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Sample records for african-style kimberlite pipes

  1. Geological and Petrographic Characteristics of Kimberlite Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zinchuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the geological structure and petrochemical composition of the Siberian Platform kimberlites indicated complexity, diversity of geological, tectonic, and paleogeographic situations, which must be considered for proper prospecting-exploration for diamonds in each area of investigation. Information about petrochemical composition of potential diatremes, hosting, and overlying sedimentary and magmatic formations is an important prerequisite for prospecting of kimberlite deposits in different geologic-tectonic conditions. The most attention should be paid to typomorphic specific features of primary and secondary minerals of diatremes. Each diamondiferous region is characterized by a certain set of typomorphic associations of kimberlites primary and secondary minerals. The diamonds with ultrabasic association of solid phase inclusions (olivine, chrome-spinel, pyrope, etc. dominate in majority of kimberlite pipes.

  2. Sub-volcanic development of kimberlite pipes: Evidence from the Lace and Voorspoed (Group II) kimberlites, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Skinner, E. Michael W.

    2013-12-01

    The Lace and Voorspoed kimberlites occur on the Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa), and form part of the Kroonstad Group II kimberlite (orangeite) cluster. The Lace kimberlite is composed of a main pipe and a satellite blind pipe, the latter of which does not reach the current land surface (~ 30 m below the current land surface), and is not observed connecting with the main pipe at depth. The main pipe increases in size from ~ 100 m to ~ 250 m in diameter at depth. The Voorspoed kimberlite pipe is the largest of the cluster and is dominantly infilled with massive layers (up to 200 m thick) of resedimented volcaniclastic kimberlite (RVK). Coherent kimberlite (CK), identified at all three pipes, is described here in order to constrain their formation.

  3. Kimberlite Wall Rock Fragmentation: Venetia K08 Pipe Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, W.; Kurszlaukis, S.; Tait, M.; Dirks, P.

    2009-05-01

    Volcanic systems impose powerful disrupting forces on the country rock into which they intrude. The nature of the induced brittle deformation or fragmentation can be characteristic of the volcanic processes ongoing within the volcanic system, but are most typically partially removed or obscured by repeated, overprinting volcanic activity in mature pipes. Incompletely evolved pipes may therefore provide important evidence for the types and stages of wall rock fragmentation, and mechanical processes responsible for the fragmentation. Evidence for preserved stages of fragmentation is presented from a detailed study of the K08 pipe within the Cambrian Venetia kimberlite cluster, South Africa. This paper investigates the growth history of the K08 pipe and the mechanics of pipe development based on observations in the pit, drill core and thin sections, from geochemical analyses, particle size distribution analyses, and 3D modeling. Present open pit exposures of the K08 pipe comprise greater than 90% mega-breccia of country rock clasts (gneiss and schist) with fractal statistics on particle size distributions (PSD) is used to quantify sheared and non- sheared breccia zones. The calculated energy required to form the non-sheared breccia PSD implies an explosive early stage of fragmentation that pre-conditions the rock mass. The pre-conditioning would have been caused by explosions that are either phreatic or phreatomagmatic in nature. The explosions are likely to have been centered on a dyke, or pulses of preceding volatile-fluid phases, which have encountered a local hydrologically active fault. The explosions were inadequate in mechanical energy release (72% of a mine production blast) to eject material from the pipe, and the pipe may not have breached surface. The next stage of fragmentation is interpreted to have been an upward-moving collapse of the pre-conditioned hanging wall of a subterranean volcanic excavation. This would explain the mega-scale layering across

  4. Sulfides in diamonds and in xenoliths from kimberlite pipes of Yakutiia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, Galina P.; Spetsius, Zdislav V.; Leskova, Nelli V.

    The characteristics of sulfides from diamonds and xenoliths are compared using literature data on the mineralogy of sulfides in diamonds and in deep-seated xenoliths from kimberlite pipes. Results are presented on the Fe-Ni-Cu-Co-S mineral systems of mantle associations, sulfide inclusions in diamonds and megacrystals of kimberlite rocks, and minerals of the Fe-Ni-Cu-Co-S system in mantle xenoliths from kimberlite pipes. Particular consideration is given to the nature of sulfide mineralization in mantle xenoliths and diamonds.

  5. The geology of kimberlite pipes of the Ekati property, Northwest Territories, Canada

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    Nowicki, Tom; Crawford, Barbara; Dyck, Darren; Carlson, Jon; McElroy, Ross; Oshust, Peter; Helmstaedt, Herb

    2004-09-01

    This paper reviews key characteristics of kimberlites on the Ekati property, NWT, Canada. To date 150 kimberlites have been discovered on the property, five of which are mined for diamonds. The kimberlites intrude Archean basement of the central Slave craton. Numerous Proterozoic diabase dykes intrude the area. The Precambrian rocks are overlain by Quaternary glacial sediments. No Phanerozoic rocks are present. However, mudstone xenoliths and disaggregated sediment within the kimberlites indicate that late-Cretaceous and Tertiary cover (likely ash) and variable amounts of exotic sediment (primarily mud), with minor amounts of xenolithic wall-rock material (generally ash. Diamond distribution within the kimberlites reflects the amount and nature of mantle material sampled by individual kimberlite phases, but is modified considerably by eruption and depositional processes. The characteristics of the Ekati kimberlites are consistent with a two-stage emplacement process: (1) explosive eruption/s causing vent clearing followed by formation of a significant tephra rim/cone of highly fragmented, olivine-enriched juvenile material with varying amounts of kimberlitic ash and surface sediments (predominantly mud); and (2) infilling of the vent by direct deposition from the eruption column and/or resedimentation of crater rim materials. The presence of less fragmented, juvenile-rich PVK in the lower portions of certain pipes and the intrusion of large volumes of MK to shallow levels in some bodies suggest emplacement of relatively volatile-depleted, less explosive kimberlite in the later stages of pipe formation and/or filling. Explosive devolatilisation of CO 2-rich kimberlite magma is interpreted to have been the dominant eruption mechanism, but phreatomagmatism is thought to have played a role and, in certain cases, may have been dominant.

  6. Emplacement temperatures of pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits in kimberlite pipes in southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Giovanni; Mac Niocaill, Conall; Brown, Richard J.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Field, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic techniques for estimating the emplacement temperatures of volcanic deposits have been applied to pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits in kimberlite pipes in southern Africa. Lithic clasts were sampled from a variety of lithofacies from three pipes for which the internal geology is well constrained (the Cretaceous A/K1 pipe, Orapa Mine, Botswana, and the Cambrian K1 and K2 pipes, Venetia Mine, South Africa). The sampled deposits included massive and layered vent-filling brecc...

  7. Construction of mantle sequence beneath Yubileynaya kimberlite pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, I. V.; Vladykin, N. V.; Logvinova, A. M.; Zinchuk, N. N.; Khmelnikova, O. S.; Palessky, S. V.; Nikolaeva, I. V.

    2003-04-01

    Concentrate from Yubileinaya kimberlite pipe (>1000 analyses), Alakite field, Russia, was used for thermobarometry (Nimis, Taylor, 2000; Ryan et al,1997; Ashchepkov, 2002). Cpx geotherm reveal divide at 35 kbars. Three lherzolitic units below this boundary correspond to 40mv/m2 geotherm at the upper part and are close to 35 mv/m2 at the lower part. Upper geotherm part is more dispersed irregularly deviating to LT conditions. The inflection from harzburgite layer low in Cpx to hot ‘asthenospheric’ branch at 1350oC 65 kbar was determined Sequence upper 35 kbars is represented by Ca-Ti- enriched peridotites- pyroxenites judging from Garnet and CPx compositions. Lower unites are represented by NaCr(3-4% each)- rich CPx and Ca-Fe enriched garnets. Garnet reveal also presence of harzburgites in each three units and relic unmetasomitised lherzolite fragments rare occurring in CPx concentrate. Amphiboles in upper part (divided into 8 groups are TiO2 -enriched in the lower part of section and in upper part. Different scheme of isomorphism for- Cr-rich chromites in deep seated units suggest difference in oxygen fugacity and reactied agents. Ilmenite trend consisting from two units: >49% TiO2 Ilm slightly enriched in Al2O3 (~ 0.7 %) while more fractionated Fe- rich ilmenites are Al-poor. Seven ilmenite groups coinciding with amount of spinel groups are likely corresponding to mantle columns layers. Ilmenite megacrystalline suit trace feeding vein system of fractionating pre -eruption kimberlite- carbonatite melts. Accompanied Cr enrichment and Ti rise in spinels and other peridotite minerals in lower units is caused by interaction of melts evolving in chambers and rising in pre-eruption vein system with wall rock peridotites. Division into two parts at 35-40kbar boundary where slab’s PT path crosses dehydration peridotite line (van Keken et al, 2002) probably appeared during lithospheric keel growth accompanied by slab melting and percolation of subduction-related melts

  8. Palaeomagnetic Emplacement Temperature Determinations of Pyroclastic and Volcaniclastic Deposits in Southern African Kimberlite Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, G.; Mac Niocaill, C.; Brown, R.; Sparks, R. S.; Matthew, F.; Gernon, T. M.

    2009-12-01

    Kimberlites are complex, ultramafic and diamond-bearing volcanic rocks preserved in volcanic pipes, dykes and craters. The formation of kimberlite pipes is a strongly debated issue and two principal theories have been proposed to explain pipe formation: (1) the explosive degassing of magma, and (2) the interaction of rising magma with groundwater (phreatomagmatism). Progressive thermal demagnetization studies are a powerful tool for determining the emplacement temperatures of ancient volcanic deposits and we present the first application of such techniques to kimberlite deposits. Lithic clasts were sampled from a variety of lithofacies, from three pipes for which the internal geology is well constrained (A/K1 pipe, Orapa Mine, Botswana and the K1 and K2 pipes, Venetia Mine, South Africa). The sampled deposits included massive and layered vent-filling breccias with varying abundances of lithic inclusions and layered crater-filling pyroclastic deposits, talus breccias and volcaniclastic breccias. Lithic clasts sampled from layered and massive vent-filling pyroclastic deposits in A/K1 were emplaced at >590° C. Results from K1 and K2 provide a maximum emplacement temperature limit for vent-filling breccias of 420-460° C; and constrain equilibrium deposit temperatures at 300-340° C. Crater-filling volcaniclastic kimberlite breccias and talus deposits from A/K1 were emplaced at ambient temperatures, consistent with infilling of the pipe by post-eruption epiclastic processes. Identified within the epiclastic crater-fill succession is a laterally extensive 15-20 metre thick kimberlite pyroclastic flow deposit emplaced at temperatures of 220-440° C. It overlies the post-eruption epiclastic units and is considered an extraneous pyroclastic kimberlite deposit erupted from another kimberlite vent. The results provide important constraints on kimberlite emplacement mechanisms and eruption dynamics. Emplacement temperatures of >590°C for pipe-filling pyroclastic deposits

  9. Emplacement temperatures of pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits in kimberlite pipes in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Giovanni; Mac Niocaill, Conall; Brown, Richard J.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Field, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    Palaeomagnetic techniques for estimating the emplacement temperatures of volcanic deposits have been applied to pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits in kimberlite pipes in southern Africa. Lithic clasts were sampled from a variety of lithofacies from three pipes for which the internal geology is well constrained (the Cretaceous A/K1 pipe, Orapa Mine, Botswana, and the Cambrian K1 and K2 pipes, Venetia Mine, South Africa). The sampled deposits included massive and layered vent-filling breccias with varying abundances of lithic inclusions, layered crater-filling pyroclastic deposits, talus breccias and volcaniclastic breccias. Basalt lithic clasts in the layered and massive vent-filling pyroclastic deposits in the A/K1 pipe at Orapa were emplaced at >570°C, in the pyroclastic crater-filling deposits at 200-440°C and in crater-filling talus breccias and volcaniclastic breccias at 560°C, although the interpretation of these results is hampered by the presence of Mesozoic magnetic overprints. These temperatures are comparable to the estimated emplacement temperatures of other kimberlite deposits and fall within the proposed stability field for common interstitial matrix mineral assemblages within vent-filling volcaniclastic kimberlites. The temperatures are also comparable to those obtained for pyroclastic deposits in other, silicic, volcanic systems. Because the lithic content of the studied deposits is 10-30%, the initial bulk temperature of the pyroclastic mixture of cold lithic clasts and juvenile kimberlite magma could have been 300-400°C hotter than the palaeomagnetic estimates. Together with the discovery of welded and agglutinated juvenile pyroclasts in some pyroclastic kimberlites, the palaeomagnetic results indicate that there are examples of kimberlites where phreatomagmatism did not play a major role in the generation of the pyroclastic deposits. This study indicates that palaeomagnetic methods can successfully distinguish differences in the

  10. Growth of bultfonteinite and hydrogarnet in metasomatized basalt xenoliths in the B/K9 kimberlite, Damtshaa, Botswana: insights into hydrothermal metamorphism in kimberlite pipes

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    Buse, Ben; Schumacher, John C.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Field, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Metamorphic assemblages within Karoo basalt xenoliths, found within volcaniclastic kimberlite of the B/K9 pipe, Damtshaa, Botswana, constrain conditions of kimberlite alteration. Bultfonteinite and chlorite partially replace the original augite-plagioclase assemblage, driven by the serpentinisation of the kimberlite creating strong chemical potential gradients for Si and Mg. Hydrogarnet and serpentine replace these earlier metamorphic assemblages as the deposits cool. The bultfonteinite (ideally Ca2SiO2[OH,F]4) and hydrogarnet assemblages require a water-rich fluid containing F-, and imply hydrothermal alteration dominated by external fluids rather than autometamorphism from deuteric fluids. Bultfonteinite and hydrogarnet are estimated to form at temperatures of ca. 350-250°C, which are similar to those for serpentinisation. Alteration within the B/K9 kimberlite predominantly occurs between 250 and 400°C. We attribute these conditions to increased efficiency of mass transfer and chemical reactions below the critical point of water and a consequence of volume-increasing serpentinisation and metasomatic reactions that take place over this temperature range. A comparison of the B/K9 kimberlite with kimberlites from Venetia, South Africa suggests that the composition and mineralogy of included xenoliths affects the alteration assemblages within kimberlite deposits.

  11. Mineral inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds from Collier 4 kimberlite pipe, Juina, Brazil: subducted protoliths, carbonated melts and primary kimberlite magmatism

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    Bulanova, Galina P.; Walter, Michael J.; Smith, Chris B.; Kohn, Simon C.; Armstrong, Lora S.; Blundy, Jon; Gobbo, Luiz

    2010-10-01

    We report on a suite of diamonds from the Cretaceous Collier 4 kimberlite pipe, Juina, Brazil, that are predominantly nitrogen-free type II crystals showing complex internal growth structures. Syngenetic mineral inclusions comprise calcium- and titanium-rich phases with perovskite stoichiometry, Ca-rich majoritic-garnet, clinopyroxene, olivine, TAPP phase, minerals with stoichiometries of CAS and K-hollandite phases, SiO2, FeO, native iron, low-Ni sulfides, and Ca-Mg-carbonate. We divide the diamonds into three groups on the basis of the carbon isotope compositions (δ13C) of diamond core zones. Group 1 diamonds have heavy, mantle-like δ13C (-5 to -10‰) with mineral inclusions indicating a transition zone origin from mafic protoliths. Group 2 diamonds have intermediate δ13C (-12 to -15‰), with inclusion compositions indicating crystallization from near-primary and differentiated carbonated melts derived from oceanic crust in the deep upper mantle or transition zone. A 206Pb/238U age of 101 ± 7 Ma on a CaTiSi-perovskite inclusion (Group 2) is close to the kimberlite emplacement time (93.1 ± 1.5 Ma). Group 3 diamonds have extremely light δ13C (-25‰), and host inclusions have compositions akin to high-pressure-temperature phases expected to be stable in pelagic sediments subducted to transition zone depths. Collectively, the Collier 4 diamonds and their inclusions indicate multi-stage, polybaric growth histories in dynamically changing chemical environments. The young inclusion age, the ubiquitous chemical and isotopic characteristics indicative of subducted materials, and the regional tectonic history, suggest a model in which generation of sublithospheric diamonds and their inclusions, and the proto-kimberlite magmas, are related genetically, temporally and geographically to the interaction of subducted lithosphere and a Cretaceous plume.

  12. Are Majhgawan-Hinota pipe rocks truly group-I kimberlite?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravi Shanker; S Nag; A Ganguly; A Absar; B P Rawat; G S Singh

    2001-03-01

    The diamond bearing pipe rocks in Majhgawan–Hinota (more than four pipes) occur as intrusives in sandstones of Kaimur Group. These Proterozoic (974 ± 30–1170 ± 20 Ma) intrusive rocks, occupying the southeastern margin of Aravalli craton, were called as `micaceous kimberlite' in tune with the reported kimberlite occurrences from other parts of the world. Judging from the definition of kimberlite, as approved by the IUGS Subcommission on Systematics of Igneous Rocks, it is not justified to call these rocks as `micaceous kimberlite'. Rather the mineralogical assemblages such as absence of typomorphic mineral monticellite (primary), abundance of phlogopite cognate, frequent presence of barite and primary carbonate mostly as calcite coupled with ultrapotassic and volatile-rich (dominantly H2O) nature and high concentration of incompatible elements (such as Ba, Zr, Th, U), low Th/U ratios, low REE and no Eu-anomaly clearly indicate a close similarity with that of South African orangeites. Thus orangeites of Proterozoic age occur outside the Kaapvaal craton of South Africa which are much younger (200 Ma to 110 Ma) in age.

  13. Emplacement Temperatures of Pyroclastic and Volcaniclastic Deposits in Kimberlite Pipes in Southern Africa: New constraints From Palaeomagnetic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, G. P.; Macniocaill, C.; Brown, R. J.; Sparks, S. R.; Field, M.; Gernon, T. M.

    2009-05-01

    Palaeomagnetic techniques for estimating the emplacement temperatures of volcanic deposits have been applied for the first time to pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits in kimberlite pipes in southern Africa. Lithic clasts were sampled from a variety of lithofacies, from three pipes for which the internal geology is well constrained (A/K1 pipe, Orapa Mine, Botswana and the K1 and K2 pipes, Venetia Mine, South Africa). The sampled deposits included massive and layered vent-filling breccias with varying abundances of lithic inclusions and layered crater-filling pyroclastic deposits, talus breccias and volcaniclastic breccias. Lithic clasts sampled from layered and massive vent-filling pyroclastic deposits in A/K1 were emplaced at >590° C. Results from K1 and K2 provide a maximum emplacement temperature limit for vent-filling breccias of 420-460° C; and constrain equilibrium deposit temperatures at 300-340° C. Crater-filling volcaniclastic kimberlite breccias and talus deposits from A/K1 were emplaced at ambient temperatures, consistent with infilling of the pipe by post-eruption epiclastic processes. Identified within the epiclastic crater- fill succession is a laterally extensive 15-20 metre thick kimberlite pyroclastic flow deposit emplaced at temperatures of 220-440° C. It overlies the post-eruption epiclastic units and is considered an extraneous pyroclastic kimberlite deposit erupted from another kimberlite vent. The emplacement temperature results are comparable to the estimated emplacement temperatures of other kimberlite deposits and pyroclastic deposits from other volcanic systems, and fall within the proposed stability field for common interstitial matrix mineral assemblages within vent-filling volcaniclastic kimberlites. This is in the range where welding and agglutination of juvenile pyroclasts occurs in other types of pyroclastic deposits. Such high emplacement temperatures for vent-filling pyroclastic deposits are consistent with volatile

  14. Peculiarities of mantle lithosphere beneath the large kimberlite pipes in different regions for Siberian craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor; Logvinova, Alla; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Vladykin, Nikolai; Spetsius, Zdislav; Kostrovitsky, Sergey; Stegnitsky, Yuri; Prokopyev, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Comparison of the structure of the mantle columns and mineralogy of the large kimberlite pipes in Yakutia from the different regions, kimberlite fields and mantle terranes in Yakutia allowed several assumptions. 1. The large kimberlite pipes possibly trace the ancient magma feeders occurred in the time of the continent growth. Commonly kimberlites and large pipes are tracing the deep faults and lineaments tracing the ancient sutures, rift zones, trans -lithospheric faults and other permeable structures, which may be parallel to the ancient continental margins. Large pipes locate at the periodic distance like volcanoes in arc settings tracing the "volcanic fronts". 2. Large pipes commonly contain the higher amounts of the sub-calcic garnets representing the dunitic associations (Stachel et al., 2008). In ophiolites dunites veins are representing the channels for the melt transfer (Kelemen et al., 2002). It is likely that ancient large magmatic arc system could have also deep seated roots represented by the (sub calcic) garnet - bearing dunitic systems. 3. Many large pipes including Udachnaya (Pokhilenko et al., 1999) and Mir (Roden et al., 2006) contain in mantle roots high amount of various pyroxenites. The most ancient pyroxenites are supplementary to the dunitic associations. But mostly they represent the materials from the re-melted eclogites and partial and hybrid melts (plume and subduction -related). They are concentrating in the traps in the lithosphere base, in the middle part of mantle section and in the basaltic trap 2.0-3.0 GPa. Pyroxenites in the lithosphere base in some cases are vary abundant but mostly they are protokimberlitic cumulates from of the latest stages of plume activity. Products of the melts crystallization from the earlier stages represent easy melting material at the lithosphere base could be the traps for the later plume melts. 5. Large pipes as a rule reveal contrast layering which is favorite for the capturing of the material from

  15. Peridotite xenoliths from the Jagersfontein kimberlite pipe: I. Primary and primary-metasomatic mineralogy

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    Harte, B. (Univ. of Edinburgh (England)); Gurney, J.J. (Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)); Winterburn, P.A. (Univ. of Edinburgh (England) Isotope Geochemistry Facility, Pretoria (South Africa))

    1990-02-01

    The geochemistry and textures of peridotite xenoliths from the Jagersfontein kimberlite pipe are reported. The xenoliths have a primary mineralogy of olivine {plus minus} orthopyroxene {plus minus} clinopyroxene {plus minus} garnet {plus minus} spinel. They are subdivided into coarse and deformed xenoliths corresponding to high- and low-temperature estimates, respectively. Coarse-grained xenoliths are further subdivided into low- and medium-temperature groups. Mineral chemistry of these two groups is distinct, e.g., clinopyroxene 100 Al/(Al + Cr) 24 to 60 and 60 to 70 in the medium- and low-temperature groups, respectively. Low-temperature xenoliths have undergone exsolution of pyroxene, spinel, and garnet in their pyroxenes. Primary modal metasomatism has occurred in the coarse xenoliths with the replacement of orthopyroxene by edenitic amphibole in the low-temperature xenoliths and of clinopyroxene by low-Ti phlogopite in the medium-temperature xenoliths. The amphibole stability limit confines it to shallower depths. Metasomatized xenoliths have been enriched in K, Na, Al, and Ca, and trace incompatible elements. Metasomatism is considered to have occurred at round 1 Ga by the infiltration of, and reaction with, ascending H{sub 2}O-rich fluids with Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics similar to group II kimberlites. The widespread chemical equilibrium seen in metasomatized xenoliths suggests that the particularly distinctive features of the low-temperature Jagersfontein xenoliths, namely exsolution and very low equilibration temperatures, may also be a result of the primary metasomatism.

  16. An ion microprobe U-Th- Pb study of zircon xenocrysts from the Lahtojoki kimberlite pipe, eastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Peltonen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven relatively large (diameter 1–2 mm zircon grains extracted from the Lahtojoki kimberlite pipe (Eastern Finland Kimberlite Province have been analysed by the ion microprobe NORDSIM for their U- and Pb- isotopic composition. The 207Pb/206Pb ages fall into two concordant age groups: 2.7 Ga and 1.8 Ga. Discordant ages between these two groups are believed to result from partial resetting of Archaean grains in the 1.8 Ga thermal event. Since other datingmethods imply that kimberlites emplaced c. 0.6 Ga ago it is clear that the analysed zircons are xenocrysts inherited from older sources and do not provide the age of the kimberlite magmatism. Their unusual size and morphology, together with very low U- and Pb-concentrations, suggest, however, that these zircon grains are not derived from typical Archaean gneisses. More likely, they originate from lower crustal mafic pegmatites and from hydrous coarse-grained veins within the uppermost lithospheric mantle. The predominance of 1.8 Ga old xenocrystic grains, together with the recovery of mafic granulite xenoliths of similar age in the kimberlites (Hölttä et al. 2000, emphasises the importance of post-collisional lower crustal growth and reworking in central Fennoscandia.

  17. Welded Kimberlite?

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    van Straaten, B. I.; Kopylova, M. G.; Russell, J. K.; Scott Smith, B. H.

    2009-05-01

    settings. In this contribution we explore the possible welded origin for dark and competent kimberlite facies from the Victor Northwest pipe (Northern Ontario, Canada). This volumetrically extensive facies superficially resembles a coherent rock. The following observations on the dark and competent facies are suggestive of a pyroclastic, rather than intrusive or extrusive coherent origin: The facies is completely enveloped by pyroclastic facies; has gradational contacts with adjacent pyroclastic facies above and below; contains faint outlines of primary pyroclasts; shows diffuse grain size variations and rare bedding; shows systematic changes in components from the underlying pyroclastic facies to the dark and competent facies to the overlying pyroclastic facies implying a lack of a depositional break in this succession; and shows a faint, generally subhorizontal fabric despite the presence of an equant grain shape population. In addition, we present evidence that the original inter-clast porosity has been reduced or eliminated by syn-depositional welding rather than by precipitation of secondary minerals in the inter-clast pore spaces. We feel that the latter process (i.e., alteration) is highly unlikely because: The kimberlite package contains intervals with well crystallized groundmass similar to coherent kimberlite, this texture simply cannot be produced by alteration; the kimberlite is in fact the freshest rock within the pipe, containing mostly fresh olivines; and the dark and competent kimberlite does not show a patchy or vein-related heterogeneity typical of alteration. In summary, these deposits likely represent a variably welded succession of proximal spatter/fire fountaining kimberlite deposits.

  18. Evolution of the mantle sections beneath the kimberlite pipes example of Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor; Ntaflos, Ttheodoros; Logvinova, Alla; Vladykin, Nikolai; Ivanov, Alexandr; Spetsius, Zdislav; Stegnitsky, Yury; Kostrovitsky, Sergei; Salikhov, Ravil; Makovchuk, Igor; Shmarov, Gleb; Karpenko, Mikhail; Downes, Hilary; Madvedev, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    The PTX diagrams for the separate phases in Sytykanskaya (Ashchepkov et al., 2016) Dalnyaya (Ashchepkov et al., 2017), pipes shows that the PK show the relatively simple P-X trends and geotherms and shows more contrast and simple layering. The PK contain most abundant material from the root of the magma generation they are dunitic veins as the magma feeders represented by the megacrysts. New results for the Aykhal, Zarya and Komsomolskaya pipes in Alake field and Zarnitsa and Udachnaya pipes in Daldyn field show that evolution is accompanied by the developing of metasomatites and branching and veining of the wall rock peridotites . In Aykhal pipe in PK the Gar- dunites prevail, the xenoliths from the dark ABK "Rebus" contain Cr-Ti - rich garnets and ilmenites, more abundant compared with the grey carbonited breccia Nearly the same features were found for Yubileinaya pipe. The example of Komsomolskya pipes show that the ABK contain more eclogitic xenolith than PK. The developing of the magma channel shown in satellite Chukukskaya and Structurnaya pipe was followed by the separation of some parts of the magmatic feeders and crystallization of abundant Gar megacrysts near o the walls blocking the peridotites from the magma feeder. This drastically decrease diamond grade of pipes. Such blocking seems to be the common features for the latest breccias. In Zarnitsa pipe, the dark PK and ABK also contain fresh xenoliths but not only dunites but also sheared and metasomatic varieties and eclogites. Most of dark ABK in Yakutia contain the intergrowth of ilmenites with brown Ti- Cpx showing joint evolution trends. The late breccia contains completely altered peridotite xenoliths mainly of dunite- harzburgite type. The comparison of the trace elements of the coexisting minerals in megacryst show that they were derived from the protokimberlites but are not in complete equilibrium as well as other megacrystalline phases. Ilmenites show inflections of the trace element patterns

  19. Polycrystalline diamond aggregates from the Mir kimberlite pipe, Yakutia: Evidence for mantle metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, N. V.; Shatsky, V. S.; Zedgenizov, D. A.; Ragozin, A. L.; Reutsky, V. N.

    2016-11-01

    Polycrystalline diamond aggregates (boart, framesites, diamondites) have been widely studied but their origin is poorly understood. We report the results of a study in situ of two polished fragments of fine-grained (40-400 μm size of individual diamond grains) dense polycrystalline diamond aggregates from the Mir pipe containing visible multiple interstitial garnet inclusions. They were analyzed for major and trace elements of inclusions and one of them - for δ13C and N abundance and isotopic composition of host diamonds. These aggregates are classified as variety IX by Orlov (1977). No cavities were observed in these samples. Sixty two irregular garnet grains and one clinopyroxene inclusion were detected and analyzed in sample Mr 832. Garnets are homogeneous within single grains but variable in Mg# [100Mg/(Mg + Fe)] from 60 up to 87 and CaO contents (3.3-5.3 wt.%) among grains with a trend to negative correlation. Low Cr (550-640 ppm) confirms eclogitic (E-type) paragenesis. High Na2O contents (5.2 wt.%) of a single pyroxene inclusion are additional evidence of eclogitic nature of this sample. Wide variations in trace elements (ppm) are characteristic for garnet grains: Sr (2.7-25.6), Y (9.7-14.1), Zr (15.6-38.7) and positive Eu anomaly is present. The δ13C of diamonds within studied sample is variable (- 6.4 ÷- 9.8 ‰) as well as N abundance (75-1150 ppm) and δ15N - 27, - 38, - 58 ‰. The second peridotitic (U/P-type) sample Mr 838 contains eight inclusions of Mg-rich Cr-pyropes (Mg# 85, Cr2O3 3.2-3.4 wt.%) and magnesite inclusion with 4.35 wt.% FeO and 1.73 wt.% CaO. Trace element content in pyropes is relatively uniform (ppm): Sr (0.4-1.6), Y (13.2-13.4) and Zr (13.0). We conclude that heterogeneous distribution of the trace elements among garnet grains in Mr 832 and magnesite presence in Mr 838 are indicative of the effects of mantle metasomatism and rapid crystallization shortly before the eruption of the kimberlite.

  20. Petrogenesis of the crater-facies Tokapal kimberlite pipe, Indrāvati Basin, Central India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.V. Chalapathi Rao; B. Lehmann; B.K. Panwar; Alok Kumar; D. Mainkar

    2014-01-01

    New geochemical data of the crater-facies Tokapal kimberlite system sandwiched between the lower and upper stratigraphic horizons of the Mesoproterozoic Indrāvati Basin are presented. The kimberlite has been subjected to extensive and pervasive low-temperature alteration. Spinel is the only primary phase identifiable, while olivine macrocrysts and juvenile lapilli are largely pseudomorphed (talc-serpentine-carbonate alteration). However, with the exception of the alkalies, major element oxides display systematic fractionation trends; likewise, HFSE patterns are well correlated and allow petrogenetic interpretation. Various crustal contamination indices such as (SiO2 þ Al2O3 þ Na2O)/(MgO þ K2O) and Si/Mg are close to those of uncontaminated kimberlites. Similar La/Yb (79e109) of the Tokapal samples with those from the kimberlites of Wajrakarur (73e145) and Narayanpet (72e156), Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India implies a similarity in their genesis. In the discriminant plots involving HFSE the Tokapal samples display strong affinities to Group II kimberlites from southern Africa and central India as well as to‘transitional kimberlites’ from the Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India, and those from the Prieska and Kuruman provinces of southern Africa. There is a striking similarity in the depleted-mantle (TDM) Nd model ages of the Tokapal kimberlite system, Bastar craton, the kimberlites from NKF and WKF, Eastern Dharwar craton, and the Majhgawan diatreme, Bundelkhand craton, with the emplacement age of some of the lamproites from within and around the Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah basin, southern India. These similar ages imply a major tectonomagmatic event, possibly related to the break-up of the supercontinent of Columbia, at 1.3e1.5 Ga across the three cratons. The ‘transitional’ geochemical features displayed by many of the Mesoproterozoic potassic-ultrapotassic rocks, across these Indian cratons are inferred to be memories of the

  1. Petrogenesis of the crater-facies Tokapal kimberlite pipe, Indrāvati Basin, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Chalapathi Rao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available New geochemical data of the crater-facies Tokapal kimberlite system sandwiched between the lower and upper stratigraphic horizons of the Mesoproterozoic Indrāvati Basin are presented. The kimberlite has been subjected to extensive and pervasive low-temperature alteration. Spinel is the only primary phase identifiable, while olivine macrocrysts and juvenile lapilli are largely pseudomorphed (talc-serpentine-carbonate alteration. However, with the exception of the alkalies, major element oxides display systematic fractionation trends; likewise, HFSE patterns are well correlated and allow petrogenetic interpretation. Various crustal contamination indices such as (SiO2 + Al2O3 + Na2O/(MgO + K2O and Si/Mg are close to those of uncontaminated kimberlites. Similar La/Yb (79–109 of the Tokapal samples with those from the kimberlites of Wajrakarur (73–145 and Narayanpet (72–156, Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India implies a similarity in their genesis. In the discriminant plots involving HFSE the Tokapal samples display strong affinities to Group II kimberlites from southern Africa and central India as well as to ‘transitional kimberlites’ from the Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India, and those from the Prieska and Kuruman provinces of southern Africa. There is a striking similarity in the depleted-mantle (TDM Nd model ages of the Tokapal kimberlite system, Bastar craton, the kimberlites from NKF and WKF, Eastern Dharwar craton, and the Majhgawan diatreme, Bundelkhand craton, with the emplacement age of some of the lamproites from within and around the Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah basin, southern India. These similar ages imply a major tectonomagmatic event, possibly related to the break-up of the supercontinent of Columbia, at 1.3–1.5 Ga across the three cratons. The ‘transitional’ geochemical features displayed by many of the Mesoproterozoic potassic-ultrapotassic rocks, across these Indian cratons are inferred to be

  2. The Sytykanskaya kimberlite pipe: Evidence from deep-seated xenoliths and xenocrysts for the evolution of the mantle beneath Alakit, Yakutia, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Ashchepkov, I.V.; A.M. Logvinova; L.F. Reimers; Ntaflos, T.; Z.V. Spetsius; Vladykin, N.V.; Downes, Hilary; Yudin, D.S.; Travin, A.V.; I.V. Makovchuk; Palesskiy, V.S.; Khmel'nikova, O.S.

    2015-01-01

    Mantle xenoliths (>150) and concentrates from late autolithic breccia and porphyritic kimberlite from the Sytykanskaya pipe of the Alakit field (Yakutia) were analyzed by EPMA and LAM ICP methods. In P-T-X-f(O2) diagrams minerals from xenoliths show widest variations, the trends P-Fe#-CaO, f(O2) for minerals from porphyric kimberlites are more stepped than for xenocrysts from breccia. Ilmenite PTX points mark moving for protokimberlites from the lithosphere base (7.5 GPa) to pyroxenite lens (...

  3. Helium isotopic variability within single diamonds from the Orapa kimberlite pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Mark D.; Jenkins, William J.; Lott, Dempsey E., III; Gurney, John J.

    1987-01-01

    The possible relationships between diamond mineralogy and helium isotopes were investigated by measuring the distribution and isotopic composition of He in a suite of well-characterized one-carat diamonds from the Orapa kimberlite, Botswana. The results of crushing in vacuo experiments indicated that most of He was contained in the matrix, rather than in the inclusions of the diamonds. Step-heating of individual diamonds at 2000 C released He of He-3/He-4 ratios that differed by up to a factor of 100 among the two heating steps, revealing large isotopic variations within individual diamonds. It is suggested that this internal isotopic variability is the result of stepwise graphitization: the first heating step initiates graphitization which nucleates around defects in a diamond, and the second step graphitizes the relatively defect-free regions of the diamond. This explanation predicts that the highest He-3/He-4 ratios should be found in most perfect crystals.

  4. Interaction between protokimberlite melts and mantle lithosphere: Evidence from mantle xenoliths from the Dalnyaya kimberlite pipe, Yakutia (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Ashchepkov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dalnyaya kimberlite pipe (Yakutia, Russia contains mantle peridotite xenoliths (mostly lherzolites and harzburgites that show both sheared porphyroclastic (deformed and coarse granular textures, together with ilmenite and clinopyroxene megacrysts. Deformed peridotites contain high-temperature Fe-rich clinopyroxenes, sometimes associated with picroilmenites, which are products of interaction of the lithospheric mantle with protokimberlite related melts. The orthopyroxene-derived geotherm for the lithospheric mantle beneath Dalnyaya is stepped similar to that beneath the Udachnaya pipe. Coarse granular xenoliths fall on a geotherm of 35 mWm−2 whereas deformed varieties yield a 45 mWm−2 geotherm in the 2–7.5 GPa pressure interval. The chemistry of the constituent minerals including garnet, olivine and clinopyroxene shows trends of increasing Fe# (=Fe/(Fe + Mg with decreasing pressure. This may suggest that the interaction with fractionating protokimberlite melts occurred at different levels. Two major mantle lithologies are distinguished by the trace element patterns of their constituent minerals, determined by LA-ICP-MS. Orthopyroxenes, some clinopyroxenes and rare garnets are depleted in Ba, Sr, HFSE and MREE and represent relic lithospheric mantle. Re-fertilized garnet and clinopyroxene are more enriched. The distribution of trace elements between garnet and clinopyroxene shows that the garnets dissolved primary orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene. Later high temperature clinopyroxenes related to the protokimberlite melts partially dissolved these garnets. Olivines show decreases in Ni and increases in Al, Ca and Ti from Mg-rich varieties to the more Fe-rich, deformed and refertilized ones. Minerals showing higher Fe# (0.11–0.15 are found within intergrowths of low-Cr ilmenite-clinopyroxene-garnet related to the crystallization of protokimberlite melts in feeder channels. In P-f(O2 diagrams, garnets and Cr-rich clinopyroxenes

  5. Sheared peridotite xenolith from the V. Grib kimberlite pipe, Arkhangelsk Diamond Province, Russia: Texture, composition, and origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Vladimirovich Kargin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The petrography and mineral composition of a mantle-derived garnet peridotite xenolith from the V. Grib kimberlite pipe (Arkhangelsk Diamond Province, Russia was studied. Based on petrographic characteristics, the peridotite xenolith reflects a sheared peridotite. The sheared peridotite experienced a complex evolution with formation of three main mineral assemblages: (1 a relict harzburgite assemblage consist of olivine and orthopyroxene porphyroclasts and cores of garnet grains (Gar1 with sinusoidal rare earth elements (REE chondrite C1 normalized patterns; (2 a neoblastic olivine and orthopyroxene assemblage; (3 the last assemblage associated with the formation of clinopyroxene and garnet marginal zones (Gar2. Major and trace element compositions of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and garnet indicate that both the neoblast and clinopyroxene-Gar2 mineral assemblages were in equilibrium with a high Fe-Ti carbonate-silicate metasomatic agent. The nature of the metasomatic agent was estimated based on high field strength elements (HFSE composition of olivine neoblasts, the garnet-clinopyroxene equilibrium condition and calculated by REE-composition of Gar2 and clinopyroxene. All these evidences indicate that the agent was a high temperature carbonate-silicate melt that is geochemically linked to the formation of the protokimberlite melt.

