator for species diversity. Furthermore, we determined the frugivores on 28 fruiting P. africana trees, estimated seed dispersal, crop size and the general fruit availability of surrounding trees. During the overall frugivore census we recorded 49 frugivorous species; 36 of them were observed visiting P. africana trees and feeding on their fruits. Although overall frugivore species richness was 1.1 times lower in fragments than in main forest sites and 1.02 times higher in highly disturbed than in less disturbed sites, P. africana experienced 1.1 times higher numbers of frugivores in fragments than in main forest sites and 1.5 times higher numbers of frugivores in highly disturbed than in less disturbed sites. Correspondingly, seed dispersal was 1.5 times higher in fragments than in main forest sites and 1.5 times higher in more disturbed than less disturbed sites. Fruit availability of surrounding trees and crop size influenced the number of visitors to some degree. Thus, the number of dispersed seeds seemed to be slightly higher in fragmented and highly disturbed sites. This indicates that loss of single species does not necessarily lead to a decrease of ecosystem services. However, loss of diversity could be a problem in the long term, as a multitude of species might act as buffer against future environmental change.

  20. Aproximações brasileiras às filosofias africanas: caminhos desde uma ontologia Ubuntu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Flor do Nascimento

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo objetiva discutir uma possibilidade de aproximação às filosofias africanas por meio de uma breve introdução da abordagem da ontologia ubuntu, categoria importante de algumas filosofias bantas sobre a humanidade dos humanos. Frente à ausência dos estudos sobre o pensamento filosófico africano em nosso país, resultado do racismo epistêmico, buscar possibilidades de entrada nesse campo de estudos é importante, seja pela tarefa de incrementar a história da filosofia com outros campos e lugares da produção filosófica, reagindo ao discurso racista sobre o continente africano e sua produção intelectual, seja para atender a determinação legal de inserir conteúdos de história e cultura africanas nos currículos dos ensinos fundamental e médio, o que demanda do ensino da filosofia o conhecimento de filosofias africanas. Palavras-chave: Ubuntu, Filosofias Africanas, Racismo Epistêmico, Ontologias Relacionais.   Abstract: This article aims to discuss the possibility of approach to African philosophies through a brief introduction of ubuntu ontology, an important category of some Bantu philosophies about the humanity of humans. Due to the lack of studies on African philosophical thought in Brazil, as a result of epistemic racism, it is important to seek input possibilities in this field of study in order to improve the dialogue of the history of philosophy with other fields. It is essential to react to the racist discourse on African continent as well as to its intellectual production in order to include African history and culture contents in the curricula of primary and secondary education. For this reason, the knowledge of African philosophies is thus essential to the teaching of philosophy. Keywords: Ubuntu, African Philosophies, Epistemic Racism, Relational Ontologies.

  1. Interactions of antibiotics and methanolic crude extracts of Afzelia Africana (Smith.) against drug resistance bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyegoro, Olayinka; Adewusi, Adekanmi; Oyedemi, Sunday; Akinpelu, David; Okoh, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Infection due to multidrug resistance pathogens is difficult to manage due to bacterial virulence factors and because of a relatively limited choice of antimicrobial agents. Thus, it is imperative to discover fresh antimicrobials or new practices that are effective for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant microorganisms. The objective of this experiment is to investigate for synergistic outcomes when crude methanolic extract of the stem bark of Afzelia africana and antibiotics were combined against a panel of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains that have been implicated in infections. Standard microbiological protocols were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and antibiotics, as well as to investigate the effect of combinations of the methanolic extract of A. africana stem bark and selected antibiotics using the time-kill assay method. The extract of Afzelia africana exhibited antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria made up of environmental and standard strains at a screening concentration of 5 mg/mL. The MICs of the crude extracts and the antibiotics varied between 1 μg/mL and 5.0 mg/mL. Overall, synergistic response constituted about 63.79% of all manner of combinations of extract and antibiotics against all test organisms; antagonism was not detected among the 176 tests carried out. The extract from A. africana stem bark showed potentials of synergy in combination with antibiotics against strains of pathogenic bacteria. The detection of synergy between the extract and antibiotics demonstrates the potential of this plant as a source of antibiotic resistance modulating compounds.

  2. Evaluation of Prosopis africana Seed Gum as an Extended Release Polymer for Tablet Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nadaf, Sameer; Nnamani, Petra; Jadhav, Namdeo

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to screen Prosopis africana seed gum (PG), anionic polymer for extended release tablet formulation. Different categories of drugs (charge basis) like diclofenac sodium (DS), chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), and ibuprofen (IB) were compacted with PG and compared with different polymers (charge basis) like xanthan gum (XG), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-K100M), and chitosan (CP). For each drug, 12 batches of tablets were prepared by wet granul...

  3. [Chemical and DNA analyses for the products of a psychoactive plant, Voacanga africana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Maruyama, Takuro; Miyashita, Akinori; Goda, Yukihiro

    2009-08-01

    Voacanga africana (Apocynaceae) is a small tropical African tree. The root bark and seeds of this tree contain a number of alkaloids, including ibogaine (a hallucinogenic/aphrodisiac compound in bark), tabersonine (a major constituteent of seeds) and other voacanga alkaloids, traditionally used in Africa for religious purposes. Recently, some kinds of products containing this plant (root bark and seeds) have been distributed in the drug market in expectation of its hallucinogenic/aphrodisiac effects. There has been no report that has discussed quantitative analyses of these alkaloids in the products and their botanical origins. In this study, to investigate the trend of such a non-controlled psychotropic plant of abuse, a simultaneous analytical method was developed using LC/MS for the voacanga alkaloids including ibogaine and tabersonine in the commercial products of V. africana. Moreover, the botanical origins of these products were investigated by DNA analyses. As a result of the LC/MS analyses, the products were classified into two chemical types; an ibogaine-type and a tabersonine-type. The samples of the ibogaine-type contain ibogaine (0.05-0.6%) and other voacanga alkaloids; voacamine, voacamidine and voacangine, while those of the tabersonine-type mainly contain tabersonine (0.6-1.6%). The sequence analyses of chloroplast DNA, trnL-F region suggested that most of the products were derived from V. africana or closely related plants. They were classified into four genotypes based on nucleotide sequence of the trnL-F IGS region. The proposed methods of chemical and DNA analyses would be useful for investigating the trend in the distribution of the products of V. africana.

  4. Detection of Self Incompatibility Genotypes in Prunus africana: Characterization, Evolution and Spatial Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Ssali Nantongo

    Full Text Available In flowering plants, self-incompatibility is an effective genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization. Most Prunus tree species exhibit a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI system, in which the pollen phenotype is encoded by its own haploid genome. To date, no identification of S-alleles had been done in Prunus africana, the only member of the genus in Africa. To identify S-RNase alleles and hence determine S-genotypes in African cherry (Prunus africana from Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda, primers flanking the first and second intron were designed and these amplified two bands in most individuals. PCR bands on agarose indicated 26 and 8 different S-alleles for second and first intron respectively. Partial or full sequences were obtained for all these fragments. Comparison with published S-RNase data indicated that the amplified products were S-RNase alleles with very high interspecies homology despite the high intraspecific variation. Against expectations for a locus under balancing selection, frequency and spatial distribution of the alleles in a study plot was not random. Implications of the results to breeding efforts in the species are discussed, and mating experiments are strongly suggested to finally prove the functionality of SI in P. africana.

  5. Detection of Self Incompatibility Genotypes in Prunus africana: Characterization, Evolution and Spatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantongo, Judith Ssali; Eilu, Gerald; Geburek, Thomas; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, self-incompatibility is an effective genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization. Most Prunus tree species exhibit a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system, in which the pollen phenotype is encoded by its own haploid genome. To date, no identification of S-alleles had been done in Prunus africana, the only member of the genus in Africa. To identify S-RNase alleles and hence determine S-genotypes in African cherry (Prunus africana) from Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda, primers flanking the first and second intron were designed and these amplified two bands in most individuals. PCR bands on agarose indicated 26 and 8 different S-alleles for second and first intron respectively. Partial or full sequences were obtained for all these fragments. Comparison with published S-RNase data indicated that the amplified products were S-RNase alleles with very high interspecies homology despite the high intraspecific variation. Against expectations for a locus under balancing selection, frequency and spatial distribution of the alleles in a study plot was not random. Implications of the results to breeding efforts in the species are discussed, and mating experiments are strongly suggested to finally prove the functionality of SI in P. africana.

  6. A inquietude de Eduardo Agualusa: Passado, identidade e transculturação na Literatura Africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska Rodrigues de Matos Oliveira Martins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A Literatura Africana possui embates que dialogam com as crises da chamada Pós-modernidade. Uma delas é a questão da identidade. Com base na leitura do livro “O vendedor de Passados” (2004, pretende-se discutir sobre a multiplicidade identitária tanto de suas personagens, como da própria África, refletindo sobre o conceito de transculturação, identidade, revisitação do passado. Na obra do escritor angolano Eduardo Agualusa, a trama discursiva se mistura ao projeto inventado e transformado da realidade. Invenção, história, sonho e passado se reinventam para criar uma identidade africana no discurso da obra “O vendedor de Passados”. A perspectiva da transculturação surge para questionar paradigmas, para impulsionar outros pontos de partida da história. Literatura, História e Sociedade africanas se encontram em um cenário quase irreal, em que comprar um passado é ter outra identidade e assumi-la.

  7. Biodiesel from the seed oil of Treculia africana with high free fatty acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewuyi, Adewale [Redeemer' s University, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Redemption City, Ogun State (Nigeria); Oderinde, Rotimi A.; Ojo, David F.K. [University of Ibadan, Industrial Unit, Department of Chemistry, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2012-12-15

    Oil was extracted from the seed of Treculia africana using hexane. The oil was characterized and used in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel was produced from the seed oil of T. africana using a two-step reaction system. The first step was a pretreatment which involved the use of 2 % sulfuric acid in methanol, and secondly, transesterification reaction using KOH as catalyst. Saponification value of the oil was 201.70 {+-} 0.20 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid was 8.20 {+-} 0.50 %, while iodine value was 118.20 {+-} 0.50 g iodine/100 g. The most dominant fatty acid was C18:2 (44 %). The result of the method applied showed a conversion which has ester content above 98 %, flash point of 131 {+-} 1.30 C, and phosphorus content below 1 ppm in the biodiesel. The biodiesel produced exhibited properties that were in agreement with the European standard (EN 14214). This study showed that the high free fatty acid content of T. africana seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification reaction using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst. (orig.)

  8. Genetic identification of five strongyle nematode parasites in wild african elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, E R; Kinsella, J M; Chiyo, P; Obanda, V; Moss, C; Archie, E A

    2012-07-01

    African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) are an ecologically and economically important species in many African habitats. However, despite the importance of elephants, research on their parasites is limited, especially in wild populations. Currently, we lack genetic tools to identify elephant parasites. We present genetic markers from ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to identify five elephant-specific nematode parasites in the family Strongylidae: Murshidia linstowi, Murshidia longicaudata, Murshidia africana, Quilonia africana, and Khalilia sameera. We collected adult nematodes from feces deposited by wild elephants living in Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Using both morphologic and genetic techniques, we found that the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in rDNA provides a reliable marker to distinguish these species of strongyles. We found no evidence for cryptic genetic species within these morphologic species according to the cox-1 region of mtDNA. Levels of genetic diversity in strongyles from elephants were consistent with the genetic diversity seen within other strongyle species. We anticipate that these results will be a useful tool for identifying gastrointestinal nematode parasites in elephants.

  9. Bioactive constituents in Prunus africana: geographical variation throughout Africa and associations with environmental and genetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadu, Caroline A C; Parich, Alexandra; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Muluvi, Geoffrey M; Eyog-Matig, Oscar; Muchugi, Alice; Williams, Vivienne L; Ramamonjisoa, Lolona; Kapinga, Consolatha; Foahom, Bernard; Katsvanga, Cuthbert; Hafashimana, David; Obama, Crisantos; Vinceti, Barbara; Schumacher, Rainer; Geburek, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Prunus africana--an evergreen tree found in Afromontane forests--is used in traditional medicine to cure benign prostate hyperplasia. Different bioactive constituents derived from bark extracts from 20 tree populations sampled throughout the species' natural range in Africa were studied by means of GC-MSD. The average concentration [mg/kgw/w] in increasing order was: lauric acid (18), myristic acid (22), n-docosanol (25), ferulic acid (49), β-sitostenone (198), β-sitosterol (490), and ursolic acid (743). The concentrations of many bark constituents were significantly correlated and concentration of n-docosanol was highly significantly correlated with all other analytes. Estimates of variance components revealed the highest variation among populations for ursolic acid (66%) and the lowest for β-sitosterol (20%). In general, environmental parameters recorded (temperature, precipitation, altitude) for the samples sites were not correlated with the concentration of most constituents; however, concentration of ferulic acid was significantly correlated with annual precipitation. Because the concentration of compounds in bark extracts may be affected by tree size, the diameter of sampled plants at 1.3m tree height (as proxy of age) was recorded. The only relationship with tree diameter was a negative correlation with ursolic acid. Under the assumption that genetically less variable populations have less variable concentrations of bark compounds, correlations between variation parameters of the concentration and the respective genetic composition based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers were assessed. Only variation of β-sitosterol concentration was significantly correlated with haplotypic diversity. The fixation index (F(IS)) was positively correlated with the variation in concentration of ferulic acid. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) indicated a weak geographic pattern. Mantel tests, however, revealed associations between the geographic patterns of bioactive

  10. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered ibuprofen in African and Asian elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, Ursula; Christensen, J Mark

    2007-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic parameters of S(+) and R(-) ibuprofen were determined in 20 elephants after oral administration of preliminary 4-, 5-, and 6-mg/kg doses of racemic ibuprofen. Following administration of 4 mg/kg ibuprofen, serum concentrations of ibuprofen peaked at 5 hr at 3.9 +/- 2.07 microg/ml R(-) and 10.65 +/- 5.64 microg/ml S(+) (mean +/- SD) in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and at 3 hr at 5.14 +/- 1.39 microg/ml R(-) and 13.77 +/- 3.75 microg/ml S(+) in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), respectively. Six-milligram/kilogram dosages resulted in peak serum concentrations of 5.91 +/- 2.17 microg/ml R(-) and 14.82 +/- 9.71 microg/ml S(+) in African elephants, and 5.72 +/- 1.60 microg/ml R(-) and 18.32 +/- 10.35 microg/ml S(+) in Asian elephants. Ibuprofen was eliminated with first-order kinetics characteristic of a single-compartment model with a half-life of 2.2-2.4 hr R(-) and 4.5-5.1 hr S(+) in African elephants and 2.4-2.9 hr R(-) and 5.9-7.7 hr S(+) in Asian elephants. Serum concentrations of R(-) ibuprofen were undetectable at 24 hr, whereas S(+) ibuprofen decreased to below 5 microg/ml 24 hr postadministration in all elephants. The volume of distribution was estimated to be between 322 and 356 ml/kg R(-) and 133 and 173 ml/kg S(+) in Asian elephants and 360-431 ml/kg R(-) and 179-207 ml/kg S(+) in African elephants. Steady-state serum concentrations of ibuprofen ranged from 2.2 to 10.5 microg/ml R(-) and 5.5 to 32.0 microg/ml S(+) (mean: 5.17 +/- 0.7 R(-) and 13.95 +/- 0.9 S(+) microg/ml in African elephants and 5.0 +/- 1.09 microg/ml R(-) and 14.1 +/- 2.8 microg/ml S(+) in Asian elephants). Racemic ibuprofen administered at 6 mg/kg/12 hr for Asian elephants and at 7 mg/kg/12 hr for African elephants results in therapeutic serum concentrations of this antiinflammatory agent.

  11. Phylogeography of the Afromontane Prunus africana reveals a former migration corridor between East and West African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadu, C A C; Schueler, S; Konrad, H; Muluvi, G M M; Eyog-Matig, O; Muchugi, A; Williams, V L; Ramamonjisoa, L; Kapinga, C; Foahom, B; Katsvanga, C; Hafashimana, D; Obama, C; Geburek, T

    2011-01-01

    Scattered populations of the same tree species in montane forests through Africa have led to speculations on the origins of distributions. Here, we inferred the colonization history of the Afromontane tree Prunus africana using seven chloroplast DNA loci to study 582 individuals from 32 populations sampled in a range-wide survey from across Africa, revealing 22 haplotypes. The predominant haplotype, HT1a, occurred in 13 populations of eastern and southern Africa, while a second common haplotype, HT1m, occurred in populations of western Uganda and western Africa. The high differentiation observed between populations in East Africa was unexpected, with stands in western Uganda belonging with the western African lineage. High genetic differentiation among populations revealed using ordered alleles (N(ST) = 0.840) compared with unordered alleles (G(ST) = 0.735), indicated a clear phylogeographic pattern. Bayesian coalescence modelling suggested that 'east' and 'west' African types likely split early during southward migration of the species, while further more recent splitting events occurred among populations in the East of the continent. The high genetic similarity found between western Uganda and west African populations indicates that a former Afromontane migration corridor may have existed through Equatorial Africa.

  12. Using oxygen at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen - home use; COPD - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive airways disease - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive lung disease - home oxygen; Chronic bronchitis - home oxygen; Emphysema - home oxygen; Chronic respiratory ...

  13. Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes Known Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Nursing Homes Font size A A A Print Share ... Research Getting More Help Related Topics Assisted Living Community-Based ... Health of Nursing Home Residents Friday, September 18, 2015 Join our ...

  14. Potentials of leaves of Aspilia africana (Compositae in wound care: an experimental evaluation

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    Akah PA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potentials of the leaves of the haemorrhage plant, Aspilia africana C. D Adams (Compositae in wound care was evaluated using experimental models. A. africana, which is widespread in Africa, is used in traditional medicine to stop bleeding from wounds, clean the surfaces of sores, in the treatment of rheumatic pains, bee and scorpion stings and for removal of opacities and foreign bodies from the eyes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potentials for use of leaves of this plant in wound care. Methods The effect of the methanol extract (ME and the hexane (HF and methanol (MF fractions (obtained by cold maceration and graded solvent extraction respectively on bleeding/clotting time of fresh experimentally-induced wounds in rats, coagulation time of whole rat blood, growth of microbial wound contaminants and rate of healing of experimentally-induced wounds in rats were studied as well as the acute toxicity and lethality (LD50 of the methanol extract and phytochemical analysis of the extract and fractions. Results The extract and fractions significantly (P ME>HF. Also, the extract and fractions caused varying degrees of inhibition of the growth of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as typed strains of Ps. aeruginosa (ATCC 10145 and Staph. aureus (ATCC 12600, and reduced epithelialisation period of wounds experimentally-induced in rats. Acute toxicity and lethality (LD50 test in mice established an i.p LD50 of 894 mg/kg for the methanol extract (ME. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, resins, sterols, terpenoids and carbohydrates. Conclusion The leaves of A. africana possess constituents capable of arresting wound bleeding, inhibiting the growth of microbial wound contaminants and accelerating wound healing which suggest good potentials for use in wound care.

  15. Amino acid profile of raw and locally processed seeds of Prosopis africana and Ricinus communis: potential antidotes to protein malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi U. Igwe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing incidence of malnutrition occasioned by high incidence of hunger,worsening food situation in the world, insufficient availability and high cost of animal protein sources, has necessitated extensive research into and use of alternative plant protein sources especially underexploited leguminous seeds.Methods: Flours from raw, boiled and fermented seeds of Prosopis africana and Ricinus communis were evaluated for crude protein and amino acid (AA profiles, and their protein qualities determined. Results: Fermentation improved the protein contents of raw seeds of P. africana and R. communis by 18.70% and 3.95% respectively. In the raw and fermented P. africana seeds, glutamate at 132.60 ± 1.30 and 182.70 ± 3.02 mg/g crude protein (mg/gcp was the most abundant amino acid (AA, while leucine (62.80 ± 0.60 and 79.50 ± 2.01 mg/gcp was the most concentrated essential amino acid (EAA. Aspartate (151.90 ± 2.01 and 170.10 ± 2.00 mg/gcp and arginine (72.80 ± 2.01 and 78.60 ± 2.00 mg/gcp were the most concentrated and abundant non-essential amino acid (NEAA and EAA in the raw and fermented samples of R. communisrespectively. The total AA concentrations (mg/gcp of raw and fermented P. africana were 733.00 and 962.60 respectively, while those of R. communis were 823.50 and 894.10 respectively. The total EAA contents (mg/gcp for P. africana were 311.00 (raw and 404.50 (fermented, and for R. communis; 401.10 (raw and 430.30 (fermented. Threonine was the limiting EAA in raw and fermented P. africana, whereas lysine was the limiting EAA in R. communis raw sample. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05 increased the individual AA compositions of P. africana and R. communis by 94% and 53% respectively, while boiling reduced these parameters significantly (p<0.05 by 47% and 82% respectively. Conclusion: P. africana and R. communis seeds are potentially important plant sources of protein and essential amino acids, and so could be of great

  16. El cambio del clima y la barrera biogeográfica del estrecho de Gibraltar para las aves africanas

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro, Darío; Olivero,Jesús; Real, Raimundo; Muñoz, Antonio Román

    2016-01-01

    El reciente cambio del clima está afectando a la distribución de las especies, siendo habitual que se provoquen desplazamientos latitudinales. En el estrecho de Gibraltar, frontera biogeográica que separa la biota africana de la europea y, a su vez, puente de migración para muchas especies, estos cambios son de especial importancia. En esta investigación se han recopilado los registros homologados en España de varias especies de rapaces típicamente africanas que comienzan a observarse en E...

  17. Identification of components of Prunus africana extract that inhibit lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, M A; Nowak, D M; Leonova, E; Levin, R M; Longhurst, P A

    1999-11-01

    Extractive and chromatographic separations were performed on V-1326, a chloroform extract from the bark of Prunus africana (also referred to as Pygeum africanum), which is used to treat the symptoms associated with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The relative amounts of eleven identified constituents in crude V-1326 and in separated fractions were determined using gas chromatographic analysis. The ability of V-1326 and its separated fractions to inhibit ferrous ion-induced stimulation of lipid peroxidation in microsomal preparations from rabbit livers was evaluated. The extract, V-1326, and fractions containing high levels of myristic acid potently inhibited lipid peroxidation.

  18. Cephaloleia sp. Cerca a Vagelineata Pic*, una Plaga de la Palma Africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urueta Sandino Eduardo

    1972-08-01

    Full Text Available Cephalolia sp. y Cephaloleila sp, se han empleado como sinónimos del género Cepaloleia sp. (Lepesme. 1947. Se sabe que los estados de larva y adulto atacan el follaje de la palma africana (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. trayendo muchas veces como consecuencia secamientos en los folíolos o su invasión por hongos. En Colombia el Cephaloleia próximo a vagelineata Pic se presenta en la zona de Urabá y posiblemente en el Departamento de Santander.

  19. Microbiology of the external ear canal in six African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, S K; Suedmeyer, W K; Fales, W H

    2009-02-21

    Samples collected from both external ear canals of six adult female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) were cultured for fungi, yeasts and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. All the samples produced heavy growths of several aerobic bacteria, but anaerobic bacteria were rare and no fungi or yeasts were isolated. The most common bacterium isolated was Staphylococcus epidermidis, which was cultured from 11 of the 12 ears. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus lwoffi, alpha-haemolytic Streptococcus and Corynebacterium species, and Aeromonas caviae were all isolated from at least six of the 12 ears.

  20. Home, Smart Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj; Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The article places focus on how smart technologies integrated in a one family- home and particular the window offer unique challenges and opportunities for designing buildings with the best possible environments for people and nature. Toward an interdisciplinary approach, we address the interaction...... between daylight defined in technical terms and daylight defined in aesthetic, architectural terms. Through field-tests of a Danish carbon-neutral home and an analysis of five key design parameters, we explore the contradictions and potentials in smart buildings, using the smart window as example of how...... to the energy design is central. The study illuminates an approach of the design of smart houses as living organisms by connecting technology with the needs of the occupants with the power and beauty of daylight....

  1. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals' experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience), environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice) and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (pSocial factors included number of animals functionally housed together (Social Experience) and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (psocial or housing differences between African (N = 138) and Asian (N = 117) species or between males (N = 54) and females (N = 201). The most notable exception was Total Space Experience, with African and male elephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-valuehousing and social variables evaluated herein have been used in a series of subsequent epidemiological analyses relating to various elephant welfare outcomes.

  2. The social and ecological integration of captive-raised adolescent male African elephants (Loxodonta africana into a wild population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Evans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A rapid rise in the number of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana used in the tourism industry in southern Africa and orphaned elephants in human care has led to concerns about their long-term management, particularly males. One solution is to release them into the wild at adolescence, when young males naturally leave their herd. However, this raises significant welfare concerns: little is known about how well released elephants integrate into wild populations and whether they pose a greater threat to humans than wild elephants. We document the release of three captive-raised adolescent male African elephants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite having been part of a herd of working elephants for at least eight years, the three males progressively integrated into the complex fission-fusion society of wild bull elephants. In the three years following release, they showed no tendency to be closer to human habitation, and there were no significant differences between wild and captive-raised adolescent males in the total number of social interactions, size of ranges and habitat use. However, the captive-raised elephants sparred less and vocalised more, and spent more time alone and in smaller social groups. Thereafter the released elephants continued to expand their ranges and interact with both mixed-sex herds and males. One male was shot by farmers 94 months after release, along with ten wild elephants, on a ranch outside the protected area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that captive-raised adolescent male elephants can integrate into a wild population. Long-term studies are required to determine the longevity, breeding success, and eventual fate of released male elephants, but we identified no significant short-term welfare problems for the released elephants or recipient population. Release of captive-raised mammals with complex social systems is a husbandry option that should be

  3. Effects of Particle Size on the Thermal Properties of Sawdust, Corncobs and Prosopis Africana Charcoal Briquettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokan, A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal properties of Sawdust, Corncobs and Prosopis Africana Charcoal briquettes were studied as a function of particle size. The particle sizes were 300, 425, 600, 1180 and 2000µm. The sieved materials were compressed into briquettes and pellets. The pellets were 12.5mm diameter and 13mm in length. The properties determined were moisture content, ash content and calorific value. The calorific value for Sawdust particle were 300µm =16.04MJ/kg and 2000µm = 17.82MJ/kg which indicates an increased with increase in particle size. For Corncobs the calorific value also rises from 16.63MJ/kg to 17.51MJ/kg for 300 µm and 2000 µm respectively. In the same vain Prosopis Africana charcoal gives 24.94MJ/kg for 300µm size and 29.67MJ/kg for 2000µm. It was observed that for all the materials investigated, an increase in particle size was accompanied by higher energy output.

  4. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Screening of Flavanones and Chalcones from Galenia africana and Dicerothamnus rhinocerotis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticha, Lawrence A; Klaasen, Jeremy A; Green, Ivan R; Naidoo, Sivapregasen; Baker, Bienyameen; Pietersen, Ray-Dean

    2015-07-01

    This study focused on an 80% ethanol:water extract of Galenia africana and Dicerothamnus rhinocerotis in which a phytochemical study revealed the presence of flavonoids as the major secondary plant metabolites. Eleven pure flavonoids viz., (E)-2',4'-dihydroxychalcone 1, (S)-7-hydroxyflavanone 2, (E)-2',4'-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrochalcone 3, (S)-5,7-dihydroxyflavanone 4, (S)-2',5,7,-trihydroxyflavanone 5, (S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2'-methoxyflavanone 6, 5,7-dihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one 7, (S)-5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone 8 and (E)-2-hydroxy-3',6'-dimethoxychalcone 9 were isolated from G. africana, while [sakuranetin] (S)-4',5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone 10 and [eriodictyol-3',7-dimethyl ether] (S)-4',5-dihydroxy-3',7-dimethoxyflavanone 11 were isolated from D. rhinocerotis. Compounds 6 and 9 are new while this is the first reported isolation of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10 and 11 from these plants. All isolated compounds were tested for their antimycobacterial activity against the reference strain Mtb H37Rv. The most active compound, 9, demonstrated a MIC99 of 5 μM against Mtb H37Rv American Type Culture (ATCC) and (ATCC27294), which were also sensitive to Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin. The antibacterial activity of 9 might be ascribed to the presence of features such as the α,β-unsaturated ketone and the substitution patterns on the A and B rings.

  5. EVALUATION OF CEMENT-BONDED PARTICLE BOARD PRODUCED FROM AFZELIA AFRICANA WOOD RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLUFEMI A. SOTANNDE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was design to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of cement-bonded particleboards produced from Afzelia africana wood residues. The production variables investigated were three wood particle types (flakes, flake-sawdust mix and sawdust, three chemical accelerators (CaCl2, MgCl2 and AlCl3 and four wood-cement ratios (1:2.0, 1:2.5, 1:3.0 and 1:3.5. The accelerators were based on 2% by weight of cement used. The boards produced were subjected to physical tests such as density, percentage water absorption and thickness swelling. Mechanical properties evaluated were modulus of rupture, internal bonding strength and compressive strength. The results revealed that the type of particle used, wood-cement ratio and chemical additives had a marked influence on the physical and mechanical properties of the boards (p < 0.05. From quality view point, flake-sawdust composite ranked best while flake boards ranked least. Similarly, CaCl2 had the best influence on the setting of the boards followed by MgCl2 and AlCl3. Finally, it has been shown that particle boards that satisfied the BISON type HZ requirement and ISO 8335 can be produced from Afzelia africana particularly at wood-cement of 1:2.5 and above.

  6. Home hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agar, John W; Perkins, Anthony; Heaf, James G

    2015-01-01

    We describe the infrastructure that is necessary for hemodialysis in the home focusing on physical requirements, the organization of plumbing and water, and the key features that should guide the selection of machines that are suitable for home use....

  7. Chromosome analysis in the Kruger National Park: Mitotic and meiotic studies in the African elephant loxodonta africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wallace

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available The present report is published because of the paucity of publication on the mitotic chromosomes of the African elephant Loxodonta africana, and because it is the fisrt study in which the meiotic chromosomes of the species are described.

  8. Literaturas africanas de expressão portuguesa : o século XIX : belas-letras e realismo

    OpenAIRE

    Laranjeira, Pires

    1996-01-01

    Académico - Licenciaturas As influências do Romantismo, do Realismo, do Simbolismo e de outros ismos nas literaturas africanas oitocentistas, nomeadamente na angolana, cabo-verdiana, são-tomense e moçambicana. Alguns exemplos de textos e temáticas. Depoimento de Ana Mafalda Leite, professora da Faculdade de Letras de Lisboa.

  9. [Assessment of our home care and home palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Yasuhiko; Suzushino, Seiko; Tamotsu, Kiyokazu

    2014-12-01

    We conducted home care and home palliative care from the department of home care. We provided home care services to 190 patients(105 men, 85 women)in October 2013. Their average age was 78.7(range: 32-102)years old, and home care had been underway from 1 day to 8 years, 10 months. Among all participants, 168(88.4%)suffered from malignant diseases, 168 patients had died, and over half of deceased patients(88 out of 168)had died at home. We used opioids for control of cancer pain, carried out home parenteral nutrition(HPN), home enteral nutrition(HEN), percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy( PEG), and removed pleural effusion and ascites during home care. In order to facilitate the practice of palliative care by the palliative care team, which consists of various medical staff in the hospital, we are giving high priority to education and enlightenment in the hospital. To provide enlightenment, education, and cooperation between regional home care and home palliative care, we are also conducting educational lectures in the regional party of the Iwaki city medical associate, and providing combined educational-medical training for home care and home palliative care by various medical staff.

