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  1. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predict post-traumatic stress disorder in postpartum African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Nancy J; Fry-McComish, Judith; Chiodo, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    To describe relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and post-traumatic stress in African-American postpartum women. Cumulative trauma exposure estimates for women in the USA range from 51-69%. During pregnancy, most trauma research has focused on physical injury to the mother. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with trauma and more prevalent in African-American women than women of other groups. Knowledge about both the rate and impact of cumulative trauma on pregnancy may contribute to our understanding of women seeking prenatal care, and disparities in infant morbidity and mortality. This retrospective, correlational, cross-sectional study took place on postpartum units of two Detroit hospitals. Participants were 150 African-American women aged between 18-45 who had given birth. Mothers completed the Cumulative Trauma Scale, Conflict Tactics Scale, Clinician Administered Post-traumatic Stress Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a Demographic Data form. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. All participants reported at least one traumatic event in their lifetime. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predicted PTSD, with the trauma of a life-threatening event for a loved one reported by 60% of the sample. Nearly, one-fourth of the women screened were at risk for PTSD. Increased cumulative trauma, increased partner conflict and lower level of education were related to higher rates of PTSD symptoms. Both cumulative trauma and partner conflict in the past year predict PTSD. Reasoning was used most often for partner conflict resolution. The results of this study offer additional knowledge regarding relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and PTSD in African-American women. Healthcare providers need to be sensitive to patient life-threatening events, personal failures, abuse and other types of trauma. Current evidence supports the need to assess for

  2. Cumulative Burden of Lifetime Adversities: Trauma and Mental Health in Low-SES African Americans and Latino/as

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Ullman, Jodie B.; Loeb, Tamra B.; Chin, Dorothy; Prause, Nicole; Zhang, Muyu; Williams, John K.; Slavich, George M.; Liu, Honghu

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 American Psychological Association. All rights reserved. This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men...

  3. Cumulative burden of lifetime adversities: Trauma and mental health in low-SES African Americans and Latino/as.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Hector F; Wyatt, Gail E; Ullman, Jodie B; Loeb, Tamra B; Chin, Dorothy; Prause, Nicole; Zhang, Muyu; Williams, John K; Slavich, George M; Liu, Honghu

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men and women with histories of adversities and trauma were recruited and assessed with a standard battery of self-report measures of stress and mental health. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated good overall model fit. As hypothesized, experiences of discrimination, childhood family adversities, childhood sexual abuse, other childhood trauma, and chronic stresses all loaded on the latent cumulative burden of adversities and trauma construct (CBAT). The CBAT stress exposure index in turn predicted the mental health status latent variable. Although there were several significant univariate ethnic and gender differences, and ethnic and gender differences were observed on several paths, there were no significant ethnic differences in the final model fit of the data. These findings highlight the deleterious consequences of cumulative stress and trauma for mental health and underscore a need to assess these constructs in selecting appropriate clinical interventions for reducing mental health disparities and improving human health. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Effects of cumulative trauma load on perceptions of health, blood pressure, and resting heart rate in urban African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner-Warren, Rhonda

    2014-04-01

    This study examined relationships between cumulative trauma (CT) and urban African American (AA) adolescents' blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and perceptions of health. A correlational design using secondary data analysis studied effects of CT, health outcomes, and perceptions of health. Participants were 175 urban AA youth (11-16 years) who completed structured surveys and physiological measures of HR and BP before and after exercise. AA youth were experiencing high levels of CT. Negative correlations were obtained between AA females' perceptions of their health and systolic BP with levels of trauma. No gender differences were found in HR or BP. AA females with high CT may perceive themselves as less healthy and can be at risk for health problems. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Tibet- Himalayan Analogs of Pan-African Shear Zones : Implications for Neoproterozoic Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attoh, K.; Brown, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    Large-scale shear zones are distinct features of Tibet-Himalayan orogen and the Pan-African Trans-Saharan belt. Prominent examples in the Pan-African-belt extend for ~2500 km from the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea and are characterized by right-slip movements. The NS shear zones, such as 4°50’-Kandi shear zone (KSZ) are complemented by NE-SW shear zones that preserve a record of sinistral movements and are represented by the Central Cameroon shear zone (CCSZ) in the eastern part of the Pan-African domain. The West African shear zones project into similar structures in the Borborema Province of northeast Brazil. In addition, the Pan-African belt preserves structures and rock assemblages that indicate subduction-collision tectonics We propose that structures of Tibet-Himalayan collisional orogen are instructive analogs of the Pan-African structures where: (i) the Pan-African front corresponds to the Main Himalayan thrust and it’s splays; (ii) the main Pan-African suture zone is analogous to the Indus-Tsangpo suture in the Tibet-Himalayan belt; (iii) the 4°50’-KSZ corresponds to Karakoram and it’s linkages with Jiali fault system and (iv) left-slip CCSZ and related shear zones are analogs of Altyn Tagh and Kumlun faults and their splays. This suggests the operation of escape-type tectonics in the Neoproterozoic belt of West-Africa and predicts the nature of the deep structures in the Cenozoic Tibet-Himalayan orogen.

  6. Water quality criteria for the South African coastal zone

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lusher, JA

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available the participation of staff is made to the Directors-General of the Department of Environment Affairs, the Department of Water Affairs and the Department of Health and Welfare and also to the Director- General of the South African Bureau of Standards... to the Directors-General of the Department of Environment Affairs, the Department of Water Affairs and the Department of Health and Welfare and also to the Director- General of the South African Bureau of Standards and the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer...

  7. The impact of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians: French zone on church and African theology issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasie M. Maponda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We can understand that the Circle must work on two dimensions to provide a future for new woman theology in Africa. The first dimension is based on the intuitive fundamental and innovative sense of a woman from Ghana, Mercy Amba Oduyoye, that leads to the creation of the Circle: she impulsed the idea that women should make their own theology from their dailylife experiences and their subjectivity as women, in order to think on faith and Gospel in a different way. It is necessary to question that intuitive sense. The second dimension aims to revisit the great personalities of African woman theologians of the Circle. What are the essential points of their research? How has the research changed African theology? I particularly think of Musimbi Kanyoro, Nyambura Njoroge and Musa Dub� in the Africa English zone and Helene Yinda, Liz Vuadi, Kasa Dovi and Bernadette Mbuyi Beya in Africa French zone. The essence of their thinking is still actual and that is why they are good enough to project in to the future.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article presents the history of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians from creation to now. Issues related to traditional culture, gender and sexual-based violence, gender-based injustice, and HIV and AIDS are discussed under different approaches such as the biblical approach, hermeneutical approach, ethical approach, historical approach and practical approach. The impact of African Women Theologians speaking French will be particularly highlighted.Keywords: theology; women theologians; women empowerment; HIV/AIDS; gender

  8. The ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Canaries-African Coastal Transition Zone: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. M.; Moyano, M.; Hernandez-Leon, S.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we review information on the ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Canaries-African Coastal Transition Zone (C-ACTZ). This CTZ shows the singularity that the Canary Archipelago interrupts the main flow of the Canary Current and Trade Winds, introducing large mesoscale variability, in the form of island warm wakes and cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies downstream of the islands. Besides, upwelling filaments stretch towards the archipelago from the African coastal upwelling, transporting phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish larvae. They also interact with eddies shed from the islands to exchange water properties and biogenic material. All these mesoscale features influence the composition, structure, abundance and distribution of the larval fish community (LFC) of the region. The Canary Current (CC) and eddies shed from the islands drag larvae of island neritic fish species into the oceanic region and contribute, along warm wakes, to the horizontal distribution of fish larvae. Upwelling and upwelling filaments transport larvae of African neritic species into the oceanic region. These larvae dominate the LFC and account for the relatively high average larval fish abundance found in the C-ACTZ during the summer upwelling season. Filaments originated in the region of Cape Juby-Cape Bojador are entrained around a quasi-permanent cyclonic eddy, trapped between Gran Canaria Island and the African coast, forming a system through which most of the African neritic larvae may return to the African shelf. However, some larvae reach the eastern islands of the Canary archipelago and they may be spread all over the neritic region of the archipelago by eddies shed from the islands. Also in summer, the distribution of the LFC of the C-ACTZ is vertically stratified and fish larvae seem to carry out little or not diel vertical migration. Overall, this study highlights the strong relationship between mesoscale oceanographic processes and the LFC in the C-ACTZ.

  9. Child Maltreatment, Impulsivity, and Antisocial Behavior in African-American Children: Moderation Effects from a Cumulative Dopaminergic Gene Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    A model examining the effects of an increasing number of maltreatment subtypes experienced on antisocial behavior, as mediated by impulsivity and moderated by a polygenic index of dopaminergic genotypes, was investigated. An African American sample of children (N = 1012, M age = 10.07) with and without maltreatment histories participated. Indicators of aggression, delinquency, and disruptive peer behavior were obtained from peer and counselor rated measures to form a latent variable of antisocial behavior; impulsivity was assessed by counselor report. Five genotypes in four dopaminergic genes (DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, and COMT) conferring heightened environmental sensitivity were combined into one polygenic index. Using SEM, a first-stage, moderated-mediation model was evaluated. Age and sex were entered as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with maltreatment and the gene index. The model had excellent fit: χ2(32, N =1012) = 86..51, pmaltreatment subtypes on antisocial behavior was partially mediated by impulsivity (β= 0.173, pmaltreatment and impulsivity was stronger as children evinced more differentiating genotypes, thereby strengthening the mediational effect of impulsivity on antisocial behavior. These findings elucidate the manner by which maltreated children develop early signs of antisocial behavior, and the genetic mechanisms involved in greater vulnerability for maladaptation in impulse-control within context of child maltreatment. PMID:26535948

  10. Indirect dating of deformation: a geochronological study from the Pan African Ajaj shear zone, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahmoud; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt; Klötzli, Urs

    2013-04-01

    The metamorphic complexes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield were exhumed by different exhumation mechanisms (i.e. in extension or oblique transpression regime) during the Pan African activity of Najd Fault System - the largest pre-Mesozoic shear zone on Earth. The different exhumation mechanisms could be the consequence of (i) orientation of the complexes at slightly different angles with respect to the overall orientation of the principal stresses of the Najd Fault System, (ii) exhumation from different depths, or (iii) change of the stress regime through time. In order to test the third hypothesis, geochronological work will be applied on a representative suite of complexes across the Najd Fault System. In particular we focus on three complexes in the Arabian part of the shield named Qazaz, Hamadat and Wajh. In general, the metamorphic complexes of the Arabian part of the shield exhibit left-lateral transcurrent tectonism along the NW-SE Najd faults and right-lateral movement along conjugate NE-SW striking structures. The whole unit forms an anastomosing network of planar structures that demarcate large fish-shaped bodies of high grade metamorphics. The Hamadat complex is surrounded by a left-lateral greenshist facies WNW-ESE Ajaj shear zone. The complex consists of folds that are strongly pinched to the north and more open to the south marked by a well-developed parallel stretching sub-horizontal lineation. Granite intrusions along and across the Ajaj shear zone may allow testing the timing of the deformation. Deformed and non-deformed samples of these granites will be examined by age dating to determine the absolute timing of the metamorphism and the deformation for the complex. Some 20 samples are currently being prepared for zircon dating. Whilst no results are available at the time of writing of this abstract, they will be presented at EGU 2013.

  11. The African swine fever control zone in South Africa and its current relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noluvuyo R. Magadla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF has been reported in South Africa since the early 20th century. The disease has been controlled and confined to northern South Africa over the past 80 years by means of a well-defined boundary line, with strict control measures and movement restrictions north of this line. In 2012, the first outbreak of ASF outside the ASF control zone since 1996 occurred. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current relevance of the ASF control line as a demarcation line between endemic ASF (north areas and ASF-free (south area and to determine whether there was a need to realign its trajectory, given the recent outbreaks of ASF, global climate changes and urban development since the line’s inception. A study of ASF determinants was conducted in an area 20 km north and 20 km south of the ASF control line, in Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West and Gauteng provinces between May 2008 and September 2012. The study confirmed that warthogs, warthog burrows and the soft tick reservoir, Ornithodoros moubata, are present south of the ASF control line, but no virus or viral DNA was detected in these ticks. There appears to be an increasing trend in the diurnal maximum temperature and a decrease in humidity along the line, but the impact of these changes is uncertain. No discernible changes in minimum temperatures and average rainfall along the disease control line were observed between 1992 and 2014. Even though the reservoirs were found south of the ASF boundary line, the study concluded that there was no need to realign the trajectory of the ASF disease control line, with the exception of Limpopo Province. However, the provincial surveillance programmes for the reservoir, vector and ASF virus south of this line needs to be maintained and intensified as changing farming practices may favour the spread of ASF virus beyond the control line. Keywords: African swine fever; warthog burrow; Ornithodoros moubata;control line

  12. Multiple-frequency tomography of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, Mickaël; Nolet, Guust; Villaseñor, Antonio; Gallart, Josep; Thomas, Christine

    2014-09-01

    During the Cenozoic, the geodynamics of the western Mediterranean domain has been characterized by a complex history of subduction of Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere. The final stage of these processes is proposed to have led to the development of the Calabria and Gibraltar arcs, whose formation is still under debate. In this study, we take advantage of the dense broad-band station networks now available in the Alborán Sea region, to develop a high-resolution 3-D tomographic P velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone that will better constraint the past dynamics of this zone. The model is based on 13200 teleseismic arrival times recorded between 2008 and 2012 at 279 stations for which cross-correlation delays are measured with a new technique in different frequency bands centred between 0.03 and 1.0 Hz, and for the first time interpreted using multiple frequency tomography. Our model shows, beneath the Alborán Sea, a strong (4 per cent) fast vertically dipping anomaly observed to at least 650 km depth. The arched shape of this anomaly, and its extent at depth, are coherent with a lithospheric slab, thus favouring the hypothesis of a westward consumption of the Ligurian ocean slab by roll-back during Cenozoic. In addition to this fast anomaly in the deep upper mantle, high intensity slow anomalies are widespread in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath Morocco and southern Spain. These anomalies are correlated at the surface with the position of the Rif and Atlas orogens and with Cenozoic volcanic fields. We thus confirm the presence, beneath Morocco, of an anomalous (hot?) upper mantle, but without clear indication for a lateral spreading of the Canary plume to the east.

  13. Tomography of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickael, B.; Nolet, G.; Villasenor, A.; Josep, G.; Thomas, C.

    2013-12-01

    During Cenozoic, geodynamics of the western Mediterranean domain has been characterized by a complex history of subduction of Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere. The final stage of these processes is proposed to have led to the development of the Calabria and Gibraltar arcs, whose formation is still under debate. In this study we take advantage of the dense broadband-station networks now available in Alborán Sea region, to develop a high-resolution 3D tomographic P velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone that will bring new constraints on the past dynamics of this zone. The model is based on 13200 teleseismic arrival times recorded between 2008 and 2012 at 279 stations for which cross-correlation delays are measured with a new technique in different frequency bands centered between 0.03 and 1.0 Hz, and interpreted using multiple frequency tomography. Our model shows, beneath Alborán Sea, a strong (~ 4%) fast vertically dipping anomaly observed to at least 650 km depth. The arched shape of this anomaly and its extent at depth are coherent with a lithospheric slab, thus favoring the hypothesis of a westward consumption of the Ligurian ocean slab by roll-back during Cenozoic. In addition to this fast anomaly in the deep upper-mantle, several high intensity slow anomalies are widely observed in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath Morocco and southern Spain. These anomalies are correlated at surface with the position of the orogens (Rif and Atlas) and with Cenozoic volcanic fields. We thus confirm the presence, beneath Morocco, of an anomalous (hot) upper mantle, with piece of evidence for a lateral connection with the Canary volcanic islands, likely indicating a lateral spreading of the Canary plume to the east.