  6. Composition of garnet and clinopyroxene in peridotite xenoliths from the Grib kimberlite pipe, Arkhangelsk diamond province, Russia: Evidence for mantle metasomatism associated with kimberlite melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargin, A. V.; Sazonova, L. V.; Nosova, A. A.; Tretyachenko, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    Here we present major and trace element data for garnet and clinopyroxene from mantle-derived peridotite xenoliths of the Grib kimberlite, the Arkhangelsk diamond province, Russia, and provide new insights into the metasomatic processes that occur within the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) during the kimberlite generation and ascent. The mantle xenoliths examined in this study are both coarse and sheared garnet peridotites and consist of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, garnet with minor ilmenite, magnetite, and Cr-spinel. Based on garnet and clinopyroxene composition, two groups of peridotite are recognized. One group contains high-Ti, light rare earth elements (LREE) enriched garnets and low-Mg# clinopyroxenes with low (La/Sm)n (C1 chondrite-normalized) values. This mineral assemblage was in equilibrium with a high-temperature carbonate-silicate metasomatic agent, presumably, a protokimberlite melt. Pressure-temperature (P-T) estimates (T = 1220 °C and P = 70 kbar) suggest that this metasomatic event occurred at the base of the SCLM. Another group contains low-Ti garnet with normal to sinusoidal rare earth elements (REE) distribution patterns and high-Mg# clinopyroxenes with wide range of (La/Sm)n values. The geochemical equilibrium between garnet and clinopyroxene coupled with their REE composition indicates that peridotite mantle experienced metasomatic transformation by injection of a low-Ti (after crystallizations of the ilmenite megacrysts) kimberlite melt that subsequently percolated through a refractory mantle column. Peridotites of this group show a wide range of P-T estimates (T = 730-1070 °C and P = 22-44 kbar). It is suggested that evolution of a kimberlite magma from REE-enriched carbonate-bearing to carbonate-rich ultramafic silicate compositions with lower REE occurs during the ascent and interaction with a surrounding lithospheric mantle, and this process leads to metasomatic modification of the SCLM with formation of both high

  7. The Sytykanskaya kimberlite pipe:Evidence from deep-seated xenoliths and xenocrysts for the evolution of the mantle beneath Alakit, Yakutia, Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.V. Ashchepkov; I.V. Makovchuk; V.S. Palesskiy; 0.S. Khmel’nikova; A.M. Logvinova; L.F. Reimers; T. Ntaflos; Z.V. Spetsius; N.V. Vladykin; H. Downes; D.S. Yudin; A.V. Travin

    2015-01-01

    Mantle xenoliths (>150) and concentrates from late autolithic breccia and porphyritic kimberlite from the Sytykanskaya pipe of the Alakit field (Yakutia) were analyzed by EPMA and LAM ICP methods. In P-T-X-f(O2) diagrams minerals from xenoliths show widest variations, the trends P-Fe#-CaO, f(O2) for minerals from porphyric kimberlites are more stepped than for xenocrysts from breccia. Ilmenite PTX points mark moving for protokimberlites from the lithosphere base (7.5 GPa) to pyroxenite lens (5e3.5 GPa) accompanied by Cr increase by AFC and creation of two trends P-Fe#Ol w10e12% and 13e15%. The Opx-Gar-based mantle geotherm in Alakit field is close to 35 mW/m2 at 65 GPa and 600 ?C near Moho was determined. The oxidation state for the megacrystalline ilmenites is lower for the metasomatic associations due to reduction of protokimberlites on peridotites than for uncontaminated varieties at the lithosphere base. Highly inclined linear REE patterns with deep HFSE troughs for the parental melts of clinopyroxene and garnet xenocrysts from breccia were influenced by differentiated protokimberlite. Melts for metasomatic xenoliths reveal less inclined slopes without deep troughs in spider diagrams. Garnets reveal S-shaped REE patterns. The clinopyroxenes from graphite bearing Cr-websterites show inclined and inflected in Gd spectrums with LREE variations due to AFC differen-tiation. Melts for garnets display less inclined patterns and Ba-Sr troughs but enrichment in Nb-Ta-U. The 40Ar/39Ar ages for micas from the Alakit mantle xenoliths for disseminated phlogopites reveal Proterozoic (1154 Ma) age of metasomatism in early Rodinia mantle. Veined glimmerites with richterite e like amphiboles mark w1015 Ma plume event in Rodinia mantle. The w600e550 Ma stage manifests final Rodinia break-up. The last 385 Ma metasomatism is protokimberlite-related.

  8. Hydrothermal alteration of kimberlite by convective flows of external water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, A A; Melnik, O; Porritt, L; Schumacher, J C; Sparks, R S J

    Kimberlite volcanism involves the emplacement of olivine-rich volcaniclastic deposits into volcanic vents or pipes. Kimberlite deposits are typically pervasively serpentinised as a result of the reaction of olivine and water within a temperature range of 130-400 °C or less. We present a model for the influx of ground water into hot kimberlite deposits coupled with progressive cooling and serpentisation. Large-pressure gradients cause influx and heating of water within the pipe with horizontal convergent flow in the host rock and along pipe margins, and upward flow within the pipe centre. Complete serpentisation is predicted for wide ranges of permeability of the host rocks and kimberlite deposits. For typical pipe dimensions, cooling times are centuries to a few millennia. Excess volume of serpentine results in filling of pore spaces, eventually inhibiting fluid flow. Fresh olivine is preserved in lithofacies with initial low porosity, and at the base of the pipe where deeper-level host rocks have low permeability, and the pipe is narrower leading to faster cooling. These predictions are consistent with fresh olivine and serpentine distribution in the Diavik A418 kimberlite pipe, (NWT, Canada) and with features of kimberlites of the Yakutian province in Russia affected by influx of ground water brines. Fast reactions and increases in the volume of solid products compared to the reactants result in self-sealing and low water-rock ratios (estimated at alteration of kimberlites predominantly by interactions with external non-magmatic fluids.

  9. Spatial Patterns in Distribution of Kimberlites: Relationship to Tectonic Processes and Lithosphere Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2014-01-01

    weakness zones may control the spatial patterns of kimberlites, but this hypothesis has never been tested by geophysical methods. As the first step in our analysis of tectonic and lithosphere control of kimberlite-type magmatism, we perform a detailed global analysis of the spatial patterns of kimberlites...... of kimberlite melts through the lithospheric mantle, which forms the major pipe. Stage 2 (second-order process) begins when the major pipe splits into daughter sub-pipes (tree-like pattern) at crustal depths. We apply cluster analysis to the spatial distribution of all known kimberlite fields with the goal...

  10. Spatial Patterns in Distribution of Kimberlites: Relationship to Tectonic Processes and Lithosphere Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2014-01-01

    of kimberlite melts through the lithospheric mantle, which forms the major pipe. Stage 2 (second-order process) begins when the major pipe splits into daughter sub-pipes (tree-like pattern) at crustal depths. We apply cluster analysis to the spatial distribution of all known kimberlite fields with the goal...

  11. Kimberlite emplacement temperatures from conodont geothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Jennifer; Russell, James K.; Zhang, Shunxin

    2015-02-01

    Kimberlites are mantle-derived ultramafic rocks preserved in volcanic and sub-volcanic edifices and are the main primary source of diamonds. The temperatures of formation, transport, eruption and deposition remain poorly constrained despite their importance for understanding the petrological and thermodynamic properties of kimberlite magmas and styles of volcanic eruption. Here, we present measured values of Colour Alteration Indices (CAI) for conodonts recovered from 76 Paleozoic carbonate xenoliths found within 11 pipes from the Chidliak kimberlite field on Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. The dataset comprises the largest range of CAI values (1.5 to 8) and the highest CAI values reported to date for kimberlite-hosted xenoliths. Thermal models for cooling of the Chidliak kimberlite pipes and synchronous heating of conodont-bearing xenoliths indicate time windows of 10-20 000 h and, for these short time windows, the measured CAI values indicate heating of the xenoliths to temperatures of 225 to >925 °C. We equate these temperatures with the minimum temperatures of the conduit-filling kimberlite deposit (i.e. emplacement temperature, TE). The majority of the xenoliths record CAI values of between 5 and 6.5 suggesting heating of xenoliths to temperatures of 460 °C-735 °C. The highest CAI values are consistent with being heated to 700 °C-925 °C and establish the minimum conditions for welding or formation of clastogenic kimberlite deposits. Lastly, we use TE variations within and between individual pipes, in conjunction with the geology of the conduit-filling deposits, to constrain the styles of explosive volcanic eruption.

  12. Samarium-neodymium systematics in kimberlites and in the minerals of garnet lherzolite inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A.R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1979-01-01

    The initial ratios of neodymium-143 to neodymium-144 in kimberlites ranging in age between 90 ?? 106 to 1300 ?? 106 years from South Africa, India, and the United States are different from the corresponding ratios in the minerals of peridotite inclusions in the kimberlites but are identical to the ratios in the basaltic achondrite Juvinas at the times of emplacement of the respective kimberlite pipes. This correlation between the kimberlites and Juvinas, which represents the bulk chondritic earth in rare-earth elements, strongly indicates that the kimberlite's source in the mantle is chondritic in rare-earth elements and relatively primeval in composition. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  13. How unique is the Udachnaya-East kimberlite? Comparison with kimberlites from the Slave Craton (Canada) and SW Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Kamenetsky, Maya B.; Weiss, Yakov; Navon, Oded; Nielsen, Troels F. D.; Mernagh, Terrence P.

    2009-11-01

    The origin of alkali carbonates and chlorides in the groundmass of unaltered Udachnaya-East kimberlites in Siberia is still controversial. Contrary to existing dogma that the Udachnaya-East kimberlite was either contaminated by the crustal sediments or platform brines, magmatic origin of the groundmass assemblage has been proposed on the basis of melt immiscibility textures, melt inclusion studies, and strontium and neon isotope compositions. We further tested the idea of alkali- and chlorine enrichment of the kimberlite parental melt by studying olivine-hosted melt inclusions and secondary serpentine in kimberlites from the Slave Craton, Canada (Gahcho Kué, Jericho, Aaron and Leslie pipes) and southern West Greenland (Majuagaa dyke). Host olivine phenocrysts closely resemble groundmass olivine from the Udachnaya-East kimberlite in morphology, compositions (high-Fo, low-Ca), complex zoning with cores of varying shapes and compositions and rims of constant Fo. Melt inclusions in olivine consist of several translucent and opaque daughter phases and vapour bubble(s). The daughter crystals studied in unexposed inclusions by laser Raman spectroscopy and in carefully exposed inclusions by WDS-EDS are represented by Na-K chlorides, calcite, dolomite, magnesite, Ca-Na, Ca-Na-K and Ca-Mg-Ba carbonates, bradleyite Na 3 Mg(CO 3)(PO 4), K-bearing nahpoite Na 2(HPO 4), apatite, phlogopite and tetraferriphlogopite, unidentified sulphates, Fe sulphides, djerfisherite, pyrochlore (Na,Ca) 2Nb 2O 6(OH,F), monticellite, Cr-spinel and Fe-Ti oxides. High abundances of Na, K (e.g., (Na + K)/Ca = 0.15-0.85) and incompatible trace elements in the melt inclusions are confirmed by LA-ICPMS analysis of individual inclusions. Heating experiments show that melting of daughter minerals starts and completes at low temperatures (~ 100 °C and 600 °C, respectively), further reinforcing the similarity with the Udachnaya-East kimberlite. Serpentine minerals replacing olivine in some of the studied

  14. Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Alexander P.; Csank, Adam Z.; Reyes, Alberto V.; McKellar, Ryan C.; Ralf Tappert; Karlis Muehlenbachs

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identificatio...

  15. Kimberlite Ascent: Insights from Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, C.; Russell, K.

    2009-05-01

    Olivine is ubiquitous in both extrusive and intrusive kimberlite deposits worldwide. Within kimberlite, it is mainly present as xenocrysts derived from the disaggregation of mantle-derived peridotitic xenoliths. Many textural and chemical features within the mantle-derived olivine xenocrysts result from post entrainment processes. On that basis, these features record physical and chemical changes attending kimberlite ascent and can be used to elucidate the transport and eruption of kimberlite magma. Our textural study of kimberlitic olivine is based on intrusive and pyroclastic kimberlite from the Diavik kimberlite cluster and from the Igwisi Hills kimberlitic lava flows. Based on these observations and the physical and chemical properties of olivine we derive a relative sequence of textural events. Textural features include: sealed cracks, healed cracks, phases trapping in cracks, rounded grains, overgrowths and phase trapping in overgrowths. These features record processes that operate in kimberlite during ascent, and from these features we create a summary model for kimberlite ascent: -- Olivine is incorporated into kimberlitic melts in peridotitic mantle xenoliths continuously during ascent. Xenolith incorporation is focused at the crack tip where the stress regime is highest. -- Shortly after the incorporation of these xenocrysts the tensile strength of the xenoliths is reached at a maximum of 2 km from its source. Disaggregation of mantle xenoliths (producing xenocrysts) is facilitated by expansion of the minerals within the xenoliths causing intra-crystal slip (i.e. along grain boundaries). -- Continued decompression causes olivine to also break in tension approximately 20 km from source. The void space produced by the failure of the crystals (inter-crystal cracks) is filled with melt and crystals consisting of primary carbonate (high-Sr), chromite and spinel crystals. The carbonate later crystallizes to produce sealed fractures. -- Mechanical rounding of

  16. Picroilmenites in Yakutian kimberlites: variations and genetic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, I. V.; Alymova, N. V.; Logvinova, A. M.; Vladykin, N. V.; Kuligin, S. S.; Mityukhin, S. I.; Downes, H.; Stegnitsky, Yu. B.; Prokopiev, S. A.; Salikhov, R. F.; Palessky, V. S.; Khmel'nikova, O. S.

    2014-09-01

    Major and trace element variations in picroilmenites from Late Devonian kimberlite pipes in Siberia reveal similarities within the region in general, but show individual features for ilmenites from different fields and pipes. Empirical ilmenite thermobarometry (Ashchepkov et al., 2010), as well as common methods of mantle thermobarometry and trace element geochemical modeling, shows long compositional trends for the ilmenites. These are a result of complex processes of polybaric fractionation of protokimberlite melts, accompanied by the interaction with mantle wall rocks and dissolution of previous wall rock and metasomatic associations. Evolution of the parental magmas for the picroilmenites was determined for the three distinct phases of kimberlite activity from Yubileynaya and nearby Aprelskaya pipes, showing heating and an increase of Fe# (Fe# = Fe / (Fe + Mg) a.u.) of mantle peridotite minerals from stage to stage and splitting of the magmatic system in the final stages. High-pressure (5.5-7.0 GPa) Cr-bearing Mg-rich ilmenites (group 1) reflect the conditions of high-temperature metasomatic rocks at the base of the mantle lithosphere. Trace element patterns are enriched to 0.1-10/relative to primitive mantle (PM) and have flattened, spoon-like or S- or W-shaped rare earth element (REE) patterns with Pb > 1. These result from melting and crystallization in melt-feeding channels in the base of the lithosphere, where high-temperature dunites, harzburgites and pyroxenites were formed. Cr-poor ilmenite megacrysts (group 2) trace the high-temperature path of protokimberlites developed as result of fractional crystallization and wall rock assimilation during the creation of the feeder systems prior to the main kimberlite eruption. Inflections in ilmenite compositional trends probably reflect the mantle layering and pulsing melt intrusion during melt migration within the channels. Group 2 ilmenites have inclined REE enriched patterns (10-100)/PM with La / Ybn ~ 10

  17. Kimberlite emplacement models — The implications for mining projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubec, Jaroslav

    2008-06-01

    The significance of the emplacement model for kimberlite pipes, or sheets, is commonly recognized in resource geology. However, its importance is not always appreciated in the mine design process. The fact is that knowledge of the orebody geometry, character of the contact zones, internal structures, rock mass competency and distribution of inclusions could directly influence the selection of the underground mining method, pit wall stability, dilution, treatability, and the dewatering strategy. The problems are exacerbated in smaller pipes and narrower sheets, and in more irregular shapes; they are more apparent in underground mining as opposed to open cast. Various kimberlite emplacement processes have a major impact on the nature of the kimberlite orebody and host rocks that will influence the mine design and mining strategy. Failure to understand these processes can adversely affect the economic outcome for developing a mine. It is therefore important to investigate those processes in order to better characterize the mining constraints and risks, and more accurately predict the mine's economic viability.

  18. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P Wolfe

    Full Text Available We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma, revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae. The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18O and δ(2H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  19. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alexander P; Csank, Adam Z; Reyes, Alberto V; McKellar, Ryan C; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18)O and δ(2)H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  20. Sm-Nd, K-Ar and petrologic study of some kimberlites from eastern United States and their implication for mantle evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A.R.; Rubury, E.; Mehnert, H.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1984-01-01

    We provide new data on Sm-Nd systematics, K-Ar dating and the major element chemistry of kimberlites from the eastern United States (mostly from central New York State) and their constituent mineral phases of olivine, clinopyroxene, garnet, phlogopite and perovskite. In addition, we report Nd-isotopes in a few kimberlites from South Africa, Lesotho and from the eastern part of China. The major element compositions of the New York dike rocks and of their constituent minerals including a xenolith of eclogite are comparable with those from the Kimberley area in South Africa. The K-Ar age of emplacement of the New York dikes is further established to be 143 Ma. We have analyzed the Nd-isotopic composition of the following kimberlites and related rocks: Nine kimberlite pipes from South Africa and Lesotho, two from southern India; one from the U.S.S.R., fifteen kimberlite pipes and related dike rocks from eastern and central U.S. and two pipes from the Shandong Province of eastern China. The age of emplacement of these kimberlites ranges from 1300 million years to 90 million years. The initial Nd-isotopic compositions of these kimberlitic rocks expressed as e{open}NdIwith respect to a chondritic bulk-earth growth-curve show a range between 0 and +4, with the majority of the kimberlites being in the range 0 to +2. This range is not matched by any other suite of mantle-derived igneous rocks. This result strengthens our earlier conclusion that kimberlitic liquids are derived from a relatively primeval and unique mantle reservoir with a nearly chondritic Sm/Nd ratio. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  1. The Igwisi Hills extrusive 'kimberlites'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A. M.; Donaldson, C. H.; Dawson, J. B.; Brown, R. W.; Ridley, W. I.

    1975-01-01

    The petrography and mineral chemistry of volcanic rocks from the Igwisi Hills in Tanzania are discussed. There is considerable evidence to suggest that the Igwisi rocks are extrusive kimberlites: a two-component nature with high P-T minerals in a low P-T matrix; the presence of chrome pyrope, Al enstatite, chrome diopside, chromite and olivine; a highly oxidized, volatile-rich matrix with serpentine, calcite, magnetite, perovskite; high Sr, Zr, and Nb contents; occurrence in a narrow isolated vent within a stable shield area. The Igwisi rocks differ from kimberlite in the lack of magnesian ilmenite, the scarcity of matrix phlogopite, and the overall low alkali content. They apparently contain material from phlogopite-bearing garnet peridotites with a primary mineral assemblage indicative of equilibrium at upper mantle temperatures and pressures. This primary assemblage was brought rapidly to the surface in a gas-charged, carbonate-rich fluid. Rapid upward transport, extrusion, and rapid cooling have tended to prevent reaction between inclusions and the carbonate-rich matrix that might otherwise have yielded a more typical kimberlite.

  2. Geology of the Mwadui kimberlite, Shinyanga district, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefenhofer, J.; Farrow, D. J.

    2004-09-01

    The Mwadui pipe represents the largest diamondiferous kimberlite ever mined and is an almost perfectly preserved example of a kimberlitic crater in-fill, albeit without the tuff ring. The geology of Mwadui can be subdivided into five geological units, viz. the primary pyroclastic kimberlite (PK), re-sedimented volcaniclastic kimberlite deposits (RVK), granite breccias (subdivided into two units), the turbidite deposits, and the yellow shales listed in approximate order of formation. The PK can be further subdivided into two units—lithic-rich ash and lapilli tuffs which dominate the succession, and lithic-poor juvenile-rich ash and lapilli tuffs. The lower crater is well bedded down to at least 684 m from present surface (extent of current drill data). The bedding is defined by the presence of juvenile-rich lapilli tuffs vs. lithic-rich lapilli tuffs, and the systematic variation in granite content and clast size within much of the lithic-rich lapilli tuffs. Four distinct types of bedding have been identified in the pyroclastic deposits. Diffuse zones characterised by increased granite abundance and size, and upward-fining units, represent the dominant types throughout the deposit. Lateral heterogeneity was observed, in addition to the vertical changes, suggesting that the eruption was quite heterogeneous, or that more than one vent may have been present. The continuous nature of the bedding in the pyroclastic material and the lack of ash-partings suggest deposition from a high concentration (ejecta), sustained eruption column at times, e.g. the massive, very diffusely stratified deposits. The paucity of tractional bed forms suggest near vertical particle trajectories, i.e. a clear air-fall component, but the poorly sorted, matrix-supported nature of the deposits suggest that pyroclastic flow and/or surge processes may also have been active during the eruption. Available diamond sampling data were examined and correlated with the geology. Data derive from the old

  3. Reactive transport and the genesis of kimberlites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilbeam, Llewellyn; Nielsen, Troels; Waight, Tod Earle

    the southern West Greenland kimberlites sensu lato using similar processes. We may also account for the intercraton variety in kimberlite composition and mineralogy. Mg# and Ni composition was obtained for transects across olivine grains. Pure Rayleigh fractionation did not explain the shape of the nickel...... containing Enstatite, Forsterite and CO2. The ‘parental’ melt for Majuagaa kimberlite was magnesiocarbonatite which entrained 50wt% harzburgite, consistent with melting experiments. The melt processed ~20wt% SiO2 but at any given time had no more than ~5wt% SiO2. We explain geochemical variations across...

  4. Reactive transport and the genesis of kimberlites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilbeam, Llewellyn; Nielsen, Troels; Waight, Tod Earle

    When studying the bulk rock analysis of kimberlites a significant correction for visible xenocrysts must be made [1,2]. Such studies concluded that olivine in kimberlite has a xenocrystic core and cognate margin. Previously, material entrained by the melt and dissolved during transport has only...... transects. Diffusion between homogeneous olivine grains and melt was also eliminated. The data was replicated using a combination of growth and minor later diffusion. Growth was modeled using AFC equations [4]. Later diffusive equilibration between core and margin was minor. Since kimberlite transport time...

  5. The timing of kimberlite magmatism in North America: implications for global kimberlite genesis and diamond exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, L. M.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.; Creaser, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    Based on a compilation of more than 100 kimberlite age determinations, four broad kimberlite emplacement patterns can be recognized in North America: (1) a northeast Eocambrian/Cambrian Labrador Sea province (Labrador, Québec), (2) an eastern Jurassic province (Ontario, Québec, New York, Pennsylvania), (3) a Cretaceous central corridor (Nunavut, Saskatchewan, central USA), and (4) a western mixed (Cambrian-Eocene) Type 3 kimberlite province (Alberta, Nunavut, Northwest Territories, Colorado/Wyoming). Ten new U-Pb perovskite/mantle zircon and Rb-Sr phlogopite age determinations are reported here for kimberlites from the Slave and Wyoming cratons of western North America. Within the Type 3 Slave craton, at least four kimberlite age domains exist: I-a southwestern Siluro-Ordovician domain (˜450 Ma), II-a SE Cambrian domain (˜540 Ma), III-a central Tertiary/Cretaceous domain (48-74 Ma) and IV-a northern mixed domain consisting of Jurassic and Permian kimberlite fields. New U-Pb perovskite results for the 614.5±2.1 Ma Chicken Park and 408.4±2.6 Ma Iron Mountain kimberlites in the State Line field in Colorado and Wyoming confirm the existence of at least two periods of pre-Mesozoic kimberlite magmatism in the Wyoming craton. A compilation of robust kimberlite emplacement ages from North America, southern Africa and Russia indicates that a high proportion of known kimberlites are Cenozoic/Mesozoic. We conclude that a majority of these kimberlites were generated during enhanced mantle plume activity associated with the rifting and eventual breakup of the supercontinent Gondwanaland. Within this prolific period of kimberlite activity, there is a good correlation between North America and Yakutia for three distinct short-duration (˜10 my) periods of kimberlite magmatism at 48-60, 95-105 and 150-160 Ma. In contrast, Cenozoic/Mesozoic kimberlite magmatism in southern Africa is dominated by a continuum of activity between 70-95 and 105-120 Ma with additional less

  6. AFRICAN-STYLE MEDIATION AND WESTERN-STYLE DIVORCE AND FAMILY MEDIATION: REFLECTIONS FOR THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AE Boniface

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Western-styled mediation and African-styled mediation are practised in South Africa. Each of these models is applied in specific social contexts. In this article a brief explanation of what is meant by the term divorce and family mediation is provided. Thereafter the principles and processes of both Western-styled divorce and family mediation and African-styled group mediation are explored. Attention is given to the roles of mediators in both of these models as well as the ubuntu-styled values found in African group mediation. In Africa, there is a tradition of family neighbourhood negotiation facilitated by elders and an attitude of togetherness in the spirit of humanhood. Both of these show a commitment to the community concerned and a comprehensive view of life. In Africa conflicts are viewed as non-isolated events and are viewed in their social contexts. Not only are consequences for the disputing parties taken into account but also consequences for others in their families. These methods can be found in present-day methods, which are either used independently of imported Western structures or used alternatively to such structures. In this article the concept of mediation circles, as currently found in Western-styled mediation are also covered. Additionally, the provisions of the Children’s Act 38 of 2005 referring to mediation as well as the provisions of the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 and family group conferencing in the realm of restorative justice in South Africa are critiqued. It is suggested that divorce and family mediation can learn from the principles of restorative justice applied during family group conferencing as well as from African-styled group mediation.

  7. A link between geochemistry and geodynamics: carbonatites and kimberlites, Polar Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rass, Irene

    2010-05-01

    Geophysical evidence indicates that the Moho surface beneath the northern Siberian Platform composes crests (or ranges) up to 14 km high above deeper areas and 50-80 to 150 km wide (Chernyshov and Bokaya, 1983). These ranges at the Moho likely mark ancient rift zones with a thinner crust. More than 70% kimberlites in structures surrounding the Anabar Shield occur along these Moho crests (Kravchenko et al., 1997; Rosen and Kostyuchenko, 1998). Carbonate-rich rocks that compose pipes, along with kimberlites, in kimberlite fields, were recognized as an individual type of carbonatite rocks: kimberlitic carbonatites (Lapin and Marshintsev, 1984). They abound in kimberlite fields of both Paleozoic and Mesozoic age southeast and east of the Anabar Shield. The liquidus temperatures of related kimberlites, determined based on their major-component chemistries, are 1429-1441оC and 1349-1518оC, respectively (Perchuk and Vaganov, 1980). Compared to classic carbonatites in ring complexes, kimberlitic carbonatites are characterized by the lowest relative concentrations of P and Sr, slightly lower REE, and high contents of Cr, Ti, and Zr (Rass, 1998). Mesozoic kimberlitic carbonatites exhibit a dependence of their geochemistry, position relative to the axial zones of the Moho crests, and the temperatures of the associated kimberlites, from the Kuoika to the Lower Kuonamka field: from trace elements between the silicate and carbonate components of the deep-sitting magmas. Their experimentally determined parameters are still scarce (Green, 1994) and obviously insufficient for any conclusions about the physicochemical conditions of the exsolution and/or melting of the parental magmas, so that any empirical dependences the identified in them provide information on the lateral heterogeneity of the mantle material in the northern Siberian Platform. References Chernyshov N.V. and Bokaya L.I., in: Structural Elements of the Earth's Crust and Their Evolution. Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1983

  8. Découverte d'un diatrème de kimberlite diamantifère à Séguéla en Côte-d'IvoireDiscovery of a diamond-bearing kimberlite diatreme at Séguéla in Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouclet, André; Allialy, Marc; Daouda-Yao, Bertin; Esso, Botty

    2004-01-01

    The Séguéla area in Ivory Coast is known for its diamond-bearing field related to dykes of kimberlite and lamproite. These dykes, devoid of any deformation and metamorphism, crosscut the Birimian formations. Their N 170° orientation is controlled by the tectonized contact between the Archean and the Paleoproterozoic shields of the West-African craton. Discovery of a diatreme, with its pipe breccias and well-preserved maar sediments, below the present-day colluvia, attests for the probable recent geological age (Cretaceous?) of the kimberlitic activity. To cite this article: A. Pouclet et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  9. A conceptual model for kimberlite emplacement by solitary interfacial mega-waves on the core mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, B. L.; Agterberg, F. P.

    2006-07-01

    If convection in the Earth's liquid outer core is disrupted, degrades to turbulence and begins to behave in a chaotic manner, it will destabilize the Earth's magnetic field and provide the seeds for kimberlite melts via turbulent jets of silicate rich core material which invade the lower mantle. These (proto-) melts may then be captured by extreme amplitude solitary nonlinear waves generated through interaction of the outer core surface with the base of the mantle. A pressure differential behind the wave front then provides a mechanism for the captured melt to ascend to the upper mantle and crust so quickly that emplacement may indirectly promote a type of impact fracture cone within the relatively brittle crust. These waves are very rare but of finite probability. The assumption of turbulence transmission between layers is justified using a simple three-layer liquid model. The core derived melts eventually become frozen in place as localised topographic highs in the Mohorovicic discontinuity (Moho), or as deep rooted intrusive events. The intrusion's final composition is a function of melt contamination by two separate sources: the core contaminated mantle base and subducted Archean crust. The mega-wave hypothesis offers a plausible vehicle for early stage emplacement of kimberlite pipes and explains the age association of diamondiferous kimberlites with magnetic reversals and tectonic plate rearrangements.

  10. The composition of volatile components in olivines from Yakutian kimberlites of various ages: Evidence from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilenko, A. A.; Bul'bak, T. A.; Khomenko, M. O.; Kuzmin, D. V.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2016-06-01

    The composition of volatiles from fluid and melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from Yakutian kimberlite pipes of various ages (Olivinovaya, Malokuonapskaya, and Udachnaya-East) were studied for the first time by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was shown that hydrocarbons and their derivatives, as well as nitrogen-, halogen-, and sulfur-bearing compounds, played a significant role in the mineral formation. The proportion of hydrocarbons and their derivatives in the composition of mantle fluids could reach 99%, including up to 4.9% of chlorineand fluorine-bearing compounds.

  11. Asthenospheric kimberlites: Volatile contents and bulk compositions at 7 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Natalia; Schmidt, Max W.

    2017-09-01

    During ascent, kimberlites react with the lithospheric mantle, entrain and assimilate xenolithic material, loose volatiles and suffer from syn- and post-magmatic alteration. Consequently, kimberlite rocks deviate heavily from their primary melt. Experiments at 7 GPa, 1300-1480 °C, 10-30 wt% CO2 and 0.46 wt% H2O on a proposed primitive composition from the Jericho kimberlite show that saturation with a lherzolitic mineral assemblage occurs only at 1300-1350 °C for a carbonatitic melt with 35 wt% CO2. At asthenospheric temperatures of >1400 °C, where the Jericho melt stays kimberlitic, this composition saturates only in low-Ca pyroxene, garnet and partly olivine. We hence forced the primitive Jericho kimberlite into multiple saturation with a lherzolitic assemblage by adding a compound peridotite. Saturation in olivine, low- and high-Ca pyroxene and garnet was obtained at 1400-1650 °C (7 GPa), melts are kimberlitic with 18-29 wt% SiO2 + Al2O3, 22.1-24.6 wt% MgO, 15-27 wt% CO2 and 0.4-7.1 wt% H2O; with a trade-off of H2O vs. CO2 and temperature. Melts in equilibrium with high-Ca pyroxene with typical mantle compositions have ≥2.5 wt% Na2O, much higher than the commonly proposed 0.1-0.2 wt%. The experiments allow for a model of kimberlite origin in the convective upper mantle, which only requires mantle upwelling that causes melting at the depth where elemental carbon (in metal, diamond or carbide) converts to CO2 (at ∼250 km). If primary melts leading to kimberlites contain a few wt% H2O, then adiabatic temperatures of 1400-1500 °C would yield asthenospheric mantle melts that are kimberlitic (>18 wt% SiO2 + Al2O3) but not carbonatitic (<10 wt% SiO2 + Al2O3) in composition, carbonatites only forming 100-200 °C below the adiabat. These kimberlites represent small melt fractions concentrating CO2 and H2O and then acquire part of their chemical signature by assimilation/fractionation during ascent in the subcratonic lithosphere.

  12. Origin of carbonate xenoliths in Siddanpalli kimberlites, Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, M.; Osborne, I.; Gilmour, M. A.; Chalapath Rao, N. V.

    2009-04-01

    A number of carbonate xenoliths have been recently discovered from the three kimberlites (designated as SK1, SK2, SK3) of the Siddanpalli kimberlite cluster (SKC; Sridhar et al., 2004) of Southern India. These kimberlites intrude the Precambrian granite-greenstone terrain of Gadwal schist belt of Eastern Dharwar Craton (e.g., Dongre et al., 2008). Rb-Sr phlogopite/whole-rock dating of one of these bodies, SK1, has yielded an age of 1093 ± Ma (Kumar et al. 2007). Previously, Dongre et al. (2008) reported an occurrence of a limestone xenolith from the SK2 kimberlite. Based on petrographic, geochemical, and C and O isotope data these authors suggested a sedimentary origin for the limestone xenolith. However, now we have documented a larger variation in the nature of carbonate material occurring as xenoliths in these kimberlites, ranging from micro-crystalline segregations to well-formed carbonate crystals. Thus, it is likely that a number of sources and/or processes have been involved in their formation. We are in the process of measuring carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of individual carbonate xenoliths in order to further constrain their origin.

  13. Chasing the Late Jurassic APW Monster Shift in Ontario Kimberlites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, D. V.; Muttoni, G.; Gee, J. S.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    A 30° gap was recognized in a composite APW path when global poles from predominantly igneous rocks were assembled in North American coordinates using plate reconstructions (Kent & Irving 2010 JGR). The 'monster shift' occurred between a 160-190 Ma cluster of mean poles at 75-80°N 90-110°E to a 140-145 Ma grouping centered at 60-65°N ~200°E. There are hardly any intermediate igneous poles whereas the rather divergent directions from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation published by Steiner & Helsley (1975 GSA Bulletin) are subject to adjustments for Colorado Plateau rotation and sedimentary inclination error, neither of which are precisely known for this redbed unit sampled in Colorado. On the other hand, similar large rapid swings have been recognized in the Late Jurassic APW path for Adria (Channell et al. 2010 Paleo3), suggesting a global phenomena. In an effort to fill the data gap between ~145 and 160 Ma, we sampled accessible outcrops/subcrops of kimberlites in the Timiskaming area of Ontario, Canada, that are associated with high precision U-Pb perovskite ages (Heamon & Kjarsgaard 2000 EPSL). We report initial results from two of the intrusions: the 153.6±2.4 Ma Peddie kimberlite from outcrop and the Triple B kimberlite that was accessible by trenching and is assumed to be the same age as the nearby 153.7±1.8 Ma Seed kimberlite as delineated by aeromagnetic surveys and borings. Systematic progressive thermal demagnetization indicated in each unit a dominant characteristic component with unblocking temperatures to 575° that presumably reflect a magnetite carrier that will be checked by further rock magnetic experiments. Samples from the Peddie kimberlite had stable downward (normal polarity) magnetizations whose mean direction gives a paleopole at 73°N 184°E. In contrast, samples from the Triple B kimberlite have upward (reverse polarity) magnetizations with a well-grouped direction whose (north) paleopole is 78°N 197°E, proximal to the Peddie

  14. Spatial patterns in the distribution of kimberlites: relationship to tectonic processes and lithosphere structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of diamonds in kimberlite-type rocks more than a century ago, a number of theories regarding the processes involved in kimberlite emplacement have been put forward to explain the unique properties of kimberlite magmatism. Geological data suggests that pre-existing lithosphere...... weakness zones may control the spatial patterns of kimberlites, but this hypothesis has never been tested by geophysical methods. As the first step in our analysis of tectonic and lithosphere control of kimberlite-type magmatism, we perform a detailed global analysis of the spatial patterns of kimberlites......, and present the first results. The analysis is based on the assumption that the kimberlite emplacement is a two-stage process, and the two stages are controlled by the crustal and lithospheric mantle rheologies, respectively. Stage 1 includes the first-order, lithosphere-scale process that initiate the rise...

  15. Spatial patterns in the distribution of kimberlites: relationship to tectonic processes and lithosphere structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    Since the discovery of diamonds in kimberlite-type rocks more than a century ago, a number of theories regarding the processes involved in kimberlite emplacement have been put forward to explain the unique properties of kimberlite magmatism. Geological data suggests that pre-existing lithosphere...... weakness zones may control the spatial patterns of kimberlites, but this hypothesis has never been tested by geophysical methods. As the first step in our analysis of tectonic and lithosphere control of kimberlite-type magmatism, we perform a detailed global analysis of the spatial patterns of kimberlites......, and present the first results. The analysis is based on the assumption that the kimberlite emplacement is a two-stage process, and the two stages are controlled by the crustal and lithospheric mantle rheologies, respectively. Stage 1 includes the first-order, lithosphere-scale process that initiate the rise...

  16. Analysis and control of bacterial flora in African style salad%非洲风味色拉的菌群分析与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 蒋云升; 吴海峰

    2013-01-01

      目的调查非洲风味色拉食品制作与冷藏过程中微生物污染与卫生质量变化情况.方法试制拟定非洲色拉的基础配方,改进工序,观察基础配方和改进配方制作的色拉中微生物菌群的变化情况,结合产品的感官品质变化,拟定产品保质期.结果非洲色拉基础配方制品菌落总数几何均数为2.1×103 cfu/g,其中74.1%来自黄瓜,10.0%来自番茄,4.9%来自洋葱,而生菜叶和鸡蛋分别占7.7%和2.7%.通过对原料进行热烫处理,增加3倍量白醋的新配方减菌率可达到71.4%,保质期可由3 d延长至5 d.结论本研究对该类食品的安全经营具有一定参考作用.%Objective To investigate the changes of microorganism and sanitation of African style salad during processing and refrigerating. Methods The basic formulation of African style salad was made, the process was processed, the changes of microorganism of this salad made in basic and new formulation were analyzed, so as to decide the shelf life. Results The total bacteria colonies of African style salad made in basic formulation were 2.1×103 cfu/g, including 74.1% from cucumbers, 10.0% from tomatoes, 4.9% from onions, 7.7% from Chinese leaves, and 2.7% from eggs, respectively. The sterilization rate of African style salad made in new formulation was 71.4% and the shelf life increased from 3 d to 5 d by blanching raw materials and increasing the dosage of white vinegar of 2 times volume. Conclusion It has great significance to the food safety management for catering industry.

  17. Kimberlite-Clan-Rocks in India: Significance of new VGP, T, and GP Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    2005-05-01

    Although India is acknowledged for the first description of diamond some 2000 BCE, it should also rightfully be credited for the 17th C recognition that diamond is a product of volcanism. With this extraordinary background, it is surprising that the host rocks remain controversial, being neither archetypical kimberlites, nor classic lamproites. Lacking affinities to micro-diamond-bearing UHPT metamorphic rocks and being unequivocally volcanic, the term Kimberlite-Clan-Rock (KCR) is applied. Over 200 KCR pipes and dikes, many of which are richly mineralized, have recently been discovered in the Diamond Corridor (1000 x 200 km) of the Eastern Dharwar Craton, and in adjoining cratons to the N and NE. From 32 absolute age determinations on KCRs, the remaining intrusions, in comparable stratigraphic settings, are assumed to be 1.1 Ga, equivalent to the Argyle lamproite (Australia, highest diamond grade), and the Premier kimberlite (RSA, largest known diamond). India has the largest number of known Proterozoic KCR intrusions that over the centuries have produced a wealth of famous diamonds. The primary source of these extraordinary stones, however, remains unknown, possibly because the unusual host rocks defy conventional exploration protocols. Six new observations make the setting even more unusual: (1) Coeval, large scale magmatism in the Kalahari (>2 m sq km) and Laurentian (>300 k cub km) Cratons at 1085-1112 Ma, during assembly of Rodinia, confirms the relation between and among KCR volcanism, LIPs, and supercontinents; Proterozoic Rodinia, into which the India KCRs, Argyle and Premier were intruded, was constructive, whereas the other, globally-wide, diamond-intrusive event, that occurred during the Mesozoic (80-120 Ma), was related to the breakup of Pangea and the dispersion of Gondwana; both events occurred during long period geomagnetic chrons implying a core relation, and superplume activity from the CMB. (2)The transcontinental Mumbai-Chennai gravity lineament

  18. Spatial patterns in the distribution of kimberlites: relationship to tectonic processes and lithosphere structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of diamonds in kimberlite-type rocks more than a century ago, a number of theories regarding the processes involved in kimberlite emplacement have been put forward to explain the unique properties of kimberlite magmatism. Geological data suggests that pre-existing lithosphere...... of establishing characteristic scales for the stage 1 and stage 2 processes. To reveal similarities between the Kimberlite data we use the density-based clustering technique, such as density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN), which is efficient for large data sets, requires one input...

  19. Spatial patterns in the distribution of kimberlites: relationship to tectonic processes and lithosphere structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    Since the discovery of diamonds in kimberlite-type rocks more than a century ago, a number of theories regarding the processes involved in kimberlite emplacement have been put forward to explain the unique properties of kimberlite magmatism. Geological data suggests that pre-existing lithosphere...... of establishing characteristic scales for the stage 1 and stage 2 processes. To reveal similarities between the kimberlite data we use the density-based clustering technique, such as density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN), which is efficient for large data sets, requires one input...

  20. Origin and source regions of nodule-bearing kimberlites and ultramafic lamprophyres in southern Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilbeam, Llewellyn Howard

    High precision high resolution electron microprobe traverses of olivine grains in the Majuagaa kimberlite sensu stricto from southern West Greenland show that the olivine crystallisation is coupled to digestion of xenocrystic orthopyroxene into the melt. This process was previously suspected...... but unconfirmed in kimberlite sensu stricto magmas. It is here termed digestion fractional crystallisation (DFC) and it is argued that the DFC process may account for much of the global varia-bility in kimberlite compositions. The bulk rock trace element geochemistry of the Majuagaa kimberlite is used...

  1. What olivine, the neglected mineral, tells us about kimberlite petrogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, Nicholas; Boullier, Anne-Marie; Clement, J P; Clément, Jean-Pierre; Dubois, M.; Schissel, D.