  10. Home Is where You Draw Strength and Rest: The Meanings of Home for Houseless Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A.; Evans, Josh D.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the meanings ascribed to the construct "home" by 208 youths defined by mainstream society as "homeless". Youth narratives on the topic of home ranged across a continuum with home as state at one end (i.e., home is a state of mind, comprised of one's friends) and home as place at the other (i.e., home as a physical…

  11. Kinetic Model of the Sorption of Cu2+ and Pb2+ From Aqueous Solution Using Carbonized Treculia Africana Husk as Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    , A.K. Asiagwu; , P.E Omuku; , J.I. Odiachi; , V.N. Okafor

    2016-01-01

    The sorption kinetics of model (Cu2+ and Pb“) from aqueous solution using carbonized Africana brad fruit (Treculia Africana) husk was investigated. The effect of contact time, variation in mass and particle size of adsorbent and adsorption isotherms were studied. The time-dependent experiment showed rapid sorption between 15-30 minutes with maximum sorption at 30mins, after which the rate of adsorption became almost constant. The sorption capacity is dependent on its particle size. A particle...

  12. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of a new polysaccharide gum from Prosopis africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikwu, M U; Ezeabasili, S I; Esimone, C O

    2001-01-01

    The gum obtained from the ripe seeds of Prosopis africana was processed to compendial standard for plant gums and characterised. Toxicological studies of the polysaccharide on mice showed the material to be safe. The material hydrates slowly in aqueous media to form a colloidal dispersion. Swelling studies on the gum shows that the gum has a higher swelling capacity than methylcellulose. Rheological studies showed that the material is more viscous than tragacanth gum at equivalent concentrations. Acid hydrolysis and thin layer chromatography of the resulting hydrolysates showed that the gum contains glucose, fructose, galactose and xylose as the monosaccharide components. Microbial tests showed the gum to contain 8.26 x 10(4) viable cells per gram when freshly prepared. Other properties of the gum evaluated includes; melting or charring temperature, optical properties, true density, ash values, element content as well as its reactions with lead subacetate solution and 0.02 M iodine.

  13. African elephants (Loxodonta africana) recognize visual attention from face and body orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Anna F; Byrne, Richard W

    2014-07-01

    How do animals determine when others are able and disposed to receive their communicative signals? In particular, it is futile to make a silent gesture when the intended audience cannot see it. Some non-human primates use the head and body orientation of their audience to infer visual attentiveness when signalling, but whether species relying less on visual information use such cues when producing visual signals is unknown. Here, we test whether African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are sensitive to the visual perspective of a human experimenter. We examined whether the frequency of gestures of head and trunk, produced to request food, was influenced by indications of an experimenter's visual attention. Elephants signalled significantly more towards the experimenter when her face was oriented towards them, except when her body faced away from them. These results suggest that elephants understand the importance of visual attention for effective communication.

  14. Adubação com macro e micronutrientes ajustada à demanda nutricional da violeta africana

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Glaucio Leboso Alemparte Abrantes dos

    2011-01-01

    A violeta africana (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl) é uma espécie ornamental muito apreciada. No entanto, porque a adubação e a nutrição dessa espécie são baseadas apenas na experiência de produtores e dos fabricantes de fertilizantes, as indicações de adubação são controversas, e formulações químicas N-P-K de outras culturas são indicadas. Ocorre, ainda, que não há informações sobre adubação com micronutrientes. No momento, porém, a empresa B&G Flores está a lançar experimentalmente uma formulaç...

  15. Initial findings on visual acuity thresholds in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyan-Norwalt, Melissa R; Peterson, Jeff; Milankow King, Barbara; Staggs, Timothy E; Dale, Robert H I

    2010-01-01

    There are only a few published examinations of elephant visual acuity. All involved Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and found visual acuity to be between 8' and 11' of arc for a stimulus near the tip of the trunk, equivalent to a 0.50 cm gap, at a distance of about 2 m from the eyes. We predicted that African elephants (Loxodonta africana) would have similarly high visual acuity, necessary to facilitate eye-trunk coordination for feeding, drinking and social interactions. When tested on a discrimination task using Landolt-C stimuli, one African elephant cow demonstrated a visual acuity of 48' of arc. This represents the ability to discriminate a gap as small as 2.75 cm in a stimulus 196 cm from the eye. This single-subject study provides a preliminary estimate of the visual acuity of African elephants.

  16. FATAL ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS INFECTION IN AN AFRICAN SAVANNA ELEPHANT (LOXODONTA AFRICANA) IN A FRENCH ZOO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamglait, Benjamin; Joris, Antoine; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Lemberger, Karin

    2015-06-01

    A fatal case of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) involving an African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) occurred in November 2013 at the Réserve Africaine de Sigean, France. An adult female was found dead without any preliminary symptoms. Gross pathologic changes consisted of petechiae and hemorrhages on mucosae and internal organs, abundant transudate in the abdominal and pericardial cavities, and myocarditis. Histopathologic examination showed extensive degeneration and necrosis of ventricular cardiomyocytes with concurrent lymphoplasmocytic and eosinophilic infiltrate. An EMCV was isolated from several organs and considered the causative agent of the myocarditis. The same strain of virus was also isolated in rodents captured on zoo premises and considered to be the reservoir of the virus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first EMCV case in a captive African elephant in Europe.

  17. Home front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-04

    Ninety-year-old Ivy Tabberer protested against the closure of her care home at the Houses of Parliament last week. She was joined by fellow residents in the Havering Action Against Home Closures group and three generations of her family. Ms Tabberer is pictured with daughter Doreen Walpole (left), granddaughter Annette (far right) and great granddaughter Shereen (middle). 'If all the homes close,' said Ms Tabberer, 'where are we going to stay?'

  18. Secondary Metabolites from Jacaranda Mimosifolia and Kigelia Africana (Bignoniaceae and Their Anticandidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazare Sidjui Sidjui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available From the stem barks of Jacaranda mimosifolia benzoic acid (1, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, 5-carboxy- 1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,2,4a-trimethyl-[1S-(1α,2β,4aβ,8aα] ( 2, betulinic acid ( 3, lupeol (4 and ursolic acid (5 were isolated. Similarly, lapachol (6, dehydro-α-lapachone (7, 2- acetylfuro-1, 4-naphthoquinone (8, p-coumaric acid (9, caffeic acid (10, nonacosanoic acid, 2-(4-hydroxyphenylethyl ester (11, β-sitosterol (12, kigelinol (13, oleanolic acid (14, β-friedelinol (15, pomolic acid (16, and kojic acid (17 were isolated from the stem barks of Kigelia africana. All the isolated compounds were characterized by using spectroscopic methods especially 1D and 2D NMR and ESI mass spectrometry and comparison with literature data. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 1, 2, 3 and 5, and compounds 11, 14, 15 and 16 were isolated for the first time from Jacaranda mimosifolia and Kigelia africana, respectively. All these compounds were screened for anticandidal activity by agar diffusion method and microbroth dilution technique on four Candida albicans strains (ATCCL26, ATCC12C, ATCCP37039, and ATCCP37037. Among them, compounds 9, 10, and 17 exhibited the highest anticandidal activity that varied between the microbial species (MIC= 0.01 ± 0.00 − 0.03 ± 0.00 mg/mL on C. albicans ATCCL26, ATCCP37037, ATCCP37039 and ATCC12C strains. Compound 17 was likely the most active against the four Candida albicans strains (MIC= 0.01 ± 0.00 − 0.02 ± 0.00 mg/mL.

  19. Structural Characterization of Prosopis africana Populations (Guill., Perrott., and Rich. Taub in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towanou Houètchégnon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural characterization of Prosopis africana of Benin was studied on the basis of forest inventory conducted in three different vegetation types (savannah, fallow, and field and three climate zones. The data collected in 139 plots of 1000 m2 each related to the diameter at breast (1.3 m above ground, total height, identification, and measurement of DBH related P. africana species height. Tree-ring parameters such as Blackman and Green indices, basal area, average diameter, height of Lorey, and density were calculated and interpreted. Dendrometric settings of vegetation type and climate zone (Guinea, Sudan-Guinea, and Sudan were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA. There is a significant difference in dendrometric settings according to the type of vegetation and climate zone. Basal area, density, and average diameter are, respectively, 4.47 m2/ha, 34.95 stems/ha, and 37.02 cm in the fields; 3.01 m2/ha, 34.74 stems/ha, and 33.66 cm in fallows; 3.31 m2/ha, 52.39 stems/ha, and 29.61 cm in the savannahs. The diameter distribution and height observed at the theoretical Weibull distribution show that the diameter and height of the populations of the species are present in all positively skewed distributions or asymmetric left, a characteristic of single-species stands with predominance of young individuals or small diameters or heights.

  20. Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... triggering an emergency response or checkup phone call. Healthcare professionals are finding that portable or mobile testing technology (home diagnostics), including x-rays and electrocardiograms (ECGs), ...

  1. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  2. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Meehan

    Full Text Available We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals' experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience, environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (p<0.001. Elephants spent an average of 55.1% of their time outdoors, 28.9% indoors, and 16% in areas with a choice between being in or out. Time spent on hard flooring substrate ranged from 0% to 66.7%, with Night values significantly greater than Day (p<0.001. Social factors included number of animals functionally housed together (Social Experience and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (p<0.001. There were few significant social or housing differences between African (N = 138 and Asian (N = 117 species or between males (N = 54 and females (N = 201. The most notable exception was Total Space Experience, with African and male elephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-value<0.05. The housing and social variables evaluated herein have been used in a series of subsequent epidemiological analyses relating to various elephant welfare outcomes.

  3. Homing oneself

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2009-01-01

    , but to revitalize it to prevent it from turning into a pell-mell or a zombie (Beck 1999). This is important because we are moving away from the hegemonic idea of one home to the tactics of feeling at home, even in more mobile ways. The study is cross-disciplinary, drawing on cultural phenomenology, the history...

  4. Pervasive Home Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, P.; Limb, R.; Payne, R.

    An increasing number of computers and other equipment, such as games consoles and multimedia appliances for the home, have networking capability. The rapid growth of broadband in the home is also fuelling the demand for people to network their homes. In the near future we will see a number of market sectors trying to 'own' the home by providing gateways either from the traditional ISP or from games and other service providers. The consumer is bombarded with attractive advertising to acquire the latest technological advances, but is left with a plethora of different appliances, which have a bewildering range of requirements and features in terms of networking, user interface, and higher-level communications protocols. In many cases, these are proprietary, preventing interworking. Such technical and usability anarchy confuses the consumer and could ultimately suppress market adoption.

  5. Anti-spasmodic action of crude methanolic extract and a new compound isolated from the aerial parts of Myrsine africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Bashir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myrsine africana is an herbaceous plant that is traditionally used as appetizer and carminative. Locally, it is used for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, rheumatism and diarrhea by healers. The aims of the current study were to screen the crude methanol extract obtained from the aerial parts (leaves and stem of M. africana, for antispasmodic actions on isolated tissues and further to subject the ethyl acetate (EtOAc fraction of plant to column chromatography for isolation of pure compounds. Methods The antispasmodic action of the crude methanol extract was measured on the spontaneous rabbit's jejunum preparations at concentration 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. The crude extract was also applied, in similar concentrations, on KCl (80 mM induced contractions to explain its possible mode of action. Results A new compound Myrsigenin was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of M. africana. The structure of the compound was identified with the help of 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR, HMBC, HMQC, NOESY and COSY. The plant crude methanol extract showed a significant antispasmodic action on rabbit jejunum and abolished the tissue contraction completely at concentration of 5.0 mg/ml. Conclusion The study concludes that the methanol crude extract of aerial parts of M. africana has antispasmodic action possibly through the calcium channel blocking mechanisms. A new compound Myrsigenin was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the plant.

  6. Renal effects of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract on L-NAME hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguelefack-Mbuyo Elvine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The present study aims at evaluating the effects of methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of Mammea africana on the renal function of L-NAME treated rats. Material and Methods : Normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into five groups respectively treated with distilled water, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day, L-NAME + L-arginine (100 mg/kg/day, L-NAME + captopril (20 mg/kg/day or L-NAME + M. africana extract (200 mg/kg/day for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure was measured before and at the end of treatment. Body weight was measured at the end of each week. Urine was collected 6 and 24 h after the first administration and further on day 15 and 30 of treatment for creatinine, sodium and potassium quantification, while plasma was collected at the end of treatment for the creatinine assay. ANOVA two way followed by Bonferonni or one way followed by Tukey were used for statistical analysis. Results : M. africana successfully prevented the rise in blood pressure and the acute natriuresis and diuresis induced by L-NAME. When given chronically, the extract produced a sustained antinatriuretic effect, a non-significant increase in urine excretion and reduced the glomerular hyperfiltration induced by L-NAME. Conclusions : The above results suggest that the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of M. africana may protect kidney against renal dysfunction and further demonstrate that its antihypertensive effect does not depend on a diuretic or natriuretic activity.

  7. Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman: the overexploitation of a medicinal plant species and its legal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeker, Gerard; van 't Klooster, Charlotte; Weisbord, Emma

    2014-11-01

    The linkage between herbal medicines and the sustainability of medical plants from which they are manufactured is increasingly being understood and receiving attention through international accords and trade labeling systems. However, little attention is paid to the fair trade aspects of this sector, including the issue of benefit-sharing agreements with traditional societies whose knowledge and resources are being exploited for commercial herbal medicine development and production. This article examines the case of Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman, from equatorial Africa. While the conservation and cultivation dimension of the trade in P. africana has been much discussed in literature, no research appears to have focused on the traditional resource rights and related ethical dimensions of this trade in traditional medicine of Africa. Serving as a cautionary tale for the unbridled exploitation of medicinal plants, the history of P. africana extraction is considered here in the context of relevant treaties and agreements existing today. These include the Nagoya Protocol, a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement from the World Trade Organization, and two African regional frameworks: the Swakopmund Protocol and the Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle Initiative. In the context of strengthening medicinal plant research in Africa, a novel international capacity-building project on traditional medicines for better public health in Africa will be discussed, illustrating how access and benefit sharing principles might be incorporated in future projects on traditional medicines.

  8. Selected Wood Properties of Prunus Africana (Hook Grown in Kenya as Possible Reasons for its High Natural Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Mburu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the influence of Prunus africana heartwood extractives on the growth of selected wood decay fungi. Also, wood chemical and mineral content, dimensional stability and anatomical features of P. africana were studied. Heartwood extractives were tested in 100 ppm and 500 ppm concentrations on white, brown rot, and blue stain fungi and growth inhibition was determined as a factor of time. Dimensional stability was determined by computing the swelling coefficient after the blocks were saturated with moisture. Klason lignin, Kürschner cellulose, extractive and ash contents were determined by standard procedures. Infrared analyses were performed using Perkin Elmer FTIR spectrometer. Microscopic examination was performed using an environmental scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the wood is dimensionally stable, and contains 12.7 % extractives, 37.6 % cellulose and 30.4 % lignin. Extractives deposited in vessels are highly soluble in dichloromethane and mainly composed of terpenes. Extractives were able to inhibit the growth of white rot fungi Coriolus versicolor, brown rot fungi Poria placenta and blue stain fungi Aureobasidium pullulans at different concentrations tested and could explain the high durability of Prunus africana wood species.

  9. Dormancy breaking and seed germination of the annual weeds Thlaspi arvense, Descurainia sophia and Malcolmia africana (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimmojeni Hassan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Iran, Descurainia sophia, Malcolmia africana, and Thlaspi arvense are abundantly found as importunate weeds in winter cereal. Understanding the timing of seed germination under natural conditions is crucial for learning how to manage these annual weeds. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soil burial, dry storage, cold stratification, KNO3, GA3, and scarification on the seed dormancy and germination of these three species. Species had significantly different responses to the treatment. In D. sophia, seeds buried at a depth of 10 cm for 60 days (55%, and seeds dry stored at 20°C for 180 days (45% showed the highest level of germination. In M. africana, the germination percentage reached 95% when seeds buried at a depth of 1 cm were soaked in a GA3 concentration of 150 ppm. T. arvense had the lowest level of germination compared to the other species. The highest percentage of T. arvense germination was obtained in seeds treated with 150 ppm GA3. Potassium nitrate partly increased germinability in seeds of M. africana, which initially were less dormant than those of T. arvense and D. sophia.

  10. Sharing fruit of Treculia africana among western gorillas in the Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Juichi; Tsubokawa, Keiko; Inoue, Eiji; Ando, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    We report the first 18 observed cases of fruit (Treculia africana) transfer among western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. The fruit transfer occurred during our observations of a habituated group of gorillas in 2010 and 2013. Pieces of the fruits were transferred among adults and immatures, and three cases involved a silverback male. Once an individual picked up a fallen fruit of Treculia africana, other members of the group approached the possessor, who laid pieces of the fruits nearby and tolerated the others getting them. Agonistic interaction was rarely observed between the possessor and the non-possessor. Only the silverback male seemed to force another gorilla, a subadult male, to relinquish the fruit on the ground. He tolerated an adult female taking a piece of fruit on his leg and copulated with her on the following days. From these preliminary observations, most interactions over the fruit of Treculia africana among western gorillas in Moukalaba were not active transfer by the possessor but probably passive sharing. They were not only interpreted as a means of acquiring foraging skills by immatures (Nowell and Fletcher 2006) but also similar to behaviors observed in chimpanzees and bonobos in various social contexts.

  11. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Boiled Prosopis africana Seed Endosperm Macerated in Various Ethanol-water Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Obiegbuna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The processing of boiled Prosopis africana endosperm for better utilization using ethanol-water mixtures was explored. Prosopis africana seeds were boiled for 5 h to softness and the endosperm fraction separated from the kernel (cotyledon and the hull. The endosperm was divided into five equal parts which were individually macerated in absolute (Abs ethanol, 80, 60 and 40% ethanol in water prior to sun-drying (32±2°C, 3 days. The fifth sample, which served as control, was left untreated with ethanol. The samples were ground using a hand milling machine and analyzed for the proximate composition, water and oil absorption capacities, foaming capacity and foam stability, bulk density, emulsion activity and stability, colour preference, texture preference and overall acceptability. The results revealed that treatment of the endosperm significantly affected the moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents; water and oil absorption capacities, foaming capacity and foam stability; and the sensory properties. The moisture and protein contents, oil absorption capacity, foam stability, appearance, texture and overall acceptability of endosperm treated with 40% ethanol in water differed significantly (p<0.05 from that treated with absolute ethanol. There was also significant (p<0.05 differences in moisture, protein and carbohydrate contents, oil absorption capacity and foam stability of the 40% ethanol in water treated endosperm and the control. Slightly above 40% ethanol in water (50-60% should be used to macerate Prosopis africana endosperm to reduce the cost of using absolute ethanol.

  12. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans and its related species Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana isolated from vulvovaginal samples in a hospital of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theill, Laura; Dudiuk, Catiana; Morano, Susana; Gamarra, Soledad; Nardin, María Elena; Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Candida africana taxonomical status is controversial. It was proposed as a separate species within the Candida albicans species complex; however, phylogenetic analyses suggested that it is an unusual variety of C. albicans. The prevalence of C. albicans-related species (Candida dubliniensis and C. africana) as vulvovaginal pathogens is not known in Argentina. Moreover, data on antifungal susceptibility of isolates causing vulvovaginal candidiasis is scarce. The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of C. dubliniensis and C. africana in vaginal samples and to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of vaginal C. albicans species complex strains. We used a molecular-based method coupled with a new pooled DNA extraction methodology to differentiate C. dubliniensis and C. africana in a collection of 287 strains originally identified as C. albicans isolated from an Argentinian hospital during 2013. Antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B and terbinafine were evaluated by using the CLSI M27-A3 and M27-S4 documents. Of the 287 isolates, 4 C. dubliniensis and one C. africana strains (1.39% and 0.35% prevalence, respectively) were identified. This is the first description of C. africana in Argentina and its identification was confirmed by sequencing the ITS2 region and the hwp1 gene. C. dubliniensis and C. africana strains showed very low MIC values for all the tested antifungals. Fluconazole-reduced-susceptibility and azole cross-resistance were observed in 3.55% and 1.41% of the C. albicans isolates, respectively. These results demonstrate that antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon in this kind of isolates.

  13. Nursing home and nursing home physician: the Dutch experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, J.M.G.A.; Crebolder, H.F.J.M.; Weel, C. van

    2004-01-01

    Dutch nursing home care today includes a broad range of institutional and outreaching care functions. Medical care is an essential part of this care. Nursing home medicine in The Netherlands has developed as an officially acknowledged medical specialty. This is unique because The Netherlands is the

  14. Endocrine correlates of musth and the impact of ecological and social factors in free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganswindt, André; Muenscher, Stefanie; Henley, Michelle; Henley, Steve; Heistermann, Michael; Palme, Rupert; Thompson, Peter; Bertschinger, Henk

    2010-04-01

    Sexual activity in mature male African elephants is predominantly associated with the occurrence of musth, a state or condition which refers to a set of physical, physiological and behavioral characteristics, including an elevation in androgen levels. Although musth appears to be energetically costly, the degree to which it is associated with changes in adrenal endocrine function (e.g., glucocorticoid output) is still unclear. To investigate the possible effect of musth on adrenocortical function, and the impact of socioecological changes on androgen and glucocorticoid levels, six adult African elephant bulls were followed for 13months in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, and observations and fecal sample collection for endocrine monitoring was carried out about twice weekly. Our data showed that the occurrence of musth was associated with reduced glucocorticoid output, suggesting that musth does not represent a physiological stress mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This confirms previous findings in captive-housed animals, providing evidence for a suppressive effect of the musth condition on adrenocortical activity. Furthermore, a seasonal effect on androgen and glucocorticoid levels was found, which appears to vary depending on the reproductive status of the animal. The results also indicate a relationship between the presence or absence of social partners and changes in testicular and adrenal endocrine activity. Finally, the data confirm previous findings in captive-housed elephants, that an elevation in androgen concentrations usually occurs before the onset of physical musth signs, and therefore support the idea that the change in androgen levels represents the initial stimulus for the musth condition.

  15. Nursing Home

    OpenAIRE

    Allocca Hernandez, Giacomo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Getting old involves a lot of changes in life. Family and social relations change and mobility can decrease. These variations require new settings, and of course special care. A nursing home is a place dedicated to help with this situation. Sometimes nursing homes can be perceived as mere institutions by society, and even by future residents. Inside, senior citizens are suppose to spend the rest of their lives doing the same activities day after day. How can we improve these days? Archite...

  16. Home Range Comparison of Exotic Species Trachemys scripta elegans and Native Species Mauremys sinensis in the Qionghai Section of Wanquan River, Hainan Island, China%海南万泉河琼海段外来物种红耳龟与本地种中华条颈龟家域的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马凯; 李闯; 史海涛; 王剑; 刘丹; 汪继超

    2013-01-01

    2010年7月至2011年4月、2011年8月至2012年8月,在海南万泉河琼海段,应用无线电遥测技术研究了外来物种红耳龟(Trachemys scripta elegans)和本地种中华条颈龟(Mauremys sinensis)的家域.采用最小凸多边形法和线家域法计算了所有个体的家域大小和不同个体间家域的重叠状况.结果表明:(1)红耳龟和中华条颈龟的家域面积分别为(8.15 ±2.83) hm2、(5.82±3.95) hm2,线家域分别为(534.07±74.98)m、(504.00±222.96)m;(2)两种龟的家域面积和长度均无种间差异;(3)成年雌性红耳龟的家域面积和长度显著大于雄性;(4)红耳龟和中华条颈龟家域的种内重叠度分别为0.27±0.02、0.08±0.06,并且红耳龟家域的种内重叠度显著大于中华条颈龟;(5)红耳龟与中华条颈龟家域的种间重叠度为0.20±0.02.本文研究结果提示,红耳龟在野外对本地种中华条颈龟具有潜在的竞争威胁.%The home range of the invasive Red-eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) and the native Chinese Strip-necked Turtle (Mauremys sinensis) was tracked by radio telemetry in the periods of July 2010 to April 2011 and August 2011 to August 2012 in the Qionghai Section of Wanquan River,Hainan Island,China.The home range and home range length of each individual was calculated by minimum convex polygon based on 2 043 locations from 32 individuals tracked.The home range area of T.s.elegans and M.sinensis is,respectively,8.15 ± 2.83 hm2,5.82 ± 3.95 hm2,and the line home range is 534.07 ± 74.98 m,504.00 ±222.96 m.No any difference was detected between the two species in home range area and line home range.The home range and home range length of females were significantly larger than those of male in adult T.s.elegans.The home range overlap degree between individuals of T.s.elegans and M.sinensis is,0.27 ± 0.02 and 0.08 ± 0.06,respectively; and the intraspecific home range overlap degree of T.s.elegans was significantly larger than that

  17. Toxicity of chloroform extract of prunus africana stem bark in rats: gross and histological lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathumbi, P K; Mwangi, J W; Mugera, G M; Njiro, S M

    2002-05-01

    Chloroform extract of Prunus africana (Hook f. (Rosaceae) did not cause clinical signs or pathology in rats at daily oral doses of up to 1,000 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The extract caused marked clinical signs, organ damage and a 50% mortality rate at a dose of 3.3 g/kg for 6 days. The main lesions observed at this dose were marked centrilobular hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, diffuse nephrosis, myocardial degeneration, lymphocytic necrosis and neuronal degeneration. The morphological damage in these tissues caused a corresponding rise in blood biochemical parameters namely, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen. The target organs of toxicity of this extract are the liver, kidney and heart. Overt toxicity occurred only after the administration of multiple doses of 3.3 g/kg body weight. These findings confirm the suitability of this extract for therapeutic use, since the doses used in the therapy of prostate gland are much lower than those used in this study and would therefore not be expected to cause pathological changes.

  18. Fine-scale spatial genetic dynamics over the life cycle of the tropical tree Prunus africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, D G; Braun, C; González-Martínez, S C; Griebeler, E M; Nathan, R; Böhning-Gaese, K

    2014-11-01

    Studying fine-scale spatial genetic patterns across life stages is a powerful approach to identify ecological processes acting within tree populations. We investigated spatial genetic dynamics across five life stages in the insect-pollinated and vertebrate-dispersed tropical tree Prunus africana in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Using six highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, we assessed genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure (SGS) from seed rain and seedlings, and different sapling stages to adult trees. We found significant SGS in all stages, potentially caused by limited seed dispersal and high recruitment rates in areas with high light availability. SGS decreased from seed and early seedling stages to older juvenile stages. Interestingly, SGS was stronger in adults than in late juveniles. The initial decrease in SGS was probably driven by both random and non-random thinning of offspring clusters during recruitment. Intergenerational variation in SGS could have been driven by variation in gene flow processes, overlapping generations in the adult stage or local selection. Our study shows that complex sequential processes during recruitment contribute to SGS of tree populations.

  19. The African cherry (Prunus africana): can lessons be learned from an over-exploited medicinal tree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, K M

    2003-11-01

    For the last 35 years, the African cherry (Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalm.) has been used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and other disorders. The bark, from which the treatment is derived, is entirely wild-collected. The major exporters of bark include Cameroon, Madagascar, Equatorial Guinea, and Kenya. Groupe Fournier of France and Indena of Italy produce 86% of the world's bark extract, both for their own products and for the free market. Worldwide exports of dried bark in 2000 have been estimated at 1350-1525 metric tons per year, down from its peak of 3225 tons in 1997. Bark extracts (6370-7225 kg per year) are worth an estimated $4.36 million US dollars per year. In 2000, Plantecam, the largest bark exporter in Africa, closed its extraction factory in Cameroon, due to complex ecological, social, and economic factors. Wild-collection is no longer sustainable (and probably never was) where harvest seriously affects morbidity and mortality rates of harvested populations. Since 1995, it has been included in CITES Appendix II as an endangered species. In this paper, alternatives to wild-collection to meet future market demand are investigated, including conservation practices, enrichment plantings, small- and large-scale production, and protection of genetic resources. The species is at the beginning of a transition from an exclusively wild-collected species to that of a cultivated medicinal tree.

  20. Microorganisms associated with natural fermentation of Prosopis africana seeds for the production of okpiye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achi, O K

    1992-10-01

    Okpiye is a food condiment prepared by the fermentation of Prosopis africana seeds. The traditional process for the production and microbiological characteristics of the condiment were investigated. During laboratory fermentation that lasted 96 h, the mesquite seeds underwent a natural fermentation that was characterised by the growth of microorganisms to 10(6)-10(8) cfu/g. Several species of bacteria especially B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus spp were found to be the most actively involved organisms. However, significant contributions to the microbial ecology were made by Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Lactobacillus spp were present in low numbers towards the end of the fermentation. The presence of Proteus and Pseudomonas spp in traditional fermented samples demonstrate the variability which may exist in the microflora of individual fermented samples. Variations in the important microbial groups show that Bacillus spp were the most prevalent species and occurred until the end of fermentation. Temperature, pH and titratable acidity varied with time and were influenced by the metabolic activities of the microorganisms.

  1. Acute death associated with Citrobacter freundii infection in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Joaquín; Corpa, Juan M; Orden, José A; Blanco, Jorge; Carbonell, María D; Gerique, Amalia C; Latimer, Erin; Hayward, Gary S; Roemmelt, Andreas; Kraemer, Thomas; Romey, Aurore; Kassimi, Labib B; Casares, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    A 21-year-old male African elephant (Loxodonta africana) died suddenly with no previous medical history. Grossly, there were severe multifocal epicardial and endocardial hemorrhages of the atria and ventricles, hydropericardium, multifocal pleural hemorrhages, and severe pulmonary congestion and edema. Histologically, there was fibrinoid vasculitis and thrombosis in the heart and lung and myocardial necrosis. Citrobacter freundii was isolated in abundance in pure culture from liver and heart samples. Low levels of multiples types of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV-6, EEHV-2B, and EEHV-3A) were detected in spleen samples, but not in heart samples. The levels of EEHV DNA found were much lower than those usually associated with acute EEHV hemorrhagic disease, and many other genomic loci that would normally be found in such cases were evidently below the level of detection. Therefore, these findings are unlikely to indicate lethal EEHV disease. Polymerase chain reaction for encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and toxicology for oleander (Nerium oleander) were negative. Stress, resulting from recent transport, and antimicrobial therapy may have contributed to the death of this animal.

  2. How Bees Deter Elephants: Beehive Trials with Forest Elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngama, Steeve; Korte, Lisa; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vermeulen, Cédric; Poulsen, John R

    2016-01-01

    In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become "problem animals". To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in Central Africa. We experimentally examined whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis) from feeding on fruit trees. We show for the first time that the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants is related to bee activity. Empty hives and those housing colonies of low bee activity do not deter elephants all the time; but beehives with high bee activity do. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not impede honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. To best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus, beehives colonized by Apis mellifera adansonii bees can be effective elephant deterrents, but people must actively manage hives to maintain bee colonies at the optimum activity level.

