Ratute, Ashley; Marcketti, Sara B.
Educating students to embrace diversity and value all people is a core value of educators in family and consumer sciences (FCS). For instructors in FCS, integrating the contributions of African Americans--particularly in textiles and clothing--can be an inclusive learning opportunity. The authors compiled resources on African Americans and…
Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.
Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…
Winston, Deborah L.
A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior…
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...
Johnson, Derek C; Shrestha, Sadeep; Wiener, Howard W; Makowsky, Robert; Kurundkar, Ashish; Wilson, Craig M; Aissani, Brahim
Genetic polymorphism along mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defines population-specific signatures called mtDNA haplogroups. Estimation of mtDNA haplogroup distribution may be prone to errors, notably if the study sample is not drawn from a multicenter cohort. Here, we report on mtDNA diversity in a sample of African American individuals (n = 343) enrolled in a multicenter cohort. Sequencing of the hypervariable regions I and II of the D-loop control region showed that the most common mitochondrial variants are 73G, 146C, 150T, 152C, 189G, 16278T, and 16311C. In agreement with the published data, we observed 17 common mtDNA haplogroups: L0, L1, L1b, L1c, L2, L2a, L2b, L2c, L2e, L3, L3b, L3d, L3e, L3f, L3h, L3x, and L4. The most commonly observed haplogroup is L2a (19.8%), followed by L1b (10.2%). Overall, the observed mtDNA haplogroup distribution in our study is similar to those published for the African American and the African populations.
Dawkins, Marvin P.; Williams, Mary M.
More research into illicit substance abuse in rural African-American communities is needed. The existing literature indicates that patterns of use for licit substances (alcohol and cigarettes) are either similar for rural Blacks and Whites or lower for Blacks. However, the negative health and social consequences of smoking and abusive drinking are…
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan C; Aiello, Allison E; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro
Sexual violence is prevalent nationally and contributes to psychopathology in the general population. Despite elevated traumatic event exposure among economically disadvantaged urban-dwelling African-Americans, there is insufficient information on lifetime sexual violence exposure and associated psychopathology in this population. In 2008-2009, 1,306 African-Americans from a Detroit household probability sample reported on lifetime rape and sexual assault and past-month and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Lifetime sexual violence prevalence was 26.3 % for women and 5.1 % for men. Relative to non-victims, sexual violence victims: reported more other traumatic events; had 4 times greater unadjusted odds of past-month and lifetime PTSD; had 1.6 times greater adjusted odds of lifetime PTSD only after controlling for other traumatic events. Sexual violence was associated with increased risk for lifetime PTSD and exposure to other traumas. Findings highlight a need to screen for sexual violence and PTSD among urban African-Americans.
Hudgens Edward E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and allergy represent complex phenotypes, which disproportionately burden ethnic minorities in the United States. Strong evidence for genomic factors predisposing subjects to asthma/allergy is available. However, methods to utilize this information to identify high risk groups are variable and replication of genetic associations in African Americans is warranted. Methods We evaluated 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and a deletion corresponding to 11 genes demonstrating association with asthma in the literature, for association with asthma, atopy, testing positive for food allergens, eosinophilia, and total serum IgE among 141 African American children living in Detroit, Michigan. Independent SNP and haplotype associations were investigated for association with each trait, and subsequently assessed in concert using a genetic risk score (GRS. Results Statistically significant associations with asthma were observed for SNPs in GSTM1, MS4A2, and GSTP1 genes, after correction for multiple testing. Chromosome 11 haplotype CTACGAGGCC (corresponding to MS4A2 rs574700, rs1441586, rs556917, rs502581, rs502419 and GSTP1 rs6591256, rs17593068, rs1695, rs1871042, rs947895 was associated with a nearly five-fold increase in the odds of asthma (Odds Ratio (OR = 4.8, p = 0.007. The GRS was significantly associated with a higher odds of asthma (OR = 1.61, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.21, 2.13; p = 0.001. Conclusions Variation in genes associated with asthma in predominantly non-African ethnic groups contributed to increased odds of asthma in this African American study population. Evaluating all significant variants in concert helped to identify the highest risk subset of this group.
Mellman, Thomas A; Aigbogun, Notalelomwan; Graves, Ruth Elaine; Lawson, William B; Alim, Tanya N
The occurrence of sleep paralysis (SP) absent narcolepsy appears to not be uncommon in African Americans and probably other non-European groups. Prior research has linked SP to trauma and psychiatric disorders and suggested a specific relationship to panic disorder in African Americans. The objective of our study was to evaluate relationships of SP with trauma, concurrent psychiatric symptoms and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in an adult African American population recruited from primary care. Cross sectional study with surveys and diagnostic interviews; Patients attending primary care clinics filled out a survey that determined the 6 month prevalence and associated features of SP, a panic disorder screen, the self-rated Hamilton Depression Scale, and an inventory of trauma exposure. A subset of trauma-exposed participants (N = 142) received comprehensive diagnostic interviews that incorporated the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Clinician Assessed PTSD Scale. Four hundred and forty-one adults participated (mean age-40.0 SD = 13.3, 68% female, 95% African American). Fourteen percent endorsed recent SP. In approximately 1/3 of those with SP, episodes also featured panic symptoms. SP was strongly associated with trauma history, and concurrent anxiety and mood symptoms. SP was not associated with specific psychiatric disorders other than lifetime (but not current) alcohol or substance use disorders. Our findings suggest that SP is not uncommon in adult African Americans and is associated with trauma and concurrent distress but not with a specific psychiatric diagnosis.
Godoy, Leandra; Shabazz, Kanya
Background There is considerable potential for mobile technologies to empower pediatric patients and families by improving their communication with health professionals. National surveys suggest minority parents frequently communicate via mobile technology, but it is uncertain how amenable they are to receiving health care information in this format. Although the low cost and far reach characteristics of mobile health (mHealth) technology makes it advantageous for communication with minority parents, data on acceptance are needed. Objective The objective of the study was to determine utilization of mobile and Internet technology by African American parents in an urban, underserved population, and to assess their interest in receiving health information via text messaging or other technologies (eg, social media and the Internet). Methods A survey was administered to parents of children aged 1-12 years covered by public insurance receiving care at 3 pediatric primary care centers in Washington, DC. Results The African American sample (N=302) was composed of primarily single (75.8%, 229/302) mothers. Almost half had more than a high school education (47.7%, 144/302) and incomes above US $25,000 per year (43.0%, 130/302). Most (97.0%, 293/302) reported owning a cell phone, of which 91.1% (275/302) used it to text and 78.5% (237/302) used it to access the Internet. Most had service plans with unlimited text and data, but 26.5% (80/302) experienced service interruptions in the previous year. Home Internet access was more prevalent among those with higher income (86.2%, 112/130), but it was still relatively pervasive among lower income families (66.9%, 83/124). In adjusted logistic regression models, African American mothers with income greater than US $25,000 annually were 4 times as likely to own a tablet computer than their lower income counterparts. Of the participants, 80.8% (244/302) used social networking, primarily Facebook, and 74.2% (224/302) were interested in
Hu, Daniel; Juarez, Deborah Taira; Yeboah, Michelle; Castillo, Theresa P
The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the effectiveness of interventions to improve medication adherence in ethnic minority populations. A literature search from January 2000 to August 2012 was conducted through PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Search terms used included: medication (MeSH), adherence, medication adherence (MeSH), compliance (MeSH), persistence, race, ethnicity, ethnic groups (MeSH), minority, African-American, Hispanic, Latino, Asian, Pacific Islander, and intervention. Studies which did not have ≥75% of the sample population comprised of individuals of any one ethnic background were excluded, unless the authors performed sub-group analyses by race/ethnicity. Of the 36 studies identified, 20 studies showed significant post-intervention differences. Sample population sizes ranged from 10 to 520, with a median of 126.5. The studies in this review were conducted with patients of mainly African-American and Latino descent. No studies were identified which focused on Asians, Pacific Islanders, or Native Americans. Interventions demonstrating mixed results included motivational interviewing, reminder devices, community health worker (CHW) delivered interventions, and pharmacist-delivered interventions. Directly observed therapy (DOT) was a successful intervention in two studies. Interventions which did not involve human contact with patients were ineffective. In this literature review, studies varied significantly in their methods and design as well as the populations studied. There was a lack of congruence among studies in the way adherence was measured and reported. No single intervention has been seen to be universally successful, particularly for patients from ethnic minority backgrounds.
Kazamel, Mohamed; Cutter, Gary; Claussen, Gwendolyn; Alsharabati, Mohammad; Oh, Shin J; Lu, Liang; King, Peter H
Our objective was to identify the main clinical and epidemiological features of ALS in a large cohort of African American (AA) patients and compare them to Caucasian (CA) patients in a clinic-based population. We retrospectively identified 207 patients who were diagnosed with ALS based on the revised El Escorial criteria (60 AA and 147 CA subjects). Patients were seen in the Neuromuscular Division at the University Medical Center. We compared epidemiological and clinical features of these two groups, focusing on age of onset and diagnosis, clinical presentation and survival. Results showed that AA patients had a significantly younger age of disease onset (55 years vs. 61 years for CA, p = 0.011) and were diagnosed at an earlier age (56 years vs. 62 years, p = 0.012). In younger ALS patients (population and males in the CA population (p = 0.025). In a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model, survival rates were not different between the groups. In both groups, survival significantly increased with younger age. In conclusion, AA patients presented at an earlier age, but there was no difference in survival compared to CA patients. A gender reversal occurred in younger ALS patients, with AA patients more likely to be female and CA patients more likely to be male.
Garg, Shashank; Girotra, Mohit; Chandra, Lakshya; Verma, Vipin; Kaur, Sumanjit; Allawy, Allawy; Secco, Alessandra; Anand, Rohit; Dutta, Sudhir K.
Background and Aim. Inadequate bowel preparation is a major impediment in colonoscopy quality outcomes. Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of multimedia education (MME) in improving bowel preparation quality and adenoma detection rate. Methods. This was an IRB-approved prospective randomized study that enrolled 111 adult patients undergoing outpatient screening or surveillance colonoscopy. After receiving standard colonoscopy instructions, the patients were randomized into MME group (n = 48) and control group (n = 46). The MME group received comprehensive multimedia education including an audio-visual program, a visual aid, and a brochure. Demographics, quality of bowel preparation, and colonoscopy findings were recorded. Results. MME group had a significantly better bowel preparation in the entire colon (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.16–6.09) and on the right side of the colon (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.12–6.71) as compared to control group (p 1 cm) were found more frequently in the MME group (11/31, 35.5% versus 0/13; p < 0.05). More polyps and adenomas were detected in MME group (57 versus 39 and 31 versus 13, resp.) but the difference failed to reach statistical significance. Conclusion. MME can lead to significant improvement in the quality of bowel preparation and large adenoma detection in a predominantly African-American population. PMID:27006590
Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Liburd, Leandris
Since the release of former Secretary Margaret Heckler's "Secretary's Task Force Report on Black and Minority Health" more than two decades ago, excess death from chronic diseases and other conditions between African Americans and Whites have increased. The conclusion of that report emphasized excess death and thus clinical care, paying little…
Full Text Available While genome-wide association studies (GWAS have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD, but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations.
Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…
Beech, Bettina M; Bruce, Marino A; Crump, Mary E; Hamilton, Gina E
Recruitment for large cohort studies is typically challenging, particularly when the pool of potential participants is limited to the descendants of individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal "parent" study. The increasing complexity of family structures and dynamics can present challenges for recruitment in offspring. Few best practices exist to guide effective and efficient empirical approaches to participant recruitment. Social and behavioral theories can provide insight into social and cultural contexts influencing individual decision-making and facilitate the development strategies for effective diffusion and marketing of an offspring cohort study. The purpose of this study was to describe the theory-informed recruitment approaches employed by the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study (JHKS), a prospective offspring feasibility study of 200 African American children and grandchildren of the Jackson Heart Study (JHS)-the largest prospective cohort study examining cardiovascular disease among African American adults. Participant recruitment in the JHKS was founded on concepts from three theoretical perspectives-the Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Strength of Weak Ties, and Marketing Theory. Tailored recruitment strategies grounded in participatory strategies allowed us to exceed enrollment goals for JHKS Pilot Study and develop a framework for a statewide study of African American adolescents.
... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...
Kylee L Spencer
Full Text Available Age at menarche (AM and age at natural menopause (ANM define the boundaries of the reproductive lifespan in women. Their timing is associated with various diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic variants associated with either AM or ANM in populations of largely European or Asian descent women. The extent to which these associations generalize to diverse populations remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to replicate previously reported AM and ANM findings and to identify novel AM and ANM variants using the Metabochip (n = 161,098 SNPs in 4,159 and 1,860 African American women, respectively, in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC studies, as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE Study. We replicated or generalized one previously identified variant for AM, rs1361108/CENPW, and two variants for ANM, rs897798/BRSK1 and rs769450/APOE, to our African American cohort. Overall, generalization of the majority of previously-identified variants for AM and ANM, including LIN28B and MCM8, was not observed in this African American sample. We identified three novel loci associated with ANM that reached significance after multiple testing correction (LDLR rs189596789, p = 5×10⁻⁰⁸; KCNQ1 rs79972789, p = 1.9×10⁻⁰⁷; COL4A3BP rs181686584, p = 2.9×10⁻⁰⁷. Our most significant AM association was upstream of RSF1, a gene implicated in ovarian and breast cancers (rs11604207, p = 1.6×10⁻⁰⁶. While most associations were identified in either AM or ANM, we did identify genes suggestively associated with both: PHACTR1 and ARHGAP42. The lack of generalization coupled with the potentially novel associations identified here emphasize the need for additional genetic discovery efforts for AM and ANM in diverse populations.
Stokes, Julie E.; And Others
This paper investigates the psychometric properties of the African Self-Consciousness (ASC) Scale in a noncollege heterogeneous population of 147 African Americans to determine the reliability and validity of the ASC Scale. Based on analysis of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and construct validity, the study shows the ASC Scale to be a…
Ross, L J
The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.
African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...
... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...
... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . FastStats Homepage Diseases and Conditions Anemia or Iron Deficiency Arthritis ... Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2014, Table P-1c [PDF - 442 KB] Smoking ...
Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana
Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.
Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S
The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.
Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts
... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...
Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a common medical disease, occurring in about one third of young adults and almost two thirds of individuals over the age of 60. With the release of the Eighth Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment (JNC-8 guidelines, there have been major changes in blood pressure management in the various subgroups. Aim: Optimal blood pressure management and markers of end-organ damage in African-American adult patients were compared between patients who were managed according to the JNC-8 hypertension management guidelines and those who were treated with other regimens. Materials and Methods: African-American patients aged 18 years or older with an established diagnosis of hypertension were included in the study who were followed up in our internal medicine clinic between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2103; the data on their systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings, heart rate, body mass index (BMI, age, gender, comorbidities, and medications were recorded. Patients were divided into four groups based on the antihypertensive therapy as follows - Group 1: Diuretic only; Group 2: Calcium channel blocker (CCB only; Group 3: Diuretic and CCB; Group 4: Other antihypertensive agent. Their blood pressure control, comorbidities, and associated target organ damage were analyzed. Results: In all 323 patients, blood pressures were optimally controlled. The majority of the patients (79.6% were treated with either a diuretic, a CCB, or both. Intergroup comparison analysis showed no statistically significant difference in the mean systolic blood pressure, mean diastolic blood pressure, associated comorbidities, or frequency of target organ damage. Conclusion: Although diuretics or CCBs are recommended as first-line agents in African-American patients, we found no significant difference in the optimal control of blood pressure and frequency of end-organ damage compared to management with other agents.
Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Gordon, Thomas F; Ruzek, Sheryl Burt; Wolak, Caitlin; Ruggieri, Dominique; Mora, Gabriella; Rovito, Michael J; Britto, Johnson; Parameswaran, Lalitha; Abedin, Zainab; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Lin, Karen; Meyer, Brian; Pitts, Khaliah
African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality than White Americans and yet have lower rates of CRC screening. Increased screening aids in early detection and higher survival rates. Coupled with low literacy rates, the burden of CRC morbidity and mortality is exacerbated in this population, making it important to develop culturally and literacy appropriate aids to help low-literacy African Americans make informed decisions about CRC screening. This article outlines the development of a low-literacy computer touch-screen colonoscopy decision aid using an innovative marketing method called perceptual mapping and message vector modeling. This method was used to mathematically model key messages for the decision aid, which were then used to modify an existing CRC screening tutorial with different messages. The final tutorial was delivered through computer touch-screen technology to increase access and ease of use for participants. Testing showed users were not only more comfortable with the touch-screen technology but were also significantly more willing to have a colonoscopy compared with a "usual care group." Results confirm the importance of including participants in planning and that the use of these innovative mapping and message design methods can lead to significant CRC screening attitude change.
Sandra; F; Williams; Susanne; B; Nicholas; Nosratola; D; Vaziri; Keith; C; Norris
African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system(RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans.
Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are
Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.
Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Nastoupil, Loretta J; Koff, Jean L; Staton, Ashley D; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Flowers, Christopher R
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) demonstrates significant racial differences in age of onset, stage, and survival. To examine whether population-specific models improve prediction of outcomes for African-American (AA) patients with DLBCL, we utilized Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data and compared stratification by the international prognostic index (IPI) in general and AA populations. We also constructed and compared prognostic models for general and AA populations using multivariable logistic regression (LR) and artificial neural network approaches. While the IPI adequately stratified outcomes for the general population, it failed to separate AA DLBCL patients into distinct risk groups. Our AA LR model identified age ≥ 55 (odds ratio 0.45, [95% CI: 0.36, 0.56], male sex (0.75, [0.60, 0.93]), and stage III/IV disease (0.43, [0.34, 0.54]) as adverse predictors of 5-year survival for AA patients. In addition, general-population prognostic models were poorly calibrated for AAs with DLBCL, indicating a need for validated AA-specific prognostic models.
Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R
Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.
Budowle, B; Moretti, T R; Baumstark, A L; Defenbaugh, D A; Keys, K M
Allele distributions for 13 tetrameric short tandem repeat (STR) loci, CSF1PO, FGA, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, and D21S11, were determined in African American, United States Caucasian, Hispanic, Bahamian, Jamaican, and Trinidadian sample populations. There was little evidence for departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations (HWE) in any of the populations. Based on the exact test, the loci that departed significantly from HWE are: D21S11 (p = 0.010, Bahamians); CSF1PO (p = 0.014, Trinidadians); TPOX (p = 0.011, Jamaicans and p = 0.035, U.S. Caucasians); and D16S539 (p = 0.043, Bahamians). After employing the Bonferroni correction for the number of loci analyzed (i.e., 13 loci per database), these observations are not likely to be significant. There is little evidence for association of alleles between the loci in these databases. The allelic frequency data are similar to other comparable data within the same major population group.
Rao, Deepa; Molina, Yamile; Lambert, Nina; Cohn, Susan E.
Purpose In the present study, we validated a culturally adapted stigma scale designed to assess stigma among African Americans living with HIV. Methods We collected data on the scale using an audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. We validated the scale with a sample of 62 African American participants living with HIV. Results Findings demonstrated that stigma can be measured succinctly and effectively in a 14-item scale with two subscales measuring enacted and internalized stigma. Discussion We identified many advantages to using the scale, which demonstrated good psychometric properties when used with an audio computer assisted self-interview format and with an African American sample. We recommend this scale’s use in both clinical practice and research study of HIV-stigma reduction interventions with African American populations.
Pinderhughes, Elaine B
It is not possible to understand African American marriages fully without attention to the social, economic, racial, and historical factors that have stressed male-female relationships beyond those stresses experienced by majority couples. I propose that the societal projection process (Bowen, 1978) has entrapped African Americans in ways that have continually and severely strained their marital and couple relationships. These experiences, and the ways in which African Americans have responded to them, have created a vulnerability that is compounded by societal shifts and changes, and is manifest in the precipitous decline of marriages at a rate higher than that found in all other racial groups in the U.S. I will examine the state of African American marriages in this cultural context, with specific attention to the effects of the unequal sex ratio, socioeconomic conditions, and overstressed male-female relationships. I will then discuss implications and offer suggestions for therapists who work with this population.
McAndrew, Sarah; Chihara, Izumi; Rankin, Kristin M; Collins, James W
Objectives The authors investigated the association between maternal birth weight and adverse birth outcome as measured by rates of low birth weight (<2500 g, LBW), preterm birth (<37 weeks, PTB), and small for gestational age (weight <10th percentile for gestational age, SGA) among African American and White twin pregnancies. Methods Stratified and multivariable regression analyses were performed on the Illinois transgenerational dataset of non-Latina African American and non-Latina White twin pairs (born 1989-1991) and their mothers (born 1956-1976). Results Former LBW (n = 104) and non-LBW (n = 742) African American mothers had LBW rates in both twins of 76 and 56 %, respectively; RR (95 % CI) = 1.4 (1.2-1.6). Former LBW (n = 105) and non-LBW (n = 2136) White mothers had LBW rates in both twins of 41 and 34 %, respectively; RR = 1.2 (0.9-1.5). In multivariable regression models, the adjusted (controlling for maternal age, education, marital status, parity, prenatal care usage, and cigarette smoking) RR of LBW in both twins among former LBW (compared to non-LBW) African American and White mothers equaled 1.4 (1.2-1.6) and 1.2 (0.9-1.5), respectively. Maternal LBW was associated with a modestly increased risk of PTB but not SGA among African American twin pregnancies: adjusted RR = 1.3 (1.1-1.4) and 1.1 (0.8-1.5), respectively. Conclusions In African American twin pregnancies, maternal LBW is a risk factor for LBW in both twins. Further research is needed to determine whether a similar generational association occurs among non-Latina White twin pregnancies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Retracing the genetic histories of the descendant populations of the Slave Trade (16th-19th centuries is particularly challenging due to the diversity of African ethnic groups involved and the different hybridisation processes with Europeans and Amerindians, which have blurred their original genetic inheritances. The Noir Marron in French Guiana are the direct descendants of maroons who escaped from Dutch plantations in the current day Surinam. They represent an original ethnic group with a highly blended culture. Uniparental markers (mtDNA and NRY coupled with HTLV-1 sequences (env and LTR were studied to establish the genetic relationships linking them to African American and African populations. Results All genetic systems presented a high conservation of the African gene pool (African ancestry: mtDNA = 99.3%; NRY = 97.6%; HTLV-1 env = 20/23; HTLV-1 LTR = 6/8. Neither founder effect nor genetic drift was detected and the genetic diversity is within a range commonly observed in Africa. Higher genetic similarities were observed with the populations inhabiting the Bight of Benin (from Ivory Coast to Benin. Other ancestries were identified but they presented an interesting sex-bias. Whilst male origins spread throughout the north of the bight (from Benin to Senegal, female origins were spread throughout the south (from the Ivory Coast to Angola. Conclusions The Noir Marron are unique in having conserved their African genetic ancestry, despite major cultural exchanges with Amerindians and Europeans through inhabiting the same region for four centuries. Their maroon identity and the important number of slaves deported in this region have maintained the original African diversity. All these characteristics permit to identify a major origin located in the former region of the Gold Coast and the Bight of Benin; regions highly impacted by slavery, from which goes a sex-biased longitudinal gradient of ancestry.
Horsford, Sheena R; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Schiamberg, Larry; Post, Lori A
Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies risk factors associated with different systems that have an influence on the lives of African American families. Cultural protective factors also are identified in the model. The model is intended to provide an understanding of elder abuse and neglect in African American families by considering the influence of contextual factors such as the legacy of slavery, social exclusion, and structural segregation and racism. Specific suggestions for practice are proposed according to cultural strengths of African American communities as well as the ecological premises of the model.
Baty, Bonnie Jeanne; Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Ellis, Sara Marie
The goal of this project was to develop educational materials to communicate genetic health information in a culturally sensitive manner. These materials were designed to communicate information about cancer risk, genetic testing options, and health management options in an African American kindred with a known BRCA1 mutation. Educational materials were pilot-tested in four African American focus groups varying in socioeconomic status and gender. The audiotaped focus groups consisted of presentation of the educational materials, followed by a feedback session led by an African American facilitator. Qualitative analysis of the focus group transcripts identified important themes and the educational materials were revised in response to the participants' suggestions. The products included a booklet and a flip chart for use in educational sessions. Focus group participants recommended a substantial reduction in technical detail, and recommended that information be personalized and made relevant to the lives of the target population. Other critical themes included the importance of building trust in the medical system and avoiding words and images that have strong negative associations in the African American community. Strategies that were successful included nontechnical images to explain genetic concepts, clip art images to energize and personalize word slides, vibrant color, identifiably African American figures, and the development of themes relevant to many African Americans. The use of these materials in an ongoing study offering BRCA1 counseling and testing to a large, rural Louisiana-based kindred will provide additional feedback about the effectiveness of the culturally tailored genetic education and counseling materials.
Williams, Monnica T; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana A; Turkheimer, Eric
Anxiety disorders are understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in African Americans. Research focused on the phenomenology, etiology, and treatment of anxiety in African Americans has been hampered by lack of inclusion of this population in clinical research studies. The reason for exclusion is not well understood, although cultural mistrust has been hypothesized as a major barrier to research participation. This article reviews the relevant literature to date and examines the experience of 6 African American adults who participated in a larger clinical assessment study about anxiety. Drawing upon in-depth semistructured interviews about their subjective experiences, we examined participant perspectives about the assessment process, opinions about African American perception of anxiety studies, and participant-generated ideas about how to improve African American participation. Based on a qualitative analysis of responses, feelings of mistrust emerged as a dominant theme. Concerns fell under 6 categories, including not wanting to speak for others, confidentiality, self and group presentation concerns, repercussions of disclosure, potential covert purposes of the study, and the desire to confide only in close others. Suggestions for increasing African American participation are discussed, including assurances of confidentiality, adequate compensation, and a comfortable study environment.
Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…
McNair, Jonda C.
The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…
Ruzek, Sheryl B.; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Greener, Judith; Wolak, Caitlin; Gordon, Thomas F.
The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a touch screen decision aid to increase acceptance of colonoscopy screening among African American patients with low literacy, developed and tailored using perceptual mapping methods grounded in Illness Self-Regulation and Information-Communication Theories. The pilot randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a theory-based intervention on patients’ acceptance of screening, including their perceptions of educational value, feelings about colonoscopy, likelihood to undergo screening, and decisional conflict about colonoscopy screening. Sixty-one African American patients with low literacy, aged 50–70 years, with no history of colonoscopy, were randomly assigned to receive a computerized touch screen decision aid (CDA; n = 33) or a literacy appropriate print tool (PT; n = 28) immediately before a primary care appointment in an urban, university-affiliated general internal medicine clinic. Patients rated the CDA significantly higher than the PT on all indicators of acceptance, including the helpfulness of the information for making a screening decision, and reported positive feelings about colonoscopy, greater likelihood to be screened, and lower decisional conflict. Results showed that a touch screen decision tool is acceptable to African American patients with low iteracy and, by increasing intent to screen, may increase rates of colonoscopy screening. PMID:26940369
Ruzek, Sheryl B; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Greener, Judith; Wolak, Caitlin; Gordon, Thomas F
The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a touch screen decision aid to increase acceptance of colonoscopy screening among African American patients with low literacy, developed and tailored using perceptual mapping methods grounded in Illness Self-Regulation and Information-Communication Theories. The pilot randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a theory-based intervention on patients' acceptance of screening, including their perceptions of educational value, feelings about colonoscopy, likelihood to undergo screening, and decisional conflict about colonoscopy screening. Sixty-one African American patients with low literacy, aged 50-70 years, with no history of colonoscopy, were randomly assigned to receive a computerized touch screen decision aid (CDA; n = 33) or a literacy appropriate print tool (PT; n = 28) immediately before a primary care appointment in an urban, university-affiliated general internal medicine clinic. Patients rated the CDA significantly higher than the PT on all indicators of acceptance, including the helpfulness of the information for making a screening decision, and reported positive feelings about colonoscopy, greater likelihood to be screened, and lower decisional conflict. Results showed that a touch screen decision tool is acceptable to African American patients with low iteracy and, by increasing intent to screen, may increase rates of colonoscopy screening.
Drake, Carl Timothy
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…
Hays, Krystal; Aranda, Maria P.
Faith-based interventions have emerged culturally sensitive way to address mental health issues among African Americans. This systematic review explores the scope and efficacy of faith-based mental health intervention outcomes among African Americans. Extracted data included the study population, setting, study design, intervention, adaptations,…
Despite the higher incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) among African Americans, whites in the United States population have a higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease. This may be due, in part, to a faster rate of progression to ESRD among African Americans with kidney disease. Anemia i...
Palmer, Nicholette D; McDonough, Caitrin W; Hicks, Pamela J
African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wid...
Palmer, Nicholette D.; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Roh, Bong H.; Wing, Maria R.; An, S. Sandy; Hester, Jessica M.; Cooke, Jessica N.; Bostrom, Meredith A.; Rudock, Megan E.; Talbert, Matthew E.; Lewis, Joshua P.; Ferrara, Assiamira; Lu, Lingyi; Ziegler, Julie T.; Sale, Michele M.; Divers, Jasmin; Shriner, Daniel; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N.; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.
African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide A
Webb, Monica S.; de Ybarra, Denise Rodriguez; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Reis, Isildinha M.; Carey, Michael P.
Objective: The health consequences of tobacco smoking disproportionately affect African Americans, but research on whether efficacious interventions can be generalized to this population is limited. This study examined the efficacy of group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation among African Americans. Method: Participants…
Pugh, Sandra Lyniece
An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…
Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.