  14. Constructing an everywhere and locally relevant predictive model of the West-African critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, B.; Cohard, J. M.; Pellarin, T.; Maxwell, R. M.; Cappelaere, B.; Demarty, J.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Lebel, T.; Mamadou, O.; Mougin, E.; Panthou, G.; Peugeot, C.; Vandervaere, J. P.; Vischel, T.; Vouillamoz, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Considering water resources and hydrologic hazards, West Africa is among the most vulnerable regions to face both climatic (e.g. with the observed intensification of precipitation) and anthropogenic changes. With +3% of demographic rate, the region experiences rapid land use changes and increased pressure on surface and groundwater resources with observed consequences on the hydrological cycle (water table rise result of the sahelian paradox, increase in flood occurrence, etc.) Managing large hydrosystems (such as transboundary aquifers or rivers basins as the Niger river) requires anticipation of such changes. However, the region significantly lacks observations, for constructing and validating critical zone (CZ) models able to predict future hydrologic regime, but also comprises hydrosystems which encompass strong environmental gradients (e.g. geological, climatic, ecological) with highly different dominating hydrological processes. We address these issues by constructing a high resolution (1 km²) regional scale physically-based model using ParFlow-CLM which allows modeling a wide range of processes without prior knowledge on their relative dominance. Our approach combines multiple scale modeling from local to meso and regional scales within the same theoretical framework. Local and meso-scale models are evaluated thanks to the rich AMMA-CATCH CZ observation database which covers 3 supersites with contrasted environments in Benin (Lat.: 9.8°N), Niger (Lat.: 13.3°N) and Mali (Lat.: 15.3°N). At the regional scale the lack of relevant map of soil hydrodynamic parameters is addressed using remote sensing data assimilation. Our first results show the model's ability to reproduce the known dominant hydrological processes (runoff generation, ET, groundwater recharge…) across the major West-African regions and allow us to conduct virtual experiments to explore the impact of global changes on the hydrosystems. This approach is a first step toward the construction of

  15. Archean inheritance in zircon from late Paleozoic granites from the Avalon zone of southeastern New England: an African connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartman, R.E.; Don, Hermes O.

    1987-01-01

    In southeastern New England the Narragansett Pier Granite locally intrudes Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks of the Narragansett basin, and yields a monazite UPb Permian emplacement age of 273 ?? 2 Ma. Zircon from the Narragansett Pier Granite contains a minor but detectable amount of an older, inherited component, and shows modern loss of lead. Zircon from the late-stage, aplitic Westerly Granite exhibits a more pronounced lead inheritance -permitting the inherited component to be identified as Late Archean. Such old relict zircon has not been previously recognized in Proterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks in New England, and may be restricted to late Paleozoic rocks of the Avalon zone. We suggest that the Archean crustal component reflects an African connection, in which old Archean crust was underplated to the Avalon zone microplate in the late Paleozoic during collision of Gondwanaland with Avalonia. ?? 1987.

  16. Sense of shear and displacement estimates in the Abeibara-Rarhous late Pan-African shear zone, Adrar des Iforas, Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullier, Anne-Marie

    The late Pan-African Abeibara-Rarhous shear zone in the Adrar des Iforas (Mali) is described and studied with the aim of defining the direction, sense of movement and amount of displacement along the zone. It is a strike-slip shear zone, the dextral sense of which is demonstrated at the scale of the map by the rotation of the related mylonitic foliation and at the scale of the thin section with characteristic microstructures. Preferred orientation of quartz c-axes is tentatively used; three quartz-rich samples of 35% or more quartz indicate dextral strike-slip movement, but other samples do not show preferred orientation of quartz c-axes. Strain measurements have been performed on one half of the shear zone using established techniques and a new technique using the thickness of mylonitic layering. The results vary along the length of the shear zone when using the same method and for the same cross-section when using the three methods together. A mean value of 4 km is obtained for total displacement which is low when considering the apparent width of the shear zone. This result is discussed in view of the assumptions involved in the strain estimation. The tectonic history of the Abeibara-Rarhous shear zone and its significance in the Trans-Saharan Pan-African collisional belt are discussed.

  17. Habitat use by larval fishes in a temperate South African surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt-Pringle, Peter; Strydom, Nadine A.

    2003-12-01

    Larval fishes were sampled in the Kwaaihoek surf zone on the south east coast of South Africa. On six occasions between February and May 2002, larval fishes were collected in two habitat types identified in the inner surf zone using a modified beach-seine net. The surf zone habitats were classified as either sheltered trough areas or adjacent exposed surf areas. Temperature, depth and current measurements were taken at all sites. Trough habitats consisted of a depression in surf topography characterised by reduced current velocities and greater average depth than adjacent surf areas. In total, 325 larval fishes were collected. Of these, 229 were collected in trough and 96 in surf habitats. At least 22 families and 37 species were represented in the catch. Dominant families were the Mugilidae, Sparidae, Atherinidae, and Engraulidae. Dominant species included Liza tricuspidens and Liza richardsonii (Mugilidae), Rhabdosargus holubi and Sarpa salpa (Sparidae), Atherina breviceps (Atherinidae) and Engraulis japonicus (Engraulide). Mean CPUE of postflexion larvae of estuary-dependent species was significantly greater in trough areas. The proportion of postflexion larval fishes in trough habitat was significantly greater than that of preflexion stages, a result that was not apparent in surf habitat sampled. CPUE of postflexion larvae of estuary-dependent fishes was negatively correlated with current magnitude and positively correlated with habitat depth. Mean body length of larval fishes was significantly greater in trough than in surf habitats. These results provide evidence that the CPUE of postflexion larvae of estuary-dependent fishes is higher in trough habitat in the surf zone and this may be indicative of active habitat selection for areas of reduced current velocity/wave action. The implications of this behaviour for estuarine recruitment processes are discussed.

  18. Zoning and exsolution in cumulate alkali feldspars from the eruption (12.9 Ka) of Laacher see volcano (Western Germany) as an indicator of time-scales and dynamics of carbonate-silicate unmixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourav Rout, Smruti; Wörner, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Time-scales extracted from the detailed analysis of chemically zoned minerals provide insights into crystal ages, magma storage and compositional evolution, including mixing and unmixing events. This allows having a better understanding of pre-eruptive history of large and potentially dangerous magma chambers. We present a comprehensive study of chemical diffusion across zoning and exsolution patterns of alkali feldspars in carbonatite-bearing cognate syenites from the 6.3 km3 (D.R.E) phonolitic Laacher See Tephra (LST) eruption 12.9 ka ago. The Laacher See volcano is located in the Quaternary East Eifel volcanic field of the Paleozoic Rhenish Massif in Western Germany and has produced a compositionally variable sequence in a single eruption from a magma chamber that was zoned from mafic phonolite at the base to highly evolved, actively degassing phonolite magma at the top. Diffusion chronometry is applied to major and trace element compositions obtained on alkali feldspars from carbonate-bearing syenitic cumulates. Methods used were laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) in combination with energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe analyses (EDS & WDS-EMPA). The grey scale values extracted from multiple accumulations of back-scattered electron images represent the K/Na ratio owing to the extremely low concentrations of Ba and Sr (transition and phase separation). A distinctive uphill diffusive analysis is used specifically for the phase separation in the case of exsolution features (comprising of albite- and orthoclase-rich phases) in sanidines. The error values are aggregates of propagated error through calculations and the uncertainty in temperature values. Trace element compositional data of distinct feldspar compositions that are assumed to have grown before and after silicate-carbonate unmixing are used to estimate partition coefficients between carbonate and silicate melt. The resulting values correlate

  19. Hydrological functioning of West-African inland valleys explored with a critical zone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, B.; Cohard, J. M.; Séguis, L.; Peugeot, C.; Galle, S.

    2017-12-01

    In west Africa, recurrent floods are still a major issue, and hydropower has been recognized as an important development pathway. Furthermore, inland valleys carry an important agronomic potential, which could meet the necessary increase of the crop production associated with the strong demographic rates of the region. This can lead to land cover and subsequent hydrologic changes. However, the hydrological role of the inland valleys in the humid, hard rock-dominated Sudanian area is not yet well understood, specifically for streamflow (Q) generation processes. We address both the questions of the hydrological functioning of inland valleys in the Sudanian area of West-Africa and the impact of land cover changes on these systems through deterministic sensitivity experiments using a physically-based critical zone model (ParFlow-CLM) applied on a synthetic catchment which comprises an inland valley. The conceptual lithological/pedological model for the catchment includes the main features of such a hydrological elementary unit derived from the literature and from a previously published model based on data from a highly instrumented elementary catchment. Model forcings and parameters are based on data from the AMMA-CATCH observation service and multiple field experiments. We found yearly water budgets were much more sensitive to vegetation distribution than lithology features of the inland valley (presence of the low permeability layer commonly found below the inland valley and the hydrodynamic properties of upstream and lateral areas). Yearly evapotranspiration budget between a fully tree-covered and an herbaceous-covered catchment increases between 6 and 21% of the precipitation of the year (depending on the tested cases) which reduces considerably the yearly streamflow budgets ( 30%). On the other hand, the lithology distribution has clear impacts on the spatial distribution of water storage dynamics.

  20. The text of the Cairo declaration. Adopted on the occasion of the signing of the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (the Treaty of Pelindaba) Cairo, 11 April 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    As requested by the Resident Representative of Egypt to the International Atomic Energy Agency, the document reproduces the text of the 'Cairo Declaration' which was adopted by the African States signatories of the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (the Treaty of Pelindaba) on the occasion of the signature of the Treaty on 11 April 1996 in Cairo

  1. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Scheuer, Ernest M.; Nolty, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Overflow and underflow in sums prevented. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program, CUMPOIS, one of two computer programs that make calculations involving cumulative Poisson distributions. Both programs, CUMPOIS (NPO-17714) and NEWTPOIS (NPO-17715), used independently of one another. CUMPOIS determines cumulative Poisson distribution, used to evaluate cumulative distribution function (cdf) for gamma distributions with integer shape parameters and cdf for X (sup2) distributions with even degrees of freedom. Used by statisticians and others concerned with probabilities of independent events occurring over specific units of time, area, or volume. Written in C.

  2. Modeling the Effects of Duration and Size of the Control Zones on the Consequences of a Hypothetical African Swine Fever Epidemic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2018-01-01

    control an epidemic of ASF. A previously published and well documented simulation model for ASF virus spread between herds was used to examine the epidemiologic and economic impacts of the duration and size of the control zones around affected herds. In the current study, scenarios were run, where......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease. The disease is endemic in certain regions in Eastern Europe constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning, it is important to continuously explore strategies that can effectively...... or clinical and serological surveillance of herds within the zones. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on influential input parameters in the model. The model predicts that reducing the duration of the protection and surveillance zones has no impact on the epidemiological consequences of the epidemics, while...

  3. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  4. Divergent Cumulative Cultural Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, Chris; Chebib, Jobran

    2016-01-01

    Divergent cumulative cultural evolution occurs when the cultural evolutionary trajectory diverges from the biological evolutionary trajectory. We consider the conditions under which divergent cumulative cultural evolution can occur. We hypothesize that two conditions are necessary. First that genetic and cultural information are stored separately in the agent. Second cultural information must be transferred horizontally between agents of different generations. We implement a model with these ...

  5. Estuary-dependence of larval fishes in a non-estuary associated South African surf zone: evidence for continuity of surf assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, Nadine A.; d'Hotman, Bruce D.

    2005-04-01

    Larval fishes were collected in the Cape Padrone surf zone on the southeast coast of South Africa, using a modified small-mesh seine net. The aim of the study was to assess the composition of fish larvae, with respect to their association with estuaries, in a surf zone that was not in close proximity to an estuary (>5 km). Sampling took place bimonthly during diurnal spring low tides between March and July 2003. In total, 544 fish were caught in the surf zone, comprising 14 families represented by 19 positively identified species, as well as an additional two species that were differentiated but remain unidentified. The families Mugilidae (65%) and Sparidae (26%) dominated the larval catch. The majority of larval fishes caught were in the postflexion stage of development, although some early juveniles were also caught. Body lengths of fish larvae ranged between 2 and 28 mm, with the majority of larvae at the recruitment size for the species. A high proportion of the fish species caught were estuary-dependent. Estuary-dependent marine fish larvae (categories I, II and IV) comprised 68% of total catch by species and 98% by number of individuals. Exclusively marine species (category III) were encountered in low numbers in the surf. The present study provides evidence for continuity in temperate South African surf zones in terms of domination by estuary-dependent larvae and reasons for this pattern are discussed.

  6. Modeling the Effects of Duration and Size of the Control Zones on the Consequences of a Hypothetical African Swine Fever Epidemic in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Christensen, Hanne; Wulff, Sisse Birk; Boklund, Anette

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease. The disease is endemic in certain regions in Eastern Europe constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning, it is important to continuously explore strategies that can effectively control an epidemic of ASF. A previously published and well documented simulation model for ASF virus spread between herds was used to examine the epidemiologic and economic impacts of the duration and size of the control zones around affected herds. In the current study, scenarios were run, where the duration of the protection and surveillance zones were reduced from 50 and 45 days to 35 and 25 days or to 35 and 25 days, respectively. These scenarios were run with or without enlargement of the surveillance zone around detected herds from 10 to 15 km. The scenarios were also run with only clinical or clinical and serological surveillance of herds within the zones. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on influential input parameters in the model. The model predicts that reducing the duration of the protection and surveillance zones has no impact on the epidemiological consequences of the epidemics, while it may result in a substantial reduction in the total economic losses. In addition, the model predicts that increasing the size of the surveillance zone from 10 to 15 km may reduce both the epidemic duration and the total economic losses, in case of large epidemics. The ranking of the control strategies by the total costs of the epidemics was not influenced by changes of input parameters in the sensitivity analyses. PMID:29616228

  7. Ichthyoplankton in a southern african surf zone: Nursery area for the postlarvae of estuarine associated fish species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, A. K.

    1989-12-01

    The surf zone ichthyoplankton of Swartvlei Bay was studied between February 1986 and June 1987, with particular emphasis on its potential role as a nursery area for estuarine associated marine fish species. Larvae and/or postlarvae of 16 families were identified from the surf zone, with the Gobiidae, Soleidae, Sparidae and Mugilidae comprising 85·7% of all teleosts sampled. The postlarvae of several taxa (including the six most common species), which utilize the Swartvlei estuary as a juvenile nursery area, were abundant in the surf zone. Conversely, species which are common in nearshore marine waters as juveniles and adults, but seldom enter estuaries, totalled less than 8% of the surf zone ichthyoplankton assemblage. Larval and postlarval densities peaked during summer when water temperatures exceeded 19°C and the estuary mouth was open. Concentrations of ichthyoplankton were highest at those sampling stations closest to the estuary mouth during the summer period. Diel changes in total catches revealed no significant difference between day and night densities; but of the four major taxa, the Mugilidae and Sparidae tended to be more abundant during the day, the Gobiidae at night and the Soleidae showed no distinct pattern. Results from a 24 h sampling session indicated that tidal phase may also be important in governing ichthyoplankton abundance in the surf zone.

  8. Microstructures and magnetic fabrics of the Ngaoundéré granite pluton (Cameroon): Implications to the late-Pan-African evolution of Central Cameroon Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawaï, Daouda; Tchameni, Rigobert; Bascou, Jérome; Awe Wangmene, Salomon; Fosso Tchunte, Périclex Martial; Bouchez, Jean-Luc

    2017-05-01

    The Ngaoundéré granite pluton, in Central-North Cameroon, located near the Central Cameroon Shear zone (CCSZ), and previously studied for its petrography and geochemistry, is characterized by the absence of macroscopic markers of deformation. In this study, we report microstructures and magnetic fabrics (AMS) of this pluton and discuss the relationship with the Pan-African evolution of the CCSZ. The pluton consists of a porphyritic Hbl-Bt-monzogranite at its rim and a porphyritic biotite-granite at its core, a petrographic distribution denoting a normal zoning pattern, i.e. more silicic toward the centre. As expected, magnetic susceptibilities values also exhibit a zoning pattern in agreement with petrographic zonation. Thermomagnetic data indicate that this pluton is dominantly ferromagnetic in behaviour. As indicated by its microstructures, the pluton has suffered a continuum of deformation from the magmatic state to the high temperature solid-state during magma crystallization and solidification. The magnetic foliations dominantly strike NE-SW and dip moderately to steeply and the lineations mostly plunge shallowly to the NE or SW, roughly parallel to NE-to ENE-trending Central Cameroun Shear Zone (CCSZ). The foliation poles define a girdle pattern with a zone axis (52°/11°) rather close to the best line of the lineations (44°/21°). These fabrics correlate with the structures of the country rocks ascribed by several workers to a regional transpression. Toward the margins of the pluton, particularly the northern one, the lineations tend to rotate from NE to N in azimuth. This change is interpreted as due to strain partitioning, simple shearing with NE-SW extension being relayed by compression toward the northern pluton border. This new magnetic fabric study suggests that the Ngaoundéré pluton (poorly dated at c. 575 Ma) was emplaced during the late stages of the CCSZ dextral transpressive movement. It also provides some more constraints on the correlation

  9. CUMBIN - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, CUMBIN, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), can be used independently of one another. CUMBIN can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. CUMBIN calculates the probability that a system of n components has at least k operating if the probability that any one operating is p and the components are independent. Equivalently, this is the reliability of a k-out-of-n system having independent components with common reliability p. CUMBIN can evaluate the incomplete beta distribution for two positive integer arguments. CUMBIN can also evaluate the cumulative F distribution and the negative binomial distribution, and can determine the sample size in a test design. CUMBIN is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. The program is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. The CUMBIN program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. CUMBIN was developed in 1988.