  3. A preliminary analysis of the immunoglobulin genes in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchen Guo

    Full Text Available The genomic organization of the IgH (Immunoglobulin heavy chain, Igκ (Immunoglobulin kappa chain, and Igλ (Immunoglobulin lambda chain loci in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana was annotated using available genome data. The elephant IgH locus on scaffold 57 spans over 2,974 kb, and consists of at least 112 V(H gene segments, 87 D(H gene segments (the largest number in mammals examined so far, six J(H gene segments, a single μ, a δ remnant, and eight γ genes (α and ε genes are missing, most likely due to sequence gaps. The Igκ locus, found on three scaffolds (202, 50 and 86, contains a total of 153 V(κ gene segments, three J(κ segments, and a single C(κ gene. Two different transcriptional orientations were determined for these V(κ gene segments. In contrast, the Igλ locus on scaffold 68 includes 15 V(λ gene segments, all with the same transcriptional polarity as the downstream J(λ-C(λ cluster. These data suggest that the elephant immunoglobulin gene repertoire is highly diverse and complex. Our results provide insights into the immunoglobulin genes in a placental mammal that is evolutionarily distant from humans, mice, and domestic animals.

  4. A preliminary analysis of the immunoglobulin genes in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongchen; Bao, Yonghua; Wang, Hui; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Zhihui; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2011-02-25

    The genomic organization of the IgH (Immunoglobulin heavy chain), Igκ (Immunoglobulin kappa chain), and Igλ (Immunoglobulin lambda chain) loci in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) was annotated using available genome data. The elephant IgH locus on scaffold 57 spans over 2,974 kb, and consists of at least 112 V(H) gene segments, 87 D(H) gene segments (the largest number in mammals examined so far), six J(H) gene segments, a single μ, a δ remnant, and eight γ genes (α and ε genes are missing, most likely due to sequence gaps). The Igκ locus, found on three scaffolds (202, 50 and 86), contains a total of 153 V(κ) gene segments, three J(κ) segments, and a single C(κ) gene. Two different transcriptional orientations were determined for these V(κ) gene segments. In contrast, the Igλ locus on scaffold 68 includes 15 V(λ) gene segments, all with the same transcriptional polarity as the downstream J(λ)-C(λ) cluster. These data suggest that the elephant immunoglobulin gene repertoire is highly diverse and complex. Our results provide insights into the immunoglobulin genes in a placental mammal that is evolutionarily distant from humans, mice, and domestic animals.

  5. Assessment of ovarian cycles in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) by measurement of salivary progesterone metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illera, Juan-Carlos; Silván, Gema; Cáceres, Sara; Carbonell, Maria-Dolores; Gerique, Cati; Martínez-Fernández, Leticia; Munro, Coralie; Casares, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring ovarian cycles through hormonal analysis is important in order to improve breeding management of captive elephants, and non-invasive collection techniques are particularly interesting for this purpose. However, there are some practical difficulties in collecting proper samples, and easier and more practical methods may be an advantage for some institutions and/or some animals. This study describes the development and validation of an enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) for progestins in salivary samples of African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Weekly urinary and salivary samples from five non-pregnant elephant cows aged 7-12 years were obtained for 28 weeks and analyzed using EIA. Both techniques correlated positively (r = 0.799; P < 0.001), and the cycle characteristics obtained were identical. The results clearly show that ovarian cycles can be monitored by measuring progestins from salivary samples in the African elephant. This is a simple and non-invasive method that may be a practical alternative to other sampling methods used in the species.

  6. Physical, physiological, and behavioral correlates of musth in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganswindt, Andre; Heistermann, Michael; Hodges, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Although musth in male African elephants (Loxodonta africana) is known to be associated with increased aggressiveness, urine dribbling (UD), temporal gland secretion (TGS), and elevated androgens, the temporal relationship between these changes has not been examined. Here, we describe the pattern of musth-related characteristics in 14 captive elephant bulls by combining long-term observations of physical and behavioral changes with physiological data on testicular and adrenal function. The length of musth periods was highly variable but according to our data set not related to age. Our data also confirm that musth is associated with elevated androgens and, in this respect, show that TGS and UD are downstream effects of this elevation, with TGS responding earlier and to lower androgen levels than UD. Because the majority of musth periods were associated with a decrease in glucocorticoid levels, our data also indicate that musth does not represent a physiological stress mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the occurrence of musth is associated with increased aggression and that this is presumably androgen mediated because aggressive males had higher androgen levels. Collectively, the information generated contributes to a better understanding of what characterizes and initiates musth in captive African elephants and provides a basis for further studies designed to examine in more detail the factors regulating the intensity and duration of musth.

  7. Harvesting and chewing as constraints to forage consumption by the African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    As a foundation for understanding the diet of African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana), adult bulls and cows were observed over an annual cycle to determine whether harvesting (Pt), chewing (Ct) and handling times (Ht) differed across food types and harvesting methods (handling time is defined as the time to harvest, chew and swallow a trunkload of food). Bulls and cows were observed 105 and 26 times, respectively (94 and 26 individuals), with a total of 64 h of feeding recorded across 32 vegetation types. Some food types took longer to harvest and chew than others, which may influence intake rate and affect choice of diet. The method used to gather a trunkload of food had a significant effect on harvesting time, with simple foraging actions being comparatively rapid and more difficult tasks taking longer. Handling time was constrained by chewing for bulls, except for the processing of roots from woody plants, which was limited by harvesting. Time to gather a trunkload had a greater influence on handling time for cows compared to bulls. Harvesting and handling times were longer for bulls than cows, with the sexes adopting foraging behaviors that best suited their energy requirements. PMID:27688971

  8. Estrous synchrony in a group of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) under human care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenböck, Nicole M; Schwammer, Harald M; Ruf, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Synchrony of estrous, and consequently of conception and birth of young, may be of adaptive significance for certain mammals. Among the species in which estrous synchrony has been suspected several times are elephants, but clear evidence is still missing. We determined estrous cycles of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) (n=4) at the Vienna Zoo, Austria, between June 2003 and January 2006 by measuring serum progesterone levels from weekly blood samples. Except for the dominant female when she was intensively lactating, all animals showed clear cycles or progesterone release with a mean period of 105.3+/-15.37 days. For most of the study period, estrous cycles were asynchronous between females. However, after re-occurrence of the progesterone cycle in the dominant female following the first period of lactation, all four females showed high synchrony of progesterone release over the two subsequent cycles. Large changes in individual period lengths indicated that synchronization was due to the adjustment of cycle length in subdominants to that of the dominant female. We used a bootstrap procedure, based on resampling measured times of progesterone peaks, to determine if this apparent synchrony could have been caused by chance alone. This statistical analysis indicated that between-individual variances of the timing of progesterone peaks were much smaller that to be expected by chance (P=0.009). This finding represents the first evidence for estrous synchrony between elephants. We discuss various hypotheses to explain the biological function of cycle synchrony in elephants.

  9. GPS assessment of the use of exhibit space and resources by African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighty, Katherine A; Soltis, Joseph; Savage, Anne

    2010-01-01

    In public discussions of animal rights and welfare, we as members and proponents of zoological institutions often face significant challenges addressing the concerns of our detractors due to an unfortunate deficiency in systematically collected and published data on the animals in our collections. In the case of elephants, there has been a paucity of information describing their use of space within captive environments. Here, using collar-mounted GPS recording devices, we documented the use of exhibit space and resources by a herd of five adult female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) housed at Disney's Animal Kingdom((R)). We found that dominant animals within the herd used a greater percentage of the available space and subordinate females avoided narrow or enclosed regions of the enclosure that we termed "restricted flow areas." In their use of other resources, dominant females demonstrated increased occupation of the watering hole over subordinate females, but all females demonstrated relatively equivalent use of the mud wallow. Overall, our results provide preliminary evidence that position within the dominancy hierarchy impacts the percentage of space occupied in a captive setting and may contribute to resource accessibility. These findings can be applied to future decisions on exhibit design and resource distribution for this species.

  10. Etorphine-halothane anaesthesia in two five-year-old African elephants (Loxodonta africana : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Stegmann

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia of 2 five-year-old femaleAfrican elephants (Loxodonta africana was required for dental surgery. The animals were each premedicated with 120 mg of azaperone 60 min before transportation to the hospital. Before offloading, 1 mg etorphine was administered intramuscularly (i.m. to each elephant to facilitate walking them to the equine induction / recovery room. For induction, 2 mg etorphine was administered i.m. to each animal. Induction was complete within 6 min. Surgical anaesthesia was induced with halothane-in-oxygen after intubation of the trunk. During surgery the mean heart rate was 61 and 45 beats / min respectively. Systolic blood pressures increased to 27.5 and 25.6 kPa respectively, and were treated with intravenous azaperone. Blood pressure decreased thereafter to a mean systolic pressure of 18.1 and 19.8 kPa, respectively. Rectal temperature was 35.6 and 33.9 oC at the onset of surgery, and decreased to 35.3 and 33.5 oC, respectively, at the end of anaesthesia. Etorphine anaesthesia was reversed with 5mg diprenorphine at the completion of 90 min of surgery.

  11. Harvesting and chewing as constraints to forage consumption by the African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce W. Clegg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As a foundation for understanding the diet of African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana, adult bulls and cows were observed over an annual cycle to determine whether harvesting (Pt, chewing (Ct and handling times (Ht differed across food types and harvesting methods (handling time is defined as the time to harvest, chew and swallow a trunkload of food. Bulls and cows were observed 105 and 26 times, respectively (94 and 26 individuals, with a total of 64 h of feeding recorded across 32 vegetation types. Some food types took longer to harvest and chew than others, which may influence intake rate and affect choice of diet. The method used to gather a trunkload of food had a significant effect on harvesting time, with simple foraging actions being comparatively rapid and more difficult tasks taking longer. Handling time was constrained by chewing for bulls, except for the processing of roots from woody plants, which was limited by harvesting. Time to gather a trunkload had a greater influence on handling time for cows compared to bulls. Harvesting and handling times were longer for bulls than cows, with the sexes adopting foraging behaviors that best suited their energy requirements.

  12. GPS determination of walking rates in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighty, Katherine A; Soltis, Joseph; Wesolek, Christina M; Savage, Anne; Mellen, Jill; Lehnhardt, John

    2009-01-01

    The movements of elephants in captivity have been an issue of concern for animal welfare activists and zoological professionals alike in recent years. In order to fully understand how movement rates reflect animal welfare, we must first determine the exact distances these animals move in the captive environment. We outfitted seven adult female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at Disney's Animal Kingdom with collar-mounted global positioning recording systems to document their movement rates while housed in outdoor guest viewing habitats. Further, we conducted preliminary analyses to address potential factors impacting movement rates including body size, temperature, enclosure size, and social grouping complexity. We found that our elephants moved at an average rate of 0.409+/-0.007 km/hr during the 9-hr data collection periods. This rate translates to an average of 3.68 km traveled during the observation periods, at a rate comparable to that observed in the wild. Although movement rate did not have a significant relationship with an individual's body size in this herd, the movements of four females demonstrated a significant positive correlation with temperature. Further, females in our largest social group demonstrated a significant increase in movement rates when residing in larger enclosures. We also present preliminary evidence suggesting that increased social group complexity, including the presence of infants in the herd, may be associated with increased walking rates, whereas factors such as reproductive and social status may constrain movements.

  13. Wild female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) exhibit personality traits of leadership and social integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phyllis C; Moss, Cynthia J

    2012-08-01

    Animal personalities have been demonstrated for almost 200 species, with stable dimensions of responses (aggressive to fearful; shy to bold) across contexts and with a heritable basis to these traits. As a long-lived and highly social species, elephants (Loxodonta africana) were expected to demonstrate complex dimensions to individual characteristics or personalities, which would be obvious to human observers and validated by behavioral observations. We used principal-components analysis of ratings on 26 behavioral adjectives applied to one social unit, coded as the EB family, which has been observed for 38 years. Eleven adult females were rated by four observers and found to have individually variable traits on four dimensions described by principal-components analysis. The first component was associated with effective and confident family leadership. Component 2 was age-related, and defined by playfulness, exploration and high levels of activity, suggesting both an experience and an age-related element to its structure. Component 3 represented gentleness and at its other extreme, aggression, and Component 4 was related to constancy (predictability and popularity), with both of these latter components reflecting social integration. Leadership among elephant females represents the successful negotiation among individual interests, and our components were related to a capacity to affect the behavior of others in the absence of aggressive dominance. The family matriarch, Echo, was high on elements associated with leadership. The importance of the matriarch in this family's success suggests that elements of personality may underlie interfamilial variation in long-term survival and reproduction.

  14. Organisation and chemical neuroanatomy of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, Ayanda; Patzke, Nina; Ihunwo, Amadi O; Manger, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    The olfactory system of mammals can be divided into a main and accessory olfactory system with initial processing for each system occurring in the olfactory bulb. The main and accessory olfactory bulbs have similar structural features, even though they appear to be functionally independent. In mammals the main olfactory bulb (MOB) is also one of two established sites of lifelong generation of new cells. The present study describes the histological and immunohistochemical neuroanatomy of the olfactory bulb of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). The morphology of MOB of the elephant does not differ significantly from that described in other mammals; however, it lacks the internal plexiform layer. In addition, the glomeruli of the glomerular layer are organised in 2-4 "honey-combed" layers, a feature not commonly observed. The cell types and structures revealed with immunohistochemical stains (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, tyrosine hydroxylase, orexin-A, glial fibrillary acidic protein) were similar to other mammals. Neurogenesis was examined using the neurogenic marker doublecortin. Migration of newly generated cells was observed in most layers of the MOB. No accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) was observed. Based on the general anatomy and the immunohistochemical observations, it is evident that the morphology of the African elephant MOB is, for the most part, similar to that of all mammals, although very large in absolute size.

  15. La literatura autobiográfica africana escrita por mujeres: contratos de lectura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cuasante

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo parte de la idea de que el estudio de los géneros literarios exige considerar no solo los rasgos formales del texto, sino también las diferentes modalidades contractuales susceptibles de aparecer en su recepción. Dicho de otro modo, un texto solo se integra en un género de escritura concreto cuando es reconocido como tal por parte del destinatario, operación que, aunque comporta ciertos conocimientos teóricos, es de carácter pragmático. El lector será quien, de manera individual, y apoyándose en todos los datos que tiene a su alcance, decida el modo de lectura que le resulta más apropiado. En este trabajo intentaremos ilustrar este proceso analizando un corpus de textos autobiográficos pertenecientes a la primera generación de escritoras africanas de expresión francesa, elección que pretende satisfacer al mismo tiempo los criterios de cohesión (todas las escritoras comparten un mismo contexto socio-histórico y de representatividad, pues pensamos que nuestras conclusiones son trasladables a otros corpus similares, en particular a los que se derivan de las denominadas “literaturas emergentes”.

  16. How Bees Deter Elephants: Beehive Trials with Forest Elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis in Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeve Ngama

    Full Text Available In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become "problem animals". To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in Central Africa. We experimentally examined whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis from feeding on fruit trees. We show for the first time that the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants is related to bee activity. Empty hives and those housing colonies of low bee activity do not deter elephants all the time; but beehives with high bee activity do. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not impede honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. To best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus, beehives colonized by Apis mellifera adansonii bees can be effective elephant deterrents, but people must actively manage hives to maintain bee colonies at the optimum activity level.

  17. Biochemical changes during the fermentation of Prosopis africana seeds for ogiri-okpei production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odibo, F J C; Ezeaku, E O; Ogbo, F C

    2008-09-01

    Biochemical changes during fermentation of seeds of Prosopis africana for production of ogiri-okpei, a food condiment popular among people of West Africa were studied. Fermentation resulted in a net increase in concentrations of total soluble sugars and free amino acids, both reaching a peak after 72 h of fermentation but declining thereafter. Corresponding increases were observed in amylase and protease activities, respectively. Lipase activity was observed to be very strong, increasing throughout the duration of fermentation. Analyses of amino and fatty acid composition using an amino acid analyzer and gas liquid chromatography, respectively, revealed a wide variety of amino acids including glutamine > cystine > arginine and the fatty acids stearic > Arachidic > linolenic > linoleic in the unfermented seed in the highest concentrations. Fluctuations in the concentrations of these compounds were observed during the fermentation. At the end of 96 h fermentation, glutamine > cystine > lysine and an unidentified fatty acid > arachidic > linolenic acids were found in the highest concentrations. Marked increases in composition with increasing period of fermentation were observed for Ca, P, K, Mn, and Z. Transformations of amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals during the fermentation of this seed revealed during this study will contribute towards the development of an industrial process for ogiri-okpei as well as an understanding of its contribution to the nutrition of its consumers.

  18. Specialised use of working memory by Portia africana, a spider-eating salticid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Fiona R; Jackson, Robert R

    2014-03-01

    Using expectancy-violation methods, we investigated the role of working memory in the predatory strategy of Portia africana, a salticid spider from Kenya that preys by preference on other spiders. One of this predator's tactics is to launch opportunistic leaping attacks on to other spiders in their webs. Focussing on this particular tactic, our experiments began with a test spider on a ramp facing a lure (dead prey spider mounted on a cork disc) that could be reached by leaping. After the test spider faced the lure for 30 s, we blocked the test spider's view of the lure by lowering an opaque shutter before the spider leapt. When the shutter was raised 90 s later, either the same lure came into view again (control) or a different lure came into view (experimental: different prey type in same orientation or same prey type in different orientation). We recorded attack frequency (number of test spiders that leapt at the lure) and attack latency (time elapsing between shutter being raised and spiders initiating a leap). Attack latencies in control trials were not significantly different from attack latencies in experimental trials, regardless of whether it was prey type or prey orientation that changed in the experimental trials. However, compared with test spiders in the no-change control trials, significantly fewer test spiders leapt when prey type changed. There was no significant effect on attack frequency when prey orientation changed. These findings suggest that this predator represents prey type independently of prey orientation.

  19. Technologies for Home Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A broad overview of the home networking field, ranging from wireless technologies to practical applications. In the future, it is expected that private networks (e.g. home networks) will become part of the global network ecosystem, participating in sharing their own content, running IP......-based services and possibly becoming service providers themselves. This is already happening in the so-called "social networks" and peer-to-peer file sharing networks on the Internet - making this emerging topic one of the most active research areas in the wireless communications filed....

  20. Snails home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, D. J.; Hodgson, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    Many gardeners and horticulturalists seek non-chemical methods to control populations of snails. It has frequently been reported that snails that are marked and removed from a garden are later found in the garden again. This phenomenon is often cited as evidence for a homing instinct. We report a systematic study of the snail population in a small suburban garden, in which large numbers of snails were marked and removed over a period of about 6 months. While many returned, inferring a homing instinct from this evidence requires statistical modelling. Monte Carlo techniques demonstrate that movements of snails are better explained by drift under the influence of a homing instinct than by random diffusion. Maximum likelihood techniques infer the existence of two groups of snails in the garden: members of a larger population that show little affinity to the garden itself, and core members of a local garden population that regularly return to their home if removed. The data are strongly suggestive of a homing instinct, but also reveal that snail-throwing can work as a pest management strategy.

  1. Qualitative comparison of the cranio-dental osteology of the extant elephants, Elephas Maximus (Asian elephant) and Loxodonta africana (African elephant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nancy E

    2010-01-01

    Few osteological descriptions of the extant elephants and no detailed morphological comparison of the two genera, Elephas and Loxodonta, have been done in recent years. In this study, 786 specimens of extant elephants (crania, mandibles, and molars) were examined for characters unique to each species. Differences between sexes in each species were described, as well as differences between subspecies of each species. Striking differences in morphology were noted between sexes of both elephants and between subspecies, which may complement current genetic studies, the focus of which is to determine division at the subspecies or species level, particularly differences between the savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) and the forest elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis). In addition, examination of the two living elephants provides an excellent dataset for identifying phylogenetic characters for use in examining evolutionary relationships within and between fossil lineages of elephantids.

  2. Comparison of the in vitro activity of echinocandins against Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida africana by time-kill curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Cantón, Emilia; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-05-01

    Candida albicans remains the most common fungal pathogen. This species is closely related to 2 phenotypically similar cryptic species, Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana. This study aims to compare the antifungal activities of echinocandins against 7 C. albicans, 5 C. dubliniensis, and 2 C. africana strains by time-kill methodology. MIC values were similar for the 3 species; however, differences in killing activity were observed among species, isolates, and echinocandins. Echinocandins produced weak killing activity against the 3 species. In all drugs, the fungicidal endpoint (99.9% mortality) was reached at ≤31 h with ≥0.5 μg/mL for anidulafungin in 4 C. albicans and 1 C. dubliniensis, for caspofungin in 1 C. albicans and 2 C. dubliniensis, and for micafungin in 4 C. albicans and 1 C. dubliniensis. None of echinocandins showed lethality against C. africana. Identification of these new cryptic species and time-kill studies would be recommendable when echinocandin treatment fails.

  3. Defending Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Television audiences around the country were shocked on November 21,2009, when national broadcaster China Central Television showed clips of two families violently fighting lawenforcement officials who were evicting them from their homes. The first incident being broadcast happened in June 2008, when Pan Rong and her husband stood on the roof of their four-story house to confront a demolition crew that consisted of police officers, firefighters and a bulldozer. Their family home stood in the way of a Shanghai Hongqiao Airport expansion project. Pan shouted into a loudspeaker,"If you don't have a court verdict, you are violating our property rights."

  4. Nursing Home Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursing home checklist Name of nursing home: ____________________________________________________ Address: ________________________________________________________________ Phone number: __________________________________________________________ Date of visit: _____________________________________________________________ Basic information Yes No Notes Is the nursing home Medicare certified? Is the nursing ...

  5. The effects of smoke derivatives on in vitro seed germination and development of the leopard orchid Ansellia africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfus, H B; Naidoo, D; Pošta, M; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2016-03-01

    Plant-derived smoke and smoke-isolated compounds stimulate germination in seeds from over 80 genera. It has also been reported that smoke affects overall plant vigour and has a stimulatory effect on pollen growth. The effect of smoke on orchid seeds, however, has not been assessed. In South Africa, orchid seeds from several genera may be exposed to smoke when they are released from their seedpods. It is therefore possible that smoke may affect their germination and growth. Therefore, the effects of smoke [applied as smoke-water (SW)] and two smoke-derived compounds, karrikinolide (KAR1 ) and trimethylbutenolide (TMB), were investigated on the germination and growth of orchid seeds in vitro. The effect of SW, KAR1 and TMB were investigated on the endangered epiphytic orchid, Ansellia africana, which is indigenous to tropical areas of Africa. Smoke-water, KAR1 and TMB were infused in half-strength MS medium. The number of germinated seeds and number of seeds and protocorm bodies to reach predetermined developmental stages were recorded on a weekly basis using a dissecting microscope for a 13-week period. Infusing SW 1:250 (v:v) into half-strength MS medium significantly increased the germination rate index (GRI) and the development rate index (DRI) of the A. africana seeds. All the SW treatments significantly increased the number of large protocorm bodies at the final stage of development. Infusing KAR1 into the growing medium had no significant effect on germination or development of the seeds. The TMB treatment, however, significantly reduced the GRI and DRI of A. africana seeds.

  6. Proyecto de desarrollo para evaluar la factibilidad del cultivo de palma africana como materia prima exportable para la producción de biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Marcillo Chasy, Lorena Elizabeth; Vargas Campoverde, Maria Fernanda; Veloz Pacheco, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Hay cultivos agrícolas, como el de la Palma Africana, que están sustituyendo a la producción de oleaginosas tradicionales en el Ecuador y los productos provenientes del extranjero, que poco a poco van teniendo un impacto positivo en la vida de las comunidades indígenas y campesinas (generación de empleo). La palma africana también es conocida como palma aceitera, porque de ella se extrae aceite comestible, pero también tiene diversos usos, como por ejemplo; para productos alimenticios, med...

  7. Effet de prétraitements des semences sur la germination de Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrot. et Rich.) Taub., (Césalpiniacées)

    OpenAIRE

    M'po Ifonti M'po; Adjakpa, JB.; Ahoton, LE.; Akpo, EL.

    2009-01-01

    Effect of Seed Treatments on the Germination of Iron Tree Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrot. et Rich.) Taub. The effect of four seed treatments (i) soaking in concentrate sulphuric acid for 15 mn, (ii) soaking in hot water at 100 oC for 3 mm followed by in immersion into tap water for 24 hours, (iii) scarification with razor blade (iv) no treatment on the germination of Prosopis africana seeds was evaluated on two types of growing substrate: erosion sand and ferrallitic soil. Non treated seed...

  8. Defending Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A much-anticipated law protecting homeowners’ rights is on the horizon Television audiences around the country were shocked on November 21,2009,when national broadcaster China Central Television showed clips of two families violently fighting lawenforcement officials who were evicting them from their homes.

  9. Returning home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jytte; Brøgger, Ditte

    2016-01-01

    flows. By focusing on these educational migrants, this paper explores how they connect to their rural homes. Guided by a critical reading of the migration-development scholarship, the paper examines how migrants and their relatives make sense of educational migrants’ remitting and returning practices...... and partake in important social remittance practices that represent a vision for impacting local development...

  10. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  11. The adrenals of the African elephant(Loxodonta africana: A few observations. 1. The capsule, zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. W. Strassberger

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the capsule, zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana is described. The gland is surrounded by a connective tissue capsule from which connective tissue trabeculae extend towards the medulla. The arrangement of the cells in the zona glomerulosa and the zona fasciculata are similar to that described for other mammals. Two types of cells are found in the zona glomerulosa and three types in the zona fasciculata. Organelles in these two zones are as described for other cells that secrete steroids. Unidentified structures were observed in the zona fasciculata.

  12. Filosofia africana para descolonizar olhares: perspectivas para o ensino das relações étnico-raciais

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Adilbênia Freire; UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DA BAHIA

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: O texto traz uma teia que tem como centro a Filosofia Africana; para se chegar a esse centro, no intento de trazer contribuições e perspectivas outras para “descolonizar olhares” e implicando perspectivas para o ensino das relações étnico-raciais, três conceitos fundamentais serão trabalhados: ancestralidade, encantamento e alteridade. Sabe-se que a filosofia, por séculos, fora usada como meio de colonização, justificando as barbáries cometidas em nome de uma “civilização”, usurpando ...

  13. Paz y seguridad humana en África: una visión desde la Unión Africana

    OpenAIRE

    Jerónimo Delgado

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se analizan las diferentes iniciativas que ha tenido el continente africano en materia de solución de conflictos y consolidación de la paz desde la perspectiva de la seguridad humana. En la primera parte, se identifican los componentes de la seguridad humana y los factores de inseguridad a los que se exponen los individuos en África, para luego examinar los avances del marco legal de la Unión Africana en la prevención de conflictos con énfasis en la seguridad de los individuo...

  14. Eradication of elephant ear mites (Loxoanoetus bassoni) in two African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Jeff; DiVincenti, Louis

    2012-03-01

    Elephant ear mites, not previously described in North America, were eradicated in two African elephants (Loxodonta africana) after six otic instillations of ivermectin at 2-wk intervals. The microscopic examination of a clear, mucoid discharge collected from the external ear canals of two wild-born African elephants housed in a New York State zoo for 25 yr revealed live mites (Loxoaneotus bassoni). The cytologic examination demonstrated no evidence of inflammation or infection. Both elephants were asymptomatic with normal hemograms and serum chemistry panels. A diagnosis of otoacariasis was made. Each elephant was treated six times with 5 ml of 1% ivermectin syrup instilled in each ear canal once every 2 wk. Microscopic examinations of clear mucus collected from each elephant's ear canals 9 days after the first instillation of ivermectin were negative for any life stages of ear mites. Microscopic examinations of mucus collected from both elephants' ear canals at 6, 11, and 16 wk, as well as annually post-treatment for 7 yr, confirmed eradication of the ear mites. The L. bassoni ear mite was first identified in the external ear canals of wild, asymptomatic, lesion-free, African elephants culled in Kruger National Park in South Africa. However, a new species in the same genus of mites (Loxoanoetus lenae) was identified at the necropsy of an 86-yr-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) living in a circus in Australia. The autopsy revealed a marked, ballooning distension of bone around the left external acoustic meatus, suggestive of mite-induced otitis externa, as seen in cattle infested with ear mites (Raillieta auris). Elephant health care providers should identify the prevalence of, and consider treatment of, elephants in their care infested with ear mites, given the possible risk for adverse health effects.

  15. Liquid semen storage in elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana): species differences and storage optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiso, Wendy K; Brown, Janine L; Siewerdt, Frank; Schmitt, Dennis L; Olson, Deborah; Crichton, Elizabeth G; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2011-01-01

    Artificial insemination plays a key role in the genetic management of elephants in zoos. Because freshly extended semen is typically used for artificial insemination in elephants, it has become imperative to optimize conditions for liquid storage and semen transport. The objectives of this study were to examine the interactions between different extenders and storage temperatures on sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Ejaculates were collected by rectal massage, diluted using a split-sample technique in 5 semen extenders: TL-Hepes (HEP), Modena (MOD), Biladyl (BIL), TEST refrigeration medium (TES), and INRA96 (INR), maintained at 35°C, 22°C, or 4°C. At 0, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, aliquots were removed and assessed for sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity. After 24 hours of storage, African elephant spermatozoa exhibited greater longevity and higher values in sperm quality parameters compared with those of Asian elephants. In both species, semen storage at 35°C resulted in a sharp decline in all sperm quality parameters after 4 hours of storage, whereas storage at 22°C and 4°C facilitated sperm survival. In Asian elephants, MOD and HEP were most detrimental, whereas BIL, TES, and INR maintained motility up to 12 hours when spermatozoa were cooled to 22°Cor4°C. In African elephants, there were no differences among extenders. All media maintained good sperm quality parameters at 22°C or 4°C. However, although MOD, BIL, and INR were most effective at lower temperatures, HEP and TES maintained sperm motility at all storage temperatures. This study demonstrated sperm sensitivity to components of various semen extenders and storage temperatures and offers recommendations for semen extender choices for liquid semen storage for both Asian and African elephants.

  16. The structure of the cushions in the feet of African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissengruber, G E; Egger, G F; Hutchinson, J R; Groenewald, H B; Elsässer, L; Famini, D; Forstenpointner, G

    2006-12-01

    The uniquely designed limbs of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana, support the weight of the largest terrestrial animal. Besides other morphological peculiarities, the feet are equipped with large subcutaneous cushions which play an important role in distributing forces during weight bearing and in storing or absorbing mechanical forces. Although the cushions have been discussed in the literature and captive elephants, in particular, are frequently affected by foot disorders, precise morphological data are sparse. The cushions in the feet of African elephants were examined by means of standard anatomical and histological techniques, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In both the forelimb and the hindlimb a 6th ray, the prepollex or prehallux, is present. These cartilaginous rods support the metacarpal or metatarsal compartment of the cushions. None of the rays touches the ground directly. The cushions consist of sheets or strands of fibrous connective tissue forming larger metacarpal/metatarsal and digital compartments and smaller chambers which were filled with adipose tissue. The compartments are situated between tarsal, metatarsal, metacarpal bones, proximal phalanges or other structures of the locomotor apparatus covering the bones palmarly/plantarly and the thick sole skin. Within the cushions, collagen, reticulin and elastic fibres are found. In the main parts, vascular supply is good and numerous nerves course within the entire cushion. Vater-Pacinian corpuscles are embedded within the collagenous tissue of the cushions and within the dermis. Meissner corpuscles are found in the dermal papillae of the foot skin. The micromorphology of elephant feet cushions resembles that of digital cushions in cattle or of the foot pads in humans but not that of digital cushions in horses. Besides their important mechanical properties, foot cushions in elephants seem to be very sensitive structures.