In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full…
Ard, Jamy D; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Svetkey, Laura P
Past clinical trials addressing behavior modification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention have not been culturally appropriate for African Americans. This supposition is borne out by the continued challenges researchers face not only in recruiting and retaining African Americans in clinical trials, but also in achieving the desired outcomes among this population. Investigators have limited resources to develop culturally appropriate CVD prevention trials. The scientific literature reveals 2 models for implementing culturally appropriate interventions applicable to CVD prevention among African Americans; however, these models are not easily applied to the clinical trial setting. We propose a new model for developing a culturally appropriate clinical trial. The clinical trial is a function of the investigator's cultural framework, meaning that an investigator will have more difficulty designing clinical trials appropriate for use with cultures other than his or her own, a definite limitation when attempting to effectively reach diverse populations. Differences between the cultural frameworks of most clinical trials and African Americans' cultural frameworks lead to intrinsic biases, limiting the ability of African Americans to achieve the desired outcomes for any particular trial. An African-American participant's degree of immersion in traditional African-American culture, or acculturation, influences the magnitude of these biases. Investigators must be aware of, and attempt to mitigate, such biases so that the trial's potential for success is equitable across ethnic groups. In addition, investigators must understand how to effectively address relevant biases of African Americans without challenging their ethnic identity. Steps to decrease biases are described.
Talleyrand, Regine M.
Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…
Perine, Donald Ray
African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study
Rozie-Battle, Judith L
The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.
An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…
Cannon Dawson, Candice
This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…
Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B
The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans.
Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…
Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes
This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…
Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David
The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…
The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.
Young, Sean D.; Shoptaw, Steve
High stimulant-using and at-risk HIV populations, such as African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), are increasingly using social networking technologies. However, no known research has explored associations between stimulant use, sexual risk behaviors, and social networking among these populations. Participants were recruited using state-of-the-art computer science methods, which narrowed the sample to 118 (primarily African American and Latino MSM) active Facebook users. ...
Williams, Edith M; Bruner, Larisa; Adkins, Alyssa; Vrana, Caroline; Logan, Ayaba; Kamen, Diane; Oates, James C
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. A large body of evidence has shown that African-Americans experience the disease more severely than other racial-ethnic groups. Relevant literature for the years 2000 to August 2015 were obtained from systematic searches of PubMed, Scopus, and the EBSCOHost platform that includes MEDLINE, CINAHL, etc. to evaluate research focused on SLE in African-Americans. Thirty-six of the 1502 articles were classified according to their level of evidence. The systematic review of the literature reported a wide range of adverse outcomes in African-American SLE patients and risk factors observed in other mono and multi-ethnic investigations. Studies limited to African-Americans with SLE identified novel methods for more precise ascertainment of risk and observed novel findings that hadn't been previously reported in African-Americans with SLE. Both environmental and genetic studies included in this review have highlighted unique African-American populations in an attempt to isolate risk attributable to African ancestry and observed increased genetic influence on overall disease in this cohort. The review also revealed emerging research in areas of quality of life, race-tailored interventions, and self-management. This review reemphasizes the importance of additional studies to better elucidate the natural history of SLE in African-Americans and optimize therapeutic strategies for those who are identified as being at high risk.
Reed, Latish; Johnson, Les T.
This qualitative case study probes one African American school leader with a conservative religious upbringing as she works in a high school with a self-identified population of African American lesbian, guy, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. The findings demonstrate that the participant's leadership practices were guided by her spiritual…
Hernandez, Marlow B.; Asher, Craig R.; Hernandez, Adrian V.; Novaro, Gian M.
Background. It has been observed that African American race is associated with a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to Caucasian race. To better quantify the association between African American race and AF, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies among different patient populations which reported the presence of AF by race. Methods. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases between January 1999 and January 2011. The search was limited to published studies in English conducted in the United States, which clearly defined the presence of AF in African American and Caucasian subjects. A meta-analysis was performed with prevalence of AF as the primary endpoint. Results. In total, 10 studies involving 1,031,351 subjects were included. According to a random effects analysis, African American race was associated with a protective effect with regard to AF as compared to Caucasian race (odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.59, P < 0.001). In subgroup analyses, African American race was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AF in the general population, those hospitalized or greater than 60 years old, postcoronary artery bypass surgery patients, and subjects with heart failure. Conclusions. In a broad sweep of subjects in the general population and hospitalized patients, the prevalence of AF in African Americans is consistently lower than in Caucasians. PMID:22548197
Marlow B. Hernandez
Full Text Available Background. It has been observed that African American race is associated with a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF compared to Caucasian race. To better quantify the association between African American race and AF, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies among different patient populations which reported the presence of AF by race. Methods. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases between January 1999 and January 2011. The search was limited to published studies in English conducted in the United States, which clearly defined the presence of AF in African American and Caucasian subjects. A meta-analysis was performed with prevalence of AF as the primary endpoint. Results. In total, 10 studies involving 1,031,351 subjects were included. According to a random effects analysis, African American race was associated with a protective effect with regard to AF as compared to Caucasian race (odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.59, <0.001. In subgroup analyses, African American race was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AF in the general population, those hospitalized or greater than 60 years old, postcoronary artery bypass surgery patients, and subjects with heart failure. Conclusions. In a broad sweep of subjects in the general population and hospitalized patients, the prevalence of AF in African Americans is consistently lower than in Caucasians.
Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.
Lincoln, Karen D; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Watkins, Daphne C; Chatters, Linda M
This study examines the demographic correlates of depressive symptoms, serious psychological distress (SPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD; 12-month and lifetime prevalence) among a national sample of African American men. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) data set provides first-time substantiation of important demographic differences in depressive symptoms (measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale [CES-D]), SPD (measured by the K6), and 12-month and lifetime MDD among African American men. Findings illuminate the heterogeneity within the African American male population. Findings also demonstrate the need for additional research focusing on within-group differences and a comprehensive research and mental health promotion agenda that recognizes the importance of improving access to education and employment and promoting healthy coping behaviors, while acknowledging the larger social context in which African American men live.
Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B
More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern US city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual-risk behaviour.
Witt, Dawn R; Lindquist, Ruth; Treat-Jacobson, Diane; Boucher, Jackie L; Konety, Suma H; Savik, Kay
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for women, and disproportionally so for African American and Latina women. CVD is largely preventable and many risks can be attributable to health behaviors, implementing and sustaining positive health behaviors is a challenge. Motivational interviewing is one promising intervention for initiating behavior change. The purpose of this review was to identify, synthesize, and critically analyze the existing literature on the use of motivational interviewing as a behavioral intervention to reduce CVD risk among African American and Latina women. Seven studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. Results of this review suggest that motivational interviewing has mixed results when used to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in African American and Latina women. More research using a standardized motivational interviewing approach is needed to definitively determine if it is an effective behavioral intervention to reduce CVD risk when used in populations of African American and Latina women.
Chatterjee, Ranee; Maruthur, Nisa M; Edelman, David
In the USA, compared to whites, African-Americans are disproportionately impacted by the diabetes epidemic. Traditional diabetes risk factors, such as obesity, are more common among African-Americans, but these traditional risk factors do not explain all of the disparity in diabetes risk. Recent research has identified novel environmental, lifestyle, physiologic, and genetic risk factors for diabetes, some of which appear to impact African-Americans more than whites. This manuscript reviews the recent literature to highlight some of these novel risk factors that may be contributing to the racial disparity in diabetes risk. Further study is needed of the modifiable risk factors for development of interventions to reduce the risk of diabetes in African-Americans, as well as other high-risk populations.
Spruill, Ida J
Despite some recruitment success in biomedical research among minorities, participation by African-American families into research, specifically genetic research, is lower than Caucasian families (Bowen and Penchaszadeh Community Genet 11:189-190, 2008). Such low participation rates by African-Americans prevent the exploration of specific ethnic differences in patterns of diseases and diminish the identification of specific disease risks among ethnic groups (Bowen and Penchaszadeh Community Genet 11:189-190, 2008). Although African-Americans are heterogeneous, few studies exist to describe effective recruitment strategies across diverse African-American populations, and even fewer studies share effective strategies for the enrollment of African-American families into genetic research. A process evaluation of recruitment strategies used by Project SuGar (a community-based genetic research study focusing on families affected by type 2 diabetes) to enroll African-American families into genetic research was conducted. Our goal was to enroll 400 affected African-American families, and our results yielded 672 families, (n=672). Our success can be attributed to the formation of a Citizen Advisory Committee, recruitment style, flexible protocol, and formal agreement with community health centers. We found that African-American families will participate in research and that providing tangible benefits to the community and utilizing a sense of patience can enhance positive recruitment results. Data from this study may be used to recruit geographically isolated families into genetic research.
Wells, Tesia Denis
This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…
Brooks, T R
The Martin Luther King County General Hospital, Los Angeles, California, provides services for an equal number of Hispanics (most are recent immigrants from Mexico) and African Americans who have lived in the community since before the Watts riot in 1965. The hospital is staffed by a large percentage of foreign-trained doctors and other personnel who speak some English, but suffer from a lack of understanding of the Hispanic as well as the African-American patients. Very few trained interpreters are provided for the Spanish-speaking population, and no interpreters are provided for African Americans. A 100-question survey on common African-American expressions was conducted in the Department of Family Medicine, as well as an opinion poll to determine if adequate understanding existed between patients and providers. The data revealed that native African-American providers understood significantly more African-American expressions than foreign, white, and Hispanic providers. The opinion poll also revealed inadequate translation of medical complaints from patients through interpreters. In addition, the poll found that diagnoses and instructions were not adequately related to the patients. Furthermore, it was felt that trained interpreters should be provided for all patients who presented communication problems.
Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Gaylord, Susan A.
African Americans experience a disproportionate rate of stress-related health conditions compared to European Americans. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be effective for managing stress and various stress-related health conditions. This study explored the cultural relevance of mindfulness meditation training for African Americans adults. Fifteen African American adults with past or current experience with mindfulness meditation training were interviewed. Participants felt that mindfulness meditation helped them with enhanced stress management, direct health improvement, and enhanced self-awareness and purposefulness. They felt that they would recommend it and that other African Americans would be open to the practice but suggested that its presentation may need to be adapted. They suggested emphasizing the health benefits, connecting it to familiar spiritual ideology and cultural practices, supplementing the reading material with African American writers, increasing communication (education, instructor availability, “buddy system,” etc.), and including African Americans as instructors and participants. By implementing minor adaptations that enhance cultural relevance, mindfulness meditation can be a beneficial therapeutic intervention for this population. PMID:24442592
Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.
Jessica T Delaney
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a greater burden of risk factors, atrial fibrillation (AF is less common among African Americans than European-descent populations. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS for AF in European-descent populations have identified three predominant genomic regions associated with increased risk (1q21, 4q25, and 16q22. The contribution of these loci to AF risk in African American is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 73 African Americans with AF from the Vanderbilt-Meharry AF registry and 71 African American controls, with no history of AF including after cardiac surgery. Tests of association were performed for 148 SNPs across the three regions associated with AF, and 22 SNPs were significantly associated with AF (P<0.05. The SNPs with the strongest associations in African Americans were both different from the index SNPs identified in European-descent populations and independent from the index European-descent population SNPs (r(2<0.40 in HapMap CEU: 1q21 rs4845396 (odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.67, P = 0.003, 4q25 rs4631108 (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.59-7.42, P = 0.002, and 16q22 rs16971547 (OR 8.1, 95% CI 1.46-45.4, P = 0.016. Estimates of European ancestry were similar among cases (23.6% and controls (23.8%. Accordingly, the probability of having two copies of the European derived chromosomes at each region did not differ between cases and controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Variable European admixture at known AF loci does not explain decreased AF susceptibility in African Americans. These data support the role of 1q21, 4q25, and 16q22 variants in AF risk for African Americans, although the index SNPs differ from those identified in European-descent populations.
Mingo, Aunderia Doreen
The population in the United States (US) is becoming more and more diverse. With each year the minority population in the US continues to grow. In the year 2000 there were over 281 million Americans with approximately 23% of them being minorities (US Census, 2000). African-Americans accounted for 34.6 million of the population or 12.3% in the 2000 census. Yet despite their growing numbers in the general population African-American Registered Nurses (RNs) only accounted for 4.9% of the total nurse population in the 2002 National Sample Survey of RN's (Health Resources Services Administration [HRSA], 2002).
Polcari, Ingrid; Becker, Lauren; Stein, Sarah L; Smith, Marilyn S; Paller, Amy S
Atopic dermatitis (AD) and ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) are two common disorders of epidermal homeostasis resulting in dry skin. The profilaggrin gene, located on chromosome 1q22, encodes a keratin filament aggregating protein (filaggrin) that is essential to forming the epidermal barrier and maintaining hydration. Null mutations in filaggrin have been found to underlie IV and are common in patients with AD, but the minority of African Americans with AD or IV show these mutations in filaggrin. We have selectively studied African Americans with both AD and IV to maximize the possibility of finding filaggrin null mutations in this population. DNA was collected using buccal swabs from 18 African American children with both AD and IV and 17 African American controls without either of these diseases. Purified genomic DNA was amplified using polymerase chain reaction from three regions of the filaggrin gene, exon 3, including R501X, 2282del4, E2554X, R2447X, 1249insG, R826X, 2767insT, and E2422X. Of the African American children with both AD and IV, 22.2% were heterozygous for filaggrin null mutations. Out of the control group, one carried a null mutation and was later discovered to have a history of asthma. Null mutations found in this population included R501X (n = 1), 2282del4 (n = 2), and R826X (n = 2, including the control patient). Our data demonstrate a prevalence of filaggrin mutations in the African American population that exceeds previously published data, although the overall prevalence is still lower than in other populations. It is likely that factors other than known FLG mutations are involved in African American patients.
Wilson, Erin C.; Arayasirikul, Sean; Johnson, Kelly
Low access to HIV care and support has led to survival rates for transwomen that are half that of other populations at risk for HIV. Within the population, HIV disproportionately impacts African American transwomen. Interventions to increase access to HIV care and support are needed to better serve those most affected and vulnerable within the population. We conducted a study of barriers and facilitators to care and support services for African American transwomen to fill a gap in the literature to improve access for this particularly impacted population. A total of 10 in-depth interviews were conducted with African American transwomen living with HIV who lived outside the metro area of San Francisco. Three overarching thematic topics emerged-gender stigma, peer, and institutional distrust - giving insight into African American transwomen's barriers to HIV care and support services. A number of factors within these themes impacted access, such as whether organizations offered gender-related care, the geography of organizations as it relates to safe transportation and location, confidentiality and trust of peers and organizations, and trauma. Specific instrumental, institutional and emotional supports are provided that that may increase access to care and support services for African American transwomen living with HIV. PMID:24817835
Christy L Avery
Full Text Available The QT interval (QT is heritable and its prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death. Most genetic studies of QT have examined European ancestral populations; however, the increased genetic diversity in African Americans provides opportunities to narrow association signals and identify population-specific variants. We therefore evaluated 6,670 SNPs spanning eleven previously identified QT loci in 8,644 African American participants from two Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE studies: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial. Of the fifteen known independent QT variants at the eleven previously identified loci, six were significantly associated with QT in African American populations (P≤1.20×10(-4: ATP1B1, PLN1, KCNQ1, NDRG4, and two NOS1AP independent signals. We also identified three population-specific signals significantly associated with QT in African Americans (P≤1.37×10(-5: one at NOS1AP and two at ATP1B1. Linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns in African Americans assisted in narrowing the region likely to contain the functional variants for several loci. For example, African American LD patterns showed that 0 SNPs were in LD with NOS1AP signal rs12143842, compared with European LD patterns that indicated 87 SNPs, which spanned 114.2 Kb, were in LD with rs12143842. Finally, bioinformatic-based characterization of the nine African American signals pointed to functional candidates located exclusively within non-coding regions, including predicted binding sites for transcription factors such as TBX5, which has been implicated in cardiac structure and conductance. In this detailed evaluation of QT loci, we identified several African Americans SNPs that better define the association with QT and successfully narrowed intervals surrounding established loci. These results demonstrate that the same loci influence variation in QT
Appel, Susan J.; Oster, Robert A.; Floyd, Natalie A.; Ovalle, Fernando
clinically significant screening tool when used to determine early recognition of insulin resistance and/or cardiometabolic risk among this population. African-American women's risk for CVD is likely underestimated based on the sole use of ATP III criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Clinicians should consider a broader definition of risk than that is contained within ATP III. Inclusion of biomarkers of inflammation and dysfibrinolysis along with measures of insulin resistance may add to early detection of cardiometabolic risk, and ultimate reduction in cardiovascular health disparities among African-American women. PMID:19242280
ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...
Trice, Rodney Nathaniel
This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major
Purpose: Limited research is available on the feasibility or effectiveness of utilizing pedometer diaries in community-based interventions targeting rural, low socioeconomic, African American populations. The objectives of this walking intervention study were to assess participant adherence to maint...
One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The story of African Americans is a story of... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy...
Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine
This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…
Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan
The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…
This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…
Syrquin, Anna F.
The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…
Paxton, Keisha C.; Williams, John K.; Bolden, Sherica; Guzman, Yesenia; Harawa, Nina T.
Background HIV continues to impact African American women at alarming rates. Yet, few researchers have examined the relationship factors promoting unprotected sex within African American communities, especially instances in which women are aware that their male partners are engaging in high risk behaviors. This qualitative study explored the sexual behaviors, relationship characteristics, and HIV prevention strategies utilized by African American women in relationships with African American men at-risk for HIV. Method To understand the issues that should be addressed in a sexual risk-reduction intervention, data were collected from three, two-hour focus group discussions (n=24) comprised primarily of low-income African American women with histories of at-risk male sex partners. At-risk partners included specifically men who had sex with other men or with transgender individuals, used crack cocaine or injection drugs, had lengthy incarceration periods, or an unknown sexual history. Discussion questions examined external factors affecting sexual risk behaviors such as societal pressures, peer norms, and financial vulnerability. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a consensual qualitative research approach. Results Five themes, including self-esteem, social influences on behavior, relationship fidelity, sexual risk behavior, and partners' sexual behaviors, were identified as placing women at increased risk for HIV. Reasons for inconsistent condom use included concern for maintaining the relationship and substance use before and during sex. African American women also believed that men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) were dishonest about their sexuality due to stigma towards homosexuality/bisexuality. Despite these challenges, participants indicated that African American women have a strong sense of pride that can positively impact behaviors in relationships. Conclusion The findings of this study support that social and contextual factor
Miller, Redonda G; Ashar, Bimal H; Cohen, Jennifer; Camp, Melissa; Coombs, Carmen; Johnson, Elizabeth; Schneyer, Christine R
Background Despite a lower prevalence of osteoporosis in African-American women, they remain at risk and experience a greater mortality than white women after sustaining a hip fracture. Lack of recognition of risk factors may occur in African-American women, raising the possibility that disparities in screening practices may exist. Objective To determine whether there is a difference in physician screening for osteoporosis in postmenopausal, at-risk African-American and white women. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review at an urban academic hospital and a suburban community hospital. Subjects included 205 African-American and white women, age ≥65 years and weight ≤127 pounds, who were seen in Internal Medicine clinics. The main outcome was dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan referral. We investigated physician and patient factors associated with referral. Secondary outcomes included evidence of discussion of osteoporosis and prescription of medications to prevent osteoporosis. Results Significantly fewer African-American than white women were referred for a DXA scan (OR 0.39%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22 to 0.68). Physicians were also less likely to mention consideration of osteoporosis in medical records (0.27, 0.15 to 0.48) and to recommend calcium and vitamin D supplementation for this population (0.21, 0.11 to 0.37). If referred, African-American women had comparable DXA completion rates when compared with white women. No physician characteristics were significantly associated with DXA referral patterns. Conclusions Our study found a significant disparity in the recommendation for osteoporosis screening for African-American versus white women of similar risk, as well as evidence of disparate osteoporosis prevention and treatment, confirming results of other studies. Future educational and research initiatives should target this inequality. PMID:16117754
Kennedy, Bernice Roberts; Jenkins, Chalice C
African American women, including adolescents and adults, are disproportionately affected by the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV/AID is a health disparity issue for African American females in comparison to other ethnic groups. According to data acquired from 33 states in 2005, 64% of women who have HIV/ AIDS are African American women. It is estimated that during 2001-2004, 61% of African Americans under the age of 25 had been living with HIV/AIDS. This article is an analytical review of the literature emphasizing sexual assertiveness of African American women and the gap that exists in research literature on this population. The multifaceted model of HIV risk posits that an interpersonal predictor of risky sexual behavior is sexual assertiveness. The critical themes extracted from a review of the literature reveal the following: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk in women, (b) sexual assertiveness and sexual communication are related, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at increased risk of HIV As a result of this comprehensive literature, future research studies need to use models in validating sexual assertiveness interventions in reducing the risk of HIV/AIDS in African American women. HIV/AIDs prevention interventions or future studies need to target reducing the risk factors of HIV/AIDS of African Americans focusing on gender and culture-specific strategies.
Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie
Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…
Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…
Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.
Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…
... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African Americans Format: Select One File [163K] ...
Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.
Sirin, Selcuk; Jackson, Lisa R.
This study investigated the impact of behavioral and affective factors on 688 African American high school students' academic performance, examining the relationship between school engagement, educational expectations, self-esteem, and school achievement; noting differences between males and females; and discussing whether behavioral and affective…
McAlpine, Robert; And Others
Reviews actions of the 102nd Congress of particular interest to African Americans, including the (1) Domestic Marshall Plan House Resolution; (2) Unemployment Benefits extension; (3) Job Training Partnership Act; (4) Workplace Fairness Act; (5) Family and Medical Leave Act; and (6) Civil Rights Act of 1991. (SLD)
Describes two reference books suitable for middle/junior high school library media centers that present information about African-American women and suggests activities for Afro-American History Month. Library media skills objectives, social studies and art objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activities and procedures,…
Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…
African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is the language spoken by almost 20 milion speakers al over the world. It is also used frequently in rap lyrics. Studying the origin and grammar rules of AAVE is a very important topic in today's English Language and English Teaching Studies.
THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? ... That’s a man’s disease.” But here’s The Heart Truth ® : Heart disease is the #1 killer of women ...
Zulu, Itibari M.
Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…
The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…
Krossa, Cheryl Delemos [San Francisco Univ. (United States)
Many studies have been conducted in the area of job satisfaction. Its necessary attributes sor components have been studied, analyzed, validated, standardized, and normed, onpredominantly white male populations. Few of these studies have focused on people of color, specifically African-Americans, and fewer still on those African-Americans working in a high-tech, scientific and research environments. The researchers have defined what is necessary for the current dominent culture`s population, but are their findings applicable and valid for our nation`s other cultures and ethnic groups? Among the conclusions: the subjects felt that there was no real difference in job satisfiers from their white colleagues; however the subjects had the sense of community (African-American) and the need to give back to it. Frustrations included politics, funding, and lack of control.
Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family support and CRC beliefs with African Americans patients. This may improve patient-provider shared decision-making satisfaction and CRC screening adherence among African American patients.
Neal-Barnett, Angela; Statom, Deborah; Stadulis, Robert
Trichotillomania (TTM) is a little understood disorder that has been underresearched in the African American community. Furthermore, the incorporation of cultural factors into TTM research has virtually been ignored. Existing data from an African American college student population suggest TTM is associated with high levels of anxiety. In this study, we explored anxiety symptoms and cultural hair messages in an African American female community sample with TTM symptoms. We predicted high levels of TTM severity and impairment would be associated with high level of anxiety symptoms. We also predicted that cultural messages about hair will influence both TTM and anxiety symptoms. In this telephone study, 41 African American females participated in interviews about their TTM. TTM impairment and severity was positively correlated with general anxiety symptoms as measured on the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL 90-R(®) ). Severity was also positively correlated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Given the significance of hair for African American women, we also explored the childhood cultural messages receive about hair. Over half the sample received at least one cultural message about hair. Although many women received the same message, the value they placed on the message differed. Messages received about hair were not associated with TTM severity or impairment. The association among obsessive-compulsive symptoms and hair messages approached significance. Results highlight the importance of assessing anxiety comorbidity and culture with African American TTM samples. Little is known about TTM in African American samples. Existing research indicates this population seeks TTM help from their hairdressers. Among college students, a significant correlation has been found for anxiety as measured on the Beck Anxiety Inventory and TTM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to examine cultural messages about hair in an African American sample. In addition
Quaker E Harmon
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. STUDY DESIGN: The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF, is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. RESULTS: Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3% and fibroids (23.3% were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval: 0.7 (0.5-1.1] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. CONCLUSION: Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) reports that approximately 1 million people in the United States are living with HIV. African Americans comprise 12% of the population yet account for approximately 46% of the people living with HIV. The rising prevalence rate among African Americans is an anomaly given that the prevalence rate…
Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S
African American female adolescents have a disproportionate risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other adverse sexual health outcomes. Both alcohol and marijuana use have been shown to predict sexual risk among young African American women. However, no studies have attempted to differentiate alcohol and marijuana typologies use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes exclusively among adolescents who use these substances. This study compared recent alcohol and/or marijuana use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes over 18 months among 182 African American female adolescents. African American females (14-20 years) completed interviews at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-months. At each assessment, pregnancy testing was conducted and self-collected vaginal swab specimens were assayed for Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using DNA amplification. Logistic subject-specific random-intercept models compared sexual risk outcomes during follow-up among adolescents who reported recent use of alcohol only (AO), marijuana only (MO) or both substances (A + M) at the baseline assessment. Relative to baseline AO use, baseline MO use predicted condom non-use at last sex. Relative to AO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy. Relative to MO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy and acquisition of T. vaginalis and any STI. The results suggest that African American female adolescents who use A + M may represent a priority population for STI, HIV, and pregnancy prevention efforts.
Harris, Tevis Tramaine
The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological research was to explore the perceptions of teachers as they instruct African American students who are successful on the North Carolina End-of-Grade Science test. The study identified thoughts, feelings, emotions, and challenges that teachers faced when instructing successful African American students from Title I schools in rural community classrooms. The research study analysis utilized NVivo10RTM software and identified common themes in the data. Five themes emerged from interviews with five fifth- and eighth-grade science teachers. Based on the teachers' perceptions, the findings revealed: (a) teachers experience an emotional journey in high poverty schools; (b) investments encompass sacrificing whatever is needed to help students become successful; (c) relationships should be developed between the teacher and student; (d) intentionality is a part of teachers' daily interaction with students; and (e) teachers encounter a challenging opportunity instructing African American students in science. This study provides valuable data in understanding the experiences of teachers as they instruct successful African American students and the challenges, obstacles, and triumphs teachers face when working with this population of students. The implications of the study suggest that educational leaders provide emotional support to help teachers manage the plethora of emotions experienced on a daily basis. Future study of successful teachers of African American students may further inform the dearth of literature surrounding the experience of successful teachers of minority students.
Damian, Rodica Ioana; Simonton, Dean Keith
Symptoms associated with mental illness have been hypothesized to relate to creative achievement because they act as diversifying experiences. However, this theory has only been tested on predominantly majority-culture samples. Do tendencies toward mental illness still predict eminent creativity when they coexist with other diversifying experiences, such as early parental death, minority-status, or poverty? These alternative diversifying experiences can be collectively referred to as examples of developmental adversity. This conjecture was tested on a significant sample of 291 eminent African Americans who, by the nature of their status as long-term minorities, would experience more developmental adversity. Replicating majority-culture patterns, African American artists showed higher mental illness rates than African American scientists. Yet the absolute percentages were significantly lower for the African Americans, regardless of profession. Furthermore, mental illness predicted higher eminence levels only for the African American artists, an effect that diminished when controlling for developmental adversity. Because the latter predicted eminence for both artists and scientists, the "madness-to-genius" link probably represents just 1 of several routes by which diversifying experiences can influence eminence. The same developmental ends can be attained by different means. This inference warrants further research using other eminent creators emerging from minority culture populations.
Mayo Matthew S
Full Text Available Abstract Background African-Americans remain underrepresented in clinical research despite experiencing a higher burden of disease compared to all other ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of this article is to describe the study design and discuss strategies used to recruit and retain African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study. Methods The parent study was designed to evaluate the differences in the steady-state concentrations of bupropion and its three principal metabolites between African-American menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. Study participation consisted of four visits at a General Clinical Research Center (GCRC over six weeks. After meeting telephone eligibility requirements, phone-eligible participants underwent additional screening during the first two GCRC visits. The last two visits (pharmacokinetic study phase required repeated blood draws using an intravenous catheter over the course of 12 hours. Results Five hundred and fifteen African-American smokers completed telephone screening; 187 were phone-eligible and 92 were scheduled for the first GCRC visit. Of the 81 who attended the first visit, 48 individuals were enrolled in the pharmacokinetic study, and a total of 40 individuals completed the study (83% retention rate. Conclusions Although recruitment of African-American smokers into a non-treatment, pharmacokinetic study poses challenges, retention is feasible. The results provide valuable information for investigators embarking on non-treatment laboratory-based studies among minority populations.
Tate, Nutrena H; Davis, Jean E; Yarandi, Hossein N
The purpose of this study was to examine the sociocultural factors related to weight behaviors in African American adolescents utilizing a social ecological approach. A descriptive correlational design included a sample of 145 African American adolescents. Perceived familial socialization, ethnic identity, physical activity, and eating behavior patterns were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and multiple regression equations. Perceived maternal socialization was significantly related to adolescent eating behaviors and physical activity whereas perceived paternal socialization was significantly related only to their physical activity. The adolescents' ethnic identity was not significantly related to their eating behaviors or physical activity. Health care providers who work with adolescents and their families can use the initial findings from this study to encourage healthy weight-related behaviors while reducing the obesity epidemic within the African American adolescent population in a developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive manner.
Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew
We investigate levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and non-Hispanic white women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. We find Hispanics' overall levels of distrust to be higher than levels for either African Americans or whites. Among Hispanics, however, Dominicans are the most distrusting group followed by Puerto Ricans; whereas Mexicans report levels of distrust that are comparable to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Married women are less distrusting than cohabiting women who, in turn, are less distrusting than non-cohabiting women. Nevertheless, distrust is not a significant predictor of a woman's total number of lifetime marital and cohabiting relationships; and distrust only marginally predicts a woman's desire to be in a steady relationship. We suggest that studies of trust in this population should focus more on attitudes displayed in specific encounters than on overall, generalized attitudes about gender distrust.
Noh, Hyunjin; Schroepfer, Tracy A
The underuse of hospice care by terminally ill African American elders suggests they are suffering when hospice care could offer quality end of life care. Guided by the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, this study sought understanding of structural barriers faced when seeking access to hospice care and reasons for using it when access is possible. Data was collected through interviews with 28 African American hospice patients. Themes from directed content analysis provide insights into strategies used to overcome access barriers posed by income, health insurance and administrative procedure, as well as the role religion, family, information and health beliefs played in using it. Distributing educational materials and addressing spiritual/religious concerns in choosing hospice care are key in promoting African Americans' use of hospice care.
Corneille, Maya A; Ashcroft, Amie M; Belgrave, Faye Z
This paper examines prevention programming for African American girls by placing the prevention process within the larger African and African American cultural context. We provide an overview of the theories and issues we consider most relevant to African American culture, including Africentric theory, ethnic identity, gender identity and relational theory, developmental issues, the community context, and historical considerations. Drawing from our own drug prevention work, we provide examples of how to incorporate culture into prevention programs to make them most relevant for the target population. We also summarize our own efforts to create culturally appropriate prevention interventions and their impact on the girls in our programs. We conclude with suggested directions for future research into culture-specific prevention programs.
Bhatia, Gaurav; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harris, Curtis C; Henderson, Brian E; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; De Jager, Phillip L; John, Esther M; Kittles, Rick A; Larkin, Emma; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Tucker, Margaret A; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Reich, David; Price, Alkes L
The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection after admixture was reported on the basis of deviations in local ancestry, and selection before admixture was reported on the basis of allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations. The local-ancestry deviations reported by the previous study did not replicate in our very large sample, and we show that such deviations were expected purely by chance, given the number of hypotheses tested. We further show that the previous study's conclusion of selection in African Americans before admixture is also subject to doubt. This is because the FST statistics they used were inflated and because true signals of unusual allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations would be best explained by selection that occurred in Africa prior to migration to the Americas.
Guy, Breonte Stephan
The scant literature on persistence of African American males in science typically takes a deficits-based approach to encapsulate the myriad reasons this population is so often underrepresented. Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate have, individually, been found to be related to the persistence of African American students. However, the unified impact of these three variables on the persistence of African American students with science interests has not been evaluated, and the relationship between the variables, the students' gender, and markers of academic achievement have not been previously investigated. The current study takes a strengths-based approach to evaluating the relationship between Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus climate with a population of African American students with science interests who were studying at six Minority Serving Institutions and Predominantly White Institutions in the Southern United States. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the impact of Scientist Identity, Mentoring, and Campus Climate on Intention to Persist of African American males. The results indicate that Scientist Identity predicts Intention to Persist, and that gender, academic performance, and institution type moderate the relationship between Scientist Identity and Intention to Persist. These results lend credence to the emerging notion that, for African American men studying science, generating a greater depth and breadth of understanding of the factors that lead to persistence will aid in the development of best practices for supporting persistence among this perpetually underrepresented population.
Bhatia, Gaurav; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Curtis C.; Henderson, Brian E.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, William; De Jager, Phillip L.; John, Esther M.; Kittles, Rick A.; Larkin, Emma; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Reich, David; Price, Alkes L.
The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection after admixture was reported on the basis of deviations in local ancestry, and selection before admixture was reported on the basis of allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations. The local-ancestry deviations reported by the previous study did not replicate in our very large sample, and we show that such deviations were expected purely by chance, given the number of hypotheses tested. We further show that the previous study’s conclusion of selection in African Americans before admixture is also subject to doubt. This is because the FST statistics they used were inflated and because true signals of unusual allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations would be best explained by selection that occurred in Africa prior to migration to the Americas. PMID:25242497
Wayland, J; Rawlins, R
The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.
Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.
Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R
Norms for African American elders on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were derived from a sample of 309 community-dwelling individuals participating in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS). Normative estimates are provided for traditional WMS-R subtest scores and for supplemental procedures to evaluate forgetting rates and recognition memory. Tables are provided to convert raw WMS-R subtest and supplemental scores to age-corrected scaled scores. These may be further adjusted for years of education, if desired, by applying regression-based corrections. We anticipate that these data will enhance the diagnostic utility and clinical interpretation of WMS-R performance in older African Americans.
Gudiseva, Harini V.; Trachtman, Benjamin; Bowman, Anita S.; Sagaser, Anna; Sankar, Prithvi; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Lehman, Amanda; Addis, Victoria; O'Brien, Joan M.
Purpose To estimate the population frequencies of all common mitochondrial variants and ancestral haplogroups among 1,999 subjects recruited for the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) Study, including 1,217 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases and 782 controls, and to identify ancestral subpopulations and mitochondrial mutations as potential risk factors for POAG susceptibility. Methods Subject classification by characteristic glaucomatous optic nerve findings and corresponding visual field defects, as defined by enrolling glaucoma specialists, stereo disc photography, phlebotomy, extraction of total DNA from peripheral blood or saliva, DNA quantification and normalization, PCR amplification of whole mitochondrial genomes, Ion Torrent deep semiconductor DNA sequencing on DNA pools (“Pool-seq”), Sanger sequencing of 3,479 individual mitochondrial DNAs, and bioinformatic analysis. Results The distribution of common African haplogroups within the POAAGG study population was broadly similar to prior surveys of African Americans. However, the POAG case population was found to be enriched in L1c2 haplogroups, which are defined in part by missense mutations m.6150G>A (Val83Ile, odds ratio [OR] 1.8, p=0.01), m.6253C>T (Met117Thr, rs200165736, OR 1.6, p=0.04), and m.6480G>A (Val193Ile, rs199476128, OR 4.6, p=0.04) in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene and by a variant, m.2220A>G (OR 2.0, p=0.01), in MT-RNR2, which encodes the mitochondrial ribosomal 16s RNA gene. L2 haplogroups were predicted to be overrepresented in the POAG case population by Pool-seq, and the difference was confirmed to be significant with Sanger sequencing, that targeted the L2-associated variants m.2416T>C (rs28358580, OR 1.2, p=0.02) and m.2332C>T (OR 1.2, p=.02) in MT-RNR2. Another variant within MT-RNR2, m.3010G>A (rs3928306), previously implicated in sensitivity to the optic neuropathy-associated antibiotic linezolid, and arising on D4 and J1
Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa
African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of parents'…
Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Coard, Stephanie Irby; Patton, Desmond Upton; Young, Shelton; Giles, Sasha; Nolen, Marlon
Background: The reported prevalence of depression and anxiety among African American children and adolescents and their negative sequalae suggest a need to further explore factors that may be protective of depression and anxiety among this population. Objective: The aim of this review was to examine empirical studies that focus on the association…
Reed, Monique; Dancy, Barbara; Holm, Karyn; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis
African American (AA) girls aged 10-12 living in urban communities designated as food deserts have a significantly greater prevalence of overweight and obesity than girls that age in the general population. The purpose of our study was (a) to examine the agreement in nutritional intake between AA girls aged 10-12 and their mothers and (b) to…
Spence, Susie A.
Describes a program designed to help rural elderly African Americans acquire daily living skills, conducted in their homes to reduce transportation problems and increase participation. The design takes into account characteristics of the population, such as age, health, economic conditions, race, educational level, and support systems. (SK)
Steiner, Riley J; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J
Among 284 African American girls aged 14 to 17 years, frequent family monitoring knowledge was associated with a reduced likelihood of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and having a casual sex partner but was not associated with other partnership characteristics. Family monitoring may offer an additional STI prevention opportunity for this vulnerable population.
Starks, Luciana Janee'
Increasing the number of advanced degree recipients is more than an educational issue; it is also a key social issue. "A college-educated population results in pivotal benefits to society" (The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2004, p. 1). Although African Americans have made steady and notable progress in doctorate degree…
Daria C. Crawley
Full Text Available Employment predictions continue to forecast increasing racial diversity in the American workforce as firms face global competition and strive to grasp the challenges of a global business landscape. As American multinational corporations use expatriate assignments; supplemented by flexipatriates and inpatriates to meet customer preferences in the global marketplace, growing racial diversity may generate more expatriates of color. Global human resource management research has focused on issues such as adjustment and cross-cultural development and recently mentoring as critical factors for expatriate success. A growing body of mentoring research details the career experiences of employees with diverse backgrounds, yet few studies center on the experiences of the African American expatriate. This article aims to examine African Americans mentoring opportunities in a global environment, with a focus on understanding the role mentoring plays for this particular population group. This work is intended to contribute to the increasing literature on global mentoring and will help to influence the thinking of multinational corporations’ response to the increasing diversity of their global workforce.
Smith, W; Burns, C
In Africa, the ancestral home of most African Americans, hair is viewed as the epitome of beauty. However, when Africans were brought to America as slaves, they were unable to care for their hair and skin adequately and were exposed to the predominant white culture, which valued straight hair and light skin. As a result, many African Americans lost self-esteem because of the characteristics of their hair and skin. In this article we examine the anatomic and physiologic features of African American hair and skin and typical African American hair and skin care practices. Common African American hair and skin disorders and their management are discussed. The goal of this article is to help primary care providers understand the special hair and skin care required for African American children (as well as other dark-skinned patients). With good patient education, understanding one's own hair and skin characteristics can also support positive self-esteem.
Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.
Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.
Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea
Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health...
Davis, S P
This historical reconstruction of the experiences of African American women in America from slavery to the present exposes the prevailing and enduring system of White male domination. From White men having control of their reproductive choices, to conspiracy to withhold the right to vote, African American women were victims of both sexism and racism. Later, as a result of the myth conceived by White sociologists of the super African American woman, further divisiveness became apparent in the African American home. As African American women took advantage of educational opportunities only to find that there was a dearth of similarly educated African American males to marry, increasing numbers of African American men were reported as parties to violent acts, drugs or illness. All of these variables are conjectured as impacting on the African American woman's experience. Lastly, data were presented depicting the increasing trend of African American women marrying White men, and the emergence of a more diverse workforce. It was concluded that economics serve as a catalyst for this change in human relations.
Jackson, Allesa P
Review of the current literature confirms that African American women as a group are underdiagnosed and undertreated for psychiatric disorders. Hence, much effort is targeted towards awareness, screening, and improving access to health care for this population. However, once an African American woman is diagnosed with a major mental health disorder, determining the optimal course of treatment is a process that must be approached carefully because of gender and racial/ethnic differences in response and metabolism of psychiatric medications. African American women fall into both of these understudied categories. Given the small numbers of African American women represented in the clinical trials on which clinical practice is based, one must consider the limitations of current knowledge regarding psychoactive medications in this population. Culturally based attitudes or resistance to pharmacotherapy can complicate the use of psychoactive medicines, often a first-line approach in primary care clinics. Communication with patients is key, as well as openness to patient concerns and tolerance of these medications.
Best, Alicia L; Spencer, Mindi; Hall, Ingrid J; Friedman, Daniela B; Billings, Deborah
Despite efforts to increase breast cancer screening (BCS) among African American women, disparities in breast cancer mortality persist. Culturally framed health communication may provide a useful strategy to address this issue. Spirituality not only represents an integral aspect of African American culture, but it has also been identified as a potential barrier to BCS among this population. Rather than continuing to focus on spirituality as a barrier, there is an opportunity to develop promotional messages that tap into the protective properties of spirituality among this population. The goals of this study were to engage a group of African American women to identify important spiritual elements to be included in health communication materials, and to subsequently develop a spiritually framed BCS message in response to their feedback. Three nominal group sessions were conducted with 15 African American women. Results revealed three important spiritual elements that can be incorporated into BCS health messages: (a) the body as a temple; (b) going to the doctor does not make you faithless; and (c) God did not give us the spirit of fear. These elements were used to draft a spiritually framed BCS message. Next, 20 face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted to help finalize the spiritually framed BCS message for use in a future study on culturally framed health communication.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent, large genome-wide association study (GWAS of European ancestry individuals has identified multiple genetic variants influencing serum lipids. Studies of the transferability of these associations to African Americans remain few, an important limitation given interethnic differences in serum lipids and the disproportionate burden of lipid-associated metabolic diseases among African Americans. Methods We attempted to evaluate the transferability of 95 lipid-associated loci recently identified in European ancestry individuals to 887 non-diabetic, unrelated African Americans from a population-based sample in the Washington, DC area. Additionally, we took advantage of the generally reduced linkage disequilibrium among African ancestry populations in comparison to European ancestry populations to fine-map replicated GWAS signals. Results We successfully replicated reported associations for 10 loci (CILP2/SF4, STARD3, LPL, CYP7A1, DOCK7/ANGPTL3, APOE, SORT1, IRS1, CETP, and UBASH3B. Through trans-ethnic fine-mapping, we were able to reduce associated regions around 75% of the loci that replicated. Conclusions Between this study and previous work in African Americans, 40 of the 95 loci reported in a large GWAS of European ancestry individuals also influence lipid levels in African Americans. While there is now evidence that the lipid-influencing role of a number of genetic variants is observed in both European and African ancestry populations, the still considerable lack of concordance highlights the importance of continued ancestry-specific studies to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of these traits.
Chanda, Pritam; Yuhki, Naoya; Li, Man; Bader, Joel S; Hartz, Alex; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kao, W H Linda; Arking, Dan E
Imputation of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays to a larger known reference panel of SNPs has become a standard and an essential part of genome-wide association studies. However, little is known about the behavior of imputation in African Americans with respect to the different imputation algorithms, the reference population(s) and the reference SNP panels used. Genome-wide SNP data (Affymetrix 6.0) from 3207 African American samples in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) was used to systematically evaluate imputation quality and yield. Imputation was performed with the imputation algorithms MACH, IMPUTE and BEAGLE using several combinations of three reference panels of HapMap III (ASW, YRI and CEU) and 1000 Genomes Project (pilot 1 YRI June 2010 release, EUR and AFR August 2010 and June 2011 releases) panels with SNP data on chromosomes 18, 20 and 22. About 10% of the directly genotyped SNPs from each chromosome were masked, and SNPs common between the reference panels were used for evaluating the imputation quality using two statistical metrics-concordance accuracy and Cohen's kappa (κ) coefficient. The dependencies of these metrics on the minor allele frequencies (MAF) and specific genotype categories (minor allele homozygotes, heterozygotes and major allele homozygotes) were thoroughly investigated to determine the best panel and method for imputation in African Americans. In addition, the power to detect imputed SNPs associated with simulated phenotypes was studied using the mean genotype of each masked SNP in the imputed data. Our results indicate that the genotype concordances after stratification into each genotype category and Cohen's κ coefficient are considerably better equipped to differentiate imputation performance compared with the traditionally used total concordance statistic, and both statistics improved with increasing MAF irrespective of the imputation method. We also find that both MACH and IMPUTE
Gaydos, Laura M; Blake, Sarah C; Gazmararian, Julie A; Woodruff, Whitney; Thompson, Winifred W; Dalmida, Safiya George
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children be placed in the supine position on firm bedding and not bed share with parents or other children. Health professionals increasingly understand that many African-American parents do not follow these recommendations, but little research exists on provider reactions to this non-compliance. This study was intended to better understand how low-income, African-American mothers understand and act upon safe sleep recommendations for newborns and how providers counsel these mothers. We conducted focus groups with 60 African-American, low-income, first-time mothers and telephone interviews with 20 providers serving these populations to explore provider counseling and patient decision making. The large majority of mothers reported understanding, but not following, the safe-sleeping recommendations. Key reasons for non-compliance included perceived safety, convenience, quality of infant sleep and conflicting information from family members. Mothers often take measures intended to mitigate risk associated with noncompliance, instead increasing SIDS risk. Providers recognize that many mothers are non-compliant and attribute non-compliance largely to cultural and familial influence. However, few provider attempts are made to mitigate SIDS risks from non-compliant behaviors. We suggest that counseling strategies should be adapted to: (1) provide greater detailed rationale for SIDS prevention recommendations; and (2) incorporate or acknowledge familial and cultural preferences. Ignoring the reasons for sleep decisions by African-American parents may perpetuate ongoing racial/ethnic disparities in SIDS.
Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Bandera, Elisa V
Epidemiological evidence regarding the association between carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load (GL) and glycaemic index (GI) and risk of ovarian cancer has been mixed. Little is known about their impact on ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. Associations between carbohydrate quantity and quality and ovarian cancer risk were investigated among 406 cases and 609 controls using data from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES). AACES is an ongoing population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in African-Americans in the USA. Cases were identified through rapid case ascertainment and age- and site-matched controls were identified by random-digit dialling. Dietary information over the year preceding diagnosis or the reference date was obtained using a FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% CI adjusted for covariates. The OR comparing the highest quartile of total carbohydrate intake and total sugar intake v. the lowest quartile were 1·57 (95% CI 1·08, 2·28; P trend=0·03) and 1·61 (95% CI 1·12, 2·30; P trendcancer (OR 1·18 for each 10 units/4184 kJ (1000 kcal); 95% CI 1·04, 1·33). No associations were observed for starch or GI. Our findings suggest that high intake of total sugars and GL are associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women.
Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors
Schneider, Brooke C.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.
Use of normative data stratified by education may result in misclassification of African American older adults because reading ability, an estimate of educational attainment, is lower than reported years of education for some African American elders. This study examined the contribution of reading ability versus education to neuropsychological test performance in 86 community-dwelling African American elders ages 56–91 with 8–18 years of education. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that reading ability, but not education, was significantly associated with performances on the Trail Making Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Animal Naming, Digit Span, and the Stroop test. Reading ability was not significantly related to performances on measures of memory. Medium to large effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.58–1.41) were found when comparing mean performances on neuropsychological measures in groups with low versus high reading scores. Results indicate that reading ability contributes beyond educational attainment to performances on some neuropsychological measures among African American elders. These findings have implications for reducing misclassification among minority populations through the use of appropriate normative data. PMID:21835850
Molina, Yamile; Hempstead, Bridgette H; Thompson-Dodd, Jacci; Weatherby, Shauna Rae; Dunbar, Claire; Hohl, Sarah D; Malen, Rachel C; Ceballos, Rachel M
African-American women experience disproportionately adverse outcomes relative to non-Latina White women after an abnormal mammogram result. Research has suggested medical advocacy and staff support may improve outcomes among this population. The purpose of the study was to understand reasons African-American women believe medical advocacy to be important and examine if and how staff can encourage and be supportive of medical advocacy. A convenience-based sample of 30-74-year-old women who self-identified as African-American/Black/of African descent and who had received an abnormal mammogram result was recruited from community-based organizations, mobile mammography services, and the local department of health. This qualitative study included semi-structured interviews. Patients perceived medical advocacy to be particularly important for African-Americans, given mistrust and discrimination present in medical settings and their own familiarity with their bodies and symptoms. Respondents emphasized that staff can encourage medical advocacy through offering information in general in a clear, informative, and empathic style. Cultural competency interventions that train staff how to foster medical advocacy may be a strategy to improve racial disparities following an abnormal mammogram.
Full Text Available Background. Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, coagulopathy and late-onset, progressive neurological dysfunction. It also has an “accelerated phase” characterized by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH. The disease is caused by mutations in the CHS1/LYST gene located on chromosome 1, which affects lysosome morphology and function. We report the case of an African-American child with CHS in Case. This 16-month old African-American girl presented with fever and lethargy. The proband had pale skin compared to her parents, with light brown eyes, silvery hair and massive hepatosplenomegaly. Her laboratory evaluation was remarkable for pancytopenia, high serum ferritin and an elevated LDH. Bone marrow aspirate revealed large inclusions in granulocytes and erythrophagocytosis consistent with HLH. Genetic evaluation revealed two novel nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene: c.3622C>T (p.Q1208X and c.11002G>T (p.E3668X. Conclusions. Our patient is one of the few cases of CHS reported in the African American population. We identified 2 nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene, the first mutation analysis published of an African-American child with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome. These two mutations predict a severe phenotype and thus identification of these mutations has an important clinical significance in CHS.
Notes that too few books reflect the contemporary experiences of African American children. Suggests that African American literature that is available is school libraries is often limited to folktales or focused on problems of poverty and racism. Appends a 39-item annotated bibliography. (RS)
Shropshire, Delia F. B.
The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…
Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott
Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…
Kusimo, Patricia S.
This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…
Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.
African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…
Snowden, Lonnie R
African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them.
Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.
The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…
Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey
Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…
Tidwell, Billy J.
The socioeconomic progress of African Americans appears to be in a stalled state. This study analyzes the progress of African Americans toward parity with Whites over a 15- to 20-year period in the following areas: (1) employment; (2) economic development; (3) education; (4) health; (5) housing; and (6) political empowerment. For individual…
... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... universal truths of our shared humanity. African-American musicians have left an indelible mark on...
Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton
The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…
...-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor the rich musical traditions of African-American musicians and their gifts to our country and our world. From the cadenced hums of spirituals to the melodies of rhythm... and equality for all. Today, African-American musicians continue to create new musical genres...
Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon
For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…
When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…
The long road of slavery from generation to generation has left a legacy in the mind of African American students that has impacted their achievements in schools. In this project, the struggle of African American students in the public school education will be analyzed from the historical standpoint of view and its impact on their achievements.…
The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…
Ryujin, Donald H.; Abitia, Fred B.
Self-esteem may be an issue for certain minority groups more than others. In particular, given their long and difficult history, this issue may be of more relevance to minorities of African-American descent. To assess whether renewed signs of racism at a college were negatively affecting the self-esteem of African-American students the Race…
Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…
Sirin, Selcuk R.; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren
This study examined how various components of school engagement contribute to the academic performance of African American adolescents. The sample consisted of 499 African American adolescents in Grades 9 to 11. We investigated how adolescents' gender, grade, cognitive functioning, and parental education affect their school engagement and whether…
Dickens, Manuel Dewayne
The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…
Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…
Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang
This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…
Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.
Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…
The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.
The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.
Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming
Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…
Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.
Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the presence and…
Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane
Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…
..., 2011 National African American History Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... February 4, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8627--National African American History Month, 2011 #0..., there is no progress.'' Progress in America has not come easily, but has resulted from the...
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8930 of January 31, 2013 National African American History Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In America, we share a dream that lies at the heart... Nation's history, that dream has gone unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until...
Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.
Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…
Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)
K. B. Holden
Full Text Available Gaining greater understanding about the various psychosocial, socio-cultural, and environmental factors that may influence experiences of depression among African American women (AAW helps elucidate how this mental illness impacts the lives of this population. Sixty-three adult AAW comprised the study’s convenience sample. Specifically, focus group cohorts inclusive of women from an academic institution, a primary healthcare clinic, and an urban community setting were conducted. Results indicated six (6 dominant common themes as issues that may increase risk for depression among diverse AAW. Similarities and differences about perspectives that contributed to depression were delineated among the three cohorts of AAW. These results are important for mental/behavioral health researchers, practitioners, and public health professionals that are engaged in the design and implementation of culturally centered and gender-specific prevention and intervention strategies targeted to AAW at risk for depression.
Attempts to increase the number of African-Americans participating in clinical trials, regardless of age, have been hampered by a lack of published data regarding successful recruitment and retention strategies. Successful strategies can be used as a guide for future researchers in the design of studies to recruit African-Americans, regardless of age, into clinical as well as qualitative studies to promote health among this vulnerable population. The goal of the primary study was to recruit 400 families with 2 or more family members affected with diabetes, totaling 800 participants. Project Sugar utilized the coordinated research principals known as CPR (Community, Plan, Reward) to recruit 615 African-American families totalling 1,230 people known as the Sea Island people (Gullahs) in the first five years of the study. The intention of the study was to identify markers for diabetes among these Sea Island natives who tended to be genetically homogenous. In so doing, specific strategies were identified as serendipitous findings for this study. Nonetheless, these serendipitous findings were thought to be so integral to success in the recruitment of African-Americans, mainly because of their success among this fairly close-knit, historically isolated, and significantly genetically homogenous Sea Islanders (Gullah). In recognizing the success of this model, an alternate aim was examined to devise rigorous scientific strategies to promote methods for recruitment of African-Americans into clinical trials aimed at reducing health disparities among this vulnerable population. This projects success can be attributed to the involvement of a local citizen advisory committee and rewards in the form of services, benefits, and incentives to the community. Findings from this alternative aim, which was scientifically built on the CPR model, suggest that when services are provided to the community, coupled with the use of local community advisory committees, the possibilities of
Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.
Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…
Christopher A Haiman
Full Text Available GWAS of prostate cancer have been remarkably successful in revealing common genetic variants and novel biological pathways that are linked with its etiology. A more complete understanding of inherited susceptibility to prostate cancer in the general population will come from continuing such discovery efforts and from testing known risk alleles in diverse racial and ethnic groups. In this large study of prostate cancer in African American men (3,425 prostate cancer cases and 3,290 controls, we tested 49 risk variants located in 28 genomic regions identified through GWAS in men of European and Asian descent, and we replicated associations (at p≤0.05 with roughly half of these markers. Through fine-mapping, we identified nearby markers in many regions that better define associations in African Americans. At 8q24, we found 9 variants (p≤6×10(-4 that best capture risk of prostate cancer in African Americans, many of which are more common in men of African than European descent. The markers found to be associated with risk at each locus improved risk modeling in African Americans (per allele OR = 1.17 over the alleles reported in the original GWAS (OR = 1.08. In summary, in this detailed analysis of the prostate cancer risk loci reported from GWAS, we have validated and improved upon markers of risk in some regions that better define the association with prostate cancer in African Americans. Our findings with variants at 8q24 also reinforce the importance of this region as a major risk locus for prostate cancer in men of African ancestry.
Roberts, Shani R; Lewis, Rhonda K; Carmack, Chakema
Over the past few decades researchers have begun to examine the importance of understanding positive youth development and the many contexts in which youth find themselves. The social contexts in which adolescent development occurs are varied and complex, particularly the development among African American youth. African American youth are faced with a number of challenges including living in single-parent homes, high teen pregnancy rates, and poor neighborhoods, yet many of these youth continue to thrive. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family structure (single-parenting) and adolescent outcomes such as educational aspirations and sexual activity among African American adolescent youth aged 12-17. Approximately 462 African American youth were surveyed. A number of positive results emerged; for instance, there was a negative correlation between family structure and educational aspirations. The number of parents in the home did not interfere with youth wanting to complete high school and go on to college (r = - .218, r² = .04, p < .05). The results also showed that as educational aspirations increased, the number of sexual partners decreased (r = - .141, meaning that the more adolescents reported a desire to complete high school, they were less likely to report having sexual intercourse. These positive results should be promoted among African American youth so that those faced with these challenges will note that others have overcome and accomplished their goals. In this population educational aspirations were important. Limitations and future research are discussed.
Drake, Carl Timothy
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or university (HBCU) located in the southeastern United States. Nine of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales, modified for physics, were used to analyze the attitudes of the 135 participants enrolled in an introductory college physics class. The nine scales used to measure the students' attitudes were Attitude Toward Success in Physics Scale (AS), The Physics as a Male Domain Scale (MD), The Mother Scale (M), The Father Scale (F), The Teacher Scale (T), The Confidence in Learning Physics Scale (C), The Physics Anxiety Scale (A), The Effectance Motivation Scale in Physics (E), and The Physics Usefulness Scale (U). Hypothesis I states that there is a significant difference in the domain scores of African-American college students in the Fennema-Sherman Math Attitudes Scales adapted for physics. It was found using a repeated measures ANOVA that there was a significant difference between the attitudes of African-Americans on the nine attitude scales of the Fennema-Sherman Math Attitude Scales, F(8,992) = 43.09, p .05. Hypothesis III states that there is a statistically significant relationship between attitude towards physics and achievement for African-American students. The students with good attitudes toward physics would have a higher level of achievement. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that there was a significant relationship between a good attitude toward physics and achievement in the class. The result of the analysis implied that 18.9% of the grade could be explained by the domain scales.
Sabir, Myra G; Pillemer, Karl A
Well-known trust-building methods are routinely used to recruit and retain older African Americans into scientific research studies, yet the quandary over how to overcome this group's hesitance to participate in research remains. We present two innovative and testable methods for resolving the dilemma around increasing older African Americans' participation in scientific research studies. Certain specific and meaningful experiential similarities between the primary researcher and the participants, as well as clear recognition of the elders' worth and dignity, improved older African Americans' willingness to adhere to a rigorous research design. Steps taken in an intervention study produced a potentially replicable strategy for achieving strong results in recruitment, retention and engagement of this population over three waves of assessment. Sixty-two (n=62) older African Americans were randomized to treatment and control conditions of a reminiscence intervention. Sensitivity to an African American cultural form of respect for elders (recognition of worth and dignity), and intersections between the lived experience of the researcher and participants helped dispel this population's well-documented distrust of scientific research. Results suggest that intentional efforts to honor the worth and dignity of elders through high level hospitality and highlighting meaningful experiential similarities between the researcher and the participants can improve recruitment and retention results. Experiential similarities, in particular, may prove more useful to recruitment and retention than structural similarities such as age, race, or gender, which may not in themselves result in the trust experiential similarities elicit.