  10. Cumulation of light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.; Bondarev, V.K.; Golovanov, L.B.

    1977-01-01

    Limit fragmentation of light nuclei (deuterium, helium) bombarded with 8,6 GeV/c protons was investigated. Fragments (pions, protons and deuterons) were detected within the emission angle 50-150 deg with regard to primary protons and within the pulse range 150-180 MeV/c. By the kinematics of collision of a primary proton with a target at rest the fragments observed correspond to a target mass upto 3 GeV. Thus, the data obtained correspond to teh cumulation upto the third order

  11. Life in the spray zone – overlooked diversity in West African torrent-frogs (Anura, Odontobatrachidae, Odontobatrachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Barej

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available West African torrent-frogs of the genus Odontobatrachus currently belong to a single species: Odontobatrachus natator (Boulenger, 1905. Recently, molecular results and biogeographic separation led to the recognition of five Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs thus identifying a species-complex. Based on these insights, morphological analyses on more than 150 adult specimens, covering the entire distribution of the family and all OTUs, were carried out. Despite strong morphological congruence, combinations of morphological characters made the differentiation of OTUs successful and allowed the recognition of five distinct species: Odontobatrachus natator, and four species new to science: Odontobatrachus arndti sp. n., O. fouta sp. n., O. smithi sp. n. and O. ziama sp. n. All species occur in parapatry: Odontobatrachus natator is known from western Guinea to eastern Liberia, O. ziama sp. n. from eastern Guinea, O. smithi sp. n. and O. fouta sp. n. from western Guinea, O. arndti sp. n. from the border triangle Guinea-Liberia-Côte d’Ivoire. In addition, for the first time the advertisement call of a West African torrent-frog (O. arndti sp. n. is described.

  12. CROSSER - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, CROSSER, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, CROSSER, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and NEWTONP (NPO-17556), can be used independently of one another. CROSSER can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. CROSSER calculates the point at which the reliability of a k-out-of-n system equals the common reliability of the n components. It is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. The program is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. It also lists the number of iterations of Newton's method required to calculate the answer within the given error. The CROSSER program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. CROSSER was developed in 1988.

  13. The Climate-Population Nexus in the East African Horn: Emerging Degradation Trends in Rangeland and Pastoral Livelihood Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricope, N. G.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Lopez-Carr, D.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing climate variability and extreme weather conditions along with declining trends in both rainfall and temperature represent major risk factors affecting agricultural production and food security in many regions of the world. We identify regions where significant rainfall decrease from 1979-2011 over the entire continent of Africa couples with significant human population density increase. The rangelands of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia in the East African Horn remain one of the world's most food insecure regions, yet have significantly increasing human populations predominantly dependent on pastoralist and agro-pastoralist livelihoods. Vegetation in this region is characterized by a variable mosaic of land covers, generally dominated by grasslands necessary for agro-pastoralism, interspersed by woody vegetation. Recent assessments indicate that widespread degradation is occurring, adversely impacting fragile ecosystems and human livelihoods. Using two underutilized MODIS products, we observe significant changes in vegetation patterns and productivity over the last decade all across the East African Horn. We observe significant vegetation browning trends in areas experiencing drying precipitation trends in addition to increasing population pressures. We also found that the drying precipitation trends only partially statistically explain the vegetation browning trends, further indicating that other factors such as population pressures and land use changes are responsible for the observed declining vegetation health. Furthermore, we show that the general vegetation browning trends persist even during years with normal rainfall conditions such as 2012, indicating potential long-term degradation of rangelands on which approximately 10 million people depend. These findings have serious implications for current and future regional food security monitoring and forecasting as well as for mitigation and adaptation strategies in a region where population is expected

  14. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  15. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  16. NEWTONP - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, NEWTONP, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, NEWTONP, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), can be used independently of one another. NEWTONP can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. NEWTONP calculates the probably p required to yield a given system reliability V for a k-out-of-n system. It can also be used to determine the Clopper-Pearson confidence limits (either one-sided or two-sided) for the parameter p of a Bernoulli distribution. NEWTONP can determine Bayesian probability limits for a proportion (if the beta prior has positive integer parameters). It can determine the percentiles of incomplete beta distributions with positive integer parameters. It can also determine the percentiles of F distributions and the midian plotting positions in probability plotting. NEWTONP is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. NEWTONP is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. It also lists the number of iterations of Newton's method required to calculate the answer within the given error. The NEWTONP program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. NEWTONP was developed in 1988.

  17. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Gray, W.M.; Watson, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    In five previous papers, the concept of Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) has been presented as a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Simple nomographic and tabular methods for the solution of practical problems in radiotherapy are now described. An essential feature of solving a CRE problem is firstly to present it in a concise and readily appreciated form, and, to do this, nomenclature has been introduced to describe schedules and regimes as compactly as possible. Simple algebraic equations have been derived to describe the CRE achieved by multi-schedule regimes. In these equations, the equivalence conditions existing at the junctions between schedules are not explicit and the equations are based on the CREs of the constituent schedules assessed individually without reference to their context in the regime as a whole. This independent evaluation of CREs for each schedule has resulted in a considerable simplification in the calculation of complex problems. The calculations are further simplified by the use of suitable tables and nomograms, so that the mathematics involved is reduced to simple arithmetical operations which require at the most the use of a slide rule but can be done by hand. The order of procedure in the presentation and calculation of CRE problems can be summarised in an evaluation procedure sheet. The resulting simple methods for solving practical problems of any complexity on the CRE-system are demonstrated by a number of examples. (author)

  18. Increasing land sustainability and productivity through soil-fertility management in the West African Sudano-Sahelian zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bationo, A.; Vanlauwe, B.; Kimetu, J.; Kihara, J.; Abdoulaye, M.S.; Adamou, A.; Tabo, R.; Koala, S.

    2005-01-01

    Food production has lagged behind population growth in most parts of the West African semi-arid tropics (WASAT). One of the reasons for low food production is decline in soil fertility as a consequence of continuous cropping without fertilization. As a result, there is a negative nutrient balance in most land-use systems in WASAT. The amount of nutrients leaving the soil, through crop uptake, leaching and erosion exceeds that returned through natural processes such as atmospheric deposition and biological nitrogen fixation or through additions of inorganic and organic fertilizers. Use of mineral fertilizers by many smallholder farmers remains low because of socio-economic constraints. Lack of adequate foreign exchange to import fertilizers, poor infrastructure and poor distribution mechanisms have hampered the use of inorganic fertilizers. Organic inputs such as manure, compost and crop residues are often proposed as alternatives to mineral fertilizers, however, it is important to recognize that in most cases the use of organic inputs is part of an internal flow of nutrients within the farm and does not add nutrient from outside the farm; also, quantities available are inadequate to meet nutrient needs over large areas because of limited availability, low nutrient content of the material, and high labour demands for processing and application. The beneficial effects of combined manure and inorganic nutrients on soil fertility have been repeatedly shown, yet there is need for more research on the establishment of the fertilizer equivalency of manures, in determining the optimum combination of these two plant nutrients and in taking into account the high variability in their quality. Such information is useful in formulating decision-support systems and in establishing simple guidelines for management and utilization of the resources. This paper highlights current research results on the management of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter and summarizes our

  19. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Cain, O.; Gray, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) represents a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Computer calculations have been used to simplify the evaluation of problems associated with the applications of the CRE-system in radiotherapy. In a general appraisal of the applications of computers to the CRE-system, the various problems encountered in clinical radiotherapy have been categorised into those involving the evaluation of a CRE at a point in tissue and those involving the calculation of CRE distributions. As a general guide, the computer techniques adopted at the Glasgow Institute of Radiotherapeutics for the solution of CRE problems are presented, and consist basically of a package of three interactive programs for point CRE calculations and a Fortran program which calculates CRE distributions for iso-effect treatment planning. Many examples are given to demonstrate the applications of these programs, and special emphasis has been laid on the problem of treating a point in tissue with different doses per fraction on alternate treatment days. The wide range of possible clinical applications of the CRE-system has been outlined and described under the categories of routine clinical applications, retrospective and prospective surveys of patient treatment, and experimental and theoretical research. Some of these applications such as the results of surveys and studies of time optimisation of treatment schedules could have far-reaching consequences and lead to significant improvements in treatment and cure rates with the minimum damage to normal tissue. (author)

  20. Secant cumulants and toric geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michalek, M.; Oeding, L.; Zwiernik, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    We study the secant line variety of the Segre product of projective spaces using special cumulant coordinates adapted for secant varieties. We show that the secant variety is covered by open normal toric varieties. We prove that in cumulant coordinates its ideal is generated by binomial quadrics. We

  1. Initial report on drilling into seismogenic zones of M2.0 - M5.5 earthquakes from deep South African gold mines (DSeis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Hiroshi; Durrheim, Raymond; Yabe, Yasuo; Ito, Takatoshi; van Aswegen, Gerrie; Grobbelaar, Michelle; Funato, Akio; Ishida, Akimasa; Ogasawara, Hiroyuki; Mngadi, Siyanda; Manzi, Musa; Ziegler, Martin; Ward, Tony; Moyer, Pamela; Boettcher, Margaret; Ellsworth, Bill; Liebenberg, Bennie; Wechsler, Neta; Onstott, Tullis; Berset, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) approved our proposal (Ogasawara et al., EGU 2016) to drill into and around seismogenic zones where critically stressed faults initiated ruptures at depth. The drilling targets include four ruptures equivalent to M2.0, 2.8, 3.5, and 5.5 that dynamically and quasi-statically evolved in 2.9 Ga hard rock in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa. Major advantages of our drilling locations are the large quantity and high-quality of existing data from dense seismic arrays both on surface and near-field underground in three deep South African gold mines. Additionally, the great depths (1.0 to 3.3 km from surface) to collar holes reduce drilling costs significantly and enable a larger number of holes to be drilled. Flexibility in drilling direction will also allow us to minimize damage in borehole or drilled cores. With the ICDP funds, we will conduct full-core drilling of 16 holes with drilling ranges from 50 to 750 m to recover both materials and fractures in and around the seismogenic zones, followed by core and borehole logging. Additional in-hole monitoring at close proximity will be supported by co-mingled funds and will follow the ICDP drilling. Expected magnitudes of maximum shear stress are several tens of MPa. We have established an overcoring procedure to measure 3D-stress state for adverse underground working conditions so as not to interfere with mining operations. This procedure was optimized based on the Compact Conic-ended Borehole Overcoring (CCBO) technique (ISRM suggested; Sugawara and Obara, 1999). Funato and Ito (2016 IJRMMS) developed a diametrical core deformation analysis (DCDA) method to measure differential stress using only drilled core by assuming diametrical change with roll angles caused by elastic in-axisymmetrical expansion during drilling. A gold mine has already drilled a hole to intersect the hypocenter of a 2016 M3.5 earthquake and carried out the CCBO stress measurement in

  2. The challenge of cumulative impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masden, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    Full text: As governments pledge to combat climate change, wind turbines are becoming a common feature of terrestrial and marine environments. Although wind power is a renewable energy source and a means of reducing carbon emissions, there is a need to ensure that the wind farms themselves do not damage the environment. There is particular concern over the impacts of wind farms on bird populations, and with increasing numbers of wind farm proposals, the concern focuses on cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any activity/action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. Cumulative impact assessment is a legislative requirement of environmental impact assessment but such assessments are rarely adequate restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Reasons for this are numerous but a recurring theme is the lack of clear definitions and guidance on how to perform cumulative assessments. Here we present a conceptual framework and include illustrative examples to demonstrate how the framework can be used to improve the planning and execution of cumulative impact assessments. The core concept is that explicit definitions of impacts, actions and scales of assessment are required to reduce uncertainty in the process of assessment and improve communication between stake holders. Only when it is clear what has been included within a cumulative assessment, is it possible to make comparisons between developments. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development assessments. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating cumulative

  3. Cumulative risk, cumulative outcome: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Atkinson

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk (CR models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO. We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6 explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20. The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a "mediated net of adversity" model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes.

  4. Weeding method and pre-sowing tillage effects on weed growth and pearl millet yield in a sandy soil of the West African Sahelian zone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaij, M.C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    Weed control for the West African Sahel rainfed crops is done mainly manually, resulting in high labor requirements. Because of the seasonality of rainfed farming, weed control is often late and incomplete, resulting in considerable losses in crop yield. We examined the case of weed control in

  5. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  6. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Statement to Second Conference of States Parties to African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty, 12 November 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    It is a great pleasure for me to address this Second Conference of States Parties to the Treaty of Pelindaba. I compliment the countries of Africa for their tenacity in pursuing the goal of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone for decades, until the Treaty finally entered into force in 2009. Nuclear-weapon-free zones are a highly effective means of non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament. The five nuclear-weapon-free zones in existence today cover a total of 113 countries. Each has its own special characteristics, but they also have many important elements in common. All nuclear-weapon-free zones prohibit the development, stationing or testing of nuclear weapons in their respective regions. They all cover large inhabited areas. They provide for IAEA verification of the non-diversion of nuclear material. Nuclear-weapon-free zones have brought real security benefits, both regionally and to the whole world. The Treaty of Pelindaba incorporates a number of special features, including some measures which go beyond undertakings assumed by States Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) . For example, it makes provision for the dismantling and destruction of nuclear explosive devices manufactured by a Party to the Treaty before the Treaty entered into force. It prohibits attacks on nuclear installations in the nuclear-weapon-free zone. It bars the dumping of radioactive waste within the zone. In addition, the Treaty of Pelindaba contains a commitment to promote the use of nuclear science and technology for economic and social development. Parties are encouraged to make use of the assistance of the IAEA. They also pledge to maintain the highest standards of security and physical protection of nuclear material, facilities and equipment. In the Preamble to the Treaty, the Parties recognise that the establishment of other nuclear-weapon-free zones, especially in the Middle East, would enhance their security. Last November, I hosted an

  8. 32 CFR 651.16 - Cumulative impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cumulative impacts. 651.16 Section 651.16... § 651.16 Cumulative impacts. (a) NEPA analyses must assess cumulative effects, which are the impact on the environment resulting from the incremental impact of the action when added to other past, present...

  9. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The challenges and opportunities in cumulative effects assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Melissa M., E-mail: mfoley@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, 400 Natural Bridges, Dr., Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, 99 Pacific St., Monterey, CA 93940 (United States); Mease, Lindley A., E-mail: lamease@stanford.edu [Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, 473 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Martone, Rebecca G., E-mail: rmartone@stanford.edu [Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, 99 Pacific St., Monterey, CA 93940 (United States); Prahler, Erin E. [Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, 473 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Morrison, Tiffany H., E-mail: tiffany.morrison@jcu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811 (Australia); Murray, Cathryn Clarke, E-mail: cmurray@pices.int [WWF-Canada, 409 Granville Street, Suite 1588, Vancouver, BC V6C 1T2 (Canada); Wojcik, Deborah, E-mail: deb.wojcik@duke.edu [Nicholas School for the Environment, Duke University, 9 Circuit Dr., Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The cumulative effects of increasing human use of the ocean and coastal zone have contributed to a rapid decline in ocean and coastal resources. As a result, scientists are investigating how multiple, overlapping stressors accumulate in the environment and impact ecosystems. These investigations are the foundation for the development of new tools that account for and predict cumulative effects in order to more adequately prevent or mitigate negative effects. Despite scientific advances, legal requirements, and management guidance, those who conduct assessments—including resource managers, agency staff, and consultants—continue to struggle to thoroughly evaluate cumulative effects, particularly as part of the environmental assessment process. Even though 45 years have passed since the United States National Environmental Policy Act was enacted, which set a precedent for environmental assessment around the world, defining impacts, baseline, scale, and significance are still major challenges associated with assessing cumulative effects. In addition, we know little about how practitioners tackle these challenges or how assessment aligns with current scientific recommendations. To shed more light on these challenges and gaps, we undertook a comparative study on how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is conducted by practitioners operating under some of the most well-developed environmental laws around the globe: California, USA; British Columbia, Canada; Queensland, Australia; and New Zealand. We found that practitioners used a broad and varied definition of impact for CEA, which led to differences in how baseline, scale, and significance were determined. We also found that practice and science are not closely aligned and, as such, we highlight opportunities for managers, policy makers, practitioners, and scientists to improve environmental assessment.