    2006-01-01

    International audience; We report here the results of a petrographic and geochemical study of remarkably well-preserved kimberlites from the Kangamiut region in Greenland. The samples contain between 5 and 45% of olivine in the form of rounded ''nodules'', each 1 to 5 mm in diameter. Most originally were single crystals but many consist of polycrystalline, monomineralic aggregates. Olivine compositions vary widely from nodule to nodule (from Fo 81-93) but are constant within individual nodule...

  2. Garnets from the Camafuca-Camazambo kimberlite (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Eugénio A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a geochemical study of a set of garnets, selected by their colors, from the Camafuca-Camazambo kimberlite, located on northeast Angola. Mantle-derived garnets were classified according to the scheme proposed by Grütter et al. (2004 and belong to the G1, G4, G9 and G10 groups. Both sub-calcic (G10 and Ca-saturated (G9 garnets, typical, respectively, of harzburgites and lherzolites, were identified. The solubility limit of knorringite molecule in G10D garnets suggests they have crystallized at a minimum pressure of about 40 to 45 kbar (4-4.5 GPa. The occurrence of diamond stability field garnets (G10D is a clear indicator of the potential of this kimberlite for diamond. The chemistry of the garnets suggests that the source for the kimberlite was a lherzolite that has suffered a partial melting that formed basaltic magma, leaving a harzburgite as a residue.

  3. Lead isotopes and the origin of granulite and eclogite inclusions in deep-seated pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovering, J.F.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1968-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lead and the concentrations of lead, uranium, and thorium in Delegate basic pipes from Australia and in South African kimberlite pipes have been determined. The observed 238U/204Pb and observed 232Th/238U of eclogite inclusions in the pipes range from 2.9 to 18.7 and from 3.5 to 5.9, respectively. This result as well as the isotopic composition of lead suggests that the upper mantle is chemically heterogeneous with regard to the trace elements. Pyrochemically extracted leads from eclogite inclusions in the Delegate basic pipes and in a South African kimberlite pipe appear to be different in isotopic compositions from leads extracted from the host rock (matrix). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the eclogitic inclusions in deep-seated pipes are of "accidental" origin and represent upper mantle materials caught up in the host materials during their intrusion. Lead extracted from a two-pyroxene granulite inclusion in one of the Delegate pipes has an isotopic composition indistinguishable from lead in the host rock. This observation is consistent either with a "cognate" origin for the granulite inclusion or with a modified "accidental" origin in which the isotopic composition of the original lead in the inclusion has been contaminated by lead from the host magma. Other evidence would indicate that an "accidental" origin be preferred. ?? 1968.

  4. Multi-stage kimberlite evolution tracked in zoned olivine from the Benfontein sill, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2016-10-01

    Olivine is the dominant mineral present in kimberlite magmas; however, due to the volatile-rich nature of most kimberlites, they rarely survive late-stage serpentinisation. Here we present major and trace element data for a rare example of ultra-fresh olivine in a macrocrystic calcite kimberlite from the Benfontein kimberlite sill complex. Olivines are characterised by xenocrystic cores surrounded by multiple growth zones representing melt crystallisation and late-stage equilibration. Two distinct core populations are distinguished: Type 1) low Fo (88-89), Ni-rich, Ca- and Na-rich cores, interpreted here to be the result of carbonate-silicate metasomatism potentially as part of the earliest stages of kimberlite magmatism, and Type 2) high Fo (91-93), Ni-rich, low-Ca cores derived from a typical garnet peridotite mantle source. In both cases, the cores have transitional margins (Fo89-90) representing equilibration with a proto-kimberlite melt. Trace element concentrations, in particular Cr, of these transition zones suggest formation of the proto-kimberlite melt through assimilation of orthopyroxene from the surrounding garnet peridotite lithology. Trace element trends in the surrounding melt-zone olivine (Fo87-90) suggest evolution of the kimberlite through progressive olivine crystallisation. The final stages of olivine growth are represented by Fe-rich (Fo85) and P-rich olivine indicating kimberlite evolution to mafic compositions. Fine (evolution back to Fe-poor carbonatitic melts. We present a step-by-step model for kimberlite magma genesis and evolution from mantle to crust tracked by the chemistry of olivines in the Benfontein kimberlite. These steps include early stages of metasomatism and mantle assimilation followed by direct crystallisation of the kimberlite melt and late-stage equilibration with the evolved carbonatitic residual liquids. The Ca contents of the Type 1 xenocrystic olivines are the highest yet measured for mantle olivines, and do not

  5. Reconstruction of burial history of eroded Mesozoic strata using kimberlite shale xenoliths, volcaniclastic and crater facies, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasiuk, Lavern D.; Sweet, Art R.; Issler, Dale R. [Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada-Calgary, 3303-33rd ST N.W., Calgary AB, Canada (T2L 2A7)

    2006-01-03

    Reconstruction of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary 'cover' on the Precambrian shield in the Lac de Gras diamond field, Northwest Territories, Canada, has been achieved using Cretaceous and early Tertiary sedimentary xenoliths and contemporaneous organic matter preserved in volcaniclastic sediments associated with late Cretaceous to early Tertiary kimberlite pipe intrusions, and in situ, Eocene crater lake, lacustrine and peat bog strata. Percent reflectance in oil (%Ro) of vitrinite within shale xenoliths for: (i) Albian to mid-Cenomanian to Turonian ranges from >0.27 to 0.42 %Ro (mean 0.38 %Ro), (ii) Maastrichtian to early Paleocene from 0.24 to <0.30%; (iii) latest Paleocene to early middle Eocene 0.15 to <0.23 %Ro (mean = 0.18 %Ro). These levels of thermal maturity are corroborated by Rock Eval pyrolysis T{sub max} ({sup o}C) and VIS region fluorescence of liptinites, with wavelengths of maximum emission for sporinite, prasinophyte alginite and dinoflagellates consistent with vitrinite reflectance of 0.20 to <0.50 %Ro. Burial-thermal history modeling, constrained by measured vitrinite reflectance and porosity of shale xenoliths, predicts a maximum burial temperature for Mid to Late Albian strata ({approx}115 Ma) of 60 {sup o}C with {approx}1.2 to 1.4 km of Cretaceous strata in the Lac de Gras kimberlite field region prior to major uplift and erosion, which began at 90 Ma. Late Paleocene to middle Eocene volcanic crater lake lacustrine to peat bog strata were only buried to a few hundreds of meters and are in a peat-brown coal stage of thermal maturation. (author)

  6. New model of the mantle lithosphere beneath Kuoyka kimberlite field Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor; Kostrovitsky, Sergey; Ovchinnikov, Yury; Tychkov, Nikolai; Khmelnikova, Olga; Palessky, Stanislav

    2013-04-01

    New data for the 11 pipes from Kuoyka field show that high Cr2O3 garnets to 10- 12% as well as high Cr chromites (to 64%Cr2O3) are found in several more pipes Zaozernaya, Seraya, Slyudyanka, Vodorasdelnaya, Titan, Lusya in addition to Djanga pipe. All garnets belong o lherzolite field and not less than 1/3 are TiO rich. The TiO2 rich chromites are dominating in the Cr- rich population. Metasomatic Cr2O3- rich (to 6%) ilmenites pre in the MgO and TiO2- part of the variation diagrams. The Cr- diopside variations show high variations of Fe and Na content to 4 % suggesting the hybridic origin similar to the Cr- pyroxeneis from Obnazhennaya pyroxenites (Taylor et al ., 2003). Omphicites (to 7 % Na2O) are rare. Cr-amphiboles (pargasites and hornblendes) are common in the upper part of the SCLM as well as in the Anabar and Kharamai region. Reconstructions of the mantle sections show the deep lithospheric roots beneath the Zosernaya pipe (7.5 GPa) traced by the PT conditions for Opx, Cpx, Gar, Cr and Ilm. SCLM is divided in to 4 sections and Ilm trace tow intervals in lower and upper part form 4 GPa. Th HT branch is sporadically found from 7 GPa to the Moho. In other pipes ilmenite and garnet PT estimates are more common in the lower part o mantle section while the Cpx trace mainly middle part of SCLM similar to the Obnazhennaya pip. It seems that kimberlites captured mainly the walls of feeders traced by Cr- low garnets and ilmenites in the lower part of SCLM while peridotitic mantle column was captured starting from the middle part of SCLM. The NS transsect of the Kuoyka field show more fertile mantle sections in the NNW part of the field. The TRE determined for the minerals from Kuoyka field show rather rounded patterns for REE of garnets with high variations in HREE part and small elevation in LREE . The depleted compositions reval the inflection in Eu TRE spidergrams well as relatively small Sr minima. Many of them show Ta peak, relatively small Pb elevation and Th

  7. Piping Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  8. Piping Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell provide architectural and engineering services in planning, design and construction of a wide range of projects all over the world. In design analysis, company regularly uses COSMIC computer programs. In computer testing piping design of a power plant, company uses Pipe Flexibility Analysis Program (MEL-21) to analyze stresses due to weight, temperature, and pressure found in proposed piping systems. Individual flow rates are put into the computer, then computer calculates the pressure drop existing across each component; if needed, design corrections or adjustments can be made and rechecked.

  9. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  10. Origin and diamond prospectivity of Mesoproterozoic kimberlites from the Narayanpet field, Eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chalapathi Rao, N.V.; Paton, Chad; Lehmann, B.

    2012-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Narayanpet Kimberlite Field (NKF) is located ~200km north of the well-known Wajrakarur Kimberlite Field (WKF) in the Eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India. Whereas a majority of the WKF occurrences are diamondiferous and contain mantle xenoliths and xenocrysts, their paucity ......-wide, indicates that redox conditions were favourable for diamond prospectivity, and that magmatic emplacement could, instead, have played a major role in their low diamond potential. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.....

  11. The crater-facies kimberlite system of Tokapal, Bastar District, Chhattisgarh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainkar, Datta; Lehmann, Bernd; Haggerty, Stephen E.

    2004-09-01

    Discovery of diamondiferous kimberlites in the Mainpur Kimberlite Field, Raipur District, Chhattisgarh in central India, encouraged investigation of similar bodies in other parts of the Bastar craton. The earlier known Tokapal ultramafic intrusive body, located beyond the 19-km milestone in Tokapal village along the Jagdalpur-Geedam road, was reinterpreted as crater-facies kimberlite. Its stratigraphic position in the Meso-Neoproterozoic intracratonic sedimentary Indravati basin makes it one of the oldest preserved crater-facies kimberlite systems. Ground and limited subsurface data (dug-, tube-wells and exploratory boreholes) have outlined an extensive surface area (>550 ha) of the kimberlite. The morphological and surface color features of this body on enhanced satellite images suggest that there is a central feeder surrounded by a collar and wide pyroclastic apron. Exploration drilling indicates that the central zone probably corresponds to a vent overlain by resedimented volcaniclastic (epiclastic) rocks that are surrounded by a 2-km-wide spread of pyroclastic rocks (lapilli tuff, tuff/ash beds and volcaniclastic breccia). Drill-holes also reveal that kimberlitic lapilli tuffs and tuffs are sandwiched between the Kanger and Jagdalpur Formations and also form sills within the sedimentary sequence of the Indravati basin. The lapilli tuffs are commonly well stratified and display slumping. Base surges and lava flows occur in the southern part of the Tokapal system. The geochemistry and petrology of the rock correspond to average Group I kimberlite with a moderate degree of contamination. However, the exposed rock is intensely weathered and altered with strong leaching of mobile elements (Ba, Rb, Sr). Layers of vesicular fine-grained glassy material represent kimberlitic lava flows. Tuffs containing juvenile lapilli with pseudomorphed olivine macrocrysts are set in a talc-serpentine-carbonate matrix with locally abundant spinel and sphene. Garnet has not been

  12. Evolution of diamond resorption in a silicic aqueous fluid at 1-3 GPa: Application to kimberlite emplacement and mantle metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihai; Fedortchouk, Yana; Hanley, Jacob J.

    2015-06-01

    diameter of f/b trigons developed in the aqueous fluids depends on the diamond weight loss and dissolution kinetics, and does not correlate with their depth. Integration of our AFM data with the theoretical model for trigon formation suggests that the change from point- to flat-bottomed trigons depends on the defect sizes and dissolution conditions. Application of our results to the diamonds from Ekati diamond Mine, Canada, suggests that variations in diamond rounding in different pipes implies variable depth of fluid exsolution; presence of circular pits on diamonds indicates predominantly aqueous fluid during the latest stages of kimberlite emplacement; and comparison to the mantle-derived morphologies on Ekati diamonds implies the importance of CO2-rich fluids and/or carbonate melts during mantle metasomatism. The constrained effect of P on diamond dissolution kinetics indicates that appreciable diamond weight loss can only happen at P < 1 GPa and therefore the conditions at the latest stages of kimberlite emplacement are very important for assessments of diamond preservation in a kimberlite pipe.

  13. Rare earth element characteristics of pyrope garnets from the Kaavi-Kuopio kimberlites – implications for mantle metasomatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjaleena Lehtonen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Peridotitic garnet xenocrysts from five kimberlite pipes in the Kaavi-Kuopio area of eastern Finland have been studied using major and trace element geochemistry to obtain information on the stratigraphy, compositional variability and evolutionary history of the underlyinglithospheric mantle. Ni thermometry on garnet xenocrysts gives 650–1350°C and, when extrapolated to the geotherm determined using mantle xenoliths, indicates a sampling interval of c. 80–230 km. Three distinct mantle layers are recognized based on the xenolith/xenocryst record: (1 A shallow, 180 km, composed largely of fertile material. The chondrite-normalized REE profiles of subcalcic harzburgitic garnet xenocrysts originating from layer 2 bear evidence of an extensive ancient melt extraction event, similar to that observed in lithosphere underlying Archean cratons elsewhere. Memory of this eventhas possibly also been preserved in the REEN signatures of rare depleted garnets from layer 3 and in the CCGE pyropes from layer 1 despite their saturation in Ca. The lherzolitic and megacryst garnet varieties exhibit LREEN depletion relative to MREEN and HREEN, withthe steady enrichment from SmN to YbN typical of Ca-saturated mantle garnets. The enrichment of MREE and HREE probably derives from a metasomatic event caused by silicate melts close in composition to megacryst magma, which also imprinted a Ti-metasomatic overprint on many pyrope garnets. Harzburgitic and rare lherzolitic garnets, however, appear to have escaped this metasomatism.

  14. Piping Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In Stennis Space Center's Component Test Facility, piping lines carry rocket propellants and high pressure cryogenic fuels. When the lines are chilled to a pretest temperature of 400 degrees below zero, ordinary piping connectors can leak. Under contract to Stennis, Reflange, Inc. developed the T-Con connector, which included a secondary seal that tolerates severe temperature change. Because of the limited need for the large and expensive T-Con product, Reflange also developed the less costly E-Con, a smaller more compact design with the same technical advantages as the T-Con.

  15. Are diamond-bearing Cretaceous kimberlites related to low-angle subduction beneath western North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Claire A.; Beaumont, Christopher

    2011-02-01

    Diamond-bearing Cretaceous kimberlites of western North America were emplaced 1000-1500 km inboard of the Farallon plate subduction margin and overlap with the development of the Western Interior Seaway, shut-down of the Sierra Nevada arc, and the Laramide orogeny. These events are consistent with a decrease in subduction angle along much of the margin, which placed the subducted Farallon plate in close proximity to the continental interior at the time of kimberlite magmatism. Our numerical models demonstrate that low-angle subduction can result from high plate convergence velocities and enhanced westward motion of North America. Further, rapid subduction allows hydrous minerals to remain stable within the cool interior of the subducting plate to more than 1200 km from the trench. Destabilization of these minerals provides a fluid source that can infiltrate the overlying material, potentially triggering partial melting and kimberlite/lamproite magmatism.

  16. Are diamond-bearing Cretaceous kimberlites related to shallow-angle subduction beneath western North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, C. A.; Beaumont, C.

    2009-05-01

    The origin of deep-seated magmatism (in particular, kimberlites and lamproites) within continental plate interiors remains enigmatic in the context of plate tectonic theory. One hypothesis proposes a relationship between kimberlite occurrence and lithospheric subduction, such that a subducting plate releases fluids below a continental craton, triggering melting of the deep lithosphere and magmatism (Sharp, 1974; McCandless, 1999). This study provides a quantitative evaluation of this hypothesis, focusing on the Late Cretaceous- Eocene (105-50 Ma) kimberlites and lamproites of western North America. These magmas were emplaced along a corridor of Archean and Proterozoic lithosphere, 1000-1500 km inboard of the plate margin separating the subducting Farallon Plate and continental North America Plate. Kimberlite-lamproite magmatism coincides with tectonic events, including the Laramide orogeny, shut-down of the Sierra Nevada arc, and eastward migration of volcanism, that are commonly attributed to a change in Farallon Plate geometry to a shallow-angle trajectory (trench, where they may break down and release fluids that infiltrate the overlying craton lithosphere. This is supported by geochemical studies that indicate metasomatism of the Colorado Plateau and Wyoming craton mantle lithosphere by an aqueous fluid and/or silicate melt with a subduction signature. Through Cretaceous shallow-angle subduction, the Farallon Plate was in a position to mechanically and chemically interact with North American craton lithosphere at the time of kimberlite-lamproite magmatism, making the subduction hypothesis a viable mechanism for the genesis of these magmas. REFERENCES: McCandless, T.E., Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Conference, v.2, pp.545-549, 1999; Sharp, W.E., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v.21, pp.351-354, 1974.

  17. Diamond resorption features as a new method for examining conditions of kimberlite emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedortchouk, Yana

    2015-10-01

    The study develops a new approach utilizing parameters of trigonal etch pits on diamond crystals to infer the conditions of diamond residence in kimberlite magma. Diamond crystals from dissolution experiments conducted at 1 GPa and 1150-1350 °C in the presence of H2O-rich or CO2-rich fluid were studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM data of resorbed diamond surfaces show that much deeper surface relief was produced in CO2 fluid. It also clearly distinguishes the profiles of the trigonal etch pits forming regular flat-bottomed trigons in H2O fluid, and round- or pointed-bottomed trigons in CO2 fluid. The relationship between the diameter and the depth of the trigonal pits is found to be another important indicator of the fluid composition. Dissolution in H2O fluid develops trigons with constant diameter and variable depth where the diameter increases with temperature. Trigons developed in CO2 fluid have a large range of diameters showing a strong positive correlation with the depth. The developed criteria applied to the natural diamond crystals from three Ekati Mine kimberlites indicate significant variation in CO2-H2O ratio and temperature of their magmatic fluid. This conclusion based on diamond resorption agrees with the mineralogy of microphenocrysts and groundmass of the studied kimberlites offering new method to study crystallization conditions of kimberlite magma.

  18. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  19. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  20. Spatial, temporal, mineralogical, and compositional variations in Mesozoic kimberlitic magmatism in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David G.; Lupulescu, Marian V.

    2015-01-01

    Mesozoic kimberlitic magmatism was geographically widespread across central New York State, and nearly 90 distinct intrusions have been discovered since the first "serpentinite body" was described over 175 years ago. Most of the intrusions are narrow (earth element (REE) concentrations, and the highest 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Intrusion ages for these dikes are poorly constrained, but appear to be contemporaneous with, or slightly older than, the ~ 146 Ma Group A intrusions. All of the kimberlitic intrusions in central New York State have initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios close to bulk earth. This fact, combined with the observed macrocryst assemblages and incompatible trace element ratios, indicates that these magmas were derived primarily from an asthenospheric, garnet lherzolite source. Episodic intrusion of small volume, volatile-rich kimberlitic magmas into the Paleozoic sedimentary platform rocks of central New York appears to have occurred along ancient crustal structures that were reactivated by the far field stresses related to the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean.

  1. Reusable pipe flange covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, James Elliott (Simpsonville, SC); Perez, Julieta (Houston, TX)

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  2. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A; Parisher

    2000-01-01

    Pipe designers and drafters provide thousands of piping drawings used in the layout of industrial and other facilities. The layouts must comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date. Pipe Drafting and Design, Second Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers and drafters and students in Engineering Design Graphics and Engineering Technology through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings using symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. The book is appropriate primarily for pipe

  3. BEAM PIPE IS INSTALLED

    CERN Multimedia

    The installation of the central section of the beam pipe into the heart of the  CMS was completed by 23 April. All the beam pipe elements have been successfully vacuum-tested and the bakeout started.  

  4. Origin of sub-lithospheric diamonds from the Juina-5 kimberlite (Brazil): constraints from carbon isotopes and inclusion compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. R.; Kohn, S. C.; Bulanova, G. P.; Smith, C. B.; Araujo, D.; Walter, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Forty-one diamonds sourced from the Juina-5 kimberlite pipe in Southern Brazil, which contain optically identifiable inclusions, have been studied using an integrated approach. The diamonds contain <20 ppm nitrogen (N) that is fully aggregated as B centres. Internal structures in several diamonds revealed using cathodoluminescence (CL) are unlike those normally observed in lithospheric samples. The majority of the diamonds are composed of isotopically light carbon, and the collection has a unimodal distribution heavily skewed towards δ13C ~ -25 ‰. Individual diamonds can display large carbon isotope heterogeneity of up to ~15 ‰ and predominantly have isotopically lighter cores displaying blue CL, and heavier rims with green CL. The light carbon isotopic compositions are interpreted as evidence of diamond growth from abiotic organic carbon added to the oceanic crust during hydrothermal alteration. The bulk isotopic composition of the oceanic crust, carbonates plus organics, is equal to the composition of mantle carbon (-5 ‰), and we suggest that recycling/mixing of subducted material will replenish this reservoir over geological time. Several exposed, syngenetic inclusions have bulk compositions consistent with former eclogitic magnesium silicate perovskite, calcium silicate perovskite and NAL or CF phases that have re-equilibrated during their exhumation to the surface. There are multiple occurrences of majoritic garnet with pyroxene exsolution, coesite with and without kyanite exsolution, clinopyroxene, Fe or Fe-carbide and sulphide minerals alongside single occurrences of olivine and ferropericlase. As a group, the inclusions have eclogitic affinity and provide evidence for diamond formation at pressures extending to Earth's deep transition zone and possibly the lower mantle. It is observed that the major element composition of inclusions and isotopic compositions of host Juina-5 diamonds are not correlated. The diamond and inclusion compositions are

  5. The evolution of the lithosphere in southern Africa: A perspective on the basic granulite xenoliths from kimberlites in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ming; Van Calsteren, Peter; Hawkesworth, Chris I.

    1995-12-01

    Major, trace element, and strontium, neodymium, and lead isotope data are presented on mafic granulite xenoliths from the margins of the Kaapvaal Craton in southern Africa. Those from the Markt pipe in the central Cape province preserve good correlations between Cr and Mg#, negative correlations between Co, Sc, Y, and V with Al 2O 3, and positive correlations between Sr, Rb/Sr, and Eu/Eu ∗ with Al 2O 3 Such trends reflect magmatic differentiation and crystal cumulation, and they have not been affected significantly by subsequent metamorphism. Present-day strontium and neodymium isotope ratios range from 0.70411-0.71179 and from 0.51149-0.51294. The lead isotope data from the Markt granulites yield a bulk rock PbPb age of 3.19 ± 0.07 Ga and those from the other Cape province granulites have similar lead isotope ages (3.2 ˜ 3.4 Ga). These ages are supported by two PbPb mineral-whole ages of ˜2.9 Ga, indicating their Archaean origin, even though both SmNd whole rock and mineral errorchrons yield Proterozoic ages. A PbPb errorchron for the granulites from northern Lesotho yields an age of 1.49 ± 0.36 which is indistinguishable from their SmNd errorchron age of 1.24 ± 0.17 Ga. Thus, it is inferred that the granulite xenoliths from northern Lesotho are from Proterozoic lower crust, whereas the granulite xenoliths from the central Cape province are from Archaean lower crust. Most lead isotope data from the granulite xenoliths plot to the left of the Geochron and indicate relatively low U/Pb ratios. Lead isotope ratios in the granulites from Markt correlate with A1 2O 3, and such correlations are considered to be largely due to magmatic processes. The lead isotope trends displayed by the Archaean granulite xenoliths represent μ ( 238U /204Pb ) fractionation during extraction of the Archaean crust from the mantle, as do those preserved in greenstone belt rocks from the southern Kaapvaal Craton. Group 2 kimberlites, mantle xenoliths from Kimberley, and

  6. Impedance modelling of pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasy, M. Austin

    2016-03-01

    Impedance models of pipes can be used to estimate resonant frequencies of standing waves and model acoustic pressure of closed and open ended pipes. Modelling a pipe with impedance methods allows additional variations to the pipe to be included in the overall model as a system. Therefore an actuator can be attached and used to drive the system and the impedance model is able to include the dynamics of the actuator. Exciting the pipe system with a chirp signal allows resonant frequencies to be measured in both the time and frequency domain. The measurements in the time domain are beneficial for introducing undergraduates to resonances without needing an understanding of fast Fourier transforms. This paper also discusses resonant frequencies in open ended pipes and how numerous texts incorrectly approximate the resonant frequencies for this specific pipe system.

  7. Assortment of Deep Mantle Fluids and Their Products in Kimberlites from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lei; HAO Jinhua; DING Yifei; LIU Yulong

    2004-01-01

    Based on studies of petrography, mineralogy and mineral chemistry, deep mantle fluids and their products in kimberlites and diamonds can be assorted into the ultradeep fluid-transmitted minerals with an oxygen-free feature, the deep fluid metasomatized-minerals characterized by enrichment in TiO2, K2O, BaO, REE and Fe3+, and the deep fluidreformed minerals. The three types show a successive descent in fluid origin depth and metasomatism strength, and they have brought forth a series of corresponding metasomatic products.

  8. Heat Pipe Materials Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program to evaluate noncondensable gas generation in ammonia heat pipes was completed. A total of 37 heat pipes made of aluminum, stainless steel and combinations of these materials were processed by various techniques, operated at different temperatures and tested at low temperature to quantitatively determine gas generation rates. In order of increasing stability are aluminum/stainless combination, all aluminum and all stainless heat pipes. One interesting result is the identification of intentionally introduced water in the ammonia during a reflux step as a means of surface passivation to reduce gas generation in stainless-steel/aluminum heat pipes.

  9. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  10. Heat Pipe Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    When volcanism dominates heat transport, a terrestrial body enters a heat-pipe mode, in which hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels. Even at high heat flow, a heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downwards-advecting lithosphere dominated by (ultra-)mafic flows and contractional deformation at the surface. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an episode of heat-pipe cooling early in their histories.

  11. Garnet peridotite xenoliths in a Montana, U.S.A., kimberlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Hearn B.; Boyd, F.R.

    1975-01-01

    Within a swarm of late middle Eocene subsilicic-alkalic diatremes, one diatreme 270 by 370 m and an associated dike contain common xenoliths of granulite and rare xenoliths of spinel peridotite and garnet peridotite. Six garnet lherzolite xenoliths have been found and these show a range of textures. Four are granular, and two are intensely sheared. Phlogopite is absent from the intensely sheared xenoliths and is thought to be primary in part in the granular xenoliths. Estimated temperatures and depths of equilibration of xenolith pyroxenes range from 920??C, 106 km (32 kbar) to 1315??C, 148 km (47 kbar). The xenoliths show increasing amounts of deformation with greater inferred depths of origin. The temperature-depth points suggest a segment of an Eocene geotherm for Montana which is similar in slope to the steep portion of the pyroxene-determined Lesotho geotherm (Boyd and Nixon, this volume) and is considerably steeper than typical calculated shield and continental geotherms at present. The steep trend could be a result of plate-tectonic shearing and magma ascension within an Eocene low-velocity zone. Preservation of intensely sheared textures requires rapid transport of material from about 150 km depth during active deformation of relatively dry rock. The occurrence of monticellite peridotite in this kimberlite diatreme suggests that magmas which crystallized to monticellite peridotite at relatively shallow depth could be one of the primitive types of kimberlite magma. ?? 1975.

  12. The MajuagaaA Kimberlite Dike, Maniitsoq Regio, West Greenland: Constraints on an Mg-rich Silicocarbonatitic Melt Composition from Groundmass Mineralogy and Bulk Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels F. D.; Sand, Karina Krarup

    2008-01-01

    as kimberlite, despite being carbonate-rich and the apparent absence of monticellite characteristic of many occurrences of bona fide hypabyssal kimberlite. Olivine megacrysts, macrocrysts and microcrysts are all xenocrystic, whereas microphenocrysts are xenocrystic microcrysts overgrown by equilibrium olivine....... Most olivine (max. 37 wt.%) is found to be xenocrystic on the basis of Ni mass balance. The average bulk composition of the melt involved in the dike compares well with Group-1 kimberlite. Corrected for xenocrystic olivine and ilmenite, the melt has the composition of a silicocarbonatite and compares...

  13. Mesoproterozoic diamondiferous ultramafic pipes at Majhgawan and Hinota, Panna area, central India: Key to the nature of sub-continental lithospheric mantle beneath the Vindhyan basin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N V Chalapathi Rao

    2006-02-01

    Amongst all the perceptible igneous manifestations (volcanic tuffs and agglomerates,minor rhyolitic flows and andesites,dolerite dykes and sills near the basin margins,etc.)in the Vindhyan basin,the two Mesoproterozoic diamondiferous ultramafic pipes intruding the Kaimur Group of sediments at Majhgawan and Hinota in the Panna area are not only the most conspicuous but also well-known and have relatively deeper mantle origin.Hence,these pipes constitute the only yet available ‘direct ’mantle samples from this region and their petrology,geochemistry and iso-tope systematics are of profound significance in understanding the nature of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle beneath the Vindhyan basin.Their emplacement age (∼1100 Ma)also constitutes the only reliable minimum age constrain on the Lower Vindhyan Group of rocks.The Majhgawan and Hinota pipes share the petrological,geochemical and isotope characteristics of kimberlite,orangeite (Group II kimberlite)and lamproite and hence are recognised as belonging to a ‘transitional kimberlite –orangeite –lamproite ’rock type.The name majhagwanite has been proposed by this author to distinguish them from other primary diamond source rocks.The parent magma of the Majhgawan and Hinota pipes is envisaged to have been derived by very small (> 1%)degrees of partial melting of a phlogopite-garnet lherzolite source (rich in titanium and barium)that has been previously subjected to an episode of initial depletion (extensive melting during continent formation)and subsequent metasomatism (enrichment).There is absence of any subduction-related characteristics,such as large negative anomalies at Ta and Nb,and therefore, the source enrichment (metasomatism)of both these pipes is attributed to the volatile-and K-rich, extremely low-viscosity melts that leak continuously to semi-continuously from the asthenosphere and accumulate in the overlying lithosphere.Lithospheric/crustal extension,rather than decompression

  14. Explosive welding of pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennov, O.; Burtseva, O.; Kitin, A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-15

    Arrangement of pipelines for the transportation of oil and gas is a complicated problem. In this paper it is suggested to use the explosive welding method to weld pipes together. This method is rather new. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its static analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. We suggest to perform explosive welding according to the following scheme: the ends of the 2 pipes are connected, the external surfaces are kept at a similar level. A cylindrical steel layer of diameter larger than the pipe diameter is set around the pipe joint and an explosive charge is placed on its external surface. The basic problem is the elimination of strains and reduction of pipe diameter in the area of the dynamic effect. The suggestion is to use water as filler: the volume of pipes in the area adjacent to the zone of explosive welding is totally filled with water. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gas dynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler.

  15. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    The paper treats a piping system, where the layout of the network is given but the diameters of the pipes should be chosen among a small number of different values. The cost of realizing the system should be minimized while keeping the energy heads at the nodes above some lower limits. A new...

  16. A heat pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachev, L.A.; Kravtsov, A.A.

    1979-02-08

    A thermal pipe is described which contains a hermetically sealed body with a reticular filler. In order to increase the transmitted thermal power, the pipe is equipped with a high voltage source and with insulators, located between the wall of the body and the filler, where the latter is switched in to the high voltage source, preferably an adjustable one.

  17. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  18. The monster sound pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-03-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which illustrates how an Internet keyboard can be used to estimate the fundamental pitches of each pipe. Since both pipes have similar end corrections, the pitch discrepancy between the smooth pipe and drainage tube is due to the corrugations, which lower the speed of sound inside the flexible tube, dropping its pitch a semitone.

  19. Origin of Ti-rich garnets in the groundmass of Wajrakarur field kimberlites, southern India: insights from EPMA and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, Ashish N.; Viljoen, K. S.; Rao, N. V. Chalapathi; Gucsik, A.

    2016-04-01

    Although Ti-rich garnets are commonly encountered in the groundmass of many alkaline igneous rocks, they are comparatively rare in kimberlites. Here we report on the occurrence of Ti-rich garnets in the groundmass of the P-15 and KL-3 kimberlites from the diamondiferous Wajrakarur field in the Eastern Dharwar craton of southern India. These garnets contain considerable Ti (11.7-23.9 wt.% TiO2), Ca (31.3-35.8 wt.% CaO), Fe (6.8-15.5 wt.% FeOT) and Cr (0.04-9.7 wt.% Cr2O3), but have low Al (0.2-5.7 wt.% Al2O3). In the case of the P-15 kimberlite they display a range in compositions from andradite to schorlomite, with a low proportion of grossular (andradite(17.7-49.9)schorlomite(34.6-49.5)-grossular(3.7-22.8)-pyrope(1.9-10.4)). A few grains also contain significant chromium and represent a solid solution between schorlomite and uvarovite. The Ti-rich garnets in the KL-3 kimberlite, in contrast, are mostly schorlomitic (54.9-90.9 mol %) in composition. The Ti-rich garnets in the groundmass of these two kimberlites are intimately associated with chromian spinels, perhaps suggesting that the garnet formed through the replacement of spinel. From the textural evidence, it appears unlikely that the garnets could have originated through secondary alteration, but rather seem to have formed through a process in which early magmatic spinels have reacted with late circulating, residual fluids in the final stages of crystallization of the kimberlite magma. Raman spectroscopy provides evidence for low crystallinity in the spinels which is likely to be a result of their partial transformation into andradite during their reaction with a late-stage magmatic (kimberlitic) fluid. The close chemical association of these Ti-rich garnets in TiO2-FeO-CaO space with those reported from ultramafic lamprophyres (UML) is also consistent with results predicted by experimental studies, and possibly implies a genetic link between kimberlite and UML magmas. The occurrence of Ti-rich garnets of

  20. Reeling of tight fit pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Focke, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    If it would be possible to install Tight Fit Pipe by means of reeling, it would be an attractive new option for the exploitation of offshore oil and gas fields containing corrosive hydrocarbons. Tight Fit Pipe is a mechanically bonded double walled pipe where a corrosion resistant alloy liner pipe

  1. Experimenting with a "Pipe" Whistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Olga

    2012-01-01

    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here…

  2. Rheological investigations of tailings of kimberlite ore dressing and numerical simulation of its behaviour in PLAXIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, A.; Nevzorov, A.

    2015-04-01

    The article presents the results of analysis of rheology properties of sandy-clay tailings (wastes) of kimberlite ore dressing of the diamond deposit (Russia, Arkhangelsk region). The coefficient of secondary compression as main parameter of soil's creep is defined by implementing standard one-dimensional consolidation test. The linear correlation between initial void ratio and coefficient of secondary compression of sandy-clay tailings were obtained. For numerical simulation of tailing's behaviour subject to its rheology properties in Soft Soil Creep (SSC) model (time independent behaviour) of PLAXIS software was used. According to laboratory tests calibration of SSC model was implemented. It allows predicting dam's safety and reliability for long-term outlook.

  3. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A

    2011-01-01

    Pipe Drafting and Design, Third Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers, drafters, and students through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings. It includes instructions for the proper drawing of symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. More than 350 illustrations and photographs provide examples and visual instructions. A unique feature is the systematic arrangement of drawings that begins with the layout of the structural foundations of a facility and continues through to the development of a 3-D model. Advanced chapters

  4. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    The paper treats a piping system, where the layout of the network is given but the diameters of the pipes should be chosen among a small number of different values. The cost of realizing the system should be minimized while keeping the energy heads at the nodes above some lower limits. A new...... algorithm using successive linear programming is presented. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by optimizing a network with 201 pipes and 172 nodes. It is concluded that the new algorithm seems to be very efficient and stable, and that it always finds a solution with a cost near the best...

  5. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    A heat pipe of new design, using an electrode structure to orient and guide the dielectric liquid phase flow, is proposed. Analysis indicates that the operation of the electrohydrodynamic heat pipe is in direct analogy to capillary devices, with the polarization force acting in place of capillarity. Advantages of these new heat pipes include greatly reduced liquid friction, electrohydrodynamically enhanced evaporation and condensation heat transfer, and a possible voltage-controlled on/off feature. Preliminary calculations indicate that relatively high performance devices are possible.

  6. Electrohydrodynamic heat pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe of radical design is proposed which substitutes polarization electrohydrodynamic force effects for capillarity in collecting, guiding, and pumping a condensate liquid phase. The discussed device is restricted to the use of dielectric liquids as working fluids. Because of the relatively poor thermal transport properties of these liquids, capillary heat pipes using these liquids have not been high performance devices. The employment of the electrohydrodynamic concept should enhance this performance and help fill the performance gap that exists in the temperature range from 250 F to 750 F for 'conventional' capillary heat pipes.

  7. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Dielectric liquid for transfer of heat provides liquid flow from the condenser section to the evaporator section in conventional heat pipes. Working fluid is guided or pumped by an array of wire electrodes connected to a high-voltage source.

  8. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better

  9. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed

    2016-03-10

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  10. The Monster Sound Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-01-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which…

  11. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  12. Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

    1999-03-30

    The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached

  13. Stable isotope paleoclimatology of the earliest Eocene using kimberlite-hosted mummified wood from the Canadian Subarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Hook

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of well-preserved mummified wood buried within a subarctic kimberlite diamond mine prompted a paleoclimatic study of the early Eocene "hothouse" (ca. 53.3 Ma. At the time of kimberlite eruption, the Subarctic and Artic were warm and humid producing a temperate rainforest biome well north of the Arctic Circle. Previous studies have estimated mean annual temperatures in this region were 4–20 °C in the early Eocene, using a variety of proxies including leaf margin analysis, and stable isotopes (δ18O of fossil cellulose. Here, we examine stable isotopes of tree-ring cellulose at subannual to annual scale resolution, using the oldest viable cellulose found to date. We use mechanistic models and transfer functions to estimate earliest Eocene temperatures using mummified cellulose, which was well preserved in the kimberlite. Multiple samples of Piceoxylon wood within the kimberlite were crossdated by tree-ring width. Multiple proxies are used in combination to tease apart likely environmental factors influencing the tree physiology and growth in the unique extinct ecosystem of the Polar rainforest. Calculations of interannual variation in temperature over a multidecadal time-slice in the early Eocene are presented, with a mean temperature estimate of 11.4 °C (1σ = 1.8 °C based on δ18O. Dual-isotope spectral analysis suggests that multidecadal climate cycles similar to the modern Pacific Decadal Oscillation likely drove temperature and cloudiness trends on 20–30 year timescales.

  14. Archean Lithosphere Beneath Arctic Canada: Lu-Hf Isotope Systematics for Kimberlite-Hosted Garnet-Peridotites From Somerset Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidberger, S. S.; Simonetti, A.; Francis, D.; Gariepy, C.

    2001-05-01

    Knowledge of the age of lithospheric mantle underlying the continents provides valuable constraints for the timing of formation and stabilization of Archean cratons. This study reports Lu-Hf isotopic data for garnet-peridotites, and their constituent garnets, from the Nikos kimberlite (100 Ma) on Somerset Island in the Canadian Arctic obtained using a Micromass IsoProbe multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) at GEOTOP-UQAM. The low temperature peridotites (1100 C; 160-190 km) and their 176Hf/177Hf(0.1Ga) isotopic compositions (0.28265-0.28333; \\epsilonHf(0.1Ga)=-2 to +22) are less radiogenic than those of the shallow xenoliths. A Lu-Hf isochron for six peridotites yields a mid Archean age of 3.4\\pm0.3 Ga and an initial 176Hf/177Hf ratio of 0.28101\\pm24. The remaining peridotites (n=9), in contrast, are characterized by extremely high (+35) initial \\epsilonHf(3.4Ga) values, which correlate negatively with their 176Lu/177Hf ratios, suggesting addition of Hf as a result of metasomatic interaction with the host kimberlite. The garnets from the low temperature (3.4 Ga old) peridotites are characterized by high 176Lu/177Hf ratios and define an errorchron age of 1.4\\pm0.2 Ga, which may reflect re-equilibration of Hf during kimberlite magmatism.