Fitzgibbon, M L; Tussing-Humphreys, L M; Porter, J S; Martin, I K; Odoms-Young, A; Sharp, L K
The excess burden of obesity among African-American women is well documented. However, the behavioural weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioural weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for African-American women. The criteria for inclusion included (i) participants age ≥18 years; (ii) a behavioural weight loss intervention; (iii) weight as an outcome variable; (iv) inclusion of African-American women; and (v) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest that more intensive randomized behavioural weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for African-American women. Still, African-American women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioural weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviours for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity.
Geronimus, Arline T; Colen, Cynthia G; Shochet, Tara; Ingber, Lori Barer; James, Sherman A
Black youth residing in high-poverty areas have dramatically lower probabilities of surviving to age 65 if they are urban than if they are rural. Chronic disease deaths contribute heavily. We begin to probe the reasons using the Harlem Household Survey (HHS) and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health (PCS). We compare HHS and PCS respondents on chronic disease rates, health behaviors, social support, employment, indicators of health care access, and health insurance. Chronic disease profiles do not favor Pitt County. Smoking uptake is similar across samples, but PCS respondents are more likely to quit. Indicators of access to health care and private health insurance are more favorable in Pitt County. Findings suggest rural mortality is averted through secondary or tertiary prevention, not primary. Macroeconomic and health system changes of the past 20 years may have left poor urban Blacks as medically underserved as poor rural Blacks.
Krans, Elizabeth E; Chang, Judy C
The objective of the authors in this study was to identify pregnant, low-income African American women's barriers and facilitators to exercise during pregnancy. A series of six focus groups with pregnant African American women were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Focus group transcripts were qualitatively analyzed for major themes and independently coded for barriers and facilitators to exercise during pregnancy. A total of 34 pregnant, African American women participated in six focus groups from June through October of 2007. The majority of women were single (94%), had only a high school education (67%), received Medicaid (100%) and had a mean body mass index of 33 kg/m(2). All participants believed that exercise was beneficial during their pregnancy. However, participants faced multiple barriers including: (1) individual, (2) information, (3) resource, and (4) socio-cultural. African American women also described two facilitators to increase exercise during pregnancy: (1) group exercise classes, and (2) increasing the number of safe, low-cost exercise facilities in their communities. African American women living in low socioeconomic communities face several barriers to exercise during pregnancy. Targeted interventions to overcome barriers and facilitate exercise for this patient population should focus on increasing education from providers regarding the type and frequency of exercise recommended during pregnancy, enhancing social support networks with group exercise programs, and providing affordable and convenient locations to exercise.
Silberstein, Jonathan L; Feibus, Allison H; Maddox, Michael M; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Moparty, Krishnarao; Thomas, Raju; Sartor, Oliver
Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment strategy for prostate cancer (PCa) whereby patients diagnosed with PCa undergo ongoing characterization of their disease with the intent of avoiding radical treatment. Previously, AS has been demonstrated to be a reasonable option for men with low-risk PCa, but existing cohorts largely consist of Caucasian Americans. Because African Americans have a greater incidence, more aggressive, and potentially more lethal PCa than Caucasian Americans, it is unclear if AS is appropriate for African Americans. We performed a review of the available literature on AS with a focus on African Americans.
Rozie-Battle, Judith L
African American youth continue to be overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. As a result of the current political environment and the perceived increase in crime among young people, the nation has moved away from rehabilitation and toward harsher treatment of delinquents. The African American community must encourage policy makers and community leaders to continue to address the disproportionate representation of African American youth in the system. Current policing and prosecutorial policies must also be examined and challenged to end the perception of an unjust system.
Sullivan, Elizabeth A.; Abramowitz, Carolyn S.; Lopez, Mabel; Kosson, David S.
The utility of the psychopathy construct in predicting laboratory deficits, criminal behavior, response to intervention, and recidivism has been well documented in European American populations. However, less is known about the manifestation and correlates of psychopathy in Latino and African American populations. The present study examined the…
Ringer, Brialle D.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether implementation of an innovative STI prevention intervention design affects participants’ knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and sexual self-efficacy. The population this research focuses on is African-American adolescent girls. The participants included in this study are aged 13-19. This particular population is disproportionately infected by sexually transmitted diseases, so it is vital that intervention programs be tailored to fit their culture and gender-specific needs in order to achieve maximum results. However, current interventions for African-American girls could be improved. The researcher has designed an innovative STI prevention intervention that draws from current, best evidence interventions. The researcher has hypothesized that: (1 participants that complete the intervention will have increased STI knowledge; and, (2 upon completion of the intervention, participants will have greater sexual self-efficacy.
... celebrate the extraordinary legacy of African-American singers, composers, and musicians, as well as their... dance floor, but also in our churches, in our public spaces, and in our homes. This month, we honor...
Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.
Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1994
This database lists scholarships specifically available to African American students and some available to minority students in general. Scholarships for undergraduates in general and specific fields and awards for graduate and professional students are listed. (SLD)
Full Text Available Background. This study tested the hypothesis that data from random digit-dial telephone surveys underestimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among African-American adults. Method. A novel, community-sampling method was used to obtain a statewide, random sample of N= 2118 California (CA African-American/Black adults, surveyed door-to-door. This Black community sample was compared to the Blacks in the CA Health Interview Survey (N = 2315, a statewide, random digit-dial telephone-survey conducted simultaneously. Results. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among community (33% than among telephone-survey (19% Blacks, even after controlling for sample-differences in demographics.Conclusions. Telephone surveys underestimate smoking among African-Americans and probably underestimate other health risk behaviors as well. Alternative methods are needed to obtain accurate data on African-American health behaviors and on the magnitude of racial disparities in them.
... music they made-- songs of hurt and hardship, yearning and hope, and struggle for a better day. Those feelings speak to something common in all of us. With passion and creativity, African-American...
Kelly, Deanna L; Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Dixon, Lisa; Love, Raymond C; Medoff, Deborah; Conley, Robert R
Clozapine use has been notably lower in African American patients than in Caucasians. It has been suggested that lower normal ranges for white blood cell (WBC) counts in African Americans, known as benign ethnic neutropenia, may account partially for the disparity. We examined the rates of leucopenia and agranulocytosis as reasons for discontinuation of clozapine in a sample of 1875 patients with schizophrenia treated in the State of Maryland. Between 1989 and 1999, 5.3% (31/588) of African Americans and 2.4% (31/1287) of Caucasians discontinued clozapine treatment due to leucopenia (chi square = 10.35, df = 1, P = 0.001). No African American patients developed agranulocytosis while 8 Caucasian patients (0.62%) developed this blood dyscrasia. Discontinuations due to leucopenia occurred throughout treatment. Discontinuations due to agranulocytosis occurred primarily in the first 18 weeks (7/8; 87.5% patients with agranulocytosis). It is likely that African Americans had clozapine discontinued unnecessarily due to benign ethnic neutropenia. We concur with recent recommendations to acknowledge differences in WBC values in African Americans and to modify prescribing guidelines or formally acknowledge benign ethnic leucopenia like in other countries in order to facilitate greater use of clozapine in these patients.
Derrick J. Jenkins, Sr. Ph.D.
Full Text Available Introduction: In 1994, the city of Cincinnati, Ohio was named the most livable city in America by Places Rated Almanac (Clark, 1993. Couched within this distinction is the variance of perceived categorizations as the building blocks of a utopian-esque society such as a robust job market, low cost of living, affordable housing, highly educated populous, high arts and recreation and low crime rates. What happened within under a decade that transformed the national perception of the queen city from the most livable city in 1994 to the most recent and largest urban hot bed of racial and civil unrest since the Los Angeles riots? However, no study has explicitly assessed the perceptions of crime in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of this study is to assess perceptions about crime in the local community since the 2001 Cincinnati riots. Methods: We surveyed 71 participants as part of a cross-sectional study designed to assess perception of crime in Cincinnati, Ohio. We conducted a questionnaire of a random sample of African American residents in Cincinnati, Ohio. The city of Cincinnati was chosen because of its large African American community and in part due to its long lasting history of police violence and riots in the African American community. Analyses: Most participants felt the level of crime in Cincinnati, Ohio was a very serious problem. However, a large majority of both males (22.6% and females (10% believed crime in Cincinnati, Ohio was somewhat serious. The remaining respondents perceived crime in Cincinnati as serious (males: 16.1%, females: 12.5% or not at all serious (males 3.2%, females: 0%. A larger portion of the males (54.8% than females (40% responded that in the last 3- year’s crime in Cincinnati, Ohio relatively stayed the same. Conclusion: The results indicate that there was little difference in African American perceptions of violence in Cincinnati in 2001 and 11 years later in 2012. Most people felt that violence in
Trumpeter Nevelyn N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite their increased use, no studies have examined the validity of Actical accelerometry cut points for moderate physical activity (PA in underserved (low-income, high-crime, minority populations. The high rates of chronic disease and physical inactivity in these populations likely impact the measurement of PA. There is growing concern that traditionally defined cut points may be too high for older or inactive adults. The present study aimed to determine the self-selected pace associated with instructions to “walk for exercise” and the corresponding accelerometry estimates (e.g., Actical counts/minute for underserved, African American adults. Method Fifty one participants (61% women had a mean age of 60.1 (SD = 9.9 and a mean body mass index of 30.5 kg/m2 (SD = 6.0. They performed one seated task, one standing task, and three walking tasks: “strolling”; “walking for exercise”; and “walking in an emergency.” Results The average pace for strolling, walking for exercise, and walking in an emergency were 1.62 miles per hour (mph; SD = .51, 2.51 mph (SD = .53, and 2.86 mph (SD = .58, respectively. The average Actical counts/minute for the five activities were: 4 (SD = 15, 16 (SD = 29, 751 (SD = 591, 2006 (SD = 1095, and 2617 (SD = 1169, respectively. Regression analyses showed that the predicted counts/minute for a pace of 2.0 mph (which is used as the criterion for moderate exercise in this study was 1075 counts/minute (SEM = 73. Conclusions The cut point associated with subjectively determined moderate PA is similar to those previously published for older adults and extends the use of adjusted cut points to African American populations. These results indicate that accurate cut points can be obtained using this innovative methodology.
Hunt, Kristin L; Martens, Patricia M; Belcher, Harolyn M E
Demographics, parental risk factors, and experiencing interpersonal trauma (domestic violence, community violence, and physical and sexual abuse) are related to childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Little is known about these factors and the risk of PTSD in African American children. This study examined associations between PTSD symptoms and gender, age, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, and interpersonal trauma in African American children. Participants were 257 children and adolescents, ages 8-17 years (M = 11.7, SD = 2.5), who received outpatient mental health treatment. Being female and witnessing domestic violence was associated with more PTSD symptoms. Exposure to community violence and physical abuse increased the odds of clinically significant PTSD symptomatology by more than 2 times. The rate of PTSD (16%) was lower in the current study than in other same-age study populations (25%-40%). Risk factors and identification strategies for PTSD are discussed.
Senteio, Charles; Veinot, Tiffany
Adherence to treatment recommendations for chronic diseases is notoriously low across all patient populations. But African American patients, who are more likely to live in low-income neighborhoods and to have multiple chronic conditions, are even less likely to follow medical recommendations. Yet we know little about their contextually embedded, adherence-related experiences. We interviewed individuals (n = 37) with at least two of the following conditions: hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Using an "invisible work" theoretical framework, we outline the adherence work that arose in patients' common life circumstances. We found five types: constantly searching for better care, stretching medications, eating what I know, keeping myself alive, and trying to make it right. Adherence work was effortful, challenging, and addressed external contingencies present in high-poverty African American neighborhoods. This work was invisible within the health care system because participants lacked ongoing, trusting relationships with providers and rarely discussed challenges with them.
Shafir, Shira C; Sorvillo, Frank J; Smith, Lisa
Trichomonas vaginalis has long been recognized as one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections. However, it is only in recent years that it has been appreciated that Trichomonas may play a critical role in amplifying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Given the evidence that T. vaginalis likely promotes HIV infection, the apparent high level of Trichomonas infection in the African-American community is cause for concern. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small or modest amount, it translates into a sizable population effect since Trichomonas is so common in this community. Therefore, control of trichomoniasis may represent an important avenue of control for the prevention of HIV transmission, particularly among African-Americans.
Walker, Eleanor A; Stevens, Karen A; Persaud, Sabita
Diabetes is a major national health problem that affects African Americans more seriously than other population groups. The purpose of this project was to increase knowledge and self-management of diabetes among African American adults 40 years of age and older diagnosed with type II diabetes. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test comparison group design was used. Three educational sessions were provided to participants in the intervention group. Content included information about diabetes and its complications, risk factors, proper diet, recommendations for exercise, medications, and monitoring blood glucose. Teaching strategies included discussion, games, and demonstrations. Patient navigators provided follow-up by phone at the scheduled intervals. Preliminary results indicated significantly increased knowledge among intervention group participants between the pre- and post-test and the pre-test and follow-up. Findings for HbA1c values, body mass index, and weight were not significant.
Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki K
Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive.
Grier, Sonya A.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.
Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive. PMID:18633097
Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such
Diversity in academia requires attention, especially with the expected increase in minority populations in the United States (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, (AACN) 2014). Despite theoretical papers that suggest that several challenges are encountered by minority faculty employed in predominately White institutions, a dearth of research on this topic has been published. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the published research that addressed the workplace environment of African-American faculty employed in predominately White institutions. In utilizing the keywords in various combinations, 236 articles were retrieved through multiple databases. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 studies were reviewed with only three related to nursing. Two themes were extracted from the review: 1) the cultural climate of the workplace environment and, 2) underrepresentation of African-American faculty. It is apparent from this review that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of this group of faculty to target effective recruitment and retention strategies.
Pickett, Stephanie; Allen, Wilfred; Franklin, Mary; Peters, Rosalind M
Guided by Leventhal's common sense model of illness representations, this study examined the relationship between hypertension beliefs and self-care behaviors necessary for blood pressure (BP) control in a sample of 111 community-dwelling African Americans with hypertension. Participants completed the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, BP Self-Care Scale, and a demographic data sheet, and had BP measured. Analyses revealed that beliefs about the causes of hypertension differed by gender and educational level. Stress-related causal attributions accounted for 34.7% of the variance in hypertension beliefs. Participants who believed stress or external factors caused hypertension were less likely to engage in healthy self-care behaviors (e.g., keeping doctor visits, eating low-salt, low-fat diets). Results suggest that patients who are nonadherent with hypertension self-care recommendations may hold hypertension beliefs that are not consistent with the medically endorsed views of this disease. To more effectively treat and control BP, providers should assess patients' hypertension beliefs.
Williams, Monnica T; Jahn, Matthew E
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious condition that remains understudied in ethnoracial minority populations. The presence of OCD and the individual, familial, and cultural factors that influence this condition can interfere with healthy development and cause lifelong disability. To date, there has not been a single published research article focused on OCD in African American youth. Ethnic and racial minorities with OCD are underrepresented or altogether absent from treatment centers and research studies, although evidence suggests that OCD may be particularly persistent in these populations. This article reviews risk factors, protective factors, and barriers to treatment in African American children and adolescents with OCD. This review conceptualizes cultural differences in symptomology, low income, reduced access to care, racism, and mental health stigma, as risk factors. Also discussed are the roles of family factors in the development and maintenance of the disorder, including family accommodations, conflictual family communication, and parenting styles. Potential protective factors are also examined, including a positive ethnic identity, social support, present-centered time orientation, and religious communities. Implications of findings are discussed. There is an urgent need for research to understand the needs of African American children and adolescents with OCD. (PsycINFO Database Record
The average birth weight in the contemporary African-American population is about 250 g lower than the average birth weight of European Americans. Differences in genetic and socioeconomic factors present between these two groups can explain only part of birth weight variation. I propose a hypothesis that the low birth weight of contemporary African Americans not only results from the difference in present exposure to lifestyle factors known to affect fetal development but also from conditions experienced during the period of slavery. Slaves had poor nutritional status during all stages of life because of the inadequate dietary intake accompanied by high energetic costs of physical work and infectious diseases. The concept of "fetal programming" suggests that physiology and metabolism including growth and fat accumulation of the developing fetus, and, thus its birth weight, depend on intergenerational signal of environmental quality passed through generations of matrilinear ancestors. I suggest that several generations that have passed since the abolition of slavery in the United States (1865) has not been enough to obliterate the impact of slavery on the current biological and health condition of the African-American population.
Nicholette D Palmer
Full Text Available African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071, were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05. Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8. SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9, OR (95% CI = 0.75 (0.67-0.84 is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217 were associated with T2DM (P<0.05 and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5 in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.
Venkata K Mukku
Full Text Available Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the US population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the United States. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91–180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.
Rudock Megan E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Arachidonic acid (AA is a long-chain omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA synthesized from the precursor dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA that plays a vital role in immunity and inflammation. Variants in the Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS family of genes on chromosome 11q have been shown to play a role in PUFA metabolism in populations of European and Asian ancestry; no work has been done in populations of African ancestry to date. Results In this study, we report that African Americans have significantly higher circulating levels of plasma AA (p = 1.35 × 10-48 and lower DGLA levels (p = 9.80 × 10-11 than European Americans. Tests for association in N = 329 individuals across 80 nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS locus revealed significant association with AA, DGLA and the AA/DGLA ratio, a measure of enzymatic efficiency, in both racial groups (peak signal p = 2.85 × 10-16 in African Americans, 2.68 × 10-23 in European Americans. Ancestry-related differences were observed at an upstream marker previously associated with AA levels (rs174537, wherein, 79-82% of African Americans carry two copies of the G allele compared to only 42-45% of European Americans. Importantly, the allelic effect of the G allele, which is associated with enhanced conversion of DGLA to AA, on enzymatic efficiency was similar in both groups. Conclusions We conclude that the impact of FADS genetic variants on PUFA metabolism, specifically AA levels, is likely more pronounced in African Americans due to the larger proportion of individuals carrying the genotype associated with increased FADS1 enzymatic conversion of DGLA to AA.
Mukku, Venkata K; Benson, Timothy G; Alam, Farzana; Richie, William D; Bailey, Rahn K
Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes, and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the U.S. population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the U.S. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs, and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country, and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91-180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.
Stewart, April E.
The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with coronary artery disease are at high risk for adverse health outcomes. This risk can be diminished by aggressive lipid management, but adherence to lipid management guidelines is far from ideal and substantial racial disparities in care have been reported. Lipid treatment and goal attainment information is not readily available for large patient populations seen in the fee-for-service setting. As a result, national programs to improve lipid management in this setting may focus on lipid testing as an indicator of lipid management. We describe the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipdemia for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease to evaluate whether public health programs focusing on lipid testing can eliminate racial disparities in lipid management. Methods Physicians and medical practices with high numbers of prescriptions for coronary artery disease medications were invited to participate in the Quality Assurance Program. Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients with coronary artery disease seen from 1995 through 1998. Data related to the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia were abstracted from the medical record and evaluated in cross-sectional stratified and logistic regression analyses using generalized estimation equations. Results Data from the medical records of 1,046 African Americans and 22,077 Caucasians seen in outpatient medical practices in 23 states were analyzed. African-American patients were younger, more likely to be women and to have diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C testing rate for Caucasian men was over 1.4 times higher than that for African-American women and about 1.3 times higher than that for African-American men. Almost 60% of tested Caucasian men and less than half of tested African Americans were prescribed lipid-lowering drugs. Tested and treated Caucasian men
Johnson, Kimberly S; Elbert-Avila, Katja I; Tulsky, James A
Spirituality is an important part of African-American culture and is often cited as an explanation for the more-aggressive treatment preferences of some African Americans at the end of life. This paper reviews the literature on spiritual beliefs that may influence the treatment decisions of African Americans. Medline 1966 to February 2003, Psych Info 1872 to February 2003, and CINAHL 1982 to February 2003 were searched for studies exploring spiritual beliefs that may influence the treatment preferences of African Americans. All candidate papers were examined for quality, and data were extracted on study population, design, analysis, and results to identify recurrent themes. Forty studies met inclusion criteria. Recurrent themes describing spiritual beliefs that may influence the treatment preferences of African Americans throughout the course of illness include the following: spiritual beliefs and practices are a source of comfort, coping, and support and are the most effective way to influence healing; God is responsible for physical and spiritual health; and the doctor is God's instrument. Spiritual beliefs specifically addressing treatment preferences at the end of life include: only God has power to decide life and death, there are religious prohibitions against physician-assisted death or advance directives limiting life-sustaining treatments, and divine intervention and miracles occur. For some African Americans, spiritual beliefs are important in understanding and coping with illness and may provide a framework within which treatment decisions are made. Given the growing ethnic diversity of the United States, some understanding of the complexities of culture and spirituality is essential for healthcare providers.
Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri
African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…
Wilson, Courtney J.; Cottone, R. Rocco
A comprehensive review of the literature on clinical work with African American youth with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is presented. The strengths and limitations of CBT in relation to this population are outlined. Although CBT shows promise in helping, research on the efficacy and effectiveness of CBT in this group is lacking. (Contains 3…
Shin, Sung-Man; Chow, Clifton; Camacho-Gonsalves, Teresita; Levy, Rachel J.; Allen, I. Elaine; Leff, H. Stephen
A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of client-clinician matching on the basis of race-ethnicity on overall functioning, service retention, and total number of sessions attended for African American and Caucasian American adult populations in mental health services. The analysis included 10 published and unpublished studies…
Perry, Brea L.; Pullen, Erin L.; Oser, Carrie B.
Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical…
Falk, William F.; Hunt, Larry L.; Hunt, Matthew O.
Using samples of census data from the university of Minnesota Population Center's "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series" (IPUMS), we describe trends in African-American migration to the South across recent decades, and explore the applicability of the concept of "return migration" to various demographic patterns. Our findings suggest that the…
Siddiqi, Zoveen; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Shuval, Kerem
Physical inactivity is a leading cause of premature death, disability and numerous chronic diseases. Minority and underserved populations in the United States and worldwide have a higher prevalence of physical inactivity affecting their morbidity and mortality rates. In the United States, African Americans are less physically active and have a…
Estrada-Martanez, Lorena M.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
Behavioral and mental health outcomes have been associated with experiencing high levels of stress. Yet, little is known about the link between the nature of stressors, their accumulation over time, and the risk for externalizing and internalizing outcomes. Compared to the general population, African Americans are exposed to a disproportionate…
Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L; Gaylord, Susan A
African Americans experience a disproportionate rate of stress-related health conditions compared to European Americans. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be effective for managing stress and various stress-related health conditions. This study explored the cultural relevance of mindfulness meditation training for African Americans adults. Fifteen African American adults with past or current experience with mindfulness meditation training were interviewed. Participants felt that mindfulness meditation helped them with enhanced stress management, direct health improvement, and enhanced self-awareness and purposefulness. They felt that they would recommend it and that other African Americans would be open to the practice but suggested that its presentation may need to be adapted. They suggested emphasizing the health benefits, connecting it to familiar spiritual ideology and cultural practices, supplementing the reading material with African American writers, increasing communication (education, instructor availability, "buddy system," etc.), and including African Americans as instructors and participants. By implementing minor adaptations that enhance cultural relevance, mindfulness meditation can be a beneficial therapeutic intervention for this population.
Vetta L. Sanders Thompson
Full Text Available Background. Data suggest that colorectal cancer could be cut by approximately 60% if all people aged 50 years or older received regular screening. Studies have identified socio-cultural attitudes that might inform cancer education and screening promotion campaigns. This article applies item response theory (IRT to a set of survey items selected to assess sociocultural attitudes in order to determine how current measures may affect what we know about how these attitudes affect colorectal cancer screening (CRCS.Design and Methods. A survey of colorectal cancer screening, screening attitudes and cultural beliefs was administered to 1021 African Americans – 683 women and 338 men, ages 50 to 75. Eligibility crite ria for participation included being born in the United States, self-identified African American male or female, age 50 to 75 years. The IRT analysis was performed on 655 individuals with complete data for the 43 observed variables. Results. Twenty-nine items comprise the Multi-construct African American Cultural Survey (MAACS that addresses seven cultural con- structs: mistrust/distrust, privacy, ethnic identity, collectivism, empowerment, and male gender roles. The items provide adequate information about the attitudes of the population across most levels of the constructs assessed. Among the sociocultural variables considered, empowerment (OR=1.078; 95% CI: 1.008, 1.151 had the strongest association with CRCS adherence and privacy showed promise. Conclusions. The MAACS provides a fixed length questionnaire to assess African American CRCS attitudes, two new constructs that might assist in CRCS promotion, and a suggested focus for identification of additional constructs of interest.
Jones Kathleen M
Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans have higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality than other ethnic groups. Young adults are prime targets for intervention strategies to prevent and reduce disease risk. The study purpose was to determine the level of knowledge of lifestyle risk factors for CVD among young African American adults in Phoenix. The results will be used to guide the development of CVD outreach programs targeted to this population. The Health Belief Model was used as a conceptual framework. Methods A convenience sample of 172 African American men and women aged 18-26 years completed a questionnaire adapted from the American Heart Association national surveys. Descriptive statistics were compared by age, gender, education level, and health status variables including BMI, smoking status, and physical activity. Results Some aspects of heart-disease were well known among young adult African Americans. Knowledge of certain other important risk factors (menopause and preventive behaviors (eating fewer animal products, however, was more variable and inconsistent among the respondents. Differences in knowledge of individual variables was greater by education level than by gender overall. Predictors of a summary CVD knowledge score included higher education, female gender, and high self-efficacy (adjusted R2 = 0.158, p 2 = 0.064, p Conclusions Evaluation of baseline knowledge of CVD is essential before designing and implementing health promotion programs. Existing strengths and weaknesses in knowledge can guide tailoring of programs to be more effective. Further research would help to identify the range of other characteristics that determine knowledge and risk perception.
Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise
Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance.
Neha P. Gothe PhD
Full Text Available According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults (N = 20. Questions posed to each focus group targeted motivations and barriers toward physical activity as well as their preferences for physical activity. The motivations included perceived health benefits of physical activity, social support, and enjoyment associated with engagement in physical activity. Prominent barriers included time and physical limitations, peer pressure and family responsibilities, and weather and poor neighborhood conditions. Group activities involving a dance component and novel exercises such as tai-chi or yoga were preferred choices. These findings should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing research or community physical activity programs for female African American older adults.
Sarah L Szanton
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Educational opportunities for African-Americans expanded throughout the 20(th century. Twin pairs are an informative population in which to examine changes in educational attainment because each twin has the same parents and childhood socioeconomic status. We hypothesized that correlation in educational attainment of older twin pairs would be higher compared to younger twin pairs reflecting changes in educational access over time and potentially reflecting a "ceiling effect" associated with Jim Crow laws and discrimination. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data from 211 same-sex twin pairs (98 identical, 113 fraternal in the Carolina African-American Twin Study of Aging who were identified through birth records. Participants completed an in-person interview. The twins were predominantly female (61%, with a mean age of 50 years (SD = 0.5. We found that older age groups had a stronger intra-twin correlation of attained educational level. Further analysis across strata revealed a trend across zygosity, with identical twins demonstrating more similar educational attainment levels than did their fraternal twin counterparts, suggesting a genetic influence. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that as educational opportunities broadened in the 20th century, African-Americans gained access to educational opportunities that better matched their individual abilities.
Born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas to a family of sharecroppers, Bessie Coleman grew up in poverty. Her father abandoned the family when she was nine, and her elder brothers soon left as well, leaving her mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children. While taking care of her younger sisters, Bessie completed all eight available years of primary education, excelling in math. She enrolled at the Colored Agricultural and Normal University in Langston, Oklahoma in 1910, but lack of funds forced her to leave after only one term. Five years later, she left the South and moved to Chicago to join two of her brothers, Walter and John, where she worked as a beautician for several years. An avid reader, she learned about World War I pilots in the newspaper and became intrigued by the prospect of flying. As a black woman, she had no chance of acceptance at any American pilot school, so she moved to France in 1919 and enrolled at the Ecole d'Aviation des Freres Caudon at Le Crotoy. After returning briefly to the United States, she spent one more term in France practicing more advanced flying before finally settling back in her birth country. She did exhibition flying and gave lectures across the country from 1922 to 1926. While flying, she refused to perform unless the audiences were desegregated. She was test flying a new plane on April 30, 1926 when it malfunctioned, killing both her and the mechanic who was piloting it. Her career as the world's first African American pilot inspired many who followed.
Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.
Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.
Full Text Available Introduction. Telemedicine is promoted as a means to increase access to specialty medical care among the urban underserved, yet little is known about its acceptability among these populations. We used components of a diffusion of innovation conceptual framework to analyze preexperience perceptions about telemedicine to assess its appeal among urban underserved African Americans and Latinos. Methods. Ten focus groups were conducted with African American (=43 and Latino participants (=44 in both English and Spanish and analyzed for key themes. Results. Both groups perceived increased and immediate access to multiple medical opinions and reduced wait time as relative advantages of telemedicine. However, African Americans expressed more concerns than Latinos about confidentiality, privacy, and the physical absence of the specialist. This difference may reflect lower levels of trust in new health care innovations among African Americans resulting from a legacy of past abuses in the US medical system as compared to immigrant Latinos who do not have this particular historical backdrop. Conclusions. These findings have implications for important issues such as adoption of telemedicine, patient satisfaction, doctor-patient interactions, and the development and tailoring of strategies targeted to each of these populations for the introduction, marketing, and implementation of telemedicine.