  11. The challenges and opportunities in cumulative effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Mease, Lindley A.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Prahler, Erin E.; Morrison, Tiffany H.; Murray, Cathryn Clarke; Wojcik, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The cumulative effects of increasing human use of the ocean and coastal zone have contributed to a rapid decline in ocean and coastal resources. As a result, scientists are investigating how multiple, overlapping stressors accumulate in the environment and impact ecosystems. These investigations are the foundation for the development of new tools that account for and predict cumulative effects in order to more adequately prevent or mitigate negative effects. Despite scientific advances, legal requirements, and management guidance, those who conduct assessments—including resource managers, agency staff, and consultants—continue to struggle to thoroughly evaluate cumulative effects, particularly as part of the environmental assessment process. Even though 45 years have passed since the United States National Environmental Policy Act was enacted, which set a precedent for environmental assessment around the world, defining impacts, baseline, scale, and significance are still major challenges associated with assessing cumulative effects. In addition, we know little about how practitioners tackle these challenges or how assessment aligns with current scientific recommendations. To shed more light on these challenges and gaps, we undertook a comparative study on how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is conducted by practitioners operating under some of the most well-developed environmental laws around the globe: California, USA; British Columbia, Canada; Queensland, Australia; and New Zealand. We found that practitioners used a broad and varied definition of impact for CEA, which led to differences in how baseline, scale, and significance were determined. We also found that practice and science are not closely aligned and, as such, we highlight opportunities for managers, policy makers, practitioners, and scientists to improve environmental assessment.

  12. The challenges and opportunities in cumulative effects assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Mease, Lindley A; Martone, Rebecca G; Prahler, Erin E; Morrison, Tiffany H; Clarke Murray, Cathryn; Wojcik, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The cumulative effects of increasing human use of the ocean and coastal zone have contributed to a rapid decline in ocean and coastal resources. As a result, scientists are investigating how multiple, overlapping stressors accumulate in the environment and impact ecosystems. These investigations are the foundation for the development of new tools that account for and predict cumulative effects in order to more adequately prevent or mitigate negative effects. Despite scientific advances, legal requirements, and management guidance, those who conduct assessments—including resource managers, agency staff, and consultants—continue to struggle to thoroughly evaluate cumulative effects, particularly as part of the environmental assessment process. Even though 45 years have passed since the United States National Environmental Policy Act was enacted, which set a precedent for environmental assessment around the world, defining impacts, baseline, scale, and significance are still major challenges associated with assessing cumulative effects. In addition, we know little about how practitioners tackle these challenges or how assessment aligns with current scientific recommendations. To shed more light on these challenges and gaps, we undertook a comparative study on how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is conducted by practitioners operating under some of the most well-developed environmental laws around the globe: California, USA; British Columbia, Canada; Queensland, Australia; and New Zealand. We found that practitioners used a broad and varied definition of impact for CEA, which led to differences in how baseline, scale, and significance were determined. We also found that practice and science are not closely aligned and, as such, we highlight opportunities for managers, policy makers, practitioners, and scientists to improve environmental assessment.

  13. The DSeis Project: Drilling into Seismogenic zones of M2.0 to M5.5 earthquakes in South African gold mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Y.; Ogasawara, H.; Ito, T.; van Aswegen, G.; Durrheim, R. J.; Cichowicz, A.; Onstott, T. C.; Kieft, T. L.; Boettcher, M. S.; Wiemer, S.; Ziegler, M.; Shapiro, S. A.; Gupta, H. K.; Dight, P.

    2017-12-01

    The DSeis project under ICDP consists of drilling in three mines; MK, TT and C4 mines. Common scientific targets among them are the stress state and the microstructure in the seismogenic zone. In addition to these targets, specific targets in individual mines are detailed below. A M5.5 earthquake occurred beneath the MK mine on 5 August 2014. The hypocenter of this event was 5km depth from the surface. In contrast to the normal faulting of induced earthquakes in mining horizons (planned to evaluate how much is a ratio of microseismicity associated with creation of new fractures. In the C4 mine, there was the site of a previous project, in which the microseismicity monitoring and the stress measurement by the CCBO technique were carried out. A M2.8 earthquake occurred 1 year after the CCBO and its hypocenter was only 100m away from the CCBO site. Due to little mining activity in the source region, the stress state just after the M2.8 event should be preserved. We will measure the stress again. Damage zones that evolved quasi-statically were seen by the microseismicity monitoring. Drilling into these zones would provide a clue to see a difference between faults evolved dynamically and quasi-statically.

  14. Cumulative trauma disorders: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zaheen A; Alghadir, Ahmad H

    2017-08-03

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) is a term for various injuries of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that are caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression or sustained postures. Although there are many studies citing incidence of CTDs, there are fewer articles about its etiology, pathology and management. The aim of our study was to discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, prevention and management of CTDs. A literature search was performed using various electronic databases. The search was limited to articles in English language pertaining to randomized clinical trials, cohort studies and systematic reviews of CTDs. A total of 180 papers were identified to be relevant published since 1959. Out of these, 125 papers reported about its incidence and 50 about its conservative treatment. Workplace environment, same task repeatability and little variability, decreased time for rest, increase in expectations are major factors for developing CTDs. Prevention of its etiology and early diagnosis can be the best to decrease its incidence and severity. For effective management of CTDs, its treatment should be divided into Primordial, Primary, Secondary and Tertiary prevention.

  15. Complete cumulative index (1963-1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This complete cumulative index covers all regular and special issues and supplements published by Atomic Energy Review (AER) during its lifetime (1963-1983). The complete cumulative index consists of six Indexes: the Index of Abstracts, the Subject Index, the Title Index, the Author Index, the Country Index and the Table of Elements Index. The complete cumulative index supersedes the Cumulative Indexes for Volumes 1-7: 1963-1969 (1970), and for Volumes 1-10: 1963-1972 (1972); this Index also finalizes Atomic Energy Review, the publication of which has recently been terminated by the IAEA

  16. Biomass burning in West African savannas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menaut, J.C.; Abbadie, L.; Lavenu, F.; Loudjani, P.; Podaire, A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter approaches the influence of West African savanna ecosystems on the regional climate by giving, as precisely as possible, the amount of volatilized elements (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) annually released by bush fires into the atmosphere. In spite of the relative functional similarity of West African savannas, fire behavior and effects vary with the different bioclimatic and phytogeographic zones of the region: Guinea or humid zone; Sudan or mesic zone; and, Sahel or arid zone. In order to reach an acceptable accuracy, results are given for each of the zones described and summarized for West Africa

  17. System-Reliability Cumulative-Binomial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, NEWTONP, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. NEWTONP, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Program finds probability required to yield given system reliability. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Program written in C.

  18. Common-Reliability Cumulative-Binomial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest, M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CROSSER, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CROSSER, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and NEWTONP (NPO-17556), used independently of one another. Point of equality between reliability of system and common reliability of components found. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Program written in C.

  19. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...

  20. Cumulative Student Loan Debt in Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wyche, Shaun

    2016-01-01

    To better understand student debt in Minnesota, the Minnesota Office of Higher Education (the Office) gathers information on cumulative student loan debt from Minnesota degree-granting institutions. These data detail the number of students with loans by institution, the cumulative student loan debt incurred at that institution, and the percentage…

  1. Options for Tsetse Eradication in the Moist Savannah Zone of West Africa: Technical and Economic Feasibility, Phase 1 - GIS-Based Study. Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This desk study was initiated with two objectives: - To examine the economic costs and benefits of a range of different sized tsetse eradication projects in the Moist Savannah Zone of West Africa (MSZ), and; - To test the hypothesis that larger tsetse control projects are more economically efficient than smaller projects in that region. The limited nature of the study precluded detailed examination of the socio-cultural and environmental issues relating to controlling trypanosomosis although these are briefly considered; nor did it aim to compare vector control with other methods of combating trypanosomosis such as the therapeutic or prophylactic use of drugs. However, by computing benefits over just 10 years an indirect comparison is made with the strategy that maintains that eradicating tsetse flies is not justified as, sooner or later, rapidly increasing population pressure will autonomously eradicate tsetse flies and hence trypanosomosis. This analysis suggests that such a strategy is not justified economically. As the basis of the economic evaluation was a study of projects in defined areas it was first necessary to iteratively examine the technical and economic issues relating to project selection and design. In this respect, the re-invasion issue was considered to be the major influence as it threatens both the sustainability and economic performance of tsetse eradication. Consequently, it was considered that the river basin was the smallest size of project that would optimise economic performance. This particular observation relates uniquely to the MSZ and may not apply to more southerly areas where fly distribution is more ubiquitous or to other parts of Africa. By basing the economic analysis on an evaluation of projects, albeit hypothetical, it was possible to use real data as the baseline database and the projects could be designed in response to actual tsetse and trypanosomosis scenarios. The group of study areas were chosen to be representative of the

  2. THE ORIGINS OF THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN MAMMAL FAUNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Africa can be geographically subdivided into different biotic zones, differing from .... The greater part of the southern African mammal fauna consists of savanna .... spread into southern Africa by way of the Savanna biotic zone.

  3. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  4. The Relationship between Gender, Cumulative Adversities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Relationship between Gender, Cumulative Adversities and Mental Health of Employees in ... CAs were measured in three forms (family adversities (CAFam), personal adversities ... Age of employees ranged between 18-65 years.

  5. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children’s learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission—the cornerstone of human cultural diversity. PMID:28739945

  6. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querbes, A.; Vaesen, K.; Houkes, W.N.

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological

  7. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Halpern, Benjamin S; Breed, Greg A; Nickel, Barry; Teutschel, Nicole M; Crowder, Larry B; Benson, Scott; Dutton, Peter H; Bailey, Helen; Kappes, Michelle A; Kuhn, Carey E; Weise, Michael J; Mate, Bruce; Shaffer, Scott A; Hassrick, Jason L; Henry, Robert W; Irvine, Ladd; McDonald, Birgitte I; Robinson, Patrick W; Block, Barbara A; Costa, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact (CUI) on marine predators by combining electronic tracking data of eight protected predator species (n=685 individuals) in the California Current Ecosystem with data on 24 anthropogenic stressors. We show significant variation in CUI with some of the highest impacts within US National Marine Sanctuaries. High variation in underlying species and cumulative impact distributions means that neither alone is sufficient for effective spatial management. Instead, comprehensive management approaches accounting for both cumulative human impacts and trade-offs among multiple stressors must be applied in planning the use of marine resources.

  8. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  9. Calculating Cumulative Binomial-Distribution Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CUMBIN, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Reliabilities and availabilities of k-out-of-n systems analyzed. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Used for calculations of reliability and availability. Program written in C.

  10. About the cumulants of periodic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrau, Axel; El Badaoui, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    This note studies cumulants of time series. These functions originating from the probability theory being commonly used as features of deterministic signals, their classical properties are examined in this modified framework. We show additivity of cumulants, ensured in the case of independent random variables, requires here a different hypothesis. Practical applications are proposed, in particular an analysis of the failure of the JADE algorithm to separate some specific periodic signals.

  11. Cumulative effects assessment: Does scale matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therivel, Riki; Ross, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is (or should be) an integral part of environmental assessment at both the project and the more strategic level. CEA helps to link the different scales of environmental assessment in that it focuses on how a given receptor is affected by the totality of plans, projects and activities, rather than on the effects of a particular plan or project. This article reviews how CEAs consider, and could consider, scale issues: spatial extent, level of detail, and temporal issues. It is based on an analysis of Canadian project-level CEAs and UK strategic-level CEAs. Based on a review of literature and, especially, case studies with which the authors are familiar, it concludes that scale issues are poorly considered at both levels, with particular problems being unclear or non-existing cumulative effects scoping methodologies; poor consideration of past or likely future human activities beyond the plan or project in question; attempts to apportion 'blame' for cumulative effects; and, at the plan level, limited management of cumulative effects caused particularly by the absence of consent regimes. Scale issues are important in most of these problems. However both strategic-level and project-level CEA have much potential for managing cumulative effects through better siting and phasing of development, demand reduction and other behavioural changes, and particularly through setting development consent rules for projects. The lack of strategic resource-based thresholds constrains the robust management of strategic-level cumulative effects

  12. Cumulative Socioeconomic Status Risk, Allostatic Load, and Adjustment: A Prospective Latent Profile Analysis with Contextual and Genetic Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Evans, Gary W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Windle, Michael; Simons, Ronald L.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The health disparities literature has identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental…

  13. African Anthropologist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... It provides a forum for African and Africanist anthropologists to publish research reports, articles, book ... A Qualitative Exploration · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. [Assessment on the ecological suitability in Zhuhai City, Guangdong, China, based on minimum cumulative resistance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-fei; Li, Lin; Guo, Luo; Du, Shi-hong

    2016-01-01

    Urban landscape has the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity. Because the expansion process of urban constructive or ecological land has different resistance values, the land unit stimulates and promotes the expansion of ecological land with different intensity. To compare the effect of promoting and hindering functions in the same land unit, we firstly compared the minimum cumulative resistance value of promoting and hindering functions, and then looked for the balance of two landscape processes under the same standard. According to the ecology principle of minimum limit factor, taking the minimum cumulative resistance analysis method under two expansion processes as the evaluation method of urban land ecological suitability, this research took Zhuhai City as the study area to estimate urban ecological suitability by relative evaluation method with remote sensing image, field survey, and statistics data. With the support of ArcGIS, five types of indicators on landscape types, ecological value, soil erosion sensitivity, sensitivity of geological disasters, and ecological function were selected as input parameters in the minimum cumulative resistance model to compute urban ecological suitability. The results showed that the ecological suitability of the whole Zhuhai City was divided into five levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (10.1%), constructive expansion restricted zone (32.9%), key construction zone (36.3%), priority development zone (2.3%), and basic cropland (18.4%). Ecological suitability of the central area of Zhuhai City was divided into four levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (11.6%), constructive expansion restricted zone (25.6%), key construction zone (52.4%), priority development zone (10.4%). Finally, we put forward the sustainable development framework of Zhuhai City according to the research conclusion. On one hand, the government should strictly control the development of the urban center area. On the other hand, the

  15. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability: Marginal and Cause-Specific Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2005-01-01

    cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling......cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling...

  16. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  17. Managing cumulative impacts: A key to sustainability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    This paper addresses how science can be more effectively used in creating policy to manage cumulative effects on ecosystems. The paper focuses on the scientific techniques that we have to identify and to assess cumulative impacts on ecosystems. The term ``sustainable development`` was brought into common use by the World Commission on Environment and Development (The Brundtland Commission) in 1987. The Brundtland Commission report highlighted the need to simultaneously address developmental and environmental imperatives simultaneously by calling for development that ``meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations.`` We cannot claim to be working toward sustainable development until we can quantitatively assess cumulative impacts on the environment: The two concepts are inextricibally linked in that the elusiveness of cumulative effects likely has the greatest potential of keeping us from achieving sustainability. In this paper, assessment and management frameworks relevant to cumulative impacts are discussed along with recent literature on how to improve such assessments. When possible, examples are given for marine ecosystems.

  18. Perspectives on cumulative risks and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, John B

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative risks and impacts have taken on different meanings in different regulatory and programmatic contexts at federal and state government levels. Traditional risk assessment methodologies, with considerable limitations, can provide a framework for the evaluation of cumulative risks from chemicals. Under an environmental justice program in California, cumulative impacts are defined to include exposures, public health effects, or environmental effects in a geographic area from the emission or discharge of environmental pollution from all sources, through all media. Furthermore, the evaluation of these effects should take into account sensitive populations and socioeconomic factors where possible and to the extent data are available. Key aspects to this potential approach include the consideration of exposures (versus risk), socioeconomic factors, the geographic or community-level assessment scale, and the inclusion of not only health effects but also environmental effects as contributors to impact. Assessments of this type extend the boundaries of the types of information that toxicologists generally provide for risk management decisions.