  15. Deep-seated xenoliths and xenocrysts from Sytykanskaya pipe: evidence for the evolution of the mantle beneath Alakit, Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor; Vladykin, Nikolai; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Logvinova, Alla; Yudin, Denis; Karpenko, Mikhail; Palessky, Stanislav; Khmelnikova, Olga; Travin, Alexey; Salikhov, Ravil

    2014-05-01

    The concentrate from two phases of the kimberlite (breccia and porphyritic kimberlite) and about 130 xenoliths from the Sytykanskaya pipe of the Alakit field (Yakutia) were studied by EPMA and LAM ICP methods. Reconstructions of the PTXfO2 mantle sections were made separately for the two phases. The porphyritic kimberlites and breccia show differences in the minerals although the layering and pressure interval remains the same. For the porphyritic kimberlite the trends P- Fe# - CaO in garnet, fO2 are sub-vertical while the xenocrysts from the breccia show stepped and curved trends possibly due to interaction with fluids. Minerals within xenoliths show the widest variation in all pressure intervals. PT points for the ilmenites which trace the magmatic system show splitting of the magmatic source into two levels at the pyroxenite lens (4GPa) accompanied by peridotite contamination and an increase in Cr in ilmenites. Two groups of metasomatites with Fe#Ol ~ 10-12% and 13-15% were created by the melts derived from protokimberlites and trace the mantle columns from the lithosphere base (Ilm - Gar - Cr diopside) to Moho becoming essentially pyroxenitic (Cr-diopside with Phl). The first Opx-Gar-based mantle geotherm from the Alakit field has been constructed from15 associations and is close to 35 mw/m2 in the lower part of mantle section but deviates to high temperatures in the upper part of the mantle section. The oxidation state for the protokimberlite melts determined from ilmenites is higher than for the other pipes in the Yakutian kimberlite province which probably accounts for the decrease in the diamond grade of this pipe. The geochemistry of the minerals (garnets and clinopyroxenes) from breccias, metasomatic peridotite xenoliths and pyroxenites systematically differ. Xenocrysts from the breccia were produced by the most differentiated melts and enriched protokimberlite or carbonatite; they show highly inclined nearly linear REE patterns and deep troughs of HFSE

  16. Syngenetic inclusions of yimengite in diamond from Sese kimberlite (Zimbabwe) — evidence for metasomatic conditions of growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, G. P.; Muchemwa, E.; Pearson, D. G.; Griffin, B. J.; Kelley, S. P.; Klemme, S.; Smith, C. B.

    2004-09-01

    Syngenetic inclusions of yimengite K (Cr, Ti, Mg, Fe, Al) 12O 19, a potassium member of the magnetoplumbite mineral group, have been recorded in an octahedral macrodiamond from the Sese kimberlite (50 km south of Masvingo, Zimbabwe). One yimengite inclusion carries lamellae of chromite suggesting peridotitic diamond paragenesis. The diamond and inclusions were studied in situ in a plate polished parallel to (011). Cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging has shown blue colour and octahedral zonation of the diamond, lack of cracks and the location of five yimengites in different growth zones. Nitrogen (N) contents (at. ppm) in the diamond determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) steadily decrease from 576 (core) to 146 (rim). N aggregation (%1aB) is correspondingly 40% in the core and 30% in the rim. Hydrogen (H) content is high in the core, moderate in the intermediate and very high in the rim zones. Four yimengites were dated using the laser 40Ar/ 39Ar method. Three inclusions yielded total gas ages that agree with, or are younger than, or within error of, the Sese kimberlite eruption age (538±11 Ma) but may be compromised by gas loss. One inclusion, with the highest tapped interface gas yield, gave a total gas age of 892±21 Ma that is a likely minimum yimengite age. Time-T °C constraints from N aggregation systematics give a range of possible ages from kimberlite eruption date back to Archean and do not resolve the variable results of the 40Ar/ 39Ar dating. Compared with the published chemistry of yimengite from kimberlites, inclusions from the Sese diamond contain higher Al, Mg, and Sr and have lower concentration of Fe 3+. The chondrite-normalised REE pattern of the yimengite shows enrichment in LREE and depletion in HREE, but LREE/HREE fractionations are lower than for lindsleyite-mathiasite series mantle titanates and rather similar to the REE concentrations in kimberlite and lamproite rocks. It is suggested that Sese yimengite formed in the

  17. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  18. Composite drill pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, James C [Fountain Valley, CA; Leslie, II, James C.; Heard, James [Huntington Beach, CA; Truong, Liem , Josephson; Marvin, Neubert [Huntington Beach, CA; Hans, [Anaheim, CA

    2008-12-02

    A composite pipe segment is formed to include tapered in wall thickness ends that are each defined by opposed frustoconical surfaces conformed for self centering receipt and intimate bonding contact within an annular space between corresponding surfaces of a coaxially nested set of metal end pieces. The distal peripheries of the nested end pieces are then welded to each other and the sandwiched and bonded portions are radially pinned. The composite segment may include imbedded conductive leads and the axial end portions of the end pieces are shaped to form a threaded joint with the next pipe assembly that includes a contact ring in one pipe assembly pierced by a pointed contact in the other to connect the corresponding leads across the joint.

  19. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  20. Pipe Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Buddy

    This teacher's guide contains nine units of instruction for a course on computer-assisted pipe drafting. The course covers the following topics: introduction to pipe drafting with CAD (computer-assisted design); flow diagrams; pipe and pipe components; valves; piping plans and elevations; isometrics; equipment fabrication drawings; piping design…

  1. In situ U-Pb age determination and Nd isotopic analysis of perovskites from kimberlites in southern Africa and Somerset Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Yuan; Yang, Yue-Heng; Mitchell, Roger H.; Li, Qiu-Li; Yang, Jin-Hui; Zhang, Yan-Bin

    2010-03-01

    Determination of the emplacement ages and initial isotopic composition of kimberlite by conventional isotopic methods using bulk rock samples is unreliable as these rocks usually contain diverse clasts of crustal- and mantle-derived materials and can be subject to post-intrusion sub-aerial alteration. In this study, 8 samples from 5 kimberlites in southern Africa and twelve samples from 7 kimberlites from Somerset Island, Canada have been selected for in situ perovskite U-Pb isotopic age determination and Nd isotopic analysis by laser ablation using thin sections and mineral separates. These fresh perovskites occur as primary groundmass minerals with grain-sizes of 10-100 μm. They were formed during the early stage of magmatic crystallization, and record data for the least contaminated or contamination-free kimberlitic magma. U-Pb isotopic data indicate that the majority of the southern Africa kimberlites investigated were emplaced during the Cretaceous with ages of 88 ± 3 to 97 ± 6 Ma, although one sample yielded an Early Paleozoic age of 515 ± 6 Ma. Twelve samples from Somerset Island yielded ages ranging from 93 ± 4 Ma to 108 ± 5 Ma and are contemporaneous with other Cretaceous kimberlite magmatism in central Canada (103-94 Ma). Although whole-rock compositions of the kimberlites from southern Africa have a large range of ɛNd( t) values (- 0.5 to + 5.1), the analysed perovskites show a more limited range of + 1.2 to + 3.1. Perovskites from Somerset Island have ɛNd( t) values of - 0.2 to + 1.4. These values are lower than that of depleted asthenospheric mantle, suggesting that kimberlites might be derived from the lower mantle. This study shows that in situ U-Pb and Nd isotopic analysis of perovskite by laser ablation is both rapid and economic, and serves as a powerful tool for the determination of the emplacement age and potential source of kimberlite magmas.

  2. PE 100 pipe systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brömstrup, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    English translation of the 3rd edition ""Rohrsysteme aus PE 100"". Because of the considerably increased performance, pipe and pipe systems made from 100 enlarge the range of applications in the sectors of gas and water supply, sewage disposal, industrial pipeline construction and in the reconstruction and redevelopment of defective pipelines (relining). This book applies in particular to engineers, technicians and foremen working in the fields of supply, disposal and industry. Subject matters of the book are all practice-relevant questions regarding the construction, operation and maintenance

  3. 46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping and piping system components: Protection from..., Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.503 Piping and piping system components... cause stresses that exceed the design stresses, the piping and piping system components and cargo...

  4. About Basic Epochs of Crust Formation and Kimberlite Magmatism in Connection with Diamond Prospecting Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zinchuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of comprehensive analysis of large amount of worldwide and regional geological information allowed suggesting necessity of more intensive research of massive crust formation and diamondiferous magmatism epochs, which were paid little attention to. Presently available highly scattered information allows distinguishing two megastages in formation of the Siberian platform diamondiferousness. The early stage includes the time from Archean to Riphean or from diamonds formation in the mantle to its first appearance at the surface conditions. Polycentrism, localization at peripheral parts of the platform, as well as diversity of transporters are characteristic for this megastage. The second megastage (Early Paleozoic-Eocene differs from the first one by spatial arrangement of occurrences, monocentrism, and prevalence of kimberlite diatremes. During planning and carrying out the diamonds prospecting works on perspective territories of the platform, it is necessary to study not only Middle-Paleozoic productive collectors, but also more ancient (Preсambrian and Lower Paleozoic and young (Mesozoic strata as well, performing detailed complex analysis of  rock composition (especially the key layers and basal horizons.

  5. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  6. Aeronautical tubes and pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauclair, N.

    1984-12-01

    The main and subcomponent French suppliers of aircraft tubes and pipes are discussed, and the state of the industry is analyzed. Quality control is essential for tubes with regard to their i.d. and metallurgical compositions. French regulations do not allow welded seam tubes in hydraulic circuits unless no other form is available, and then rustproofed steel must be installed. The actual low level of orders for any run of tubes dictates that the product is only one of several among the manufacturers' line. Automation, both in NDT and quality control, assures that the tubes meet specifications. A total of 10 French companies participate in the industry, serving both civil and military needs, with some companies specializing only in titanium, steel, or aluminum materials. Concerns wishing to enter the market must upgrade their equipment to meet the higher aeronautical specifications and be prepared to furnish tubes and pipes that serve both functional and structural purposes simultaneously. Additionally, pipe-bending machines must also perform to tight specifications. Pipes can range from 0.2 mm exterior diameter to 40 mm, with wall thicknesses from 0.02 mm to 3 mm. A chart containing a list of manufacturers and their respective specifications and characteristics is presented, and a downtrend in production with reduction of personnel is noted.

  7. Heat-pipe planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2017-09-01

    Observations of the surfaces of all terrestrial bodies other than Earth reveal remarkable but unexplained similarities: endogenic resurfacing is dominated by plains-forming volcanism with few identifiable centers, magma compositions are highly magnesian (mafic to ultra-mafic), tectonic structures are dominantly contractional, and ancient topographic and gravity anomalies are preserved to the present. Here we show that cooling via volcanic heat pipes may explain these observations and provide a universal model of the way terrestrial bodies transition from a magma-ocean state into subsequent single-plate, stagnant-lid convection or plate tectonic phases. In the heat-pipe cooling mode, magma moves from a high melt-fraction asthenosphere through the lithosphere to erupt and cool at the surface via narrow channels. Despite high surface heat flow, the rapid volcanic resurfacing produces a thick, cold, and strong lithosphere which undergoes contractional strain forced by downward advection of the surface toward smaller radii. We hypothesize that heat-pipe cooling is the last significant endogenic resurfacing process experienced by most terrestrial bodies in the solar system, because subsequent stagnant-lid convection produces only weak tectonic deformation. Terrestrial exoplanets appreciably larger than Earth may remain in heat-pipe mode for much of the lifespan of a Sun-like star.

  8. [Piping cinnamon] 791

    OpenAIRE

    W L H Skeen and Co

    2003-01-01

    279 x 211 mm. Showing female workers making cinnamon pipes. The cinnamon is placed on a low tripod formed from four sticks, and steadied with the operator's foot while the cuticle is scraped off with a small curved knife. Annotated '791' on the bottom right hand corner of the photograph. Date approximate.

  9. Nature of the mantle roots beneath the North American craton: mantle xenolith evidence from Somerset Island kimberlites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidberger, S. S.; Francis, D.

    1999-09-01

    The recently discovered Nikos kimberlite on Somerset Island, in the Canadian Arctic, hosts an unusually well preserved suite of mantle xenoliths dominated by garnet-peridotite (lherzolite, harzburgite, dunite) showing coarse and porphyroclastic textures, with minor garnet-pyroxenite. The whole rock and mineral data for 54 Nikos xenoliths indicate a highly refractory underlying mantle with high olivine forsterite contents (ave. Fo=92.3) and moderate to high olivine abundances (ave. 80 wt.%). These characteristics are similar to those reported for peridotites from the Archean Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons (ave. olivine Fo=92.5), but are clearly distinct from the trend defined by oceanic peridotites and mantle xenoliths in alkaline basalts and kimberlites from post-Archean continental terranes (ave. olivine Fo=91.0). The Nikos xenoliths yield pressures and temperatures of last equilibration between 20 and 55 kb and 650 and 1300°C, and a number of the peridotite nodules appear to have equilibrated in the diamond stability field. The pressure and temperature data define a conductive paleogeotherm corresponding to a surface heat flow of 44 mW/m 2. Paleogeotherms based on xenolith data from the central Slave province of the Canadian craton require a lower surface heat flow (˜40 mW/m 2) indicating a cooler geothermal regime than that beneath the Canadian Arctic. A large number of kimberlite-hosted peridotites from the Kaapvaal craton in South Africa and parts of the Siberian craton are characterized by high orthopyroxene contents (ave. Kaapvaal 32 wt.%, Siberia 20 wt.%). The calculated modal mineral assemblages for the Nikos peridotites show moderate to low contents of orthopyroxene (ave. 12 wt.%), indicating that the orthopyroxene-rich mineralogy characteristic of the Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons is not a feature of the cratonic upper mantle beneath Somerset Island.

  10. Stable isotope paleoclimatology of the earliest Eocene using kimberlite-hosted mummified wood from the Canadian Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, B. A.; Halfar, J.; Gedalof, Z.; Bollmann, J.; Schulze, D. J.

    2015-10-01

    The recent discovery of well-preserved mummified wood buried within a subarctic kimberlite diamond mine prompted a paleoclimatic study of the early Eocene "hothouse" (ca. 53.3 Ma). At the time of kimberlite eruption, the Subarctic was warm and humid producing a temperate rainforest biome well north of the Arctic Circle. Previous studies have estimated that mean annual temperatures in this region were 4-20 °C in the early Eocene, using a variety of proxies including leaf margin analysis and stable isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) of fossil cellulose. Here, we examine stable isotopes of tree-ring cellulose at subannual- to annual-scale resolution, using the oldest viable cellulose found to date. We use mechanistic models and transfer functions to estimate earliest Eocene temperatures using mummified cellulose, which was well preserved in the kimberlite. Multiple samples of Piceoxylon wood within the kimberlite were crossdated by tree-ring width. Multiple proxies are used in combination to tease apart likely environmental factors influencing the tree physiology and growth in the unique extinct ecosystem of the Polar rainforest. Calculations of interannual variation in temperature over a multidecadal time-slice in the early Eocene are presented, with a mean annual temperature (MAT) estimate of 11.4 °C (1 σ = 1.8 °C) based on δ18O, which is 16 °C warmer than the current MAT of the area (-4.6 °C). Early Eocene atmospheric δ13C (δ13Catm) estimates were -5.5 (±0.7) ‰. Isotopic discrimination (Δ) and leaf intercellular pCO2 ratio (ci/ca) were similar to modern values (Δ = 18.7 ± 0.8 ‰; ci/ca = 0.63 ± 0.03 %), but intrinsic water use efficiency (Early Eocene iWUE = 211 ± 20 μmol mol-1) was over twice the level found in modern high-latitude trees. Dual-isotope spectral analysis suggests that multidecadal climate cycles somewhat similar to the modern Pacific Decadal Oscillation likely drove temperature and cloudiness trends on 20-30-year timescales, influencing

  11. LHCb: Beam Pipe portrait

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector: it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  12. LHCb: Beam Pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector:it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  13. Heat Pipe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Solar Fundamentals, Inc.'s hot water system employs space-derived heat pipe technology. It is used by a meat packing plant to heat water for cleaning processing machinery. Unit is complete system with water heater, hot water storage, electrical controls and auxiliary components. Other than fans and a circulating pump, there are no moving parts. System's unique design eliminates problems of balancing, leaking, corroding, and freezing.

  14. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  15. 46 CFR 76.33-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.33-15 Section 76.33-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... System, Details § 76.33-15 Piping. (a) Individual pipes shall be not less than 3/4-inch standard pipe size. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings of ferrous materials shall be protected inside and...

  16. Experimenting with a ``Pipe'' Whistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Olga

    2012-04-01

    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here allows students in a physics of music or introductory physics course to study an example of an "edge tone" device that produces discrete sound frequencies. From their textbooks, students likely know about standing waves produced by pipes or strings, as well as the resonant frequencies for open and closed pipes. To go a bit further, they can also learn how the frequency of the sound wave depends on the orifice-to-edge distance of the wind instrument.

  17. Multileg Heat-Pipe Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Parallel pipes provide high heat flow from small heat exchanger. Six parallel heat pipes extract heat from overlying heat exchanger, forming evaporator. Vapor channel in pipe contains wick that extends into screen tube in liquid channel. Rods in each channel hold wick and screen tube in place. Evaporator compact rather than extended and more compatible with existing heat-exchanger geometries. Prototype six-pipe evaporator only 0.3 m wide and 0.71 m long. With ammonia as working fluid, transports heat to finned condenser at rate of 1,200 W.

  18. Major- and Trace-Element Compositions of Indicator Minerals that Occur as Macro- and Megacrysts, and of Xenoliths, from Kimberlites in Northeastern Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Escayola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compare the major- and trace-element compositions of olivine, garnet, and clinopyroxene that occur as single crystals (142 grains, with those derived from xenoliths (51 samples from six kimberlites in the Lucapa area, northeastern Angola: Tchiuzo, Anomaly 116, Catoca, Alto Cuilo-4, Alto Cuilo-63 and Cucumbi-79. The samples were analyzed using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. The results suggest different paragenetic associations for these kimberlites in the Lucapa area. Compositional overlap in some of the macrocryst and mantle xenolith samples indicates a xenocrystic origin for some of those macrocrysts. The presence of mantle xenocrysts suggests the possibility of finding diamond. Geothermobarometric calculations were carried out using EPMA data from xenoliths by applying the program PTEXL.XLT. Additional well calibrated single-clinopyroxene thermobarometric calculations were also applied. Results indicate the underlying mantle experienced different equilibration conditions. Subsequent metasomatic enrichment events also support a hypothesis of different sources for the kimberlites. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the petrogenetic evolution of the kimberlites in northeastern Angola and have important implications for diamond exploration.

  19. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  20. Deployable Pipe-Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a concept of deployable Pipe-Z (dPZ): a modular structural system which takes advantage of the robustness of rigid-panel mechanism and allows to create free-form links which are also reconfigurable and deployable. The concept presented can be applied for building habitats and infrastructures for human exploration of oceans and outer space. dPZ structures can adapt to changing requirements e.g. mission objectives, crew condition and technological developments. Furthermore, such lightweight and adaptable structural concept can assist in sustainable exploration development. After brief introduction, the concept of Pipe-Z (PZ) is presented. Next, the reconfigurability of PZ is explained and illustrated with continuous and collision-free transition from a PZ forming a Trefoil knot to a Figure-eight knot. The following sections introduce, explain and illustrate the folding mechanism of a single foldable Pipe-Z module (fPZM) and entire dPZ structure. The latter is illustrated with asynchronous (delayed) unfolding of a relatively complex Unknot. Several applications of PZ are suggested, namely for underwater and deep-space and surface habitats, for permanent, but in particular, temporary or emergency passages. As an example, a scenario of a failure of one of the modules of the International Space Station is presented where a rigid structure of 40 fPZMs bypasses the "dead link". A low-fidelity prototype of a 6-module octagonal dPZ is presented; several folding schemes including concentric toric rings are demonstrated. Practical issues of pressurization and packing are briefly discussed.

  1. HPFRCC - Extruded Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Pedersen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    as well as structural design. Material development was carried out considering both processing requirements as well as mechanical properties of the hardened material. A micro-mechanical model for the non-linear material behavior of the hardened material based on the stress-crack width or the $\\sigma...... itself. The structural modeling of the pipe was done making direct use of the $\\sigma-w$ material characterization. The processing technique developed is a novel type of extrusion combiningease of material mixing and few requirements for material pre-processingwith a high degree of accuracy and stability...

  2. Diamonds from the Juina-5 kimberlite provide evidence for crustal volatile recycling into the deep Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Andrew; Walter, Michael; Kohn, Simon; Burnham, Antony; Bulanova, Galina; Smith, Chris; Araujo, Debora

    2014-05-01

    'Superdeep' diamonds originate from a depth range spanning the asthenospheric upper mantle, transition zone and shallowest parts of the lower mantle [1]. Sporadically they entrap small inclusions of pre-existing or co-precipitating minerals during their crystallisation from volatile-rich melts or fluids. Such samples therefore preserve important petrologic, tectonic and geodynamic information about their growth environment together with evidence of the deep volatile cycling. The Juina-5 kimberlite has previously been recognised as a source of 'superdeep' diamonds [2]. Here we present and discuss data from an extended collection of Juina-5 diamonds. This work has revealed that these diamonds are dominantly composed of isotopically light carbon and contain a mineral inclusion cargo mostly of eclogitic affinity consisting of many former Mg- and Ca-perovskite, NAL-phase, CF-phase, stishovite, majoritic garnet, sodic pyroxene, ferropericlase, Fe or Fe-carbide and sulphide minerals. Together these observations suggest that the diamonds form from material of a subducted crustal origin. The high enrichment of the inclusions' trace element compositions implies that they cannot represent trapped fragments of formerly subsolidus mantle material. Geochemical modelling instead allows the compositions of Ca-perovskite and majorite inclusions to be directly linked to formation from a slab-derived carbonate bearing melt. It is suggested that the formation of 'superdeep' diamonds, and their inclusions, is the result of 'redox-freezing' during the interaction of oxidised slab melts and reducing mantle rocks [3]. It is expected that such melts will be produced during slab foundering and thermal equilibration in the upper/lower mantle boundary region, where tomographic evidence suggests slab subduction often stalls [4]. This hypothesis has been tested with experiments performed at transition zone pressures using the multi-anvil apparatus. At 20 GPa the composition of a low degree melt

  3. ABSTRACTS WELDEL PIPE AND TUBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACTS WELDEL PIPE AND TUBE Vol.24 No.3 May.2001 Huang Jingan(1) Strengthen, Intercourse, Coordination and Promote the Development Together Liang Aiyu(11) The Production and the Development of the Water supply pipe for City Construction From the aspects of the quality, appearance, environment protection, economic analysis etc., This article evaluates the galvanized pipe, plastic steel complex pipe, plastic aluminum pipe, stainless pipe for city water supply. In accordance with the requirements of the city construction programming and development, it is considered that the plastic aluminum pipe and plastic steel pipe instead of galvanization pipe is the trend of the development. The author also gives some constructive proposals for reference. Subject Terms:galvanized pipe complex pipe stainless pipe city water supply evaluation Zhao Rongbin,Li Guangjun(14) The TIG welding of Protected Tantalum-pipe for sheathed thermocouples used in corrosive environment The protected Tantalum-pipe welding of sheathed therocouples was investigated by TIG. The welding process and its key parameters were introduced. Welding quality influenced by processing was discussed. Subject Terms:welding protected Tantalum-pipe corrosion He Defu et al(18) Design and Research for An Automatic MIG Welding Machine of Catalyst Converter of Automobile Two different schemes for automatic MIG welding of catalyst converter of automobile have been compared and analysed. A design of automatic MIG welding machine used for catalyst converter of automobile has been suggested in this paper. Subject Terms:environmental protection automobile tri-catalyst converter MIG welding automatic welding PLC Fang Chucai(24) Cold Crack Analysis of Low Alloy High Strength Steel Weld Seam Heat Affected Area During the welding of low alloy high strength (X65 and above), the fine crack occurs in the weld (especially inner weld) and the low plastic hard brickle structure occurs in the Heat Affected Area (HAZ) sometime. This

  4. Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

  5. Mechanical Behaviour of Lined Pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Installing lined pipe by means of the reeling installation method seems to be an attractive combination, because it provides the opportunity of eliminating the demanding welds from the critical time offshore and instead preparing them onshore. However, reeling of lined pipe is not yet proven

  6. Temperature drops in heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatci, A.M.; Khalifa, A.M.A.; Akyurt, M.

    1986-01-01

    The role of entrainment in limiting heat pipe power handling capacity is discussed. The effect of entrainment on the measured temperature field in the integral heat pipe of a split system solar cooker is analyzed. An experimental set-up depicting a heat loop is presented, along with test results.

  7. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  8. Probing Archean lithosphere using the Lu-Hf isotope systematics of peridotite xenoliths from Somerset Island kimberlites, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidberger, Stefanie S.; Simonetti, Antonio; Francis, Don; Gariépy, Clément

    2002-04-01

    A knowledge of the Hf isotopic composition of the subcontinental lithosphere beneath Archean cratons is essential to constrain the Hf isotope budget of the Earth's mantle. Hf isotopic measurements were obtained by MC-ICP-MS for a suite of refractory peridotite xenoliths and constituent garnets from the Nikos kimberlite (100 Ma) on Somerset Island in order to constrain the isotopic composition and age of the lithosphere beneath the northern Canadian craton. The low-temperature Nikos peridotites (Somerset lithosphere, are characterized by higher 176Lu/ 177Hf ratios (0.03-0.05) and Hf isotopic values ( 176Hf/ 177Hf (0.1Ga)=0.28296-0.28419) than the deep-seated high-temperature peridotites (>1100°C; 0.004-0.03, 0.28265-0.28333, respectively). These differences in Hf isotope signatures suggest that shallow and deep subcontinental lithosphere beneath Somerset Island represent isotopically distinct domains and do not share a common petrogenetic history. The Lu-Hf isotope systematics of the shallow low-temperature peridotites define a positively sloped line that plot along a 2.8 Ga reference isochron. A number of these peridotites are characterized by highly radiogenic Hf isotopic compositions suggestive of long-term radiogenic ingrowth (billions of years). These findings are consistent with an interpretation that the shallow Somerset lithosphere (to depths of ˜150 km) stabilized in the Archean. The majority of the high-temperature peridotites plot closer to the composition of the host kimberlite. Although the observed isotopic variation may be attributed in part to kimberlite-related Hf addition, it is possible that these deep-seated xenoliths represent younger mantle. The superchondritic 176Lu/ 177Hf ratios observed for a number of the shallow low-temperature peridotites indicate strong fractionation of Lu and Hf, suggesting mantle root formation in the garnet stability field (depths >80 km). The Hf isotope compositions for the Somerset low-temperature peridotites

  9. Density structure of the cratonic mantle in Southern Africa. 2. Correlations with kimberlite distribution, seismic velocities, and Moho sharpness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Vinnik, Lev

    2016-01-01

    across) lowdensity (down to 3.34 g/cm3) and high-density (up to 3.41 g/cm3) anomalies. High (3.40–3.42 g/cm3) mantle densities beneath the Eastern Cape Fold belt require the presence of a significant amount of eclogite in the mantle, such as associated with subducted oceanic slabs. We find a strong...... the composition and rheology of the lithospheric mantle to make it unfavorable for consequent kimberlite eruptions. (5) Density anomalies in the lithospheric mantle show inverse correlation with seismic Vp, Vs velocities at 100–150 km depth. However, this correlation is weaker than reported in experimental...

  10. 46 CFR 95.15-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 95.15-15 Section 95.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-15 Piping. (a) The piping, valves, and fittings shall have a bursting pressure of not less than 6,000 pounds per square inch. (b) All piping, in nominal...

  11. 46 CFR 154.520 - Piping calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping calculations. 154.520 Section 154.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Process Piping Systems § 154.520 Piping calculations. A piping system must be designed to meet...

  12. 46 CFR 108.475 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 108.475 Section 108.475 Shipping COAST GUARD... Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.475 Piping. (a) Each pipe, valve, and fitting in a foam... to remove liquid from the system. (e) Piping in a foam extinguishing system must be used only...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads...

  14. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure piping. 197.336 Section 197.336 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.336 Pressure piping. Piping systems that... must— (a) Meet the ANSI Code; (b) Have the point of connection to the integral piping system of...

  15. 46 CFR 64.95 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 64.95 Section 64.95 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.95 Piping. (a) Piping, valves, flanges, and fittings used in the... the piping system must comply with § 56.60-25(c) of this chapter....

  16. 46 CFR 76.23-20 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.23-20 Section 76.23-20 Shipping COAST GUARD... System, Details § 76.23-20 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings...

  17. 46 CFR 95.17-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 95.17-15 Section 95.17-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings...

  18. 46 CFR 76.17-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.17-15 Section 76.17-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Systems, Details § 76.17-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings...

  19. 46 CFR 193.15-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 193.15-15 Section 193.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-15 Piping. (a) The piping, valves, and fittings shall have a bursting pressure of not less than 6,000 pounds per square inch. (b) All piping, in nominal...

  20. Investigation of high-frequency pipe welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Nikolai A.; Lakhno, Nikolay I.; Gushchin, A. G.; Putryk, N. D.; Kovalenko, Vladimir I.; Galkina, V. A.; Veselovsky, Vladimir B.; Furmanov, Valeri B.; Kovika, Nikolai D.; Novikov, Leonid V.; Shcherbina, V. N.

    1993-01-01

    For investigation of a pipe welding process at high-frequency heating aimed at increasing of pipe quality and decreasing of spoilage, the use of high-speed recording and TV-technique is considered to be effective. The authors have created a visual inspection system for pipe welding process studies at a tube mill of the Novomoskovsk Pipe Plant.

  1. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint...

  2. 49 CFR 195.114 - Used pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Used pipe. 195.114 Section 195.114 Transportation... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.114 Used pipe. Any used pipe installed in a pipeline system must comply with § 195.112 (a) and (b) and the following: (a) The pipe must be of a known specification and the...

  3. 49 CFR 195.112 - New pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New pipe. 195.112 Section 195.112 Transportation... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.112 New pipe. Any new pipe installed in a pipeline system must comply with the following: (a) The pipe must be made of steel of the carbon, low alloy-high strength, or alloy...

  4. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for use...

  5. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2016-01-01

    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.

  6. Nitrogen heat pipe for cryocooler thermal shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Green, G.F.; Roth, E.W. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A nitrogen heat pipe was designed, built and tested for the purpose of providing a thermal shunt between the two stages of a Gifford-McMahan (GM) cryocooler during cooldown. The nitrogen heat pipe has an operating temperature range between 63 and 123 K. While the heat pipe is in the temperature range during the system cooldown, it acts as a thermal shunt between the first and second stage of the cryocooler. The heat pipe increases the heat transfer to the first stage of the cryocooler, thereby reducing the cooldown time of the system. When the heat pipe temperature drops below the triple point, the nitrogen working fluid freezes, effectively stopping the heat pipe operation. A small heat leak between cryocooler stages remains because of axial conduction along the heat pipe wall. As long as the heat pipe remains below 63 K, the heat pipe remains inactive. Heat pipe performance limits were measured and the optimum fluid charge was determined.

  7. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings or... heavier wall pipe listed in Table C1 of ASME/ANSI B16.5. [Amdt. 192-62, 54 FR 5628, Feb. 6, 1989, as...

  8. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  9. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Nechitaeva Valentina Anatol'evna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna; Shaykhetdinova Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Daminova Yuliya Farikhovna

    2014-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of d...

  10. Corrosion behavior in heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurak Rodbumrung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to perform life testing and determine the effect of working fluid on the corrosion of a heat pipe with a sintered wick. The heat pipe was made from a copper tube. The inner heat pipe was filled with 99.97% pure copper powder as a dendritic for the sintering process. The heat pipe had an outer diameter of 6 mm with a length of 200 mm, and distilled water and ethanol were the working fluids. The operating temperature at the evaporator was 125°C. The analysis consisted of using a scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results of the scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that the corrosion of the heat pipe was uniform. The result of the atomic absorption spectroscopy indicated that the concentration of the copper in the ethanol as the working fluid was greater than in the distilled water as the working fluid, and the highest concentration of copper particles in the ethanol was 22.7499 ppm or 0.0409 mg after testing for 3000 h. The concentration of copper was higher when the length of the life test increased due to corrosion of the heat pipe.

  11. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  12. What garnet, clinopyroxene, and diamond potential can tell us about the evolution of sub-cratonic mantle sections: a case study of the Zagadochnaya kimberlite (Yakutia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ziberna, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This PhD provides major and trace element compositions for a new suite of Cr-rich garnet xenocrysts and associated minerals from the diamond-free Zagadochnaya kimberlite, Daldyn Field, Yakutia (Russia). Interpreting the nature and evolution of the underlying lithospheric mantle from these samples requires a good understanding of relationships between pressures and temperatures of formation, upper mantle phase relations and trace element signatures of petrochemical processes. I addressed these...

  13. Magma ascent, fragmentation and depositional characteristics of "dry" maar volcanoes: Similarities with vent-facies kimberlite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuijs, Jaap F.; Mattsson, Hannes B.

    2013-02-01

    , sufficiently large to drive magmatic fragmentation. Both eruptions were pulsating in intensity and relatively short-lived, with estimated durations of 23 and 10 h for Loolmurwak and Eledoi, respectively. The depositional characteristics of these maars, including the abundant occurrence of mantle xenoliths in the deposits, as well as their envisaged mode of emplacement show a strong similarity to the often poorly preserved vent-facies of kimberlitic diatremes. Therefore, future research on well-preserved melilititic maar-diatreme deposits may provide valuable insights into kimberlite emplacement processes.

  14. Flat heat pipe design, construction, and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voegler, G.; Boughey, B.; Cerza, M.; Lindler, K.W.

    1999-08-02

    This paper details the design, construction and partial analysis of a low temperature flat heat pipe in order to determine the feasibility of implementing flat heat pipes into thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems.

  15. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a.... If the covering of the piping is not removed, the test pressure shall be maintained on the piping...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 192 - Qualification of Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of Pipe B Appendix B to Part 192... Pipe I. Listed Pipe Specifications API 5L—Steel pipe, “API Specification for Line Pipe” (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7). ASTM A53/A53M—Steel pipe, “Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel Black...

  17. Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. This course will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of a loop heat pipe. Topics include: 1) pressure profiles in the loop; 2) loop operating temperature; 3) operating temperature control; 4) loop startup; 4) loop shutdown; 5) loop transient behaviors; 6) sizing of loop components and determination of fluid inventory; 7) analytical modeling; 8) examples of flight applications; and 9) recent LHP developments.

  18. 46 CFR 169.652 - Bilge piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge piping. 169.652 Section 169.652 Shipping COAST... Electrical Bilge Systems § 169.652 Bilge piping. (a) All vessels of 26 feet in length and over must be... than 120 feet in length the bilge pipe must be not less than one and one-half inches. Piping on...

  19. China Steel Pipes Demand Rising Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Steel pipes industry is an industry to play a decisive role in the national economic development. During the Tenth Five-Year Plan period, the steel pipes output has been increased distinctly. Based on experts forecast,the steel pipes demand in China will still be in tendency of increase during the Eleventh FiveYear Plan period, which will doubtlessly bring new opportunity and challenge to the steel pipes enterprises in China.

  20. 46 CFR 76.15-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.15-15 Section 76.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-15 Piping. (a) The piping, valves, and fittings shall have a bursting pressure of not less than 6,000 p.s.i. (b) All piping, in nominal sizes not over 3/4 inch, shall be...

  1. Assessment of the integrity of welded pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Šarkoćević, Živče; Arsić, Miodrag; Sedmak, Aleksandar; MEĐO, Bojan; Mišić, Milan; id_orcid 0000-0003-0550-1851

    2014-01-01

    The subject of the paper is analysis of the integrity of welded pipes made of API J55 steel by high frequency contact welding (HF). Experimental research on the mechanical properties of the base material was conducted on pipes withdrawn from exploatation after 70 000 hours at service. Defect influence of the surface crack on the integrity of pipes was tested using hydrostatic pressure of pipes with axial surface crack in the base material. Fracture behaviour was tested using modified compact ...

  2. BIMORPH PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATOR FOR SMALL PIPE ROBOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental bimorph piezoelectric element (PZT) actuator for small pipe robot is developed. The robotcan move in φ 20 mm pipe, and can carry a CCD camera for detecting cracks or fine holes on inner surface of pipe. Thevelocity of the robot can reach 17~22 mm/s for vertical pipe up/down, respectively. Moving principle and its perfor-mance characteristics are presented.

  3. Analysis of Municipal Pipe Network Franchise Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Sun; Haichuan, Tian; Feng, Xu; Huixia, Zhou

    Franchise institution of municipal pipe network has some particularity due to the characteristic of itself. According to the exposition of Chinese municipal pipe network industry franchise institution, the article investigates the necessity of implementing municipal pipe network franchise institution in China, the role of government in the process and so on. And this offers support for the successful implementation of municipal pipe network franchise institution in China.

  4. Smoking water pipe is injurious to lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Ringbæk, Thomas; Lange, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the pulmonary consequences of water pipe smoking. Smoking water pipe affects the lung function negatively, is significantly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and increases the risk of lung infections. Case reports suggest that regular smokers of water pipe...

  5. 46 CFR 108.449 - Piping tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping tests. 108.449 Section 108.449 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.449 Piping tests. (a... piping installation. (b) When tested with CO2 or other inert gas under a pressure of 70 kilograms...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to...

  7. 46 CFR 76.10-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.10-15 Section 76.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements...

  8. 49 CFR 195.128 - Station piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station piping. 195.128 Section 195.128 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.128 Station piping. Any pipe to be installed in a station that...

  9. 46 CFR 193.10-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 193.10-15 Section 193.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings, shall meet...

  10. 46 CFR 95.10-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 95.10-15 Section 95.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 25.1123 Section 25.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant and auxiliary power unit installations, the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat...

  12. 46 CFR 132.110 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 132.110 Section 132.110 Shipping COAST GUARD....110 Piping. (a) Except as provided for liftboats by § 134.180 of this subchapter, each fitting, flange, valve, and run of piping must meet the applicable requirements of part 128 of this subchapter....

  13. Thermodynamic aspects of heat pipe operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Robert; Gottschlich, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    An expanded heat pipe operating model is described which includes thermodynamic and heat transfer considerations to reconcile disparities between actual and theoretical heat pipe performances. The analysis shows that thermodynamic considerations can explain the observed heat pipe performance limitations. A full understanding of thermodynamic processes could lead to advanced concepts for thermal transport devices.

  14. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe welding. 154.660 Section 154.660 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt...

  15. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  16. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A pipe...

  17. 46 CFR 76.25-30 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-30 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings of ferrous materials shall be... piping, valves, fittings, and sprinkler heads shall be securely supported, and, where...

  18. 33 CFR 127.1101 - Piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Piping systems. 127.1101 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1101 Piping systems. Each piping system within the marine transfer area for LHG used for the transfer of LHG must meet the...

  19. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Ferrous pipe. ASTM Specification A 53 (incorporated by reference, see § 56.01-2) furnace welded pipe shall... found from Table 56.60-1(a). (3) Copper-nickel alloys may be used for water and steam service within the... specifically permitted by this part. (6) Aluminum-alloy pipe or tube along with similar junction equipment may...

  20. PPOOLEX experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through either one or two vertical transparent blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. Five experiments with one pipe and six with two parallel pipes were carried out. The main purpose of the experiments was to study loads caused by chugging (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. In the experiments the initial temperature of the condensation pool water varied from 12 deg. C to 55 deg. C, the steam flow rate from 40 g/s to 1 300 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 120 deg. C to 185 deg. C. In the experiments with only one transparent blowdown pipe chugging phenomenon didn't occur as intensified as in the preceding experiments carried out with a DN200 stainless steel pipe. With the steel blowdown pipe even 10 times higher pressure pulses were registered inside the pipe. Meanwhile, loads registered in the pool didn't indicate significant differences between the steel and polycarbonate pipe experiments. In the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes, the steamwater interface moved almost synchronously up and down inside both pipes. Chugging was stronger than in the one pipe experiments and even two times higher loads were measured inside the pipes. The loads at the blowdown pipe outlet were approximately the same as in the one pipe cases. Other registered loads around the pool were about 50-100 % higher than with one pipe. The experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes gave contradictory results compared to the earlier studies dealing with chugging loads in case of multiple pipes. Contributing

  1. This is not a Pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm

    2016-01-01

    or unwilling to listen to, let alone engage with, emotionally guided bottom-up participation. Using an illustrative case of a Danish public debate over an alleged ban on liquorice pipes, this article argues that the disconnect between invitation and participation may be explained by the fact...

  2. Investigation of sand in piping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nađ Laslo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the investigation of the grain size distribution of the material washed out from the piping, we used 20 samples originating from different places on the Danube and the Tisza rivers. The grading characteristics of these samples were investigated based on selected grain sizes and the uniformity of gradients. Based on the investigations it has become possible to identify which grain size fractions are likely to be washed out, and how to characterize those fractions. Based on the grain size distribution curves it has been made possible to define the boundaries of the zone susceptible to piping. The zone limits of granular soils liquefied by earthquakes and the zone limits of the soil out washed from piping are very similar. This apparent correspondence already formerly raised the hypothetic question of whether piping occurring during high flood can be simulated by shape to similar surface liquefaction phenomena experienced during earthquakes, as in both cases a volcanic cone is formed through the crater of which water is constantly issuing, dragging away solid particles.