Bondima, Michelle Harris
This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher
Becker, D; Liddle, H A
Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved.
Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina
While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families.
Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Arnold, Lauren D; Notaro, Sheri R
This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents' intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vaccination prior to or after the child's initiation of sexual activity. A recurring theme was the influence of physician recommendation on African American parents' intent to obtain HPV vaccination for their daughters. Most parents reported that they could overcome barriers to vaccination, except vaccine costs and lack of insurance. While religious beliefs were important to parents, they reported that they would not interfere with vaccination decisions; fears of early sexuality due to vaccination were limited. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Holt, Cheryl L; Schulz, Emily; Williams, Beverly; Clark, Eddie M; Wang, Min Qi; Southward, Penny L
African American faith communities are an important source of social capital. The present study adapted a theory-based social capital instrument to result in religious (e.g., from organized worship) and spiritual (e.g., from relationship with higher power) capital measures. Data from a national sample of 803 African Americans suggest the instruments have high internal reliability and are distinct from general religiosity. Measurement models confirmed factor structures. Religious capital was positively associated with self-rated health status. Religious and spiritual capital were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, but these associations largely became nonsignificant in multivariate models that controlled for demographic characteristics. An exception is for spiritual capital in the form of community participation, which retained a negative association with depressive symptoms. These instruments may have applied value for health promotion research and practice in African American communities.
Booker, Staja Q; Herr, Keela A; Tripp-Reimer, Toni
Despite considerable pain disparities across the care continuum, pain is an understudied health problem in older ethnic minority groups, such as African Americans. Quality pain measurement is a core task in pain management and a mechanism by which pain disparities may be reduced. Pain measurement includes the methods (e.g., assessment approaches, tools) and metrics that researchers and clinicians use to understand the characteristics of pain. However, there are significant issues and gaps that negatively affect pain measurement in older African Americans. Of concern is insufficient representation in pain research, which impedes the testing and refinement of many standardized self-report, behavioral and surrogate report, physiological, and composite measures of pain. The purposes for this article are to discuss the status of pain measurement and factors that affect our knowledge on pain measurement in older African Americans, and to provide guidance for culturally conscientious pain measurement using the available literature.
Topping, Kecia C.
, exposure to science, parent influence, peer influence, teacher expectations, strategies for academic success in science, and perception of self in a predominantly Caucasian population. This information should be used to create interactive suburban middle school science classrooms that encourage the participation of African American females. These females should experience increased involvement with activities that expose them to science that is relevant to their lives. As a result, these females will be inspired to excel in science and one day enter into science careers.
Analyzes the sociopsychological factors that account for increased stressors and dysfunctionality in contemporary African American women. Discusses the importance of African American family life values in combating dehumanization. (FMW)
Thompson, Richard; Dancy, Barbara L; Wiley, Tisha R A; Najdowski, Cynthia J; Perry, Sylvia P; Wallis, Jason; Mekawi, Yara; Knafl, Kathleen A
A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive design was used to examine the links among expectations about, experiences with, and intentions toward mental health services. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 32 African American youth/mothers dyads. Content analysis revealed that positive expectations were linked to positive experiences and intentions, that negative expectations were not consistently linked to negative experiences or intentions, nor were ambivalent expectations linked to ambivalent experiences or intentions. Youth were concerned about privacy breeches and mothers about the harmfulness of psychotropic medication. Addressing these concerns may promote African Americans' engagement in mental health services.
Dana B Hancock
Full Text Available Genotype imputation, used in genome-wide association studies to expand coverage of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, has performed poorly in African Americans compared to less admixed populations. Overall, imputation has typically relied on HapMap reference haplotype panels from Africans (YRI, European Americans (CEU, and Asians (CHB/JPT. The 1000 Genomes project offers a wider range of reference populations, such as African Americans (ASW, but their imputation performance has had limited evaluation. Using 595 African Americans genotyped on Illumina's HumanHap550v3 BeadChip, we compared imputation results from four software programs (IMPUTE2, BEAGLE, MaCH, and MaCH-Admix and three reference panels consisting of different combinations of 1000 Genomes populations (February 2012 release: (1 3 specifically selected populations (YRI, CEU, and ASW; (2 8 populations of diverse African (AFR or European (AFR descent; and (3 all 14 available populations (ALL. Based on chromosome 22, we calculated three performance metrics: (1 concordance (percentage of masked genotyped SNPs with imputed and true genotype agreement; (2 imputation quality score (IQS; concordance adjusted for chance agreement, which is particularly informative for low minor allele frequency [MAF] SNPs; and (3 average r2hat (estimated correlation between the imputed and true genotypes, for all imputed SNPs. Across the reference panels, IMPUTE2 and MaCH had the highest concordance (91%-93%, but IMPUTE2 had the highest IQS (81%-83% and average r2hat (0.68 using YRI+ASW+CEU, 0.62 using AFR+EUR, and 0.55 using ALL. Imputation quality for most programs was reduced by the addition of more distantly related reference populations, due entirely to the introduction of low frequency SNPs (MAF≤2% that are monomorphic in the more closely related panels. While imputation was optimized by using IMPUTE2 with reference to the ALL panel (average r2hat = 0.86 for SNPs with MAF>2%, use of the ALL
Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is the leading cause of mortality in African Americans. To identify common genetic polymorphisms associated with CHD and its risk factors (LDL- and HDL-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, hypertension, smoking, and type-2 diabetes in individuals of African ancestry, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS in 8,090 African Americans from five population-based cohorts. We replicated 17 loci previously associated with CHD or its risk factors in Caucasians. For five of these regions (CHD: CDKN2A/CDKN2B; HDL-C: FADS1-3, PLTP, LPL, and ABCA1, we could leverage the distinct linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns in African Americans to identify DNA polymorphisms more strongly associated with the phenotypes than the previously reported index SNPs found in Caucasian populations. We also developed a new approach for association testing in admixed populations that uses allelic and local ancestry variation. Using this method, we discovered several loci that would have been missed using the basic allelic and global ancestry information only. Our conclusions suggest that no major loci uniquely explain the high prevalence of CHD in African Americans. Our project has developed resources and methods that address both admixture- and SNP-association to maximize power for genetic discovery in even larger African-American consortia.
Tatum, Alfred W.
Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…
Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline
Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…
Ward, Janie Victoria
Analyzes African-Americans narratives of interracial conflict. Concludes that issues of power and authority are imbedded in interracial interpersonal relationships. Explores themes of justice and care in the psychological development of African Americans and in the transmission of race-related morals and values in African-American culture. (DK)
Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar
The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…
Romney, Paulette B.
High attrition rates of African American college students' is a continuing concern of higher education administrators. This is particularly true of African American men attending community college. African American men consistently experience low levels of scholastic achievement as a result of entering college underprepared, with academic deficits…
Brooks Greaux, Lisa
Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…
Rowley, Larry L.
With the dearth of African American men in academe, African American college men have few opportunities to be mentored by those who can best help them make sense of their experience. Du Bois' writings give voice to much of the African American college experience and provide concrete examples of how to think, act, and persevere in the U.S.…
... African American History Month, 2009 8345 Proclamation 8345 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8345 of February 2, 2009 Proc. 8345 National African American History Month, 2009By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The history of African Americans is unique and...
Hefflin, Bena R.
Outlines what educators and academics describe as the "power" of children's literature and multicultural children's literature, which includes African American children's literature. Explores what four African American third-graders have to say about the "power" of six African American children's books. Concludes with the patterns and implications…
Boyd, Rhonda C.; Diamond, Guy S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.
Extensive research demonstrates the negative impact of maternal depression on their offspring. Unfortunately, few studies have been explored in African American families. This study examined emotional and behavioral functioning among children of African American mothers with depression. African American mothers (n = 63), with a past year diagnosis…
Lee, E. Bun
The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…
Wade, Jay C.
Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…
This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…
Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Lane, Danielle Bradshaw; Kingree, J. B.
Investigates how childhood maltreatment and current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) predict nonfatal suicide attempts among 335 African American women. PTSD in combination with any of the maltreatments of childhood increased the risk of suicide attempts. Suggests that interventions designed to reduce suicidal behavior should focus on women…
Peter P. KIRIAKIDIS
Full Text Available The research site was one high school in the southern United States where African American males were suspended at greater rates than their counterparts. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of high school administrators and teachers regarding alternatives to suspending African American males in one southern high school within a public school district. Guided by the social learning theory, the research question focused on the suspensions of these students. Data were collected through in-depth, semi structured, face-to-face interviews with a purposive sample of 6 high school teachers and 2 administrators, and coded and analyzed for emergent themes. The findings revealed that African American high school males might benefit from education programs such as character education programs to develop social, academic, and discipline skills. The findings of this study may be used for professional development for teachers and administrators regarding strategies to reduce suspensions of African American high school males, which might facilitate their graduation from high school and subsequent entry into higher education or the workforce.lications to display the level of psychological strain and workplace stressors among nurses as part of the postmodern organizational problems. Classification-JEL: A23
Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar
The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…
Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey
Academic interest in homeschooling has increased over the last decade, as what was once perceived as a marginal development, has, in fact, turned into a significant and growing phenomenon. There has been, in recent years, a noticeable surge in African American involvement in the homeschooling movement as well. However, there continues to be a…
Deuster, Patricia A.; Kim-Dorner, Su Jong; Remaley, Alan T.; Poth, Merrily
Objectives: To compare health risks in 84 healthy African American and 45 white men and women after calculating allostatic load (AL) from biologic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures. Methods: Participants (18-45 years) ranging in weight from normal to obese and without hypertension or diabetes. Fitness, body fat, CRP, mood, social support,…
Family history of breast cancer specifically mother or sister diagnosed with breast cancer Not the same as genetic risk for breast cancer...treatment. Table 5 presents sociodemographic variables for the first 20 SIS participants. The majority of participants were African American, unmarried
... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men Format: ...
Herman, Keith C.; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas
The present study used a person-centered latent variable approach to classify types of perfectionism among 6th-grade African American children living in an urban setting. In particular, the authors were interested in determining whether an adaptive subtype could be found and validated against external criteria. The authors also attempted to…
Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Kenneth; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas
This study examined the developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism over a 7-year period among African American youth living in an urban setting (N = 547). In particular, the study attempted to determine whether two maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (socially prescribed and self-critical) changed over time and could be distinguished…
Through the close reading and socio-historical analysis of 8 African American plays from 1939 to 1996, Bada seeks to unravel the fluctuating patterns in the shaping of the theatrical memory of slavery ("a mnemopoetics of slavery") long after its abolition.
Cross, Theodore L.; And Others
Presents a statistical record of the progress of African Americans in institutions of higher education in the United States. Statistics include trends in black enrollment, library resources in historically black colleges, leading foundation grants, blacks in business schools, and comparative analysis of Asian Americans and blacks in higher…
Jett, Christopher C.
In this article, the author utilizes the culturally congruent work of Gay (2010) and Ladson-Billings (2009) to highlight culturally responsive teaching as a viable option for African American students in higher education mathematics spaces. He offers translations of Gay and Ladson-Billings' work to Africana mathematics and argues that these…
AAVE is a form of American English spoken primarily by African Americans. Although an AAVE speaker's dialect may exhibit regional variation, there are still many salient features. The relationship between Black Music and Standard American Eng-lish is a reflection of the special situation of the mutual influence and infiltration of the African-American sub-culture and the main-stream American culture. African-American sub-culture is shaped under pressure from the main-stream culture, and af-fected the latter to so great an extent that African-American sub-culture has been identified as one of the most important feature of American culture. The origin and development of Black Music are closely related to the cultural life of the Blacks. Because of its innate cultural connotation and the musical feature such as lively rhythm, fast talking, omission of pronunciation, full of ob-scene language and rhyme, all the features mentioned above help to have a great effect on the development of the AAVE.
Irving, Miles Anthony; Hudley, Cynthia
This study investigated the relationship between intercultural perceptions, identity, and academic achievement among African American males. Specifically, this study investigated the relationship of academic achievement, cultural mistrust, oppositional cultural attitudes, ethnic identity development and educational outcome expectations and value,…
The author explores the challenges of teaching and learning African American history, a history fraught with uncomfortable implications about contemporary race relations and race-based inequalities. Drawing on various theories of anti-oppressive education, and using data from an ethnographic study conducted in one history classroom, the author…
Uses the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to trace race differences in African American family structure between 1880 and 1980. Confirms a long-standing high incidence rate of single parenthood and children residing without their parents. Data also show blacks have had a consistently higher percentage of extended households than have whites.…
Madam , The project entitled INCREASING BREAST CANCER SURVEILLANCE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS includes activities involving human...B b- d § fr. Thomisonwill Work e .y .With’Dra) Vdldf naTir, W and y Bo • rganif Janidorf on data a"_`l- ssi reatihfiutfor pres~entatidns and publi
Miller-Cribbs, Julie E; Farber, Naomi B
Trends in social welfare policy and programs place increasing expectations on families to provide members with various forms of material and socioemotional support. The historic ability of kin networks of many African Americans to provide such support has been compromised by long-term community and family poverty. The potential mismatch between the expectations of social welfare systems for kin support and the actual functional capacities of kin networks places African Americans living in poverty at great risk of chronic poverty and its long-term multiple consequences. This article reviews historical and contemporary research on the structure and function of African American kin networks. On the basis of evidence of functional decline, the authors argue that social workers must re-examine the a priori assumption of viable kin networks as a reliable source of resilience among African Americans living in poverty. Social workers must focus assessment at all levels of practice on a variety of aspects of kin networks to make accurate judgments about not only the availability of resources, but also the perceived costs and benefits of participation in exchange for resources.
Awad, Germine H.; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S.; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette
The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women. PMID:26778866
Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…
O'Neill, Shannon K.
Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…
Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…
Ethington, Corinna A.; Wilson, Tracey
Designed to examine the effect of various factors on the mathematics achievement of African-American students attending urban schools, this study analyzed the importance of seven constructs that are believed to either directly or indirectly impact student success. Based on factors identified by research as essential to mathematics achievement, all…
Evans, Kathy M.
Examined physical, emotional, cognitive, and spiritual wellness activities of African American mental health counselors and behaviors they used to cope with racism. Counselors used a wide variety of wellness strategies, although counselors in school settings were less likely to engage in occupational wellness activities. Confrontation was the most…
Stansbury, Kim L.; Wimsatt, Maureen; Simpson, Gaynell Marie; Martin, Fayetta; Nelson, Nancy
Depression is a serious public health concern in the United States affecting almost 18.8 million adults. It is a common mental disorder in college students, with estimates of 1 in 4 "experiencing an episode by age 24." African American college students are at an elevated risk for depression due to racism, stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of…
Tobin, Tary J.; Vincent, Claudia G.
The authors studied changes in disproportionate exclusion of African American students, compared with their White peers, in relation to implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support using data from 46 schools. They measured (a) exclusion through suspension and expulsion data collected with the Schoolwide Information System; (b) Schoolwide…
be considered equal men. Racially motivated slander, bigotry, and condemnation of African Americans’ wartime service plagued the Army at the... workplace . The Vietnam Era Veterans’ Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974 was another program that assisted Vietnam Veterans in education and job placement...programs, which are now nearly extinct , gave priority to hiring of minorities and offering government contracts to African American businesses. Many
Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Hearn, Kimberly D.; Jagers, Robert J.
Studied the direct effects of demographic variables, religiosity, psychosocial stress variables, and sociostructural variables on the communal attitudes of 171 African American adult men, aged 17 to 79 years. Age and educational attainment were not significantly associated with communalism. Relational stress, financial stress, and stress resulting…
Kane, Justine M.
The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…
Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.
The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…
Singer, John N.
This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…
Vontress, Clemmont E.; Woodland, Calvin E.; Epp, Lawrence
Many African Americans experience low-grade depression, referred to as dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). After more than 250 years of enslavement, prejudice, and discrimination, dysthymia is reflected in chronic low-grade sadness, anger, hostility,…
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.
This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what…
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…
Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.
Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380
Stephens, Torrance T.; Resinicow, Ken; Latimer-Sport, Markita; Walker, Lauren
Background: This study examined the extent to which social cognitive theory is involved in dietary behavior changes among a sample of African Americans in Georgia. Purpose: We examined whether outcome expectations, barriers, and self-efficacy mediate changes in fruit and vegetable intake behavior. Methods: To accomplish this, we used change scores…
Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl
The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…
James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen
Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…
Graves, Scott L., Jr.
Albert Sidney Beckham was the first African American to hold the title school psychologist. This article examines the life and professional career of Beckham in the context of his contributions to the field of school psychology. It explores his graduate education, the founding of Howard University's Psychological Laboratory and his research and…
Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; Mowbray, Carol T.; MacFarlane, Peter
Using a sample of African American mothers (N=202) diagnosed with mental illness, the effects of poverty; maternal education; social support; maternal and social stress; current mental health; and psychiatric history were examined for effects on positive parenting. Strongest predictors of parenting attitudes were stress and current mental health.…
Tate, William F., IV
The goals of this chapter are threefold. The first goal is to examine the scientific attainment of African Americans in the post-"Brown" era. The term scientific attainment is used here to describe more broadly mathematics and scientific achievement as measured in trend studies, academic coursework, and degrees. A second, related goal is to…
Brinson, Sabrina A.
How can everyone celebrate the most powerful dream (Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s) in America's history, which paved the way for civil rights, equality, and social justice? How can everyone heighten students' awareness of these civil and social issues? An increased use of African-American literature is one effective way. In this article,…
Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard
Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…
Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.
The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…
Anderson, M G
The extensive literature on the overrepresentation of adolescent African-American male learners in classes for students identified as behavior disordered has essentially not addressed the problems caused by teacher reactions to adolescent conversational language use, the qualitative differences in language choices, or the impact of the conversational choices of adolescents on their educational treatment. This article explores how the dramaturgical perspective of selected Theatre Rehearsal Technique (TRT) activities can be used as learning experiences in communication with this student population. If these students gain quantifiable success in their social communication interactions, reassessment of their special education placement might facilitate their entrance into less restrictive educational environments.
Petty, Cailisha L.
This study used narrative inquiry as a methodology to explore the lived experiences of five African American women in science across the academic spectrum, from doctoral candidate to full professor. The research questions guiding the inquiry included one overarching question and three sub-questions: What are the lifestories of successful African American women in science?; a) How do successful African American women in science define themselves?; b) What have been the facilitators and barriers encountered by successful African American women in science?; and c) What have been the systems of support for African American women in science? The study was theoretically positioned within the frameworks of Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Thought. The two theories were used to guide all aspects of the study including methodology, data collection, and analysis. Data included eleven 40-60 minute semi-structured interview transcripts as well as the participants' Curriculum Vitae. The study design and data analysis were built upon Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) and Clandinin's (2006) model of narrative inquiry which explores narratives as a means to understand experience. Analysis and interpretation created three dominant narratives: Scientific Beginnings, An Unexpected Journey, and Lift as You Climb. Each narrative set explores multiple stories that describe storylines which aligned with the participants' goals of who they were and who they were becoming as scientists; and, storylines of tension which ran counter to the women's goals and aspirations. Barriers and support systems are revealed, as well as the meanings the participants made of their experiences and how it affected their lives.
Sharon E. Moore
Full Text Available African-Americans have, without their knowledge and consent, been used as human guinea pigs in scientific and medical experiments by private and governmental organizations. As a result many African-Americans approach the health care industry with caution and apprehension. African-Americans are admonished to remember the atrocities they once experienced and to approach participation in clinical studies with skepticism. This paper presents an historical overview of conspiracy theories, discusses various health issues that affect African-Americans, identifies for whom participation in clinical trials could prove beneficial, and recommends methods that can be used to attract African-American clients as active participants in clinical studies.
Norman, Lashaunda Renea
This qualitative case study investigated the teaching strategies that improve science learning of African American students. This research study further sought the extent the identified teaching strategies that are used to improve African American science learning reflect culturally responsive teaching. Best teaching strategies and culturally responsive teaching have been researched, but there has been minimal research on the impact that both have on science learning, with an emphasis on the African American population. Consequently, the Black-White achievement gap in science persists. The findings revealed the following teaching strategies have a positive impact on African American science learning: (a) lecture-discussion, (b) notetaking, (c) reading strategies, (d) graphic organizers, (e) hands-on activities, (f) laboratory experiences, and (g) cooperative learning. Culturally responsive teaching strategies were evident in the seventh-grade science classrooms observed. Seven themes emerged from this research data: (1) The participating teachers based their research-based teaching strategies used in the classroom on all of the students' learning styles, abilities, attitudes towards science, and motivational levels about learning science, with no emphasis on the African American student population; (2) The participating teachers taught the state content standards simultaneously using the same instructional model daily, incorporating other content areas when possible; (3) The participating African American students believed their seventh-grade science teachers used a variety of teaching strategies to ensure science learning took place, that science learning was fun, and that science learning was engaging; (4) The participating African American students genuinely liked their teacher; (5) The participating African American students revealed high self-efficacy; (6) The African American student participants' parents value education and moved to Success Middle School
Full Text Available The evidence for the existence of genetic susceptibility variants for the common form of hypertension ("essential hypertension" remains weak and inconsistent. We sought genetic variants underlying blood pressure (BP by conducting a genome-wide association study (GWAS among African Americans, a population group in the United States that is disproportionately affected by hypertension and associated complications, including stroke and kidney diseases. Using a dense panel of over 800,000 SNPs in a discovery sample of 1,017 African Americans from the Washington, D.C., metropolitan region, we identified multiple SNPs reaching genome-wide significance for systolic BP in or near the genes: PMS1, SLC24A4, YWHA7, IPO7, and CACANA1H. Two of these genes, SLC24A4 (a sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger and CACNA1H (a voltage-dependent calcium channel, are potential candidate genes for BP regulation and the latter is a drug target for a class of calcium channel blockers. No variant reached genome wide significance for association with diastolic BP (top scoring SNP rs1867226, p = 5.8 x 10(-7 or with hypertension as a binary trait (top scoring SNP rs9791170, p = 5.1 x 10(-7. We replicated some of the significant SNPs in a sample of West Africans. Pathway analysis revealed that genes harboring top-scoring variants cluster in pathways and networks of biologic relevance to hypertension and BP regulation. This is the first GWAS for hypertension and BP in an African American population. The findings suggests that, in addition to or in lieu of relying solely on replicated variants of moderate-to-large effect reaching genome-wide significance, pathway and network approaches may be useful in identifying and prioritizing candidate genes/loci for further experiments.
Alkes L Price
Full Text Available Variation in gene expression is a fundamental aspect of human phenotypic variation. Several recent studies have analyzed gene expression levels in populations of different continental ancestry and reported population differences at a large number of genes. However, these differences could largely be due to non-genetic (e.g., environmental effects. Here, we analyze gene expression levels in African American cell lines, which differ from previously analyzed cell lines in that individuals from this population inherit variable proportions of two continental ancestries. We first relate gene expression levels in individual African Americans to their genome-wide proportion of European ancestry. The results provide strong evidence of a genetic contribution to expression differences between European and African populations, validating previous findings. Second, we infer local ancestry (0, 1, or 2 European chromosomes at each location in the genome and investigate the effects of ancestry proximal to the expressed gene (cis versus ancestry elsewhere in the genome (trans. Both effects are highly significant, and we estimate that 12+/-3% of all heritable variation in human gene expression is due to cis variants.
Coombs, Catherine C.; Rassenti, Laura Z.; Falchi, Lorenzo; Slager, Susan L.; Strom, Sara S.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Weinberg, J. Brice; Kipps, Thomas J.
The incidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is significantly lower in African Americans than whites, but overall survival is inferior. The biologic basis for these observations remains unexplored. We hypothesized that germline genetic predispositions differ between African Americans and whites with CLL and yield inferior clinical outcomes among African Americans. We examined a discovery cohort of 42 African American CLL patients ascertained at Duke University and found that the risk allele frequency of most single nucleotide polymorphisms known to confer risk of development for CLL is significantly lower among African Americans than whites. We then confirmed our results in a distinct cohort of 68 African American patients ascertained by the CLL Research Consortium. These results provide the first evidence supporting differential genetic risk for CLL between African Americans compared with whites. A fuller understanding of differential genetic risk may improve prognostication and therapeutic decision making for all CLL patients. PMID:22745306
Hall, Alfred L., II
Previous research studies indicated that African Americans remain severely underrepresented in the field of science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET), making up only 3% of that workforce, while representing 11.1% of all professional and related workers and 12.6% of the general population. As this country moves towards a more culturally diverse population, then representation of African Americans in SMET-related fields must be addressed in order to ensure our nation's competitiveness in a global market. This research study analyzed characteristics of African American undergraduate SMET majors participating in the Alliance for Minority Participation (AMP) program in six different states located in the Southeast region of the United States. These states consisted of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina. AMP program participants completed a survey questionnaire, which collected information about potential factors that could affect their matriculation in SMET programs of studies at their respective institutions. Follow-up interviews and focus group sessions were also conducted with AMP participants to provide supplemental information to the survey data. The results of student responses were analyzed according to the type of institution the students attended (Historically Black College or University and Majority White Institution) as well as by the statewide Alliance program in which the students were involved. The students responded to survey questions that asked for their reasons for majoring in their field of study, their level of satisfaction with their institution, their impressions of student support programs and persons, their impressions of faculty and advisors, their reasons for thinking of switching majors, and their level of high school preparation. Statistical analyses of the student responses found that African American AMP students attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities differed from those
Wang, Bi-Dar; Ceniccola, Kristin; Yang, Qi; Andrawis, Ramez; Patel, Vyomesh; Ji, Youngmi; Rhim, Johng; Olender, Jacqueline; Popratiloff, Anastas; Latham, Patricia; Lai, Yinglei; Patierno, Steven R.; Lee, Norman H
Purpose African Americans (AA) exhibit higher rates of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality compared to European American (EA) men. In addition to socioeconomic influences, biological factors are believed to play a critical role in PCa disparities. We investigated whether population-specific and -enriched miRNA-mRNA interactions might contribute to PCa disparities. Experimental Design Integrative genomics was employed, combining miRNA and mRNA profiling, miRNA target prediction, pathway analysis and functional validation, to map miRNA-mRNA interactions associated with PCa disparities. Results We identified 22 AA-specific and 18 EA-specific miRNAs in PCa versus patient-matched normal prostate, and 10 ‘AA-enriched/-depleted’ miRNAs in AA PCa versus EA PCa comparisons. Many of these population-specific/-enriched miRNAs could be paired with target mRNAs that exhibited an inverse pattern of differential expression. Pathway analysis revealed epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ERBB) signaling as a critical pathway significantly regulated by AA-specific/-enriched mRNAs and miRNA-mRNA pairings. Novel miRNA-mRNA pairings were validated by qRT-PCR, western blot and/or IHC analyses in PCa specimens. Loss/gain of function assays performed in population-specific PCa cell lines confirmed miR-133a/MCL1, miR-513c/STAT1, miR-96/FOXO3A, miR-145/ITPR2 and miR-34a/PPP2R2A as critical miRNA-mRNA pairings driving oncogenesis. Manipulating the balance of these pairings resulted in decreased proliferation and invasion, and enhanced sensitization to docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity in AA PCa cells. Conclusion Our data suggest that AA-specific/-enriched miRNA-mRNA pairings may play a critical role in the activation of oncogenic pathways in AA PCa. Our findings also suggest that miR-133a/MCL1, miR-513c/STAT1 and miR-96/FOXO3A may have clinical significance in the development of novel strategies for treating aggressive PCa. PMID:26089375
O'Brien, Katie M; Cole, Stephen R; Poole, Charles; Bensen, Jeannette T; Herring, Amy H; Engel, Lawrence S; Millikan, Robert C
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene analyses have led to the discovery of several dozen genetic polymorphisms associated with breast cancer susceptibility, many of which are considered well-established risk factors for the disease. Despite attempts to replicate these same variant-disease associations in African Americans, the evaluable populations are often too small to produce precise or consistent results. We estimated the associations between 83 previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer among Carolina Breast Cancer Study (1993-2001) participants using maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and hierarchical methods. The selected SNPs were previous GWAS hits (n = 22), near-hits (n = 19), otherwise well-established risk loci (n = 5), or located in the same genes as selected variants (n = 37). We successfully replicated 18 GWAS-identified SNPs in whites (n = 2,352) and 10 in African Americans (n = 1,447). SNPs in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2) and the TOC high mobility group box family member 3 gene (TOX3) were strongly associated with breast cancer in both races. SNPs in the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S30 gene (MRPS30), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 gene (MAP3K1), zinc finger, MIZ-type containing 1 gene (ZMIZ1), and H19, imprinted maternally expressed transcript gene (H19) were associated with breast cancer in whites, and SNPs in the estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1) and H19 gene were associated with breast cancer in African Americans. We provide precise and well-informed race-stratified odds ratios for key breast cancer-related SNPs. Our results demonstrate the utility of Bayesian methods in genetic epidemiology and provide support for their application in small, etiologically driven investigations.