  17. Neocortical neuronal morphology in the newborn giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) and African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bob; Lee, Laura; Schall, Matthew; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Lewandowski, Albert H; Kottwitz, Jack J; Roberts, John F; Hof, Patrick R; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-02-01

    Although neocortical neuronal morphology has been documented in the adult giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) and African elephant (Loxodonta africana), no research has explored the cortical architecture in newborns of these species. To this end, the current study examined the morphology of neurons from several cortical areas in the newborn giraffe and elephant. After cortical neurons were stained with a modified Golgi technique (N = 153), dendritic branching and spine distributions were analyzed by using computer-assisted morphometry. The results showed that newborn elephant neurons were considerably larger in terms of all dendritic and spine measures than newborn giraffe neurons. Qualitatively, neurons in the newborns appeared morphologically comparable to those in their adult counterparts. Neurons in the newborn elephant differed considerably from those observed in other placental mammals, including the giraffe, particularly with regard to the morphology of spiny projection neurons. Projection neurons were observed in both species, with a much larger variety in the elephant (e.g., flattened pyramidal, nonpyramidal multipolar, and inverted pyramidal neurons). Although local circuit neurons (i.e., interneurons, neurogliaform, Cajal-Retzius neurons) resembled those observed in other eutherian mammals, these were usually spiny, which contrasts with their adult, aspiny equivalents. Newborn projection neurons were smaller than the adult equivalents in both species, but newborn interneurons were approximately the same size as their adult counterparts. Cortical neuromorphology in the newborn giraffe is thus generally consistent with what has been observed in other cetartiodactyls, whereas newborn and adult elephant morphology appears to deviate substantially from what is commonly observed in other placental mammals.

  18. Wire netting reduces African elephant (Loxodonta africana impact to selected trees in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Derham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available African elephants (Loxodonta africana are ecosystem engineers in that they substantially alter the environment through their unique foraging and feeding habits. At high densities, elephants potentially have negative impacts on the environment, specifically for large trees. Because of this, recent increases of elephants in the Associated Private Nature Reserves (APNR on the western boundary of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa, have caused concern regarding the survival of several tree species. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of wrapping protective wire netting around the trunk of the tree for preventing and reducing bark stripping, branch breaking, and felling by elephants. We assessed 2668 trees – 1352 Sclerocarya birrea (marula, 857 Acacia nigrescens (knobthorn, and 459 Lannea schweinfurthii (false marula – for elephant impact in the APNR, 1387 (52% of which had previously been wrapped in protective wire netting (789, 548 and 50, respectively. Wire netting was effective in reducing the severity of bark stripping and the relative proportion of trees that were bark stripped. In addition, wire netting had an effect on the level of impact, with a higher relative frequency of wire-net-protected trees found in lower impact categories compared with unprotected trees. Since tree mortality has been attributed to high levels of elephant impact, the use of wire netting could serve to maintain individual trees or populations particularly vulnerable to elephant impact in areas with locally high densities of elephants.Conservation implications: Since wire netting is a relatively low cost and ecologically unobtrusive strategy, it could be used to reduce elephant impact in problem areas. This method focuses on protecting trees rather than some other strategies such as environmental manipulation, translocation, contraceptives, and culling that instead focus on reducing elephant numbers.Keywords: Elephant impact; bark stripping

  19. Circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion in female zoo-kept African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, Miguel; Silván, Gema; Carbonell, Maria Dolores; Gerique, Cati; Martinez-Fernandez, Leticia; Cáceres, Sara; Illera, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Salivary samples were collected over a 24-hr period from one group of six juvenile (7-12 years) and one group of three adult (24-25 years) African elephant females, Loxodonta africana, and the cortisol concentration was measured in unextracted samples by EIA. Samples were collected during May, June, and November 2012 (n = 147) using cotton swabs at 4-hr intervals from 20:00 to 20:00 of the next day (seven samples per animal in each trial). The animals are kept under standard zoo management: the herd is maintained in their indoor enclosures until 10:00 and then released into the outdoor enclosures until 21:00-21:30 (May/June) and 18:30-19:00 (November). No adult elephant bull was present at the zoo during this time. The results demonstrate a clear diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion with the lowest concentration observed at 20:00 (2.03 ± 0.08 ng/ml saliva) and the peak concentrations at 08:00 (5.26 ± 0.35 ng/ml saliva). Although the cortisol values were higher in the adult cows compared to the juvenile cows in the May-June period, the differences were not significant. However, the values obtained in November from the juvenile group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the concentrations measured in this group in June. In conclusion, salivary cortisol in zoo elephants follows a circadian rhythm (sleep-wake cycle) adapted to daily zoo husbandry routines.

  20. Serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, and 25-hydroxyvitamin d in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Chen, Tai C; Holick, Michael F; Mikota, Susan; Dierenfeld, Ellen

    2009-06-01

    Seventy-two serum samples were collected from 14 healthy African elephants (Loxodonta africana), including three calves, to test for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] as well as for performing biochemical panels. Samples were collected between July 1997 and January 2008 to establish normal 25(OH)D values for the species and to examine the relationship of season and time on these values. Although the number of samples from the calves was small (n = 7), there was no statistically significant difference in the mean 25(OH)D levels between adults and calves (15.7 +/- 7.7 ng/ml versus 17.1 +/- 5.8 ng/ml, P > 0.05, respectively). The comparison of mean and individual values among seasons showed some variation, but was not statistically different; therefore, all values were combined for further analyses. The mean value of 25(OH)D for all samples was 15.8 +/- 7.5 ng/ml (n = 72), with a 95% confidence interval of 14.0-17.6 ng/ml. There did not appear to be a direct correlation between 25(OH)D levels and calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), or calcium:phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) based on regression analyses (P < 0.05). Values measured approximated normal distributions. Mean calcium value was 10.5 +/- 0.6 mg/dl (n = 61); mean phosphorus value was 5.2 +/- 0.8 mg/dl (n = 50); and mean Ca:P was 2.06 +/- 0.34. Since all animals appeared healthy during the course of sample collection, and bone density on foot radiographs was assessed as good, the results are considered to be normal for this herd. With the incidence of joint disease in older elephants, and metabolic bone disease in hand-reared calves, these values will provide a basis for further studies of calcium metabolism in elephants.

  1. Evaluation of Prosopis africana Seed Gum as an Extended Release Polymer for Tablet Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaf, Sameer; Nnamani, Petra; Jadhav, Namdeo

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to screen Prosopis africana seed gum (PG), anionic polymer for extended release tablet formulation. Different categories of drugs (charge basis) like diclofenac sodium (DS), chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), and ibuprofen (IB) were compacted with PG and compared with different polymers (charge basis) like xanthan gum (XG), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-K100M), and chitosan (CP). For each drug, 12 batches of tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, and granules were evaluated for flow properties, compressibility, and compactibility by Heckel and Leuenberger analysis, swelling index, in vitro dissolution studies, etc. It has been observed that granules of all batches showed acceptable flowability. According to Heckel and Leuenberger analysis, granules of PG-containing compacts showed similar and satisfactory compressibility and compactibility compared to granules of other polymers. PG showed significant swelling (P < 0.05) compared to HPMC, and better than CP and XG. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study showed no interaction between drugs and polymers. From all PG-containing compacts of aforesaid drugs, drug release was sustained for 12 h following anomalous transport. Especially, polyelectrolyte complex formation retarded the release of oppositely charged drug (CPM-PG). However, extended release was noted in both anionic (DS) and nonionic (IB) drugs, maybe due to swollen gel. All compacts were found to be stable for 3-month period during stability study. This concludes that swelling and release retardation of PG has close resemblance to HPMC, so it can be used as extended release polymer for all types of drugs.

  2. The Condition Factor, Length – Weight Relationship and Abundance of Ilisha africana (Block, 1795 from Nkoro River Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.N. Abowei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The condition factor, length-weight relationship and abundance of Ilisha africana from Nkoro Riverin the Niger Delta area of Nigeria was studied for a period of one year (January-December 2008. From asample size of 113 specimens, K value was 0.999 and the exponential equation was Wt = 0.05998 (TL2.719,indicating an isometric growth pattern. The highest catch w as recorded in February (1.61, followed by March(1.00, January (0.90, December (0.60 and June (0.10. April, May, July, August, September, October andNovember recorded no catch during the study. The highest condition factor value (1.58 was recorded inFebruary and the low est (0.00 in Septem ber. The highest catch per unit effort (1.13 was recorded in stations2 and 4, followed by station 1 (1.12 and station 3 (0.72 each. Ilisha africana in Nkoro river is in a stableenvironment and w as more abundant in the dry season months of February, March, January and December.

  3. Afritoxinones A and B, dihydrofuropyran-2-ones produced by Diplodia africana the causal agent of branch dieback on Juniperus phoenicea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Masi, Marco; Linaldeddu, Benedetto T; Franceschini, Antonio; Scanu, Bruno; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Motta, Andrea; Maddau, Lucia

    2012-05-01

    Two phytotoxic dihydrofuropyran-2-ones, named afritoxinones A and B, were isolated from liquid culture of Diplodia africana, a fungal pathogen responsible for branch dieback of Phoenicean juniper in Italy. Additionally, six others known metabolites were isolated and characterized: oxysporone, sphaeropsidin A, epi-sphaeropsidone, R-(-)-mellein, (3R,4R)-4-hydroxymellein and (3R,4S)-4-hydroxymellein. The structures of afritoxinones A and B were established by spectroscopic and optical methods and determined to be as (3aS(*),6R(*),7aS)-6-methoxy-3a,7a-dihydro-3H,6H-furo[2,3-b]pyran-2-one and (3aR(*),6R(*),7aS)-6-methoxy-3a,7a-dihydro-3H,6H-furo[2,3-b]pyran-2-one, respectively. The phytotoxic activity of afritoxinones A and B and oxysporone was evaluated on host (Phoenicean juniper) and non-host plant (holm oak, cork oak and tomato) by cutting and leaf puncture assay. Oxysporone proved to be the most phytotoxic compound. This study represents the first report of secondary metabolites produced by D. africana. In addition, the taxonomic implications of secondary metabolites in Botryosphaeriaceae family studies are discussed.

  4. Investigation of minor species Candida africana, Candida stellatoidea and Candida dubliniensis in the Candida albicans complex among Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouana, Thierry K; Krasteva, Donika; Drakulovski, Pascal; Toghueo, Rufin K; Kouanfack, Charles; Ambe, Akaba; Reynes, Jacques; Delaporte, Eric; Boyom, Fabrice F; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Minor species of the Candida albicans complex may cause overestimation of the epidemiology of C. albicans, and misidentifications could mask their implication in human pathology. Authors determined the occurrence of minor species of the C. albicans complex (C. africana, C. dubliniensis and C. stellatoidea) among Yaoundé HIV-infected patients, Cameroon. Stool, vaginal discharge, urine and oropharyngeal samples were analysed by mycological diagnosis. Isolates were identified by conventional methods and mass spectrometry (MS; carried out by the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight MS protocol). Candida albicans isolates were thereafter submitted to the PCR amplification of the Hwp1 gene. The susceptibility of isolates to antifungal drugs was tested using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 protocol. From 115 C. albicans obtained isolates, neither C. dubliniensis nor C. stellatoidea was observed; two strains of C. africana (422PV and 448PV) were identified by PCR electrophoretic profiles at 700 bp. These two C. africana strains were vaginal isolates. The isolate 448PV was resistant to ketoconazole at the minimal inhibitory concentration of 2 μg ml(-1), and showed reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B at 1 μg ml(-1). This first report on C. africana occurrence in Cameroon brings clues for the understanding of the global epidemiology of this yeast as well as that of minor species of the C. albicans complex.

  5. O Metodismo Primitivo e a Valoração da Cultura Africana: reflexões sobre os Direitos Humanos em Wesley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercymar Wellington Lima e Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O Metodismo Primitivo e a Valoração da Cultura Africana: reflexões sobre os Direitos Humanos em WesleyPrimitve Methodism and the valorization of African culture: reflections upon human rights in WesleyResumoO metodismo foi um movimento que, comonenhum outro, esteve atento às necessidades desua época. A preocupação de John Wesley com obem-estar do ser humano é vista na amplitude dadiscussão dos Direitos Humanos, na qual pode seincluir a análise de valores da cultura africana e aafirmação negra. Estabelecer uma pontehermenêutica entre a prática wesleyana e avivência atual constitui-se em desafio para refletirsobre o metodismo e o valor da cultura africana apartir de Wesley.ResumenEl metodismo fue un movimiento que, como ni otro,estuvo atento a las necesidades de su época. Lapreocupación de Juan Wesley con el bien estar delser humano es vista en la amplitud de la discusiónde los derechos Humanos, en el cual pude incluirsela análisis de valores de la cultura africana y laafirmación negra. Establecer un puenteHermenéutico entre la práctica Wesleyana y lavivencia actual constituyese en desafío parareflexionar sobre metodismo y el valor de la culturaafricana a partir de Wesley.

  6. Expression of human cell cycle regulators in the primary cell line of the African savannah elephant (loxodonta africana) increases proliferation until senescence, but does not induce immortalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tomokazu; Iino, Yuuka; Onuma, Manabu; Gen, Bando; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Kiyono, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    The African savannah elephant (Loxodonta africana) is one of the critically endangered animals. Conservation of genetic and cellular resources is important for the promotion of wild life-related research. Although primary cultured cells are a useful model for the physiology and genomics of the wild-type animals, their distribution is restricted due to the limited number of cell divisions allowed in them. Here, we tried to immortalize a primary cell line of L. africana with by overexpressing human mutant form of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4R24C), cyclin D, and telomerase (TERT). It has been shown before that the combination of human CDK4R24C, cyclin D, and TERT induces the efficient cellular immortalization of cells derived from humans, bovine, swine, and monkeys. Interestingly, although the combination of these three genes extended the cellular proliferation of the L. africana-derived cells, they did not induce cellular immortalization. This study suggest that control of cellular senescence in L. africana-derived cells would be different molecular mechanisms compared to those governing human, bovine, swine, and monkey cells.

  7. Remote sensing of the link between arable field and elephant (Loxodonta africana) distribution change along a tsetse eradication gradient in the Zambezi valley, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murwira, A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Huizing, H.G.J.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the proportion of remotely sensed arable fields increased along a tsetse eradication gradient in the Sebungwe region. We also investigated whether and to what extent this increase in arable fields affected the distribution of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) between

  8. Diversidad genetica de aislamientos de cornezuelo (Claviceps africana fredrickson, mantle, y de milliano) de sorgo [Sorghum bicolor (l.) moench.] en Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted in Rio Bravo, Tamaulipas, and Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico, in which pathogenicity of two isolates of ergot (Claviceps africana) obtained from the same two locations, were evaluated on six hybrids and three male sterile sorghum lines. Also, a genetic variance indicated signif...

  9. Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals Project (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-03-01

    The Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals is a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and a wide range of home energy performance industry professionals. The Guidelines project, managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for DOE, addresses the need for a highly-skilled weatherization workforce equipped to complete consistent, high-quality home energy upgrades for single-family homes, multifamily homes, and manufactured housing. In doing so, it helps increase energy efficiency in housing, which can mitigate climate change, one of the major challenges of the 21st century.

  10. In vitro studies to assess the antioxidative, radical scavenging and arginase inhibitory potentials of extracts from Artocarpus altilis, Ficus exasperate and Kigelia africana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olubukola Oyebimpe Akanni; Solomon Eduviere Owumi; Oluwatosin Adekunle Adaramoye

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To justify the use of Artocarpus altilis (A. altilis), Ficus exasperata (F. exasperata) and Kigelia africana (K. africana) in ethnomedicine for the treatment of several ailments and to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, radical scavenging and arginase inhibitory potentials of these herbs and compared with catechin (Standard). Methods:The A. altilis, F. exasperata and K. africana showed dose-dependent and significant Antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals scavenging methods. The flavonoids and phenolics content, inhibition of arginase activity, Fe2+/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reducing power were also determined.Results:scavenging of DPPH, H2O2 and OH radicals in vitro relative to catechin. The A. altilis and F.exasperata effectively scavenged DPPH radical with IC50 of 593 and 635 µg/mL and, OH with IC50 of 487 and 514 µg/mL, respectively. The DPPH and OH radicals scavenging activities followed the order A. altilis>F. exasperata>K. africana. In addition, A. altilis and F. exasperata significantly (PCatechin>F. exasperata>K. africana at 1000 µg/mL. The A. altilis at 500 and 750 µg/mL significantly (P<0.05) inhibited arginase activity by 63% and 67%, respectively. The flavonoids contents were found to be highest in A. altilis.Conclusions:Extracts of A. altilis and F. exasperata are potent antioxidative agents with strong radical radical scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  11. Temporary Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Supplies can ensure the survivors in the camps are well fed and clothed The old woman,carrying a baby on her back,wandered around a sports field among long rows of tents built to shelter earthquake survivors."I just had a bowl of porridge for breakfast and I’m taking my grandson out of the tent for a morning walk,"she said.She was an evacuee from Anxian County,close to one of the worst-hit areas of Beichuan County, Sichuan Province."I miss my home so much,but I cannot

  12. Coming Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Xie Zhonggao,head of the Beijing office for AsiaVest Partners,had lived in the United States for 16 years before settling down in Beijing in 2004. Xie had felt like"going home."In the U.S.he was"amazed by the wide open market for Chinese consumer concepts,"and sensing an opportunity, he returned to China to invest in manufacturing and consumer product enterprises.Here he talks with Chinese Venture:about AsiaVest’s business focus and vision as well as about the venture capital market in China as a whole.

  13. Genetics Home Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  14. HOME Grantee Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HOME Investment Partnership Program (HOME) is authorized under Title II of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act. HOME provides formula grants to...

  15. Home Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home care is care that allows a person with special needs stay in their home. It might be for people who are getting ... chronically ill, recovering from surgery, or disabled. Home care services include Personal care, such as help with ...

  16. Biochemical and haematological changes in rats administered an aqueous extract of Prunus africana stem-bark at various dosage levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathumbi, P K; Mwangi, J W; Njiro, S M; Mugera, G M

    2000-06-01

    An aqueous extract of Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkm. (syn. Pygeum africanum) (Hook. f.) (Rosaceae) was administered daily at dosage rates of 10, 100 and 1,000 mg/kg body mass to randomized groups of Sprague Dawley rats. The extract caused a moderate rise in plasma alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase mainly at rates of 1,000 mg/kg body mass, but it did not cause any significant variations in haematological parameters or in plasma levels of total proteins, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen at the dosage levels used. There were no overt clinical signs in any of the rats. It was concluded that the extract may contain components that are mildly toxic to the liver and heart of rats after repeated daily oral administrations of 1,000 mg/kg body mass.

  17. Experiencias de esclavitud femenina: africanas, afrodescendientes e indígenas en el México virreinal

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez, María Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Introducción Al menos cuatro concepciones o significados culturales sobre la esclavitud estuvieron presentes durante la época virreinal en México: el proveniente de Europa, el de tradición indígena americana, el de las diversas sociedades africanas y el que se creó en la Nueva España bajo la nueva dinámica económica y social. Es cierto que en la aplicación del orden jurídico se trataron de imponer las normas y costumbres hispánicas; sin embargo, en la práctica convivieron, negociaron y se enf...

  18. Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phyllis C; Bussière, Luc F; Webber, C Elizabeth; Poole, Joyce H; Moss, Cynthia J

    2013-04-23

    Growth from conception to reproductive onset in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) provides insights into phenotypic plasticity, individual adaptive plastic responses and facultative maternal investment. Using growth for 867 and life histories for 2652 elephants over 40 years, we demonstrate that maternal inexperience plus drought in early life result in reduced growth rates for sons and higher mortality for both sexes. Slow growth during early lactation was associated with smaller adult size, later age at first reproduction, reduced lifetime survival and consequently limited reproductive output. These enduring effects of trading slow early growth against immediate survival were apparent over the very long term; delayed downstream consequences were unexpected for a species with a maximum longevity of 70+ years and unpredictable environmental experiences.

  19. Effects of rainfall, host demography, and musth on strongyle fecal egg counts in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, M I; O'Connell-Rodwell, C E; Turner, W C; Nambandi, K; Kinzley, C; Rodwell, T C; Faulkner, C T; Felt, S A; Bouley, D M

    2011-01-01

    Wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are commonly infected with intestinal strongyle parasites. Our objective was to determine baseline fecal strongyle egg counts for elephants in the northeast region of Etosha National Park, Namibia and determine if these numbers were affected by annual rainfall, elephant demography (age of individuals and composition of groups), and hormonal state of males. We found that matriarchal family group members have significantly higher fecal egg counts than male elephants (bulls). Among family group members, strongyle egg counts increased with age, whereas among bulls, strongyle egg counts decreased with age. Years of higher rainfall were correlated with decreased numbers of strongyle eggs among bulls. Finally, bulls were not affected by their physiologic (hormonal) status (musth vs. nonmusth). These results suggest that infection by strongyle parasites in Namibian African elephants is a dynamic process affected by intrinsic and extrinsic factors including host demography and rainfall.

  20. The elephants of Zoba Gash Barka, Eritrea: part 4. Cholelithiasis in a wild African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Dalen W; Hagey, Lee; Shoshani, Jeheskel

    2005-12-01

    A 4.0-kg cholelith was found within the abdominal cavity of a dead wild African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Eritrea. Analysis of this cholelith by histochemistry, electron microscopy, electrospray mass spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed it was composed of bile alcohols but no calcium, bilirubin, or cholesterol. Bacteria were also found in the cholelith. Similar, but smaller, bile stones have been identified previously in other wild African elephants and an excavated mammoth (Mammuthus columbi). Choleliths have been reported only once in a captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Elephants, along with hyraxes (Procavia capensis) and manatees (Trichechus manatus), are unique among mammals in producing only bile alcohols and no bile acids, which may predispose them to cholelithiasis, particularly in association with bacterial infection. Dietary factors may also play an important role in cholelith formation.

  1. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah A; Roberts, Beth; Pope, Brittany M; Blake, Margaret R; Leavelle, Stephen E; Marshall, Jennifer J; Smith, Andrew; Hadicke, Amanda; Falcone, Josephine F; Knott, Katrina; Kouba, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Captive African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal) and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol) responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants' behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position) were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans) compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans). There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants. Cortisol

  2. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Boyle

    Full Text Available Captive African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants' behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans. There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants

  3. A África por ela mesma: a perspectiva africana na História Geral da África (UNESCO)

    OpenAIRE

    Muryatan Santana Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Esta tese traz uma análise da perspectiva africana na coleção História Geral da África (UNESCO). Para isto, baseia-se no exame da história institucional do projeto que lhe originou e da escrita da história ali presente, em seus oito volumes. Tais considerações levaram a definição da perspectiva africana como uma perspectiva que privilegia os fatores internos ao continente, em oposição aos externos, na explicação histórica, científica, da África. Ademais, constatou-se que esta perspectiva se d...

  4. Complete genome sequence of the halophilic bacterium Spirochaeta africana type strain (Z-7692T) from the alkaline Lake Magadi in the East African Rift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Abt, Birte [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Scheuner, Carmen [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2013-01-01

    Spirochaeta africana Zhilina et al. 1996 is an anaerobic, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacte- rium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain of the species, Z-7692T, was iso- lated in 1993 or earlier from a bacterial bloom in the brine under the trona layer in a shallow lagoon of the alkaline equatorial Lake Magadi in Kenya. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. Considering the pending reclassification of S. caldaria to the genus Treponema, S. africana is only the second 'true' member of the genus Spirochaeta with a genome-sequenced type strain to be pub- lished. The 3,285,855 bp long genome of strain Z-7692T with its 2,817 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  5. Complete genome sequence of the halophilic bacterium Spirochaeta africana type strain (Z-7692T) from the alkaline Lake Magadi in the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liolos, Konstantinos; Abt, Birte; Scheuner, Carmen; Teshima, Hazuki; Held, Brittany; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J.; Detter, John C.; Göker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2013-01-01

    Spirochaeta africana Zhilina et al. 1996 is an anaerobic, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacterium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain of the species, Z-7692T, was isolated in 1993 or earlier from a bacterial bloom in the brine under the trona layer in a shallow lagoon of the alkaline equatorial Lake Magadi in Kenya. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. Considering the pending reclassification of S. caldaria to the genus Treponema, S. africana is only the second 'true' member of the genus Spirochaeta with a genome-sequenced type strain to be published. The 3,285,855 bp long genome of strain Z-7692T with its 2,817 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and A rchaea project. PMID:23991249

  6. The impact of male contraception on dominance hierarchy and herd association patterns of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in a fenced game reserve

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Overpopulation of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in fenced reserves in South Africa is becoming increasingly problematic to wildlife managers. With growing opposition to culling and the high cost of translocation, alternative management strategies focusing on male elephants are being investigated. In this study, hormonal treatment via Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) suppression, and surgical treatment via vasectomy were trialled. Focusing on behavioural responses, we tested the ...

  7. Brain Computer Interface on Track to Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felip Miralles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The novel BackHome system offers individuals with disabilities a range of useful services available via brain-computer interfaces (BCIs, to help restore their independence. This is the time such technology is ready to be deployed in the real world, that is, at the target end users’ home. This has been achieved by the development of practical electrodes, easy to use software, and delivering telemonitoring and home support capabilities which have been conceived, implemented, and tested within a user-centred design approach. The final BackHome system is the result of a 3-year long process involving extensive user engagement to maximize effectiveness, reliability, robustness, and ease of use of a home based BCI system. The system is comprised of ergonomic and hassle-free BCI equipment; one-click software services for Smart Home control, cognitive stimulation, and web browsing; and remote telemonitoring and home support tools to enable independent home use for nonexpert caregivers and users. BackHome aims to successfully bring BCIs to the home of people with limited mobility to restore their independence and ultimately improve their quality of life.

  8. Capacidade de restabelecimento da grama-estrela-africana após aplicação de glifosato em pré-semeadura de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de restabelecimento de pastagem de grama-estrela-africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis após aplicação do herbicida glifosato, na pré-semeadura da cultura do milho. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: doses do equivalente ácido (e.a. do herbicida glifosato (0, 720, 1.440, 2.160, 2.880 e 3.600 g ha-1 e a testemunha capinada. A grama-estrela-africana é tolerante às doses normalmente recomendadas do herbicida (720 a 1.080 g ha-1 de e.a. Doses de glifosato de 1.232 a 1.439 g ha-1 de e.a. suprimem a grama-estrela-africana, evitam sua competição com a cultura do milho, e permitem a recuperação da pastagem após a colheita do milho.

  9. Smart Home Hacking

    OpenAIRE

    Kodra, Suela

    2016-01-01

    Smart Home is an intelligent home equipped with devices and communications systems that enables the residents to connect and control their home appliances and systems. This technology has changed the way a consumer interacts with his home, enabling more control and convenience. Another advantage of this technology is the positive impact it has on savings on energy and other resources. However, despite the consumer's excitement about smart home, security and privacy have shown to be the strong...

  10. Mansonia africana and Mansonia uniformis are Vectors in the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti lymphatic filariasis in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ughasi Josephine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent data from Ghana indicates that after seven rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA there is still sustained transmission albeit at low levels in certain areas where Anopheles melas, An. gambiae s.s., Mansonia and Culex species are the main biting mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus are the known vectors in Ghana and a recent report indicated that An. melas could transmit at low level microfilaraemia. However, because An. melas is not found everywhere there was the need to determine whether any of the other culicine species could also be playing a role in the transmission of LF. Methods Indoor mosquitoes collected once a month for three months using pyrethrum spray catches in six communities within the Kommenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abirem (KEEA District, Central Region of Ghana were morphologically identified, dissected and examined for the presence of W. bancrofti. Additionally, stored mosquito samples collected during previous years in 8 communities from the Gomoa District also in the Central Region were similarly processed. The identities of all W. bancrofti parasites found were confirmed using an established PCR method. Results A total of 825 indoor resting mosquitoes comprising of 501 Anopheles species, 239 Mansonia species, 84 Culex species and 1 Aedes species were dissected and examined for the presence of W. bancrofti. Mansonia africana had infection and infectivity rates of 2.5%. and 2.1% respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l. had an infection rate of 0.4% and a similar infectivity rate. None of the Culex sp. and Aedes sp were found with infection. From the stored mosquitoes the infection and infectivity rates for M. africana were 7.6% (N = 144 and 2.8% respectively whilst the corresponding rates for M. uniformis were 2.9% (N = 244 and 0.8%. Conclusions This is the first report of Mansonia species as vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF in Ghana and in West Africa since that of 1958 in

  11. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  12. Semantic home video categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Young Bok; De Neve, Wesley; Ro, Yong Man

    2009-02-01

    Nowadays, a strong need exists for the efficient organization of an increasing amount of home video content. To create an efficient system for the management of home video content, it is required to categorize home video content in a semantic way. So far, a significant amount of research has already been dedicated to semantic video categorization. However, conventional categorization approaches often rely on unnecessary concepts and complicated algorithms that are not suited in the context of home video categorization. To overcome the aforementioned problem, this paper proposes a novel home video categorization method that adopts semantic home photo categorization. To use home photo categorization in the context of home video, we segment video content into shots and extract key frames that represent each shot. To extract the semantics from key frames, we divide each key frame into ten local regions and extract lowlevel features. Based on the low level features extracted for each local region, we can predict the semantics of a particular key frame. To verify the usefulness of the proposed home video categorization method, experiments were performed with home video sequences, labeled by concepts part of the MPEG-7 VCE2 dataset. To verify the usefulness of the proposed home video categorization method, experiments were performed with 70 home video sequences. For the home video sequences used, the proposed system produced a recall of 77% and an accuracy of 78%.

  13. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2 and EF-1a) were used to identify known members and describe novel members of Botryosphaeriaceae. From the total number of wood samples collected (258) 67 isolates of Botryosphaeriaceae were obtained, from which eight species were identified. All species were associated with wood necrosis. Diplodia seriata (= "Botryosphaeria" obtusa) was dominant, and present on all four Prunus species sampled, followed by Neofusicoccum vitifusiforme and N. australe. First reports from Prunus spp. include N. vitifusiforme, Dothiorella viticola and Diplodia pinea. This is also the first report of D. mutila from South Africa. Two species are newly described, namely Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov. from P. salicina and Diplodia africana sp. nov. from P. persica. All species, except Dothiorella viticola, caused lesions on green nectarine and/or plum shoots in a detached shoot pathogenicity assay.