  3. Localized turbulence in pipe flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis the transition to turbulence in pipe flow is investigated. At low Reynolds numbers, the flow returns to the laminar state spontaneously. At high Reynolds number a small perturbation causes the flow to suddenly become turbulent. In the intermediate regime localized turbulence is observ

  4. Methods for Analyzing Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1989-01-01

    to formulate the flow equations in terms of pipe discharges than in terms of energy heads. The behavior of some iterative methods is compared in the initial phase with large errors. It is explained why the linear theory method oscillates when the iteration gets close to the solution, and it is further...

  5. Spinning pipe gas lens revisited

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The graded index (GRIN-like) medium generated by gas inside a heated steel pipe when rotated about its longitudinal axis has the ability to focus a laser beam. While the effective focal length of such a system has previously been studied...

  6. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  7. Preliminary Design of IHTS Piping Support for PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak-Hyun; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A pipe support is a designed element that transfer the load from pipe to the supporting structures. Providing sufficient pipe wall thickness and installing proper supports are most important elements for structural integrity of the piping system. Piping supports are generally referred to as device used in supporting the weight of the piping. The weight includes that of the pipe proper, the content the pipe carries, and the pipe converting, such as insulation. A FE analysis was performed to select variable spring hanger of IHTS hot-leg piping for PGSFR. The calculated values will be used to design variable spring hanger.

  8. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germata, Daniel Thomas [Wadsworth, IL

    2009-02-24

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.

  9. An infrared investigation of inclusion-bearing diamonds from the Venetia kimberlite, Northern Province, South Africa : implications for diamonds from craton-margin settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, (Fanus)

    2002-08-01

    The Venetia kimberlites in the Northern Province of South Africa sampled diamonds from the lithosphere underlying the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt. Given the general correlation of diamond-bearing kimberlites with old stable cratons, this tectonic setting is somewhat anomalous and, therefore, it is desirable to characterise the diamonds in terms of their infrared characteristics. A suite of diamonds of known paragenesis from the Venetia mine spans a large range of nitrogen concentrations from less than the detection limit to 1,355 ppm. Diamond nitrogen contents are, on average, higher in the eclogitic diamond population relative to the websteritic and peridotitic diamonds. Nitrogen aggregation states are variable, ranging from almost pure type IaA diamond (poorly aggregated nitrogen) to pure type IaB diamond (highly aggregated nitrogen). On a nitrogen aggregation diagram two distinct groups can be identified based on nitrogen content and nitrogen aggregation state. These are a minor population of diamonds with nitrogen contents generally higher than 500 ppm and nitrogen aggregation states of less than 40% IaB, and another, dominant population that is characterised by higher and more variable nitrogen aggregation. The unusually aggregated nature of the majority of the diamonds analysed is unique to Venetia relative to other intrusives on the Kaapvaal-Kalahari craton, but is similar to aggregation states observed for diamonds from other craton margin or adjacent mobile belt settings such as the Argyle lamproite and the George Creek kimberlite. This could be a consequence of diamond mantle residence at mantle temperatures higher than the norm for other kimberlites from the interior of cratons. Deformation of the mantle, associated with dynamic processes such as orogenesis or subduction, might also be responsible for accelerating the rate of nitrogen aggregation in these diamonds. Low numbers of diamonds with degradation of platelets at the Venetia kimberlite

  10. 46 CFR 154.310 - Cargo piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping systems. 154.310 Section 154.310 Shipping... Arrangements § 154.310 Cargo piping systems. Cargo liquid or vapor piping must: (a) Be separated from other piping systems, except where an interconnection to inert gas or purge piping is required by §...

  11. 46 CFR 154.500 - Cargo and process piping standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo and process piping standards. 154.500 Section 154... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.500 Cargo and process piping standards. The cargo liquid and vapor piping and process piping systems must meet the requirements in §§ 154.503 through...

  12. 46 CFR 154.522 - Materials for piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials for piping. 154.522 Section 154.522 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.522 Materials for piping. (a) The materials for piping systems must meet § 154.625 for the minimum design temperature of the piping, except the material for open ended...

  13. 46 CFR 119.730 - Nonferrous metallic piping materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonferrous metallic piping materials. 119.730 Section... INSTALLATION Piping Systems § 119.730 Nonferrous metallic piping materials. (a) Nonferrous metallic piping materials are acceptable for use in the following: (1) Non-vital systems; (2) Aluminum fuel piping on...

  14. Piping inspection carriage having axially displaceable sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, William T.; Treanor, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    A pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has a y-arm mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and a mounting block, a linear actuator and axial movement arm for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has a rotation motor and gear assembly for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  15. Wave Propagation in Pipe-like Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsbøl, Jonas

    Pipe-like shell structures are found in a wide range of practical applications such as: Wind turbine towers, jet engines, brass instruments, and piping systems. For many of these applications, structural vibrations play an important role for their performance. This thesis will in particular focus...... on how the curvature on a thin-walled pipe, as well as a changing radius along a straight thin-walled pipe, affects the waveguide properties. It shows that the waveguide properties of curved pipes roughly can be divided into three regimes: The curved beam regime, the cylinder regime, and the torus regime....... In the curved beam regime the waveguide properties of the pipe can be approximated by classical curved beam theory while in the cylinder regime they can be approximated by cylindrical shell theory. In the torus regime none of the two other regimes apply, and a full-blown shell model is needed. For the straight...

  16. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  17. Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop heat pipe and loop heat pipe (LHP) working fluids for what is known as the intermediate...

  18. Pipes under internal pressure and bending

    CERN Document Server

    Catinaccio, A

    2009-01-01

    This article covers the general behaviour of a straight uniform pipe, with built-in open ends, subject to internal pressure and in plane bending or curvature. It is intended as a summary of the basic equations driving the unintuitive phenomena of bending and instability of pipes under internal pressure. The analysis covers in addition the investigation of opposite pressure stabilisation effects that can be observed in some orthotropic material pipes like composite pressure hoses.

  19. Effect of Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) pipe filled with Geopolymer Materials for Piping Application: Compression Properties

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to achieve the highest compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with the geopolymer filler content of weight percentage that were used in glass reinforced epoxy pipe. The samples were prepared by using the filament winding method. The effect of weight percentage of geopolymer materials in epoxy hardener was studied under mechanical testing, which is using the compression test. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled wi...

  20. Development of bore tools for pipe inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Taguchi, Kou; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER), replacement and maintenance on in-vessel components requires that all cooling pipes connected be cut and removed, that a new component be installed, and that all cooling pipes be rewelded. After welding is completed, welded area must be inspected for soundness. These tasks require a new work concept for securing shielded area and access from narrow ports. Tools had to be developed for nondestructive inspection and leak testing to evaluate pipe welding soundness by accessing areas from inside pipes using autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools. A system was proposed for nondestructive inspection of branch pipes and the main pipe after passing through pipe curves, the same as for welding and cutting tool development. Nondestructive inspection and leak testing sensors were developed and the basic parameters were obtained. In addition, the inspection systems which can move inside pipes and conduct the nondestructive inspection and the leak testing were developed. In this paper, an introduction will be given to the current situation concerning the development of nondestructive inspection and leak testing machines for the branch pipes. (author)

  1. Plastic pipe systems failure investigation and diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Farshad, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Industrial and domestic piping is increasingly made from various plastics and composites, and these materials withstand heavy use over long periods. They are, however, affected by environmental and other factors over time and can degrade, causing major problems within piping systems. Farshad's book deals with why plastic pipes and systems fail, and with how to investigate and diagnose such failures. Pipes may buckle, fracture, change in dimensions and colour, blister and delaminate, corrode through stress, be abraded and obstructed: all these cause problems and lead to loss of efficient operat

  2. Fracture mechanics parameters of multilayer pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šestáková L.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer pipes consisting of different materials are frequently used in praxis because of partial improvement of the properties of pipe systems. To estimate lifetime of these pipes the basic fracture parameters have to be determined. In this work finite element calculations are applied in order to estimate the stress intensity factor K and T-stress values for a new type of non-homogenous C-shape specimen. The application of calculated K and T values to laboratory estimation of fracture toughness and its transferability to real pipe system is discussed.

  3. Water pipe smoking and dermatologic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, U

    2015-08-01

    Water pipe smoking is a recently growing addiction worldwide. It has become popular in Africa and the Western World and enfaces a renaissance in Middle East and Asia. The smoking technique leads to a different exposure to potential hazardous compounds compared to cigarette or classical pipe smoking. The common assumption that water pipe smoking is less dangerous to health is not substantiated by scientific data. Non-tobacco-based preparations reduce the exposure to nicotine but may contain equal or even higher concentrations of other toxic compounds. The medical literature on adverse effect of water pipe smoking on skin and oral mucosa is reviewed but future research is a demand.

  4. Location of Agricultural Drainage Pipes and Assessment of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Conditions Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods are needed to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but to also determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. The primary focus of this research project was to confirm the ability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to locate buried drainage pipe ...

  5. Literature review and experimental investigation of heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsch, W. O.; Schoenhals, R. J.; Viskanta, R.; Winter, E. R. F.

    1971-01-01

    Tests on heat pipes determine operational limits, external boundary conditions, noncondensable gas effects, startup behavior, and geometric configurations. Experiment consists of design, construction, and testing of an apparatus for measuring wick properties, conventional heat pipes and coplanar heat pipes.

  6. Heat Pipe with Axial Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Jay H. (Inventor); Holmes, Rolland (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A heat pipe has an evaporator portion, a condenser portion, and at least one flexible portion that is sealingly coupled between the evaporator portion and the condenser portion. The flexible portion has a flexible tube and a flexible separator plate held in place within the flexible tube so as to divide the flexible tube into a gas-phase passage and a liquid-phase artery. The separator plate and flexible tube are configured such that the flexible portion is flexible in a plane that is perpendicular to the separator plate.

  7. Buckling Characteristics of Cylindrical Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshiaki Sakurai

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the buckling pattern of the body frame by energy absorbed efficiency of crashworthiness related toresearch of the buckling characteristics of aluminum cylindrical pipes with various diameters formed mechanical tools. Experimentswere performed by the quasi-static test without lubrication between specimen and equipment. According to the change in the radiusversus thickness of the specimen, the buckling phenomena are transformed from folding to bellows and the rate of energy absorptionis understood. In crashworthiness, frames are characterized by the folding among three patterns from the absorbed energy efficiencypoint of view and weight reduction. With the development of new types of transport such as electric vehicles, innovated bodystructure should be designed.

  8. INFLUENCE OF PIPE ANGLE ON BEDLOAD TRANSPORT IN AN INCLINED PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David M. ADMIRAAL

    2003-01-01

    A number of reservoirs in Nebraska have been retrofitted with sediment bypass systems to extend their lifespan. The bypass systems are best suited for rerouting sediment that travels as bedload since bedload is relatively easy to capture at reservoir inlets. Because of their size, the captured sediment particles sometimes travel as bedload in the bypass system as well. Studies have been done to quantify head losses in horizontal pipes with different water and sediment flow rates, and the results have been used to assess the practicality of bypass systems for specific prototypes. However, much less has been done to evaluate the performance of inclined pipes for bypassing sediment. Furthermore, little has been done to understand how bedforms influence head losses in the pipes. In order to better understand the behavior of sediment transport within pipes, an experimental apparatus was constructed to simulate a range of sediment loading rates, water flow rates, and pipe inclination angles. Three pressure taps with a spacing of 1.5 m were installed in the pipe at a location sufficiently downstream from the inlet. One section of the pipe was replaced with an acrylic pipe of equivalent internal diameter so that bedform shapes and sizes could be measured for different flow conditions. For each flow condition, the pressure drop in the pipe and the sediment transport rate are recorded over time. For coarse sediment, the inclination angle ofthe pipe and the sediment transport rate both have a strong influence on flow properties, and, thus, head losses in the pipe.

  9. PE管管材性能探讨%Pipe Performance of PE Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子臣

    2011-01-01

    目前中国的塑料管道正在稳步发展,其中PE管强劲的发展势头最为令人瞩目.PE管的使用领域广泛,其中给水管和燃气管是其两个最大的应用市场.本文简单阐述了PE管的组成成分,对比分析了PE管的性能,最后论述了PE管的用途.%At present, China's plastic pipe is steadily developing, and strong momentum of development of the PE pipe is the most remarkable. PE pipe has a wide use, in which water pipe and gas pipe are two largest markets for application. This paper briefly describes the composition of PE pipe, makes comparative analysis of its performance, and finally discusses the use of PE pipe.

  10. 49 CFR 230.62 - Dry pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dry pipe. 230.62 Section 230.62 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes §...

  11. Technical Study of Slotted Pipe Working

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Helai; Su Feng

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction Slotted pipe is a kind of tool used in the oilfield for drilling wells to proof sand. There are many difficulties in working out several thousands seams which are about 0.3mm to 0.6 mm wide on a 10 meter long alloy steel pipe,and the types are various, such as straight and trapezoid.

  12. Heat-pipe thermionic reactor concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm Pedersen, E.

    1967-01-01

    Main components are reactor core, heat pipe, thermionic converter, secondary cooling system, and waste heat radiator; thermal power generated in reactor core is transported by heat pipes to thermionic converters located outside reactor core behind radiation shield; thermionic emitters are in direct...

  13. Updating piping probabilities with survived historical loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweckendiek, T.; Kanning, W.

    2009-01-01

    Piping, also called under-seepage, is an internal erosion mechanism, which can cause the failure of dikes or other flood defence structures. The uncertainty in the resistance of a flood defence against piping is usually large, causing high probabilities of failure for this mechanism. A considerable

  14. 75 FR 877 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe From China AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of antidumping... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of drill pipe, provided for in subheadings... Government of China. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to...

  15. Heat pipe thermosyphon heat performance calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novomestský, Marcel; Kapjor, Andrej; Papučík, Štefan; Siažik, Ján

    2016-06-01

    In this article the heat performance of the heat pipe thermosiphon is achieved through numerical model. The heat performance is calculated from few simplified equations which depends on the working fluid and geometry. Also the thermal conductivity is good to mentioning, because is really interesting how big differences are between heat pipes and full solid surfaces.

  16. Energy Industry:Hunger for Steel Pipe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berry Chen

    2009-01-01

    @@ After the ups and downs of Chinese steel pipe market in 2008, industry structure changes are taking place quietly. Some enterprises with high-end oil and natural gas pipes and high-pressure boiler tubes have not been much offected in this storm, and won good market demand, while others with low-end products have been eliminated.

  17. DEPOSITION OF PARTICLES IN TURBULENT PIPE FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei Luo; Suyuan Yu

    2006-01-01

    The deposition of particles in turbulent pipe flow was investigated in terms of two mechanisms, turbulent and thermophoretic. A general equation incorporating these two mechanisms was formulated to calculate the deposition efficiency of aerosol particles in turbulent pipe flow together with thermophoretic deposition. The validity of the equation was confirmed by good agreement between calculated and measured results.

  18. Water driven turbine/brush pipe cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Assemblies are disclosed for cleaning the inside walls of pipes and tubes. A first embodiment includes a small turbine with angled blades axially mounted on one end of a standoff support. An O-ring for stabilizing the assembly within the pipe is mounted in a groove within the outer ring. A replaceable circular brush is fixedly mounted on the opposite end of the standoff support and can be used for cleaning tubes and pipes of various diameters, lengths and configurations. The turbine, standoff support, and brush spin in unison relative to a hub bearing that is fixedly attached to a wire upstream of the assembly. The nonrotating wire is for retaining the assembly in tension and enabling return of the assembly to the pipe entrance. The assembly is initially placed in the pipe or tube to be cleaned. A pressurized water or solution source is provided at a required flow-rate to propel the assembly through the pipe or tube. The upstream water pressure propels and spins the turbine, standoff support and brush. The rotating brush combined with the solution cleans the inside of the pipe. The solution flows out of the other end of the pipe with the brush rotation controlled by the flow-rate. A second embodiment is similar to the first embodiment but instead includes a circular shaped brush with ring backing mounted in the groove of the exterior ring of the turbine, and also reduces the size of the standoff support or eliminates the standoff support.

  19. Geothermal drill pipe corrosion test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, B.C.; Copass, K.S.

    1980-12-01

    Plans are presented for conducting a field test of drill pipe corrosion, comparing air and nitrogen as drilling fluids. This test will provide data for evaluating the potential of reducing geothermal well drilling costs by extending drill pipe life and reducing corrosion control costs. The 10-day test will take place during fall 1980 at the Baca Location in Sandoval County, New Mexico.

  20. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H

    2000-02-01

    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  1. IPIRG programs - advances in pipe fracture technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Olson, R.; Scott, P. [Batelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advances made in fracture control technology as a result of the research performed in the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The findings from numerous experiments and supporting analyses conducted to investigate the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping and pipe systems subjected to high-rate loading typical of seismic events are summarized. Topics to be discussed include; (1) Seismic loading effects on material properties, (2) Piping system behavior under seismic loads, (3) Advances in elbow fracture evaluations, and (4) {open_quotes}Real{close_quotes} piping system response. The presentation for each topic will be illustrated with data and analytical results. In each case, the state-of-the-art in fracture mechanics prior to the first IPIRG program will be contrasted with the state-of-the-art at the completion of the IPIRG-2 program.

  2. Carbonate- and silicate-rich globules in the kimberlitic rocks of northwestern Tarim large igneous province, NW China: Evidence for carbonated mantle source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhiguo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; Hou, Tong; Zhang, Dongyang

    2014-12-01

    We report carbonate- and silicate-rich globules and andradite from the Wajilitage kimberlitic rocks in the northwestern Tarim large igneous province, NW China. The carbonate-rich globules vary in size from 1 to 3 mm, and most have ellipsoidal or round shape, and are composed of nearly pure calcite. The silicate-rich globules are elliptical to round in shape and are typically larger than the carbonate-rich globules ranging from 2 to several centimeters in diameter. They are characterized by clear reaction rims and contain several silicate minerals such as garnet, diopside and phlogopite. The silicate-rich globules, reported here for the first time, are suggested to be related to the origin of andradite within the kimberlitic rocks. Our results show that calcite in the carbonate-rich globules has a high XCa (>0.97) and is characterized by extremely high concentrations of the total rare earth elements (up to 1500 ppm), enrichment in Sr (8521-10,645 ppm) and LREE, and remarkable depletion in Nd, Ta, Zr, Hf and Ti. The calcite in the silicate-rich globules is geochemically similar to those in the carbonate-rich globules except the lower trace element contents. Garnet is dominantly andradite (And59.56-92.32Grs5.67-36.03Pyr0.36-4.61Spe0-0.33) and is enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and relatively depleted in Rb, Ba, Th, Pb, Sr, Zr and Hf. Phlogopite in the silicate-rich globules has a high Mg# ranging from 0.93 to 0.97. The composition of the diopside is Wo45.82-51.39En39.81-49.09Fs0.88-0.95 with a high Mg# ranging from 0.88 to 0.95. Diopside in the silicate-rich globules has low total rare earth element (REE) contents (14-31 ppm) and shows middle REE- (Eu to Gd), slight light REE- and heavy REE-enrichment with elevated Zr, Hf and Sr contents and a negative Nb anomaly in the normalized diagram. The matrix of the kimberlitic rocks are silica undersaturated (27.92-29.31 wt.% SiO2) with low Al2O3 (4.51-5.15 wt.%) and high CaO (17.29-17.77 wt.%) contents. The

  3. Casing free district heating pipes; Mantelfria fjaerrvaermeroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saellberg, Sven-Erik; Nilsson, Stefan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyurethane insulation (PUR foam) on district heating pipes acts as protection against water if it is of good quality, i.e. free from cracks, cavities and other defects. On the other hand water vapour easily diffuses through PUR foam. However this is not a problem as long as the steel pipe is warmer than the surface layer, since the high temperature will prevent the vapour from condensating. What will happen with the insulation of a casing free district heating pipe where the ground water level occasionally reaches above the pipe has not been studied in detail. The current project has studied to what extent moisture enters the PUR foam insulation of two approximately one meter long district heating pipes without casing which have been in the ground for four years. Occasionally, the ground-water has entirely covered the pipes. In addition, the foam has been studied with respect to damage from the surrounding backfill material. Test specimens were taken out of the casing free pipes and were analysed with respect to moisture content. Additional measurements were done with a moisture indicator, and the electric resistance between the steel pipes and the four surveillance wires in each pipe was measured. The results from the various measurement techniques were the compared. The results show that the PUR foam remains dry as long as the service pipe is hot if no defects, such as crack and cavities, are present. Close to the service pipe, the foam actually dries out over time. The moisture content of the middle layer remains more or less constant. Only the colder parts on the outside exhibit an increase in moisture content. It was also seen that defects may lead to water ingress with subsequent humidification of the foam. However, the damaged foam area is limited. This is not the case for a regular pipe with a vapour tight casing, where experience show that moisture tend to spread along the pipe. The pipes were buried in sand and no

  4. Equivalent thermal conductivity of heat pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zesheng LU; Binghui MA

    2008-01-01

    In precision machining, the machining error from thermal distortion carries a high proportion of the total errors. If a precision machining tool can transfer heat fast, the thermal distortion will be reduced and the machining precision will be improved. A heat pipe working based on phase transitions of the inner working liquid transfers heat with high efficiency and is widely applied in spaceflight and chemical industries. In mechanics, applications of heat pipes are correspondingly less. When a heat pipe is applied to a hydrostatic motor-ized spindle, the thermal distortion cannot be solved dur-ing the heat transfer process because thermal conductivity or equivalent thermal conductivity should be provided first for special application in mechanics. An equivalent thermal conductivity model based on equivalent thermal resistances is established. Performance tests for a screen wick pipe, gravity pipe, and rotation heat pipe are done to validate the efficiency of the equivalent thermal conduc-tivity model. The proposed model provides a calculation method for the thermal distortion analysis of heat pipes applied in the motorized spindle.

  5. Research of Spined Heat-Exchanging Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akulov Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Work is devoted to a research of spined heat-exchanging pipes that are assumed to use in air-cooler exchangers (ACE. The proposed new geometry of finning allows intensifying heat exchange and improving the efficiency of air coolers. It is caused by the increased area of finned surface with a value of finning ratio (the ratio of the area of the smooth pipe to a finned one to 42.7, while in the commercially available ACE, the figure is 22. Besides, the geometrical arrangement of the pin fins turbulizes the airflow. It should be mentioned that an easier method of manufacturing of heat exchanging pipes is proposed to use, which will reduce their costs. The proposed heat exchange pipes are made by winding cut aluminum strip to the supporting pipe or stretching stamped blanks on it. To increase the efficiency of the heat exchange surface pin fins should be as thin and long as possible; however, their strength should be sufficient for deformation-free operation. Fins should be staggered to maximize the distance between them. Spined heat-exchange pipes are designed to operate in a commercially produced ACE and their service is carried out similarly to commercially produced transversely finned pipes.

  6. Methods for Analyzing Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1989-01-01

    The governing equations for a general network are first set up and then reformulated in terms of matrices. This is developed to show that the choice of model for the flow equations is essential for the behavior of the iterative method used to solve the problem. It is shown that it is better...... to formulate the flow equations in terms of pipe discharges than in terms of energy heads. The behavior of some iterative methods is compared in the initial phase with large errors. It is explained why the linear theory method oscillates when the iteration gets close to the solution, and it is further...... demonstrated that this method offers good starting values for a Newton-Raphson iteration....

  7. Determination of geomagnetic archaeomagnitudes from clay pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, K. P.; Baker, M. E.

    1981-02-01

    Archaeomagnitude determinations of a selection of clay pipes dateable to AD 1645+/-10 as well as studies of pottery samples from the same site and of the same age have been made. Values of the magnitude of the ancient magnetic field (Banc), were obtained from two pottery sherds, two pipe bowls and three pipe stems. The values from the sherds and bowls agree within 2% and compare well with the average value of the magnitude of the magnetic field for the seventeenth century as determined by other archaeomagnetic studies. However, the pipe stems give values of Banc which are significantly less than those from the bowls and pottery. We have not yet been able to explain this and thus we suggest that reliable archaeomagnitude determinations can be made from the bowls of clay pipes but not from the stems. Nevertheless, this result provides a new source of material for investigating variations in the geomagnetic field strength over the past 400 yr. Clay pipes have been manufactured in England since the end of the sixteenth century. In the firing process some pipes were broken and disposed of without ever having been smoked. One such collection, discovered at Rainford, Lancashire, in 1978, consisted of a series of discrete dumps including pipes, kiln debris and a small collection of contemporary used earthenware sherds. The internal consideration of the dumps suggested a very short period of activity and archaeologists (P. Davey, personal communication) ascribe all the material to the period 1645+/-10 yr. With such well-dated material, we set out to check whether or not reliable archaeomagnitudes could be obtained from the pipes.

  8. 30 CFR 75.1905-1 - Diesel fuel piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel fuel piping systems. 75.1905-1 Section... Diesel fuel piping systems. (a) Diesel fuel piping systems from the surface must be designed and operated... spillage of fuel and that activates an alarm system. (b) All piping, valves and fittings must be—...

  9. 46 CFR 182.720 - Nonmetallic piping materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonmetallic piping materials. 182.720 Section 182.720... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Piping Systems § 182.720 Nonmetallic piping materials. (a) Rigid... systems where permitted by paragraph (e) of this section. (c) Nonmetallic piping must not be used...

  10. 46 CFR 119.720 - Nonmetallic piping materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonmetallic piping materials. 119.720 Section 119.720 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... Piping Systems § 119.720 Nonmetallic piping materials. Nonmetallic piping materials,...

  11. 46 CFR 58.25-20 - Piping for steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for steering gear. 58.25-20 Section 58.25-20... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-20 Piping for steering gear. (a) Pressure piping must... actuating system including the reservoir. The storage tank must be permanently connected by piping so...

  12. 46 CFR 153.294 - Marking of piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of piping systems. 153.294 Section 153.294... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.294 Marking of piping systems. (a) Each cargo piping...

  13. 46 CFR 153.280 - Piping system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping system design. 153.280 Section 153.280 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.280 Piping system design. (a) Each cargo piping system must...

  14. 46 CFR 182.710 - Piping for vital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for vital systems. 182.710 Section 182.710... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Piping Systems § 182.710 Piping for vital systems. (a) Vital systems are... section is a non-vital system. (c) Piping used in a vital system must: (1) Be composed of...

  15. 46 CFR 116.970 - Protection against hot piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection against hot piping. 116.970 Section 116.970 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 116.970 Protection against hot piping. Piping, including valves, pipe...

  16. 46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must...

  17. 46 CFR 182.730 - Nonferrous metallic piping materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonferrous metallic piping materials. 182.730 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Piping Systems § 182.730 Nonferrous metallic piping materials. (a) Nonferrous metallic piping materials are acceptable for use in the following: (1)...

  18. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516... and Process Piping Systems § 154.516 Piping: Hull protection. A vessel's hull must be protected from...-522), at: (a) Each piping connection dismantled on a routine basis; (b) Cargo discharge and...

  19. 46 CFR 61.15-15 - Other piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other piping. 61.15-15 Section 61.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-15 Other piping. (a) All other piping systems shall be...

  20. 46 CFR 154.528 - Piping joints: Flange type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints: Flange type. 154.528 Section 154.528... and Process Piping Systems § 154.528 Piping joints: Flange type. (a) A flange must be one of the following types: (1) Welding neck. (2) Slip-on. (3) Socket weld. (b) If the piping is designed for...

  1. 46 CFR 153.910 - Cargo piping plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping plan. 153.910 Section 153.910 Shipping... Information § 153.910 Cargo piping plan. No person may operate a tankship unless the tankship has a cargo piping plan that: (a) Shows all cargo piping on the tankship; (b) Shows all cargo valving, pumps,...

  2. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo piping system from liquid pressure exceeding the design pressure must discharge into: (1) A cargo...

  3. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56.30-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-3 Piping joints (reproduces 110). The type...

  4. 46 CFR 153.292 - Separation of piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of piping systems. 153.292 Section 153.292... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.292 Separation of piping systems. Cargo piping systems must...

  5. 46 CFR 119.710 - Piping for vital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for vital systems. 119.710 Section 119.710... Piping Systems § 119.710 Piping for vital systems. (a) Vital systems are those systems that are vital to...-vital system. (c) Piping used in a vital system must meet § 56.60 in subchapter F of this...

  6. 46 CFR 154.514 - Piping: Electrical bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Electrical bonding. 154.514 Section 154.514 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.514 Piping: Electrical bonding. (a) Cargo tanks or piping that...

  7. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping. 98.25-55 Section 98.25-55 Shipping COAST... Cargo piping. (a) Piping shall be of seamless steel meeting the requirements of § 56.60-1 of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. The piping shall be of not less than Schedule 40...

  8. 46 CFR 154.355 - Bow and stern loading piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bow and stern loading piping. 154.355 Section 154.355... Arrangements § 154.355 Bow and stern loading piping. (a) Bow and stern loading piping must: (1) Meet § 154.310...; (3) Be clearly marked; (4) Be segregated from the cargo piping by a removable spool piece in...

  9. 49 CFR 192.321 - Installation of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of plastic pipe. 192.321 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.321 Installation of plastic pipe. (a) Plastic pipe must be installed below ground level except as provided by paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section. (b) Plastic pipe that...

  10. 49 CFR 192.121 - Design of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of plastic pipe. 192.121 Section 192.121... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.121 Design of plastic pipe. Subject to the limitations of § 192.123, the design pressure for plastic pipe is determined by either of...

  11. 49 CFR 192.125 - Design of copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of copper pipe. 192.125 Section 192.125... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.125 Design of copper pipe. (a) Copper pipe used in mains must have a minimum wall thickness of 0.065 inches (1.65 millimeters) and must be...

  12. 49 CFR 192.277 - Ductile iron pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ductile iron pipe. 192.277 Section 192.277 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Ductile iron pipe. (a) Ductile iron pipe may not be joined by threaded joints. (b) Ductile iron pipe may...

  13. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.105 Design formula for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following...

  14. 49 CFR 195.212 - Bending of pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bending of pipe. 195.212 Section 195.212... PIPELINE Construction § 195.212 Bending of pipe. (a) Pipe must not have a wrinkle bend. (b) Each field bend must comply with the following: (1) A bend must not impair the serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each...

  15. 46 CFR 154.548 - Cargo piping: Flow capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping: Flow capacity. 154.548 Section 154.548... and Process Piping Systems § 154.548 Cargo piping: Flow capacity. Piping with an excess flow valve must have a vapor or liquid flow capacity that is greater than the rated closing flow under § 154.546....

  16. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275... Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical leak clamps. (b) Each mechanical joint in cast iron pipe must have a gasket made of a...

  17. Fractional ultrabasic-basic evolution of upper-mantle magmatism: Evidence from xenoliths in kimberlites, inclusions in diamonds and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Yuriy; Kuzyura, Anastasia

    2017-04-01

    Ultrabasic peridotites and pyroxenites together with basic eclogites are the upper-mantle in situ rocks among xenoliths in kimberlites. Occasionally their diamond-bearing varieties have revealed within the xenoliths. Therewith the compositions of rock-forming minerals demonstrate features characteristic for primary diamond-included minerals of peridotite and eclogite parageneses (the elevated contents of Cr-component in peridotitic garnets and Na-jadeitic component in eclogitic clinopyroxenes). High-pressure experimental study of melting equilibria on the multicomponent peridotie-pyroxenite system olivine Ol - orthopyroxene Opx - clinopyroxene Cpx - garnet Grt showed that Opx disappeared in the peritectic reaction Opx+L→Cpx (Litvin, 1991). As a result, the invariant peritectic equilibrium Ol+Opx+Cpx+Grt+L of the ultrabasic system was found to transform into the univariant cotectic assemblage Ol+Cpx+Grt+L. Further experimental investigation showed that olivine reacts with jadeitic component (Jd) with formation of garnet at higher 4.5 GPa (Gasparik, Litvin, 1997). Study of melting relations in the multicomponent system Ol - Cpx - Jd permits to discover the peritectic point Ol+Omph+Grt+L (where Omph - omphacitic clinopyroxene) at concentration 3-4 wt.% Jd-component in the system. The reactionary loss of Opx and Ol makes it possible to transform the 4-phase garnet lherzolite ultrabasic association into the bimineral eclogite assemblage. The regime of fractional Ol, Cpx and Grt crystallization must be accompanied by increasing content of jadeitic component in residual melts that causes the complete "garnetization of olivine". In the subsequent evolution, the melts would have to fractionate for basic SiO2-saturated compositions responsible for petrogenesis of eclogite varieties marked with accessory corundum Crn, kyanite Ky and coesite Coe. Both the peritectic mechanisms occur in regime of fractional crystallization. The sequence of the upper-mantle fractional

  18. Heat pipe testing program test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, W.B.

    1980-03-14

    A test plan is given which describes the tests to be conducted on several typical solar receiver heat pipes. The hardware to be used, test fixtures and rationale of the test program are discussed. The program objective is to perform life testing under simulated receiver conditions, and to conduct performance tests with selected heat pipes to further map their performance, particularly with regard to their transient behavior. Performance requirements are defined. Test fixtures designed for the program are described in detail, and their capabilities for simulating the receiver conditions and their limitations are discussed. The heat pipe design is given. (LEW)

  19. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  20. Gas lensing in a heated spinning pipe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinning Pipe C MAFUSIRE1,2, A FORBES2, G SNEDDEN3, C MAHLASE3, MM MICHAELIS4 & M MATHUTHU1 1University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe 2CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 3CSIR Defence Peace Safety... this system. BEAM PROPAGATION THROUGH GAS LENSES The heated spinning pipe acts as a GRIN lens where the refractive index variation inside the pipe is given by The variable parameters of the gas lens in this work were the rotation...

  1. Investigation on Mechanical Property of Seamless Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Li-ming; YANG Xiao-yong; LIU Ye

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the steel pipe rolled with continuously casting round billet after determining the chemical composition in steel were studied. The results show that the total reduction ratio should be higher than 5.2 when the line pipes of grade B, grade 20 and other general seamless pipe were rolled with continuously casting round billet. And the total reduction ratio should be higher than 10.2 and the grain size should be controlled more than grade 7 for casing of oil countryside tubular goods (OCTG).

  2. Arterial gas occlusions in operating heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of noncondensable gases on high performance arterial heat pipes has been investigated both analytically and experimentally. Models have been generated which characterize the dissolution of gases in condensate and the diffusional loss of dissolved gases from condensate in arterial flow. These processes, and others, have been used to postulate stability criteria for arterial heat pipes. Experimental observations of gas occlusions were made using a stainless steel heat pipe equipped with viewing ports, and the working fluids methanol and ammonia with the gas additives helium, argon, and xenon. Observations were related to gas transport models.

  3. Heat pipes theory, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reay, David; Kew, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pipes, 6th Edition, takes a highly practical approach to the design and selection of heat pipes, making it an essential guide for practicing engineers and an ideal text for postgraduate students. This new edition has been revised to include new information on the underlying theory of heat pipes and heat transfer, and features fully updated applications, new data sections, and updated chapters on design and electronics cooling. The book is a useful reference for those with experience and an accessible introduction for those approaching the topic for the first time. Contains all informat

  4. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{sup trademark} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Difficulty, or inability of measuring threshold surface contamination values, worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of this approach. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane.

  5. Reliability of piping system components. Volume 4: The pipe failure event database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, R.; Erixon, S. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Tomic, B. [ENCONET Consulting GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Lydell, B. [RSA Technologies, Visat, CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Available public and proprietary databases on piping system failures were searched for relevant information. Using a relational database to identify groupings of piping failure modes and failure mechanisms, together with insights from published PSAs, the project team determined why, how and where piping systems fail. This report represents a compendium of technical issues important to the analysis of pipe failure events, and statistical estimation of failure rates. Inadequacies of traditional PSA methodology are addressed, with directions for PSA methodology enhancements. A `data driven and systems oriented` analysis approach is proposed to enable assignment of unique identities to risk-significant piping system component failure. Sufficient operating experience does exist to generate quality data on piping failures. Passive component failures should be addressed by today`s PSAs to allow for aging analysis and effective, on-line risk management. 42 refs, 25 figs.

  6. Coolant choice for the central beryllium pipe of the BESIII beam pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Fang; Wang, Li; Wu, Ping; Ji, Quan; Li, Xun-Feng; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2010-07-01

    In order to take away much more heat on the BESIII beam pipe to guarantee the normal particle detection, EDM-1 (oil No.1 for electric discharge machining), with good thermal and flow properties was selected as the candidate coolant for the central beryllium pipe of the BESIII beam pipe. Its cooling character was studied and dynamic corrosion experiment was undertaken to examine its corrosion on beryllium. The experiment results show that EDM-1 would corrode the beryllium 19.9 μm in the depth in 10 years, which is weak and can be neglected. Finite element simulation and experiment research were taken to check the cooling capacity of EDM-1. The results show that EDM-1 can meet the cooling requirement of the central beryllium pipe. Now EDM-1 is being used to cool the central beryllium pipe of the BESIII beam pipe.

  7. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  8. Pressure Change in Tee Branch Pipe in Oscillatory Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sakamoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of unsteady flow of branch pipes in pneumatic systems. Branch pipes are used in pneumatic pipe systems in various industrial fields. To predict the unsteady pressure changes in the pneumatic piping systems, it is necessary that the dynamic characteristics of branch pipes are at hand, in addition to the dynamic characteristic of single pipe. However, while so many studies are accumulated for a single pipe dynamics, few studies have reported the pressure changes in branch pipes due to oscillatory flow. This paper reports an experimental study on the dynamic characteristics of the pressure change in a pneumatic branch pipe under given oscillatory flow. The paper also proposes a simulation method to predict the pressure changes in a pneumatic branch pipe under oscillatory flow. The validity of simulation is verified for oscillatory flows up to 5 Hz, comparing with the experimental results.

  9. Visualization of working fluid flow in gravity assisted heat pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Nemec Patrik; Malcho Milan

    2015-01-01

    Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapor and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about construction and processes casing in heat pipe during operation. Experiment visualization of working fluid flow is performed with glass heat pipe filed with ethanol. The visualization of working fluid flow explains the phenomena as working fl...

  10. Optimizing the Pipe Diameter of the Pipe Belt Conveyor Based on Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong-cun; Wang, Shuang; Hu, Kun; Li, De-yong

    2016-03-01

    In order to increase the transport volume of the pipe belt conveyor and reduce lateral pressure of the supporting roller set, this study aims to optimize the pipe diameter of the pipe belt conveyor. A mechanical model of the pipe belt conveyor with six supporting roller sets in the belt bearing section was built based on the infinitesimal method, and the formula for calculating the lateral pressure of each supporting roller was deduced on the basis of reasonable assumption. Simulated analysis was carried out on the operation process of the pipe belt conveyor by using the discrete element method. The result showed that, when the other conditions were certain, as the pipe diameter increased, the average lateral pressure of the supporting roller set increased, with a gradually decreasing increment, which was consistent with the calculated result of the theoretical formula. An optimized pipe diameter under the current conditions was obtained by fitting the curve of the formula for calculating the transport volume of the pipe belt conveyor and its simulation curve. It provided a certain reference value for improving the transport efficiency and prolonging the service life of the pipe belt conveyor.

  11. Multi-leg heat pipe evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multileg heat pipe evaporator facilitates the use and application of a monogroove heat pipe by providing an evaporation section which is compact in area and structurally more compatible with certain heat exchangers or heat input apparatus. The evaporation section of a monogroove heat pipe is formed by a series of parallel legs having a liquid and a vapor channel and a communicating capillary slot therebetween. The liquid and vapor channels and interconnecting capillary slots of the evaporating section are connected to the condensing section of the heat pipe by a manifold connecting liquid and vapor channels of the parallel evaporation section legs with the corresponding liquid and vapor channels of the condensing section.

  12. Reliability Estimation for Double Containment Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Cadwallader; T. Pinna

    2012-08-01

    Double walled or double containment piping is considered for use in the ITER international project and other next-generation fusion device designs to provide an extra barrier for tritium gas and other radioactive materials. The extra barrier improves confinement of these materials and enhances safety of the facility. This paper describes some of the design challenges in designing double containment piping systems. There is also a brief review of a few operating experiences of double walled piping used with hazardous chemicals in different industries. This paper recommends approaches for the reliability analyst to use to quantify leakage from a double containment piping system in conceptual and more advanced designs. The paper also cites quantitative data that can be used to support such reliability analyses.

  13. 75 FR 8113 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Drill Pipe From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject antidumping and countervailing duty investigations. DATES: Effective...

  14. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermacore Inc. proposes an innovative titanium heat pipe thermal plane for passive thermal control of individual cells within a fuel cell stack. The proposed...

  15. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...

  16. Heat transfer, thermal control, and heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    This volume provides information on recent progress in spacecraft thermal control and the supporting disciplines of conduction, thermal radiation, and heat pipe theory and application. Four problem areas are considered: conduction heat transfer, radiation heat transfer, thermal control, and heat pipes. The topics covered include finite-element methodology for transient conduction/forced-convection thermal analysis; effects of surface finish on thermal contact resistance between different materials; mathematical models for wide-band nongray gas radiation in spherical and cylindrical geometries; thermal design, analysis and testing of the Shuttle remote manipulator arm; porous heat pipe; and transient behavior of liquid trap heat-pipe thermal diodes. Also discussed is the thermal design concept for a high-resolution UV spectrometer.