  19. Cumulative processes and quark distribution in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.; Shmatikov, M.

    1984-01-01

    Assuming existence of multiquark (mainly 12q) bags in nuclei the spectra of cumulative nucleons and mesons produced in high-energy particle-nucleus collisions are discussed. The exponential form of quark momentum distribution in 12q-bag (agreeing well with the experimental data on lepton-nucleus interactions at large q 2 ) is shown to result in quasi-exponential distribution of cumulative particles over the light-cone variable αsub(B). The dependence of f(αsub(B); psub(perpendicular)) (where psub(perpendicular) is the transverse momentum of the bag) upon psub(perpendicular) is considered. The yields of cumulative resonances as well as effects related to the u- and d-quark distributions in N > Z nuclei being different are dicscussed

  20. African Journals Online: African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 56 of 56 ... Research Review of the Institute of African Studies. Please note: As of 2013 the Research Review of the Institute of African Studies is now publishing under the title Contemporary Journal of African Studies. You can view the CJAS pages on AJOL here: http://www.ajol.info/index.php/contjas/index.

  1. Ratcheting up the ratchet: on the evolution of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-08-27

    Some researchers have claimed that chimpanzee and human culture rest on homologous cognitive and learning mechanisms. While clearly there are some homologous mechanisms, we argue here that there are some different mechanisms at work as well. Chimpanzee cultural traditions represent behavioural biases of different populations, all within the species' existing cognitive repertoire (what we call the 'zone of latent solutions') that are generated by founder effects, individual learning and mostly product-oriented (rather than process-oriented) copying. Human culture, in contrast, has the distinctive characteristic that it accumulates modifications over time (what we call the 'ratchet effect'). This difference results from the facts that (i) human social learning is more oriented towards process than product and (ii) unique forms of human cooperation lead to active teaching, social motivations for conformity and normative sanctions against non-conformity. Together, these unique processes of social learning and cooperation lead to humans' unique form of cumulative cultural evolution.

  2. Ratcheting up the ratchet: on the evolution of cumulative culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Some researchers have claimed that chimpanzee and human culture rest on homologous cognitive and learning mechanisms. While clearly there are some homologous mechanisms, we argue here that there are some different mechanisms at work as well. Chimpanzee cultural traditions represent behavioural biases of different populations, all within the species’ existing cognitive repertoire (what we call the ‘zone of latent solutions’) that are generated by founder effects, individual learning and mostly product-oriented (rather than process-oriented) copying. Human culture, in contrast, has the distinctive characteristic that it accumulates modifications over time (what we call the ‘ratchet effect’). This difference results from the facts that (i) human social learning is more oriented towards process than product and (ii) unique forms of human cooperation lead to active teaching, social motivations for conformity and normative sanctions against non-conformity. Together, these unique processes of social learning and cooperation lead to humans’ unique form of cumulative cultural evolution. PMID:19620111

  3. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  4. EXAFS cumulants of CdSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diop, D.

    1997-04-01

    EXAFS functions had been extracted from measurements on the K edge of Se at different temperatures between 20 and 300 K. The analysis of the EXAFS of the filtered first two shells has been done in the wavevector range laying between 2 and 15.5 A -1 in terms of the cumulants of the effective distribution of distances. The cumulants C 3 and C 4 obtained from the phase difference and the amplitude ratio methods have shown the anharmonicity in the vibrations of atoms around their equilibrium position. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs

  5. Cumulative effects of wind turbines. A guide to assessing the cumulative effects of wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This guidance provides advice on how to assess the cumulative effects of wind energy developments in an area and is aimed at developers, planners, and stakeholders interested in the development of wind energy in the UK. The principles of cumulative assessment, wind energy development in the UK, cumulative assessment of wind energy development, and best practice conclusions are discussed. The identification and assessment of the cumulative effects is examined in terms of global environmental sustainability, local environmental quality and socio-economic activity. Supplementary guidance for assessing the principle cumulative effects on the landscape, on birds, and on the visual effect is provided. The consensus building approach behind the preparation of this guidance is outlined in the annexes of the report.

  6. Multiparty correlation measure based on the cumulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D. L.; Zeng, B.; Xu, Z.; You, L.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a genuine multiparty correlation measure for a multiparty quantum system as the trace norm of the cumulant of the state. The legitimacy of our multiparty correlation measure is explicitly demonstrated by proving it satisfies the five basic conditions required for a correlation measure. As an application we construct an efficient algorithm for the calculation of our measures for all stabilizer states

  7. Decision analysis with cumulative prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumi, A M; Redelmeier, D A

    2000-01-01

    Individuals sometimes express preferences that do not follow expected utility theory. Cumulative prospect theory adjusts for some phenomena by using decision weights rather than probabilities when analyzing a decision tree. The authors examined how probability transformations from cumulative prospect theory might alter a decision analysis of a prophylactic therapy in AIDS, eliciting utilities from patients with HIV infection (n = 75) and calculating expected outcomes using an established Markov model. They next focused on transformations of three sets of probabilities: 1) the probabilities used in calculating standard-gamble utility scores; 2) the probabilities of being in discrete Markov states; 3) the probabilities of transitioning between Markov states. The same prophylaxis strategy yielded the highest quality-adjusted survival under all transformations. For the average patient, prophylaxis appeared relatively less advantageous when standard-gamble utilities were transformed. Prophylaxis appeared relatively more advantageous when state probabilities were transformed and relatively less advantageous when transition probabilities were transformed. Transforming standard-gamble and transition probabilities simultaneously decreased the gain from prophylaxis by almost half. Sensitivity analysis indicated that even near-linear probability weighting transformations could substantially alter quality-adjusted survival estimates. The magnitude of benefit estimated in a decision-analytic model can change significantly after using cumulative prospect theory. Incorporating cumulative prospect theory into decision analysis can provide a form of sensitivity analysis and may help describe when people deviate from expected utility theory.

  8. Cumulative watershed effects: a research perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1989-01-01

    A cumulative watershed effect (CWE) is any response to multiple land-use activities that is caused by, or results in, altered watershed function. The CWE issue is politically defined, as is the significance of particular impacts. But the processes generating CWEs are the traditional focus of geomorphology and ecology, and have thus been studied for decades. The CWE...

  9. Study on the cumulative impact of reclamation activities on ecosystem health in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chengcheng; Shi, Honghua; Zheng, Wei; Li, Fen; Peng, Shitao; Ding, Dewen

    2016-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop feasible tools to investigate the cumulative impact of reclamations on coastal ecosystem health, so that the strategies of ecosystem-based management can be applied in the coastal zone. An indicator system and model were proposed to assess the cumulative impact synthetically. Two coastal water bodies, namely Laizhou Bay (LZB) and Tianjin coastal waters (TCW), in the Bohai Sea of China were studied and compared, each in a different phase of reclamations. Case studies showed that the indicator scores of coastal ecosystem health in LZB and TCW were 0.75 and 0.68 out of 1.0, respectively. It can be concluded that coastal reclamations have a historically cumulative effect on benthic environment, whose degree is larger than that on aquatic environment. The ecosystem-based management of coastal reclamations should emphasize the spatially and industrially intensive layout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An evaluation paradigm for cumulative impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakhiv, Eugene Z.

    1988-09-01

    Cumulative impact analysis is examined from a conceptual decision-making perspective, focusing on its implicit and explicit purposes as suggested within the policy and procedures for environmental impact analysis of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and its implementing regulations. In this article it is also linked to different evaluation and decision-making conventions, contrasting a regulatory context with a comprehensive planning framework. The specific problems that make the application of cumulative impact analysis a virtually intractable evaluation requirement are discussed in connection with the federal regulation of wetlands uses. The relatively familiar US Army Corps of Engineers' (the Corps) permit program, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) responsibilities in managing its share of the Section 404 regulatory program requirements, is used throughout as the realistic context for highlighting certain pragmatic evaluation aspects of cumulative impact assessment. To understand the purposes of cumulative impact analysis (CIA), a key distinction must be made between the implied comprehensive and multiobjective evaluation purposes of CIA, promoted through the principles and policies contained in NEPA, and the more commonly conducted and limited assessment of cumulative effects (ACE), which focuses largely on the ecological effects of human actions. Based on current evaluation practices within the Corps' and EPA's permit programs, it is shown that the commonly used screening approach to regulating wetlands uses is not compatible with the purposes of CIA, nor is the environmental impact statement (EIS) an appropriate vehicle for evaluating the variety of objectives and trade-offs needed as part of CIA. A heuristic model that incorporates the basic elements of CIA is developed, including the idea of trade-offs among social, economic, and environmental protection goals carried out within the context of environmental

  11. Cumulative environmental impacts and integrated coastal management: the case of Xiamen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiongzhi; Hong, Huasheng; Charles, Anthony T

    2004-07-01

    This paper examines the assessment of cumulative environmental impacts and the implementation of integrated coastal management within the harbour of Xiamen, China, an urban region in which the coastal zone is under increasing pressure as a result of very rapid economic growth. The first stage of analysis incorporates components of a cumulative effects assessment, including (a) identification of sources of environmental impacts, notably industrial expansion, port development, shipping, waste disposal, aquaculture and coastal construction, (b) selection of a set of valued ecosystem components, focusing on circulation and siltation, water quality, sediment, the benthic community, and mangrove forests, and (c) use of a set of key indicators to examine cumulative impacts arising from the aggregate of human activities. In the second stage of analysis, the paper describes and assesses the development of an institutional framework for integrated coastal management in Xiamen, one that combines policy and planning (including legislative and enforcement mechanisms) with scientific and monitoring mechanisms (including an innovative 'marine functional zoning' system). The paper concludes that the integrated coastal management framework in Xiamen has met all relevant requirements for 'integration' as laid out in the literature, and has explicitly incorporated consideration of cumulative impacts within its management and monitoring processes.

  12. Serpentinization and alteration in an olivine cumulate from the Stillwater Complex, Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the olivine cumulates of the Ultramafic zone of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, are progressively altered to serpentine minerals and thompsonite. Lizardite and chrysotile developed in the cumulus olivine and postcumulus pyroxenes; thompsonite developed in postcumulus plagioclase. The detailed mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry indicate that olivine and plagioclase react to form the alteration products, except for H2O, without changes in the bulk composition of the rocks. ?? 1976 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Any limit on future global warming is associated with a quota on cumulative global CO 2 emissions. We translate this global carbon quota to regional and national scales, on a spectrum of sharing principles that extends from continuation of the present distribution of emissions to an equal per-capita distribution of cumulative emissions. A blend of these endpoints emerges as the most viable option. For a carbon quota consistent with a 2 C warming limit (relative to pre-industrial levels), the necessary long-term mitigation rates are very challenging (typically over 5% per year), both because of strong limits on future emissions from the global carbon quota and also the likely short-term persistence in emissions growth in many regions. (authors)

  14. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querbes, Adrien; Vaesen, Krist; Houkes, Wybo

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  15. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  16. Conceptual models for cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Stephen H; Sexton, Ken

    2011-12-01

    In the absence of scientific consensus on an appropriate theoretical framework, cumulative risk assessment and related research have relied on speculative conceptual models. We argue for the importance of theoretical backing for such models and discuss 3 relevant theoretical frameworks, each supporting a distinctive "family" of models. Social determinant models postulate that unequal health outcomes are caused by structural inequalities; health disparity models envision social and contextual factors acting through individual behaviors and biological mechanisms; and multiple stressor models incorporate environmental agents, emphasizing the intermediary role of these and other stressors. The conclusion is that more careful reliance on established frameworks will lead directly to improvements in characterizing cumulative risk burdens and accounting for disproportionate adverse health effects.

  17. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    State, followed for 8 years (between the ages 9 and 17). Poverty- related stress was computed using the cumulative risk approach, assessing stressors across 9 domains, including environmental, psychosocial, and demographic factors. Allostatic load captured a range of physiological responses, including......Objective: The present study investigated the long-term impact of exposure to poverty-related stressors during childhood on allostatic load, an index of physiological dysregulation, and the potential mediating role of substance use. Method: Participants (n = 162) were rural children from New York...... cardiovascular, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal medullary system, and metabolic activity. Smoking and alcohol/drug use were tested as mediators of the hypothesized childhood risk-adolescent allostatic load relationship. Results: Cumulative risk exposure at age 9 predicted increases...

  18. Fuzzy set theory for cumulative trauma prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Daniel J.; Merritt, Thomas W.; Moynihan, Gary P.

    2001-01-01

    A widely used fuzzy reasoning algorithm was modified and implemented via an expert system to assess the potential risk of employee repetitive strain injury in the workplace. This fuzzy relational model, known as the Priority First Cover Algorithm (PFC), was adapted to describe the relationship between 12 cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) of the upper extremity, and 29 identified risk factors. The algorithm, which finds a suboptimal subset from a group of variables based on the criterion of...

  19. Sikap Kerja Duduk Terhadap Cumulative Trauma Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmawati, Yulita; Sugiharto, -

    2011-01-01

    Permasalahan yang diteliti adalah adakah hubungan antara sikap kerja duduk dengan kejadian Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) pada pekerja bagian pengamplasan di PT. Geromar Jepara. Tujuan yang ingin dicapai adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara sikap kerja duduk dengan kejadian CTD pada pekerja bagian pengamplasan. Metode penelitian ini bersifat explanatory dengan menggunakan pendekatan belah lintang. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah pekerja bagian pengamplasan sebanyak 30 orang. Teknik ...

  20. Power Reactor Docket Information. Annual cumulation (citations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    An annual cumulation of the citations to the documentation associated with civilian nuclear power plants is presented. This material is that which is submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of applications for construction and operating licenses. Citations are listed by Docket number in accession number sequence. The Table of Contents is arranged both by Docket number and by nuclear power plant name

  1. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Olazarán, J.; Trincado, R.; Bermejo-Pareja, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), with control of vascular factors (VFs). Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (n...

  2. Cumulative release to the accessible environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehiro, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Fractional Release Subgroup are presented

  3. African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Zoology, a peer-reviewed research journal, publishes original scientific contributions and critical reviews that focus principally on African fauna in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Research from other regions that advances practical and theoretical aspects of zoology will be considered. Rigorous ...

  4. EPA Workshop on Epigenetics and Cumulative Risk ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenda Download the Workshop Agenda (PDF) The workshop included presentations and discussions by scientific experts pertaining to three topics (i.e., epigenetic changes associated with diverse stressors, key science considerations in understanding epigenetic changes, and practical application of epigenetic tools to address cumulative risks from environmental stressors), to address several questions under each topic, and included an opportunity for attendees to participate in break-out groups, provide comments and ask questions. Workshop Goals The workshop seeks to examine the opportunity for use of aggregate epigenetic change as an indicator in cumulative risk assessment for populations exposed to multiple stressors that affect epigenetic status. Epigenetic changes are specific molecular changes around DNA that alter expression of genes. Epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, formation of histone adducts, and changes in micro RNAs. Research today indicates that epigenetic changes are involved in many chronic diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, mental health disorders, and asthma). Research has also linked a wide range of stressors including pollution and social factors with occurrence of epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic changes have the potential to reflect impacts of risk factors across multiple stages of life. Only recently receiving attention is the nexus between the factors of cumulative exposure to environmental

  5. Higher order cumulants in colorless partonic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherif, S. [Sciences and Technologies Department, University of Ghardaia, Ghardaia, Algiers (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathématiques Appliquées (LPMA), ENS-Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M. A. A. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Taibah University Al-Madinah Al-Mounawwarah KSA (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Taiz University in Turba, Taiz (Yemen); Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathématiques Appliquées (LPMA), ENS-Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Algiers (Algeria); Ladrem, M., E-mail: mladrem@yahoo.fr [Department of Physics, College of Science, Taibah University Al-Madinah Al-Mounawwarah KSA (Saudi Arabia); Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathématiques Appliquées (LPMA), ENS-Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Algiers (Algeria)

    2016-06-10

    Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume T{sub 0}(V), a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the ℒ{sub m,n}-Method is used. We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase transition point. In the context of our model, we have shown that the finite volume transition point is always associated to the appearance of a particular point in whole higher order cumulants under consideration.