  14. Pequeños productores, reestructuración y expansión de la palma africana en Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor B. Fletes Ocón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto del dinamismo y contradicciones del sector agroalimentario, en la actualidad los pequeños productores son impulsados a emprender una reestructuración de sus prácticas productivas, a través de la plantación de cultivos orientados a biocombustibles, como el de la palma africana. En este artículo se analizan los procesos de reestructuración productiva, promovida por corpora-ciones de distinto origen y por el Estado, y las acciones realizadas por pequeños productores en un municipio con alta marginación, localizado en una región agroexportadora de Chiapas. Se revisan las contradicciones sociales y ambientales de este cambio y sus implicaciones a futuro, en términos del desarrollo agrícola y alimentario nacional. La expansión de este cultivo acentúa las desigualdades sociales, degrada los recursos naturales, utiliza mucha energía fósil, impulsa la concentración de la tierra, debilita los sistemas locales de provisión de alimentos y reduce los márgenes del valor generado en la cadena agroalimentaria para los pequeños productores.

  15. Characterization of a novel polyomavirus isolated from a fibroma on the trunk of an African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Hans; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Sijmons, Steven; Van Ranst, Marc; Maes, Piet

    2013-01-01

    Viruses of the family Polyomaviridae infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. In this study a novel polyomavirus, the African elephant polyomavirus 1 (AelPyV-1) found in a protruding hyperplastic fibrous lesion on the trunk of an African elephant (Loxodonta africana) was characterized. The AelPyV-1 genome is 5722 bp in size and is one of the largest polyomaviruses characterized to date. Analysis of the AelPyV-1 genome reveals five putative open-reading frames coding for the classic small and large T antigens in the early region, and the VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins in the late region. In the area preceding the VP2 start codon three putative open-reading frames, possibly coding for an agnoprotein, could be localized. A regulatory, non-coding region separates the 2 coding regions. Unique for polyomaviruses is the presence of a second 854 bp long non-coding region between the end of the early region and the end of the late region. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the large T antigen of the AelPyV-1 and 61 other polyomavirus sequences, AelPyV-1 clusters within a heterogeneous group of polyomaviruses that have been isolated from bats, new world primates and rodents.

  16. Two cases of atypical mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium szulgai associated with mortality in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, Claude; Terio, Karen; Kinsel, Michael J; Farina, Lisa L; Travis, Dominic A; Greenwald, Rena; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Miller, Michele; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2007-03-01

    Mycobacterium szulgai was associated with mortality in two captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) housed at Lincoln Park Zoo. The first elephant presented with severe, acute lameness of the left rear limb. Despite extensive treatments, the animal collapsed and died 13 mo after initial presentation. Necropsy revealed osteomyelitis with loss of the femoral head and acetabulum and pulmonary granulomas with intralesional M. szulgai. The second elephant collapsed during transport to another institution with no premonitory clinical signs. This animal was euthanized because of prolonged recumbency. Granulomatous pneumonia with intralesional M. szulgai was found at necropsy. Two novel immunoassays performed on banked serum samples detected antibody responses to mycobacterial antigens in both infected elephants. It was not possible to determine when the infection was established or how the elephants were infected. When reviewing the epidemiology of this organism in humans, however, transmission between elephants seemed unlikely because human-to-human transmission of this organism has never been reported and a third elephant in the herd was not affected. In addition to Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial organisms need to be considered potentially pathogenic in elephants.

  17. Characterization of a novel polyomavirus isolated from a fibroma on the trunk of an African elephant (Loxodonta africana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Stevens

    Full Text Available Viruses of the family Polyomaviridae infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. In this study a novel polyomavirus, the African elephant polyomavirus 1 (AelPyV-1 found in a protruding hyperplastic fibrous lesion on the trunk of an African elephant (Loxodonta africana was characterized. The AelPyV-1 genome is 5722 bp in size and is one of the largest polyomaviruses characterized to date. Analysis of the AelPyV-1 genome reveals five putative open-reading frames coding for the classic small and large T antigens in the early region, and the VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins in the late region. In the area preceding the VP2 start codon three putative open-reading frames, possibly coding for an agnoprotein, could be localized. A regulatory, non-coding region separates the 2 coding regions. Unique for polyomaviruses is the presence of a second 854 bp long non-coding region between the end of the early region and the end of the late region. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the large T antigen of the AelPyV-1 and 61 other polyomavirus sequences, AelPyV-1 clusters within a heterogeneous group of polyomaviruses that have been isolated from bats, new world primates and rodents.

  18. Prolactin in the Afrotheria: characterization of genes encoding prolactin in elephant (Loxodonta africana), hyrax (Procavia capensis) and tenrec (Echinops telfairi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Pituitary prolactin shows an episodic pattern of molecular evolution, with occasional short bursts of rapid change imposed on a generally rather slow evolutionary rate. In mammals, episodes of rapid change occurred in the evolution of primates, cetartiodactyls, rodents and the elephant. The bursts of rapid evolution in cetartiodactyls and rodents were followed by duplications of the prolactin gene that gave rise to large families of prolactin-related proteins including placental lactogens, while in primates the burst was followed by corresponding duplications of the related GH gene. The position in elephant is less clear. Extensive data relating to the genomic sequences of elephant and two additional members of the group Afrotheria are now available, and have been used here to characterize the prolactin genes in these species and explore whether additional prolactin-related genes are present. The results confirm the rapid evolution of elephant (Loxodonta africana) prolactin - the sequence of elephant prolactin is substantially different from that predicted for the ancestral placental mammal. Hyrax (Procavia capensis) prolactin is even more divergent but tenrec (Echinops telfairi) prolactin is strongly conserved. No evidence was obtained from searches of public databases for additional genes encoding prolactin-like proteins in any of these species. Detailed analysis of evolutionary rates, and other factors, indicates that the episode of rapid change in hyrax, and probably elephant, was adaptive, though the nature of the associated biological change(s) is not clear.

  19. Paz y seguridad humana en África: una visión desde la Unión Africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo Delgado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan las diferentes iniciativas que ha tenido el continente africano en materia de solución de conflictos y consolidación de la paz desde la perspectiva de la seguridad humana. En la primera parte, se identifican los componentes de la seguridad humana y los factores de inseguridad a los que se exponen los individuos en África, para luego examinar los avances del marco legal de la Unión Africana en la prevención de conflictos con énfasis en la seguridad de los individuos.La segunda parte contiene un estudio de las medidas enmarcadas dentro de la seguridad humana con las que cuentan los estados africanos y la comunidad internacional para la adecuada protección de los individuos, mientras se da un acercamiento entre las partes del conflicto para alcanzar el fin de las hostilidades. Finalmente, se afirma que África reconoce que la seguridad de sus ciudadanos es viable si se entienda que ésta es una responsabilidad compartida por todo el continente, en donde el individuo juega un papel central.

  20. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF TWO ISOLATES FROM ASPILIA AFRICANA [PERS] C.D. ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faleye Francis Jide

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspilia africana [PERS] C.D. Adams belong to the family of Asteraceae. It is a medicinal plant used by traditional herbal practitioners in Nigeria and some parts of West Africa for the treatment of various infections of bacterial origin (gonorrhea and stomach trouble. Powdered plant material was subjected to phytochemical screening using standard experimental procedures. Bioassay directed fractionation of the ethyl acetate soluble leaves extract has led to the isolation of two active compounds identified as: trans Ethyl 3 – (3, 4 – dihydroxyphenyl acrylate 1 and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-oxo-2H-chromene-6-carbaldehyde 2. The molecular structure elucidation of both compounds was carried out using spectroscopic studies (1HNMR, 13CNMR, and MS. These compounds were reported from this species for the first time. A DPPH spectrophotometric assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the compounds while their antimicrobial activities were carried out using agar diffusion and bioautography methods. Compound 1 had very strong antioxidant activity (EC50 14.49 ± 0.84 μM in comparison with L-ascorbic acid (EC50 13.18 ± 0.63 μM which was used as standard.

  1. Stroke and Nursing Home care: a national survey of nursing homes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cowman, Seamus

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although stroke is recognised as a major factor in admission to nursing home care, data is lacking on the extent and nature of the disabilities and dependency in nursing homes arising from stroke. A national study conducted in nursing homes can quantify the number of residents with stroke in nursing homes, their disability and levels of dependency. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey research design was used. A total of 572 public and private nursing homes were identified nationally and a stratified random selection of 60 nursing homes with 3,239 residents was made. In half of the nursing homes (n = 30) efforts were made to interview all residents with stroke Survey instruments were used to collect data from residents with stroke and nursing home managers on demography, patient disability, and treatment. RESULTS: Across all nursing homes (n = 60), 18% (n = 570) of the residents had previously had a stroke. In homes (n = 30), where interviews with residents with stroke (n = 257), only 7% (n = 18) residents were capable of answering for themselves and were interviewed. Data on the remaining 93% (n = 239) residents were provided by the nursing home manager. Nurse Managers reported that 73% of residents with stroke had a high level of dependency. One in two residents with stroke was prescribed antidepressants or sedative medication. Only 21% of stroke residents were prescribed anticoagulants, 42% antiplatelets, and 36% cholesterol lowering medications. Stroke rehabilitation guidelines were lacking and 68% reported that there was no formal review process in place. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides seminal findings on stroke and nursing home services in Ireland. We now know that one in six nursing home residents in a national survey are residents with a stroke, and have a wide range of disabilities. There is currently little or no structured care (beyond generic care) for stroke survivors who reside in nursing homes in Ireland.

  2. Stroke and Nursing Home care: a national survey of nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGee Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although stroke is recognised as a major factor in admission to nursing home care, data is lacking on the extent and nature of the disabilities and dependency in nursing homes arising from stroke. A national study conducted in nursing homes can quantify the number of residents with stroke in nursing homes, their disability and levels of dependency. Methods A cross-sectional survey research design was used. A total of 572 public and private nursing homes were identified nationally and a stratified random selection of 60 nursing homes with 3,239 residents was made. In half of the nursing homes (n = 30 efforts were made to interview all residents with stroke Survey instruments were used to collect data from residents with stroke and nursing home managers on demography, patient disability, and treatment. Results Across all nursing homes (n = 60, 18% (n = 570 of the residents had previously had a stroke. In homes (n = 30, where interviews with residents with stroke (n = 257, only 7% (n = 18 residents were capable of answering for themselves and were interviewed. Data on the remaining 93% (n = 239 residents were provided by the nursing home manager. Nurse Managers reported that 73% of residents with stroke had a high level of dependency. One in two residents with stroke was prescribed antidepressants or sedative medication. Only 21% of stroke residents were prescribed anticoagulants, 42% antiplatelets, and 36% cholesterol lowering medications. Stroke rehabilitation guidelines were lacking and 68% reported that there was no formal review process in place. Conclusions This study provides seminal findings on stroke and nursing home services in Ireland. We now know that one in six nursing home residents in a national survey are residents with a stroke, and have a wide range of disabilities. There is currently little or no structured care (beyond generic care for stroke survivors who reside in nursing homes in Ireland.

  3. Home Canning and Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1. Use proper canning techniques. Make sure your food preservation information is always current with up-to-date, ... the following sources: The National Center for Home Food Preservation USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning The state ...

  4. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  5. HOME Rent Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing for...

  6. Home Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fax mgfa@myasthenia.org • www.myasthenia.org HOME INJURY PREVENTION Home Injur y Prevention A helpful guide for patients and their caregivers. www.myasthenia.org General cont’d. •Be alert ...

  7. Nursing Home Quality Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This Nursing Home Quality Initiative (NHQI) website provides consumer and provider information regarding the quality of care in nursing homes. NHQI discusses quality...

  8. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal. Ask ...

  9. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  10. Community Nursing Home (CNH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Community Nursing Home (CNH) database contains a list of all Community Nursing Home facilities under local contract to Veterans Health Administration (VHA). CNH...

  11. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma ...

  12. Home Culture Awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫

    2015-01-01

    this thesis will have a deeper investigation on the changing and cognitive process of home culture awareness reflected in Chinese modern literary predecessors’based on the relationship between home and country.

  13. National Nursing Home Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Nursing Home Survey provides includes characteristics such as size of nursing home facilities, ownership, Medicare/Medicaid certification, occupancy rate, number of days of care provided, and expenses.

  14. Nursing Home Quality Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This Nursing Home Quality Initiative (NHQI) website provides consumer and provider information regarding the quality of care in nursing homes. NHQI discusses...

  15. Home Health Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Home Health Compare has information about the quality of care provided by Medicare-certified home health agencies throughout the nation. Medicare-certified means the...

  16. Monitoramento por radiotelemetria da área de uso de onça parda reintroduzida no entorno do Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro - MG, Brasil Radiotelemetry monitoring of the home range of cougar reintroduced at the surroundings of the State Park of Serra do Brigadeiro - MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco Gonçalves de Barros

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Um exemplar macho, subadulto de onça parda reintroduzido foi monitorado por técnica de radiotelemetria. O monitoramento foi de 110 dias, realizado de forma aleatória, com intervalos descontínuos. Os dados do acompanhamento sugerem que a área utilizada por este espécime seja de, aproximadamente, 26km². Esta configura o menor índice já descrito para a espécie, porém, deve-se ressaltar a importância deste monitoramento básico, visto a incipiência do comportamento de um felino de grande porte reintroduzido em habitat natural após período em cativeiro.One subadult male specimen of a reintroduced mountain lion was monitored using the radio telemetry technique. The monitoring lasted 110 days, being randomly distributed. Data of the monitoring through radiotelemetry suggested that the home range of this specimen was of approximately 26km². This sets as the smallest home range described for this species. However, the importance of this basic monitoring should be emphasized, since information of the behavior of a large feline reintroduced in its natural habitat after a period in captivity is incipient.

  17. Home Appliance Kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUMBO; ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    With 900 chain stores and three retail brands, Gome, China’s largest home appliance retail group, is pursuing grandiose dreams of becoming a home appliance kingdomOn November 22, 2006, Chinese home appliance retail heavyweights Beijing-based Gome Electri

  18. Home in the Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreuzer, Maria; von Wallpach, Sylvia; Muehlbacher, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    In a context of unprecedented migration home reaches high relevance. This study aims at understanding the (re-)construction of home by first generation consumer migrants. The findings provide insights into consumers’ (re-)construction of various dimensions of home and identify “inner home” as a n...

  19. A Taste of Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ten years ago,it was quite tricky for foreigners to get their hands on imported commodities, like foods,books or medicine.But Beijing now offers a large array of products, allowing expatriates from all walks of life to feel right at home. Food for your body Today,most local supermarkets carry at least a small range of imported foods.But if you’re shopping for specific products,you’ll have more chance to find them in major foreign chains like Wal-Mart and Carrefour.Even better,head to April Gourmet or Jenny Lou’s,two local chains that stock almost exclusively imported commodities.From canned goods to fresh meat,you should be able to find all the ingredients you need to cook that special meal.

  20. Digital Living at Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille Viktoria Kathja; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2013-01-01

    Does living with digital technology inevitably lead to digital living? Users talking about a digital home control system, they have had in their homes for eight years, indicate that there is more to living with digital technology than a functional-operational grip on regulation. Our analysis...... of these user voices has directed us towards a ‘home-keeping’ design discourse, which opens new horizons for design of digital home control systems by allowing users to perform as self-determined controllers and groomers of their habitat. The paper concludes by outlining the implications of a ‘home...

  1. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  2. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  3. Home advantage in the Six Nations Rugby Union tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sion; Reeves, Colin; Bell, Andrew

    2008-02-01

    This study examined whether home advantage occurred in the Six Nations Rugby Union tournament. Data were gathered using the final championship standings from the tournament's inception in 2000 to the recently completed 2007 season. Home advantage for each championship season was defined as the number of points won by teams playing at home, expressed as a percentage of all points gained either at home or away. An analysis of home advantage for each of eight seasons of competition ranged from 53% (2005) to 70% (2006). There was an overall statistically significant home advantage of 61% for 120 matches played in the Six Nations tournament between 2000 and 2007. Also analysed were the percentage of points won at home by each country. Again, evidence supported home advantage amongst all competing nations regardless of the team's quality.

  4. Range expansion induces variation in a behavioural trait in an ant-plant mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittecoq, Marion; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; McKey, Doyle; Blatrix, Rumsaïs

    2012-01-01

    Climate oscillations produce dramatic changes in species distribution, even in the tropics. The ant-plant Leonardoxa africana africana hosts and feeds the ant Petalomyrmex phylax, which provides protection against herbivores in return. Both partners of this symbiosis present a recent southward range expansion. To test whether the higher investment in sexuals (and thus lower investment in protective workers) previously documented on the colonization front is compensated by a more effective protective behaviour, we compared ant behavioural investment in plant defence between two populations, one in the core of the range and one on the colonization front. We induced ant patrolling activity by artificially damaging leaflets and measured this activity by counting patrolling ants and calculating the increase relative to constitutive patrolling activity measured on control (undamaged) leaflets. Contrary to our expectation, ant behavioural investment in plant defence was lower on the colonization front. Thus, production of fewer workers is not compensated by more protective behaviour of each. Instead, both traits contribute to a phenotype that is less mutualistic as a whole. By favouring increased allocation to dispersal, range expansion can shape ant behavioural traits and potentially the outcome of mutualism.

  5. Creating a new home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Housing research is increasingly focusing on how different groups of residents use their dwelling and transform it into a home. In this article, we look at the homes of immigrants in Danish social housing. The article is based on qualitative interviews with Somali, Iraqi and Turkish immigrants......, and it includes a review of the literature regarding the home in general, as well as a discussion on the home for immigrants. Literature argues that the home and the meaning of the dwelling are socially constructed rather than depending on universal human needs. This means that immigrants from other cultures...... might find another meaning in the concept of 'home' than their Danish neighbours. Thus the main issue for our research is to ascertain the extent to which immigrants are able to identify with their dwelling and to establish 'home' in Danish social housing. Does the meaning of the dwelling amongst...

  6. 伏康树籽挥发油的GC-MS分析%GC-MS study on chemical constituents of essential oil from seeds of Voacanga africana Stapf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏艳红; 陈晓春; 白坷坷; 刘海峰; 李晖

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析伏康树籽的挥发油成分.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取伏康树籽挥发油,通过气相色谱-质谱联用技术对其成分进行鉴定,同时采用面积归一法测定其含量.结果:分离出32种物质,鉴定出22个化合物,占总馏出组分的97.85%,其中脂肪酸类百分含量为80.93%.结论:伏康树籽挥发油主要成分为油酸(30.46%),棕桐酸(28.65%),亚油酸(12.31%)等.通过对伏康树籽挥发油成分的分析鉴定,为进一步开发利用其资源提供科学依据.%Objective :To analyze the chemical components of the essential oil from the seeds of Voacanga africana Methods : The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation , the components were identified by GC - MS and their amount were determined by area normalization. Results:32 kinds of substances were isolated and 22 compounds were identified representing 97. 85% of the total distillate composition,including fatty acids percentage content of 80. 93 % . Conclusion : The main components of the oil were 9 - octadecenoic acid ( z) - ( 30. 46% ) , hexadecanoic acid ( 28. 65 % ) ,9,12 - octadecadienoic acid ( Z, Z) ( 12. 31% ) , etc. The determination of chemical constituents of volatile oil from seeds of Voacanga africana will provide important foundation for further exploitation of Voacanga africana.

  7. Gestión de un sistema de control para la utilización del cuesco de la palma africana como parte de los aridos en la fabricación de hormigón compactado.

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Tapia, Mónica Patricia

    2016-01-01

    La Gestión de un Sistema de Control para la utilización del cuesco de la palma africana como parte de los áridos en la fabricación de hormigón compactado, pretende la definición de un modelo de gestión participativa que les permita a las empresas e instituciones involucradas en dicho sistema de control, gestionar de una forma organizada y controlada el problema ambiental que es generado por la carencia de sistemas de manejo de residuos como es el caso del cuesco de la palma africana, cuyo ...

  8. La africanidad de España memoria y reconocimiento: la memoria y el reconocimiento de la comunidad africana y africano-descendiente negra en España, el papel de la vanguardia panafricanista

    OpenAIRE

    Toasijé, Antumi

    2011-01-01

    Las personas africanas y africano-descendientes negras en España suman en torno al millón de personas, el asociacionismo ha sido desde los inicios de la nueva migración africana de los años 80 del siglo XX, la fórmula escogida por estas comunidades para establecer redes, reforzar lazos y afrontar problemáticas específicas. Desde los años 90 del siglo XX, un pequeño grupo de asociaciones de carácter panafricanista está constituyéndose en vanguardia de las reivindicaciones negras, entre las que...

  9. LHC@home gets new home

    CERN Multimedia

    Oates, John

    2007-01-01

    "The distributed computing project LHC@home is moving to London from Cern in Switzerland. Researchers at Qeen Mary University have been trialling the system since June, but are now ready for the offical launch" (1 page)

  10. Reconfiguración territorial y cultivo de palma africana en el Magdalena Medio. El caso de San Pablo Sur de Bolívar

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Herrero, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo muestra el problema de la reconfiguración territorial en el Magdalena Medio a partir de la expansión de los cultivos agroindustriales de la palma africana en un contexto de conflicto armado y en el marco de las relaciones Norte-Sur. The work shows the problem of territorial reconfiguration in the Middle Magdalena from the expansion of agro-industrial crops of oil palm in a context of armed conflict and in the context of North-South relations.

  11. The adrenals of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana: A few observations. 2. The zona reticularis, medullary capsule, F - zone and medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. W. Strassberger

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the zona reticularis, medullary capsule, F-zone and medulla of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana is described. Three types of cells, arranged as described in other mammals, are found in the zona reticularis. Organelles in this zone are as descibed for other cells that secrete steroids. The ultrastructure of the cells in the F-zone is very similar to that of cells that secrete steroids. Two types of cells, roughly similar to those of other mammals, are found in the medulla.

  12. De Guinea-Bissau a Colombia. Benkos Biohó, resistencia y (es) Palenque. Un caso de la diáspora africana

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas Valencia, Henry

    2015-01-01

    En este texto hago referencia al caso de Benkos Biohó como una figura simbólica de la resistencia africana, afrodescendiente y afrocolombiana dada desde los palenques (en Brasil se utiliza la expresión "quilombos"), manifestaciones de resistencia que comenzaron en África y más tarde se reprodujeron en toda América durante el tráfico de personas, la colonización y la esclavización. Hoy estas estrategias están siendo reinventadas y reformuladas por los afrodescendientes, mujeres y hombres, que ...

  13. Evaluación de Varios Insecticidas para el Control del Cephaloleiaspcerca avagelineataPic, Plaga de la Palma Africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urueta Sandino Eduardo

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se efectuaron varios ensayos para determinar el efecto de carbofuran 1.0, 1.5 y 2. 0 kg I. A./ha; carbaril 1.5 y 2. 0 kg I. A. /ha; lindano 1.0 y 1.5 kg I. A. /ha; diazinon 0.5 lt I. A./ha; dicrotofos 0. 5 lt I. A. /ha; fosfamidon 0.6 lt. I. A/ha; y fention 0.5 lt I. A./ha, sobre adultos y larvas de Cephaloleiasp. cerca avagelineataPic., una plaga de la palma africana en Colombia. Todos los insecticidas fueron efectivos para controlar larvas de Cephaloleiasp. en cogollos, hasta por periodos de más de 30 días. El carbofuran 2.0 kg I. A./ha carbaril 2.0 kg l . A./ha y lindano 1. 5 kg I.A. /hafueron los productos más eficientes para controlar adultos de Cephaloleia. sp. protegiendo por 15 días las hojas más jóvenes. Dicrotofos 0.5 lt I. A./ha; diazinon0.5 lt l. A./ha; fention 0.5 itI. A./ha y fosfamidon 0.6 lt I. A/ha, aparentemente no fueron efectivos para controlar las formas adultas de Cephaloleiasp. Ninguno de los insecticidas fue fitotóxico para la palma africana. /Abstract. Several tests were carried out to determine the effectiveness of carbofuran 1. 0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg A.I./ha; carbaryl 1.5, 2.0 kg. A.I./ha; lindane 1.0, 1.5 kg. A.I./ha; phosphamidon 0.6 lt. A.I./ha; fenthion 0.5 lt. A.I./ha; dicrotophos 0.5 lt. A.I /ha; diazinon 0.5 lt. A.I./ha on larvae and adults of Cephaloleia. sp. near vagelineata Pic a Chrysomelidae that affects young oil palm (Elaeisguineensis leaves in Colombia. All of these insecticides controlled well Cepbaloleia sp. larvae for periods over a month. carbofuran 2 kg. A.I./ha; carbaryl 2kg. A.I./ha and lindane 1.5 kg. A. I./ha gave the best control of Cephaloleia. sp. adults, protecting young oil palm leaves up to 15 days. Dicrotophos 0.5 lts. A.I./ha; fenthion 0.5 lt. A. I./ha; phosphamidon 0.6 lt. A.I./ha; diazinon 0.5 lt. A.I./ha; apparently were not effective to control adults of Cephaloleia sp. None of the insecticides tested showed to be phytotoxic to the oil palm.

  14. Migración africana y formación social en las Américas, 1500-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya, José C.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Around 11 million Africans reached the New World between 1500 and 1866 in what constitutes the first massive transoceanic migration in the history of humanity. This article approaches that movement from the perspective of the history of migrations and socio-racial formations in the Americas. The first part establishes the origins, timing, and geographic distribution of the arrivals using a database with information on some 35,000 slave ship voyages. We go on to analyze how this determined the demographic impact, socio-economic development, African cultural presence, adaptation and acculturation strategies, and the construction of racial taxonomies and identities in the receiving regions.

    Unos 11 millones de africanos llegaron al Nuevo Mundo entre 1500 y 1866 en lo que constituye la primera migración masiva transoceánica en la historia de la humanidad. Este artículo estudia ese movimiento desde la perspectiva de la historia de las migraciones y formaciones socio-raciales en las Américas. La primera parte establece el origen, ritmo temporal y distribución geográfica de las llegadas empleando una base de datos que contiene información sobre unos 35.000 viajes de barcos negreros. Sobre esta base, se analiza el impacto demográfico, el desarrollo socioeconómico, la presencia cultural africana, las estrategias de adaptación y aculturación, y la construcción de taxonomías e identidades raciales en las regiones receptoras.

  15. Recurrence of hyperprolactinemia and continuation of ovarian acyclicity in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with cabergoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Ball, Ray L; Brown, Janine L

    2014-09-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is associated with reproductive acyclicity in zoo African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and may contribute to the non-self-sustainability of the captive population in North America. It is a common cause of infertility in women and other mammals and can be treated with the dopamine agonist cabergoline. The objectives of this study were to assess prolactin responses to cabergoline treatment in hyperprolactinemic, acyclic African elephants and to determine the subsequent impact on ovarian cyclic activity. Five elephants, diagnosed as hyperprolactinemic (>11 ng/ml prolactin) and acyclic (maintenance of baseline progestagens for at least 1 yr), were treated with 1-2 mg cabergoline orally twice weekly for 16-82 wk. Cabergoline reduced (P elephants (11.5 +/- 3.2 vs. 9.1 +/- 3.4 ng/ml; 20.3 +/- 16.7 vs. 7.9 +/- 9.8 ng/ml; 26.4 +/- 15.0 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.5 ng/ml; 42.2 +/- 22.6 vs. 18.6 +/- 8.9 ng/ml). However, none of the females resumed ovarian cyclicity based on serum progestagen analyses up to 1 yr posttreatment. In addition, within 1 to 6 wk after cessation of oral cabergoline, serum prolactin concentrations returned to concentrations that were as high as or higher than before treatment (P elephant that exhibited the highest pretreatment prolactin concentration (75.2 +/- 10.5 ng/ml) did not respond to cabergoline and maintained elevated levels throughout the study. Thus, oral cabergoline administration reduced prolactin concentrations in elephants with hyperprolactinemia, but there was no resumption of ovarian cyclicity, and a significant prolactin rebound effect was observed. It is possible that higher doses or longer treatment intervals may be required for cabergoline treatment to result in permanent suppression of prolactin secretion and to mitigate associated ovarian cycle problems.

  16. Characterisation of the sympathetic nervous system of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants based on urinary catecholamine analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnhard, M

    2007-05-01

    Assessing the welfare status of captive animals using non-invasive measurements of hormones is of growing interest because this can serve as an effective tool to facilitate the optimization of environmental and husbandry conditions. Both the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) exhibit extremely low breeding success in captivity, and because elevated levels of stress may negatively influence reproductive functions, this study sought to establish a method for assessing sympathoadrenal activity in captive female elephants. We found a circadian variation in urinary noradrenaline (norepinephrine, NE), adrenaline (epinephrine, Epi) and dopamine (DA) under short day length. Peak activity of noradrenaline and dopamine was noted at 3 a.m. Adrenaline showed a biphasic pattern with a minor peak recorded at 3 a.m. and a major peak 9 a.m. Under long-day photoperiodic conditions, simultaneous peaks of noradrenaline and adrenaline were again noted at 3 a.m. whereas dopamine does not appear to have a distinct circadian pattern under long-day length. A transfer of two elephant cows resulted in a marked increase in urinary adrenaline and noradrenaline levels, confirming that the transfer represented a stressful event. During the peripartal period, noradrenaline concentrations increased and maximum concentrations were obtained at delivery. Daily measurements of urinary dopamine throughout the follicular phase revealed an increase in dopamine secretion close to ovulation. This increase might indicate a role of dopamine in the ovulatory mechanisms. These results suggest that changes in urinary catecholamine excretion reflect fluctuations in sympathoadrenal activity and may be a useful indicator of stress.

  17. BREADFRUIT (Treculia africana MARKETING ACTIVITIES AND RETURNS IN AHIAZU MBAISE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OF IMO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonna Christopher EMEROLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on marketing of breadfruits (Treculia africana and returns was done in Ahiazu Mbaise local Government area of Imo State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to describe socio-economic characteristics of respondents (sellers and buyers of African breadfruit; identify value-chain activities available in processing and its storage in compliance with consumers’ order and preferences; determine factors influencing decision to supply African breadfruit; and constraints with its post-harvest management in the study area. Three-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting locations and respondents through which eighty (80 farm households who gather/harvest, process and sell breadfruits were selected and interviewed with structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and probit regression model. Result revealed that 65.80% of the respondents were females and 81.20% of them were married with mean household size of 9 members. Their literacy level was high as 97.6% of them had at least primary education. Predominant marketing activities were fruit gathering/harvesting, processing, storage and packaging, transportation, and sales. Socio-economic factors of gender, household size, income, level of education, years of farming experience and labour significantly influenced supply of breadfruits to consumers with challenges of seasonal scarcity, and tedious methods of processing deterring the enterprise in the area. We recommended provision of credit support to enable fruit gatherers purchase and use shelling machines and good storage facilities to smooth any fluctuations in supplies during off-seasons and help fight overdependence of households on roots and tubers.