  17. Rhode Island Piping Plover Restoration Project 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Piping Plover on Rhode Island discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors, recovery objectives and...

  18. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  19. Heat pipes made of roll bond panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, M.; Heil, K.

    1983-06-01

    The use of large surfaced aluminum roll bond panels with an integral flow system as heat pipes is studied. With a suitable flow system e.g., parallel passages with a cross-connection, one single filling procedure is required for the operating medium. Adequate materials for the manufacture of heat pipes are Al 99,3; AlMn1, 5 and AlMn1, 5Sil,5. Peel, creep and burst tests as well as corrosion tests were made on specimens and structural elements of these materials. Results show that the use of such panels for heat pipe manufacturing is appropriate for limited maximum temperature applications. Prototypes of heat pipes and their characteristic features are described in view of their use as absorbers in solar collectors. Good heat exchange performances obtained.

  20. Acoustics of two-phase pipe flows

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, van, Nico M.

    2005-01-01

    Acoustic signals that are recorded in oil pipelines contain information about the flow. In order to extract this information from the pressure recordings, detailed knowledge about the transmission properties of sound waves in the pipes is required.

  1. Jet pump assisted arterial heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, W. B.; Ducao, A. S.; Trimmer, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of an arterial heat pipe with a capillary driven jet pump. The jet pump generates a suction which pumps vapor and noncondensible gas from the artery. The suction also forces liquid into the artery and maintains it in a primed condition. A theoretical model was developed which predicts the existence of two stable ranges. Up to a certain tilt the artery will prime by itself once a heat load is applied to the heat pipe. At higher tilts, the jet pump can maintain the artery in a primed condition but self-priming is not possible. A prototype heat pipe was tested which self-primed up to a tilt of 1.9 cm, with a heat load of 500 watts. The heat pipe continued to prime reliably when operated as a VCHP, i.e., after a large amount of noncondensible gas was introduced.

  2. Multi-leg heat pipe evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A.

    1986-04-01

    A multileg heat pipe evaporator facilitates the use and application of a monogroove heat pipe by providing an evaporation section which is compact in area and structurally more compatible with certain heat exchangers or heat input apparatus. The evaporation section of a monogroove heat pipe is formed by a series of parallel legs having a liquid and a vapor channel and a communicating capillary slot therebetween. The liquid and vapor channels and interconnecting capillary slots of the evaporating section are connected to the condensing section of the heat pipe by a manifold connecting liquid and vapor channels of the parallel evaporation section legs with the corresponding liquid and vapor channels of the condensing section.

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Heat Pipe Wicks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wick properties are often the limiting factor in a heat pipe design. Current technology uses conventional sintering of metal powders, screen wick, or grooves to...

  4. North Dakota Piping Plover Survey : 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Packet of information on conducting piping plover surveys in North Dakota for 1992. These surveys are part of a cooperative effort with other resource agencies and...

  5. Heat Pipe Technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography lists 149 references with abstracts and 47 patents dealing with applications of heat pipe technology. Topics covered include: heat exchangers for heat recovery; electrical and electronic equipment cooling; temperature control of spacecraft; cryosurgery; cryogenic, cooling; nuclear reactor heat transfer; solar collectors; laser mirror cooling; laser vapor cavitites; cooling of permafrost; snow melting; thermal diodes variable conductance; artery gas venting; and venting; and gravity assisted pipes.

  6. Cooling Acoustic Transcucer with Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-19

    pipes. [0013] Most transducer packages involve a stack of active ceramic. A Tonpilz transducer 10 in the prior art, as depicted in FIG. 1...identical or corresponding parts throughout the several views and wherein: [0023] FIG. 1 is a prior art depiction of a Tonpilz transducer design...Distribution is unlimited 20090916027 Attorney Docket No. 97001 COOLING ACOUSTIC TRANSDUCER WITH HEAT PIPES STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001

  7. Fire Endurance Testing of Fiberglass Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    explosion . A computer data acquisition system was used to record the various channels of test data. Color video cameras, an infrared camera, and 35 mm...sample included a bolted flanged coupling. One of the copper-nickel samples had a brazed sleeve-type coupling and the other had a Staub mechanical...FGP of the types tested. Pipe deflections were within IACS limits. 8. An explosion hazard exists when sealed pipe samples are exposed to fire. If the

  8. IMPROVEMENT OF FLUID PIPE LUMPED PARAMETER MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Xiaowu; Wei Jianhua; Qiu Minxiu; Wu Genmao

    2004-01-01

    The traditional lumped parameter model of fluid pipe is introduced and its drawbacks are pointed out.Furthermore, two suggestions are put forward to remove these drawbacks.Firstly, the structure of equivalent circuit is modified, and then the evaluation of equivalent fluid resistance is change to take the frequency-dependent friction into account.Both simulation and experiment prove that this model is precise to characterize the dynamic behaviors of fluid in pipe.

  9. Development of bore tools for pipe welding and cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Takiguchi, Yuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in-vessel components replacement and maintenance requires that connected cooling pipes be cut and removed beforehand and that new components be installed to which cooling pipes must be rewelded. All welding must be inspected for soundness after completion. These tasks require a new task concept for ensuring shielded areas and access from narrow ports. Thus, it became necessary to develop autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools for branch and main pipes to weld pipes by in-pipe access; a system was proposed that cut and welded branch and main pipes after passing inside pipe curves, and elemental technologies developed. This paper introduces current development in tools for welding and cutting branch pipes and other tools for welding and cutting the main pipe. (author)

  10. Effect of Geopolymer filler in Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) Pipe for Piping Application: Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus Abu Hashim, Mohammad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Che; Hussin, Kamarudin; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The present work is aimed to carry out the effect of geopolymer material which is fly ash as filler in the glass reinforced epoxy pipe on the micro structure of fly ash geopolymer, compression properties, and bulk density using the filament winding method. Conventional glass reinforced epoxy pipes has its own disadvantages such as high corrosion resistance at acidic environment and low strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymer is a type of amorphous alumino-silicate and can be synthesized by geopolymerization process. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentage geopolymer filler which is fly ash with 4 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of the raw material fly ash and fly ash based-geopolymer surface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the additions of fly ash at the beginning with 10 wt% are showing higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without fly ash geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these series of samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. It was found that compressive strength for samples fly ash based-geopolymer filler are higher as compared to glass reinforced epoxy pipe without geopolymer filler. However, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with fly ash geopolymer filler continues to decline when added to 20 wt% - 40 wt% of geopolymer filler loading. The results showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be obtained in this study.

  11. Effect of Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE pipe filled with Geopolymer Materials for Piping Application: Compression Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hashim Mohammad Firdaus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to achieve the highest compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with the geopolymer filler content of weight percentage that were used in glass reinforced epoxy pipe. The samples were prepared by using the filament winding method. The effect of weight percentage of geopolymer materials in epoxy hardener was studied under mechanical testing, which is using the compression test. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 – 40 weight percentage geopolymer filler which is white clay were prepared. The compression strength of the glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled geopolymer materials is determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. It was found that compressive strength for samples with white clay geopolymer filler are much higher compare to glass reinforced epoxy pipe without geopolymer filler. Moreover, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with white clay geopolymer filler was increased from 10 wt% to 30 wt% of geopolymer content. However, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with white clay geopolymer filler suddenly decreased when added to 40 wt%. The results indicated that the blending of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be obtained in this study.

  12. Instrumented failure of hillslope models with soil-pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Raj H.; Konietzky, Heinz

    2011-07-01

    Soil-pipes (porous pipes inside a hillslope) are often detected in collapsed slopes indicating their influence on slope failure processes. Only limited studies can be found regarding the impacts of soil-pipes on landslide mechanisms. Hillslope models prepared in a flume are experimented with different soil-pipe configurations: a) no pipe, b) closed pipe and c) open pipe. Pore-water pressures were measured at six different locations along a slope. Discharges at the outlet of soil-pipe and groundwater seepage were also recorded. For the above mentioned pipe configurations two types of experiments were conducted: a) rainfall-induced failure and b) seepage-induced failure. Experimental results show that a closed pipe accumulates water around its lower end and continuously increases pore-water pressure till a failure. An open pipe works as a means of hillslope drainage and reduces the pore-water pressure of an entire slope. However, if open pipe is blocked, pore-water pressure close to its lower end rises rapidly, leading to immediate soil mass movement. For both seepage and rainfall-induced failure experiments, the maximum pressure before the failure was larger at a slope with an open pipe (once it is closed) than a slope with a pipe closed from the beginning or that without a soil-pipe. This indicates that the blockage of soil-pipes makes a slope more susceptible to failure. Displacement vectors show that soil movement velocity close to the surface was highest at slopes with open pipes after closure and lowest at slopes without pipes because of a higher degree of saturation and pore-water pressure at the time of failure of the former. Before a large failure, small fluctuations in pore-water pressure were also observed which can be an indicator of impending failure.

  13. Hookah pipe smoking among health sciences students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, N; Banoobhai, T; Gqweta, A; Gwala, A; Masiea, T; Misra, M; Zweigenthal, V

    2013-09-30

    Hookah pipe smoking is a social practice and has gained popularity, especially among South African youth. The extent of this practice among health sciences students, and their knowledge regarding the health risks, are unknown. This is important, as these students will become future health professionals possibly influencing the practice of individuals and communities. To explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of hookah pipe smoking among students at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town. METHODS. A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate and postgraduate students. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed as a hard copy and online survey. Of 228 participants, 66% had smoked a hookah pipe before, with 18% still smoking. Most began smoking in high school, with 25% initiating at university. Of the current smokers, 65% smoked occasionally socially, commonly at friends' houses for 30 - 60 min/session. A further 11% smoked cigarettes concurrently and 30% added other substances, mainly cannabis, to pipes. Most current hookah smokers had no interest in quitting (84%). Only 30% of participants had prior health information about hookah pipe smoking. Most knew that it was harmful (91%), with many not knowing why. A total of 80% of participants perceived that the practice was socially acceptable and 84% would recommend it to others.CONCLUSION; The poor knowledge about the dangers of hookah pipe smoking and the extent of its practice among health sciences students is alarming. These findings highlight the need for school and university health promotion campaigns, and for better regulation of hookah pipe smoking.

  14. Round dance in pipes; Runddans i roer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensen, Anders J.

    2004-07-01

    On the offshore production plants, oil, water, and gas are separated from the well streams. The oil is sold on the market while the gas is in part exported, in part reinjected into the wells in large quantities to sustain the pressure in the reservoirs. The water is cleaned, some is pumped to the sea and some returned to the reservoir. Although these processes may seem straightforward, they cause a great deal of worry since there are so many complex processing and pipe systems taking up space. Pipes vibrate and make noise, most often because of pressure fluctuations created by the flowing liquid and gas. Or vortices form inside the pipe that make the whole pipe drone. In the offshore activities, these phenomena can be very annoying; on the Statfjord B platform people baulked at entering the area where the produced water treatment system was standing. A new system had to be developed since existing equipment would take up too much space. In the new system, a pipe section is installed in the pipeline that makes the gas/liquid mixture spin rapidly as in a centrifuge. The gas collects along the centre of the pipe and is tapped off. The principle can also be used to separate liquid from gas. In many gas treatment systems, liquid accumulation, or carry over, is detrimental. But gas dehydrators are usually dimensioned for a minimal content of liquid in the gas. Important features of these new pipe-based separators are that they are small, remove bottlenecks in the production, and are straightforward to install. But operators who live with the problems every day are very sceptical about the new separators and should be given the opportunity to test them on land before they are installed in the field.

  15. Multiple blowdown pipe experiments with the PPOOLEX facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-03-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two steel blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through the blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged through two parallel blowdown pipes into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. Particularly, the aim was to study if the pipe material (polycarbonate) used in the earlier experiment series with two blowdown pipes has had an effect on the general chugging behaviour and measured loads. In the experiments the initial temperature of the pool water was 20 deg. C. The steam flow rate ranged from 220 g/s to 2 350 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 148 deg. C to 207 deg. C. The formation and collapse of steam bubbles and the movement of the steam/water interface inside the pipes was non-synchronous. There could be even a 70 ms time difference between the occurrences of steam bubble collapses at the outlets of the two pipes. There was no clear pattern in which pipe the steam bubble first starts to collapse. Several successive bubbles could collapse first in either pipe but then the order changed for a single or several cycles. High pressure loads were measured inside the blowdown pipes due to rapid condensation of the steam volumes in the pipes and resulting water hammer effects. The loads seemed to be higher in pipe 1 than in pipe 2. An explanation for this could be a possible unequal distribution of steam flow between the two pipes. The pipe material has an effect on the condensation phenomena inside the blowdown pipes. A huge difference in the measured pressure curves inside the pipes could be observed compared to the experiments with the polycarbonate pipes. With the same test conditions the amplitude of the

  16. Visualization of working fluid flow in gravity assisted heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapor and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about construction and processes casing in heat pipe during operation. Experiment visualization of working fluid flow is performed with glass heat pipe filed with ethanol. The visualization of working fluid flow explains the phenomena as working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, vapor flow, vapor condensation on the wall, vapor and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall, occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  17. Visualization of working fluid flow in gravity assisted heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2015-05-01

    Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapor and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about construction and processes casing in heat pipe during operation. Experiment visualization of working fluid flow is performed with glass heat pipe filed with ethanol. The visualization of working fluid flow explains the phenomena as working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, vapor flow, vapor condensation on the wall, vapor and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall, occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  18. Performance characteristic of thermosyphon heat pipe at radiant heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabovský, Peter; Papučík, Štefan; Kaduchová, Katarína

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses about device, which is called heat pipe. This device is with heat source with radiant heat source. Heat pipe is device with high efficiency of heat transfer. The heat pipe, which is describe in this article is termosyphon heat pipe. The experiment with termosyphon heat pipe get a result. On the base of result, it will be in future to create mathematical model in Ansys. Thermosyphon heat pipe is made of copper and distilled water is working fluid. The significance of this experiment consists in getting of the heat transfer and performance characteristic. On the basis of measured and calculated data can be constructed the plots.

  19. LAMINAR FLUID FLOW IN HELICAL ELLIPTICAL PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, using an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system and solving the complete N-S equations, we analyzed the flow in a helical elliptical duct by the perturbation method. The first-order solutions of the stream function Ψ, axial velocity w and the velocity of secondary flow (u, v) were obtained. The effects of torsion, curvature and the axial pressure gradient on the secondary flow were discussed in detail. The study indicates that the torsion has first-order effect on the secondary flow in a helical elliptical pipe, the secondary flow is dominated by torsion when the axial pressure gradient is small and for increasing gradient the secondary flow is eventually dominated by the effect due to curvature. The fact that the torsion has no effect on fluid flow in a helical pipe with a circular cross section was also confirmed. The most important conclusion is that the flow in a helical elliptical pipe to the first-order can be obtained as a combination of the flow in a toroidal pipe and the flow in a twisted pipe.

  20. GTRAN- TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF GAS PIPING SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    TROVILLION T A

    1994-01-01

    The GTRAN program was developed to solve transient, as well as steady state, problems for gas piping systems. GTRAN capabilities allow for the analysis of a variety of system configurations and components. These include: multiple pipe junctions; valves that change position with time; fixed restrictions (orifices, manual valves, filters, etc.); relief valves; constant pressure sources; and heat transfer for insulated piping and piping subjected to free or forced convection. In addition, boundary conditions can be incorporated to simulate specific components. The governing equations of GTRAN are the one-dimensional transient gas dynamic equations. The three equations for pressure, velocity, and density are reduced to numerical equations using an implicit Crank-Nicholson finite difference technique. Input to GTRAN includes a description of the piping network, the initial conditions, and any events (e.g. valve closings) occuring during the period of analysis. Output includes pressure, velocity, and density versus time. GTRAN is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX series computer. GTRAN was developed in 1983.

  1. Drag reduction properties of superhydrophobic mesh pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldi, Nicasio R.; Dodd, Linzi E.; Xu, Ben B.; Wells, Gary G.; Wood, David; Newton, Michael I.; McHale, Glen

    2017-09-01

    Even with the recent extensive study into superhydrophobic surfaces, the fabrication of such surfaces on the inside walls of a pipe remains challenging. In this work we report a convenient bi-layered pipe design using a thin superhydrophobic metallic mesh formed into a tube, supported inside another pipe. A flow system was constructed to test the fabricated bi-layer pipeline, which allowed for different constant flow rates of water to be passed through the pipe, whilst the differential pressure was measured, from which the drag coefficient (ƒ) and Reynolds numbers (Re) were calculated. Expected values of ƒ were found for smooth glass pipes for the Reynolds number (Re) range 750-10 000, in both the laminar and part of the turbulent regimes. Flow through plain meshes without the superhydrophobic coating were also measured over a similar range (750  superhydrophobic coating, ƒ was found for 4000  superhydrophobic mesh can support a plastron and provide a drag reduction compared to a plain mesh, however, the plastron is progressively destroyed with use and in particular at higher flow rates.

  2. Characterizing the Performance of Pipe Bombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Bernier, Evan T; Sandstrom, Fredrick; Weiss, Gregory G; Recht, Gunther W; Schatzer, David

    2017-05-24

    Pipe bombs of steel or PVC fragment in reproducible patterns when similarly configured. The power of the explosion correlates with number, mass, and size of the fragments recovered, where a large number of small, low-mass fragments indicate a high-power event and vice versa. In discussing performance, describing pipe fragmentation pattern by fragment weight distribution mapping (FWDM) or fragment surface area distribution mapping (FSADM) was useful. When fillers detonated, detonation velocities of ~4.4 mm/μs were measured. In such cases, side walls of the pipe were thrown first; the average fragment velocity was ~1000 km/s. In deflagrations, the end cap was first thrown; fragment velocities were only ~240 km/s. Blast overpressures varied; at 10 feet, 2 × 12 inch steel pipes containing ~550 g of detonable mixture produced overpressures of 5-6 psi; similar nondetonating pipes produced less than 2 psi. Maximum fragment throw distances were 250-300 m, with an average of ~100 m. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Zircon geochronology and geochemistry of mafic xenoliths from Liaoning kimberlites:Track the early evolution of the lower crust, North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jianping; YU Chunmei; LU Fengxiang; LI Huimin

    2004-01-01

    Mafic xenoliths from Paleozoic Fuxian kimberlites (Liaoning Province) mainly include garnet granulite, with minor pyroxene amphibolite, meta-gabbro and pyroxene syenite. The SiO2 contents of the xenoliths are from 47.3 wt% to 49.9 wt%. The granulites are mainly coarse-medium grained and reasonably with well-developed granoblastic (mostly polygonal)texture, contain the assemblage of garnet + plagioclase + pyroxene + K-feldspar ± phlogopite.The mineral assemblage of the amphibolites is plagioclase + pyroxene + amphibole ± K-feldspar,with the equilibrium temperature and pressure conditions of 744-821 ℃ and 0.76-0.88 GPa.The granulites are regarded as derivation from the lower crust depth (more than 29 km), below the amphibolites. Garnet granulites compositionally correspond to sub-alkalic basalt, and have wide ranges of Ni abundance (133-840 ppm), and Nb/Y (0.12-1.85), Nb/U (3.51-53.86) and Ta/U (0.38-2.48). The amphibolite and the syenite correspond to alkalic basalt. The Fuxian mafic xenoliths are regarded as the metamorphic product of the underplated magmas (including fractional crystallization or not) experienced the contamination with the pre-existed crustal components, and partly effected by kimberlitic magmas. The concordant ages of zircons for the gabbro (2610-2580 Ma) and the near-concordant upper intercept ages of zircons for the garnet granulite and pyroxene amphibolite (2578-2538 Ma) indicate that they are currently known as the oldest deep-seated xenoliths from the lower crust of the North China Craton. These ages recorded the formation of the united Eastern Block of the North China Craton, That is, Neoarchean (2.6-2.5 Ga) is an important continental crustal growth period of the North China Craton.The lower intercept age of the garnet granulite (1853 Ma) recorded an important tectonic thermal event in Paleoproterozoic. This event was probably related to collision of the East and West block,and resulted in the final assembly of the North China Craton

  4. Zircon geochronology and geochemistry of mafic xenoliths from Liaoning kimberlites: Track the early evolution of the lower crust, North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Jianping; YU; Chunmei; LU; Fengxiang; LI; Huimin

    2004-01-01

    Mafic xenoliths from Paleozoic Fuxian kimberlites (Liaoning Province) mainly include garnet granulite, with minor pyroxene amphibolite, meta-gabbro and pyroxene syenite. The SiO2 contents of the xenoliths are from 47.3 wt% to 49.9 wt%. The granulites are mainly coarse-medium grained and reasonably with well-developed granoblastic (mostly polygonal)texture, contain the assemblage of garnet + plagioclase + pyroxene + K-feldspar ± phlogopite.The mineral assemblage of the amphibolites is plagioclase + pyroxene + amphibole ± K-feldspar,with the equilibrium temperature and pressure conditions of 744-821 ℃ and 0.76-0.88 GPa.The granulites are regarded as derivation from the lower crust depth (more than 29 km), below the amphibolites. Garnet granulites compositionally correspond to sub-alkalic basalt, and have wide ranges of Ni abundance (133-840 ppm), and Nb/Y (0.12-1.85), Nb/U (3.51-53.86) and Ta/U (0.38-2.48). The amphibolite and the syenite correspond to alkalic basalt. The Fuxian mafic xenoliths are regarded as the metamorphic product of the underplated magmas (including fractional crystallization or not) experienced the contamination with the pre-existed crustal components, and partly effected by kimberlitic magmas. The concordant ages of zircons for the gabbro (2610-2580 Ma) and the near-concordant upper intercept ages of zircons for the garnet granulite and pyroxene amphibolite (2578-2538 Ma) indicate that they are currently known as the oldest deep-seated xenoliths from the lower crust of the North China Craton. These ages recorded the formation of the united Eastern Block of the North China Craton, That is, Neoarchean (2.6-2.5 Ga) is an important continental crustal growth period of the North China Craton.The lower intercept age of the garnet granulite (1853 Ma) recorded an important tectonic thermal event in Paleoproterozoic. This event was probably related to collision of the East and West block,and resulted in the final assembly of the North China Craton

  5. A study on the transient piping vibration of power plant. Secondary piping system of Wolsung 1 unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun; Kim, Yeon Whan [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-08-01

    In order to maintain a safe operation and availability of generating facilities, qualitative and quantitative assessment of piping vibration was performed vibration sources and damages of piping support was identified on the second piping system of Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1 .Inspected piping supports and structures in both hot and cold condition .Established evaluation procedures of piping vibration .Performed the static analysis of 2 nd piping system .Established optimal vibration reducing method .The measured vibration level after installing rigid supports and energy absorbing type restraint was reduced about 7 times in velocity unit (author). 24 refs., 95 figs.

  6. Key results for the NRC`s Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Brust, F. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The overall objective of the Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Program is to verify and improve engineering analyses to predict the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe under quasi-static loading with particular attention to crack lengths typically used in LBB or flaw evaluation criteria. The USNCRC program at Battelle was initiated in March 1990 and is scheduled to be completed in December 1994. This paper discusses key results from the overall program with particular emphasis on the efforts since the last WRSIM meeting. The program consists of eight technical tasks as listed below: task 1 short through-wall-cracked (TWC) pipe evaluations; task 2 short surface-cracked (SC) pipe evaluations; task 3 bi-metallic weld crack evaluations; task 4 dynamic strain aging and crack instabilities; task 5 fracture evaluations of anisotropic pipe; task 6 crack-opening-area evaluations; task 7 NRCPIPE code improvements; task 8 additional efforts. Task 8 is a collection of new efforts initiated during the coarse of the program. A list of the full-scale pipe experiments in this program is given in Table 1. All of the experiments have been completed. The most recent accomplishments in each of the tasks listed above are discussed below. The details of all the results in the eight tasks are published in the semiannual reports as well as topical reports from the program.

  7. THE FLOW IN ROTATING CURVED CIRCULAR PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The combined effects of the system rotation (Coriolis force) and curvature (centrifugal force) on the flow in rotating curved circular pipe with small curvature are examined by perturbation method. A second-order perturbation solution is presented. The secondary flow structure and the primary axial velocity distributions are studied in detail. The loops of the secondary flow are more complex than those in a curved pipe without rotation or a rotating straight pipe. Its numbers depend on the body force ratio F which represents the ratio of the Coriolis to the centrifugal force. The maximum of the axial velocity is pushed to either outer bend or inner bend, which is also determined by F. The results are confirmed by the results of other authors who studied the same problem by different methods.

  8. Evaluation of flawed piping under dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E. (Applied Science and Technology, Inc., Poway, CA (United States)); Quinones, D.F. (Cloud (Robert L.) and Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Gilman, J.D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

    1992-10-01

    This report describes analytical and interpretative research on results of large-scale dynamic tests of flawed pipe which were conducted for the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG). Here, the adequacy of dynamic analysis methods is examined, as well as margins against failure associated with flaw evaluation criteria. Experimental and analytical results are related to requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes. Code limits of operability bound all test results. Guidance is offered on selection of Z-factors'' for austenitic materials to retain code safety margins. In the IPIRG tests, efforts to produce a nearly instantaneous full severance pipe break were unsuccessful, indicating that this hypothetical basis for plant accident evaluations is conservative.

  9. Development of solutions to benchmark piping problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, M; Chang, T Y; Prachuktam, S; Hartzman, M

    1977-12-01

    Benchmark problems and their solutions are presented. The problems consist in calculating the static and dynamic response of selected piping structures subjected to a variety of loading conditions. The structures range from simple pipe geometries to a representative full scale primary nuclear piping system, which includes the various components and their supports. These structures are assumed to behave in a linear elastic fashion only, i.e., they experience small deformations and small displacements with no existing gaps, and remain elastic through their entire response. The solutions were obtained by using the program EPIPE, which is a modification of the widely available program SAP IV. A brief outline of the theoretical background of this program and its verification is also included.

  10. Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschnitz, E.

    2012-07-01

    A numerical simulation model for the horizontal centrifugal pipe casting process was developed with the commercial simulation package Flow3D. It considers - additionally to mass, energy and momentum conservation equations and free surface tracking - the fast radial and slower horizontal movement of the mold. The iron inflow is not steady state but time dependent. Of special importance is the friction between the liquid and the mold in connection with the viscosity and turbulence of the iron. Experiments with the mold at controlled revolution speeds were carried out using a high-speed camera. From these experiments friction coefficients for the description of the interaction between mold and melt were obtained. With the simulation model, the influence of typical process parameters (e.g. melts inflow, mold movement, melt temperature, cooling media) on the wall thickness of the pipes can be studied. The comparison to results of pipes from production shows a good agreement between simulation and reality.

  11. Analytical and Numerical Modeling for Flexible Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; CHEN Geng

    2011-01-01

    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers,in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties,has been analyzed.Specifically,the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics.The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness.With consideration of the effective elastic moduli,the structure can be properly analyzed.Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated.A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque.Further,the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered.Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed,which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  12. Flow induced pulsations in pipe systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Jan Cornelis

    1987-12-01

    The aeroacoustic behavior of a low Mach number, high Reynolds number flow through a pipe with closed side branches was investigated. Sound is generated by coherent structures of concentrated vorticity formed periodically in the separated flow in the T-shaped junctions of side branches and the main pipe. The case of moderate pulsation amplitudes was investigated. It appears that the vortical flow in a T-joint is an aeroacoustic source of constant strength when acoustic energy losses due to radiation and friction are small but not negligible. When acoustic energy losses due to radiation and friction are negligible, the nonlinear character of vortex damping is the amplitude limiting mechanism. It is stressed that aeroacoustic sources should not be neglected in studies of the response of a piping lay-out with flow to, e.g., the pulsating output of a compressor.

  13. Analytical and numerical modeling for flexible pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Geng

    2011-12-01

    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers, in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties, has been analyzed. Specifically, the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics. The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness. With consideration of the effective elastic moduli, the structure can be properly analyzed. Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque. Further, the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered. Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed, which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  14. Heat pipe reactors for space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, D. R.; Ranken, W. A.; Salmi, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    A family of heat pipe reactors design concepts has been developed to provide heat to a variety of electrical conversion systems. Three power plants are described that span the power range 1-500 kWe and operate in the temperature range 1200-1700 K. The reactors are fast, compact, heat-pipe cooled, high-temperature nuclear reactors fueled with fully enriched refractory fuels, UC-ZrC or UO2. Each fuel element is cooled by an axially located molybdenum heat pipe containing either sodium or lithium vapor. Virtues of the reactor designs are the avoidance of single-point failure mechanisms, the relatively high operating temperature, and the expected long lifetimes of the fuel element components.

  15. Piping in need of a facelift

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    The LS1 offers a good opportunity to renovate/consolidate the CERN piping system. This is actually one of this year’s objectives set by CERN's Director-General as the state of several pressurised pipe networks has become a matter of significant concern. The ageing infrastructure makes it essential to perform in-depth inspections and repairs on several networks, which are easier to perform when most systems are down.   We are advising each Department/Group concerned to take a series of actions to ensure that their pipelines comply with personal, environmental and operational safety requirements: an inventory of ageing installations to allow a long-term replacement plan to be drawn up; immediate repair in the event of major signs of deterioration; investigation and repair/mitigation measures to prevent leaks; marking and, if necessary, mechanical protection of pipes located in thoroughfares and exposed to vehicles or people. Help needed, questions? Do not hesitate to contact us ...

  16. Novel Wick Structures for Improved Heat Pipe Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Heat pipes are commonly used for transporting heat over relatively long distances with very low temperature drop. One of the limitations of heat pipes is the...

  17. Inertial Effects on Finite Length Pipe Seismic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Corrado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A seismic analysis for soil-pipe interaction which accounts for length and constraining conditions at the ends of a continuous pipe is developed. The Winkler model is used to schematize the soil-structure interaction. The approach is focused on axial strains, since bending strains in a buried pipe due to the wave propagation are typically a second-order effect. Unlike many works, the inertial terms are considered in solving equations. Accurate numerical simulations are carried out to show the influence of pipe length and constraint conditions on the pipe seismic strain. The obtained results are compared with results inferred from other models present in the literature. For free-end pipelines, inertial effects have significant influence only for short length. On the contrary, their influence is always important for pinned pipes. Numerical simulations show that a simple rigid model can be used for free-end pipes, whereas pinned pipes need more accurate models.

  18. Applications and market of PVC for piping industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnny De N. Martins; Estevão Freire; Henry Hemadipour

    2009-01-01

    .... Pipes and fittings constitute the largest volume application at 40% of the marketplace. This paper discusses the piping extrusion process and the worldwide PVC market, emphasizing the Brazilian market...

  19. Hydrophobic liquid/gas separator for heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    Perforated nonwetting plug of material such as polytetrafluoroethylene is mounted in gas reservoir feed tube, preferably at end which extends into heat pipe condenser section, to prevent liquid from entering gas reservoir of passively controlled heat pipe.

  20. Pigging ends freezeups in caustic piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, R.; Gaines, A.

    1985-03-01

    Convent Chemical Corporation in Convent, LA produces and ships bulk quantities of chlorine and caustic soda (NaOH). The caustic soda is available in various grades, including a 50% aqueous solution that freezes at 56/sup 0/F. An extensive network of chemical-resistant polypropylene-lined steel pipe (without heat tracing) is used to transfer the caustic soda from the production area to storage tanks and to the loading facilities for tank trucks, rail tank cars and barges. A sudden drop in ambient temperature can cause freezeup of the caustic transfer pipes which may result in downtime of as much as a week. Convent plant engineers designed a pigging system for the outdoor caustic transfer lines in the tank farm and to the loading stations. The patented design pig, (internal pipeline cleaner) consists of a flexible, bullet-shaped cylinder of chemical-resistant polyurethane foam with strips of urethane rubber on the surface, or with a solid coating of the tough material. Fluid or gas pressure on the sealed concave base propels the flexible pig through the pipe, valves, elbows, and other fittings, and material ahead of the pig is discharged into an appropriate receiver. The pigging system has eliminated the caustic freezing and plugging problems since it was installed in the summer of 1981. The flexible pig, propelled by 80 psi air, is used to clear the pipelines whenever caustic is transferred during the winter months. The air-propelled pig is designed and sized to easily pass through restrictions in the piping system, such as reduced port plug valves, but was once stuck when it reached a section of pipe that had collapsed. A pig containing the Cobalt 60 nuclear element was inserted into the line to quickly locate the stuck pig with the Geiger counter. The faulty section of pipe was replaced with a new polypropylene lined spool piece.

  1. Variable conductance heat pipe technology. [research project resulting in heat pipe experiment on OAO-3 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. T.; Edwards, D. K.; Eninger, J. E.; Marcus, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    A research and development program in variable conductance heat pipe technology is reported. The project involved: (1) theoretical and/or experimental studies in hydrostatics, (2) hydrodynamics, (3) heat transfer into and out of the pipe, (4) fluid selection, and (5) materials compatibility. The development, fabrication, and test of the space hardware resulted in a successful flight of the heat pipe experiment on the OAO-3 satellite. A summary of the program is provided and a guide to the location of publications on the project is included.

  2. Piping and tubing technology: A compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A compilation on the devices, techniques, and methods used in piping and tubing technology is presented. Data cover the following: (1) a number of fittings, couplings, and connectors that are useful in joining tubing and piping and various systems, (2) a family of devices used where flexibility and/or vibration damping are necessary, (3) a number of devices found useful in the regulation and control of fluid flow, and (4) shop hints to aid in maintenance and repair procedures such as cleaning, flaring, and swaging of tubes.

  3. Application of Heat Pipes in Cold Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Masataka

    Recently, there has been put into practical use of heat pipes as space application, electronics cooling, and waste heat recovery. Especially, the low temperature heat pipe which can be used in below atmospheric temperature are also actively developed and applied in terrestrial field. These are based on utilization of natural energy in cold region. This paper is described about application of snow melting and deicing system on a road and roof, snow damage prevention system for electric pole branch wire, artificial permafrost storage system as a reverse utilization of cold atmosphere, and cryo-anchor applied in Alaska and northern Canada.

  4. ATLAS Beam Pipe and LUCID Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The film will show you the descending and installation of the last element of the LHC beam pipe. Around the beam pipe is installed an ATLAS detector called LUCID. The same kind of element is on both sides of ATLAS. This detector measures the rate of the collisions in ATLAS. You can also get more information about LUCID detector by watching the part were Vincent Hedberg is interviewed (00:01:20). Almost at the end of the film there is the interview of the Raymond Veness. He tells about the delicate operations of finishing the vacuum system and the LHC (00:26:00).

  5. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  6. INVESTIGATION INTO THE SPRINGBACK OF PIPE BENDING USING INDUCTION HEATING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Stresses and deformation states of pipe bending are investigated under loading or unloading with various pipe materials, size, bending radius and deformation temperature. A theorem of springback of large diameter pipe bending is presented. The experiments are carried out with pipe materials of 20, 10CrMo910 and 12Cr1MoV steel. Results of computations are in good agreement with experiments.

  7. Experimental investigations on an axial grooved cryogenic heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Muniappan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with development and studies of a trapezoidal axial grooved nitrogen heat pipe. A special liquid nitrogen cryostat has been designed and developed for evaluating the performance of heat pipe where the condenser portion is connected to the cold sink externally. Experiments have been performed on the heat pipe as well as on an equivalent diameter copper rod at different heat loads. The steady state performance of the heat pipe is compared with that of copper rod.

  8. The Puzzle of a Marble in a Spinning Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    MAY 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Puzzle of a Marble in a Spinning Pipe 5a. CONTRACT...inside a rotating pipe and then suddenly released? 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR... pipe (of slightly larger diameter than the marble) and held there by a catch. The pipe is glued to a rotating turntable having frictionless bearings

  9. Design of macro-synthetic fibre reinforced concrete pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Fuente, Albert de la; Escariz, Renata Campos; Figueiredo,Antonio Domingues de; Aguado, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental campaign in which concrete pipes were manufactured using plastic fibres as the sole reinforcement material. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that the use of plastic fibres is compatible with pipe production systems, and that, when subjected to the crushing test (CT), plastic fibre reinforced pipes yield strength classes that are attractive in terms of the growth of this material in the concrete pipe industry. Moreover, the results obtained from b...

  10. Structural analysis and implicit 3D modelling of high-grade host rocks to the Venetia kimberlite diatremes, Central Zone, Limpopo Belt, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, I. J.; Creus, P. K.; Anthonissen, C. J.; Stoch, B.; Ekkerd, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Beit Bridge Complex of the Central Zone (CZ) of the Limpopo Belt hosts the 519 ± 6 Ma Venetia kimberlite diatremes. Deformed shelf- or platform-type supracrustal sequences include the Mount Dowe, Malala Drift and Gumbu Groups, comprising quartzofeldspathic units, biotite-bearing gneiss, quartzite, metapelite, metacalcsilicate and ortho- and para-amphibolite. Previous studies define tectonometamorphic events at 3.3-3.1 Ga, 2.7-2.5 Ga and 2.04 Ga. Detailed structural mapping over 10 years highlights four deformation events at Venetia. Rules-based implicit 3D modelling in Leapfrog Geo™ provides an unprecedented insight into CZ ductile deformation and sheath folding. D1 juxtaposed gneisses against metasediments. D2 produced a pervasive axial planar foliation (S2) to isoclinal F2 folds. Sheared lithological contacts and S2 were refolded into regional, open, predominantly southward-verging, E-W trending F3 folds. Intrusion of a hornblendite protolith occurred at high angles to incipient S2. Constrictional-prolate D4 shows moderately NE-plunging azimuths defined by elongated hornblendite lenses, andalusite crystals in metapelite, crenulations in fuchsitic quartzite and sheath folding. D4 overlaps with a: 1) 2.03-2.01 Ga regional M3 metamorphic overprint; b) transpressional deformation at 2.2-1.9 Ga and c) 2.03 Ga transpressional, dextral shearing and thrusting around the CZ and d) formation of the Avoca, Bellavue and Baklykraal sheath folds and parallel lineations.

  11. 33 CFR 157.11 - Pumping, piping and discharge arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pumping, piping and discharge... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.11 Pumping, piping and discharge arrangements. (a) Each tank vessel must have a fixed piping system for transferring oily mixtures from...

  12. 46 CFR 119.510 - Bilge piping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge piping system. 119.510 Section 119.510 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Ballast Systems § 119.510 Bilge piping system. A vessel must be provided with a piping system that...

  13. 46 CFR 56.50-105 - Low-temperature piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Low-temperature piping. 56.50-105 Section 56.50-105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-105 Low-temperature piping. (a) Class...

  14. 46 CFR 45.153 - Through-hull piping: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Through-hull piping: General. 45.153 Section 45.153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.153 Through-hull piping: General. (a) All through-hull pipes required by...

  15. 46 CFR 154.910 - Inert gas piping: Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inert gas piping: Location. 154.910 Section 154.910 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.910 Inert gas piping: Location. Inert gas piping...

  16. 46 CFR 151.15-6 - Venting piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Venting piping. 151.15-6 Section 151.15-6 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Tanks § 151.15-6 Venting piping. (a) The back pressure in the relief... condensate which may accumulate in the vent piping. (b)...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1834 - Cargo transfer piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo transfer piping. 154.1834 Section 154.1834... piping. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall ensure that cargo is transferred to or from a cargo tank only through the cargo piping system....

  18. 46 CFR 194.20-19 - Piping and electrical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping and electrical requirements. 194.20-19 Section 194.20-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Storerooms § 194.20-19 Piping and electrical requirements. (a) Piping, electrical equipment, and wiring...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.163 - Ship's piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's piping systems. 1915.163 Section 1915.163 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.163 Ship's piping systems. (a) Before work is performed on a valve, fitting, or section...

  20. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a)...

  1. 49 CFR 179.400-17 - Inner tank piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inner tank piping. 179.400-17 Section 179.400-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...-17 Inner tank piping. (a) Product lines. The piping system for vapor and liquid phase transfer...

  2. 46 CFR 153.283 - Valving for cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valving for cargo piping. 153.283 Section 153.283... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.283 Valving for cargo piping. (a) Except as described in...

  3. 46 CFR 105.20-5 - Piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping systems. 105.20-5 Section 105.20-5 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Specific Requirements-Cargo Tanks § 105.20-5 Piping systems. (a) Piping shall be copper, nickel copper, or copper nickel having a minimum wall thickness of 0.035″;...

  4. 46 CFR 34.25-15 - Piping-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping-T/ALL. 34.25-15 Section 34.25-15 Shipping COAST... Systems, Details § 34.25-15 Piping—T/ALL. (a) All piping, valves and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) Distribution piping shall be...

  5. 46 CFR 58.16-17 - Piping and fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping and fittings. 58.16-17 Section 58.16-17 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-17 Piping and fittings. (a) The piping between the cylinders and the appliances shall be seamless annealed copper tubing...