Crist, Richard C; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Ang, Alfonso; Ambrose-Lanci, Lisa M; Lohoff, Falk W; Saxon, Andrew J; Ling, Walter; Hillhouse, Maureen P; Bruce, R Douglas; Woody, George; Berrettini, Wade H
Although buprenorphine and methadone are both effective treatments for opioid dependence, their efficacy can vary significantly among patients. Genetic differences may explain some of the variability in treatment outcome. Understanding the interactions between genetic background and pharmacotherapy may result in more informed treatment decisions. This study is a pharmacogenetic analysis of the effects of genetic variants in OPRD1, the gene encoding the δ-opioid receptor, on the prevalence of opioid-positive urine tests in African-Americans (n=77) or European-Americans (n=566) undergoing treatment for opioid dependence. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with either methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone) over a 24-week open-label clinical trial, in which illicit opioid use was measured by weekly urinalysis. In African-Americans, the intronic SNP rs678849 predicted treatment outcome for both medications. Methadone patients with the CC genotype were less likely to have opioid-positive urine tests than those in the combined CT and TT genotypes group (relative risk (RR)=0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.44-0.60, p=0.001). In the buprenorphine treatment group, however, individuals with the CC genotype were more likely to have positive opioid drug screens than individuals in the combined CT and TT genotypes group (RR=2.17, 95% CI=1.95-2.68, p=0.008). These findings indicate that the genotype at rs678849 predicts African-American patient response to two common treatments for opioid dependence, suggesting that matching patients to treatment type based on the genotype at this locus may improve overall treatment efficacy. This observation requires confirmation in an independent population.
Hall Brown, Tyish; Mellman, Thomas A
African Americans residing in stressful urban environments have high rates of insomnia and short sleep duration, both of which are associated with adverse health outcomes. However, limited data exist that explore factors influencing inadequate sleep in this high-risk population. This study sought to evaluate the contributions of demographics, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, sleep fears, and neighborhood stress to both insomnia and short sleep in urban African American young adults. Data were analyzed from self-report measures completed by 378 participants 18-35 years of age. PTSD symptom severity and sleep fears were independently associated with insomnia severity, and sleep fears was associated with sleep duration. Results have implications for preventative health intervention strategies for urban African American young adults.
Walsh, Kyle M.; Christopher I Amos; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Gorlov, Ivan P; Sison, Jennette D.; Wu, Xifeng; Spitz, Margaret R; Hansen, Helen M.; Lu, Emily Y.; Wei, Chongjuan; Zhang, Huifeng; Chen, Wei; Lloyd, Stacy M.; Frazier, Marsha L.; Paige M Bracci
Studies in European and East Asian populations have identified lung cancer susceptibility loci in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes on chromosome 15q25.1 which also appear to influence smoking behaviors. We sought to determine if genetic variation in nAChR genes influences lung cancer susceptibly in African-Americans, and evaluated the association of these cancer susceptibility loci with smoking behavior. A total of 1308 African-Americans with lung cancer and 1241 African-America...
Full Text Available This article contributes to efforts to develop more inclusive climate services, understood as institutional arrangements and processes that generate and disseminate science-based climate information to promote improved preparedness to climate impacts. Discussion on equity in climate services tends to focus on the specific challenges of women and the poor in developing countries. We seek to broaden this scope by considering a farming population in the southern United States, whose particular circumstances are shaped by rural poverty as well as by racial discrimination, namely African American farmers. The research is based on a phone survey, in-depth interviews, and a workshop, and was conducted in collaboration with a civil right organization that helped the research team gain trust and entry to this community. The findings show that farmers in this study are vulnerable to drought given their relatively limited access to resources and risk management mechanisms. Climate forecasts can help these farmers move from coping strategies to deal with the effects of climate anomalies to proactive planning to anticipate and mitigate those effects. Research participants were able to identify a range of options for using such information in risk management decisions. Provision of climate services to African American farmers, however, must be consistent with existing patterns of knowledge management. These patterns are shaped by major trends stemming from the transformation of rural Southern life. Social networks of mutual assistance and knowledge transmission have been eroded by the outmigration of African American farmers from rural areas. Additionally, their relationship with public agencies is marred by a legacy of racial inequities, which makes it difficult for well-meaning projects involving the same agencies to establish legitimacy in this community. We discuss how insights from research findings and research process have guided programmatic efforts
Gates-Williams, J; Jackson, M N; Jenkins-Monroe, V; Williams, L R
African-American women are twice as likely as women from other ethnic groups to have babies with low birth weights and to experience the loss of infant death. The problem is so endemic in black communities in Alameda County, California, that numerous programs have been developed over the past decade to reduce maternal risk factors and eliminate barriers to prenatal care. Despite these efforts, African-American ethnicity continues to be a major risk factor for infant mortality for reasons that are poorly understood. We take a critical look at 3 types of studies characteristic of infant mortality research: epidemiologic, studies that advocate prenatal care, and ethnomedical (cultural). We argue that the assumptions informing this research restrict the thinking about infant mortality and the political issues involved in how prevention programs are developed and structured. The persistent focus on maternal behavioral characteristics limits more in-depth analysis of the micropolitics of perinatal bureaucracies established in response to this ongoing crisis.
Watts, Rosalyn J
The historical experience of African Americans in our country has been shaped by the institution of slavery, dehumanization of blacks, segregation, pursuit of civil rights, and racism in contemporary American society. Disparities in health care provide compelling evidence that issues of race or skin color for the descendants of slaves and other ethnic minorities persist in the 21st century. Nurses providing care for African Americans must bridge the racial divide and incorporate culturally relevant content in the health history. As an integral aspect of their professional growth as culturally competent health care providers, they must incorporate the idea of "race consciousness" which is described as an awareness of the historical journey of the group, knowledge of disparities in health care for the people, and a self appraisal of one's attitudes and biases toward the group.
Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).
Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L
Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences.
Michalopoulou, Georgia; Falzarano, Pamela; Arfken, Cynthia; Rosenberg, David
The purpose of the study was to determine the association between African American patients' perceptions of physician cultural competency and patient satisfaction with the visit, independent of other factors, including physician and patient race concordance. African American participants were surveyed at urban clinics. Cultural competency (Perceived Cultural Competency scale) was based on the 3-factor model that includes patients' perception of (1) physicians' cultural knowledge, (2) physicians' cultural awareness, and (3) physicians' cultural skill. The results confirmed that patients' perceptions of physician cultural competency are independently associated with satisfaction with the visit. These results further validate use of the Perceived Cultural Competency scale as a tool to measure patients' perceptions of physicians' cultural competency.
Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded. These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development. This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices. 51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated. The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes. Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices. Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.
Full Text Available
Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded. These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development. This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices. 51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated. The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes. Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices. Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.
Young, Sean D; Shoptaw, Steve
High stimulant-using and at-risk HIV populations, such as African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), are increasingly using social networking technologies. However, no known research has explored associations between stimulant use, sexual risk behaviors, and social networking among these populations. Participants were recruited using the Facebook Connect software application, which narrowed the sample to 118 (primarily African American and Latino MSM) active Facebook users. Participants completed demographic, Internet and social media use, and drug use survey items. Participants reported high rates of cocaine and methamphetamine use (both more than 15% within the past 12 months). More than 70% of participants reported using social networking technologies to meet people, and more than 30% used them to find sexual partners. A multivariate logistic regression showed that (1) participants using social networks to find sexual partners were more likely to have used methamphetamines within the past 12 months and (2) those who were more comfortable talking online compared to face-to-face had over 4 times the odds of methamphetamine use and over 6 times the odds of cocaine use within the past 12 months. Minority MSM who used social networks to meet men and find sexual partners had high risk for stimulant use. Understanding drug use among minority social networking users will provide insights to incorporate these technologies into drug prevention interventions.
Voisin, Dexter; Berringer, Kathryn; Takahashi, Lois; Burr, Sean; Kuhnen, Jessica
Africans American youth experience disproportionately high rates of exposure to community violence. Such exposures are associated with a myriad of physical and mental health challenges. However, few qualitative studies have examined the ways in which parental figures have attempted to manage youth exposure to violence. This study recruited 4 focus groups composed of the parents of African American youth (n = 54). Participants reported that (a) there were no safe places immune from community violence, (b) there were no populations or subgroups protected from community violence, and (c) strategies to manage exposure to violence were often defined by the gender of the child. Although common protective parental strategies included mixed benefits, they ranged from "sheltering" (keeping children off the streets), "chauffeuring" (transporting or accompanying children to and from places), "removal" (enrolling children in schools outside of the neighborhood), and attempting "to rebuild the village." However, several of these strategies had constraints including money, time, and child maturation. Based on these findings, we offer research, policy, and practice implications in response to community violence exposure among this population.
King, LaGarrett Jarriel
African American history and how it is taught in classroom spaces have been a point of contention with activists, historians, and educators for decades. In it current form, African American history narratives often are ambiguous and truncated, leaving students with a disjointed construction about U.S. history. Additionally, the pedagogical…
Stansbury, Kim L.
African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews…
voice2001/010608/survey.htm (accessed December 18, 2008). 2 Molefi Kete Asante, 100 Greatest African Americans (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2002), 41-43. 3...Clinician-Scientist,” Clinical and Investigative Medicine 21, no. 6 (December 1998): 279-282, http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/201/300/cdn_medical_association/ cim/vol-21/issue-6/0279.htm (accessed December 29, 2008).
Henry Barnard, Military Schools and Courses of Instruction in the Science and Art of War, in France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland ...problem exists, it hides that fact that African Americans are underrepresented in the flag officer ranks. Unfortunately, this issue requires significant...Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland , Sardinia, England, and the United States. Rev. Ed. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969. Berger, Peter L
This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools. Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/15/2014.
Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055 from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53 years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.
Samantha M. Bomotti
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an increasing concern in the United States due to its rapidly rising prevalence, particularly among African Americans. Epigenetic DNA methylation markers are becoming important biomarkers of chronic diseases such as CKD. To better understand how these methylation markers play a role in kidney function, we measured 26,428 DNA methylation sites in 972 African Americans from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study. We then evaluated (1 whether epigenetic markers are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, (2 whether the significantly associated markers are also associated with traditional risk factors and/or novel biomarkers for eGFR, and (3 how much additional variation in eGFR is explained by epigenetic markers beyond established risk factors and biomarkers. The majority of methylation markers most significantly associated with eGFR (24 out of the top 30 appeared to function, at least in part, through pathways related to aging, inflammation, or cholesterol. However, six epigenetic markers were still able to significantly predict eGFR after adjustment for other risk factors. This work shows that epigenetic markers may offer valuable new insight into the complex pathophysiology of CKD in African Americans.
Noar, Seth M.; Webb, Elizabeth M.; Van Stee, Stephanie K.; Redding, Colleen A.; Feist-Price, Sonja; Crosby, Richard; Troutman, Adewale
New prevention options are urgently needed for African-Americans in the United States given the disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on this group. This combined with recent evidence supporting the efficacy of computer technology-based interventions in HIV prevention led our research group to pursue the development of a computer-delivered individually tailored intervention for heterosexually active African-Americans—the tailored information program for safer sex (TIPSS). In the current article, we discuss the development of the TIPSS program, including (i) the targeted population and behavior, (ii) theoretical basis for the intervention, (iii) design of the intervention, (iv) formative research, (v) technical development and testing and (vi) intervention delivery and ongoing randomized controlled trial. Given the many advantages of computer-based interventions, including low-cost delivery once developed, they offer much promise for the future of HIV prevention among African-Americans and other at-risk groups. PMID:21257676
Reducing Low Birth Weight among African Americans in the Midwest: A Look at How Faith-Based Organizations Are Poised to Inform and Influence Health Communication on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD).
Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Saint Onge, Jarron M
Low birth weight (LBW) rates remain the highest among African Americans despite public health efforts to address these disparities; with some of the highest racial disparities in the Midwest (Kansas). The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) perspective offers an explanation for how LBW contributes to racial health disparities among African Americans and informs a community directed health communication framework for creating sustainable programs to address these disparities. Trusted community organizations such as faith-based organizations are well situated to explain health communication gaps that may occur over the life course. These entities are underutilized in core health promotion programming targeting underserved populations and can prove essential for addressing developmental origins of LBW among African Americans. Extrapolating from focus group data collected from African American church populations as part of a social marketing health promotion project on cancer prevention, we theoretically consider how a similar communication framework and approach may apply to address LBW disparities. Stratified focus groups (n = 9) were used to discover emergent themes about disease prevention, and subsequently applied to explore how faith-based organizations (FBOs) inform strategic health care (media) advocacy and health promotion that potentially apply to address LBW among African Americans. We argue that FBOs are poised to meet health promotion and health communication needs among African American women who face social barriers in health.
Reducing Low Birth Weight among African Americans in the Midwest: A Look at How Faith-Based Organizations Are Poised to Inform and Influence Health Communication on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD
Crystal Y. Lumpkins
Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW rates remain the highest among African Americans despite public health efforts to address these disparities; with some of the highest racial disparities in the Midwest (Kansas. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD perspective offers an explanation for how LBW contributes to racial health disparities among African Americans and informs a community directed health communication framework for creating sustainable programs to address these disparities. Trusted community organizations such as faith-based organizations are well situated to explain health communication gaps that may occur over the life course. These entities are underutilized in core health promotion programming targeting underserved populations and can prove essential for addressing developmental origins of LBW among African Americans. Extrapolating from focus group data collected from African American church populations as part of a social marketing health promotion project on cancer prevention, we theoretically consider how a similar communication framework and approach may apply to address LBW disparities. Stratified focus groups (n = 9 were used to discover emergent themes about disease prevention, and subsequently applied to explore how faith-based organizations (FBOs inform strategic health care (media advocacy and health promotion that potentially apply to address LBW among African Americans. We argue that FBOs are poised to meet health promotion and health communication needs among African American women who face social barriers in health.
Reducing Low Birth Weight among African Americans in the Midwest: A Look at How Faith-Based Organizations Are Poised to Inform and Influence Health Communication on the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)
Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.
Low birth weight (LBW) rates remain the highest among African Americans despite public health efforts to address these disparities; with some of the highest racial disparities in the Midwest (Kansas). The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) perspective offers an explanation for how LBW contributes to racial health disparities among African Americans and informs a community directed health communication framework for creating sustainable programs to address these disparities. Trusted community organizations such as faith-based organizations are well situated to explain health communication gaps that may occur over the life course. These entities are underutilized in core health promotion programming targeting underserved populations and can prove essential for addressing developmental origins of LBW among African Americans. Extrapolating from focus group data collected from African American church populations as part of a social marketing health promotion project on cancer prevention, we theoretically consider how a similar communication framework and approach may apply to address LBW disparities. Stratified focus groups (n = 9) were used to discover emergent themes about disease prevention, and subsequently applied to explore how faith-based organizations (FBOs) inform strategic health care (media) advocacy and health promotion that potentially apply to address LBW among African Americans. We argue that FBOs are poised to meet health promotion and health communication needs among African American women who face social barriers in health. PMID:28165368
Murphy, A B; Moore, N J; Wright, M; Gipson, J; Keeter, M; Cornelious, T; Reed, D; Russell, J; Watson, K S; Murray, M
African American men (AA) carry unequal burdens of several conditions including cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and HIV. Engagement of diverse populations including AA men in research and health promotion practice is vital to examining the health disparities that continue to plague many racially and ethnically diverse communities. To date, there is little research on best practices that indicate locations, community areas and settings to engage AA men in research and health promotion. Traditionally, the AA church has been a key area to engage AA men and women. However, changing tides in attendance of AA parishioners require additional information to identify areas where AAs, particularly, AA men congregate. The AA barbershop has been identified as a place of social cohesion, cultural immersion and solidarity for AA men but specific sub-populations of AA men may be underrepresented. To further investigate additional locales where AA men congregate, this study engaged AA barbers and clients in several urban community barbershops in Chicago, Illinois. 127 AA men over age 18y/o receiving grooming services in 25 Chicago area barbershops across 14 predominantly AA communities were consented and recruited for a quantitative survey study. The self-administered surveys were completed in ~15 min and $10 compensation was provided to men. Descriptive statistics were reported for demographic variables and for frequency of responses for locations to find AA men of specific age ranges for health promotion and screening activities. Outside of the traditionally used churches or barbershops, the top recommended recruitment sites by age were: 18-29y/o- city park or a recreational center; 30-39y/o- gym, bars or the street; 40-49y/o- various stores, especially home improvement stores, and the mall; and 50y/o+- fast food restaurants in the mornings, such as McDonalds, and individual's homes. The study participants also reported that locations where AA men congregate vary by age
Keku, Temitope; Millikan, Robert; Worley, Kendra; Winkel, Scott; Eaton, Allison; Biscocho, Lorna; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert
We evaluated polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), folate intake and alcohol consumption in relation to risk of colon cancer in a population-based case-control study in North Carolina. The study included 555 cases (244 African Americans and 311 whites) and 875 controls (331 African Americans and 544 whites). Total folate intake of or =400 microg/day showed a weak positive association with colon cancer among both African Americans [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-2.0] and whites (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.2). No association was observed with use of alcohol. Compared with wild-type genotypes, there was no association between the low activity MTHFR codon 677 TT genotype and colon cancer, but the low activity codon 1298 CC genotype was inversely associated with colon cancer in whites (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.9). Unlike previous studies, we did not observe a strong protective effect of the codon 677 TT low-activity genotype when folate intake was high. Instead, we observed an increased risk of colon cancer when folate intake was low for participants with wild- type genotypes. Adjusted ORs for the combined effects of codon 677 CC and codon 1298 AA genotypes and folate intake <400 microg/day were 1.9 (95% CI = 1.1-3.4) in African Americans and 2.5 (95% CI = 1.2-5.2) in whites. Our results suggest that variation at MTHFR codon 1298 (within the COOH-terminal region) may be more important for colon cancer than variation at codon 677 (NH(2)-terminal region), and in populations where folate intake is low, wild-type MTHFR activity may increase risk for colon cancer.
Schademan, Alfred R.
Research has shown that African American young men as a demographic group occupy the lowest levels of academic performance in both science and mathematics. In spite of this educational problem, little research has been conducted on the knowledge related to these disciplines that these young men learn and develop through everyday cultural practices. Such knowledge is needed in order to: (1) combat the deficit views that many teachers currently hold of African American young men, and (2) inform teachers interested in implementing pedagogies in their classrooms that draw upon the knowledge of African American young men. To add to our knowledge in this field, this study examines the resources that African American young men learn, use, and develop through a card game called Spades. Specifically, the study identifies and analyzes the models and model-based reasoning that the players use in order to win games. The study focuses upon modeling as it is central to both science and mathematics. To imbed player models and reasoning in context, the study employs a syncretic theoretical framework that examines how Spades has changed over time and how it is currently played in a high school setting. The qualitative study uses ethnographic methods combined with play-by-play analyses to reconstruct games and examine player strategies and reasoning that guide their decisions. The study found that the players operate from a number of different models while playing the game. Specifically, the players consider multiple variables and factors, as well as their mathematical relationships, to predict future occurrences and then play cards accordingly. Further, the players use a number of resources to win games including changing the game to maintain a competitive edge, counting cards, selectively memorizing cards played, assessing risk, bluffing, reading partners as well as opponents, reneging, estimating probabilities, and predicting outcomes. The player models and resources bear
Holt, Cheryl L.; Litaker, Mark S.; Scarinci, Isabel C.; Debnam, Katrina J.; McDavid, Chastity; McNeal, Sandre F.; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A.; Crowther, Martha; Bolland, John; Martin, Michelle Y.
Colorectal cancer screening has clear benefits in terms of mortality reduction; however, it is still underutilized and especially among medically underserved populations, including African Americans, who also suffer a disproportionate colorectal cancer burden. This study consisted of a theory-driven (health belief model) spiritually based…
Ivie, Rachel; Anderson, Garrett; White, Susan
The United States is becoming more and more diverse, but the representation of some minority groups in physics and astronomy lags behind. Although 13% of the US population is African American or black, and 17% is Hispanic (US Census), the representation of these two groups in physics and astronomy is much lower. For this reason, African Americans…
Shelton, Rachel C.; Dunston, Sheba King; Leoce, Nicole; Jandorf, Lina; Thompson, Hayley S.; Erwin, Deborah O.
Lay Health Advisor (LHA) programs hold tremendous promise for reducing health disparities and addressing social determinants of health in medically underserved communities, including African American populations. Very little is understood about the capacity of LHAs in these roles and the broader contributions they make to their communities. This…
Sherrill-Mittleman, D. A.; Klesges, L. M.; Lanctot, J. Q.; Stockton, M. B.; Klesges, R. C.
Few measurement instruments for children's eating behaviors and beliefs have been specifically validated for African-American children. Validation within this population is important because of potential cultural and ethnic influences. Objectives were to evaluate established and newly developed or adapted dietary psychosocial measures in a sample…
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.
The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…
Peterson, Tina L; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Ann W
This study examined demographic and mental health correlates of subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, happiness) using a national sample of older African Americans with psychiatric disorders. We used a subsample of 185 African Americans, 55 and older with at least one of thirteen lifetime psychiatric disorders from The National Survey of American Life: Coping with Stress in the 21st Century (NSAL). The findings indicated that among this population of older adults who had a lifetime psychiatric disorder, having a lifetime suicidal ideation was associated with life satisfaction but not happiness. Further, having a 12-month anxiety disorder or a lifetime suicidal ideation was not associated with happiness. Having a 12-month mood disorder, however, was negatively associated with an individual's level of happiness, as well as their life satisfaction. Additionally, there were two significant interactions. Among men, employment was positively associated with life satisfaction, and marriage was associated with higher levels of happiness among men but not women. The overall pattern of findings reflects both similarities and departures from prior research confirming that well-being evaluations are associated with multiple factors.
R. Renee Reams
Full Text Available In a previously published study, we showed that expression of the ABCD3 gene increased with increasing metastatic potential in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines derived from African American and Caucasian American men. Given importance of identifying biomarker(s that can distinguish indolent versus aggressive prostate tumors, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of ABCD3 expression Caucasian and African American prostate tumors. ABCD3 expression in each patient population was compared with clinicopathologic characteristics, Gleason score, and age. ABCD3 expression increased with increasing Gleason score (P=0.0094, age (P=0.0014, and pathology grade (P=0.0007 in Caucasian patients. Interestingly, in the AA patients, ABCD3 expression highly increased to the same degree in both low and high Gleason score tumors. Similarly, ABCD3 expression was elevated to the same degree in BPH derived from AA. Our findings demonstrate that increased ABCD3 expression correlates with Gleason Score in CA prostate tumors. However, in AA prostate tumors, ABCD3 expression was higher and was sustained in both low Gleason and high Gleason AA tumors. While the functional role of ABCD3 in prostate cancer is not completely elucidated, this gene warrants further study as a potential biomarker for aggressive prostate.
Jones, Hendrée E; Berkman, Nancy D; Kline, Tracy L; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M
African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.
Full Text Available Introduction. Older African American women are particularly vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as physical inactivity and the resultant chronic diseases and conditions. This study explored older African American women’s perception of physical activity as well as facilitators of and barriers to being physically active in their local environment. Methods. Using a participatory research approach, a total of 7 women aged 65 years and over had their PA level assessed objectively through accelerometry. In addition, physical activity was discussed through the photo-elicitation procedure, which was supplemented by semistructured interviews. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify patterns and themes emerging from participants’ interview. Results. Participants exhibited low levels of physical activity and viewed “physical activity” to be a broadly defined, nonspecific construct. Interviews revealed that many participants lack important knowledge about physical activity. A variety of personal, social, and environmental facilitators and barriers were reported by the participants. Conclusion. Efforts should be made towards clarifying information on physical activity in this population in order to help them incorporate physical activity into their routines, overcome barriers, and make use of opportunities to be active.
Connell, Judith; Knight, Margaret
Twenty-first century literacy is more than being able to encode for spelling ability, decode for reading comprehension, and calculate for numeric reasoning. It demands the skills to negotiate the world of technology. Health literacy is lower than general literacy, and general literacy is lower among African American males than the overall population. The authors discuss the prospects of incorporating Game Based Learning approaches into strategies for teaching health literacy. Results of a survey administered to youth to determine their level of involvement in video game playing indicate that key elements must be in place to ensure that a game will be played. These include action, strategy, and entertainment. Future investigation will examine the knowledge level of African American adolescent males of the nexus of certain concepts of climate change and health literacy. Climate change has significant implications for human health. This understanding will produce a scientifically based foundation for curricular and instructional decisions that include GBL. Results of this study will be used to design a video game concept and will contribute to the body of knowledge concerning environmental justice and empower individuals to make informed decisions about their own health and those they influence.
Love, Sharon RedHawk; Richards, Tara N
Extant research demonstrates that while adolescent intimate partner violence (IPV) is an ever-growing concern in the United States, most research on IPV has focused on adult victims and offenders. To fill this gap in the literature, the present research examines youth IPV by conducting focus groups with 25 male and female youth between the ages of 15 and 19 years whose race was primarily African American. Drawing on open-ended responses by adolescent participants, the present study aimed to shed light on African American youths' perceptions of IPV, their perceptions regarding such violence among their peers, the dynamics of help-seeking behaviors, and what services youth perceive as most helpful in the prevention and intervention of adolescent IPV. Findings reveal that most participants only recognize physical aggression as IPV; express hesitation in disclosing violence to adults, especially nonfamily adults; and report being unaware of and/or unwilling to utilize existing prevention and intervention services traditionally targeted at adult populations. Implications for future research and policy are also presented and discussed.
Gutierrez, Ian A; Goodwin, Lucas J; Kirkinis, Katherine; Mattis, Jacqueline S
The family is the principal context for religious and spiritual socialization. Although religion remains a central force in the lives of most African Americans, research has failed to explore the role and impact of family on religious socialization within this population. This study addresses that gap in the literature by (1) exploring adults' perceptions of the influence of their parents, grandparents, and siblings on their religious and spiritual lives, and (2) examining the extent to which those perceptions are associated with subjective religiosity, subjective spirituality, religious importance, and commitment to religious socialization among a community sample of urban-residing African American adults in the Midwest and Northeast (N = 319). Findings revealed that, on average, parents, grandparents, and siblings positively influenced adults' religious commitment and values. However, mothers had the greatest positive influence on these outcomes. Religious commitment and values were differentially associated with family members as a function of the generation and gender of the family member. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Hendrée E. Jones
Full Text Available African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.
Danxia Yu; Jennifer Sonderman; Buchowski, Maciej S.; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Xiao-Ou Shu; Mark Steinwandel; Signorello, Lisa B.; Xianglan Zhang; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; BLOT, WILLIAM J.; Wei Zheng
Editors' Summary Background Certain parts of the population, including women, children, ethnic and racial minorities, and poor people, are often underrepresented in clinical trials and in epidemiological studies (which examine the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions). In the US population, the link between diet and health has mostly been studied in non-Hispanic white individuals from middle- and high-income households. Such studies formed the basis for the Dietary G...
Walker, Rheeda L
The literature on African American suicide and the acculturation literature were examined to derive a possible explanation for increases in suicide deaths for African American men and apparent resilience for African American women. Historically, African Americans were believed to be unaffected by suicide because of protective factors (e.g., strong religious values and cohesive familial support systems) embedded in the culture. However, minority mental health investigators have found that acculturation sometimes leads to negative consequences for individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds. Accordingly, acculturation and acculturative phenomena are proposed as a model to shed light on African American male suicide as African Americans increasingly engage mainstream values, beliefs, and practices in the absence of traditional protective factors.
Gregory, S T
African American women have participated in higher education for well over a century. Although the journey has been difficult, significant achievements have been made. Today, fewer African American women doctoral recipients are choosing academic employment, and many of those who enter the academy later leave for employment in business, industry and the professions where salaries are often more attractive. Furthermore, the present decline of African American faculty women is expected to become more severe as the growth of the academic labor market levels off. If we are to successfully retain the pool of African American faculty women it is important to discover the reasons why an increasing number are voluntarily leaving the academy. This article is based on a cross-sectional study of 384 African American academic women which examines the primary barriers to faculty retention and offer suggestions to help prevent the further loss of African American women scholars.
Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine
Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American female...
Hammond, Rhonda; Sydnor, Sandra; Kang, Eunjoo
Marketing strategies addressing underserved African American wine customers’ needs that also positively impact producers’ and retailers’ clientele was the impetus for this exploratory, qualitative paper. African Americans demonstrate a thirst to elevate their education about and be more involved in the wine industry as evidenced by the proliferation of African American wine-tasting groups designed to help educate and expose their membership to a variety of wines. Moreover, compared to the ave...
Moore, Sharon E.; Wanda Lott Collins
African-Americans have, without their knowledge and consent, been used as human guinea pigs in scientific and medical experiments by private and governmental organizations. As a result many African-Americans approach the health care industry with caution and apprehension. African-Americans are admonished to remember the atrocities they once experienced and to approach participation in clinical studies with skepticism. This paper presents an historical overview of conspiracy ...
Wanda Lott Collins; Moore, Sharon E.
Using an individual’s last name indicates respect and contributes to positive interaction with African American clients and adults of African descent. This paper discusses the importance of using social titles as a proper form of address during, and sometimes after, the initial professional relationship. Two case vignettes will highlight potential difficulties that non-African American practitioners may experience when using first names with African Americans within the profess...