  18. Plantas de la Diáspora Africana en la botánica americana de la fase Colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Carney

    2003-12-01

    botany.//Las plantaciones revolucionarias y los intercambios ecológicos que acompañaron la expansión marítima europea después de 1492 son muy apreciados en la actualidad. De igual manera lo son los significados de las nuevas plantas dentro de la sociedad europea en tanto que modificaron preferencias culinarias, la economía y el comercio incluso más allá de las fronteras del viejo continente. El papel del maíz amerindio y de la mandioca en África occidental ha recibido una amplia atención así como el arroz asiático dentro de la región. Pero la literatura sobre el intercambio de alimentos sigue siendo muy escasa en cuanto a la difusión de plantas africanas y a las vías mediante las que dicha dispersión fue posible. Para estudiar este problema es necesario atender al comercio de esclavos y a la forma en la que éstos pudieron establecer preferencias alimentarias en las Américas. Este ensayo examina las plantas de origen africano que se convirtieron en productos esenciales dentro de las economías en la era de las plantaciones esclavistas. Tres centros de domesticación agrícola en el África Subsahariana contribuyeron a la diversidad de recursos que ayudaron a la subsistencia de millones y que fueron llevadas más allá del Atlántico debido al comercio de esclavos. La plantación de dichos productos se llevó a cabo en las Américas gracias a los “jardines botánicos” de los desposeídos: los campos de subsistencia de las plantaciones, jardines, patios y en parcelas agrícolas de las comunidades mulatas. Al llamar la atención sobre la Diáspora africana de plantas se abre la posibilidad de comprender los sistemas de conocimiento africanos. La expresión de dichos sistemas se refleja en las relaciones de poder prevalecientes, en las preferencias de alimentos, la identidad cultural, y las luchas por el proceso de trabajo.Al mostrar las plantas africanas establecidas en América, este trabajo busca corregir las distorsiones en las narrativas del

  19. A Career At Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Dai Ping, whose son is a first grader in a primary school in Beijing, has noticed a growing number of higher educated stay-at-home mothers around her community. Currently, 11 children in her son's 44-student class have stay-at-home mothers. Dai, a biology major, once worked at a research institute in the United States in the prime of her career before choosing to raise her son at home.

  20. Laparoscopic vasectomy in African savannah elephant (Loxodonta africana); surgical technique and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Hendrik J; Hendrickson, Dean A; Stetter, Mark; Zuba, Jeffery R; Penning, Mark; Siegal-Willott, Jess; Hardy, Christine

    2013-12-01

    Several small, enclosed reserves in southern Africa are experiencing significant elephant population growth, which has resulted in associated environmental damage and changes in biodiversity. Although several techniques exist to control elephant populations, e.g., culling, relocation, and immunocontraception, the technique of laparoscopic vasectomy of free-ranging bull elephants was investigated. Bilateral vasectomies were performed in 45 elephants. Of these elephants, one died within 24 hr of recovery and two had complications during surgery but recovered uneventfully. Histologic examination confirmed the resected tissue as ductus deferens in all the bulls. Most animals recovered uneventfully and showed no abnormal behavior after surgery. Complications recorded included incisional dehiscence, 1 full-thickness and 2 partial-thickness lacerations of the large intestine, and initial sling-associated complications, for example, deep radial nerve paresis. One bull was found dead 6 weeks after surgery without showing any prior abnormal signs. Vasectomy in free-ranging African bull elephants may be effectively performed in their normal environment. The surgical procedure can be used as a realistic population management tool in free-ranging elephants without major anesthetic, surgical, or postoperative complications.

  1. HomePort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    2009-01-01

    different components in these systems. One of the characteristics is that each system, like for instance heat and light, has their own specific way of using the communication system.   This paper describes a way to connect different home control systems through an intelligent gateway, called a HomePort....... The HomePort consists of a number of Subsystem communication drivers, a virtual communication layer, an interpreter and a PC- based compiler for a high level control language, called GIL (Gateway intelligence language). The focus in this paper will be on the upper two layers in the HomePort...

  2. [Home care in Sapporo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Kazuo

    2003-12-01

    We established a clinic specialized in home care in Sapporo in July 2001. In these 2 years we have provided medical home care service to 160 patients, and 97 are still receiving regular service. At first we accepted any patients living within 16 km from the clinic. However, bad traffic conditions in winter made it difficult to visit patients living in districts far away from the clinic. Therefore, we planned a network of home care physicians in Sapporo. Now 12 home care physicians hold monthly meetings. In Sapporo, meetings of home care related workers are organized in each ward, as suggested by the Sapporo Medical Association. There is a relatively good supply of home care related services and resources, including availability of an important number of visiting nurses. Patients being taken care of at home who present an acute exacerbation of symptoms are relatively easily accepted by acute hospitals. But those who have difficulties in continuing home care due to a sudden change in family conditions are not easily accepted by nursing hospitals. Recently, the number of group homes and lodging houses for elderly persons has markedly increased in Sapporo. It might have some problems in medical support in the near future.

  3. Vegetative Propagation Trial of Prosopis africana (Guill. et Perr. Taub. by Air Layering under Sudano-Sahelian Climate in the South-Central Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laouali Abdou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis africana is a species of great socioeconomic importance but threatened with extinction in Niger because of overuse and regeneration problem. This study, conducted in the Maradi (Niger area, precisely at El Gueza in the south of Gazaoua department, aims to evaluate the vegetative propagation capacity of P. africana by air layering under the Sudano-Sahelian climate of the south-central Niger. A ring of bark was taken on each selected branch and the wound was covered with a black plastic filled with a damp mixture of soil and wood debris. The chosen parameters are the diameter class and the position on the branch. In all, 60 branches were treated and followed for 130 days: 28.33% produced shoots and there was no significant difference between the diameter classes and between the positions. These results show that propagating trees of the species by air layering is possible and this technique can be used to multiply and keep this species, which will reduce the regeneration problem linked to a low seed germination rate.

  4. Antidiabetic and haematological effect of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (Smith) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oyedemi SO; Adewusi EA; Aiyegoro OA; Akinpelu DA

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic properties of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzeliaafricana (A. africana) and its beneficial effect on haematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: A total of 30 rats including 24 diabetic and 6 normal rats were used for this study. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After being confirmed diabetic, animals were orally treated with distilled water or extracts at 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days. The haematological parameters including red blood and white blood cells and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups compared with the controls. Results: The extract significantly reduced the blood glucose levels while the best result was obtained at 200 mg/kg body weight. The feed and water intake in diabetic rats were significantly reduced while weight loss was minimized at both dosages. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved after extract administration at both doses. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the aqueous extract of bark of A. africana possesses antihyperglycemic properties. In addition, the extract can prevent various complications of diabetes and improve some haematological parameters. Further experimental investigation is needed to exploit its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethnomedicinal usage.

  5. Effet de prétraitements des semences sur la germination de Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrot. et Rich. Taub., (Césalpiniacées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M'po Ifonti M'po

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Seed Treatments on the Germination of Iron Tree Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrot. et Rich. Taub. The effect of four seed treatments (i soaking in concentrate sulphuric acid for 15 mn, (ii soaking in hot water at 100 oC for 3 mm followed by in immersion into tap water for 24 hours, (iii scarification with razor blade (iv no treatment on the germination of Prosopis africana seeds was evaluated on two types of growing substrate: erosion sand and ferrallitic soil. Non treated seeds gave the highest rates of germination on the two types of growing substrate (100% on erosion sand and 89% on ferrallitic soil and by much longer duration of germination compared to treated seeds (46 days on erosion sand and 42 days on ferrallitic soil. Overall, germination is better (rates and speed on erosion sand. Treatments of the seeds in concentrate sulphuric acid are prejudicial to the survival of the embryo and yield low germination rates (30% on erosion sand and 20% on ferrallitic soil. Scarification by razor blade and soaking in hot water at 100 oC gave the highest germination rate (85%, 18 days after sowing on erosion sand and allowed to accelerate the germination. Because of their simplicity and their low cost, these two seed treatments can be recommended for planters and the use of erosion sand for the sowing.

  6. Home readings of blood pressure in assessment of hypertensive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Myschetzky, P; Andersen, A R;

    1986-01-01

    Out-patient clinic blood pressure (OPC-BP) was compared to home blood pressure (Home-BP) measured three times daily during a two week period in 122 consecutively referred hypertensive subjects. A semi-automatic device (TM-101) including a microphone for detection of Korotkoff-sounds, self......-deflation of cuff pressure and digital display of blood pressure was used. Mean difference between OPC-BP and Home-BP was systolic +13 mm Hg (range -21 - +100 mg Hg) and diastolic +5 mm Hg (range -27 - +36 mm Hg). Although a significant correlation could be demonstrated between Home-BP and OPC-BP, the inter...

  7. [Nurse home visits in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monguillon, Dominique; Gracia, Pierre-Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    Nurse home visits in France. More and more nurses carry out home visits, either as freelance nurses or employees of a nurse home visits service, a home hospital care structure or a nursing care centre. These home visits are both demanded by patients and encouraged by the health authorities. As a consequence, the service is expanding every year.

  8. Distribution and status of the African elephant Loxodonta africana in South Africa, 1652-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Hall-Martin

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The historical decline of African elephants to a low of 120 animals in 1920, and their subsequent recovery to over 10 000 is described for the major populations of South Africa. Population growth rates of 6,8 and 6,7 per annum are derived from census and estimates for the Kruger National Park and the Addo Elephant National Park respectively. The reasons for elephant population control in the Kruger National Park, and the impact of elephants on both the Kruger and Addo environments, are discussed. The translocation of young elephants to found new populations is mentioned. The consequent increase of elephant range and numbers in the next decade to a possible maximum of 31 000 km2 and 13 000 animals, is envisaged.

  9. Home Health Aides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specifications Help to keep clients engaged in their social networks and communities Home health aides, unlike personal care aides , typically work ... self-care and everyday tasks. They also provide social supports and assistance that enable clients to participate in their ... more information about home health aides, including voluntary credentials for aides, visit ...

  10. Home Education in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroverova, T. I.

    2011-01-01

    From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

  11. Home Teaching and Herbart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Val D.; Reed, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Viewing the growing disenchantment with state-controlled schooling, the authors predict that home teaching will become an established educational alternative within a short time, and they reflect on the teachings and writings of Johann Friedrich Herbart, an eighteenth-century advocate of educating children at home. (Editor/SJL)

  12. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  13. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...

  14. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... SSC About SSC SSC Membership Directory Annual Meeting ... Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Ostomía Adulto Order Today Ostomy Home Skills Kit (login or create account first) Skills Kits Broadcast Rights for Hospitals Ostomy Home Skills Hospital Quality Improvement ...

  15. Health Begins at Home

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-30

    Clean and well-maintained homes can prevent many illnesses and injuries. This podcast discusses how good health begins at home.  Created: 3/30/2009 by Coordinating Center for Environmental Health and Injury Prevention (CCEHIP).   Date Released: 3/30/2009.

  16. Home Fires Involving Grills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 600 or one-third of the 4,900 thermal non-fire grill burns. These were typically contact burns rather than flame burns. 1 Homes include one- or two-family homes, apartments, town houses, row houses, and manufactured housing. 2 ...

  17. Asbestos in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The United States Government is concerned about asbestos-containing products in the home because sometimes asbestos fibers can be released from these produces. If asbestos fibers are inhaled, certain types of cancer may later develop. Asbestos in homes poses several problems. Household members have little or no protection from exposure to asbestos…

  18. Avaliação nutricional da grama-estrela cv. Africana para vacas leiteiras em condições de pastejo Nutritional analysis of stargrass cv. Africana for dairy cattle under rotational grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Gomes Favoreto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar nutricionalmente a grama-estrela (Cynodon nlemfuensis cv. Africana utilizada sob pastejo rotacionado por vacas leiteiras. Dez vacas mestiças foram manejadas em 2 ha de grama-estrela e divididas em 11 piquetes/ha. O período de pastejo foi de três dias e os 30 subseqüentes foram destinados à recuperação da pastagem. Durante o período experimental, os animais foram ordenhados duas vezes ao dia e receberam suplementação com 2 kg de concentrado. Amostras representativas do pasto ingeridas (extrusa foram colhidas para determinação de sua composição nutricional. O consumo de matéria seca (MS pelos animais foi estimado utilizando-se cromo e a MS indigestível como indicadores externo e interno. O desempenho individual das vacas foi avaliado pela produção de leite diária e pela pesagem dos animais. A dinâmica da matéria alimentar foi estimada com base nas técnicas in vitro gravimétricas, de produção cumulativa de gases da fermentação microbiana e da estimativa da cinética de passagem das fases sólida e líquida. A quantidade de energia líquida total (ELt, em MJ/dia, atendeu à demanda energética exigida pelos animais. Os valores de proteína metabolizável (PM preditos corresponderam ao suprimento de 91% da PM exigida por esses animais. As predições das exigências em macrominerais atenderam apenas 75% do Ca exigido, mas atenderam às exigências dos demais macrominerais. A grama-estrela atende à demanda energética nutricional de mantença e produção de 11,7 kg de leite por dia. Nas circunstâncias estudadas, é necessário suplementar nutrientes que complementem a PM e Ca não atendidos completamente. O teor e as características cinéticas da fibra não causam repleção ruminal e restrição sobre o consumo de vacas leiteiras em pastejo.An nutritional analysis of stargrass cv. Africana fed dairy cattle under rotational grazing was evaluated in this research. Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows were

  19. In memoriam: Cristiana Patta, DVM, 1958-2012, Virologa ed esperta di peste suina africana e malattie esotiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Il mondo della veterinaria è profondamente costernato per la scomparsa prematura di Cristiana Patta, Dirigente dell’Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna.Valente virologa di rilevanza nazionale ed internazionale, si è sempre distinta, nel corso della sua intensa seppure troppo breve esistenza, per competenza e professionalità. Ha iniziato la sua attività come ricercatrice presso l’Istituto di Sassari nel settore delle malattie virali degli animali. Ha conseguito la Specializzazionein microbiologia e virologia con indirizzo in tecniche microbiologiche e virologiche presso la Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia dell’Università di Sassari. L’approfondimento delle sue competenze ha poi riguardato i principali aspetti delle malattie esotiche, dalla diagnosi al loro controllo, e la pianificazione e gestione dei piani di eradicazione delle principali malattie infettive sottoposte a controllo a livello comunitario (pesti suine, brucellosi, tubercolosi, blue tongue.Le conoscenze che ha avuto modo di acquisire nella lotta alle pesti suine ed in particolare alla peste suina africana, hanno fatto si che diventasse una esperta a livello nazionale ed internazionale nel settore del controllo di questa malattia. È in tale veste che ha ricoperto il ruolo di un membro del roster degli esperti del Ministero della Salute e della Commissione Europea. Ha contribuito a numerosi progetti di ricerca europei ed è stata invitata, in qualità di relatore, in numerosi consessi scientifici promossi dalle Istituzioni internazionali quali OIE, FAO ed UE.Cristiana Patta ha collaborato in varie circostanze, con la sua autorevole presenza, anche alle iniziative formative che l’Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise “G. Caporale” di Teramo ha promosso in qualità di Centro di Collaborazione OIE per la Formazione Veterinaria, l’Epidemiologia, la Sicurezza Alimentare e il Benessere Animale, offrendo il suo contributo in

  20. Ensuring Quality Nursing Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensuring Quality Nursing Home Care Before you choose a nursing home Expert information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care ... Nearly 1.6 million older Americans live in nursing homes in the United States. The move to ...

  1. Biometrics for home networks security

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-01-01

    Hacking crimes committed to the home networks are increasing. Advanced network protection is not always possible for the home networks. In this paper we will study the ability of using biometric systems for authentication in home networks. ©2009 IEEE.

  2. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Baines

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%, and nematode (77% and trematode (24% eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685 than in all-male groups (529, sd 468. Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1–15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed.

  3. Response of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) to seasonal changes in rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garstang, Michael; Davis, Robert E; Leggett, Keith; Frauenfeld, Oliver W; Greco, Steven; Zipser, Edward; Peterson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The factors that trigger sudden, seasonal movements of elephants are uncertain. We hypothesized that savannah elephant movements at the end of the dry season may be a response to their detection of distant thunderstorms. Nine elephants carrying Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers were tracked over seven years in the extremely dry and rugged region of northwestern Namibia. The transition date from dry to wet season conditions was determined annually from surface- and satellite-derived rainfall. The distance, location, and timing of rain events relative to the elephants were determined using the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite precipitation observations. Behavioral Change Point Analysis (BCPA) was applied to four of these seven years demonstrating a response in movement of these elephants to intra- and inter-seasonal occurrences of rainfall. Statistically significant changes in movement were found prior to or near the time of onset of the wet season and before the occurrence of wet episodes within the dry season, although the characteristics of the movement changes are not consistent between elephants and years. Elephants in overlapping ranges, but following separate tracks, exhibited statistically valid non-random near-simultaneous changes in movements when rainfall was occurring more than 100 km from their location. While the environmental trigger that causes these excursions remains uncertain, rain-system generated infrasound, which can travel such distances and be detected by elephants, is a possible trigger for such changes in movement.

  4. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Lydia; Morgan, Eric R; Ofthile, Mphoeng; Evans, Kate

    2015-04-01

    It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%), and nematode (77%) and trematode (24%) eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685) than in all-male groups (529, sd 468). Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1-15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed.

  5. Automatic type classification and speaker identification of african elephant (Loxodonta africana) vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemins, Patrick J.; Johnson, Michael T.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a system for automatically classifying African elephant vocalizations based on systems used for human speech recognition and speaker identification. The experiments are performed on vocalizations collected from captive elephants in a naturalistic environment. Features used for classification include Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) and log energy which are the most common features used in human speech processing. Since African elephants use lower frequencies than humans in their vocalizations, the MFCCs are computed using a shifted Mel-Frequency filter bank to emphasize the infrasound range of the frequency spectrum. In addition to these features, the use of less traditional features such as those based on fundamental frequency and the phase of the frequency spectrum is also considered. A Hidden Markov Model with Gaussian mixture state probabilities is used to model each type of vocalization. Vocalizations are classified based on type, speaker and estrous cycle. Experiments on continuous call type recognition, which can classify multiple vocalizations in the same utterance, are also performed. The long-term goal of this research is to develop a universal analysis framework and robust feature set for animal vocalizations that can be applied to many species.

  6. Response of African elephants (Loxodonta africana to seasonal changes in rainfall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Garstang

    Full Text Available The factors that trigger sudden, seasonal movements of elephants are uncertain. We hypothesized that savannah elephant movements at the end of the dry season may be a response to their detection of distant thunderstorms. Nine elephants carrying Global Positioning System (GPS receivers were tracked over seven years in the extremely dry and rugged region of northwestern Namibia. The transition date from dry to wet season conditions was determined annually from surface- and satellite-derived rainfall. The distance, location, and timing of rain events relative to the elephants were determined using the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM satellite precipitation observations. Behavioral Change Point Analysis (BCPA was applied to four of these seven years demonstrating a response in movement of these elephants to intra- and inter-seasonal occurrences of rainfall. Statistically significant changes in movement were found prior to or near the time of onset of the wet season and before the occurrence of wet episodes within the dry season, although the characteristics of the movement changes are not consistent between elephants and years. Elephants in overlapping ranges, but following separate tracks, exhibited statistically valid non-random near-simultaneous changes in movements when rainfall was occurring more than 100 km from their location. While the environmental trigger that causes these excursions remains uncertain, rain-system generated infrasound, which can travel such distances and be detected by elephants, is a possible trigger for such changes in movement.

  7. Body temperature daily rhythm adaptations in African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinahan, A A; Inge-moller, R; Bateman, P W; Kotze, A; Scantlebury, M

    2007-11-23

    The savanna elephant is the largest extant mammal and often inhabits hot and arid environments. Due to their large size, it might be expected that elephants have particular physiological adaptations, such as adjustments to the rhythms of their core body temperature (T(b)) to deal with environmental challenges. This study describes for the first time the T(b) daily rhythms in savanna elephants. Our results showed that elephants had lower mean T(b) values (36.2 +/- 0.49 degrees C) than smaller ungulates inhabiting similar environments but did not have larger or smaller amplitudes of T(b) variation (0.40 +/- 0.12 degrees C), as would be predicted by their exposure to large fluctuations in ambient temperature or their large size. No difference was found between the daily T(b) rhythms measured under different conditions of water stress. Peak T(b)'s occurred late in the evening (22:10) which is generally later than in other large mammals ranging in similar environmental conditions.

  8. Patch-occupancy survey of elephant (Loxodonta africana surrounding Livingstone, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Youldon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild elephants represent the biggest human–wildlife conflict issue in Livingstone, Zambia. However, little is known about their movements. This survey investigated elephants’ habitat use outside a core protected and fenced zone that forms part of Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park, Zambia. Using ‘patch-occupancy’ methodology, indications of elephant presence (feeding behaviour, dung and tracks were surveyed. The survey aimed to assist proposed future monitoring exercises by defining the geographical extent that should be considered to improve accuracy in species abundance estimates. Results were supplemented using collected indications of elephant presence from prior monitoring exercises, and during this survey. Elephant presence was confirmed up to 8 km from the boundary of the protected core habitat, focussed in: (1 an unfenced zone of the national park, (2 along a road leading from the national park to the Dambwa Forest to the north and (3 along two rivers located to the west (Sinde River and east (Maramba River of the core area. Detection probability of elephant presence was high using these methods, and we recommend regular sampling to determine changes in habitat use by elephants, as humans continue to modify land-use patterns.Conservation implications: Identification of elephant ranging behaviour up to 8 km outside of the Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park in southern Zambia will assist in managing human– elephant conflict in the area, as well as in assessing this seasonal population’s abundance.

  9. Evolution of Home Automation Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Rihan; M. Salim Beg

    2009-01-01

    In modern society home and office automation has becomeincreasingly important, providing ways to interconnectvarious home appliances. This interconnection results infaster transfer of information within home/offices leading tobetter home management and improved user experience.Home Automation, in essence, is a technology thatintegrates various electrical systems of a home to provideenhanced comfort and security. Users are grantedconvenient and complete control over all the electrical homeappl...

  10. Why do African elephants (Loxodonta africana simulate oestrus? An analysis of longitudinal data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy A Bates

    Full Text Available Female African elephants signal oestrus via chemicals in their urine, but they also exhibit characteristic changes to their posture, gait and behaviour when sexually receptive. Free-ranging females visually signal receptivity by holding their heads and tails high, walking with an exaggerated gait, and displaying increased tactile behaviour towards males. Parous females occasionally exhibit these visual signals at times when they are thought not to be cycling and without attracting interest from musth males. Using demographic and behavioural records spanning a continuous 28-year period, we investigated the occurrence of this "simulated" oestrus behaviour. We show that parous females in the Amboseli elephant population do simulate receptive oestrus behaviours, and this false oestrus occurs disproportionately in the presence of naïve female kin who are observed coming into oestrus for the first time. We compare several alternative hypotheses for the occurrence of this simulation: 1 false oestrus has no functional purpose (e.g., it merely results from abnormal hormonal changes; 2 false oestrus increases the reproductive success of the simulating female, by inducing sexual receptivity; and 3 false oestrus increases the inclusive fitness of the simulating female, either by increasing the access of related females to suitable males, or by encouraging appropriate oestrus behaviours from female relatives who are not responding correctly to males. Although the observed data do not fully conform to the predictions of any of these hypotheses, we rule out the first two, and tentatively suggest that parous females most likely exhibit false oestrus behaviours in order to demonstrate to naïve relatives at whom to direct their behaviour.

  11. Hyperprolactinemia is not associated with hyperestrogenism in noncycling African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Oviedo, Natalia A; Malloy, Elizabeth J; Deng, Xinyi; Brown, Janine L

    2013-08-01

    African elephants in US zoos are not reproducing at replacement levels. This is in part due to physiological problems, one of which is abnormal ovarian cyclicity that has been linked to increased prolactin secretion (hyperprolactinemia). A relationship between increased estrogen production (hyperestrogenism) and hyperprolactinemia has been found in other species. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if elevated prolactin was associated with increased estrogen concentrations in non-cycling African elephants. In cycling elephants (n=12), prolactin secretion followed a normal cyclic pattern, with higher concentrations observed during the follicular phase; overall mean concentration was ∼18ng/ml and baseline prolactin was ∼6ng/ml. Non-cycling females (n=18) were categorized into three groups: (1) low prolactin (31ng/ml; n=8). Mean urinary estrogen conjugate concentrations ranged from 5.4 to 41.4ng/mg Crt, and were similar between normal cycling (15.4±1.5ng/mg Crt) and non-cycling, low prolactin elephants (18.4±7.3ng/mg Crt), but were lower in moderate (9.4±1.3ng/mg Crt) and marked hyperprolactinemic (9.8±1.1ng/mg Crt) groups (Pelephants appear to be sensitive to alterations in prolactin production, with both low (e.g., a non-cycling pattern) and high prolactin secretion being associated with abnormal ovarian activity. However, hyperestrogenism was not related to hyperprolactinemia in the non-cycling females.

  12. Why do African elephants (Loxodonta africana) simulate oestrus? An analysis of longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lucy A; Handford, Rosie; Lee, Phyllis C; Njiraini, Norah; Poole, Joyce H; Sayialel, Katito; Sayialel, Soila; Moss, Cynthia J; Byrne, Richard W

    2010-04-07

    Female African elephants signal oestrus via chemicals in their urine, but they also exhibit characteristic changes to their posture, gait and behaviour when sexually receptive. Free-ranging females visually signal receptivity by holding their heads and tails high, walking with an exaggerated gait, and displaying increased tactile behaviour towards males. Parous females occasionally exhibit these visual signals at times when they are thought not to be cycling and without attracting interest from musth males. Using demographic and behavioural records spanning a continuous 28-year period, we investigated the occurrence of this "simulated" oestrus behaviour. We show that parous females in the Amboseli elephant population do simulate receptive oestrus behaviours, and this false oestrus occurs disproportionately in the presence of naïve female kin who are observed coming into oestrus for the first time. We compare several alternative hypotheses for the occurrence of this simulation: 1) false oestrus has no functional purpose (e.g., it merely results from abnormal hormonal changes); 2) false oestrus increases the reproductive success of the simulating female, by inducing sexual receptivity; and 3) false oestrus increases the inclusive fitness of the simulating female, either by increasing the access of related females to suitable males, or by encouraging appropriate oestrus behaviours from female relatives who are not responding correctly to males. Although the observed data do not fully conform to the predictions of any of these hypotheses, we rule out the first two, and tentatively suggest that parous females most likely exhibit false oestrus behaviours in order to demonstrate to naïve relatives at whom to direct their behaviour.

  13. Condensation in insulated homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, R A

    1978-05-28

    A research proposal on condensation in insulated homes is presented. Information is provided on: justification for condensation control; previous work and present outlook (good vapor barrier, condensation and retrofit insulation, vapor barrier decreases condensation, brick-veneer walls, condensation in stress-skin panels, air-conditioned buildings, retrofitting for conservation, study on mobile homes, high indoor relative humidity, report on various homes); and procedure (after funding has been secured). Measures are briefly described on opening walls, testing measures, and retrofitting procedures. An extensive bibliography and additional informative citations are included. (MCW)

  14. The validation of a home food inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitzler Carrie

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Home food inventories provide an efficient method for assessing home food availability; however, few are validated. The present study's aim was to develop and validate a home food inventory that is easily completed by research participants in their homes and includes a comprehensive range of both healthful and less healthful foods that are associated with obesity. Methods A home food inventory (HFI was developed and tested with two samples. Sample 1 included 51 adult participants and six trained research staff who independently completed the HFI in participants' homes. Sample 2 included 342 families in which parents completed the HFI and the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ and students completed three 24-hour dietary recall interviews. HFI items assessed 13 major food categories as well as two categories assessing ready-access to foods in the kitchen and the refrigerator. An obesogenic household food availability score was also created. To assess criterion validity, participants' and research staffs' assessment of home food availability were compared (staff = gold standard. Criterion validity was evaluated with kappa, sensitivity, and specificity. Construct validity was assessed with correlations of five HFI major food category scores with servings of the same foods and associated nutrients from the DHQ and dietary recalls. Results Kappa statistics for all 13 major food categories and the two ready-access categories ranged from 0.61 to 0.83, indicating substantial agreement. Sensitivity ranged from 0.69 to 0.89, and specificity ranged from 0.86 to 0.95. Spearman correlations between staff and participant major food category scores ranged from 0.71 to 0.97. Correlations between the HFI scores and food group servings and nutrients on the DHQ (parents were all significant (p Conclusion This new home food inventory is valid, participant-friendly, and may be useful for community-based behavioral nutrition and obesity prevention

  15. Home Health Compare Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These are the official datasets used on the Medicare.gov Home Health Compare Website provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These data allow...

  16. Home Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Home Oxygen Therapy More and more people are using oxygen therapy ... April 12, 2012 Revised: © 2017 American Association for Respiratory Care

  17. Home Health Care Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all Home Health Agencies that have been registered with Medicare. The list includes addresses, phone numbers, and quality measure ratings for each agency.

  18. Nursing Home Data Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The compendium contains figures and tables presenting data on all Medicare- and Medicaid-certified nursing homes in the United States as well as the residents in...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions schizophrenia schizophrenia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Schizophrenia is a mental health disorder classified as a ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: hypermethioninemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C. Mutations in human glycine N-methyltransferase give insights into its role in methionine metabolism. Hum Genet. ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright ...

  1. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stay Up to Date with ACS Association Management Jobs Events Find a Surgeon Patients and Family Contact My Profile Shop/Donate ( 0 ) Items American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: hemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions hemophilia hemophilia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder that slows the blood ...

  3. Home/Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, William

    1985-01-01

    In the computer age, telecommuting programs can be an effective means of recruiting and retaining valuable employees. This article discusses how companies can select employee participants and how to manage people working at home. (Author/CT)

  4. Home Health PPS - Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Abt Associates July 21, 2010 Analysis of 2000-2008 Home Health Case-mix Change Report estimates the extent to which the observed increases in average case-mix were...

  5. Home Health PPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under prospective payment, Medicare pays home health agencies (HHAs) a predetermined base payment. The payment is adjusted for the health condition and care needs of...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions preeclampsia preeclampsia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy in which affected ...

  7. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  8. Nursing Home Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data that is used by the Nursing Home Compare tool can be downloaded for public use. This functionality is primarily used by health policy researchers and the...

  9. Nursing Home Compare Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These are the official datasets used on the Medicare.gov Nursing Home Compare Website provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These data allow...

  10. Home Health Quality Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The instrument-data collection tool used to collect and report performance data by home health agencies is called the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS)....

  11. Genetics Home Reference: galactosemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions galactosemia galactosemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Galactosemia is a disorder that affects how the body ...

  12. Engaging Families in In-Home Family Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald W.; Koley, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Boys Town has created a program called In-Home Family Services to deliver help to families in stress. In-home family intervention programs have become widely used to help more families who are at risk and experiencing difficulties with a wide range of problems including domestic violence, child behavior problems, parent-child and family…

  13. The Nature of Spanish versus English Language Use at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.; Goldenberg, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Home language experiences are important for children's development of language and literacy. However, the home language context is complex, especially for Spanish-speaking children in the United States. A child's use of Spanish or English likely ranges along a continuum, influenced by preferences of particular people involved, such as parents,…

  14. Home media center

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Martinez, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    One of the most popular indoor entertainment systems nowadays is related to playing multimedia files, not only at home but also in public events such as watching movies in cinemas or playing music in nightclubs or pubs. Developers are responsible for making this easier and innovating in the development of these systems in different ways. This project's goal was to develop a home media center which allows the user to play multimedia files easily. In addition, the development was intended t...