  6. 46 CFR 34.10-15 - Piping-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping-T/ALL. 34.10-15 Section 34.10-15 Shipping COAST... § 34.10-15 Piping—T/ALL. (a) All piping, valves and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of... isolate damaged sections of piping except on self-propelled vessels carrying bulk liquefied gases...

  7. 46 CFR 154.356 - Cargo emergency jettisoning piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo emergency jettisoning piping. 154.356 Section 154.356 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.356 Cargo emergency jettisoning piping. Emergency jettisoning piping...

  8. 46 CFR 34.20-15 - Piping-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping-T/ALL. 34.20-15 Section 34.20-15 Shipping COAST... § 34.20-15 Piping—T/ALL. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings of ferrous...

  9. 46 CFR 45.155 - Inlets and discharge piping: Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inlets and discharge piping: Valves. 45.155 Section 45... LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.155 Inlets and discharge piping: Valves. (a) Except as provided in... visited by the crew. (e) Through-hull piping systems in machinery spaces may have valves with...

  10. 46 CFR 98.30-29 - Piping incompatible products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping incompatible products. 98.30-29 Section 98.30-29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... Piping incompatible products. No person may pipe a portable tank with another tank that contains...

  11. 46 CFR 56.50-85 - Tank-vent piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank-vent piping. 56.50-85 Section 56.50-85 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-85 Tank-vent piping. (a) This...

  12. 46 CFR 153.970 - Cargo transfer piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo transfer piping. 153.970 Section 153.970 Shipping... § 153.970 Cargo transfer piping. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall ensure that: (a) Cargo is transferred to or from a cargo tank only through the tankship's cargo piping system; (b) Vapor not returned...

  13. 46 CFR 154.526 - Piping joints: Flange connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints: Flange connection. 154.526 Section 154.526 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.526 Piping joints: Flange connection. Flange...

  14. 46 CFR 34.17-15 - Piping-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping-T/ALL. 34.17-15 Section 34.17-15 Shipping COAST... Systems, Details § 34.17-15 Piping—T/ALL. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings...

  15. 46 CFR 58.20-20 - Refrigeration piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigeration piping. 58.20-20 Section 58.20-20 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-20 Refrigeration piping. (a) All piping materials... chemical and physical properties as to remain ductile at the lowest operating temperature. (b)...

  16. 46 CFR 58.60-7 - Industrial systems: Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial systems: Piping. 58.60-7 Section 58.60-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY...) § 58.60-7 Industrial systems: Piping. The piping for industrial systems under this subpart must...

  17. 46 CFR 153.281 - Piping to independent tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping to independent tanks. 153.281 Section 153.281... Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.281 Piping to independent tanks. Piping for an independent cargo tank must penetrate the tank only through that part of the tank or dome extending above...

  18. Mashing up Multiple Web Feeds Using Yahoo! Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2007-01-01

    Pipes is an interactive data aggregator and manipulator that lets you mashup your favorite online data sources. Pipes could be used to "combine many feeds into one, then sort, filter and translate to create your ultimate custom feed. In this article, the author describes how to use Yahoo! Pipes. The author shares what she has learned in…

  19. 49 CFR 192.193 - Valve installation in plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve installation in plastic pipe. 192.193... Components § 192.193 Valve installation in plastic pipe. Each valve installed in plastic pipe must be designed so as to protect the plastic material against excessive torsional or shearing loads when the...

  20. 49 CFR 192.287 - Plastic pipe: Inspection of joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe: Inspection of joints. 192.287... Than by Welding § 192.287 Plastic pipe: Inspection of joints. No person may carry out the inspection of joints in plastic pipes required by §§ 192.273(c) and 192.285(b) unless that person has been qualified...

  1. 49 CFR 192.123 - Design limitations for plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design limitations for plastic pipe. 192.123... Design limitations for plastic pipe. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) and paragraph (f) of this section, the design pressure may not exceed a gauge pressure of 100 psig (689 kPa) for plastic pipe...

  2. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192.311... Lines and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage that would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or removed....

  3. 49 CFR 192.283 - Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures. 192... Materials Other Than by Welding § 192.283 Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures. (a) Heat fusion... for making plastic pipe joints by a heat fusion, solvent cement, or adhesive method, the...

  4. 49 CFR 195.207 - Transportation of pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of pipe. 195.207 Section 195.207... PIPELINE Construction § 195.207 Transportation of pipe. (a) Railroad. In a pipeline operated at a hoop stress of 20 percent or more of SMYS, an operator may not use pipe having an outer diameter to wall...

  5. 49 CFR 236.17 - Pipe for operating connections, requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe for operating connections, requirements. 236... Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.17 Pipe for operating connections, requirements. (a) Steel or wrought-iron pipe one inch or larger, or members of equal strength, shall be used for operating...

  6. 49 CFR 192.65 - Transportation of pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of pipe. 192.65 Section 192.65... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.65 Transportation of pipe. (a) Railroad... pipe having an outer diameter to wall thickness ratio of 70 to 1, or more, that is transported by...

  7. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding, the...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1125 - Pipes, fittings, and valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipes, fittings, and valves. 154.1125 Section 154.1125... Firefighting § 154.1125 Pipes, fittings, and valves. (a) Each pipe, fitting, and valve for each water spray... listed in § 154.1110 must have at least one isolation valve at each branch connection and at least...

  9. Optical aberrations in a spinning pipe gas lens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available If a heated pipe is rotated about its axis, a density gradient is formed which results in the pipe acting as a graded index lens. In this study the authors revisit the concept of a spinning pipe gas lens and for the first time analyse both the wave...

  10. Critical velocity and dynamic respondency of pipe conveying fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Presents the calculation of critical velocity, natural frequencyand dynamic respondency of fluid-conveying pipe are calculated under different boundary conditions using finite element method, and the use of calculation results to design and research rocket pipes feeding fuel and watery turbine pipes conveying water etc.

  11. Dehumidification in greenhouses by condensation on finned pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.C.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, an experimental dehumidifying system for greenhouses is tested. The system uses finned pipes fixed under the gutter of the greenhouse. The pipes are cooled below the dewpoint of the greenhouse air by cold water. The humid air passes the pipe and fins by natural convection and

  12. Development of Submersible Corrugated Pipe Sewage Heat Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Li; SHI Yan; TAN Yu-fei

    2009-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of heat transfer for corrugated pipe,a method of calculating and de-sign on the submersible corrugated pipe sewage heat exchanger was put forward theoretically and experimental-ly.The actual movement parameters of air-conditioning system used in this heat exchanger were measured.The experimental result shows that the quantity of heat transfer of the corrugated pipe sewage heat exchanger can satisfy the building's load with the average coefficient of performance 4.55.At the same time.the quantity ot heat transfer of the corrugated pipe sewage heat exchanger was compared with that of the other nonmetallic sewage heat exchangers(i.e.,the plastic-Al pipe sewage heat exchanger and PP-R pipe sewage heat exchanger)experimentally.It is found out that the effect of heat transfer for submersible corrugated pipe sewage heat ex-changer is superior to those of the plastic-Al pipe and the PP-R pipe.The quantity of heat transfer per mile of corrugated pipe sewage heat exchanger is 5.2 times as much as that of the plastic-Al pipe,and it is 8.1 times as much as that of PP-R pipe.

  13. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge...

  14. Temperature fluctuation phenomena in a normally stagnant pipe connected downward to a high velocity and high temperature main pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Akira, E-mail: a-naka@inss.co.jp [Institute of Nuclear Technology, Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., 64 Sata Mihama-cho, Fukui 919-1205 (Japan); Miyoshi, Koji [Institute of Nuclear Technology, Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., 64 Sata Mihama-cho, Fukui 919-1205 (Japan); Oumaya, Toru [Mechanical Engineering Group, Nuclear Power Division, Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., 8 Yokota, 13 Goichi, Mihama-cho, Fukui 919-1141 (Japan); Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Hosokawa, Shigeo; Hamatani, Daisuke; Hase, Masatsugu; Onojima, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Saito, Atsushi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Higashinada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Flow patterns in a branch pipe with a closed end were observed by visualization. • The penetration length was investigated using experiments and numerical simulations. • The temperature fluctuation mechanism related to spiral flow was discussed. - Abstract: Numerous pipes branch off from the main pipes in power plant facilities. Main pipe flow initiates a cavity flow in a downward branch pipe with a closed end and a thermally stratified layer may form in the branch pipe if there is significant temperature difference in the main and branch pipe fluids. Fluctuation of a thermally stratified layer may initiate thermal fatigue crack in the branch pipe. In the present study, flow structures and temperature fluctuations in a branch pipe are investigated by experiments and numerical simulations to understand detailed behavior of the layer in a straight pipe and in a bent pipe. The penetration length of the main flow is measured for various main pipe flow velocities. The flow patterns in a straight pipe are divided into three regions by visualization with a tracer method, i.e., cavity flow in region 1, disturbed flow in the transition region, and spiral flow in region 2. The fluid temperature fluctuation in a straight pipe after the increase of main pipe flow velocity is attenuated in several hundred seconds since the thermal stratified layer goes down under the area into which the spiral vortex reaches. The fluid temperature in a bent pipe fluctuates when the spiral vortex reaches its lowest point after a long time period. Periodical velocity fluctuations during several tens second period are observed in the spiral flow. The mechanism of temperature fluctuation near the thermal stratified layer is considered with respect to the interference by the spiral flow and the fixed thermal stratified layer at the bent section by the cold water provided from the horizontal section.

  15. Reliability of piping system components. Volume 1: Piping reliability - A resource document for PSA applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, R.; Erixon, S.; Tomic, B.; Lydell, B.

    1995-12-01

    SKI has undertaken a multi-year research project to establish a comprehensive passive component failure database, validate failure rate parameter estimates and establish a model framework for integrating passive component failures in existing PSAs. Phase 1 of the project produced a relational database on worldwide piping system failure events in the nuclear and chemical industries. This phase 2 report gives a graphical presentation of piping system operating experience, and compares key failure mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plants and chemical process industry. Inadequacies of traditional PSA methodology are addressed, with directions for PSA methodology enhancements. A data-driven-and-systems-oriented analysis approach is proposed to enable assignment of unique identities to risk-significant piping system component failures. Sufficient operating experience does exist to generate quality data on piping failures. Passive component failures should be addressed by today`s PSAs to allow for aging analysis and effective, on-line risk management. 111 refs, 36 figs, 20 tabs.

  16. 78 FR 62614 - Guttman Energy, Inc., PBF Holding Company LLC v. Buckeye Pipe Line Company, L.P., Laurel Pipe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Guttman Energy, Inc., PBF Holding Company LLC v. Buckeye Pipe Line Company, L.P., Laurel Pipe Line Company, L.P.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on October 15, 2013... Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) a complaint against Buckeye Pipe Line Company L.P. and Laurel...

  17. Tube drawing technology for seamless pipes. Application to the Cu/Nb/Cu sandwiched pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Saburo; Ohnuki, Masao [Hitachi Cable, Ltd., Tsuchiura, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujino, Takeo; Saito, Kenji; Inoue, Hitoshi; Hitomi, Nobuteru; Yamazaki, Yoshishige [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Watanabe, Kakuji [Okuda Kinzoku Co. Ltd., Ota, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Tube drawing technology based on copper tubes at the Hitachi Cable Corporation was applied to manufacture Cu/Nb/Cu sandwiched seamless pipes for Nb/Cu clad superconducting RF cavities, which is being developed at KEK. This is the first application in our company. We met several problems but finally succeeded to fabricate 11 pipes needed to hydro-bulge forming for 1300 MHz single cell cavities. Here, we explain this technology and report the problems which happened during the manufacturing. (author)

  18. Section of CMS Beam Pipe Removed

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Seven components of the beam pipe located at the heart of the CMS detector were removed in recent weeks. The delicate operations were performed in several stages as the detector was opened. Video of the extraction of one section: http://youtu.be/arGuFgWM7u0

  19. LHCb celebrates completion of its beam pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Members of the LHCb collaboration and of the AT and TS Departments are ready to pop open the champagne bottles and celebrate the complete installation and commissioning of the LHCb experiment’s beam pipe. Members of the LHCb collaboration and of the AT and TS Departments gather near the newly completed beam pipe in the foreground. All four sections of LHCb’s beam pipe have been installed, interconnected, pumped down and baked out.. Three of the conical tubes are made of beryllium in order to minimize the level of background in the experiment, while the fourth and largest section is composed of stainless steel. The first of the beryllium sections, an important connection to the Vertex Locator vacuum vessel (VELO) was installed in August 2006 (see Bulletin No. 37/2006). One of the more challenging tasks was the installation of the longest (6 m) piece of beryllium beam pipe through the 2.4 m long RICH2 detector in January 2006. Deli...

  20. "Colgate-Plus"--An Imperfect Light Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouseph, P. J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the effects when a clear toothbrush is used as total internally reflecting light pipe when attached to a laser. Several explanations are given describing the nonuniformity of the transmitted light resulting from surface and internal irregularities found in the toothbrush. (MVL)

  1. Impedance of a slotted-pipe kicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Zhou [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics

    1996-08-01

    This paper introduces the principle of a new slotted kicker simply, which is made by using vacuum pipe itself with proper slits as current conductors, and then, presents a rough estimation of its longitudinal and transverse impedance, respectively. Calculation shows that its impedance is reduced significantly compared to our present air-coil kicker. (author)

  2. Explosive Forming of Butt Welded Pipe Reducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    NOSL MT OS2 _ Eli _ _El [LII] DliB I I —~~~~~~~~~~ I 4 1 V S -. RB’ORT NO. M1052 AP~t 1919v-fl o~toswE FORMING (j~~c BUTI WELDED PIPE RE~~~ A PQWECT

  3. Detection of Gas Slugs in Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Temperature sensing system detects presence of gas slugs in heat pipes. System designed for operation between zero and 70 degrees C and detects noncondensable pockets of gas that result from decomposition of ammonia cooling fluid. Slugs 1 in. (25mm) in length detected.

  4. Potshemu medved rõtshit / Richard Pipes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pipes, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Harvardi ülikooli ajalooprofessor Richard Pipes arutleb, miks Venemaa viimase aja käitumises väljendub soovimatus koostööks, sageli ka vaenulikkus. Venemaa võimetus rahvusvahelises kontekstis oma kohta leida, selle ajaloolised juured

  5. Use of pipe saks on pipeline construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghio, Alberto F.M.; Caciatori, Angelo [Galvao Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ruschi, Allan A.; Santos, Felipe A. dos; Barros, Horacio B. de; Loureiro, Regis R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of new technologies applied to pipeline construction and assembling, aimed at enhancing productivity has been searched by PETROBRAS, throughout its subcontractors, assemblers, by transference in the mentioned constructions. Along the construction of Cacimbas Catu Pipeline, Spread 1 A, placed between the Cacimbas Gas Treatment Station (Linhares, ES) and the future Compression Station of Sao Mateus (ES), one, by means of surveys, noticed that the length of flooded or prone to flooding areas was way superior to the ones foreseen in the basic design. One of the broadly used methods for assuring buoyancy control is concreting the pipes. Such method deeply impacts work's logistics in for instance, the pipe stringing work; in this one, a maximum load of two pipes can be transported until the area to applied, what leads to lower productivity and higher risk due to the increase of trips by heavy load trucks. As an alternative to regular concrete, the Pipe Sak System was adopted and such method improved productivity and decreased discontinuities. (author)

  6. Potshemu medved rõtshit / Richard Pipes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pipes, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Harvardi ülikooli ajalooprofessor Richard Pipes arutleb, miks Venemaa viimase aja käitumises väljendub soovimatus koostööks, sageli ka vaenulikkus. Venemaa võimetus rahvusvahelises kontekstis oma kohta leida, selle ajaloolised juured

  7. Vibrations of a pipe on elastic foundations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V Lilkova-Markova; D S Lolov

    2004-06-01

    A cantilevered pipe subjected to external transverse (or lateral) force is investigated. Two cases of elastic foundations are considered: rotational and both linear and rotational. The major findings are the variations in frequency with flow velocity and displacements at different points and times.

  8. 46 CFR 108.447 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 108.447 Section 108.447 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire... CO2 system may not be used for any other purpose except as part of a fire detection system. (i)...

  9. Dual phase steel for line pipe applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merwin, M.J. [United States Steel Corp., Research and Technology Centre, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study of 2 samples of commercially produced line pipe from the same melting grade. The chemistries of the steel samples were presented. The study was conducted in response to requests by the American Petroleum Institute (API) for line pipe steel with a yield-strength-to-tensile-strength ratio (Y/T) of 0.85 or less, for use in offshore installations. The United States Steel Corporation initiated this program to achieve lower Y/T for line pipe grades while maintaining robust processing capability and mechanical properties. Heat treated seamless tubular products are typically processed in a manner that can be readily modified to produce dual phase microstructures by applying intercritical soaking before quenching. The steel line pipe industry is interested in dual phase steel for use in reel barge pipe laying operations because the the yield strength of dual phase steel is lower than tensile strength. In this study, the compositions of commercially produced material already in use for the line pipe market were studied. The developed dual phase microstructures were found to be stable over a range of intercritical temperatures. Tempering temperature and small chemistry differences were found to have the greatest influence on properties. The toughness performance was found to be excellent in samples tempered at temperatures greater than 550 degrees C, a regime which produced materials with strength suitable for use in API X60 line pipe. An incomprehensible difference in tensile strength between steels of similar chemistry was also noted. Welding performance was examined through the simulation of 3 regions of the heat-affected zone. The heat-affected zone properties were not influenced by either intercritical or tempering temperature. The only significant factor was the peak temperature that was achieved in the thermal cycle. The hardness of the heat-affected zone increased continuously with increasing peak temperature

  10. Optimization Design and Application of Underground Reinforced Concrete Bifurcation Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe is an important part of conveyance structure. During construction, the workload of excavation and concrete pouring can be significantly decreased according to optimized pipe structure, and the engineering quality can be improved. This paper presents an optimization mathematical model of underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe structure according to real working status of several common pipe structures from real cases. Then, an optimization design system was developed based on Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. Furthermore, take the bifurcation pipe of one hydropower station as an example: optimization analysis was conducted, and accuracy and stability of the optimization design system were verified successfully.

  11. Applications and market of PVC for piping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny De N. Martins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic materials by the piping industry accounts for a significant volume of polymers. In this segment PVC represents the largest worldwide market for plastics. PVC is often used in plastic pressure pipe systems for pipelines in the water and sewer industries because of its inexpensive nature and flexibility. Pipes and fittings constitute the largest volume application at 40% of the marketplace. This paper discusses the piping extrusion process and the worldwide PVC market, emphasizing the Brazilian market. It is also presented a case study including an overall cost calculation for making an extrusion line for PVC piping.

  12. Numerical study of heat pipe application in heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Lin; Broadbent, John; McGlen, Ryan [Thermacore Europe, Ashington (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are two-phase heat transfer devices with extremely high effective thermal conductivity. They can be cylindrical or planar in structure. Heat pipes can be embedded in a metal cooling plate, which is attached to the heat source, and can also be assembled with a fin stack for fluid heat transfer. Due to the high heat transport capacity, heat exchangers with heat pipes have become much smaller than traditional heat exchangers in handling high heat fluxes. With the working fluid in a heat pipe, heat can be absorbed on the evaporator region and transported to the condenser region where the vapour condenses releasing the heat to the cooling media. Heat pipe technology has found increasing applications in enhancing the thermal performance of heat exchangers in microelectronics, energy and other industrial sectors. Utilisation of a heat pipe fin stack in the drying cycle of domestic appliances for heat recovery may lead to a significant energy saving in the domestic sector. However, the design of the heat pipe heat exchanger will meet a number of challenges. This paper presents a design method by using CFD simulation of the dehumidification process with heat pipe heat exchangers. The strategies of simulating the process with heat pipes are presented. The calculated results show that the method can be further used to optimise the design of the heat pipe fin stack. The study suggests that CFD modelling is able to predict thermal performance of the dehumidification solution with heat pipe heat exchangers. (Author)

  13. Study of fatigue behavior of longitudinal welded pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, P.; Dia, V.; Istrate, B.; Hrituleac, G.; Hrituleac, I.; Munteanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    During transport and storage of the various fluids, welded pipes are subjected to cyclic loading due to pressure fluctuations that often exceed the prescribed values for normal operation. These cyclic loading can significantly reduce the life of the pipes; as a result the design should be based on the fatigue strength not only on static resistance. In general the fatigue strength of pipes is dependent by strength, pipe geometry and surface quality. In case of the electric longitudinal welded pipes, the fatigue strength is significantly limited by concentration of residual stress and the size of existing defects in the weld seam. This paper presents the fatigue behaviour of the electric welded pipes by high frequency, under conditions that simulate real operating conditions pipes. Fatigue testing was performed on welded pipes made of micro alloyed carbon steels. Some of these pipes were previously subjected to a heat treatment of normalization, in order to also determine the influence of heat treatment on the fatigue strength of welded pipes. To determine and correlate the different factors affecting the fatigue strength, welded pipes were also subjected to various tests: tensile tests, impact tests, measurement of micro hardness, microstructural analysis by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Working fluid flow visualization in gravity heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapour and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about gravity heat pipe construction and processes casing inside during heat pipe operation. Experiment working fluid flow visualization is performed with two glass heat pipes with different inner diameter (13 mm and 22 mm and filled with water. The working fluid flow visualization explains the phenomena as a working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, and vapour condensation on the wall, vapour and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  15. Working fluid flow visualization in gravity heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2016-03-01

    Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapour and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about gravity heat pipe construction and processes casing inside during heat pipe operation. Experiment working fluid flow visualization is performed with two glass heat pipes with different inner diameter (13 mm and 22 mm) and filled with water. The working fluid flow visualization explains the phenomena as a working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, and vapour condensation on the wall, vapour and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  16. Modeling and analysis of water-hammer in coaxial pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Cesana, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    The fluid-structure interaction is studied for a system composed of two coaxial pipes in an annular geometry, for both homogeneous isotropic metal pipes and fiber-reinforced (anisotropic) pipes. Multiple waves, traveling at different speeds and amplitudes, result when a projectile impacts on the water filling the annular space between the pipes. In the case of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic thin pipes we compute the wavespeeds, the fluid pressure and mechanical strains as functions of the fiber winding angle. This generalizes the single-pipe analysis of J. H. You, and K. Inaba, Fluid-structure interaction in water-filled pipes of anisotropic composite materials, J. Fl. Str. 36 (2013). Comparison with a set of experimental measurements seems to validate our models and predictions.

  17. Burst limit state reliability for fiber-wrapped steel pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dann, Markus R. [University of Calgary (Canada); Maes, Marc A. [Blade Energy Partners Ltd. (Canada); Salama, Mamdouh M. [ConocoPhillips Company (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In the oil and gas sector, due to the increase in demand, pipeline projects are being developed in remote areas with harsh environments. High strength steel pipelines have been developed but due to their high cost and to low production capacity, the focus is now on dry fiber augmented steel technology pipelines (FAST-Pipe). The aim of this paper is to present a probabilistic mechanical burst limit state for such fiber wrapped pipelines. This model has been developed based on a large strain Cauchy stress formulation and has been used to perform a reliability comparison between an X80 pipe and an X70 FAST-Pipe. Results showed that the FAST-Pipe has more uncertainties than the high strength steel pipe and thus lower factors should be used in their design. This paper provided a probabilistic limit state model which can be used for both steel pipes and FAST-Pipe.

  18. STRUCTURE DESIGN OF THE BEIJING SPECTROMETER Ⅲ BEAM PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Lifang; JI Quan; WANG Li; LI Xunfeng; XU Shaowang; DONG Sujun; ZHAO Libin; LIU Jianping

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing spectrometer Ⅲ (BESⅢ) beam pipe is in the center of the BESⅢ, which is the detector of the upgrade project of Beijing electron and positron collider (BEPCⅡ). Electrons and positrons collide in the BESⅢ beam pipe. According to the demands of the BEPCⅡ, a key program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, the BESⅢ beam pipe is designed based on the finite elements analysis. The BESⅢ beam pipe is installed in the inner cylinder of the BESⅢ drift chamber. As a vacuum tube, the BESⅢ beam pipe is designed as 1 000 mm in length, 63 mm in inner diameter and 114 mm in outer diameter, respectively. The BESⅢ beam pipe consists of a central beryllium pipe cooled by EDM-1, the oil No.1 for electric discharge machining, and two extended copper pipes cooled by deionized water (DW). The three parts are jointed by vacuum welding. Factors taken into account in the design are as follows. ① The wall thickness of the central beryllium pipe should be designed as small as possible to reduce the multi-scattering and improve the particle momentum resolution. And the wall thickness of the extended copper pipe should be designed as large as possible to protect the detectors from the backgrounds. ② The BESⅢ beam pipe must be sufficiently cooled to avoid the damage and prevents its influence to the BESⅢ drift chamber (DC) operation. The inner surface temperature of the DC inner cylinder must be maintained at 293±2 K. ③ The magnetic permeability of the materials used in the BESⅢ beam pipe must be less than 1.05 H/m to avoid large magnetic field distortions. ④ The static pressure of the vacuum chamber of the BESⅢ beam pipe must be less than 800 (Pa. The simulating results show that the designed structure of the BESⅢ beam pipe satisfies the requirements mentioned above. The structure design scheme is evaluated and adopted by the headquarters of BEPCⅡ.

  19. Corroded scale analysis from water distribution pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaković-Ognjanović Vladana N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study was the steel pipes that are part of Belgrade's drinking water supply network. In order to investigate the mutual effects of corrosion and water quality, the corrosion scales on the pipes were analyzed. The idea was to improve control of corrosion processes and prevent impact of corrosion on water quality degradation. The instrumental methods for corrosion scales characterization used were: scanning electron microscopy (SEM, for the investigation of corrosion scales of the analyzed samples surfaces, X-ray diffraction (XRD, for the analysis of the presence of solid forms inside scales, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, for the microstructural analysis of the corroded scales, and BET adsorption isotherm for the surface area determination. Depending on the composition of water next to the pipe surface, corrosion of iron results in the formation of different compounds and solid phases. The composition and structure of the iron scales in the drinking water distribution pipes depends on the type of the metal and the composition of the aqueous phase. Their formation is probably governed by several factors that include water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity, buffer intensity, natural organic matter (NOM concentration, and dissolved oxygen (DO concentration. Factors such as water flow patterns, seasonal fluctuations in temperature, and microbiological activity as well as water treatment practices such as application of corrosion inhibitors can also influence corrosion scale formation and growth. Therefore, the corrosion scales found in iron and steel pipes are expected to have unique features for each site. Compounds that are found in iron corrosion scales often include goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, hematite, ferrous oxide, siderite, ferrous hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, ferrihydrite, calcium carbonate and green rusts. Iron scales have characteristic features that include: corroded floor, porous core that contains

  20. Trace element composition of silicate inclusions in sub-lithospheric diamonds from the Juina-5 kimberlite: Evidence for diamond growth from slab melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. R.; Kohn, S. C.; Bulanova, G. P.; Smith, C. B.; Araujo, D.; Walter, M. J.

    2016-11-01

    The trace element compositions of inclusions in sub-lithospheric diamonds from the Juina-5 kimberlite, Brazil, are presented. Literature data for mineral/melt partition coefficients were collated, refitted and employed to interpret inclusion compositions. As part of this process an updated empirical model for predicting the partitioning behaviour of trivalent cations for garnet-melt equilibrium calibrated using data from 73 garnet-melt pairs is presented. High levels of trace element enrichment in inclusions interpreted as former calcium silicate perovskite and majoritic garnet preclude their origin as fragments of an ambient deep mantle assemblage. Inclusions believed to represent former bridgmanite minerals also display a modest degree of enrichment relative to mantle phases. The trace element compositions of 'NAL' and 'CF phase' minerals are also reported. Negative Eu, Ce, and Y/Ho anomalies alongside depletions of Sr, Hf and Zr in many inclusions are suggestive of formation from a low-degree carbonatitic melt of subducted oceanic crust. Observed enrichments in garnet and 'calcium perovskite' inclusions limit depths of melting to less than 600 km, prior to calcium perovskite saturation in subducting assemblages. Less enriched inclusions in sub-lithospheric diamonds from other global localities may represent deeper diamond formation. Modelled source rock compositions that are capable of producing melts in equilibrium with Juina-5 'calcium perovskite' and majorite inclusions are consistent with subducted MORB. Global majorite inclusion compositions suggest a common process is responsible for the formation of many superdeep diamonds, irrespective of geographic locality. Global transition zone inclusion compositions are reproduced by fractional crystallisation from a single parent melt, suggesting that they record the crystallisation sequence and melt evolution during this interaction of slab melts with ambient mantle. All observations are consistent with the

  1. Application of LBB to a nozzle-pipe interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y.J.; Sohn, G.H.; Kim, Y.J. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Typical LBB (Leak-Before-Break) analysis is performed for the highest stress location for each different type of material in the high energy pipe line. In most cases, the highest stress occurs at the nozzle and pipe interface location at the terminal end. The standard finite element analysis approach to calculate J-Integral values at the crack tip utilizes symmetry conditions when modeling near the nozzle as well as away from the nozzle region to minimize the model size and simplify the calculation of J-integral values at the crack tip. A factor of two is typically applied to the J-integral value to account for symmetric conditions. This simplified analysis can lead to conservative results especially for small diameter pipes where the asymmetry of the nozzle-pipe interface is ignored. The stiffness of the residual piping system and non-symmetries of geometry along with different material for the nozzle, safe end and pipe are usually omitted in current LBB methodology. In this paper, the effects of non-symmetries due to geometry and material at the pipe-nozzle interface are presented. Various LBB analyses are performed for a small diameter piping system to evaluate the effect a nozzle has on the J-integral calculation, crack opening area and crack stability. In addition, material differences between the nozzle and pipe are evaluated. Comparison is made between a pipe model and a nozzle-pipe interface model, and a LBB PED (Piping Evaluation Diagram) curve is developed to summarize the results for use by piping designers.

  2. Graded-porosity heat-pipe wicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    To maximize the capacity of a nonarterial heat pipe, a wick is considered whose porosity is allowed to vary axially along its length. At every axial location the porosity is set no lower than required to maintain the wick in a nearly saturated state under the maximum heat-transport rate. The result is a wick whose permeability is everywhere as high as possible. The differential equation that governs the optimum porosity variation is solved numerically between a condenser-end boundary condition that just prevents a liquid slug or puddle in the vapor spaces and an evaporator-end boundary condition that just prevents circumferential groove dry-up. Experimental performance measurements for an ammonia heat pipe are presented.

  3. DRYING WITH SOLAR COLLECTOR BY HEAT PIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet DOĞAN

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, heating pipe was used in the solar collector in order to take better advantage of the solar energy. The energy obtained from the sun was transferred to the drying air by means of heating pipes and this hot air was blown on the material to be dried. The water on the material to be dried vaporised with the effect of the hot air and drying took place. Because drying took place in the shade, distant from the direct radiation effects of the sun, some of the disadvantages seen in drying outside, under the sun were eliminated. Additionally, it was observed that it took less time to dry in this method than it takes to dry under the open sun.

  4. AWSWAH - the heat pipe solar water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyurt, M.

    1986-01-01

    An all weather heat pipe solar water heater (AWSWAH) comprising a collector of 4 m/sup 2/ (43 ft/sup 2/) and a low profile water tank of 160 liters (42 gal.) was developed. A single heat pipe consisting of 30 risers and two manifolds in the evaporator and a spiral condenser was incorporated into the AWSWAH. Condensate metering was done by synthetic fiber wicks. The AWSWAH was tested alongside two conventional solar water heaters of identical dimensions, an open loop system and a closed loop system. It was found that the AWSWAH was an average of 50% more effective than the open system in the temperature range 30-90 /sup 0/C (86-194 /sup 0/F). The closed loop system was the least efficient of the three systems.

  5. Coherent structures in transitional pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Leo H. O.; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Smits, Alexander J.

    2016-06-01

    Transition to turbulence in pipe flow is investigated experimentally using a temporally resolved dual-plane particle image velocimetry approach, at a Reynolds number of 3440. The flow is analyzed using proper orthogonal decomposition and it is shown that the flow can be divided into two regions: a pseudolaminar region governed by the presence of azimuthally steady traveling waves, and turbulent slugs. The evolution of the structures within the slugs is identified by using the temporally resolved data along with the dual-plane velocity field. These structures are shown to be remarkably similar to the large-scale motions found in fully turbulent flows, with a streamwise and spatiotemporal extent about four pipe radii. The transition between structures is characterized by the detachment and decay of an old structure and the initiation of a new structure at the wall.

  6. Optimum Pipe Size Selection for Turbulent Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. AKINTOLA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines are normally designed to deliver fluid at the required head and flow rate in a cost effective manner. Increase in conduit diameter leads to increase in annual capital costs, and decrease in operating costs. Selection of an optimum conduit diameter for a particular fluid flow will therefore be a vital economic decision. This paper presents a computer aided optimisation technique for determination of optimum pipe diameter for a number of idealized turbulent flow. Relationships were formulated connecting theories of turbulent fluid flow with pipeline costing. These were developed into a computer program, written in Microsoft Visual C++ language, for a high-level precision estimate of the optimum pipe diameter, through the least total cost approach. The validity of the program was ascertained through case studies, representative of fluids with different densities and compressibility. The optimum conduit diameter was found to increase linearly with increase in compressibility.

  7. Long-term behaviour of GRP pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, H; A Vieira; Reis, J; Marques, A. T.; Guedes, R.M.; Ferreira, A. J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the research programme /1/ described is the study of creep and relaxation behaviour of glass-rein forced thermosetting (GRP) pipes, in order to find alternative methods to predict the long-term properties, rendering a considerable reduction of the time needed for testing and assuring, as far as possible, equivalent reliability when compared to the existing methods. Experimental procedures were performed and are presented here, together with discussion of results, as well...

  8. Overview of piping issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S.H.

    1992-12-01

    A variety of failure mechanisms that have contributed to failures in nuclear reactor piping systems are discussed: these include general corrosion, intergranular stress corrosion, erosion-corrosion, mechanical fatigue, and thermal fatigue covering the spectrum from mixing-tee to stratification. Actions to minimize or eliminate these failure mechanisms are discussed where these actions are based on the experience amassed over the past three decades.

  9. A multifunctional heat pipe sandwich panel structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queheillalt, Douglas T.; Wadley, Haydn N.G. [University of Virginia, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 140 Chemistry Way, P.O. Box 400745, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Carbajal, Gerardo [University of Turabo, School of Engineering, P.O. Box 3030, Gurabo 00778 (Puerto Rico); Peterson, G.P. [University of Colorado at Boulder, 914 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    A multifunctional sandwich panel combining efficient structural load support and thermal management characteristics has been designed and experimentally assessed. The concept is based upon a truncated, square honeycomb sandwich structure. In closed cell honeycomb structures, the transport of heat from one face to the other occurs by a combination of conduction through the webs and convection/radiation within the cells. Here, much more effective heat transport is achieved by multifunctionally utilizing the core as a heat pipe sandwich panel. Its interior consists of a 6061 aluminum truncated-square honeycomb core covered with a stochastic open-cell nickel foam wick. An electroless nickel plating barrier layer inhibited the chemical reaction between the deionized water working fluid and the aluminum structure, retarding the generation of non-condensable hydrogen gas. A thermodynamic model was used to guide the design of the heat pipe sandwich panel. We describe the results of a series of experiments that validate the operational principle of the multifunctional heat pipe sandwich panel and characterize its transient response to an intense localized heat source. The systems measured thermal response to a localized heat source agrees well with that predicted by a finite difference method model used to predict the thermal response. (author)

  10. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture.

  11. Morbidity profile of steel pipe production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit Kirti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the different morbid conditions among steel pipe producing workers. Methods: The present cross-sectional study has been carried out among the workers of one of the steel pipes and tubes manufacturing factory of Gujarat. Hundred workers from the four major departments of the steel pipe production plant, namely welding, pressing machine, X-ray welding and loading/transportation department were covered. The information regarding demographic, occupational, clinical characteristics and diagnosis were recorded on a pre-designed proforma. Statistical analysis included calculation of percentages and proportions and was carried out using the statistical software Epi Info Version 3.3.2. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was found to be 38.7±7.1 years. The mean duration of exposure was found to be 9.0±3.4 years. Forty-four percent of the subjects had an upper respiratory tract infection, as evidenced by symptoms like dry cough, cough with rhinitis and cough with fever. Symptoms suggestive of allergic bronchitis were observed in 12% of the subjects while symptoms suggestive of heat stress such as prickly heat, dehydration, perspiration and pyrexia were observed in 13% of the subjects.

  12. Determination of leakage areas in nuclear piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, E. [Siemens/KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    For the design and operation of nuclear power plants the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) behavior of a piping component has to be shown. This means that the length of a crack resulting in a leak is smaller than the critical crack length and that the leak is safely detectable by a suitable monitoring system. The LBB-concept of Siemens/KWU is based on computer codes for the evaluation of critical crack lengths, crack openings, leakage areas and leakage rates, developed by Siemens/KWU. In the experience with the leak rate program is described while this paper deals with the computation of crack openings and leakage areas of longitudinal and circumferential cracks by means of fracture mechanics. The leakage areas are determined by the integration of the crack openings along the crack front, considering plasticity and geometrical effects. They are evaluated with respect to minimum values for the design of leak detection systems, and maximum values for controlling jet and reaction forces. By means of fracture mechanics LBB for subcritical cracks has to be shown and the calculation of leakage areas is the basis for quantitatively determining the discharge rate of leaking subcritical through-wall cracks. The analytical approach and its validation will be presented for two examples of complex structures. The first one is a pipe branch containing a circumferential crack and the second one is a pipe bend with a longitudinal crack.

  13. Fluid structure interaction in piping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svingen, Bjoernar

    1996-12-31

    The Dr. ing. thesis relates to an analysis of fluid structure interaction in piping systems in the frequency domain. The governing equations are the water hammer equations for the liquid, and the beam-equations for the structure. The fluid and structural equations are coupled through axial stresses and fluid continuity relations controlled by the contraction factor (Poisson coupling), and continuity and force relations at the boundaries (junction coupling). A computer program has been developed using the finite element method as a discretization technique both for the fluid and for the structure. This is made for permitting analyses of large systems including branches and loops, as well as including hydraulic piping components, and experiments are executed. Excitations are made in a frequency range from zero Hz and up to at least one thousand Hz. Frequency dependent friction is modelled as stiffness proportional Rayleigh damping both for the fluid and for the structure. With respect to the water hammer equations, stiffness proportional damping is seen as an artificial (bulk) viscosity term. A physical interpretation of this term in relation to transient/oscillating hydraulic pipe-friction is given. 77 refs., 72 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Stuck pipe: Causes, detection and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, L.; Jomnes, T. (Schlumberger Cambridge Research (UK)); Belaskie, J.; Orban, J.; Sheppard, M (Anadrill, Sugarland, TX (USA)); Houwen, O.; Jardine, S.; McCann, D. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France))

    1991-10-01

    Stuck pipe remains a major headache that demands and is getting industry-wide attention. It costs the oil industry between $200 and $500 million each year, occurs in 15% of wells, and in many cases is preventable. Several operators are making determined efforts to codify the warning signs and to improve communication for all on-site drilling and service company personnel, for which the data gathering ability of a computerized information system is a necessity. Meanwhile, better rig sensors and information systems are providing rig-floor smart'' alarms to help the driller recognize trouble before it gets out of hand. The causes of stuck pipe can be divided broadly among differential sticking, formation-related sticking and mechanical sticking. One of the results of the industry's current attention is a better understanding of the events leading up to stuck pipe and their interpretationn in terms of the causes of sticking. Knowing the causes is essential for taking remedial action. 15 figs., 19 refs.

  15. Vortexons in axisymmetric Poiseuille pipe flows

    CERN Document Server

    Fedele, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We present a study on the nonlinear dynamics of small long-wave disturbances to the laminar state in non-rotating axisymmetric Poiseuille pipe flows. At high Reynolds numbers, the associated Navier-Stokes equations can be reduced to a set of coupled Korteweg-de Vries-type (KdV) equations that support inviscid and smooth travelling waves numerically computed using the Petviashvili method. In physical space they correspond to localized toroidal vortices concentrated near the pipe boundaries (wall vortexons) or that wrap around the pipe axis (centre vortexons), in agreement with the analytical soliton solutions derived by Fedele (2012). The KdV dynamics of a perturbation is also investigated by means of an high accurate Fourier-based numerical scheme. We observe that an initial vortical patch splits into a centre vortexon radiating patches of vorticity near the wall. These can undergo further splitting leading to a proliferation of centre vortexons that eventually decay due to viscous effects. The splitting proc...