  6. Cumulative irritation potential of topical retinoid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, James J; Grossman, Rachel; Nighland, Marge

    2008-08-01

    Localized irritation can limit treatment success with topical retinoids such as tretinoin and adapalene. The factors that influence irritant reactions have been shown to include individual skin sensitivity, the particular retinoid and concentration used, and the vehicle formulation. To compare the cutaneous tolerability of tretinoin 0.04% microsphere gel (TMG) with that of adapalene 0.3% gel and a standard tretinoin 0.025% cream. The results of 2 randomized, investigator-blinded studies of 2 to 3 weeks' duration, which utilized a split-face method to compare cumulative irritation scores induced by topical retinoids in subjects with healthy skin, were combined. Study 1 compared TMG 0.04% with adapalene 0.3% gel over 2 weeks, while study 2 compared TMG 0.04% with tretinoin 0.025% cream over 3 weeks. In study 1, TMG 0.04% was associated with significantly lower cumulative scores for erythema, dryness, and burning/stinging than adapalene 0.3% gel. However, in study 2, there were no significant differences in cumulative irritation scores between TMG 0.04% and tretinoin 0.025% cream. Measurements of erythema by a chromameter showed no significant differences between the test formulations in either study. Cutaneous tolerance of TMG 0.04% on the face was superior to that of adapalene 0.3% gel and similar to that of a standard tretinoin cream containing a lower concentration of the drug (0.025%).

  7. Strengthening African Union for African Integration: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... in the international state system and seek for African initiative in solving African problems. ... of the African Union by examining the efforts of African Leaders towards African integration, ...

  8. Retooling CalEnviroScreen: Cumulative Pollution Burden and Race-Based Environmental Health Vulnerabilities in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The California Community Environmental Health Screening Tool (CalEnviroScreen) advances research and policy pertaining to environmental health vulnerability. However, CalEnviroScreen departs from its historical foundations and comparable screening tools by no longer considering racial status as an indicator of environmental health vulnerability and predictor of cumulative pollution burden. This study used conceptual frameworks and analytical techniques from environmental health and inequality literature to address the limitations of CalEnviroScreen, especially its inattention to race-based environmental health vulnerabilities. It developed an adjusted measure of cumulative pollution burden from the CalEnviroScreen 2.0 data that facilitates multivariate analyses of the effect of neighborhood racial composition on cumulative pollution burden, net of other indicators of population vulnerability, traffic density, industrial zoning, and local and regional clustering of pollution burden. Principal component analyses produced three new measures of population vulnerability, including Latina/o cumulative disadvantage that represents the spatial concentration of Latinas/os, economic disadvantage, limited English-speaking ability, and health vulnerability. Spatial error regression analyses demonstrated that concentrations of Latinas/os, followed by Latina/o cumulative disadvantage, are the strongest demographic determinants of adjusted cumulative pollution burden. Findings have implications for research and policy pertaining to cumulative impacts and race-based environmental health vulnerabilities within and beyond California. PMID:29659481

  9. Retooling CalEnviroScreen: Cumulative Pollution Burden and Race-Based Environmental Health Vulnerabilities in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul S. Liévanos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The California Community Environmental Health Screening Tool (CalEnviroScreen advances research and policy pertaining to environmental health vulnerability. However, CalEnviroScreen departs from its historical foundations and comparable screening tools by no longer considering racial status as an indicator of environmental health vulnerability and predictor of cumulative pollution burden. This study used conceptual frameworks and analytical techniques from environmental health and inequality literature to address the limitations of CalEnviroScreen, especially its inattention to race-based environmental health vulnerabilities. It developed an adjusted measure of cumulative pollution burden from the CalEnviroScreen 2.0 data that facilitates multivariate analyses of the effect of neighborhood racial composition on cumulative pollution burden, net of other indicators of population vulnerability, traffic density, industrial zoning, and local and regional clustering of pollution burden. Principal component analyses produced three new measures of population vulnerability, including Latina/o cumulative disadvantage that represents the spatial concentration of Latinas/os, economic disadvantage, limited English-speaking ability, and health vulnerability. Spatial error regression analyses demonstrated that concentrations of Latinas/os, followed by Latina/o cumulative disadvantage, are the strongest demographic determinants of adjusted cumulative pollution burden. Findings have implications for research and policy pertaining to cumulative impacts and race-based environmental health vulnerabilities within and beyond California.

  10. Retooling CalEnviroScreen: Cumulative Pollution Burden and Race-Based Environmental Health Vulnerabilities in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévanos, Raoul S

    2018-04-16

    The California Community Environmental Health Screening Tool (CalEnviroScreen) advances research and policy pertaining to environmental health vulnerability. However, CalEnviroScreen departs from its historical foundations and comparable screening tools by no longer considering racial status as an indicator of environmental health vulnerability and predictor of cumulative pollution burden. This study used conceptual frameworks and analytical techniques from environmental health and inequality literature to address the limitations of CalEnviroScreen, especially its inattention to race-based environmental health vulnerabilities. It developed an adjusted measure of cumulative pollution burden from the CalEnviroScreen 2.0 data that facilitates multivariate analyses of the effect of neighborhood racial composition on cumulative pollution burden, net of other indicators of population vulnerability, traffic density, industrial zoning, and local and regional clustering of pollution burden. Principal component analyses produced three new measures of population vulnerability, including Latina/o cumulative disadvantage that represents the spatial concentration of Latinas/os, economic disadvantage, limited English-speaking ability, and health vulnerability. Spatial error regression analyses demonstrated that concentrations of Latinas/os, followed by Latina/o cumulative disadvantage, are the strongest demographic determinants of adjusted cumulative pollution burden. Findings have implications for research and policy pertaining to cumulative impacts and race-based environmental health vulnerabilities within and beyond California.

  11. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Min-Tsai Lai

    Shock model; cumulative damage model; cumulative repair cost limit; preventive maintenance model. 1. Introduction ... with two types of shocks: one type is failure shock, and the other type is damage ...... Theory, methods and applications.

  12. On interference of cumulative proton production mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.A.; Vechernin, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamical picture of the cumulative proton production in hA-collisions by means of diagram analysis with NN interaction described by a non-relativistic NN potential is considered. The contributions of the various mechanisms (spectator, direct and rescattering) for backward hemisphere proton production within the framework of this common approach is calculated. The emphasis is on the comparison of the relative contributions of these mechanisms for various angles, taking into account the interference of these contributions. Comparison with experimental data is also presented. (author)

  13. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  14. Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    was to investigate an association between exposure to pyrethroids and abnormal glucose regulation (prediabetes or diabetes). A cross-sectional study was performed among 116 pesticide sprayers from public vector control programs in Bolivia and 92 nonexposed controls. Pesticide exposure (duration, intensity...... pyrethroids, a significant positive trend was observed between cumulative pesticide exposure (total number of hours sprayed) and adjusted OR of abnormal glucose regulation, with OR 14.7 [0.9-235] in the third exposure quintile. The study found a severely increased prevalence of prediabetes among Bolivian...

  15. Chapter 19. Cumulative watershed effects and watershed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid

    1998-01-01

    Cumulative watershed effects are environmental changes that are affected by more than.one land-use activity and that are influenced by.processes involving the generation or transport.of water. Almost all environmental changes are.cumulative effects, and almost all land-use.activities contribute to cumulative effects

  16. Original and cumulative prospect theory: a discussion of empirical differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Fennema, H.

    1997-01-01

    This note discusses differences between prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory. It shows that cumulative prospect theory is not merely a formal correction of some theoretical problems in prospect theory, but it also gives different predictions. Experiments are described that favor cumulative

  17. Cumulative Environmental Management Association : Wood Buffalo Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, B.

    2001-01-01

    The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs

  18. CEAMF study, volume 2 : cumulative effects indicators, thresholds, and case studies : final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The four types of cumulative effects on the environment are: alteration, loss, and fragmentation of habitat; disturbance; barriers to movement; and direct and indirect mortality. Defining where and how human activities can be continued without irreversible net harm to the environment is part of cumulative effects management. Various land-use and habitat indicators were tested in the Blueberry and Sukunka study areas of British Columbia, to address the environmental effects associated with oil and gas development. As recommended, a tiered threshold approach was used to allow for flexibility in different land management regimes and ecological settings. Success will depend on defining acceptable change, threshold values, standard public database, standard processes to calculate indicator values using the database, and project-specific and cooperative management actions. A pilot study was suggested to test the candidate thresholds and implementation process. The two areas proposed for consideration were the Jedney Enhanced Resource Development Resource Management Zone in the Fort St. John Forest District, and the Etsho Enhanced Resource Development Resource Management Zone in the Fort Nelson Forest District. Both are of interest to the petroleum and forest sectors, and support the woodland caribou, a species which is extremely sensitive to cumulative effects of habitat fragmentation and disturbance. 117 refs., 11 tabs., 39 figs.

  19. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest online library of ... AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans ... South African Medical Journal ... Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences.

  20. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  1. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  2. Evolution model with a cumulative feedback coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimper, Steffen; Zabrocki, Knud; Schulz, Michael

    2002-05-01

    The paper is concerned with a toy model that generalizes the standard Lotka-Volterra equation for a certain population by introducing a competition between instantaneous and accumulative, history-dependent nonlinear feedback the origin of which could be a contribution from any kind of mismanagement in the past. The results depend on the sign of that additional cumulative loss or gain term of strength λ. In case of a positive coupling the system offers a maximum gain achieved after a finite time but the population will die out in the long time limit. In this case the instantaneous loss term of strength u is irrelevant and the model exhibits an exact solution. In the opposite case λ<0 the time evolution of the system is terminated in a crash after ts provided u=0. This singularity after a finite time can be avoided if u≠0. The approach may well be of relevance for the qualitative understanding of more realistic descriptions.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Cumulated Ambulation Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferriero, Giorgio; Kristensen, Morten T; Invernizzi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the geriatric population, independent mobility is a key factor in determining readiness for discharge following acute hospitalization. The Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) is a potentially valuable score that allows day-to-day measurements of basic mobility. The CAS was developed...... and validated in older patients with hip fracture as an early postoperative predictor of short-term outcome, but it is also used to assess geriatric in-patients with acute medical illness. Despite the fast- accumulating literature on the CAS, to date no systematic review synthesizing its psychometric properties....... Of 49 studies identified, 17 examined the psychometric properties of the CAS. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Most papers dealt with patients after hip fracture surgery, and only 4 studies assessed the CAS psychometric characteristics also in geriatric in-patients with acute medical illness. Two versions of CAS...

  4. The Alpine loop of the tethys zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmelen, R.W. van

    The Alpine loop in Europe results from semi-autochthonous crustal movements which are restricted to the mobile Tethys zone. Its evolution cannot be explained by a uniform northward drift and push of the African continent; it has to be sought, in the first place, in geodynamic processes occurring in

  5. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. ... Determinants of individual dietary diversity score of children less than five years old in the southern zone of Tigray, ... Value chain and marketing margins of cassava: An assessment of cassava marketing in northern Uganda ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Cumulative radiation dose of multiple trauma patients during their hospitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhikang; Sun Jianzhong; Zhao Zudan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the cumulative radiation dose of multiple trauma patients during their hospitalization and to analyze the dose influence factors. Methods: The DLP for CT and DR were retrospectively collected from the patients during June, 2009 and April, 2011 at a university affiliated hospital. The cumulative radiation doses were calculated by summing typical effective doses of the anatomic regions scanned. Results: The cumulative radiation doses of 113 patients were collected. The maximum,minimum and the mean values of cumulative effective doses were 153.3, 16.48 mSv and (52.3 ± 26.6) mSv. Conclusions: Multiple trauma patients have high cumulative radiation exposure. Therefore, the management of cumulative radiation doses should be enhanced. To establish the individualized radiation exposure archives will be helpful for the clinicians and technicians to make decision whether to image again and how to select the imaging parameters. (authors)

  7. Particularities of Cs-137 accumulation by mushrooms in different zones of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatrova, N.E.; Zarubin, O.L.; Koval', G.N.; Shovkun, N.A.; Ogorodnik, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    The cumulation of Cs-137 by the mushrooms of 30 km zone is more intensively, than on the 'southern' trace. The biggest concentrations are discovered in local mushrooms: Suillus luteus (L.) and Paxillus involutus (Batsch:Fr.)

  8. Petrology and geochemical characteristics of phlogopite pyroxenite related to durbachites, Moldanubian Zone, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trubač, J.; Vrána, S.; Haluzová, Eva; Ackerman, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 73-90 ISSN 1802-6222 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : phlogopite pyroxenite * durbachite * cumulate * Moldanubian Zone Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2015

  9. Integrated environmental zoning - An innovative Dutch approach to measuring and managing environmental spillovers in urban regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, D.; de Roo, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Dutch development of Integrated Environmental Zoning is an advanced effort to account cumulatively for several environmental spillovers from manufacturing, and to manage their impacts on surrounding residential areas. This national policy initiative involves mapping the spatial patterns of

  10. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  11. Cumulative Significance of Hyporheic Exchange and Biogeochemical Processing in River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Biogeochemical reactions in rivers that decrease excessive loads of nutrients, metals, organic compounds, etc. are enhanced by hydrologic interactions with microbially and geochemically active sediments of the hyporheic zone. The significance of reactions in individual hyporheic flow paths has been shown to be controlled by the contact time between river water and sediment and the intrinsic reaction rate in the sediment. However, little is known about how the cumulative effects of hyporheic processing in large river basins. We used the river network model NEXSS (Gomez-Velez and Harvey, submitted) to simulate hyporheic exchange through synthetic river networks based on the best available models of network topology, hydraulic geometry and scaling of geomorphic features, grain size, hydraulic conductivity, and intrinsic reaction rates of nutrients and metals in river sediment. The dimensionless reaction significance factor, RSF (Harvey et al., 2013) was used to quantify the cumulative removal fraction of a reactive solute by hyporheic processing. SF scales reaction progress in a single pass through the hyporheic zone with the proportion of stream discharge passing through the hyporheic zone for a specified distance. Reaction progress is optimal where the intrinsic reaction timescale in sediment matches the residence time of hyporheic flow and is less efficient in longer residence time hyporheic flow as a result of the decreasing proportion of river flow that is processed by longer residence time hyporheic flow paths. In contrast, higher fluxes through short residence time hyporheic flow paths may be inefficient because of the repeated surface-subsurface exchanges required to complete the reaction. Using NEXSS we found that reaction efficiency may be high in both small streams and large rivers, although for different reasons. In small streams reaction progress generally is dominated by faster pathways of vertical exchange beneath submerged bedforms. Slower exchange

  12. 7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining cumulative sum values. 42.132 Section 42... Determining cumulative sum values. (a) The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum sampling plans for AQL's... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to...

  13. Improving cumulative effects assessment in Alberta: Regional strategic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dallas; Lalonde, Kim; McEachern, Menzie; Kenney, John; Mendoza, Gustavo; Buffin, Andrew; Rich, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The Government of Alberta, Canada is developing a regulatory framework to better manage cumulative environmental effects from development in the province. A key component of this effort is regional planning, which will lay the primary foundation for cumulative effects management into the future. Alberta Environment has considered the information needs of regional planning and has concluded that Regional Strategic Assessment may offer significant advantages if integrated into the planning process, including the overall improvement of cumulative environmental effects assessment in the province.

  14. African Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Studies and Regional Planning Bulletin African Environment is published in French and English, and for some issues, in Arabic. (only the issue below has been received by AJOL). Vol 10, No 3 (1999). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of ...

  15. African Journals Online: Central African Republic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Central African Republic. Home > African Journals Online: Central African Republic. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  16. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, ''A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set

  18. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  19. African Journals Online: African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 56 ... Africa Development is the quarterly bilingual journal of CODESRIA. .... relationship in the family, workplace, schools and organisations. .... activities, and personalities driving the democracy and development agenda in the region; 4. Conflict .... with preference for the results of African and Africanist studies.

  20. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olazarán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with control of vascular factors (VFs. Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (nD, past depression (pD, present depression (prD, and present and past depression (prpD. Logistic regression was used. Results. Data of 1,807 subjects were investigated at baseline (mean age 74.3, 59.3% women, and 1,376 (81.6% subjects were evaluated after three years. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 6.7%, and dementia incidence was 6.3%. An effect of depression was observed on dementia prevalence (OR [CI 95%] 1.84 [1.01–3.35] for prD and 2.73 [1.08–6.87] for prpD, and on dementia due to AD (OR 1.98 [0.98–3.99] for prD and OR 3.98 [1.48–10.71] for prpD (fully adjusted models, nD as reference. Depression did not influence dementia incidence. Conclusions. Present depression and, particularly, present and past depression are associated with dementia at old age. Multiple mechanisms, including toxic effect of depression on hippocampal neurons, plausibly explain these associations.