  15. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  16. The effects of replacing groundnut cake with Afzelia africana (Mahogany seed meal on performance, organ weights and haematological indices of finisher broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Obun,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A 56-days feeding trial involving 200 day-old Marshal broilers was carried out in a completely randomized design to evaluate the performance, organ characteristics and blood indices of broilers fed Afzelia africana seed meal (ASM as a replacement for ground nut cake at dietary levels of 25, 50, 75 and 100%, respectively. The results showed that feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, organ weights and blood indices of birds on the control (0 %, 25 and 50 % ASM were significantly (P<0.05 superior to the groups on 75 and 100 % ASM. It is concluded that ASM could replaced GNC at level not exceeding 50% in broiler diets without any deleterious effects.

  17. Proyecto de cultivo y producción de palma africana en la provincia de los ríos, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El proyecta se enfoca en el cultivo de 1000 hectáreas de Palma Africana en la zona de Los Ríos, específicamente en el cantón Pueblo Viejo. El Cultivo se ejecuta en dos etapas: al primer año y la segunda al sexto año, en lotes de 500 hectáreas. Además se ofrece como alternativa de inversión de bajo riesgo a largo plazo Una de las características enfáticas del proyecto es que se desarrolla en un área de la provincia que fue abandonada hace más de 5 años por diversos factores, entre ellos: l...

  18. El rol de la Unión Africana (UA) en el Cuerno de África a partir del caso de Somalia - AMISOM (2007-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo Ramos, Miguel Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    El propósito de esta monografía es comprender cuál ha sido el rol de la Unión Africana (UA), dentro de la misión de paz AMISOM en el periodo de 2007- 2013. Por ello, el trabajo abarca aspectos geopolíticos e históricos, que han influido en la configuración del conflicto armado de Somalía y que han llevado progresivamente a la creación, evolución e implementación de mecanismos como las misiones de paz. Además, se abarcan los planteamientos del neo-funcionalismo y e...

  19. Phosphate-haemoglobin interaction. The primary structure of the haemoglobin of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana, Proboscidea): asparagine in position 2 of the beta-chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunitzer, G; Stangl, A; Schrank, B; Krombach, C; Wiesner, H

    1984-07-01

    The primary structure of the haemoglobin of the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) is reported. The sequence was determined by means of a sequenator. The haemoglobin differs in 26 amino acids in the alpha-chains and in 27 in the beta-chains from that of adult human haemoglobin. The haemoglobin of the African Elephant, like that of the Indian Elephant and Ilama, has only 5 binding sites for polyphosphate. This finding explains the low p(O2)50 value in whole blood as a result of the lower 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-haemoglobin interaction. This is discussed in relation to aspects of respiratory physiology; some points are also of interest with regard to the Second Punic War and Hannibal's crossing of the Alps.

  20. Antimicrobial activity and probable mechanisms of action of medicinal plants of Kenya: Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwitari, Peter G; Ayeka, Peter A; Ondicho, Joyce; Matu, Esther N; Bii, Christine C

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus are used traditionally in Kenya for treatment of microbial infections and cancer. Information on their use is available, but scientific data on their bioactivity, safety and mechanisms of action is still scanty. A study was conducted on the effect of organic extracts of these plants on both bacterial and fungal strains, and their mechanisms of action. Extracts were evaluated through the disc diffusion assay. Bacteria and yeast test strains were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the filamentous fungi. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension was prepared. Sterile paper discs 6 mm in diameter impregnated with 10 µl of the test extract (100 mg/ml) were aseptically placed onto the surface of the inoculated media. Chloramphenicol (30 µg) and fluconazole (25 µg) were used as standards. Discs impregnated with dissolution medium were used as controls. Activity of the extracts was expressed according to zone of inhibition diameter. MIC was determined at 0.78-100 mg/ml. Safety studies were carried using Cell Counting Kit 8 cell proliferation assay protocol. To evaluate extracts mechanisms of action, IEC-6 cells and RT-PCR technique was employed in vitro to evaluate Interleukin 7 cytokine. Investigated plants extracts have both bactericidal and fungicidal activity. W. ugandensis is cytotoxic at IC50Prunus africana shuts down expression of IL 7 mRNA at 50 µg/ml. W. somnifera has the best antimicrobial (1.5625 mg/ml), immunopotentiation (2 times IL 7 mRNA expression) and safety level (IC50>200 µg/ml). Fractions from W. ugandensis and W. somnifera too demonstrated antimicrobial activity. Mechanisms of action can largely be attributed to cytotoxicity, Gene silencing and immunopotentiation. Use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine has been justified and possible mechanisms of action demonstrated. Studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituents

  1. Consumo da costa africana: comunicações entre os portos turísticos sul-africanos do oceano Índico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamila Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Do início até meados do século XX, os cruzeiros turísticos ao longo da costa sul-africana eram uma atividade de lazer popular, empreendida pelas elites (brancas europeias (predominantemente os britânicos, americanas e sul-africanas, com paradas que incluíam diversas cidades portuárias do oceano Índico, como Cidade do Cabo e Durban, na África do Sul, e Lourenço Marques e Beira, no Moçambique português. Considerando as cidades portuárias anteriormente mencionadas como cidades-gêmeas em relação aos seus entrelaçados passados coloniais e turísticos e como funcionando dentro de um “corredor cultural” regional distinto (NUTALL, 2009 da África do Sul, este artigo explora uma série de portos de lazer interligados via cruzeiros de passageiros. A base da minha navegação histórica são os anuários de turismo produzidos pelas companhias de cruzeiro marítimo Union-Castle Line e serviço Round África em 1939 e 1949, respectivamente. A justificativa é que esses guias de viagem servem como entrada ao microcosmo cosmopolita de barcos de cruzeiro, o que os torna inestimáveis para entender a história do lazer (concomitantemente aos bens de consumo e publicidade relacionados na África do Sul.

  2. Calorific value of Prosopis africana and Balanites aegyptiaca wood: Relationships with tree growth, wood density and rainfall gradients in the West African Sahel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Carmen Sotelo; Weber, John C. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Sahel Office, B.P. E 5118 Bamako (Mali); Silva, Dimas Agostinho da; Bolzon de Muniz, Graciela Ines [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Av. Lothario Meissner, 900, CEP.: 80270-170-Curitiba (Brazil); Garcia, Rosilei A. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Instituto de Florestas, Departamento de Produtos Florestais, BR 465, km 07, 23890-000, Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Prosopis africana and Balanites aegyptiaca are native tree species in the West African Sahel and provide wood for fuel, construction and other essential products. A provenance/progeny test of each species was established at one relatively dry site in Niger, and evaluated at 13 years. Gross calorific value of the wood was determined for a random sample of trees in each test: gross CV and CVm{sup 3} = gross calorific value in MJ kg{sup -1} and MJ m{sup -3}, respectively. The major objectives were to determine if gross CV was positively correlated with wood density and tree growth, and if gross CV and/or CVm{sup 3} varied with rainfall gradients in the sample region. Provenances were grouped into a drier and more humid zone, and correlations were computed among all trees and separately in each zone. Results indicated that gross CV was not significantly correlated with density in either species. Gross CV was positively correlated with growth of P. africana (but not B. aegyptiaca) only in the drier zone. Gross CVm{sup 3} was positively correlated with growth of both species, and the correlations were stronger in the drier zone. Multiple regressions with provenance latitude, longitude and elevation indicated that provenance means for gross CV increased, in general, from the drier to the more humid zones. Regressions with gross CVm{sup 3} were not significant. Results are compared with earlier research reports from the provenance/progeny tests and with other tropical hardwood species; and practical implications are presented for tree improvement and conservation programs in the region. (author)

  3. Reducing Energy Use in Existing Homes by 30%: Learning From Home Performance with ENERGY STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C. [Building America Research Alliance (BARA), Kent, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The improvement of existing homes in the United States can have a much greater impact on overall residential energy use than the construction of highly efficient new homes. There are over 130 million existing housing units in the U.S., while annually new construction represents less than two percent of the total supply (U.S. Census Bureau, 2013). Therefore, the existing housing stock presents a clear opportunity and responsibility for Building America (BA) to guide the remodeling and retrofit market toward higher performance existing homes. There are active programs designed to improve the energy performance of existing homes. Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (HPwES) is a market-rate program among them. BARA's research in this project verified that the New Jersey HPwES program is achieving savings in existing homes that meet or exceed BA's goal of 30%. Among the 17 HPwES projects with utility data included in this report, 15 have actual energy savings ranging from 24% to 46%. Further, two of the homes achieved that level of energy savings without the costly replacement of heating and cooling equipment, which indicates that less costly envelope packages could be offered to consumers unable to invest in more costly mechanical packages, potentially creating broader market impact.

  4. An ancient musical instrument returns home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    After 300 years abroad, an ancient Chinese musical instrument returned home with its face lifted and a Japanese name. Originally a one-stringed plucker, the Daisho Modo now features a whole family of electric high-, medium-pitched and bass instruments. With crisp tone and wide range, the Daisho Modo is

  5. High dynamic range subjective testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Brahim; Nilsson, Mike

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes of a set of subjective tests that the authors have carried out to assess the end user perception of video encoded with High Dynamic Range technology when viewed in a typical home environment. Viewers scored individual single clips of content, presented in High Definition (HD) and Ultra High Definition (UHD), in Standard Dynamic Range (SDR), and in High Dynamic Range (HDR) using both the Perceptual Quantizer (PQ) and Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG) transfer characteristics, and presented in SDR as the backwards compatible rendering of the HLG representation. The quality of SDR HD was improved by approximately equal amounts by either increasing the dynamic range or increasing the resolution to UHD. A further smaller increase in quality was observed in the Mean Opinion Scores of the viewers by increasing both the dynamic range and the resolution, but this was not quite statistically significant.

  6. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Palo Duro Homes — Palo Duro Homes, Albuquerque, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This builder was honored for Most DOE Zero Energy Ready Homes Built in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards. By July 2014, Palo Duro had completed 152 homes since the program began in 2013 (under the original program title DOE Challenge Home), all of them certified to the stringent efficiency requirements of DOE’s Zero Energy Ready Home program.

  7. Making a Home for Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyer, Clint; Shklovski, Irina; Gorm Jensen, Nanna

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report on the design and implementation of an initial prototype to explore how to better situate in the home social media content individually generated by family members. We considered whether existing infrastructure and practices of social media might be leveraged to offer new ...... of sharing and disclosure based on pre-existing practices and attitudes toward social technologies. The study demonstrated that there are productive design opportunities in home systems that can leverage content via a broad range of social media applications....

  8. Desambiguadores empleados para indicar la pluralidad nominal en el español no estándar de la región suroriental cubana: influencia africana y haitiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Jesús Figueroa Arencibia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa analisar desambiguadores utilizados para aindicação de pluralidade nominal no espanhol não padrão de quatropovoados da região sudeste cubana, na qual predomina a populaçãonegra. Os resultados são comparados com outras modalidades doespanhol, sobretudo com as modalidades meridionais peninsularese as caribenhas, com diversas falas afro-hispânicas atestadas emtextos do século XIX, bem como com línguas africanas, línguascrioulas e o kreyol do Haiti. Objetiva-se demonstrar a influênciadas línguas africanas, da fala boçal e do kreyol haitiano na formaçãodo espanhol não padrão dessa região cubana.

  9. At Home with Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anita

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects the methodological challenges presented in the research process, where the principle of 'following the field’ means that the researcher must also follow students engaged in online activities in their own homes. The ethnographic studies are a part of a PhD project on “NETeduc......This article reflects the methodological challenges presented in the research process, where the principle of 'following the field’ means that the researcher must also follow students engaged in online activities in their own homes. The ethnographic studies are a part of a PhD project...... on “NETeducation,” a full-scale development project in nursing education (Lyngsø, 2014). With a focus on online professional education as the starting point, the process of research will follow the shifting learning process, through phases in the virtual classroom and in the students’ own homes. Research in online...

  10. HAE international home therapy consensus document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhurst Hilary J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary angioedema (C1 inhibitor deficiency, HAE is associated with intermittent swellings which are disabling and may be fatal. Effective treatments are available and these are most useful when given early in the course of the swelling. The requirement to attend a medical facility for parenteral treatment results in delays. Home therapy offers the possibility of earlier treatment and better symptom control, enabling patients to live more healthy, productive lives. This paper examines the evidence for patient-controlled home treatment of acute attacks ('self or assisted administration' and suggests a framework for patients and physicians interested in participating in home or self-administration programmes. It represents the opinion of the authors who have a wide range of expert experience in the management of HAE.

  11. At Home with Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anita

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects the methodological challenges presented in the research process, where the principle of 'following the field’ means that the researcher must also follow students engaged in online activities in their own homes. The ethnographic studies are a part of a PhD project...... on “NETeducation,” a full-scale development project in nursing education (Lyngsø, 2014). With a focus on online professional education as the starting point, the process of research will follow the shifting learning process, through phases in the virtual classroom and in the students’ own homes. Research in online...

  12. The @Home project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coxon, Ian Robert

    2014-01-01

    -care, remote care, tele-medicine, remote monitoring, embedded sensors, robotic and technology-based rehabilitation etc.). The assumption behind most of these technology solutions is that they will facilitate or enable outpatient self-management (self-care) and home-care as an extension of existing...... and currently proposed clinical services and products. This assumption is influenced by political and economic interests and it has failed in most part to understand or in many cases even to consider the patient 'experience of care' within the sovereignty of the home....

  13. Windows Home Server users guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edney, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Windows Home Server brings the idea of centralized storage, backup and computer management out of the enterprise and into the home. Windows Home Server is built for people with multiple computers at home and helps to synchronize them, keep them updated, stream media between them, and back them up centrally. Built on a similar foundation as the Microsoft server operating products, it's essentially Small Business Server for the home.This book details how to install, configure, and use Windows Home Server and explains how to connect to and manage different clients such as Windows XP, Windows Vist

  14. But Does It Work in Homes Away From Home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    1972-01-01

    The experimental Mother-Child Home Program, aimed at the prevention of educational disadvantaged," was shown to be effective in repeated studies away from the home base of the Verbal Interaction Project. (Author/SP)

  15. Home Automation : Smart home technology and template house design

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zeya

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, home automation’s general knowledge, technology information and each component will be introduced to the reader in the first half of the whole thesis. In the second half, thesis includes the Home Automation template design and market competitiveness analysis. The author assumes that the reader is going to spend lots of money to have a smart home. In this situation, the author introduces the home automation to the reader at each component. So the reader in this thesis actu...

  16. Differences in evaluation of three different approaches in home range sizes of red deer Cervus elaphus in Western Carpathians / Rozdiely vo vyhodnotení veľkosti domovských okrskov jeleňa lesného Cervus elaphus v Západných Karpatoch tromi rôznymi prístupmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Alfadil Mohammed Abdelrahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cieľom tohto príspevku bolo porovnať rozdiely v aplikácií troch rôznych prístupov k vyhodnocovaniu veľkosti domovských okrskov vybraných samčích jedincov jeleňa lesného (Cervus elaphus v Západných Karpatoch. Výskum bol vykonaný v Kremnických vrchoch, situovaných v centrálnej časti Slovenska na vzorke troch jedincov sledovaných VHF (Very High Frequency rádiotelemetriou. Údaje boli vyhodnocované v rámci troch sezón (zima, leto a ruja. Na odhad veľkosti domovských okrskov boli použité tri metódy: Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP, Kernel Home Range (KHR and Local Convex Hull (LoCoH. Sezónne rozdiely vo veľkosti domovských okrskov boli analyzované použitím analýzy variancie (ANOVA. Výsledky poukázali na rozdiely vo veľkosti domovských okrskov a jadrových zón v populácii jelenej zveri. Migračný typ jedinca mal väčší okrsok v porovnaní s ostatnými, tento rozdiel však nebol štatisticky významný. Metóda LoCoH s použitím malej vzorky dát významne podhodnocuje odhady veľkosti domovských okrskov.

  17. Home Textile Redefined at Intertextile Shanghai Home Textiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gracie; Guo

    2008-01-01

    Organized by China Home Textile Association, The Sub-Council of Textile Industry, CCPIT and Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd., Intertextile Shanghai Home Textiles, one of Asia’s most popular home textiles trade shows, returns for its 14th year, 26 – 28 August 2008, at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre, with 100,000 sqm of exhibition space.

  18. Love Needs a Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This Valentine’s Day could have beend ismaying for two young lovers who de-cided to spend it at home.The host,26-year-old Ye Fei,who is originally from Hubei Province and works as an editor for a news-

  19. Home, Hearth and Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, Anita

    1982-01-01

    Advantages of having children use microcomputers at school and home include learning about sophisticated concepts early in life without a great deal of prodding, playing games that expand knowledge, and becoming literate in computer knowledge needed later in life. Includes comments from parents on their experiences with microcomputers and…

  20. Solar Electricity for Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Every day, the sun showers the Earth with millions of times more energy than its people use. The only problem is that energy is spread out over the entire Earth's surface and must be harvested. Engineers are learning to capture and use some of this energy to make electricity for homes. Solar panels make up the heart of a solar system. They can be…

  1. Home Alone Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to an empty house. Every week thousands of parents make decisions to leave children home alone while they go to work, run errands, or for social engagements. It is estimated over 40% of children are left ... their parents that these children are labeled "latch key children," ...

  2. Solar Energy: Home Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on home heating is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  3. My Home in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    In 1989 and 1995, Patricia Leuchtman visited China twice to work as a language editor for Women of China, and during her tenure established a profound friendship with Chinese colleagues. Before leaving off for home in America in May this year, Pat wrote a story for Women of China revealing her experiences while living in the Friendship Hotel in Beijing.

  4. Tightening Home Purchase Limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    More Chinese cities will limit home purchase to cool the red-hot real estate market In June 2011,the average house price in 100 Chinese cities was 8,856 yuan ($1,373)per square meter.Of these cities,house prices in 75 of them increased

  5. The connected home

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    First book offering insights into the social shaping of technology and the shaping of human behavior Focuses on how technologies have been designed in the past and how they might be in the future Analyses the effect of social media such as Facebook in the home

  6. Composting Begins at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreckman, George P.

    1994-01-01

    Reports the results of a year-long home composting pilot program run by the city of Madison, Wisconsin. The study was designed to gather data on the amount and type of materials composted by 300 volunteer households and to determine the feasibility of a full-scale program. (LZ)

  7. Protokoller til Home Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk

    2008-01-01

    computer, der kan skifte mellem foruddefinerede indstillinger. Nogle gange kan computeren fjernstyres over internettet, så man kan se hjemmets status fra en computer eller måske endda fra en mobiltelefon. Mens nævnte anvendelser er klassiske indenfor home automation, er yderligere funktionalitet dukket op...

  8. Future Home Network Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonnier, Benoit; Wessing, Henrik; Lannoo, Bart;

    This paper presents the requirements for future Home Area Networks (HAN). Firstly, we discuss the applications and services as well as their requirements. Then, usage scenarios are devised to establish a first specification for the HAN. The main requirements are an increased bandwidth (towards 1...

  9. HomePort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Olsen, Petur; Ravn, Anders Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence systems use many sensors and actuators, with a diversity of networks, protocols and technologies which makes it impossible to access the devices in a common manner. This paper presents the HomePort software, which provides an open source RESTful interface to heterogeneous sen...

  10. School Music Goes Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2012-01-01

    This article explores ways for music teachers to influence music making in the home. Often preschool music programs include parents in the music education process, but when children enter school, the parent connection is not usually continued with the same intensity. This article will serve as a catalyst for further conversations on ways to…

  11. Evolution of Home Automation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Rihan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society home and office automation has becomeincreasingly important, providing ways to interconnectvarious home appliances. This interconnection results infaster transfer of information within home/offices leading tobetter home management and improved user experience.Home Automation, in essence, is a technology thatintegrates various electrical systems of a home to provideenhanced comfort and security. Users are grantedconvenient and complete control over all the electrical homeappliances and they are relieved from the tasks thatpreviously required manual control. This paper tracks thedevelopment of home automation technology over the lasttwo decades. Various home automation technologies havebeen explained briefly, giving a chronological account of theevolution of one of the most talked about technologies ofrecent times.

  12. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: spondylocostal dysostosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions spondylocostal dysostosis spondylocostal dysostosis Enable ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Netherton syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Netherton syndrome Netherton syndrome Enable ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions breast cancer breast cancer Enable ...

  16. Telemedicine in Neonatal Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Kristina; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the majority of preterm infants, the last weeks of hospital admission mainly concerns tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding. Neonatal home care (NH) was developed to allow infants to remain at home for tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding with regular home...... visits from neonatal nurses. For hospitals covering large regions, home visits may be challenging, time consuming, and expensive and alternative approaches must be explored. OBJECTIVE: To identify parental needs when wanting to provide neonatal home care supported by telemedicine. METHODS: The study used...... participatory design and qualitative methods. Data were collected from observational studies, individual interviews, and focus group interviews. Two neonatal units participated. One unit was experienced in providing neonatal home care with home visits, and the other planned to offer neonatal home care...

  17. Pediatric home healthcare: a paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krepper, R; Young, A; Cummings, E

    1994-01-01

    Although parents may welcome having their ill child cared for at home, they are not prepared to compromise privacy and family rituals, nor share control of their child. The purpose of this article is to provide a snapshot of problems that parents have encountered with pediatric home healthcare. Home care parents offer suggestions for other parents and home healthcare nurses and agencies, encouraging them to be proactive in preventing potential problems.

  18. Legal Issues in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Marshall B.

    This paper examines the variety of legal rules and processes which have been established to assess and ensure that the quality of care provided in nursing homes satisfies an acceptable level. It begins with a general overview of nursing home law. Areas discussed in this section include: (1) sources of nursing home law; (2) theories of liability;…

  19. Home advantage in professional tennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professiona

  20. Racial Inequalities in Home Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Mary R.; Jackman, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    Throughout the United States, the probability of home ownership is considerably lower for Blacks than for Whites who are comparable in terms of socioeconomic characteristics, family composition, and location. Outside the South, Black owner-occupied homes are worth considerably less than the homes of comparable Whites. (Author/GC)

  1. Guide to Home Energy Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-01

    A proper home energy assessment (also called a home energy audit) will tell you how much energy you use in your house, the most cost-effective measures you can take to improve the energy efficiency of your home, and how to save money on energy bills.

  2. Matrices coloniales y diásporas africanas: Hacia una investigación de las culturas negra y mulata en la Nueva Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antonio Díaz Díaz

    2003-12-01

    estará definido por la teoría de la cultura colonial. Posteriormente, me concentraré en el campo de las etapas transatlánticas como una escena fluida para la Diáspora africana y trataré de recuperar la dimensión africana de ésta.

  3. Integrating care coordination home telehealth and home based primary care in rural Oklahoma: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorocco, Kristen H; Bratkovich, Kristi L; Wingo, Rita; Qureshi, Saleem M; Mason, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to evaluate the benefits of integrating VA Care Coordination Home Telehealth and Telemental health within HBPC. A case study design was used to determine quality assurance and quality improvement of incorporating additional home telehealth equipment within Home Based Primary Care (HBPC). Veterans with complex medical conditions and their caregivers living in rural Oklahoma were enrolled. Veterans received the same care other HBPC patients received with the addition of home telehealth equipment. Members from the interdisciplinary treatment team were certified to use the telehealth equipment. Veterans and their caregivers were trained on use of the equipment in their homes. Standard HBPC program measures were used to assess the program success. Assessments from all disciplines on the HBPC team were at baseline, 3, and 6 months, and participants provided satisfaction and interview data to assess the benefits of integrating technology into standard care delivery within an HBPC program. Six veterans were enrolled (mean age = 72 yrs) with a range of physical health conditions including: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular accident, spinal cord injury, diabetes, hypertension, and syncope. Primary mental health conditions included depression, dementia, anxiety, and PTSD. Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination ranged from 18 to 30. Over a 6-month period, case studies indicated improvements in strength, social functioning, decreased caregiver burden, and compliance with treatment plan. This integration of CCHT and HBPC served previously underserved rural veterans having complex medical conditions and appears both feasible and clinically beneficial to veterans and their caregivers.

  4. American Academy of Home Care Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletter Certification/Training Donate Featured Members Home Care Medicine in America The American Academy of Home Care ... Resources with the American Academy of Home Care Medicine. The American Academy of Home Care Medicine understands ...

  5. Home automation on the move:

    OpenAIRE

    Imperl, Bojan; Jeřabek, Boro; Šoštarič, Andrej

    2003-01-01

    In this article we would like to show how an arbitrary home and building electronic system based on the home automation standards such as Xl0 might be addressed and controlled by an appropriate mobile technology. Urge for mobility of users, which may be at the same time either the inhabitants of these homes or even administrators and supporters, is growing. The possibility to control and observe the status of home appliances while being on the move away from home using our mobile phones is be...

  6. Home-based Healthcare Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo

    Sustaining daily, unsupervised healthcare activities in non-clinical settings such as the private home can challenge, among others, older adults. To support such unsupervised care activities, an increasingly number of reminders and monitoring systems are being designed. However, most...... of these systems target a specific treatment or condition and might not be sufficient to support the care management work at home. Based on a case study approach, my research investigates home-based healthcare practices and how they can inform future design of home-based healthcare technology that better account...... for the home setting and people’s everyday activities....

  7. When Globalization Hits Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Haakonsson, Stine Jessen

    Lead firms are increasingly reorganizing their innovation activities into global innovation networks. Such reorganization has potentially major impact on their existing home-based innovation networks. Based on 31 interviews in four case studies of lead firms in the Danish food industry, the paper...... analyzes the dynamics of five key features of home-based innovation networks: 1) size of the national networks, 2) type of organization, 3) content of collaboration within the network, 4) concurrent globalization of organizations in the network, and 5) degree of formalization of network interactions....... The dynamics are generally differentiated according to the type of lead firm strategy, i.e. knowledge augmenting or knowledge exploiting. The qualitative and exploratory findings point towards some effects on national innovation networks. Hence, the paper concludes by hypothesizing that the globalization...

  8. Health Smart Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Choukeir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a study and an experimental medical tele-surveillance system for maintaining patients at home. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how combining many kinds of technologies starting with sensors connected to the patient then using wireless technology (ZigBee to transmit information and finally analysis and detection of critical situation such as falls, ECG problems, hypothermia hyperthermia by using a GUI created to fulfill these missions. Many physiological parameters can be studied but we tended in our project to study ECG signal, heart rate, temperature of the patient, fall detection and medication reminder. Results obtained allow the user to visualize online the parameters and to detect any problem that occurs, so by using this system we can observe the status of the patient during his normal life at his home.

  9. Energy comes home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aune, Margrethe [Department of Interdisciplinary Studies of Culture, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2007-11-15

    The growth in private energy consumption is an increasing problem in western countries. From an environmental point of view, this consumption has to be reduced. On the basis of two Norwegian case studies, this article discusses private energy consumption and possibilities for reduction, with a special focus on the home. It argues against a rational economic view of the consumer and emphasizes the significance of a more subtle understanding of private energy use. The article approaches the challenges of reducing private energy consumption by analysing the domestication of the home and discusses everyday life activities as well as the phenomenon of rebuilding and redecorating. By using the concept of domestication, the article challenges the linear understanding of technological as well as behavioural change. Private energy consumption is part of a complex network and it is necessary to understand this network in order to achieve a more permanent reduction. (author)

  10. At Home with Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anita

    2015-01-01

    on “NETeducation,” a full-scale development project in nursing education (Lyngsø, 2014). With a focus on online professional education as the starting point, the process of research will follow the shifting learning process, through phases in the virtual classroom and in the students’ own homes. Research in online......This article reflects the methodological challenges presented in the research process, where the principle of 'following the field’ means that the researcher must also follow students engaged in online activities in their own homes. The ethnographic studies are a part of a PhD project...... contexts demands a rethinking of the traditional ethnographic approach (Hammersley, 2006; Hine, 2005), sharpening the focus on the online and offline contexts, and the shifting between them (Webster, da Silva, 2013). The methodological reflections in the first part of this article can relate...

  11. Reassessing (home-)regionalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Osegowitsch; André Sammartino

    2008-01-01

    Alan Rugman and co-authors argue that globalisation, and with it global strategy, is a myth. This contention rests on a taxonomy of the world's largest firms based on their sales, showing an overwhelming share of home-regional firms. We question the rationales underpinning their classification scheme. When retesting the data using different schema we find that the original results are far from robust, with a significant share of firms attaining bi-regional or global status. Further longitudin...

  12. Where Is My Home?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WHEN I was asked where my home was the name of the unknown county would always escape my lips. By then I had been in this fancy metropolis for quite a few years. It had accompanied me to do everything and my family, my habits and whatever I had had all been merged with the city. But still I didn’t know why I believed that remote and nameless village

  13. Alone at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Pääkkönen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been much public discussion about children spending long afternoons alone at home. It has been claimed that spending a lot of time alone makes children vulnerable to many kinds of risk behaviour, such as smoking, use of alcohol and drugs, depression and poor school performance. Concerns have also been voiced about children’s unsupervised television watching, playing of computer games and surfing on the Internet. Yet, do we actually know how long the times are that children do spend alone at home and what do they do during that time? The purpose of this paper is to study how much time youngsters in Finland spend alone at home, who are the youngsters who are alone and what do they do when they are alone. The research data are data relating to households from the 1999–2000 Time Use Survey of Statistics Finland. The data cover the shared days of fami-lies with children on which all family members aged 10 or over kept a time use diary. The respondents recorded into the diaries at 10-minute accuracy whether they were alone or together with children aged under 10 belong-ing to the same household, other members of the household, or with other people they knew. Besides the data concerning being alone or together with somebody, the paper also exploits diary information on whether other members of the household were at home at the time in question. The scope of the study is limited to school stu-dents aged from 10 to 18. The material contains data on 191 schooldays and 229 days off school.

  14. [Aromatherapy in nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Lucile

    2015-01-01

    Pierre Delaroche de Clisson hospital uses essential oils as part of its daily organisation for the treatment of pain and the development of palliative care. The setting up of this project, in nursing homes and long-term care units, is the fruit of a complex mission carried out by a multidisciplinary team, which had to take into account the risks involved and overcome a certain amount of reluctance.

  15. African histoplasmosis: report of the first case in Brazil and treatment with itraconazole Histoplasmose africana: relato do primeiro caso no Brasil e tratado pelo itraconazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Abrucio Neto

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of African histoplasmosis diagnosed in Brazil. The patient was an immigrant from Angola who had come to Brazil six months after the appearance of the skin lesion. The skin of the right retroauricular area was the only site of involvement. The diagnosis was established by direct mycologic examination, culture and by histopathologic examination of the lesion. The patient was successfully treated with Itraconazole 100mg a day for 52 days. No recurrent skin lesions were observed during the ten month follow-up period.Relata-se o primeiro caso de histoplasmose africana diagnosticado em nosso meio, em indivíduo angolano que imigrou para o Brasil seis meses após o início das lesões. Quadro clínico de forma localizada exclusivamente na pele na região retro auricular direita. O diagnóstico foi estabelecido através do exame micológico direto, cultura e exame anátomo-patológico. Houve sucesso terapêutico com a administração de itraconazol, na dose de 100mg/dia durante 52 dias. Não houve recidiva do quadro cutâneo no seguimento clínico do doente após 10 meses de interrupção do tratamento.