Sun, Yan V; Lazarus, Alicia; Smith, Jennifer A; Chuang, Yu-Hsuan; Zhao, Wei; Turner, Stephen T; Kardia, Sharon L R
A more thorough understanding of the differences in DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles in populations may hold promise for identifying molecular mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to human diseases. Inflammation is a key molecular mechanism underlying several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, and it affects DNAm profile on both global and locus-specific levels. To understand the impact of inflammation on the DNAm of the human genome, we investigated DNAm profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes from 966 African American participants in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. By testing the association of DNAm sites on CpG islands of over 14,000 genes with C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker of cardiovascular disease, we identified 257 DNAm sites in 240 genes significantly associated with serum levels of CRP adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and smoking status, and corrected for multiple testing. Of the significantly associated DNAm sites, 80.5% were hypomethylated with higher CRP levels. The most significant Gene Ontology terms enriched in the genes associated with the CRP levels were immune system process, immune response, defense response, response to stimulus, and response to stress, which are all linked to the functions of leukocytes. While the CRP-associated DNAm may be cell-type specific, understanding the DNAm association with CRP in peripheral blood leukocytes of multi-ethnic populations can assist in unveiling the molecular mechanism of how the process of inflammation affects the risks of developing common disease through epigenetic modifications.
Yan V Sun
Full Text Available A more thorough understanding of the differences in DNA methylation (DNAm profiles in populations may hold promise for identifying molecular mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to human diseases. Inflammation is a key molecular mechanism underlying several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, and it affects DNAm profile on both global and locus-specific levels. To understand the impact of inflammation on the DNAm of the human genome, we investigated DNAm profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes from 966 African American participants in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study. By testing the association of DNAm sites on CpG islands of over 14,000 genes with C-reactive protein (CRP, an inflammatory biomarker of cardiovascular disease, we identified 257 DNAm sites in 240 genes significantly associated with serum levels of CRP adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and smoking status, and corrected for multiple testing. Of the significantly associated DNAm sites, 80.5% were hypomethylated with higher CRP levels. The most significant Gene Ontology terms enriched in the genes associated with the CRP levels were immune system process, immune response, defense response, response to stimulus, and response to stress, which are all linked to the functions of leukocytes. While the CRP-associated DNAm may be cell-type specific, understanding the DNAm association with CRP in peripheral blood leukocytes of multi-ethnic populations can assist in unveiling the molecular mechanism of how the process of inflammation affects the risks of developing common disease through epigenetic modifications.
Angela Khristin Brown
Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.
Gibbs, Patrice; Belnap, Bea Herbeck; Karp, Jordan F.; Abebe, Kaleab K.; Rollman, Bruce L.
Background Computerised cognitive–behavioural therapy (CCBT) helps improve mental health outcomes in White populations. However, no studies have examined whether CCBT is acceptable and beneficial for African Americans. Aims We studied differences in CCBT use and self-reported change in depression and anxiety symptoms among 91 African Americans and 499 White primary care patients aged 18–75, enrolled in a randomised clinical trial of collaborative care embedded with an online treatment for depression and anxiety. Method Patients with moderate levels of mood and/or anxiety symptoms (PHQ-9 or GAD-7≥10) were randomised to receive either care-manager-guided access to the proven-effective Beating the Blues® CCBT programme or usual care from their primary care doctor. Results Compared with White participants, African Americans were less likely to start the CCBT programme (P=0.01), and those who did completed fewer sessions and were less likely to complete the full programme (P=0.03). Despite lower engagement, however, African Americans who started the CCBT programme experienced a greater decrease in self-reported depressive symptoms (estimated 8-session change: −6.6 v. −5.5; P=0.06) and similar decrease in anxiety symptoms (−5.3 v. −5.6; P=0.80) compared with White participants. Conclusions CCBT may be an efficient and scalable first-step to improving minority mental health and reducing disparities in access to evidence-based healthcare. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28058109
Despite the growing body of literature that provides evidence of the health benefits of a diet high in fruits and vegetables, most Americans eat much less than the recommended amounts of this food group. Among those who are least likely to meet the USDA guidelines for the recommended daily servings of fruits and vegetables are non-Hispanic Blacks and individuals with lower incomes. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the dietary behaviors, focusing on fruit and vegetable intake, of low-income African Americans from a socio-ecological perspective, and to offer rationale for and guidance on integrating socio-ecological concepts into health promoting programs intended to improve dietary behaviors among this population. Based on the 12 descriptive studies retrieved in the review, dietary behaviors and fruit and vegetable intake among African Americans are the result of a complex interplay of personal, cultural, and environmental factors that can be categorized and described using the five levels of influence conceptualized by the socio-ecological model: Intrapersonal level (taste preferences, habits, and nutritional knowledge and skills), Interpersonal level/social environment (processes whereby culture, social traditions, and role expectations impact eating practices; and patterns within peer groups, friends and family), and Organizational, Community, and Public Policy levels/physical environment (environmental factors that affect food access and availability). The socio-ecological model provides a useful framework for achieving a better understanding of the multiple factors and barriers that impact dietary behaviors, and therefore can provide guidance for developing culturally appropriate and sensitive intervention strategies for African Americans. It is an integrative framework that shows great promise in moving the field closer to attaining the goal of improving dietary behaviors and nutritional status among African Americans.
MR, Irvin; HW, Wiener; RP, Perry; RM, Savage; CP, Go R
An increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients has been observed. Exposure to antipsychotics (APs) has been shown to induce metabolic dysregulation in some patients but not all treated patients. We hypothesized important candidate genes for T2D may increase risk for T2D in African-American patients with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder. The PAARTNERS study comprises African-American families with at least one proband with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder. The current study of PAARTNERS SCZ and schizoaffective disorder cases (N=820) examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within select T2D candidate genes including transcription factor like 7 (TCF7L2), calpain 10 (CAPN10), and ectoenzyme nucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase 1 (ENNP1) for association with prevalent T2D. We report association of TCF7L2 (rs7903146) with T2D under both an additive and recessive model for the risk allele T. Specifically, the odds ratio (OR) for having T2D was 1.4 (p=0.03) under an additive model and 2.4 (p=0.004) under a recessive model. We also report a marginally significant TCF7L2 by AP treatment interaction that should be investigated in future studies. CAPN10 (rs3792267) was marginally associated with T2D with OR=1.5 (p=0.08) when considering the model GG vs. AG/AA with risk allele G. ENPP1 (rs1044498) was not associated with T2D. We conclude TCF7L2, a risk factor for T2D in the general population, is also a risk factor for T2D in African-American patients with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder. Research is needed to determine if T2D associated polymorphisms are of interest in the pharmacogenetics and future treatment choices of antipsychotics in African-American patients. PMID:19643578
Lewis, Tené T; Kravitz, Howard M; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H
The authors examined the association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and subtypes of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in a population-based cohort of African-American and Caucasian women. Prior studies examining associations between discrimination and abdominal fat have yielded mixed results. A major limitation of this research has been the reliance on waist circumference, which may be a poor marker of visceral fat, particularly for African-American women. Participants were 402 (45% African-American, 55% Caucasian) middle-aged women from the Chicago, Illinois, site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were assessed via computed tomography scans between 2002 and 2005. Linear regression models were conducted to test associations among discrimination and visceral and subcutaneous fat. After adjustment for age and race, every one-point increase on the discrimination scale was associated with a 13.03-cm(2) higher amount of visceral fat (P = 0.04). This association remained significant after further adjustments for total body fat and relevant risk factors, including depressive symptoms. Discrimination was not associated with subcutaneous fat in minimally (P = 0.95) or fully adjusted models. Associations did not differ by race. Findings suggest that visceral fat may be one potential pathway through which experiences of discrimination increase cardiovascular risk.
Brownley, Julie R; Fallot, Roger D; Wolfson Berley, Rebecca; Himelhoch, Seth S
Women living with HIV (WLHIV) have rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) up to 5 times higher than the general population. Individuals living with HIV and a concurrent diagnosis of PTSD have poorer HIV-related outcomes; however, the prevalence and impact of PTSD on African-American WLHIV seeking mental health treatment is unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between PTSD symptoms with psychiatric symptom severity and psychological/religious coping strategies in African-American WLHIV who are seeking mental health treatment. This is a cross-sectional study of 235 African-American WLHIV attending an urban community mental health clinic. Bivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate associations between a PTSD symptoms scale (PSS≥21 versus PSSAmerican WLHIV attending an outpatient mental health clinic had symptoms associated with PTSD. These symptoms were associated with worse mental health symptoms and utilization of dysfunctional religious and nonreligious coping strategies. Untreated PTSD in WLHIV predicts poorer HIV-related health outcomes and may negatively impact comorbid mental health outcomes. Screening for PTSD in WLHIV could identify a subset that would benefit from evidence-based PTSD-specific therapies in addition to mental health interventions already in place. PTSD-specific interventions for WLHIV with PTSD may improve outcomes, improve coping strategies, and allow for more effective treatment of comorbid mental health disorders.
Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Schwander, Karen; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Arnett, Donna; Liang, Jingjing; Hunt, Steven C.; Rao, D.C.; Sun, Yan V.
Cigarette smoking has been shown to be a health hazard. In addition to being considered a negative lifestyle behavior, studies have shown that cigarette smoking has been linked to genetic underpinnings of hypertension. Because African Americans have the highest incidence and prevalence of hypertension, we examined the joint effect of genetics and cigarette smoking on health among this understudied population. The sample included African Americans from the genome wide association studies of HyperGEN (N = 1083, discovery sample) and GENOA (N = 1427, replication sample), both part of the FBPP. Results suggested that 2 SNPs located on chromosomes 14 (NEDD8; rs11158609; raw p = 9.80 × 10−9, genomic control-adjusted p = 2.09 × 10−7) and 17 (TTYH2; rs8078051; raw p = 6.28 × 10−8, genomic control-adjusted p = 9.65 × 10−7) were associated with SBP including the genetic interaction with cigarette smoking. These two SNPs were not associated with SBP in a main genetic effect only model. This study advances knowledge in the area of main and joint effects of genetics and cigarette smoking on hypertension among African Americans and offers a model to the reader for assessing these risks. More research is required to determine how these genes play a role in expression of hypertension. PMID:26752167
Monnica T. Williams
Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a highly disabling disorder, afflicting African Americans at disproportionately higher rates than the general population. When receiving treatment, African Americans may feel differently towards a European American clinician due to cultural mistrust. Furthermore, racism and discrimination experienced before or during the traumatic event may compound posttrauma reactions, impacting the severity of symptoms. Failure to adapt treatment approaches to encompass cultural differences and racism-related traumas may decrease treatment success for African American clients. Cognitive behavioral treatment approaches are highly effective, and Prolonged Exposure (PE in particular has the most empirical support for the treatment of PTSD. This article discusses culturally-informed adaptations of PE that incorporates race-related trauma themes specific to the Black experience. These include adding more sessions at the front end to better establish rapport, asking directly about race-related themes during the assessment process, and deliberately bringing to the forefront race-related experiences and discrimination during treatment when indicated. Guidelines for assessment and the development of appropriate exposures are provided. Case examples are presented demonstrating adaptation of PE for a survivor of race-related trauma and for a woman who developed internalized racism following a sexual assault. Both individuals experienced improvement in their posttrauma reactions using culturally-informed adaptations to PE.
Jones, Lakaii A; Cook-Cottone, Catherine
Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American females, mainstream sociocultural identification, cultural ethnic identification, and body dissatisfaction significantly predicted eating disorder behavior; and cultural ethnic identification was positively correlated with mainstream sociocultural identification. This study provides support for the importance of eating disorder prevention interventions that focus specifically on African-American girls.
Cook, D L; Barber, K R
Increasing numbers of minorities are seeking mental health assistance. Inclusion of cultural considerations is important for increasing sensitivity to those whose life experiences differ. For African Americans, therapy is better facilitated if one operates from a cultural specific frame of reference. African American women attending a women's support group were surveyed. Questionnaires querying dimensions on family relationships, self-esteem and dependency were utilized. Results indicated a relationship between social support, self-esteem and codependency in African American females. Social support and self-esteem were inversely associated with codependency. This study provides insight for mental health professionals in counseling African American females.
Bean, Roy A; Perry, Benjamin J; Bedell, Tina M
To serve African-American families effectively, marriage and family therapists need to develop a level of cultural competence. This content analysis of the relevant treatment literature was conducted to examine the most common expert recommendations for family therapy with African Americans. Fifteen specific guidelines were generated, including orient the family to therapy, do not assume familiarity, address issue of racism, intervene multi-systemically, do home visits, use problem-solving focus, involve religious leader, incorporate the father, and acknowledge strengths. Conceptual and empirical support for each guideline is discussed, and conclusions are made regarding culturally competent therapy with African-American families.
Brown, Bob S; Emmett, Dennis; Chandra, Ashish
Herbal product consumption has gained increasing attention by consumers over the past several years. Many assume that herbal products are natural and hence cannot do any harm. However, there is no doubt that the consumption of herbal products has often been influenced by an individual's cultural and racial backgrounds. This article is based on a survey of one such population subgroup--the African-American population. The results from this study will hopefully enlighten the marketers of herbal products and help them in devising appropriate marketing strategies when targeting this particular population subgroup.
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF share several risk factors including increasing age and obesity. However, the association between CRC and AF has not been thoroughly examined, especially in African Americans. In this study we aimed to assess the prevalence of AF and its risk factors in colorectal neoplasia in an African American.We reviewed records of 527 African American patients diagnosed with CRC and 1008 patients diagnosed with benign colonic lesions at Howard University Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. A control group of 731 hospitalized patients without any cancer or colonic lesion were randomly selected from the same time and age range, excluding patients who had diagnosis of both CRC and/or adenoma. The presence or absence of AF was based upon ICD-9 code documentation. The prevalence of AF in these three groups was compared by multivariate logistic regression.The prevalence of AF was highest among CRC patients (10% followed by adenoma patients (7.2% then the control group (5.4%, P for trend = 0.002. In the three groups of participants, older age (P<0.008 and heart failure (P<0.001 were significantly associated with higher risk of AF. After adjusting for these risk factors, CRC (OR: 1.4(95%CI:0.9-2.2, P = 0.2 and adenoma (OR: 1.1(95%CI:0.7-1.6, P = 0.7 were not significantly associated AF compared to control group.AF is highly prevalent among CRC patients; 1 in 10 patients had AF in our study. The predictors of AF in CRC was similar to that in adenoma and other patients after adjustment for potential confounders suggesting that the increased AF risk in CRC is explained by higher prevalence of AF risk factors.
Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George
Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups of Americans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.
Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann
The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.
Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda
This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence.
Full Text Available Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AA exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA for the African Americans enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS. We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors.Methods: Plasma specimens from 1,439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1,447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA.Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years, the median (interquartile range of PEA was 15.8 (9.3%. Body mass index (p = 0.04 and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001 modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (β = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03 among non-obese (n = 673 and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1,141; β = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001, but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold effect was detected for non-obese participants.Conclusions: In a large African American population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin
David, S P; Hamidovic, A; Chen, G K; Bergen, A W; Wessel, J; Kasberger, J L; Brown, W M; Petruzella, S; Thacker, E L; Kim, Y; Nalls, M A; Tranah, G J; Sung, Y J; Ambrosone, C B; Arnett, D; Bandera, E V; Becker, D M; Becker, L; Berndt, S I; Bernstein, L; Blot, W J; Broeckel, U; Buxbaum, S G; Caporaso, N; Casey, G; Chanock, S J; Deming, S L; Diver, W R; Eaton, C B; Evans, D S; Evans, M K; Fornage, M; Franceschini, N; Harris, T B; Henderson, B E; Hernandez, D G; Hitsman, B; Hu, J J; Hunt, S C; Ingles, S A; John, E M; Kittles, R; Kolb, S; Kolonel, L N; Le Marchand, L; Liu, Y; Lohman, K K; McKnight, B; Millikan, R C; Murphy, A; Neslund-Dudas, C; Nyante, S; Press, M; Psaty, B M; Rao, D C; Redline, S; Rodriguez-Gil, J L; Rybicki, B A; Signorello, L B; Singleton, A B; Smoller, J; Snively, B; Spring, B; Stanford, J L; Strom, S S; Swan, G E; Taylor, K D; Thun, M J; Wilson, A F; Witte, J S; Yamamura, Y; Yanek, L R; Yu, K; Zheng, W; Ziegler, R G; Zonderman, A B; Jorgenson, E; Haiman, C A; Furberg, H
The identification and exploration of genetic loci that influence smoking behaviors have been conducted primarily in populations of the European ancestry. Here we report results of the first genome-wide association study meta-analysis of smoking behavior in African Americans in the Study of Tobacco in Minority Populations Genetics Consortium (n = 32,389). We identified one non-coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2036527[A]) on chromosome 15q25.1 associated with smoking quantity (cigarettes per day), which exceeded genome-wide significance (β = 0.040, s.e. = 0.007, P = 1.84 × 10(-8)). This variant is present in the 5'-distal enhancer region of the CHRNA5 gene and defines the primary index signal reported in studies of the European ancestry. No other SNP reached genome-wide significance for smoking initiation (SI, ever vs never smoking), age of SI, or smoking cessation (SC, former vs current smoking). Informative associations that approached genome-wide significance included three modestly correlated variants, at 15q25.1 within PSMA4, CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 for smoking quantity, which are associated with a second signal previously reported in studies in European ancestry populations, and a signal represented by three SNPs in the SPOCK2 gene on chr10q22.1. The association at 15q25.1 confirms this region as an important susceptibility locus for smoking quantity in men and women of African ancestry. Larger studies will be needed to validate the suggestive loci that did not reach genome-wide significance and further elucidate the contribution of genetic variation to disparities in cigarette consumption, SC and smoking-attributable disease between African Americans and European Americans.
In a qualitative study employing an exploratory design, the researcher explored the perceptions of communication choice and usage among 14 African American hearing parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. Semistructured, in-depth thematic interviews were used with a modified grounded-theory approach in which themes were analyzed and coded. Four thematic challenges and opportunities related to communication choice and usage were found: (a) oral tradition-nommo, (b) sign and oral-diunital, (c) literacy, and (d) racial/ethnic cultural socialization. Afrocentric implications for deaf and hard of hearing children are explored based on research observations pertaining to the significance of the oral tradition in African American culture and the socialization of African American deaf and hard of hearing children in the context of African American hearing families.
Chin, Alexander L; Negash, Selam; Xie, Sharon; Arnold, Steven E; Hamilton, Roy
The effect of race on cognitive test performance in the evaluation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains controversial. One factor that may contribute substantially to differences in cognitive test performance in diverse populations is education. The current study examined the extent to which quality of education, even after controlling for formal years of education, accounts for differences in cognitive performance between African Americans and White Non-Hispanics (WNHs). The retrospective cohort included 244 patients diagnosed with AD who self-identified as African Americans (n = 51) or WNHs (n = 193). The Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR) was used as an estimate of quality of education. In an analysis that controlled for traditional demographics, including age, sex, and years of formal education, African Americans scored significantly lower than WNHs on the Mini-Mental State Examination, as well as on neuropsychological tests of memory, attention, and language. However, after also adjusting for reading level, all previously observed differences were significantly attenuated. The attenuating effect remained even after controlling for disease severity, indicating that reading scores are not confounded by severity of dementia. These findings suggest that quality, and not just quantity, of education needs to be taken into account when assessing cognitive performance in African Americans with AD.
Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.
Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…
Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza
African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…
Hill, K. Dara
This case study narrative examines the circumstances underlying problems of residency in an affluent Midwest suburb experiencing an unexpected influx of working class African American students. Dilemmas engender a cultural mismatch between teachers and students and discomfort with African-American males. In a controversial climate where students…
Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby
Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students'…
Nievar, M. Angela; Luster, Tom
In accordance with McLoyd's model of African American children's development, we examined the linkages among family income, maternal psychological distress, marital conflict, parenting, and children's outcomes in early and middle childhood, using a sample of 591 African American children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Income…
Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt
The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…
Hines, Erik M.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl
Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…
King, LaGarrett Jarriel
Drawing from the historical lens of cultural memory, I examined the development of three social studies pre-service teachers' African American history knowledge. The participants were engaged in a rigorous summer reading program dedicated to learning African American history. This qualitative case study examined both pre and post interpretations…
Lindsey, Michael A.; Korr, Wynne S.; Broitman, Marina; Bone, Lee; Green, Alan; Leaf, Philip J.
This study examined the help-seeking behaviors of depressed, African American adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 urban, African American boys, ages 14 to 18, who were recruited from community-based mental health centers and after-school programs for youths. Interviews covered sociodemographic information, questions…
Tandon, Darius S.; Solomon, Barry S.
There is limited understanding of risk and protective factors associated with depression among African American adolescents living in impoverished, urban settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify a range of risk and protective factors associated with depressive symptoms among low-income urban African American adolescents. The…
Lyles, Lolita Laree
A qualitative grounded theory approach is utilized to study the academic and career trajectories of twenty African American male collegiate students living in San Bernardino, California. There is limited research that explores the positive educational experiences of young adult African American males. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to…
In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…
Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.
African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…
Belgrave, Faye Z.; Johnson, Jessica; Nguyen, Anh; Hood, Kristina; Tademy, Raymond; Clark, Trenette; Nasim, Aashir
Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality and a primary reason for health disparities among African Americans. In this study we explore the role of stress in smoking and cultural factors that protect against stress among African-American adolescents. Our sample consisted of 239 youth who were recruited into the study while…
Davis, Patrick E.
African-American student academic performance, as a group, in most educational settings causes alarm to educators, policymakers, and laypeople, alike. Some suggest that the problems associated with the academic under-achievement of many African-American students are perhaps the most pressing issues facing both educators and researchers. Much…
Sernak, Kathleen S.
In this article the author examines the historical significance of the cultural aspect of race on African American females' leadership values and styles that encourage caring in schools. The author focuses her study by asking: What aspects of their (African American female leaders) cultural backgrounds as Africans and as African Americans…
Watson, Jarvis M.
African American male college students are graduating at rates lower than their White male college counterparts. This epidemic is a result of the historical implications of institutional racism within American society. Despite these barriers, there are African American males that achieve academically and graduate college. This phenomenological…
Hill, LaBarron K.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Hughes, Joel W.
Experiences with racial discrimination may contribute to stress-induced blood pressure (BP) elevations among African Americans. It was reported that perceived racism was associated with ambulatory BP (ABP) during waking hours. This study examined perceived racism and ABP among 40 African American college students, who completed an ABP assessment…
Leary, Joy D.; Brennan, Eileen M.; Briggs, Harold E.
Objectives: The respect that African American youth feel promotes psychological wellness and social identity; conversely, a lack of respect compromises their identities and is viewed as a threat to safety. This article describes the development, psychometric analysis, and validation of the African American Respect Scale, a 20-item instrument…
O'Neal, Anita J.
Mention the observance of African American History Month and the name Carter G. Woodson immediately comes to mind. Woodson, an educator, publisher, and historian, initiated the "Negro History Week" observance in 1926. Known as the "Father of Black History," Woodson believed that it was important for African Americans to know their history in…
Grimmett, Marc A.
The author describes Brothers in Excellence (BE), a conceptual model for understanding African American boys and helping them to be successful. BE addresses 3 domains of development proposed to be essential to the success of all African American boys: identity development, social development, and career development. (Contains 1 figure.)
Frazier, Kimberly N.
The author discusses the problem of retention of African American faculty due to tenure and promotion issues. The author outlines obstacles that African American face in the workplace while seeking tenure and promotion in academia. A case example is presented that illuminates how these stressors manifest in the academic setting and recommendations…
Lindsey, Michael A.; Browne, Dorothy C.; Thompson, Richard; Hawley, Kristin M.; Graham, Christopher J.; Weisbart, Cindy; Harrington, Donna; Kotch, Jonathan B.
In this study, the authors examined the combined effects of caregiver mental health, alcohol use, and social network support/satisfaction on child mental health needs among African American caregiver-child dyads at risk of maltreatment. The sample included 514 eight-year-old African American children and their caregivers who participated in the…
Potter, Joan; Claytor, Constance
Stories of more than 400 "firsts" by African Americans, break-through achievements in a variety of fields, are told in question-and-answer form ("Who was the first African American to ...?"). These are stories of people who were forced to contend with racism, directly or indirectly, in their struggle towards goals that require…
Gushue, George V.; Constantine, Madonna G.
Examines aspects of individualism, collectivism, and self-differentiation in 123 African American women attending a predominantly White university. Results reveled that aspects of individualism and collectivism were differentially related to self-differentiation in African American college women. Implications of the findings are discussed.…
Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Mann, Tammy L., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.
This groundbreaking two-volume set examines the psychological, social, physical, and environmental factors that undermine or support healthy development in African American children while considering economic, historical, and public policies. African American children are at the highest risk for becoming school dropouts, for academic disengagement…
Bonvillain, Jocelyn Freeman; Honora, Detris
The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which racial identity attitudes and self-esteem could predict academic performance for African American middle school students. A total of 175 African American adolescents in 7th grade attending one of two urban schools participated in the study. The Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM)…
Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane; Keim, Kathryn; Koneman, Sylvia A.
Objective: Describe beliefs about what makes foods healthful among low-income African American women. Methods: In one-on-one interviews, 28 low-income African American mothers viewed 30 pairs of familiar foods and explained which food in the pair was more healthful and why. Responses were grouped into codes describing concepts of food…
Treiman, Rebecca; Bowman, Margo
This study examined the effect of dialect variation on children's spelling by using devoicing of final /d/ in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as a test case. In line with the linguistic interference hypothesis, African American 6-year-olds were significantly poorer at spelling the final "d" of words such as "salad"…
Venzant Chambers, Terah T.; McCready, Lance T.
Drawing from two separate case studies, one on lower track African American students and another on gay and gender nonconforming African American male students, this article explores how students with multiple stigmatized identities make sense of and respond to their marginalization, a process we term "making space." In particular, we consider how…
de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi
The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…
Godley, Amanda; Escher, Allison
This article describes the perspectives of bidialectal African American adolescents--adolescents who speak both African American Vernacular English (AAVE) and Standard English--on spoken language expectations in their English classes. Previous research has demonstrated that many teachers hold negative views of AAVE, but existing scholarship has…
This study examined if coping was predictive of perceived racism and racism related stress of African American female graduate students. Participants were 217 African American female graduate students attending Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and…
Wasserberg, Martin J.
This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…
Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Van Brakle, Mischelle; St. Vil, Christopher
Research indicates that inner-city neighborhood effects are correlated with school dropout, substance abuse, crime, violence, homicide, HIV risk related behaviors, and incarceration for adolescent African American males. Parents of adolescent African American males face many challenges as they try to keep their children safe in high-risk…
Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Amy L.; Cancelli, Anthony A.
Study examines the coping strategies used by African Americans in managing the stressful effects of racism. Results indicate that women preferred avoidance coping for racism experienced on a personal level. For African Americans in general, seeking social support and racism condition were the best predictors of racism-related stress. Life…
Marks, Loren D.; Hopkins, Katrina; Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela A.; Nesteruk, Olena; Sasser, Diane D.
Thirty African American married couples (N = 60 individuals) were interviewed regarding the challenges and benefits of their happy, enduring marriages. Qualitative coding and analysis revealed 4 key themes: (1) Challenges in African American Marriages, (2) Overcoming External Challenges to Marriage, (3) Resolving Intramarital Conflict, and (4)…
Russell, Melody L.
Historically, lack of access to educational opportunities has been a constant and unfortunate reality for many African Americans. As a result of tracking and ability grouping many African American students lack the necessary accoutrement for persistence in the sciences. Some critical factors for the persistence and success of African American…
Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes
Explores African American cultural performance as it exists in education. It focuses on the trickster performance and reveals this community tradition in action through research, designed to increase the recognition and use of cultural performance in schools and create an enhanced learning environment, and conducted with African American educators…
Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby
Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students' relationships…
Utsey, Shawn O.; Payne, Yasser A.; Jackson, Ebonique S.; Jones, Antoine M.
Examines the relationships among race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. Results indicated that elderly African American men and women differed significantly with regard to institutional and collective racism-related stress. In addition, institutional racism-related stress was a…
Haizlip, Breyan N.
Over the last two decades, there has been an upward trend in the number of African-American doctoral students completing counseling and psychology programs. However, despite these trends, African-American faculty continue to be significantly underrepresented as counseling educators and psychology faculty. Similarly, counseling education programs…
The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.
Davis-Kendrick, Kaetrena D.
A recent American Library Association (ALA) report has shown that less than 1% of credentialed librarians are African American males. This article discusses possible reasons for this dearth; and, in an effort to inform future LIS recruiting and marketing campaigns, the included study attempted to discover which factors lead African American males…
Abdullah, Tahirah; Brown, Tamara L.
This study examined whether a relationship exists between acculturation and alcohol use among African American college students and if the relationship varies by religiosity and gender. Most researchers use unidimensional African American acculturation measures that cannot capture the construct's complexity; this study is the first to use a…
More, Timothy; Taylor, David; Turner, Dion
Examines motivational factors associated with malt liquor consumption in African American youth. (Malt liquor is directly marketed to African-American youth.) Over 90% of respondents consumed alcohol in the past. Students viewed malt liquor commercials as being more associated with sex and power than were beer commercials. (MMU)
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how the parental involvement perceptions, practices, and influences of low-income African Americans in an intermediate school setting are affected by low-incomes. Although involving African American parents in the educational process is a difficult task for educators (Alldred & Edwards, 2000;…
Hoffman, Robert P
African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10-18 years old) were subdivided by BMI into lean, overweight, and obesity groups. Endothelial function was measured as forearm vascular resistance (FVR) over 1 min following 5 min of upper arm vascular occlusion. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were measured using intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model. Postocclusive FVR was significantly increased in obese African-Americans. Insulin sensitivity was reduced in obese subjects but did not differ by race. Insulin secretion was increased in African-Americans but did not differ by obesity. Subjects were subdivided into risk groups based on 20th percentile for postocclusion FVR response in lean. Seven of nine obese African-Americans were in the high risk group compared to 0 of 5 obese Caucasians. These results demonstrate that obesity significantly impairs endothelial function in African-Americans. Endothelial dysfunction likely predisposes to future cardiometabolic disease in obese African-American adolescents.
Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober
Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…
Hazel-Fernandez, Leslie Ann; Klorman, Rafael; Wallace, James M.; Cook, Stephen
Objective: The undertreatment of ethnic minority children with ADHD prompted a study on the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the executive functions of African American children with ADHD. Method: Nineteen African American children with ADHD are tested on the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) and the Paired Associates Learning Task (PAL) in a double-blind…
Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy
The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…
Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.
Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…
Edward C. Bush
Full Text Available This mixed method study examines the effects of community college institutional factors on the academic achievement of African American males and their perceptions of their college experience. We found that African American men in comparison to other ethnic and gender sub-groups (for both the California community college system and at Inland Community College are disproportionately underachieving in all segments of the academic outcomes measured. African American men throughout California’s community college system (including Inland Community College are the lowest performing subgroup when one considers: percentage of degrees earned, persistence rates, and average cumulative grade point average. The analysis of African American men’s perceptions of their college experience suggest that African American men have greater amounts of dissatisfaction and do not engage with the various segments of the college when compared to the other subgroups in the study. African American males were more likely not to meet with faculty members or have contact with them outside of the classroom. More importantly, faculty interaction predicted if African American male students persisted, transferred, and maintained a higher grade point average at the case study institution. The variables associated with campus climate predicted if African American male students transferred, had higher grade point averages, and graduated at higher rates from the case institution.
Hodges, Janice; Pringle, Lajuan S.
The African American male psyche is a complicated multi-layered mixture of outside media influences, stereotypes, peer pressure, how they see themselves, and how they think others see them. This article describes how school and public librarians can help raise the literacy efforts of young African American males. It cites the need for libraries to…
Davis, Lenwood G.
Themes in research on African-American families between 1939 and 1989 are discussed, and the following recently developed themes are highlighted: (1) stress, (2) aging, (3) adoption, (4) prison, (5) polygamy, and (6) violence. Much more research is needed to provide better understanding of the African-American family. (SLD)
Spencer, Natalie F.; Dowden, Angel Riddick
Gifted African American students are underrepresented and underserved in gifted education. The current article provides an overview of proper identification, racial identity development implications, psycho-social concerns and the importance of family involvement in the development of gifted African American students. A case study is presented to…
Brittian, Aerika S.
This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological theories…
Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel
The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…
Lewis, LaToya L.
The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…
Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.
The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…
Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C.
Objective:This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and…
Blackwell, Jacqueline A.
In 1983, when the author began graduate school at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville as the only black student in the Graduate English School, it offered no graduate-level African-American Literature course. Today an undergraduate student at the University of Virginia can major in African-American and African Studies and take courses…
Focusing on the early examples of African American literature for children, this paper provides a glimpse into the historical development of children's literature that portrays African Americans and the people who had a definite effect on it. In contemporary time, numerous books are available that reflect the social and cultural traditions…
Gray, Erika Swarts
Previous research has demonstrated that African American children do not always relate to the literature available in their classrooms. The study examined fifth-grade students' responses to African American literature to determine the criteria students use to select books. Students' selection criteria were then compared with teachers' selection…
McNair, Jonda C.
This study examines how African American children--in grades kindergarten through 2--and their parents selected books within the context of a unique family literacy program entitled, "I Never Knew There Were So Many Books About Us!: Parents and Children Reading African American Children's Literature Together". This study is informed by research…
McBride Murry, V.; Brody, Gene H.; McNair, Lily D.; Luo, Zupei; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Wills, Thomas Ashby
This study, an evaluation of the Strong African American Families Program, was designed to determine whether intervention-induced changes in targeted parenting behaviors were associated with young adolescents development of racial pride, self-esteem, and sexual identity. Participants were 332 African American mothers and their 11-year-old children…
Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta
This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…
Sudduth, Charletta D.
Parent involvement may have implications for student achievement (Epstein, 1986; Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler, & Brisse, 1987; Lopez, Scribner, & Mahitivanichcha, 2001). Today African-American parents are frequently criticized for not being involved enough in their students' education (Dearing, Kreider, Simpkins, & Weiss, 2006). African-American parent…
Hurd, Noelle M.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at…
Sumo, Jen'nea; Dancy, Barbara; Julion, Wrenetha; Wilbur, JoEllen
African American grandmothers are known to be a major source of support for their children who are parenting adolescents, but little is known about why they provide support. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of support provided by African American maternal and paternal grandmothers to their parenting adolescents and the reasons…
Gerber, Ben S; Schiffer, Linda; Brown, Allison A; Berbaum, Michael L; Rimmer, James H; Braunschweig, Carol L; Fitzgibbon, Marian L
We evaluated the effect of home telehealth on weight maintenance after a group-based weight loss programme. The home telehealth intervention comprised telephone counselling and home Internet-enabled digital video recorders (DVRs) with three channels of video programmes. The video content provided reinforcement and support to promote problem solving, prevent relapse and sustain motivation. Eighty-eight obese or overweight African-American women were randomized to receive monthly telephone counselling (control) or the home telehealth intervention. The weight change during maintenance was not significant in either group (0.6 kg in the intervention group, 0.0 kg in the control group), and there was no significant difference between them. Changes in diet, physical activity, social support and self-efficacy during the maintenance period did not differ significantly between groups. DVR use was low: during the intervention, the number of valid DVR viewings ranged from zero to 42 per person. DVR use was positively associated with previous attendance at the weight loss classes. Home video-based telehealth is a new method of delivering a weight loss maintenance intervention to African-American women. It had no effect on weight maintenance in the present study.
Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A
Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.
Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Owens, Archandria C; Armstrong, Aisha P
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and college outcomes among African American students, as well as to determine whether these relationships were moderated by gender and type of university. Participants included 569 African American first-year students attending two public universities in the Southeast United States: a historically Black college/university (HBCU) and a predominantly White institution (PWI). Using a longitudinal study design, data were collected at three time points. Results indicated that, after adjusting for the effects of the control variables (gender, type of institution, high school GPA, participation in on-campus activities, institutional and goal commitments), depressive symptomatology present in the first semester of college was associated with increased likelihood of dropping out of college before the end of the second year of college. The relationship between these two variables was mediated by first-year cumulative GPA. Results also indicated that the hypothesized relationships did not vary as a function of gender and the university type.
Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.
This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946
McMath, Cynthia Stewart
This study focused on science teaching that promoted the interest of African American teenage girls in the science classroom of an exemplary African American science teacher. It focused on, observed and examined the planning, teaching and learning strategies used by the science teacher. It also described what the science teacher experienced during her high school years, during college, during her teaching career. The case study approach/method was used for this research to capture the description and examination of the practices of the science teacher. This research described how an African American female science teacher serves as a role model and influence a number of African Americans students, especially girls, who experience careers in science. During the interviews and observations the researcher used a system of record keeping for the study to include note taking, audio taping and pictures. It is evident in the findings that the teacher in this study had qualities of an exemplary teacher according to the research. It is further evident that the teacher served as a role model for her students. The results indicated that the exemplary African America science teacher was motivated by her former African American science teacher that served as a role model. The results in this study implied that the lack of the presence of more exemplary African American science teachers has an impact on the level of interest that African American students have in science. Further, it is implied that there is a great need for more practical research that may lead to closing the gap of missing African American science teachers.
Young, Sean D; Szekeres, Greg; Coates, Thomas
This study explores the feasibility of recruiting minority men who have sex with men Facebook users for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies and notes demographic and sexual risk behaviours. Facebook-registered men who have sex with men (MSM; N = 118) were recruited using online and offline methods. Participants validated Facebook-user status through using a Facebook Connect (computer science) application. Participants were primarily Latino (60.2%) and African-American (28.0%), with 33.1% using social media to find sex partners. Black MSM social networking users reported engaging in a lower frequency (coefficient = -0.48, p < 0.05) of unprotected receptive anal intercourse compared to Latino MSM. Results suggest that minority social media users can be recruited for HIV studies and that sexual risk behavioural differences exist among minority social networking users. Findings highlight the importance of incorporating technologies into population-focused HIV interventions.
Kyla Marie Sawyer-Kurian
Full Text Available The convergence of the high prevalence of HIV incidence among African American adolescent and adult women along with substance use and risky sexual behavior among university students necessitates the development of a HIV intervention specifically addressing culture, gender, and college factors for female African American university students. The woman-focused HIV intervention was chosen for adaptation because it has been shown to be efficacious with reducing risk for African American women who use alcohol and drugs, and has been successfully adapted 7 times. The target population was African American college women enrolled at a historically Black university who use alcohol and other drugs, and who engaged in risky sex behaviors. To understand and assess the needs of this population, we conducted four focus groups with African American college women, two in-depth interviews with faculty, and a combination of in-depth interviews and focus groups with student affairs and health staff that were analyzed using content analysis. From this analysis, several themes emerged that were used to adapt the intervention. Emerging themes included challenges related to identity and societal stereotypes, lack of knowledge about sexual health (i.e., negotiating safer sex and the function of female and male anatomies, high incidents of pregnancy, negative consequences related to alcohol and marijuana use, and the need to incorporate testimonies from college students, media enhancements, and role-plays to convey intervention messages. After the preliminary adaptation, 11 college women reviewed the adapted intervention and provided positive feedback. Plans for future research are discussed.
Danielle Taana Smith
Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.
Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F
This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.
Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M
Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.
Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O
The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.
Miller, Shannon J
Don't Ask, Don't Tell is gaining attention in family studies literature as a cultural specific context to understand lesbian, gay, and bisexual visibility in African-American families and communities. This policy suggests that sexual minorities are accepted within African-American families and communities as long as they do not label themselves or acknowledge publicly that they engage in same-sex relationships. The narratives of two African-American lesbians (aged 26 and 27 years) are chronicled in the present study to reveal their lesbian identity development, lesbian identity management, and how they defined and navigated Don't Ask, Don't Tell. They encountered challenges and successes in a quest to find communities that would embrace and affirm their multiple marginalized identities. Their stories are offered as a point of entry to further inquiry concerning African-American lesbian visibility and identity proclamation within African-American families and communities.
Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne
The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.
Full Text Available In most cases, African American poetry eschews traditional literary norms. Contemporary African American poets tend to ignore grammatical rules, use unusual typography on many occasions, include much of their cultural heritage in their poetry, and interweave musical elements into literary genres. The influence of such musical genres as jazz, blues, soul, and gospel, together with the dilemmas that occur for the translator, will be shown to great extent, since music, like black speech, is a major part of African American culture and literature. The translator will have to maintain the specific African American rhythm, blues adaptations and the improvisational language under the jazz impact. The paper presents the problems in translating post-1950 African American poetry into Slovene, and asks to what extent can one successfully transfer the musical elements within this poetry for the target culture? Inevitably, it will identify a share of elements that are lost in translation.
Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.
The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…
Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.
African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's "Unequal Treatment" conceptual framework was…
A study of mathematics and science achievement scores among African American students and the impact of teacher-oriented variables on them through the Educational Longitudinal Study, 2002 (ELS: 2002) data
influence on mathematics and science achievement among African American students. The application of these findings in settings populated with African American students might be important in increasing mathematics and science achievement among them.
Ghani, Mahdi; Reitz, Christiane; Cheng, Rong; Vardarajan, Badri Narayan; Jun, Gyungah; Sato, Christine; Naj, Adam; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Wang, Li-San; Valladares, Otto; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Larson, Eric B.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Evans, Denis; De Jager, Philip L.; Crane, Paul K.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Murrell, Jill R.; Raj, Towfique; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Logue, Mark; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Green, Robert C.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Cantwell, Laura B.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Go, Rodney C. P.; Griffith, Patrick A.; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Lopez, Oscar L.; Bennett, David A.; Hendrie, Hugh; Hall, Kathleen S.; Goate, Alison M.; Byrd, Goldie S.; Kukull, Walter A.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Lee, Joseph H.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Mayeux, Richard; Rogaeva, Ekaterina
IMPORTANCE Mutations in known causal Alzheimer disease (AD) genes account for only 1% to 3% of patients and almost all are dominantly inherited. Recessive inheritance of complex phenotypes can be linked to long (>1-megabase [Mb]) runs of homozygosity (ROHs) detectable by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between ROHs and AD in an African American population known to have a risk for AD up to 3 times higher than white individuals. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Case-control study of a large African American data set previously genotyped on different genome-wide SNP arrays conducted from December 2013 to January 2015. Global and locus-based ROH measurements were analyzed using raw or imputed genotype data. We studied the raw genotypes from 2 case-control subsets grouped based on SNP array: Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium data set (871 cases and 1620 control individuals) and Chicago Health and Aging Project–Indianapolis Ibadan Dementia Study data set (279 cases and 1367 control individuals). We then examined the entire data set using imputed genotypes from 1917 cases and 3858 control individuals. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The ROHs larger than 1 Mb, 2 Mb, or 3 Mb were investigated separately for global burden evaluation, consensus regions, and gene-based analyses. RESULTS The African American cohort had a low degree of inbreeding (F ~ 0.006). In the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium data set, we detected a significantly higher proportion of cases with ROHs greater than 2 Mb (P = .004) or greater than 3 Mb (P = .02), as well as a significant 114-kilobase consensus region on chr4q31.3 (empirical P value 2 = .04; ROHs >2 Mb). In the Chicago Health and Aging Project–Indianapolis Ibadan Dementia Study data set, we identified a significant 202-kilobase consensus region on Chr15q24.1 (empirical P value 2 = .02; ROHs >1 Mb) and a cluster of 13 significant genes on Chr3p21.31 (empirical P value 2 = .03
Laraia, Barbara A.; Borja, Judith B.; Bentley, Margaret E.
African Americans experience household food insecurity—the limited availability of nutritionally adequate and safe food, or ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways—at three times the rate of non-Hispanic whites. Thirty percent of all African American children live in food insecurity households. The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics associated with household food insecurity among a high risk postpartum population. 206 low-income, African-American mother-infant dyads were recruited through WIC clinics. The six-item USDA food security scale was used to classify households as food secure, marginally food secure or food insecure. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between selected maternal/household characteristics and household food security status. Fifty-three percent of households were food secure, 34% were marginally food secure and 13% were food insecure. Maternal education less than college (Relative Risk Ratio = 0.46, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.22, 0.98) was inversely associated with marginal food security. Depressive symptoms (RRR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.16) and having the baby’s father in the household (RRR = 3.46, 95% CI: 1.22, 9.82) were associated with household food insecurity, while having a grandmother in the household (RRR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.80) was inversely associated with experiencing household food insecurity. Findings from this study suggest that young low-income African American families with only one child are particularly susceptible to experiencing household food insecurity. Intergenerational support and transfer of knowledge may be a key protective attribute among low-income African American households. PMID:19465186
Tesfaye M Baye
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Candidate gene case-control studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with asthma susceptibility. Most of these studies have been restricted to evaluations of specific SNPs within a single gene and within populations from European ancestry. Recently, there is increasing interest in understanding racial differences in genetic risk associated with childhood asthma. Our aim was to compare association patterns of asthma candidate genes between children of European and African ancestry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a custom-designed Illumina SNP array, we genotyped 1,485 children within the Greater Cincinnati Pediatric Clinic Repository and Cincinnati Genomic Control Cohort for 259 SNPs in 28 genes and evaluated their associations with asthma. We identified 14 SNPs located in 6 genes that were significantly associated (p-values <0.05 with childhood asthma in African Americans. Among Caucasians, 13 SNPs in 5 genes were associated with childhood asthma. Two SNPs in IL4 were associated with asthma in both races (p-values <0.05. Gene-gene interaction studies identified race specific sets of genes that best discriminate between asthmatic children and non-allergic controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified IL4 as having a role in asthma susceptibility in both African American and Caucasian children. However, while IL4 SNPs were associated with asthma in asthmatic children with European and African ancestry, the relative contributions of the most replicated asthma-associated SNPs varied by ancestry. These data provides valuable insights into the pathways that may predispose to asthma in individuals with European vs. African ancestry.
Full Text Available Almost forty percent of African American students are in special education programs, though they constitute only 17% of the general education population (Kunjufu, 2005. A conclusive explanation has yet to be reached as to why this disproportion exists, but multiple suggestions have been made. The ideas that will be presented in this literature review focus on factors such as race, teacher perception and preparation, cultural differences, biases in norm-referenced testing and culturally unresponsive curricula. The purpose of this research review is to gain an understanding of why these issues continue to occur, and what professionals can do to rectify this phenomenon.
Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George
Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups ofAmericans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, weight, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura 's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.
Lanier, Mark M; Pack, Robert P; Akers, Timothy A
Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social cognitive theory postulates that health behavior change is driven by the interaction of (a) cognitive states that support a health outcome, (b) the social and contextual environment, (c) and individual action. Combined, these theories can be applied to drug eradication programs as well as other health and crime issues. Focus groups and interviews were performed to identify rates of illicit substance use among incarcerated African American adolescent male gang members and nongang members. The policy recommendations illustrate the convergence of criminological and epidemiological theory under the new paradigm of epidemiological criminology or ''EpiCrim.''
Holbrook, J C
The question of how to increase the number of women and minorities in astronomy has been approached from several directions in the United States including examination of admission policies, mentoring, and hiring practices. These point to departmental efforts to improve conditions for some of the students which has the overall benefit of improving conditions for all of the students. However, women and minority astronomers have managed to obtain doctorates even within the non-welcoming environment of certain astronomy and physics departments. I present here six strategies used by African American men and women to persevere if not thrive long enough to earn their doctorate. Embedded in this analysis is the idea of 'astronomy culture' and experiencing astronomy culture as a cross-cultural experience including elements of culture shock. These survival strategies are not exclusive to this small subpopulation but have been used by majority students, too.
Holbrook, Jarita C.
The question of how to increase the number of women and minorities in astronomy has been approached from several directions in the United States including examination of admission policies, mentoring, and hiring practices. These point to departmental efforts to improve conditions for some of the students which has the overall benefit of improving conditions for all of the students. However, women and minority astronomers have managed to obtain doctorates even within the non-welcoming environment of certain astronomy and physics departments. I present here six strategies used by African American men and women to persevere if not thrive long enough to earn their doctorate. Embedded in this analysis is the idea of `astronomy culture' and experiencing astronomy culture as a cross-cultural experience including elements of culture shock. These survival strategies are not exclusive to this small subpopulation but have been used by majority students, too.
Miller Hesed, Christine D.; Paolisso, Michael
Policymakers need to know what factors are most important in determining local vulnerability to facilitate effective adaptation to climate change. Quantitative vulnerability indices are helpful in this endeavour but are limited in their ability to capture subtle yet important aspects of vulnerability such as social networks, knowledge and access to resources. Working with three African American communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, we systematically elicit local cultural knowledge on climate change and connect it with a scientific vulnerability framework. The results of this study show that: a given social-ecological factor can substantially differ in the way in which it affects local vulnerability, even among communities with similar demographics and climate-related risks; and social and political isolation inhibits access to sources of adaptive capacity, thereby exacerbating local vulnerability. These results show that employing methods for analysing cultural knowledge can yield new insights to complement those generated by quantitative vulnerability indices.
Roseman, J M; Go, R C; Perkins, L L; Barger, B D; Bell, D H; Goldenberg, R L; DuBard, M B; Huddleston, J F; Sedlacek, C M; Acton, R T
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk of poor outcomes for the pregnancy. It is a strong risk factor for subsequent diabetes. The epidemiology of GDM in African-American women is not well known. It has not been demonstrated that their risk factors are similar in character and weight to those among White women. There is considerable multicollinearity among GDM risk factors such as age, parity, obesity, hypertension, and family history of diabetes, and this needs to be sorted out. This review is based on the results of a nested case-control study to evaluate the frequency of, and the relationships of the known risk factors with, the onset of GDM among African-American women. All cases of GDM within a cohort of women seen at any of the county health department clinics in Jefferson County, Alabama from 1981 to 1987 were identified. The cohort represents approximately 63% of all African-American pregnancies in the county during the period. With few exceptions (5.1% based on fasting plasma glucose greater than or equal to 120 mg/dl), potential GDM cases (7.1%) were selected on the basis of a 2 h post 100 g carbohydrate meal screening plasma glucose measure at their second prenatal visit and again at 28-32 weeks greater than or equal to 115 mg/dl and diagnosed on the basis of the results of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) using the criteria of O'Sullivan and Mahan. Women with any prior history of diabetes (even in pregnancy), 1.6%, were excluded. The frequency of the new diagnosis of GDM among African-American women in this pregnancy in the cohort was 2.5% of pregnancies and 3.4% of women, which is similar to the values reported in the other studies. Controls were selected from women with negative screening tests who delivered after a GDM subject. The results reported in this paper reflect 358 cases (86% of all eligible GDM cases identified) and 273 controls. Cases were significantly older (28.3 vs. 21.7 years), of higher gravidity (2
Lee, S W; Roseman, C C
"Through kinship and other links to destinations, many African American interstate migrants in the United States join other people in destination households. These ¿linked' migrants contrast to ¿independent migrants' who move as individuals or intact groups and set up their own households at the destination. Using U.S. Census Public Use Micro Sample data, this paper first shows that, in the 1985-90 period, about 45 percent of all Black interstate migrants were independent, compared to 38 percent who were linked to housing at the destination and 17 percent who moved into group quarters. Second, a multinomial logit model, incorporating individual and state-level variables, is specified that contrasts the determinants of independent and linked migration.... It is concluded that the understanding of Black migration must take into account a variety of factors beyond traditional labor market conditions, including links to the destination and individual housing circumstances."
Robbins, John A.; Qi, Lihong; Garcia, Lorena; Younger, Jarred W.; Seldin, Michael F.
Background African Americans are reported to be more sensitive to pain than European Americans. Pain sensitivity has been shown to be genetically linked in animal models and is likely to be in humans. Methods 11,239 self-identified African American post menopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative had percentage African ancestry determined by ancestry informative markers, “Pain Construct” measurements and covariate information. They answered 5 questions about specific types and location of pain, such as joint, neck, low back, headache, and urinary. They also answered 2 questions which were used to derive a “Pain Construct”, a measure of general pain scored on a scale of 1 to 100. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusting for age, self-reported medical conditions, neighborhood socio-economic status, education, and depression. Results In the unadjusted model of the 5 specific types of pain measures, greater pain perception was associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry. However, some of the specific types of pain measures were no longer associated with African ancestry after adjustment for other study covariates. The Pain Construct was statistically significantly associated with African ancestry in both the unadjusted [Beta = −0.132, 95% confidence interval (C I) = −099 – −0.164; r = −0.075, 95% CI −0.056 – −0.093] and the adjusted models (Beta = −0.069 95% CI = −0.04 – 0.10). Conclusions Greater African ancestry was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain although this accounted for only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the Pain Construct. PMID:25752262
Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney
In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = -.39; CI .13-.83) and African Americans (B = -.20; CI .07-.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = -.48; CI .18-.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship.
Krans, Elizabeth E; Chang, Judy C
Exercise may decrease the incidence of obesity and obesity related complications during pregnancy including gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. African American women are at higher risk for obesity and physical inactivity during pregnancy when compared to other patient groups. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe in detail the unique beliefs and perspectives regarding exercise during pregnancy of African American women. A series of 6 focus groups discussions with pregnant African American women were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Focus group transcripts were qualitatively analyzed for major themes and independently coded for beliefs regarding exercise during pregnancy. A total of 34 pregnant, African American women participated in 6 focus group discussions. The majority of women were single (94%), had only a high school education (67%), received Medicaid (100%) and had a mean BMI of 33 kg/m(2). Three major themes emerged regarding our subjects' beliefs about exercise during pregnancy: (1) women had a broad definition of what types of activities constituted exercise, (2) women believed exercise was generally beneficial during pregnancy and (3) women believed certain types of activities or movements could cause problems with pregnancy. African American women overwhelmingly believe that exercise positively impacts pregnancy. A lack of knowledge concerning the benefits of exercise during pregnancy was not found to be a major contributor to inactivity in African American women. However, health care providers should be aware of cultural myths that prevent many African American women from performing certain activities during pregnancy.
Gardiner, Phillip S
Today, over 70% of African American smokers prefer menthol cigarettes, compared with 30% of White smokers. This unique social phenomenon was principally occasioned by the tobacco industry's masterful manipulation of the burgeoning Black, urban, segregated, consumer market in the 1960s. Through the use of television and other advertising media, coupled with culturally tailored images and messages, the tobacco industry "African Americanized" menthol cigarettes. The tobacco industry successfully positioned mentholated products, especially Kool, as young, hip, new, and healthy. During the time that menthols were gaining a large market share in the African American community, the tobacco industry donated funds to African American organizations hoping to blunt the attack on their products. Many of the findings in this article are drawn from the tobacco industry documents disclosed following the Master Settlement Agreement in 1998. After a short review of the origins and growth of menthols, this article examines some key social factors that, when considered together, led to disproportionate use of mentholated cigarettes by African Americans compared with other Americans. Unfortunately, the long-term impact of the industry's practice in this community may be partly responsible for the disproportionately high tobacco-related disease and mortality among African Americans generally and African American males particularly.
Underwood, Sandra Millon; Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Townsend, Leolia; Kelber, Sheryl T
Advances in genetic and genomic research are shifting the typical disease timeline. For those afflicted by disease and for population groups known to experience excess disease-related morbidity and mortality, the ability to use genetics and genomics to predict an individuals' predisposition for developing a disease and/or to anticipate an individual's response to treatments holds tremendous promise. Over the past two decades several public and private institutions within the United States have been established for the purpose of collecting and storing biological specimens for the purpose of conducting genetic/genomic research. Multiple reports indicate that the involvement of racial/ethnic minority participants in these bio-repositories is limited. Little is known about the willingness of African-Americans, one of the largest and most vulnerable racial/ethnic population groups, to participate in genetic research, genomic research, and to contribute biological specimens to bio-repositories. An exploratory study was undertaken using principles of community engagement and community-based participatory research to examine the perspectives of leaders within the African-American community about participation in genetics research, genomics research, and bio-banking. Semi-structured focus groups with twenty-one African-American community leaders were the primary means of gathering the study data. Reflections and commentary of the community leaders were interspersed with sentiments of "Sankofa." The emergent themes, health-related disparities, historical injustices in medical research, the promise of genetic and genomic research, and genetics/genomic research engagement, implicated the importance of conducting genetics/genomics research in the context of the community interdependent with efforts to address determinants of health and health disparities.
Ozkor, Muhiddin A; Rahman, Ayaz M; Murrow, Jonathan R; Kavtaradze, Nino; Lin, Ji; Manatunga, Amita; Hayek, Salim; Quyyumi, Arshed A
Objectives Abnormalities in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability have been reported in African Americans. Whether there are differences in endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in addition to NO between African Americans and whites, and how these affect physiologic vasodilation remains unknown. We hypothesized that the bioavailability of vascular NO and EDHF, at rest and with pharmacologic and physiologic vasodilation, varies between white and African Americans. Approach and Results In 74 white and 86 African American subjects without known cardiovascular disease risk factors, forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured using plethysmography at rest and during inhibition of NO with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and/or of K+Ca channels (EDHF) with tetraethylammonium (TEA). The reduction in resting FBF was greater with L-NMMA (p=0.019) and similar with TEA in whites compared to African Americans. Vasodilation with bradykinin, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside was lower in African Americans compared to whites (all p<0.0001). Inhibition with L-NMMA was greater in whites compared to African Americans with bradykinin, acetylcholine, and exercise. Inhibition with TEA was lower in African Americans with bradykinin, but greater during exercise and with acetylcholine. Conclusions The contribution to both resting and stimulus-mediated vasodilator tone of NO is greater in whites compared to African Americans. EDHF partly compensates for the reduced NO release in exercise and acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation in African Americans. Preserved EDHF but reduced NO bioavailability and sensitivity characterizes the vasculature in healthy African Americans. PMID:24675657
History and Reconstruction is an interdisciplinary project to assess the impact of African American history education for black men. Under the theory of trauma recovery, leading scholars of African American history worked with a group of ten ex-offenders, supported by the services of a psychologist and an African American cultural expert and storyteller. Results based on psychological testing and qualitative feedback showed that history can be a catalyst for personal development and transformation. It also demonstrated that difficult history can be taught and assimilated for audience benefit. History and Reconstruction was supported by the Pew Center for Arts and Heritage.
The cultural values of African Americans have not been adequately incorporated as a theoretical base to develop new public health models. The major objectives of this study were to explore, with a purposive sample, via seven focus groups, 40 African American college students, the following: How do (a) ethnic culture and (b) a "minoritized" status influence perceptions of sociocultural determinants in explaining increases in the incidence of suicide among African Americans? Thematic results of focus group discussions including the following: (a) racism, discrimination, and stereotyping; (b) U.S. individualism; (c) integration and cultural assimilation; and, (d) the prison industrial complex.
Derrick J. Jenkins, Sr. Ph.D.
Conclusion: The results indicate that there was little difference in African American perceptions of violence in Cincinnati in 2001 and 11 years later in 2012. Most people felt that violence in Cincinnati is a very serious problem, with more than half of the respondents indicating that in the past 3 years violence in Cincinnati stayed the same. More importantly, these findings emphasize that the riots in Cincinnati is not a central event in the African American community, instead for some, it represents another example of why violence always seem to exist and there is a low morale among the African American community and police officers.