  16. Relaminarisation of fully turbulent flow in pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnen, Jakob; Hof, Bjoern

    2014-11-01

    Drag reduction still remains one of the most alluring applications of turbulence control. We will show that flattening the streamwise velocity profile in pipes can force turbulent flow to decay and become laminar. Two different experimental control schemes are presented: one with a local modification of the flow profile by means of a stationary obstacle and one with a moving wall, where a part of the pipe is shifted in the streamwise direction. Both control schemes act on the flow such that the streamwise velocity profile becomes more flat and turbulence gradually grows faint and disappears. Since, in a smooth straight pipe, the flow remains laminar from that position a reduction in skin friction by a factor of 5 can be accomplished. We will present measurements with high-speed particle image velocimetry, measurements of the pressure drop and videos of the development of the flow during relaminarisation. The guiding fundamental principle behind our approach to control the velocity profile will be explained and discussed.

  17. Turbulent pipe flows subjected to temporal decelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Wongwan; Lee, Jae Hwa

    2016-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of temporally decelerating turbulent pipe flows were performed to examine effects of temporal decelerations on turbulence. The simulations were started with a fully developed turbulent pipe flow at a Reynolds number, ReD =24380, based on the pipe radius (R) and the laminar centerline velocity (Uc 0). Three different temporal decelerations were imposed to the initial flow with f= | d Ub / dt | =0.00127, 0.00625 and 0.025, where Ub is the bulk mean velocity. Comparison of Reynolds stresses and turbulent production terms with those for steady flow at a similar Reynolds number showed that turbulence is highly intensified with increasing f due to delay effects. Furthermore, inspection of the Reynolds shear stress profiles showed that strong second- and fourth-quadrant Reynolds shear stresses are greatly increased, while first- and third-quadrant components are also increased. Decomposition of streamwise Reynolds normal stress with streamwise cutoff wavelength (λx) 1 R revealed that the turbulence delay is dominantly originated from delay of strong large-scale turbulent structures in the outer layer, although small-scale motions throughout the wall layer adjusted more rapidly to the temporal decelerations. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2014R1A1A2057031).

  18. Effect of temperature and pipe material on biofilm formation and survival of Escherichia coli in used drinking water pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silhan, J.; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Segments of used drinking water pipes of galvanised steel (GS), cross-linked polyethylene (PEX), copper pipes (Cu) or new medium-density polyethylene (PE) were investigated for the formation of biofilm and survival of E coli in biofilm and in the water phase. Pipes were filled with water and incu...... survived longer at both temperatures in the glass control bottles than in the drinking water pipes. Despite the obvious biofilm formation, E coli was not detected in the biofilm at any of the investigated surfaces.......Segments of used drinking water pipes of galvanised steel (GS), cross-linked polyethylene (PEX), copper pipes (Cu) or new medium-density polyethylene (PE) were investigated for the formation of biofilm and survival of E coli in biofilm and in the water phase. Pipes were filled with water...... confirmed the general trends observed by HPC. Higher temperature was seen to be an important factor reducing E coli survival in the water phase in drinking water pipes. At 1 VC E coli survived more than 4 d in GS and Cu pipes and 8 d in PE-pipes, but was not detected after 48 h at 35 degrees C. The E coli...

  19. Environmental and Thermal Performance of District Heating Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeling, Morgan

    2002-06-01

    The introduction of district heating has reduced the environmental impact from local heat production in urban areas. However, in order to fit into a sustainable society, district heating must be continuously developed according to the increasing demands on activities in a society moving towards sustainability. Our technical improvements must result in environmental improvements. This thesis focuses on the environmental performance of the distribution system - the district heating pipes. The purpose of this research is to understand how the distribution system can be improved. The information presented in this thesis can be used to identify possibilities for improving the environmental performance of different life cycle phases of the distribution system as well as a baseline when evaluating new technical developments. The heat losses during use of the pipes are of large importance for the environmental impact of district heating pipes. Such heat losses can be modelled if the mass transfer parameters for gases in the polyurethane insulation and the polyethylene casing are known. The diffusion coefficients, the permeability coefficients and the solubility coefficients and their temperature dependence have been determined for cyclopentane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen. The same parameters have been studied for the blowing agent alternative HFC-365mfc at room temperature. The long-term thermal performance of district heating pipes has been modelled using effective permeabilities for the pipe construction. Environmental consequences of heat losses during the use phase of district heating pipes have been compared with the impacts from production of the pipes and from construction of the district heating network. The use of the district heating pipes is the most important of the studied life cycle phases. Thus, it is very important to minimise heat losses from the pipes. The heat losses will for some district heating pipes increase notably during use due to foam

  20. 46 CFR 56.04-2 - Piping classification according to service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping classification according to service. 56.04-2... PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Piping Classification § 56.04-2 Piping classification according to... Piping Classification Service Class 1 Pressure (p.s.i.g.) Temp. (°F) Class B and C poisons 2 I any and...

  1. 49 CFR 195.585 - What must I do to correct corroded pipe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must I do to correct corroded pipe? 195.585... pipe? (a) General corrosion. If you find pipe so generally corroded that the remaining wall thickness... pipe. However, you need not replace the pipe if you— (1) Reduce the maximum operating pressure...

  2. Method for the fabrication of insulated double pipes. Verfahren zum Herstellen von isolierten Doppelrohren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.

    1992-06-11

    The invention describes a method for the fabrication of double-walled insulating pipes which is characterized by the fact that the internal pipe is joined coldly and the external pipe hotly, and the filling material between external and internal pipe guarantees a leakproof tight distance through the shrinkage of the hot external pipe.

  3. 46 CFR 154.524 - Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings. 154.524... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.524 Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings. Pipe... warmer. (d) Screwed couplings are allowed for instrumentation and control piping that meets §...

  4. Buckling Response of Pipe-in-Pipe Systems Subjected to Bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王哲; 陈志华; 刘红波; 何永禹; 马克俭

    2015-01-01

    The buckling response of pipe-in-pipe(PIP)systems subjected to bending is investigated in this paper. A set of parameterized models are established to explore the bending characteristics of the PIP systems through eigen-value buckling analysis and nonlinear post-buckling analysis. The results show that the length of PIP systems and the height of centralizers are the most significant factors that influence the buckling moment, ultimate bending mo-ment and buckling mode; the other geometric characteristics, such as initial geometric imperfection and friction between centralizers and outer pipes, evidently influence the post-buckling path and ductility of PIPs; the equivalent bending stiffness is dependent on the length and centralizers. Moreover, the range of equivalent bending stiffness is also discussed.

  5. A thermal study of pipes with outer transverse fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides results of thermal investigations on pipes with outer transverse fins produced by placing a strip, being a form of helical spring which functions as a radiator, on the basis pipe. The investigations were carried out at the facility that enables measurements with respect to both natural and forced convection. Performance of the investigated pipes was assessed in relation to a non-finned pipe and a pipe welded with the use of Metal Active Gas (MAG technology. The experiments have shown that the finned pipe welding technology does not markedly affect their thermal efficiency, which has been confirmed by performed model calculations, while the welding technology has a crucial impact on their operating performance.

  6. Thermal Analysis of Heat Pipe Using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilkumar R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The heat pipe is a novel heat transfer device to transfer large amount of heat through a small cross sectional area with very small temperature differences and it also posses high thermal conductance and low thermal impedance. In this paper, the heat pipe working parameters are analyzed using Taguchi methodology. The Taguchimethod is used to formulate the experimental work, analyze the effect of working parameters of the heat pipe and predict the optimal parameter of heat pipe such as heat input, inclination angle and flow rate. It is found that these parameters have a significant influence on heat pipe performance. The analysis of the Taguchi method reveals that, all the parameters mentioned above have equal contributions in the performance of heat pipe efficiency, thermal resistance and overall heat transfer coefficient. Experimental results are provided to validate the suitability of the proposed approach.

  7. Impact of working fluids on gravitational heat pipe performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobb, Marián; Kosa, Ľuboš; Nosek, Radovan; Malcho, Milan

    2016-06-01

    Performance heat pipes depends on several parameters. This article deals with the performance of heat pipes, depending on the working fluid and operating temperature. There is described the essential function of the heat pipe manufacturing process. Stainless heat pipes were made of material AISI 304 and filled with a distilled water and solution of distilled water with silver nitrate, up to 20% of the heat pipe inner volume. Measurements were carried at an operating temperature of 40 °C to 90 °C. The performance was measured on the experimental device. Presented results show the progress of individual measurements and the effect of operating parameters and working fluid on the performance of heat pipes.

  8. Research on Oil/Gas In-pipe Inspection Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new type of in-pipe mobile robot was designed and developed on the basis of wheel in-pipe robot and crawler in-pipe robot. The three sets of driving wheels circumferentially 120° apart in the cross section, both front and rear driving wheels are distributed on the same parallelogram mechanism. The driving motor drives the three sets of driving wheels by worm couple, the regulating motor makes the three sets of driving wheels push against the pipe inwall with stable and adequate pressing force by the ball screw pair and pressure sensor, so the in-pipe robot can provide adequate and stable traction force. The robot mechanism is simple and small in size and work reliably. It is particularly suitable to the pipe with diameter 400~650 mm.

  9. In-Orbit Construction with a Helical Seam Pipe Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhooley, N.

    The challenges of building large structures in space, and in particular a torus habitat, require novel processes. One potential method is to manufacture helical seam (also called spiral) pipe in orbit using a pipe mill. These machines turn rolls of steel or alloy into fully formed, welded and inspected pipe, pressure vessels and silos of various diameters. Pipe mills are highly automated and efficient in a factory environment and are increasingly being used for in-situ repair. By constructing in-orbit (on-orbit assembly) the launch vehicle can supply full payloads of compact, robust rolls of material; and the installation design is less restricted by fairing constraints and modular limitations. The use of a pipe mill is discussed as a possible construction method, for comparison an example design envelope is shown and further pipe mill products are considered.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF LOAD SENSING SYSTEM WITH LONG PIPES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Xiaowu; Qiu Minxiu; Wei Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    A test platform is established as per the practical working condition of elevating platform fire truck. The influences of pipes and load on dynamic characteristics of load-sensing system are studied by series of step response experiments. Experimental results show that the feedback pipe makes the most important influence on the dynamic response speed of load-sensing system. Its internal diameter should be optimized for given length of pipe. On the other hand, the stability of load-sensing pump is improved as the length of input pipe increases in a certain range. The influence of input pipe on the dynamic response speed is caused mainly by the pressure-wave travel time in the input pipe.

  11. Biplastic pipes for high-pressure oil pipeline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoshkin, A. N.; Tashkinov, A. A.; Larionov, A. F.; Pospelov, A. B.

    2000-05-01

    A high-performance, corrosion-resistant biplastic pipe for high-pressure oil pipeline systems is presented. The pipe combines an outer load-carrying layer formed from unidirectionally glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) sublayers by wet multi-circuit winding and an inner sealing layer of high-density polyethylene. Both demountable and permanent joints, tees, and other parts are constructed for these pipes. The biplastic pipes ensure reliable operation of oil pipeline systems under a pressure of up to 200 bar. The experimental results and calculated estimates of the strength of biplastic pipes are presented. The results of using these pipes in oil pipeline systems in the Perm' region are discussed.

  12. Development of a jet pump-assisted arterial heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, W. B.; Ducao, A. S.; Trimmer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a jet pump assisted arterial heat pipe is described. The concept utilizes a built-in capillary driven jet pump to remove vapor and gas from the artery and to prime it. The continuous pumping action also prevents depriming during operation of the heat pipe. The concept is applicable to fixed conductance and gas loaded variable conductance heat pipes. A theoretical model for the jet pump assisted arterial heat pipe is presented. The model was used to design a prototype for laboratory demonstration. The 1.2 m long heat pipe was designed to transport 500 watts and to prime at an adverse elevation of up to 1.3 cm. The test results were in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The heat pipe carried as much as 540 watts and was able to prime up to 1.9 cm. Introduction of a considerable amount of noncondensible gas had no adverse effect on the priming capability.

  13. Analysis and Optimisation of Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe

    on reels. Flexible pipes are constructed in a layer structure in which each layer adds specific properties to the pipe such as; collapse strength, fluid integrity, bursting strength, tensile strength etc. The inner-most layer of a flexible pipe is the carcass; a flexible interlocking stainless steel......Un-bonded flexible pipes are used in the offshore oil and gas industry worldwide transporting hydrocarbons from seafloor to floating production vessels topside. Flexible pipes are advantageous over rigid pipelines in dynamic applications and during installation as they are delivered in full length...... structure that provides mechanical and collapse strength for the flexible pipe. The manufacturing process of carcass is a combination of roll forming stainless steel strips and helical winding the profiles around a mandrel interlocking the profiles with themselves. The focus of the present project...

  14. 46 CFR 34.15-15 - Piping-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping-T/ALL. 34.15-15 Section 34.15-15 Shipping COAST... Systems, Details § 34.15-15 Piping—T/ALL. (a) The piping, valves, and fittings shall have a bursting pressure of not less than 6,000 pounds p.s.i. (b) All piping, in nominal sizes not over 3/4-inch shall...

  15. Robotic platform for traveling on vertical piping network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Thomas A; Vrettos, Nick J; Krementz, Daniel; Marzolf, Athneal D

    2015-02-03

    This invention relates generally to robotic systems and is specifically designed for a robotic system that can navigate vertical pipes within a waste tank or similar environment. The robotic system allows a process for sampling, cleaning, inspecting and removing waste around vertical pipes by supplying a robotic platform that uses the vertical pipes to support and navigate the platform above waste material contained in the tank.

  16. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure that produces a hoop stress of 30 percent, or more, of SMYS. (b) Each...

  17. Novel Robotic Tools for Piping Inspection and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    motion. This in-pipe motion is accomplished by the use of inflatable pneumatic annular grippers in concert with a novel flexible pneumatic linear ...actuator capable. This linear actuator is capable of actuation while bent to conform to the contours of a piping system. The flexible linear actuator...robotic tool is based on pneumatically actuated peristaltic motion. This in-pipe motion is accomplished by the use of inflatable pneumatic annular

  18. Dynamics of fluid-conveying pipes: effects of velocity profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enz, Stephanie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Varying velocity profiles and internal fluid loads on fluid-conveying pipes are investigated. Different geometric layouts of the fluid domain and inflow velocity profiles are considered. It is found that the variation of the velocity profiles along the bended pipe is considerable. A determination...... of the resulting fluid loads on the pipe walls is of interest e.g, for evaluating the dynamical behaviour of lightly damped structures like Coriolis flow meters....

  19. Closing LHCb's calorimeter around the beam-pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    Kristic, R

    2008-01-01

    Photos 1 and 2 show the pre-shower, lead absorber and the scintillating pad detector layers moving in towards the beam-pipe. Photos 3,4 and 5 show the hadron calorimeter with both halves closed around the beam-pipe, to the left of the picture and, in the centre, half of the electromagnetic calorimeter closed in towards the beam-pipe.

  20. Analysis of superheater's pipe wall overtemperature by fault tree diagnose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛德仁; 任浩仁; 陈坚红; 李蔚

    2002-01-01

    After research on a 2000t/h subcritical forced-circulation balanced v entilation were applied boiler and the structure and operation of its auxiliary system builds up this heat transfer model of a superheater's pipe wall and analy ze the effect of primary factors on the overtemperature of the pipe wall. Fault tree structure was used to uncover the multiplayer logic between the overtempera ture of the superheater's pipe wall and the faults.

  1. Some Unresolved Issues in Ocean Pipes Aspirating Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Qin; WANG Lin; NI Qiao; HUANG Yu-ying

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the dynamics of ocean pipes aspirating fluid and presents a selective review of the research undertaken on it. It focuses on the equations of motion, fluid-solid interaction at the inlet of the free end of the pipe, the stability mechanism of pipes aspirating steady fluid, etc. In particular, some unresolved or partly resolved issues on these important aspects are discussed. Finally, the promising future development in this area is discussed.

  2. Surface Hardness of Friction Stir Welded AA6063 Pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Azman; Awang Mokhtar

    2014-01-01

    The external surface hardness of friction stir welded aluminum alloy 6063 pipe joint was investigated in this paper. The 89mm of outside diameter pipe with 5mm of wall thickness was used as test pipe piece for this experiment on closed butt joint configuration by utilising Bridgeport 2216 CNC milling machine and orbital clamping unit specially designed to cater for this task and function. Several welded samples were produced on varying process parameters which were successfully joined by usin...

  3. TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF A VALVE CONTROL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM WITHLONG PIPES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jianhua; Kong Xiaowu; Qiu Minxiu; Wu Genmao

    2004-01-01

    The simulation model of a valve control hydraulic system with long pipe is established in Simulink4.0, and then the step responses of the systems with difference pipe parameters are investigated by simulation.Simulation results show that the long pipes will slow down the step response of system and make it fluctuate periodically.The results of simulation conform to the results of experiment on the whole, which proves the mathematic model is correct.

  4. Predictions for fatigue crack growth life of cracked pipes and pipe welds using RMS SIF approach and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Punit, E-mail: punit@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Department of Atomic Energy, Maharashtra, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, P.K.; Bhasin, Vivek; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Department of Atomic Energy, Maharashtra, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pukazhendhi, D.M.; Gandhi, P.; Raghava, G. [Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2011-10-15

    The objective of the present study is to understand the fatigue crack growth behavior in austenitic stainless steel pipes and pipe welds by carrying out analysis/predictions and experiments. The Paris law has been used for the prediction of fatigue crack growth life. To carry out the analysis, Paris constants have been determined for pipe (base) and pipe weld materials by using Compact Tension (CT) specimens machined from the actual pipe/pipe weld. Analyses have been carried out to predict the fatigue crack growth life of the austenitic stainless steel pipes/pipes welds having part through cracks on the outer surface. In the analyses, Stress Intensity Factors (K) have been evaluated through two different schemes. The first scheme considers the 'K' evaluations at two points of the crack front i.e. maximum crack depth and crack tip at the outer surface. The second scheme accounts for the area averaged root mean square stress intensity factor (K{sub RMS}) at deepest and surface points. Crack growth and the crack shape with loading cycles have been evaluated. In order to validate the analytical procedure/results, experiments have been carried out on full scale pipe and pipe welds with part through circumferential crack. Fatigue crack growth life evaluated using both schemes have been compared with experimental results. Use of stress intensity factor (K{sub RMS}) evaluated using second scheme gives better fatigue crack growth life prediction compared to that of first scheme. Fatigue crack growth in pipe weld (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) can be predicted well using Paris constants of base material but prediction is non-conservative for pipe weld (Shielded Metal Arc Welding). Further, predictions using fatigue crack growth rate curve of ASME produces conservative results for pipe and GTAW pipe welds and comparable results for SMAW pipe welds. - Highlights: > Predicting fatigue crack growth of Austenitic Stainless Steel pipes and pipe welds. > Use of RMS-SIF and

  5. Heat losses through pipe connections in hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    loss from an ideally insulated pipe connected to the top of a hot water tank is mainly due to a natural convection flow in the pipe, that the heat loss coefficient of pipes connected to the top of a hot water tank is high, and that a heat trap can reduce the heat loss coefficient significantly. Further......The heat loss from pipe connections at the top of hot water storage tanks with and without a heat trap is investigated theoretically and compared to similar experimental investigations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used for the theoretical analysis. The investigations show that the heat...

  6. Small, Untethered, Mobile Robots for Inspecting Gas Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Small, untethered mobile robots denoted gas-pipe explorers (GPEXs) have been proposed for inspecting the interiors of pipes used in the local distribution natural gas. The United States has network of gas-distribution pipes with a total length of approximately 109 m. These pipes are often made of iron and steel and some are more than 100 years old. As this network ages, there is a need to locate weaknesses that necessitate repair and/or preventive maintenance. The most common weaknesses are leaks and reductions in thickness, which are caused mostly by chemical reactions between the iron in the pipes and various substances in soil and groundwater. At present, mobile robots called pigs are used to inspect and clean the interiors of gas-transmission pipelines. Some carry magnetic-flux-leakage (MFL) sensors for measuring average wall thicknesses, some capture images, and some measure sizes and physical conditions. The operating ranges of pigs are limited to fairly straight sections of wide transmission- type (as distinguished from distribution- type) pipes: pigs are too large to negotiate such obstacles as bends with radii comparable to or smaller than pipe diameters, intrusions of other pipes at branch connections, and reductions in diameter at valves and meters. The GPEXs would be smaller and would be able to negotiate sharp bends and other obstacles that typically occur in gas-distribution pipes.

  7. Heat losses through pipe connections in hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    loss from an ideally insulated pipe connected to the top of a hot water tank is mainly due to a natural convection flow in the pipe, that the heat loss coefficient of pipes connected to the top of a hot water tank is high, and that a heat trap can reduce the heat loss coefficient significantly. Further......The heat loss from pipe connections at the top of hot water storage tanks with and without a heat trap is investigated theoretically and compared to similar experimental investigations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used for the theoretical analysis. The investigations show that the heat...

  8. Long time durability tests of fabric inlet stratification pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The long time durability of seven different two layer fabric inlet stratification pipes for enhancing thermal stratification in hot water stores is investigated experimentally. Accelerated durability tests are carried out with the inlet stratification pipes both in a domestic hot water tank...... and that this destroys the capability of building up thermal stratification for the fabric inlet stratification pipe. The results also show that although dirt, algae etc. are deposited in the fabric pipes in the space heating tank, the capability of the fabric inlet stratifiers to build up thermal stratification...

  9. Water-pipe smoking among North American youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Erika; Tremblay, Michèle; Low, Nancy C P; Cournoyer, Daniel; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2010-06-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to identify the sociodemographic characteristics of water-pipe users in a North American context and to describe concurrent psychoactive substance use. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, water-pipe smoking, and use of other psychoactive substances were collected in 2007 through mailed self-report questionnaires completed by 871 young adults, 18 to 24 years of age, who were participating in the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study, a longitudinal investigation of the natural history of nicotine dependence among adolescents in Montreal, Canada. Independent sociodemographic correlates of water-pipe use were identified in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Previous-year water-pipe use was reported by 23% of participants. Younger age, male gender, speaking English, not living with parents, and higher household income independently increased the odds of water-pipe use. Water-pipe use was markedly higher among participants who had smoked cigarettes, had used other tobacco products, had drunk alcohol, had engaged in binge drinking, had smoked marijuana, or had used other illicit drugs in the previous year. Water-pipe users may represent an advantaged group of young people with the leisure time, resources, and opportunity to use water-pipes. Evidence-based public health and policy interventions are required to equip the public to make informed decisions about water-pipe use.

  10. Entropy generation analysis of cylindrical heat pipe using nanofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanbarpour, Morteza, E-mail: morteza.ghanbarpour@energy.kth.se; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah

    2015-06-20

    Highlights: • Entropy generation of heat pipe with nanofluid has been studied. • Nanofluid has significant effect on heat pipe performance. • Entropy generation in heat pipe decreases when nanofluids are used as working fluids. - Abstract: Thermal performance of cylindrical heat pipe with nanofluid is studied based on the laws of thermodynamics. The objective of the present work is to investigate nanofluids effect on different sources of entropy generation in heat pipe caused by heat transfer between hot and cold reservoirs and also frictional losses and pressure drop in the liquid and vapor flow along heat pipe. An analytical study was performed to formulate all sources of entropy generation and the predicted results are compared with experimental ones. Cylindrical miniature grooved heat pipes of 250 mm length and 6.35 mm outer diameter were fabricated and tested with distilled water and water based TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofluids at different concentrations as working fluids. Analytical and experimental results revealed that the entropy generation in heat pipes decreases when nanofluids are used as working fluids instead of basefluid which results in improved thermal performance of the heat pipes with nanofluids.

  11. Heat pipes for spacecraft temperature control: Their usefulness and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendorf, S.; Stipandic, E.

    1972-01-01

    Heat pipes are used in spacecraft to equalize the temperature of structures and maintain temperature control of electronic components. Information is provided for a designer on: (1) a typical mounting technique, (2) choices available in wick geometries and fluids, (3) tests involved in flight-qualifying the design, and (4) heat pipe limitations. An evaluation of several heat pipe designs showed that the behavior of heat pipes at room temperature does not necessarily correlate with the classic equations used to predict their performance. They are sensitive to such parameters as temperature, fluid inventory, orientation, and noncondensable gases.

  12. Development of heat pipes for solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyurt, M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerous heat pipes were designed, manufactured, and filled on a specially developed filling rig. Each heat pipe was incorporated into a prototype solar water heater developed for this purpose, and was tested under actual insolation conditions. An extensive testing program lasting for more than a year revealed that the heat pipes perform satisfactorily as heat transfer elements in solar water heaters. A special heat pipe featuring a compact and effective condenser configuration was also tested. It was observed to likewise exhibit isothermal behavior and hence promised potential for large scale solar applications.

  13. Pressure Controlled Heat Pipe for Precise Temperature Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research project will develop Pressure Controlled Heat Pipes (PCHPs) for precise temperature control (milli-Kelvin level). Several...

  14. Study on Varying Metallic Properties of Straight and Elbow Pipes of Main Steam Piping after Long-Time Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Hongsheng; Lin Zhongyuan; Duan Xuzhen

    2005-01-01

    The mechanic properties, lasting strength and microstructural properties of straight and elbow pipesof 12CrMo, 10CrMo910 and 12CrlMoV low alloy steel main steam piping system after long-time service weretested and studied. The testing results showed that, for straight and elbow pipes of mainsteam piping under theconditions of high temperature and high pressure, the numerical operating performance indexes of their metalchanged with little difference, generally both within 5%, and the Values of elbow were higher than those ofstraight pipes. These phenomena proved that the aging processes of pipe metal at different positions are thesame. And the cause for higher numerical performance indexes of elbow and higher failure rate at elbow posi-tion during operation of steam pipes were investigated.

  15. Failure rates in Barsebaeck-1 reactor coolant pressure boundary piping. An application of a piping failure database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydell, B. [RSA Technologies, Vista, CA (United States)

    1999-05-01

    This report documents an application of a piping failure database to estimate the frequency of leak and rupture in reactor coolant pressure boundary piping. The study used Barsebaeck-1 as reference plant. The study tried two different approaches to piping failure rate estimation: 1) PSA-style, simple estimation using Bayesian statistics, and 2) fitting of statistical distribution to failure data. A large, validated database on piping failures (like the SKI-PIPE database) supports both approaches. In addition to documenting leak and rupture frequencies, the SKI report describes the use of piping failure data to estimate frequency of medium and large loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs). This application study was co sponsored by Barsebaeck Kraft AB and SKI Research 41 refs, figs, tabs

  16. Procedure for the Selection of Maximum Pipe Thickness for Efficient Thermal Insulation in Piping with Steam Trace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauris Gilbert-Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for the selection of maximum pipe thickness to achieve efficient thermal insulation in piping with steam tracing was developed. The bibliographical review allowed identifying the limitations of previous investigations with regard to the selection of pipe thickness in transfer systems with steam tracing. The model for calculating the overall lost heat was prepared. The procedure considers economic criteria for the selection of pipe thickness and established an optimal thickness value which guarantees a total minimum cost by establishing a balance between the expenditures resulting from heat loss and the project costs.

  17. Effect on mechanical properties of glass reinforced epoxy (GRE) pipe filled with different geopolymer filler molarity for piping application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, M. F. Abu; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Ghazali, C. M. R.; Hussin, K.; Binhussain, M.

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the use of a novel white clay geopolymer as a filler to produce high strength glass reinforced epoxy pipe. It was found that using white clay geopolymer as filler gives better compressive strength to the glass reinforced epoxy pipe. The disadvantages of current glass reinforced epoxy pipes such low compressive strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymerization is an innovative technology that can transform several aluminosilicate materials into useful products called geopolymers or inorganic polymers. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentages white clay geopolymer filler with 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of white clay geopolymer filler surface was indicates using scanning electron microscopy. The additions of white clay geopolymer filler for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity show higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without any geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these epoxy geopolymer pipe samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. Nonetheless, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with white clay geopolymer filler continues to drop when added to 40 wt% of the geopolymer filler loading for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity. These outcomes showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be attained in this research.

  18. Fracture mechanics models developed for piping reliability assessment in light water reactors: piping reliability project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.O.; Lim, E.Y.; Dedhia, D.D.; Woo, H.H.; Chou, C.K.

    1982-06-01

    The efforts concentrated on modifications of the stratified Monte Carlo code called PRAISE (Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events) to make it more widely applicable to probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis of nuclear reactor piping. Pipe failures are considered to occur as the result of crack-like defects introduced during fabrication, that escape detection during inspections. The code modifications allow the following factors in addition to those considered in earlier work to be treated: other materials, failure criteria and subcritical crack growth characteristic; welding residual and vibratory stresses; and longitudinal welds (the original version considered only circumferential welds). The fracture mechanics background for the code modifications is included, and details of the modifications themselves provided. Additionally, an updated version of the PRAISE user's manual is included. The revised code, known as PRAISE-B was then applied to a variety of piping problems, including various size lines subject to stress corrosion cracking and vibratory stresses. Analyses including residual stresses and longitudinal welds were also performed.

  19. Magnet Fall inside a Conductive Pipe: Motion and the Role of the Pipe Wall Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.; Martin, P.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical models and experimental results are presented for the retarded fall of a strong magnet inside a vertical conductive non-magnetic tube. Predictions and experimental results are in good agreement modelling the magnet as a simple magnetic dipole. The effect of varying the pipe wall thickness on the retarding magnetic drag is studied for…

  20. Research and Development on Heat Pipes and Related Thermal Engineering Technologies in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    OSHIMA, Koichi

    1989-01-01

    Five advanced heat pipe systems utilizing phase changing heat transfer concept are introduced, which are; a separate type heat pipe heat exchanger, a heat pipe turbine, micro heat pipes, a thermocapillary loop system and mass-produced tubes with inner fin. Inside of these heat pipes, contrary to the conventional heat transfer tubes, evaporation and condensation processes are heavily influenced by the surface tension effect. This effect is also dominant in the heat pipes operating under micro-...

  1. Sparsity based defect imaging in pipes using guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golato, Andrew; Santhanam, Sridhar; Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness G.

    2016-05-01

    Pipes are used for the transport of fluids and gases in urban and industrial settings, such as buried pipelines to transport water, oil, and other resources. To ensure reliable operation, it is essential that an inspection system be in place to identify and localize damage/defects in the pipes. Unfortunately, many of the typical nondestructive evaluation techniques are inadequate due to limited pipe access; often, only the beginning and end sections of the pipe are physically accessible. As such, this problem is well suited to the use of ultrasonic guided-wave based structural health monitoring. With a limited number of transducers, ultrasonic guided waves can be used to interrogate long lengths of pipes. In this paper, we propose a damage detection and localization scheme that relies upon the inherent sparsity of defects in the pipes. A sparse array of transducers, deployed in accessible areas of the pipes, is utilized in pitch-catch mode to record signals scattered by defects in the pipe. Both the direct path scattering off the defect, and the helical modes, which are paths that spiral around the circumference of the pipe before or after interaction with the defect, are recorded. A Lamb wave based signal model is formulated that accounts for this multipath approach. The signal model is then inverted via group sparse reconstruction, in order to produce an image of the scene. The model accounts for the specificities of Lamb wave propagation through the pipe. Performance validation of the proposed approach is provided using simulated data for an aluminum pipe.

  2. High heat flux loop heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Mark T.; Sarraf, David B.; Rosenfeld, John H.; Maidanik, Yuri F.; Vershinin, Sergey

    1997-01-01

    Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) can transport very large thermal power loads, over long distances, through flexible, small diameter tubes and against high gravitational heads. While recent LHPs have transported as much as 1500 W, the peak heat flux through a LHP's evaporator has been limited to about 0.07 MW/m2. This limitation is due to the arrangement of vapor passages next to the heat load which is one of the conditions necessary to ensure self priming of the device. This paper describes work aimed at raising this limit by threefold to tenfold. Two approaches were pursued. One optimized the vapor passage geometry for the high heat flux conditions. The geometry improved the heat flow into the wick and working fluid. This approach also employed a finer pored wick to support higher vapor flow losses. The second approach used a bidisperse wick material within the circumferential vapor passages. The bidisperse material increased the thermal conductivity and the evaporative surface area in the region of highest heat flux, while providing a flow path for the vapor. Proof-of-concept devices were fabricated and tested for each approach. Both devices operated as designed and both demonstrated operation at a heat flux of 0.70 MW/m2. This performance exceeded the known state of the art by a factor of more than six for both conventional heat pipes and for loop heat pipes using ammonia. In addition, the bidisperse-wick device demonstrated boiling heat transfer coefficients up to 100,000 W/m2.K, and the fine pored device demonstrated an orientation independence with its performance essentially unaffected by whether its evaporator was positioned above, below or level with the condenser.

  3. Flow accelerated corrosion study in feeder pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, P.; Verma, V.; Singh, R.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Reactor Safety Div.

    2014-11-15

    The Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) core consists of a number of horizontal channels containing nuclear fuel bundles. Parallel coolant channels are connected to Inlet and Outlet header through feeder pipes. Coolant from Reactor Inlet Header is distributed to the coolant channels and after removing heat combines at Reactor Outlet Header. Due to space constraints the feeder pipes are joined to the channel with one or two elbows close to the end fittings of the coolant channels. The carbon steel feeder pipes carry high temperature fluid at higher velocity and are liable to undergo Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). In the recent inspection it has been found that feeders having double elbow are more susceptible to FAC on the intrados of second elbow. But it was found that in some of the elbows maximum thinning due to FAC was observed on the intrados of the first elbow. Hence to resolve this, effect of first bend orientation with respect of upstream direction has been studied. Two different approaches are used for predicting the FAC rate from calculated value of wall shear stress by CFD. One method is based on evaluating of wear rate using Colburn analogy and the other using an empirical equation between wear rate and shear stress. In Colburn analogy, mass transfer coefficient is evaluated by knowing shear stress and equilibrium concentration. For a case study, wall shear stress obtained from k-ε turbulence model was compared with k-ω SST turbulence model and no appreciable change in the wall shear stress has been found. Hence for subsequent analysis k-ε turbulence model was chosen because large mesh size near to the surface (first layer thickness) is permitted due to higher y{sup +} value.

  4. Polyurethane coating for ductile iron pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG En-qing

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A special polyurethane coating designed for ductile iron pipe was developed. The effects of the ingredients on properties, such as viscosity, flow leveling, solidification-rate, adhesion and hardness, were researched. It was then analyzed in what ways the technical parameters, such as temperature and pressure, influence the coat quality. The results showed that the molar ratio and synthesizing conditions must be strictly controlled to obtain suitable pre-polymer viscosity by adjusting the formula ratio of the B component, satisfactory mechanical properties and cure rate can be obtained and bubbles in the coat can be avoided.

  5. Volcanic Pipe of the Namuaiv Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir K. Karzhavin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at reconstructing thermodynamic conditions required for the studied mineral assemblages to be created and exist in nature. The results of the investigations confirm to the recent ideas about an important, even leading, role of temperature, pressure and dioxide carbon in diamond formation in volcanic pipers. The results of this theoretical research allows assuming that one of the reasons for the absence of diamonds in the Namuaiv Mountain volcanic pipe may lie in the increased content of water and oxidizing environmental conditions of their formation

  6. Power source for wireless sensors in pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddis, Sherif; Schwesinger, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present investigations on wireless sensors for fluid control inside a pipe. Autarkic sensors are in the technical trend. They are typically connected with a transceiver unit for data transmission. Sensors usually need a lower amount of energy than data transceivers. Therefore, they are commonly supplied via wires or batteries with electricity. With common technologies, this request leads to high requirements on tightness in liquids since poor sealing could easily lead to failures. Replacement of batteries inside pipes is complicated and almost accompanied by a flow interruption. The application of energy harvesters as power supply is therefore a good alternative. In our studies we used flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters of PVDF (Poly-Vinylidene-Di-Fluoride). All harvesting units consist of piezoelectric PVDF-foils as active layers and Aluminum-foils as electrodes. The layers were stacked alternating on each other and wound to a spool. A LDPE-film wraps the spool and prevents the inflow of liquids. The device has following parameters: No. of windings: 4 in air, 4, 5, 7 in water Dimensions: 15 mm Ø 22mm Materials: PDVF: 25μm Aluminimum: 6μm, LDPE: 25μm A ring shaped bluff body was placed inside the pipe to induce turbulence in the fluid stream. As the harvesters have been arranged downstream of the bluff body, they were forced to oscillate independent of the media. In each case, deformation of the active layers led to a polarization and a separation of electrical charges. Experiments were carried out in a wind channel as well as in a water pipe. In air, the spool oscillates with a frequency of about 30Hz, at a wind speed of about 7m/s. A -Voltage of about 4V (peak-peak) was measured. This delivers in case of power adjustment, power values of about 0.54μW. In water, the velocity of the fluid was limited to nearly one tenth. Oscillation starts only at a water speed above 0.6m/s. The average oscillation frequency is about 18Hz. At a velocity

  7. "Bainiaoyi, " Bamboo-Pipe Wind Instrument Troupe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The "Bainiaoyi," or Bamboo-Pipe Wind Instrument Troupe, consists of young men and women of Miao nationality of the mountain villages in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Each of them can dance and sing well, and are often invited to perform in provinces and cities across China. Because of this, these young peasants who live deep in the mountain villages get a chance to leave their isolated homelands to visit other parts of the world and broaden their scope. The Miao people aren’t the only ones to benefit from these travels. More and more people now have the opportunity to

  8. Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 5. Heat pipe topical, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-07-01

    Work performed by Dynatherm Corporation for Teledyne Isotopes during a program entitled ''Heat Pipe Fabrication, Associated Technical Support and Reporting'' is reported. The program was initiated on November 29, 1972; the main objectives were accomplished with the delivery of the heat pipes for the HPG. Life testing of selected heat pipe specimens is continuing to and beyond the present date. The program consisted of the following tasks: Heat Pipe Development of Process Definition; Prototype Heat Pipes for Fin Segment Test; HPG Heat Pipe Fabrication and Testing; Controlled Heat Pipe Life Test; and Heat Pipe Film Coefficient Determination. (TFD)

  9. Static analysis of a piping system with elbows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, B.J.

    1994-03-01

    Vibration tests of elbows to failure were performed in Japan in the early 1970s. The piping system included two elbows and an eccentric mass. Tests were run both pressurized and unpressurized. This report documents a static analysis of the piping system in which the elbows are subjected to out of plane bending. The effects of internal pressure and material plasticity are investigated.

  10. A Corrosion Risk Assessment Model for Underground Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik; Fraser, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pressure Systems Manager at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has embarked on a project to collect data and develop risk assessment models to support risk-informed decision making regarding future inspections of underground pipes at ARC. This paper shows progress in one area of this project - a corrosion risk assessment model for the underground high-pressure air distribution piping system at ARC. It consists of a Corrosion Model of pipe-segments, a Pipe Wrap Protection Model; and a Pipe Stress Model for a pipe segment. A Monte Carlo simulation of the combined models provides a distribution of the failure probabilities. Sensitivity study results show that the model uncertainty, or lack of knowledge, is the dominant contributor to the calculated unreliability of the underground piping system. As a result, the Pressure Systems Manager may consider investing resources specifically focused on reducing these uncertainties. Future work includes completing the data collection effort for the existing ground based pressure systems and applying the risk models to risk-based inspection strategies of the underground pipes at ARC.

  11. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exhaust systems must ensure minimum risk of injury to personnel. Protection must be provided in compliance... in bulkhead penetration glands for dry exhaust systems. A wet exhaust pipe may be welded to a steel... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section...

  12. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... installation. (a) The design of all exhaust systems must ensure minimum risk of injury to personnel. Protection... be used in bulkhead penetration glands for dry exhaust systems. A wet exhaust pipe may be welded to a... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 182.430 Section...

  13. 46 CFR 177.970 - Protection against hot piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection against hot piping. 177.970 Section 177.970 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.970 Protection against hot piping....

  14. 46 CFR 151.20-1 - Piping-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping-general. 151.20-1 Section 151.20-1 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Cargo Transfer § 151.20-1 Piping—general. (a) Cargo piping systems shall be arranged and fabricated in accordance with this section and Subchapter F. The class of...

  15. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and pressure piping. 197.462 Section... Diving Equipment § 197.462 Pressure vessels and pressure piping. (a) The diving supervisor shall ensure that each pressure vessel, including each volume tank, cylinder and PVHO, and each pressure...

  16. 46 CFR 182.510 - Bilge piping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge piping system. 182.510 Section 182.510 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.510 Bilge piping system. (a) A vessel of at least...

  17. Plumbing and Piping: Construction, Supervision, and Inspection. Course of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Lester; Turley, John

    This course of study on plumbing and piping is part of a construction, supervision, and inspection series, which provides instructional materials for community or junior college technical courses in the inspection program. Material covered in this volume pertains to: uniform plumbing code; pipes, fittings, supports, and connections; sewer and…

  18. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted...

  19. Detecting Pipe Bursts Using Heuristic and CUSUM Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Jung, D.; Vreeburg, J.; Van de Roer, M.; Lansey, K.; Rierveld, L.

    2014-01-01

    Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst detecti

  20. 24 CFR 3280.706 - Oil piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... internal obstructions. The system shall be made of materials having a melting point of not less than 1,450... connection(s). (j) Testing for leakage. Before setting the system in operation, tank installations and piping... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oil piping systems. 3280.706...