  16. 伏康树中生物碱化学成分研究%Study on the Alkaloids Constituents from Voacanga africana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅玲; 邓赟; 李甫; 郭大乐; 陆崇玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the alkaloids of Voacanga africana. Methods: The alkaloids were isolated by normal phase silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data Results: Eight alkaloids were isolated and their structures were elucidated as voacangine(l) ,voacangine hydroxyindolenine(2) ,19R-epi-voacristine(3), epi-ibogaine(4) ,vobasine(S) ,19-epi-heyneanine(6) ,vobtusine(7) and voacamine(8). Conclusion:Compounds 2 -4 and 6 are isolated from this plant for the first time.%目的:研究伏康树中生物碱部分的化学成分.方法:采用正相硅胶、Sephadex LH-20等色谱方法进行分离纯化,并运用波谱分析的方法鉴定化合物结构.结果:分离并鉴定了8个生物碱类化合物,分别为:voacangine (1)、voacangine hydroxyindolenine(2)、19R-epi-voacristine(3)、epi-ibogaine(4)、vobasine(5)、19-epi-heyneanine(6)、vobtusine(7)和voacamine (8).结论:其中,化合物2~4、6均为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  17. Aprendendo yorubá nas redes educativas dos terreiros: história, culturas africanas e enfrentamento da intolerância nas escolas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STELA GUEDES CAPUTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta algunos resultados de la investigación sobre cómo los niños y jóvenes aprenden yoruba , una lengua africana viva practicada en candomblé en Brasil. El estudio se realizó en una casa de candomblé en la Baixada Fluminense, en Río de Janeiro, desde abril de 2012 hasta septiembre de 2013. Comparte la misma comprensión de Alves (2010, para quien las paredes de la escuela son creaciones imaginarias y todos aprenden dentro y fuera de las mismas, es decir, en las redes educativas. Entendemos las casas de candomblé como parte de estas redes, con sus comidas, hojas, mitos, artefactos. El yoruba impregna todos estos conocimientos como una cadena del lenguaje que ilumina, organiza y mantiene la comunicación de los miembros de esta comunidad. La investigación también nos mostró que el conocimiento de estas culturas –incluidas sus lenguas– puede sugerir pistas para la enseñanza de la historia de África, así como reducir la intolerancia religiosa en las escuelas

  18. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest. A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40% and 5 (34% categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2. The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  19. O dom e a iniciação revisitados: o dado e o feito em religiões de matriz africana no brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Goldman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da conhecida oposição entre o que derivaria do "dom" e o que derivaria da "iniciação" nas religiões de matriz africana no Brasil, este trabalho visa, em um primeiro movimento, demonstrar etnograficamente que esse dualismo oculta um triadismo. O desdobramento da análise etnográfica levará, contudo e em seguida, à substituição desse triadismo por um modelo simultaneamente unitário e múltiplo. Neste, a "participação", em seus múltiplos sentidos, deverá ter um lugar ao lado do "dom" e da "iniciação", e as três categorias deverão ser entendidas como atualizações de um princípio subjacente único.Beginning with the known opposition between that which derives from the "gift" and that which derives from "initiation" in African-oriented religions in Brazil, this work aims to ethnographically demonstrate that said dualism actually conceals a triadism. The unfolding of ethnographic analysis in the article will, however, lead us to replace this triadism with a model that is simultaneously unified and multiple. In this, "participation" (in its multiple meanings should have a place next to the "gift" and "initiation" and the three categories should be construed as updates of a single under-lying principle.

  20. Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele A Miller

    Full Text Available For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012. Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. Using multivariable regression models, associations were found between foot health and age [P value = 0.076; Odds Ratio = 1.018], time spent on hard substrates [P value = 0.022; Odds Ratio = 1.014], space experienced during the night [P value = 0.041; Odds Ratio = 1.008], and percent of time spent in indoor/outdoor exhibits during the day [P value < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 1.003]. Similarly, the main risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders included time on hard substrate [P value = 0.002; Odds Ratio = 1.050] and space experienced in indoor/outdoor exhibits [P value = 0.039; Odds Ratio = 1.037]. These results suggest that facility and management changes that decrease time spent on hard substrates will improve elephant welfare through better foot and musculoskeletal health.

  1. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  2. Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele A; Hogan, Jennifer N; Meehan, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012. Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. Using multivariable regression models, associations were found between foot health and age [P value = 0.076; Odds Ratio = 1.018], time spent on hard substrates [P value = 0.022; Odds Ratio = 1.014], space experienced during the night [P value = 0.041; Odds Ratio = 1.008], and percent of time spent in indoor/outdoor exhibits during the day [P value < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 1.003]. Similarly, the main risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders included time on hard substrate [P value = 0.002; Odds Ratio = 1.050] and space experienced in indoor/outdoor exhibits [P value = 0.039; Odds Ratio = 1.037]. These results suggest that facility and management changes that decrease time spent on hard substrates will improve elephant welfare through better foot and musculoskeletal health.

  3. Integrated working between residential care homes and primary care: a survey of care homes in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gage Heather

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people living in care homes in England have complex health needs due to a range of medical conditions, mental health needs and frailty. Despite an increasing policy expectation that professionals should operate in an integrated way across organisational boundaries, there is a lack of understanding between care homes and the National Health Service (NHS about how the two sectors should work together, meaning that residents can experience a poor "fit" between their needs, and services they can access. This paper describes a survey to establish the current extent of integrated working that exists between care homes and primary and community health and social services. Methods A self-completion, online questionnaire was designed by the research team. Items on the different dimensions of integration (funding, administrative, organisational, service delivery, clinical care were included. The survey was sent to a random sample of residential care homes with more than 25 beds (n = 621 in England in 2009. Responses were analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Results The survey achieved an overall response rate of 15.8%. Most care homes (78.7% worked with more than one general practice. Respondents indicated that a mean of 14.1 professionals/ services (other than GPs had visited the care homes in the last six months (SD 5.11, median 14; a mean of .39 (SD.163 professionals/services per bed. The most frequent services visiting were district nursing, chiropody and community psychiatric nurses. Many (60% managers considered that they worked with the NHS in an integrated way, including sharing documents, engaging in integrated care planning and joint learning and training. However, some care home managers cited working practices dictated by NHS methods of service delivery and priorities for care, rather than those of the care home or residents, a lack of willingness by NHS professionals to share information, and low

  4. Healthy Efficient New Gas Homes (HENGH) Pilot Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Healthy Efficient New Gas Homes (HENGH) is a field study that will collect data on ventilation systems and indoor air quality (IAQ) in new California homes that were built to 2008 Title 24 standards. A pilot test was performed to help inform the most time and cost effective approaches to measuring IAQ in the 100 test homes that will be recruited for this study. Two occupied, single-family detached homes built to 2008 Title 24 participated in the pilot test. One of the test homes uses exhaust-only ventilation provided by a continuous exhaust fan in the laundry room. The other home uses supply air for ventilation. Measurements of IAQ were collected for two weeks. Time-resolved concentrations of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde were measured. Measurements of IAQ also included time-integrated concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), volatile aldehydes, and NO2. Three perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) were used to estimate the dilution rate of an indoor emitted air contaminant in the two pilot test homes. Diagnostic tests were performed to measure envelope air leakage, duct leakage, and airflow of range hood, exhaust fans, and clothes dryer vent when accessible. Occupant activities, such as cooking, use of range hood and exhaust fans, were monitored using various data loggers. This document describes results of the pilot test.

  5. Home education: Constructions of choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth MORTON

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Families who choose to home educate generally do so due to dissatisfaction with schoolbased education. Common perceptions of home educators oscillate between images of the 'tree-hugging hippy' and the 'religious fanatic'. Whilst attempting to go beyond suchstereotypical dichotomies, this paper will examine three very different groupings of home educators and their varying constructions of childhood and the social world, demonstratingthe spectrum between home education as an expression of human rights and of fundamentalism. The first grouping construct home education as a 'natural' choice, often presented in political opposition to existing social structures. For the second grouping home education is predominantly a 'social' choice relating to the conscious transmission of various forms of capital. Finally there are 'last resort' home educators for whom home education is not perceived as a choice. Based on qualitative research, this paper will argue that, even where home education is constructed as natural, the social aspects and impacts of home education choices cannot be ignored.

  6. Thermodynamics of DNA target site recognition by homing endonucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Eastberg, Jennifer H.; Smith, Audrey McConnell; Zhao, Lei; Ashworth, Justin; Shen, Betty W.; Stoddard, Barry L.

    2007-01-01

    The thermodynamic profiles of target site recognition have been surveyed for homing endonucleases from various structural families. Similar to DNA-binding proteins that recognize shorter target sites, homing endonucleases display a narrow range of binding free energies and affinities, mediated by structural interactions that balance the magnitude of enthalpic and entropic forces. While the balance of ΔH and TΔS are not strongly correlated with the overall extent of DNA bending, unfavorable ΔH...

  7. Alert management for home healthcare based on home automation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, T T; de Lamotte, F; Diguet, J-Ph; Said-Hocine, F

    2010-01-01

    Rising healthcare for elder and disabled people can be controlled by offering people autonomy at home by means of information technology. In this paper, we present an original and sensorless alert management solution which performs multimedia and home automation service discrimination and extracts highly regular home activities as sensors for alert management. The results of simulation data, based on real context, allow us to evaluate our approach before application to real data.

  8. Telemedicine in Neonatal Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Kristina Garne; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    visits from neonatal nurses. For hospitals covering large regions, home visits may be challenging, time consuming, and expensive and alternative approaches must be explored. OBJECTIVE: To identify parental needs when wanting to provide neonatal home care supported by telemedicine. METHODS: The study used...... participatory design and qualitative methods. Data were collected from observational studies, individual interviews, and focus group interviews. Two neonatal units participated. One unit was experienced in providing neonatal home care with home visits, and the other planned to offer neonatal home care...... with the neonatal unit, and (4) an online knowledge base on preterm infant care, breastfeeding, and nutrition. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of neonatal home care. NH provides parents with a feeling of being a family, supports their self-efficacy, and gives them a feeling of security when...

  9. Factor substitution in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Grabowski, David C; Hirth, Richard A

    2006-03-01

    This paper studies factor substitution in one important sector: the nursing home industry. Specifically, we measure the extent to which nursing homes substitute materials for labor when labor becomes relatively more expensive. From a policy perspective, factor substitution in this market is important because materials-intensive methods of care are associated with greater risks of morbidity and mortality among nursing home residents. Studying longitudinal data from 1991 to 2000 on nearly every nursing home in the United States, we use the method of instrumental variables (IV) to address measurement error in nursing home wages. The results from the IV models yield evidence of factor substitution: higher nursing home wages are associated with greater use of psychoactive drugs and lower quality.

  10. Dynamic Range Size Analysis of Territorial Animals: An Optimality Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yun; Börger, Luca; Hastings, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Home range sizes of territorial animals are often observed to vary periodically in response to seasonal changes in foraging opportunities. Here we develop the first mechanistic model focused on the temporal dynamics of home range expansion and contraction in territorial animals. We demonstrate how simple movement principles can lead to a rich suite of range size dynamics, by balancing foraging activity with defensive requirements and incorporating optimal behavioral rules into mechanistic home range analysis. Our heuristic model predicts three general temporal patterns that have been observed in empirical studies across multiple taxa. First, a positive correlation between age and territory quality promotes shrinking home ranges over an individual's lifetime, with maximal range size variability shortly before the adult stage. Second, poor sensory information, low population density, and large resource heterogeneity may all independently facilitate range size instability. Finally, aggregation behavior toward forage-rich areas helps produce divergent home range responses between individuals from different age classes. This model has broad applications for addressing important unknowns in animal space use, with potential applications also in conservation and health management strategies.

  11. Energy on the Home Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas W.

    2011-11-01

    This article explores a variety of ways to measure, adjust, and augment home energy usage. Particular examples of using electricity and gas utility meters, power/energy meters for individual devices, whole-home energy monitoring, infrared cameras, and thermal measurements are discussed—leading to a factor-of-four reduction in home energy use in the case discussed. The net efficiency performance of a stand-alone photovoltaic system is also presented. Ideas for reducing one's energy/carbon footprint both within the home and in the larger community are quantitatively evaluated.

  12. Home advantage in Greek football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage.

  13. Effet du biotope sur la diversité floristique et le polymorphisme phénotypique des groupements à Tamarix africana Poir. dans les zones arides de la région de Khenchela (Est Algerien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabtane Abdelhamid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUME Le genre Tamarix (Tamaricaceae regroupe plus de 80 espèces, parmi eux le Tamarix africana Poir. qui représente une très grande ubiquité en Algérie, soit du point de vue climatique (humidité et sécheresse, édaphique (sols salés et calcaires; où il représente l’espèce  à caractère typique des plantes thermo xérophytes. Pour contribuer à la connaissance de cette espèce et de son comportement nous avons essayé de suivre le comportement  phytosociologique ainsi que sa variabilité morphologique (l’hauteur, le recouvrement basale, nombre des ramifications à la base.. dans trois biotopes, extrêmement différents du point de vue climatique et édaphique,  dans les zones steppiques arides de la région de Khenchela (Est Algérien et qui sont  choisis  selon un transect Nord - Sud. Les résultats révèlent que les groupements à Tamarix africana Poir. représentent une richesse floristique importante, qui se diffère d’un site à l’autre, avec un polymorphisme phénotypique adaptée aux conditions spécifiques à chacun des trois sites et qui lui permet d’être l’espèce à forme arbustive  la plus adaptée pour la réhabilitation des écosystèmes dégradés dans les zones de transitions Désert-NordMots clés Tamarix africana P. - ubiquité- thermo xérophytes-  régions arides- halophytes- polymorphisme phénotypique

  14. Descripción de un caso de hiperplasia endometrial quística en una leona africana (Panthera leo) Description of a cystic endometrial hyperplasia case in an African lion (Panthera leo)

    OpenAIRE

    A.L. Migliorisi; A.T. Soto; M.V. Gómez; Laplace, R.; A. Massone

    2010-01-01

    En el presente trabajo, se describe un caso de hiperplasia endometrial quística en una leona africana (Panthera leo) de 13 años de edad aproximada, alojada en el Jardín Botánico y Zoológico de la ciudad de La Plata. El estudio anatómico, histopatológico y ultrasonográfico del aparato reproductor fueron realizados posteriormente a la ovariohisterectomía. Los principales hallazgos correspondieron a un proceso crónico de hiperplasia endometrial quística con infiltración linfoplasmocitaria, prese...

  15. Uso de granos secos con solubles (DDGS) provenientes de la destilería del maíz en suplementos para vacas lactantes en pastoreo de Estrella Africana (Cynodon nlemfluensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Macaya-Quirós, Sofía; Rojas-Bourrillón, Augusto

    2009-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio con granos secos con solubles (DDGS), provenientes de la destilería del maíz, para evaluar el efecto de diferentes niveles de inclusión de este ingrediente en la dieta de vacas lecheras pastoreando Estrella Africana, sobre la producción y composición de la leche. Se escogió 36 vacas Holstein y fueron aleatorizadas en los siguientes tratamientos: 0, 22, 32 y 42% de inclusión de DDGS en el alimento balanceado. La mayor producción diaria de leche corregida al 4% de grasa y ...

  16. Educação continuada e o ensino de história e cultura afro-brasileira e africana: um estudo sobre o programa São Paulo educando pela diferença para a igualdade

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    O interesse em desenvolver esta pesquisa surgiu, de um lado, de minha participação em 2005, como professora de Língua Portuguesa da rede estadual de ensino do Estado de São Paulo de um programa de formação continuada denominado São Paulo: Educando pela Diferença para a Igualdade, cuja finalidade é inserir com base na Lei nº. 10.639/03, no currículo das escolas estaduais de Ensino Fundamental e Médio, o ensino da cultura e da história afrobrasileira e africana e, de outro lado, de questões ...

  17. Acute Myeloid Leukemia - Genetics Home Reference [Genetics Home Reference (Conditions)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Acute Myeloid...te myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA Fanconi anemia You may also search Genetics Home Reference for Acut...e Myeloid Leukemia for additional information. Published : October 27, 2014 Acute Myeloid Leukemia - Genetics Home Reference ...

  18. New American Home(R) 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-11-01

    The New American Home(R) is a ''real-world'' laboratory demonstrating concepts, materials, designs, and construction techniques that can be replicated--in whole or in part--in housing built any place and in any price range. Since its inception in 1984, TNAH has the unique distinction of being both a show house and a for-sale product, balancing architectural freedom and the bottom line. It is a collection of ideas for the industry to take away and put into hundreds of thousands of homes across the country each year. TNAH 2006 was built with technical support from IBACOS and on-site support from IHP.

  19. Control Químico de la Mosca de los Establos, Stomoxys Calcitrans (L y Otros Insectos Asociados con Estipes de Palma Africana en Descomposición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ureta Sandino Eduardo

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available En ensayos para determinar el efecto del diazinon 1% I.A. (ingrediente activo; bromophos 1 % I.A.; dieldrin 0.5% I.A., 2% I.A. y methomyl 0.1 % I.A. sobre larvas de Stomoxys calcilrans y otros insectos asociados con tipes de palma africana (Elaeis guineensis en descomposición, se encontró que los tratamientos con diazinon 1% I.A. y bromophos 1% I.A. fueron los más efectivos para impedir la proliferación en éstos de las larvas de Slomoxys calcilralls. Ambos insecticidas protegieron eficientemente los estipes por lo menos durante dos semanas. El dieldrin al 0.5% I. A. y 2% I. A., aunque inferior al bromophos 1% I.A. y al diazinon 1% I.A. también fue efectivo para impedir la proliferación de larvas de la mosca en los troncos de palma africana en descomposición. El tratamiento con methomyl 0.1 % I. A. al parecer no impidió la multiplicación de las larvas en los estipes, según pudo observarse en muestras tomadas a las dos semanas de haber sido aplicado el producto. El diazinon 1% I.A: bromophos 1 % I.A.; dieldrin 0.5% I.A. y 2% I.A., aparentemente fueron eficaces para controlar los adultos de Limnobaris calandriformis y Metamasius hemipterus, los cuales eran atraídos en grandes cantidades a los trozos de tallo de palma recién rajada, así como también impidieron la proliferación en éstos de las larvas de los dípteros Ormidea obesa y Hermelia sp./Abstract Several tests were carried out to determine the effectiveness of diazinon 1% I.A., bromophos 1% I.A., dieldrin 0.5 and 2% I.A., and methomyl 0.1 % on larvae of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and other insects associated with dead trunks of the oil palm (Elaeis guineesis.The results showed by the author indicate that diazinon and bromophos were the most effective materials tested. Both insecticides protected well the dead trunks for at least two weeks. Dieldrin (both doses although less efficient than diazinon, was also effective in preventing the development of great numbers of

  20. Nursing Home Nomads: A Study of Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsinas, Joan

    Researchers have divided nursing home residents into long-stayers and short-stayers. While long-stayers rarely return home, they do not necessarily stay long in one institution. Instead, they may transfer from nursing home to nursing home. Although many studies have examined the impact of relocation on nursing home residents, few studies have…

  1. Synchronicity of pollination and inoculation with Claviceps africana and its effects on pollen-pistil compatibility and seed production in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-López, Ma Eugenia; Mendoza-Onofre, Leopoldo E; González-Hernández, Víctor A; Zavaleta-Mancera, H Araceli; Mora-Aguilera, Gustavo; Hernández-Martínez, Miguel; Córdova-Téllez, Leobigildo

    2010-04-01

    Sorghum ergot (caused by Claviceps africana) is a disease that affects sorghum seed development and yield. The interaction between pollen tube growth and hyphal development determines whether ovaries will be fertilized or colonized. Thus their respective deposition times on the stigma are critical. The effect of the time interval between pollination and inoculation on stigma receptivity and seed production was measured under field conditions in the male-sterile line A9 at Montecillo, State of México (2240m altitude). Pollination and inoculation treatments, from simultaneous application to 2 and 4h difference, were imposed when all stigmas on the panicle had emerged. Control panicles were either only pollinated or only inoculated. Eighteen hours later, pollen grains that adhered to, and germinated within the stigma, pollen tubes in the style and ovary, and fertilized pistils were counted. Pistils showing some disease expression (germinated spores, mycelium growth, or tissue necrosis) at 18, 48, and 72h were recorded. The number of diseased florets was registered at the dough growth stage, while number of seeds, grain yield and 100-seeds weight was measured at the physiological maturity. The pathogen applied in a water suspension of macro and secondary conidia caused a decrease in stigma receptivity; the greatest decrease (40-60%) occurred when the pollen and the inoculum were deposited almost simultaneously, regardless of which was deposited first. The route of the pollen tube was also the route for fungal infection. On average, treatments first inoculated had 60% more diseased florets and 36% less grain yield, 30% fewer seeds and seed size decreased 8%, than those first pollinated.

  2. Antimicrobial activity and probable mechanisms of action of medicinal plants of Kenya: Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Mwitari

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus are used traditionally in Kenya for treatment of microbial infections and cancer. Information on their use is available, but scientific data on their bioactivity, safety and mechanisms of action is still scanty. A study was conducted on the effect of organic extracts of these plants on both bacterial and fungal strains, and their mechanisms of action. Extracts were evaluated through the disc diffusion assay. Bacteria and yeast test strains were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the filamentous fungi. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension was prepared. Sterile paper discs 6 mm in diameter impregnated with 10 µl of the test extract (100 mg/ml were aseptically placed onto the surface of the inoculated media. Chloramphenicol (30 µg and fluconazole (25 µg were used as standards. Discs impregnated with dissolution medium were used as controls. Activity of the extracts was expressed according to zone of inhibition diameter. MIC was determined at 0.78-100 mg/ml. Safety studies were carried using Cell Counting Kit 8 cell proliferation assay protocol. To evaluate extracts mechanisms of action, IEC-6 cells and RT-PCR technique was employed in vitro to evaluate Interleukin 7 cytokine. Investigated plants extracts have both bactericidal and fungicidal activity. W. ugandensis is cytotoxic at IC50200 µg/ml. Fractions from W. ugandensis and W. somnifera too demonstrated antimicrobial activity. Mechanisms of action can largely be attributed to cytotoxicity, Gene silencing and immunopotentiation. Use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine has been justified and possible mechanisms of action demonstrated. Studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituents continue.

  3. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Everts, Hendrik; Marais, Johan; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of oral calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus; n=10) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana; n=6) and to detect potential species differences. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation were investigated in a feeding trial using a crossover design consisting of five periods of 28 days each in summer. From days 28-56 (period 2), elephants were fed the Ca-supplemented diet and from days 84-112, elephants were fed the cholecalciferol-supplemented diet (period 4). The control diet was fed during the other periods and was based on their regular ration, and the study was repeated similarly during winter. Periods 1, 3, and 5 were regarded as washout periods. This study revealed species-specific differences with reference to calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Asian elephants showed a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration following calcium supplementation during summer, suggesting summer-associated subclinical hypocalcemia in Western Europe. During winter, no effect was seen after oral calcium supplementation, but a significant increase was seen both in mean plasma, total, and ionized calcium concentrations after cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian elephants. In contrast, evidence of subclinical hypocalcemia could be demonstrated neither in summer nor in winter in African elephants, although 28 days of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter reversed the decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol and was followed by a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration. Preliminary findings indicate that the advisable permanent daily intake for calcium in Asian elephants and cholecalciferol in both elephant species at least during winter might be higher than current guidelines. It is strongly recommended to monitor blood calcium concentrations and, if

  4. The mummified brain of a pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) compared with the brain of the extant African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamova, Anastasia S; Saveliev, Sergei V; Protopopov, Albert V; Maseko, Busisiwe C; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Manger, Paul R

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the results of an examination of the mummified brain of a pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) recovered from the Yakutian permafrost in Siberia, Russia. This unique specimen (from 39,440-38,850 years BP) provides the rare opportunity to compare the brain morphology of this extinct species with a related extant species, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). An anatomical description of the preserved brain of the woolly mammoth is provided, along with a series of quantitative analyses of various brain structures. These descriptions are based on visual inspection of the actual specimen as well as qualitative and quantitative comparison of computed tomography imaging data obtained for the woolly mammoth in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging data from three African elephant brains. In general, the brain of the woolly mammoth specimen examined, estimated to weigh between 4,230 and 4,340 g, showed the typical shape, size, and gross structures observed in extant elephants. Quantitative comparative analyses of various features of the brain, such as the amygdala, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and gyrnecephalic index, all indicate that the brain of the woolly mammoth specimen examined has many similarities with that of modern African elephants. The analysis provided here indicates that a specific brain type representative of the Elephantidae is likely to be a feature of this mammalian family. In addition, the extensive similarities between the woolly mammoth brain and the African elephant brain indicate that the specializations observed in the extant elephant brain are likely to have been present in the woolly mammoth.

  5. Exploring Home Education in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Bozek

    2015-01-01

    Homeschooling is very unusual in Japan and therefore many Japanese people are not familiar with the idea at all. This paper presents the definition of homeschooling and some basic principles such as why parents decide to teach at home and what group of people homeschool the most. It also explores the advantages of teaching children at home instead of sending them to school.

  6. Home education: The social motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian W. BECK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from a Norwegian survey show correlation between a student’s socially related problems at school and the parent’s social motivation for home education. I argue that more time spent at school by a student could result in more socially related problems at school, which can explain an increase in social motivation for home education.

  7. Sustainable Home Renovation for Canadians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKellar, G.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. There is a staggering amount of existing buildings in Canada which were not built to e efficient, sustainable homes. This manual gives openings for renovating your home efficiently by providing practical info

  8. Home Education: Then and Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Elective Home Education is a legal, minority approach to the compulsory education of children. I review the potential contribution of the historical analysis of "domestic pedagogies", presented in this Special Issue, for home education practice in the UK. By drawing on narratives of a period at the cusp of the perceived normalcy of…

  9. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  10. School Plus Home = Student Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Nancy; Santos, Ricardo Sotelo

    This handbook was developed to serve as a point of reference in identifying potential dropout problems. Included are several crucial recommendations for establishing an effective partnership between home and school that will help children succeed in school. Recommendations focus on preventive action in the classroom and at home. Artwork and…

  11. Financing home care in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genet, N.; Gulácsi, L.; Boerma, W.; Hutchinson, A.; Garms-Homolova, V.; Naiditch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Financial incentives are widely used to get better value for money. Incentives can be applied to authorities responsible for home care, or to agencies that provide services or to clients who receive care. Details of the financing system of home care services very much determine the pos

  12. Home education: The social motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Christian W. Beck

    2010-01-01

    Data from a Norwegian survey show correlation between a student’s socially related problems at school and the parent’s social motivation for home education. I argue that more time spent at school by a student could result in more socially related problems at school, which can explain an increase in social motivation for home education.

  13. The HomePort System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Madsen, Per Printz; Skou, Arne;

    2010-01-01

    Residential gateways for home automation are prerequisites to obtain optimal exploitation of energy resources, and they also have the potential to provide a unified operation of various home devices and appliances. Although a number of protocol standards have been proposed, the number...

  14. Mapping standards for home networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaa, G. van de; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Vries, H.J. de

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we apply a step-by-step approach for the identification of standards for home networking. We develop a classification and we use this classification to categorize sixty-four (sets of) standards. By developing this categorization, we have brought order to the chaos of home networking s

  15. 77 FR 72738 - Contracts and Provider Agreements for State Home Nursing Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 51 RIN 2900-AO57 Contracts and Provider Agreements for State Home Nursing Home Care... agreements with State homes for the nursing home care of certain disabled veterans. This rulemaking is... 2900-AO57--Contracts and Provider Agreements for State Home Nursing Home Care.'' Copies of...

  16. Second-home electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Christensen, M.S.; Jensen, O.M.

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark, electricity consumption in first and second homes has developed quite differently. Since 1990, electricity consumption in ordinary residences has grown moderately, while consumption in weekend and second homes has increased considerably. In turn, this development has been blamed...... on a growing number of luxury cottages, new legislation permitting senior citizens to have their permanent address in their second home and a growing number of electric appliances. In order to examine the growing electricity consumption in second homes and to estimate future demand, a multidisciplinary study...... combining top-down and bottom-up analyses was conducted, i.e., combining models using aggregated economic parameters and feasibility studies using technical parameters, respectively. The top-down estimation showed that changes in electricity consumption in second homes correlate to changes in income...

  17. Home care technology through an ability expectation lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbring, Gregor; Lashewicz, Bonnie

    2014-06-20

    Home care is on the rise, and its delivery is increasingly reliant on an expanding variety of health technologies ranging from computers to telephone "health apps" to social robots. These technologies are most often predicated on expectations that people in their homes (1) can actively interact with these technologies and (2) are willing to submit to the action of the technology in their home. Our purpose is to use an "ability expectations" lens to bring together, and provide some synthesis of, the types of utility and disadvantages that can arise for people with disabilities in relation to home care technology development and use. We searched the academic databases Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCO ALL, IEEE Xplore, and Compendex to collect articles that had the term "home care technology" in the abstract or as a topic (in the case of Web of Science). We also used our background knowledge and related academic literature pertaining to self-diagnosis, health monitoring, companionship, health information gathering, and care. We examined background articles and articles collected through our home care technology search in terms of ability expectations assumed in the presentation of home care technologies, or discussed in relation to home care technologies. While advances in health care support are made possible through emerging technologies, we urge critical examination of such technologies in terms of implications for the rights and dignity of people with diverse abilities. Specifically, we see potential for technologies to result in new forms of exclusion and powerlessness. Ableism influences choices made by funders, policy makers, and the public in the development and use of home health technologies and impacts how people with disabilities are served and how useful health support technologies will be for them. We urge continued critical examination of technology development and use according to ability expectations, and we recommend increasing incorporation of

  18. FastStats: Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Day Services Centers Home Health Care Hospice Care Nursing Home Care Residential Care Communities Screenings Mammography Pap Tests Disability ... Care National Study of Long-Term Care Providers Nursing Home Care Residential Care Communities Centers for Medicare and Medicaid ...

  19. ThinkHome Energy Efficiency in Future Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinisch Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smart homes have been viewed with increasing interest by both home owners and the research community in the past few years. One reason for this development is that the use of modern automation technology in the home or building promises considerable savings of energy, therefore, simultaneously reducing the operational costs of the building over its whole lifecycle. However, the full potential of smart homes still lies fallow, due to the complexity and diversity of the systems, badly engineered and configured installations, as well as the frequent problem of suboptimal control strategies. Summarized, these problems converge to two undesirable conditions in the "not-so-smart" home: energy consumption is still higher than actually necessary and users are unable to yield full comfort in their automated homes. This work puts its focus on alleviating the current problems by proposing a comprehensive system concept, that shall ensure that smart homes can keep their promise in the future. The system operates on an extensive knowledge base that stores all information needed to fulfill the goals of energy efficiency and user comfort. Its intelligence is implemented as and within a multiagent system that also caters for the system's openness to the outside world. As a first evaluation, a profile-based control strategy for thermal comfort is developed and verified by means of simulation.

  20. Control and understanding: owning your home network

    OpenAIRE

    Mortier, R.; Rodden, T.; Lodge, T.; McAuley, D; Rotsos, C.; Moore, A. W.; Koliousis, A.; Sventek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Wireless home networks are increasingly deployed i people’s homes worldwide. Unfortunately, home networks have\\ud evolved using protocols designed for backbone and enterprise\\ud networks, which are quite different in scale and character to home networks. We believe this evolution is at the heart of widely observed problems experienced by users managing and using their home networks. In this paper we investigate redesign of the home router to exploit the distinct social and physical characteri...