  1. Quantitative cumulative biodistribution of antibodies in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Victor; Palma, Enzo; Tesar, Devin B; Mundo, Eduardo E; Bumbaca, Daniela; Torres, Elizabeth K; Reyes, Noe A; Shen, Ben Q; Fielder, Paul J; Prabhu, Saileta; Khawli, Leslie A; Boswell, C Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays an important and well-known role in antibody recycling in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and thus it influences the systemic pharmacokinetics (PK) of immunoglobulin G (IgG). However, considerably less is known about FcRn’s role in the metabolism of IgG within individual tissues after intravenous administration. To elucidate the organ distribution and gain insight into the metabolism of humanized IgG1 antibodies with different binding affinities FcRn, comparative biodistribution studies in normal CD-1 mice were conducted. Here, we generated variants of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D-specific antibody (humanized anti-gD) with increased and decreased FcRn binding affinity by genetic engineering without affecting antigen specificity. These antibodies were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, purified and paired radiolabeled with iodine-125 and indium-111. Equal amounts of I-125-labeled and In-111-labeled antibodies were mixed and intravenously administered into mice at 5 mg/kg. This approach allowed us to measure both the real-time IgG uptake (I-125) and cumulative uptake of IgG and catabolites (In-111) in individual tissues up to 1 week post-injection. The PK and distribution of the wild-type IgG and the variant with enhanced binding for FcRn were largely similar to each other, but vastly different for the rapidly cleared low-FcRn-binding variant. Uptake in individual tissues varied across time, FcRn binding affinity, and radiolabeling method. The liver and spleen emerged as the most concentrated sites of IgG catabolism in the absence of FcRn protection. These data provide an increased understanding of FcRn’s role in antibody PK and catabolism at the tissue level. PMID:24572100

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is ... African Journal of AIDS Research.

  3. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  4. Cumulative effects of forest management activities: how might they occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice; R. B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Concerns are often voiced about possible environmental damage as the result of the cumulative sedimentation effects of logging and forest road construction. In response to these concerns, National Forests are developing procedures to reduce the possibility that their activities may lead to unacceptable cumulative effects

  5. Cumulative effect in multiple production processes on nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubyatnikova, E.S.; Shmonin, V.L.; Kalinkin, B.N.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the cumulative effect is a natural result of the process of hadron multiple production in nuclear reactions. Interpretation is made of the universality of slopes of inclusive spectra and other characteristics of cumulative hadrons. The character of information from such reactions is discussed, which could be helpful in studying the mechanism of multiparticle production. 27 refs.; 4 figs

  6. Cumulative particle production in the quark recombination model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, V.B.; Leksin, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Production of cumulative particles in hadron-nuclear inteactions at high energies is considered within the framework of recombination quark model. Predictions for inclusive cross sections of production of cumulative particles and different resonances containing quarks in s state are made

  7. High cumulants of conserved charges and their statistical uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Zhu, Chen; Ye-Yin, Zhao; Xue, Pan; Zhi-Ming, Li; Yuan-Fang, Wu

    2017-10-01

    We study the influence of measured high cumulants of conserved charges on their associated statistical uncertainties in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. With a given number of events, the measured cumulants randomly fluctuate with an approximately normal distribution, while the estimated statistical uncertainties are found to be correlated with corresponding values of the obtained cumulants. Generally, with a given number of events, the larger the cumulants we measure, the larger the statistical uncertainties that are estimated. The error-weighted averaged cumulants are dependent on statistics. Despite this effect, however, it is found that the three sigma rule of thumb is still applicable when the statistics are above one million. Supported by NSFC (11405088, 11521064, 11647093), Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (2014CB845402) and Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) (2016YFE0104800)

  8. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  9. African Journals Online: Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 29 of 29 ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... African and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs); African and .... for scholars and practitioners in all spheres of biological sciences to publish ...

  10. Retraction | Simon | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panthera leo) ina. West African national park”. African Zoology is publishing an Editorial Expression of Concern regarding the following article: “New records of a threatened lion population (Panthera leo) in a West African national park” by ...

  11. Towards Greenland Glaciation: cumulative or abrupt transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstein, Gilles; Tan, Ning; Ladant, Jean-baptiste; Dumas, Christophe; Contoux, Camille

    2017-04-01

    During the mid-Pliocene warming period (3-3.3 Ma BP), the global annual mean temperatures inferred by data and model studies were 2-3° warmer than pre-industrial values. Accordingly, Greenland ice sheet volume is supposed to reach at the most, only half of that of present-day [Haywood et al. 2010]. Around 2.7-2.6 Ma BP, just ˜ 500 kyr after the warming peak of mid-Pliocene, the Greenland ice sheet has reached its full size [Lunt et al. 2008]. A crucial question concerns the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet from half to full size during the 3 - 2.5 Ma period. Data show a decreasing trend of atmospheric CO2 concentration from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma [Seki et al.2010; Bartoli et al. 2011; Martinez et al. 2015]. However, a recent study [Contoux et al. 2015] suggests that a lowering of CO2 is not sufficient to initiate a perennial glaciation on Greenland and must be combined with low summer insolation to preserve the ice sheet during insolation maxima. This suggests rather a cumulative process than an abrupt event. In order to diagnose the evolution of the ice sheet build-up, we carry on, for the first time, a transient simulation of climate and ice sheet evolutions from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma. This strategy enables us to investigate the waxing and waning of the ice sheet during several orbital cycles. We use a tri-dimensional interpolation method designed by Ladant et al. (2014), which allows the evolution of CO2 concentration and of orbital parameters, and the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet size to be taken into account. By interpolating climatic snapshot simulations ran with various possible combinations of CO2, orbits and ice sheet sizes, we can build a continuous climatic forcing that is then used to provide 500 kyrs-long ice sheet simulations. With such a tool, we may offer a physically based answer to different CO2 reconstructions scenarios and analyse which one is the most consistent with Greenland ice sheet buildup.

  12. An Analysis of Cumulative Risks Indicated by Biomonitoring Data of Six Phthalates Using the Maximum Cumulative Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Maximum Cumulative Ratio (MCR) quantifies the degree to which a single component of a chemical mixture drives the cumulative risk of a receptor.1 This study used the MCR, the Hazard Index (HI) and Hazard Quotient (HQ) to evaluate co-exposures to six phthalates using biomonito...

  13. An analysis of cumulative risks based on biomonitoring data for six phthalates using the Maximum Cumulative Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Maximum Cumulative Ratio (MCR) quantifies the degree to which a single chemical drives the cumulative risk of an individual exposed to multiple chemicals. Phthalates are a class of chemicals with ubiquitous exposures in the general population that have the potential to cause ...

  14. Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Rachel; Tuit, Keri; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Donovan, Theresa; Lee, Forrester; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-05-01

    Whether cumulative stress, including both chronic stress and adverse life events, is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive measure of autonomic status which predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes, is unknown. Healthy community dwelling volunteers (N = 157, mean age 29 years) participated in the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Interview (CAI), a 140-item event interview measuring cumulative adversity including major life events, life trauma, recent life events and chronic stressors, and underwent 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain and standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) calculated. Initial simple regression analyses revealed that total cumulative stress score, chronic stressors and cumulative adverse life events (CALE) were all inversely associated with ultra low-frequency (ULF), very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) power and SDNN (all p accounting for additional appreciable variance. For VLF and LF, both total cumulative stress and chronic stress significantly contributed to the variance alone but were not longer significant after adjusting for race and health behaviors. In summary, total cumulative stress, and its components of adverse life events and chronic stress were associated with decreased cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. Findings suggest one potential mechanism by which stress may exert adverse effects on mortality in healthy individuals. Primary preventive strategies including stress management may prove beneficial.

  15. Cumulants in perturbation expansions for non-equilibrium field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauser, R.

    1995-11-01

    The formulation of perturbation expansions for a quantum field theory of strongly interacting systems in a general non-equilibrium state is discussed. Non-vanishing initial correlations are included in the formulation of the perturbation expansion in terms of cumulants. The cumulants are shown to be the suitable candidate for summing up the perturbation expansion. Also a linked-cluster theorem for the perturbation series with cumulants is presented. Finally a generating functional of the perturbation series with initial correlations is studied. We apply the methods to a simple model of a fermion-boson system. (orig.)

  16. Estimating a population cumulative incidence under calendar time trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stefan N; Overgaard, Morten; Andersen, Per K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of a disease or psychiatric disorder is frequently measured by the age-specific cumulative incidence. Cumulative incidence estimates are often derived in cohort studies with individuals recruited over calendar time and with the end of follow-up governed by a specific date....... It is common practice to apply the Kaplan-Meier or Aalen-Johansen estimator to the total sample and report either the estimated cumulative incidence curve or just a single point on the curve as a description of the disease risk. METHODS: We argue that, whenever the disease or disorder of interest is influenced...

  17. Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zeise, Lauren; Faust, John B

    2016-01-01

    Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes. Age, genetic characteristics, and preexisting health conditions increase the risk of adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants. There are existing approaches for characterizing cumulative exposures, cumulative risks, and cumulative health impacts. Although such approaches have merit, they also have significant constraints. New developments in exposure monitoring, mapping, toxicology, and epidemiology, especially when informed by community participation, have the potential to advance the science on cumulative impacts and to improve decision making.

  18. Pesticide Cumulative Risk Assessment: Framework for Screening Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance on how to screen groups of pesticides for cumulative evaluation using a two-step approach: begin with evaluation of available toxicological information and, if necessary, follow up with a risk-based screening approach.

  19. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  20. Considering Environmental and Occupational Stressors in Cumulative Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    While definitions vary across the global scientific community, cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) typically are described as exhibiting a population focus and analyzing the combined risks posed by multiple stressors. CRAs also may consider risk management alternatives as an anal...

  1. Peer tutors as learning and teaching partners: a cumulative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... paper explores the kinds of development in tutors' thinking and action that are possible when training and development is theoretically informed, coherent, and oriented towards improving practice. Keywords: academic development, academic literacies, cumulative learning, higher education, peer tutoring, writing centres.

  2. CTD Information Guide. Preventing Cumulative Trauma Disorders in the Workplace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide Army occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals with a primer that explains the basic principles of ergonomic-hazard recognition for common cumulative trauma disorders...

  3. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  4. African Solutions to African Problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.; Schwartz, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    . The emergence of Déby’s Chad depends both on its ability to accomplish sub-imperial tasks encouraged by these actors, while obfuscating undemocratic governance and human rights abuses at home. Nonetheless, Déby’s role in regional security has helped him achieve a certain degree of agency in his relationship...... and maintain control of the state. These range from “liberal” desires to help control the region’s trouble spots in places like Mali, to clearly illiberal medaling in the domestic affairs of neighbors like the Central African Republic, with the fight against Boko Haram somewhere in the middle. This paper seeks...

  5. Cumulative query method for influenza surveillance using search engine data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Woo; Jo, Min-Woo; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, JaeHo; Yu, Maengsoo; Kim, Won Young; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Sang-Il

    2014-12-16

    Internet search queries have become an important data source in syndromic surveillance system. However, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using Internet search query data in South Korea. The objective of this study was to examine correlations between our cumulative query method and national influenza surveillance data. Our study was based on the local search engine, Daum (approximately 25% market share), and influenza-like illness (ILI) data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A quota sampling survey was conducted with 200 participants to obtain popular queries. We divided the study period into two sets: Set 1 (the 2009/10 epidemiological year for development set 1 and 2010/11 for validation set 1) and Set 2 (2010/11 for development Set 2 and 2011/12 for validation Set 2). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between the Daum data and the ILI data for the development set. We selected the combined queries for which the correlation coefficients were .7 or higher and listed them in descending order. Then, we created a cumulative query method n representing the number of cumulative combined queries in descending order of the correlation coefficient. In validation set 1, 13 cumulative query methods were applied, and 8 had higher correlation coefficients (min=.916, max=.943) than that of the highest single combined query. Further, 11 of 13 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 4 of 13 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. In validation set 2, 8 of 15 cumulative query methods showed higher correlation coefficients (min=.975, max=.987) than that of the highest single combined query. All 15 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 6 of 15 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. Cumulative query method showed relatively higher correlation with national influenza surveillance data than combined queries in the development and validation set.

  6. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his co...

  7. Mapping Cumulative Impacts of Human Activities on Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    , Seaplan

    2018-01-01

    Given the diversity of human uses and natural resources that converge in coastal waters, the potential independent and cumulative impacts of those uses on marine ecosystems are important to consider during ocean planning. This study was designed to support the development and implementation of the 2009 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan. Its goal was to estimate and visualize the cumulative impacts of human activities on coastal and marine ecosystems in the state and federal waters off of Ma...

  8. South African Homelands as Frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of frontier zones, the homelands emerge as areas in which the future of the South African postcolony is being renegotiated, contested and remade with hyper-real intensity. This is so because the many fault lines left over from apartheid (its loose ends, so to speak) – between white and black; between...... in these settings that the postcolonial promise of liberation and freedom must face its test. As such, the book offers highly nuanced and richly detailed analyses that go to the heart of the diverse dilemmas of post-apartheid South Africa as a whole, but simultaneously also provides in condensed form an extended...

  9. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics.

  10. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics.

  11. Trends in African philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    In the contention of Oladipo (2006), the debate on the idea of. African philosophy which has been divided into trends or schools, dates back to the 1960's and 70's, which constitute the modern epoch of African philosophy, when some African thinkers began to question the perspective that traditional African beliefs and.

  12. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information sources ... Southern African Business Review; The role played by the South African ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  13. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and ... Featured Country: South Africa, Featured Journal: Ergonomics SA ...

  14. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  15. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  16. Residual, direct and cumulative effect of zinc application on wheat and rice yield under rice-wheat syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is prevalent particularly on calcareous soils of arid and semiarid region. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the direct, residual and cumulative effect of zinc on the yield of wheat and rice in permanent layout for two consecutive years, 2004-05 and 2005-06 at Arid Zone Research Institute D.I. Khan. Soil under study was deficient in Zn (0.8 mg kg-1. Effect of Zn on yield, Zn concentrations in leaf and soils were assessed using wheat variety Naseer-2000 and rice variety IRRI-6. Three rates of Zn, ranging from 0 to 10 kg ha-1 in soil, were applied as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4. 7H2O along with basal dose fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Mature leaf and soil samples were collected at panicle initiation stage. The results showed that grain yield of wheat and rice was significantly increased by the direct application of 5 and 10 kg Zn ha-1. Highest grain yield of wheat (5467 kg ha-1 was recorded with the direct application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 while 4994 kg ha-1 was recorded with the cumulative application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 but the yield increase due to residual effect of Zn was statistically lower than the cumulative effect of Zn. Maximum paddy yield was recorded with the cumulative application ofZn followed by residual and direct applied 10 and 5 kg Zn kg ha-1, respectively. Zn concentration in soils ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 mg kg-1 in wheat and 0.24 to 2.40 mg kg-1 in rice, while in leaves it ranged from 18-48 mg kg-1 in wheat and 15-52 mg kg-1 in rice. The concentration of Zn in soil and leaves increased due to the treatments in the order; cumulative > residual > direct effect > control (without Zn. The yield attributes like 1000- grain weight, number of spikes, spike length and plant height were increased by the residual, direct and cumulative effect of Zn levels; however, the magnitude of increase was higher in cumulative effect than residual and direct effect of Zn, respectively. Under Zn-deficient soil

  17. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  18. An analytical model for cumulative infiltration into a dual-permeability media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrard, Xavier; Lassabatere, Laurent; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Simunek, Jiri

    2010-05-01

    Modeling of water infiltration into the vadose zone is important for better understanding of movement of water-transported contaminants. There is a great need to take into account the soil heterogeneity and, in particular, the presence of macropores or cracks that could generate preferential flow. Several mathematical models have been proposed to describe unsaturated flow through heterogeneous soils. The dual-permeability model assumes that flow is governed by Richards equation in both porous regions (matrix and fractures). Water can be exchanged between the two regions following a first-order rate law. A previous study showed that the influence of the hydraulic conductivity of the matrix/macropore interface had a little influence on cumulative infiltration at the soil surface. As a result, one could consider the surface infiltration for a specific case of no water exchange between the fracture and matrix regions (a case of zero interfacial hydraulic conductivity). In such a case, water infiltration can be considered to be the sum of the cumulative infiltrations into the matrix and the fractures. On the basis of analytical models for each sub domain (matrix and fractures), an analytical model is proposed for the entire dual-porosity system. A sensitivity analysis is performed to characterize the influence of several factors, such as the saturated hydraulic conductivity ratio, the water pressure scale parameter ratio, and the saturated volumetric water content scale ratio, on the total cumulative infiltration. Such an analysis greatly helps in quantifying the impact of macroporosity and fractures on water infiltration, which can be of great interest for hydrological models.

  19. Cumulative Trauma Among Mayas Living in Southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millender, Eugenia I; Lowe, John

    2017-06-01

    Mayas, having experienced genocide, exile, and severe poverty, are at high risk for the consequences of cumulative trauma that continually resurfaces through current fear of an uncertain future. Little is known about the mental health and alcohol use status of this population. This correlational study explored t/he relationship of cumulative trauma as it relates to social determinants of health (years in the United States, education, health insurance status, marital status, and employment), psychological health (depression symptoms), and health behaviors (alcohol use) of 102 Guatemalan Mayas living in Southeast Florida. The results of this study indicated that, as specific social determinants of health and cumulative trauma increased, depression symptoms (particularly among women) and the risk for harmful alcohol use (particularly among men) increased. Identifying risk factors at an early stage before serious disease or problems are manifest provides room for early screening leading to early identification, early treatment, and better outcomes.

  20. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  1. Estimating a population cumulative incidence under calendar time trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stefan N; Overgaard, Morten; Andersen, Per K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of a disease or psychiatric disorder is frequently measured by the age-specific cumulative incidence. Cumulative incidence estimates are often derived in cohort studies with individuals recruited over calendar time and with the end of follow-up governed by a specific date...... by calendar time trends, the total sample Kaplan-Meier and Aalen-Johansen estimators do not provide useful estimates of the general risk in the target population. We present some alternatives to this type of analysis. RESULTS: We show how a proportional hazards model may be used to extrapolate disease risk...... estimates if proportionality is a reasonable assumption. If not reasonable, we instead advocate that a more useful description of the disease risk lies in the age-specific cumulative incidence curves across strata given by time of entry or perhaps just the end of follow-up estimates across all strata...

  2. Evolutionary neural network modeling for software cumulative failure time prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Liang; Noore, Afzel

    2005-01-01

    An evolutionary neural network modeling approach for software cumulative failure time prediction based on multiple-delayed-input single-output architecture is proposed. Genetic algorithm is used to globally optimize the number of the delayed input neurons and the number of neurons in the hidden layer of the neural network architecture. Modification of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm with Bayesian regularization is used to improve the ability to predict software cumulative failure time. The performance of our proposed approach has been compared using real-time control and flight dynamic application data sets. Numerical results show that both the goodness-of-fit and the next-step-predictability of our proposed approach have greater accuracy in predicting software cumulative failure time compared to existing approaches

  3. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  4. Cumulant-Based Coherent Signal Subspace Method for Bearing and Range Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourennane Salah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for simultaneous range and bearing estimation for buried objects in the presence of an unknown Gaussian noise is proposed. This method uses the MUSIC algorithm with noise subspace estimated by using the slice fourth-order cumulant matrix of the received data. The higher-order statistics aim at the removal of the additive unknown Gaussian noise. The bilinear focusing operator is used to decorrelate the received signals and to estimate the coherent signal subspace. A new source steering vector is proposed including the acoustic scattering model at each sensor. Range and bearing of the objects at each sensor are expressed as a function of those at the first sensor. This leads to the improvement of object localization anywhere, in the near-field or in the far-field zone of the sensor array. Finally, the performances of the proposed method are validated on data recorded during experiments in a water tank.

  5. Cumulative Training Dose's Effects on Interrelationships Between Common Training-Load Models During Basketball Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Fox, Jordan L; Borges, Nattai R; Dascombe, Ben J; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2017-02-01

    The influence of various factors on training-load (TL) responses in basketball has received limited attention. This study aimed to examine the temporal changes and influence of cumulative training dose on TL responses and interrelationships during basketball activity. Ten state-level Australian male junior basketball players completed 4 × 10-min standardized bouts of simulated basketball activity using a circuit-based protocol. Internal TL was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), summated heart-rate zones (SHRZ), Banister training impulse (TRIMP), and Lucia TRIMP models. External TL was assessed via measurement of mean sprint and circuit speeds. Temporal TL comparisons were performed between 10-min bouts, while Pearson correlation analyses were conducted across cumulative training doses (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, and 0-40 min). sRPE TL increased (P basketball activity. sRPE TL was only significantly related to Lucia TRIMP (r = .66-.69; P basketball training doses lasting beyond 20 min. Thus, the interchangeability of commonly used internal and external TL approaches appears dose-dependent during basketball activity, with various psychophysiological mediators likely underpinning temporal changes.

  6. Cumulative carbon as a policy framework for achieving climate stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, H. Damon; Solomon, Susan; Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that will avoid dangerous climate impacts. However, greenhouse gas concentration stabilization is an awkward framework within which to assess dangerous climate change on account of the significant lag between a given concentration level and the eventual equilibrium temperature change. By contrast, recent research has shown that global temperature change can be well described by a given cumulative carbon emissions budget. Here, we propose that cumulative carbon emissions represent an alternative framework that is applicable both as a tool for climate mitigation as well as for the assessment of potential climate impacts. We show first that both atmospheric CO2 concentration at a given year and the associated temperature change are generally associated with a unique cumulative carbon emissions budget that is largely independent of the emissions scenario. The rate of global temperature change can therefore be related to first order to the rate of increase of cumulative carbon emissions. However, transient warming over the next century will also be strongly affected by emissions of shorter lived forcing agents such as aerosols and methane. Non-CO2 emissions therefore contribute to uncertainty in the cumulative carbon budget associated with near-term temperature targets, and may suggest the need for a mitigation approach that considers separately short- and long-lived gas emissions. By contrast, long-term temperature change remains primarily associated with total cumulative carbon emissions owing to the much longer atmospheric residence time of CO2 relative to other major climate forcing agents. PMID:22869803

  7. Radiation protection zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Radiation being not visible, the zoning of an area containing radioactive sources is important in terms of safety. Concerning radiation protection, 2 work zones are defined by regulations: the monitored zone and the controlled zone. The ministerial order of 15 may 2006 settles the frontier between the 2 zones in terms of radiation dose rates, the rules for access and the safety standards in both zones. Radioprotection rules and the name of the person responsible for radiation protection must be displayed. The frontier between the 2 zones must be materialized and marked with adequate equipment (specific danger signs and tapes). Both zones are submitted to selective entrance, the access for the controlled zone is limited because of the radiation risk and of the necessity of confining radioactive contamination while the limitation of the access to the monitored zone is due to radiation risk only. (A.C.)

  8. The role of factorial cumulants in reactor neutron noise theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombino, A.; Pacilio, N.; Sena, G.

    1979-01-01

    The physical meaning and the combinatorial implications of the factorial cumulant of a state variable such as the number of neutrons or the number of neutron counts are specified. Features of the presentation are: (1) the fission process is treated in its entirety without the customary binary emission restriction, (b) the introduction of the factorial cumulants helps in reducing the complexity of the mathematical problems, (c) all the solutions can be obtained analytically. Only the ergodic hypothesis for the neutron population evolution is dealt with. (author)

  9. Super-Resolution Algorithm in Cumulative Virtual Blanking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montillet, J. P.; Meng, X.; Roberts, G. W.; Woolfson, M. S.

    2008-11-01

    The proliferation of mobile devices and the emergence of wireless location-based services have generated consumer demand for precise location. In this paper, the MUSIC super-resolution algorithm is applied to time delay estimation for positioning purposes in cellular networks. The goal is to position a Mobile Station with UMTS technology. The problem of Base-Stations herability is solved using Cumulative Virtual Blanking. A simple simulator is presented using DS-SS signal. The results show that MUSIC algorithm improves the time delay estimation in both the cases whether or not Cumulative Virtual Blanking was carried out.

  10. The East African rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowicz, Jean

    2005-10-01

    This overview paper considers the East African rift system (EARS) as an intra-continental ridge system, comprising an axial rift. It describes the structural organization in three branches, the overall morphology, lithospheric cross-sections, the morphotectonics, the main tectonic features—with emphasis on the tension fractures—and volcanism in its relationships with the tectonics. The most characteristic features in the EARS are narrow elongate zones of thinned continental lithosphere related to asthenospheric intrusions in the upper mantle. This hidden part of the rift structure is expressed on the surface by thermal uplift of the rift shoulders. The graben valleys and basins are organized over a major failure in the lithospheric mantle, and in the crust comprise a major border fault, linked in depth to a low angle detachment fault, inducing asymmetric roll-over pattern, eventually accompanied by smaller normal faulting and tilted blocks. Considering the kinematics, divergent movements caused the continent to split along lines of preexisting lithospheric weaknesses marked by ancient tectonic patterns that focus the extensional strain. The hypothesis favored here is SE-ward relative divergent drifting of a not yet well individualized Somalian plate, a model in agreement with the existence of NW-striking transform and transfer zones. The East African rift system comprises a unique succession of graben basins linked and segmented by intracontinental transform, transfer and accommodation zones. In an attempt to make a point on the rift system evolution through time and space, it is clear that the role of plume impacts is determinant. The main phenomenon is formation of domes related to plume effect, weakening the lithosphere and, long after, failure inducing focused upper mantle thinning, asthenospheric intrusion and related thermal uplift of shoulders. The plume that had formed first at around 30 Ma was not in the Afar but likely in Lake Tana region (Ethiopia

  11. Bibliography of sandy beaches and sandy beach organisms on the African continent

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bally, R

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography covers the literature relating to sandy beaches on the African continent and outlying islands. The bibliography lists biological, chemical, geographical and geological references and covers shallow marine sediments, surf zones off...

  12. Disarmament: the African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Disarmament is now generally accepted as the process of reduction in the size of, and expenditures on, armed forces, the destruction or dismantling of weapons, whether deployed or stockpiled, the progressive elimination of the capacity to produce new weapons and the release and integration into civilian life of military personnel. To realize this objective, the nations of the world have been advocating such measures as the establishment of nuclear weapon-free zones, non-proliferation, limitation of the arms trade, reduction of military budgets, and confidence-building measures. To ensure general and complete elimination of arms, there has been widespread recognition of the need to link the disarmament process with other political as well as socio-economic problems of the world such as the need for security, good relations between states and development of a system of peaceful settlement of disputes. Other measures that have been considered to be relevant in boosting the disarmament process include the role of the general public in putting pressure on their respective governments with a view to accelerating and realizing disarmament objectives. Africans have presented to the world a strong case for global disarmament

  13. South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Medical Journal is published by the South African Medical Association, which represents ... G Watermeyer, S Thomson, 399-402 ... Assessing the value of Western Cape Provincial Government health administrative data and ...

  14. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... The African Crop Science Journal, a quarterly publication, publishes original ... interactions, information science, environmental science and soil science.

  15. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research. Vol 14, No 3 (2017) ... Journal of Business and Administrative Studies. Vol 6, No 2 (2014) ... Vol 11 (2015): African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. 11, 2015. African ...

  16. South African Music Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMUS: South African Music Studies is the official organ for the South African ... Shifty Records in Apartheid South Africa: Innovations in Independent Record ... Experiences of Belonging and Exclusion in the Production and Reception of ...

  17. Liberalism and African Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindima, Harvey

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the effect of liberalism on the African understanding of education, community, and religion. Describes ways in which the European intrusion, that is, colonial governments, schools, and churches, undermined traditional African life and thought. (DM)

  18. African Studies Monographs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Studies Monographs is a serial that promotes research and scholarship on the African perspective worldwide. This includes matters of philosophy, history, literature, arts and culture, environment, gender, politics, administration crisis management, etc.

  19. Cumulative effects of wind turbines. Volume 3: Report on results of consultations on cumulative effects of wind turbines on birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report gives details of the consultations held in developing the consensus approach taken in assessing the cumulative effects of wind turbines. Contributions on bird issues, and views of stakeholders, the Countryside Council for Wales, electric utilities, Scottish Natural Heritage, and the National Wind Power Association are reported. The scoping of key species groups, where cumulative effects might be expected, consideration of other developments, the significance of any adverse effects, mitigation, regional capacity assessments, and predictive models are discussed. Topics considered at two stakeholder workshops are outlined in the appendices.

  20. African Anthropologist: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The African Anthropologist is a biannual journal of the Pan African Anthropological Association. It provides a forum for African and Africanist anthropologists to publish articles, research reports, review articles, and book reviews. The views expressed in any published material are those of the authors and ...

  1. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically ... African Research Review; The Roles of Information Communication Technologies in Education: Review Article with Emphasis to the Computer and Internet Ethiopian Journal ...

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with ...

  3. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; Project Work by Students for First ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  4. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; Effect of Globalization on Sovereignty of States ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  5. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information sources ... Southern African Business Review; Conflicts in Africa: Meaning, Causes, ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  6. African Journals Online: Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 167 ... African Journal of AIDS Research (AJAR) is a peer-reviewed ... The African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies is an international ... The Journal has been produced through the efforts of Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) and the African .... in basic and clinical medical sciences as well as dentistry.

  7. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. Vol 17, No 4 (2017). African Health Sciences. Vol 6, No 1 (2015). Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics. Vol 5, No 2 (2017). Journal of Student Affairs in Africa. Vol 14, No 1 (2017). Annals of African Surgery. Vol 63, No 7-9 (2018).

  8. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically ... It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with ... Vol 15, No 1 (2018). SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS.

  9. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology. Vol 6, No 2 (2017). Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  10. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to ... African Journal of AIDS Research. Vol 35, No 2 (2017). Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal. Vol 34, No 1 (2018). Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review.

  11. Short Communication Validation of growth zone deposition rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flathead mullet Mugil cephalus and freshwater mullet Myxus capensis are important components in South African estuarine fish communities and fisheries, but there is little information on their age and growth or age validation. This study validated the periodicity of growth zone formation in sectioned sagittal otoliths and ...

  12. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels from two industrial zones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels from two industrial zones (Sihwa and Banwal) located in An-san city ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... method (HVAS-Sibata) was employed to collect airborne PAHs in both the particulate and gas phases. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. Cumulative impacts: current research and current opinions at PSW

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice

    1987-01-01

    Consideration of cumulative watershed effects (CWEs) has both political and physical aspects. Regardless of the practical usefulness of present methods of dealing with CWEs, the legal requirement to address them remains. Management of federal land is regulated by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972. The...

  14. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children...

  15. Disintegration of a profiled shock wave at the cumulation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliski, S.

    1978-01-01

    The disintegration at the cumulation point is analyzed of a shock wave generated with the aid of a profiled pressure. The quantitative relations are analyzed for the disintegration waves for typical compression parameters in systems of thermonuclear microfusion. The quantitative conclusions are drawn for the application of simplifying approximate calculations in problems of microfusion. (author)

  16. Cumulative Prospect Theory, Option Returns, and the Variance Premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, Lieven; Driessen, Joost; Ebert, Sebastian; Londono Yarce, J.M.; Spalt, Oliver

    The variance premium and the pricing of out-of-the-money (OTM) equity index options are major challenges to standard asset pricing models. We develop a tractable equilibrium model with Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT) preferences that can overcome both challenges. The key insight is that the

  17. Steps and Pips in the History of the Cumulative Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This…

  18. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

  19. Anti-irritants II: Efficacy against cumulative irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    window of opportunity in which to demonstrate efficacy. Therefore, the effect of AI was studied in a cumulative irritation model by inducing irritant dermatitis with 10 min daily exposures for 5+4 days (no irritation on weekend) to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate on the right and 20% nonanoic acid on the left...

  20. Cumulative Beam Breakup with Time-Dependent Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Delayen, J R

    2004-01-01

    A general analytical formalism developed recently for cumulative beam breakup (BBU) in linear accelerators with arbitrary beam current profile and misalignments [1] is extended to include time-dependent parameters such as energy chirp or rf focusing in order to reduce BBU-induced instabilities and emittance growth. Analytical results are presented and applied to practical accelerator configurations.

  1. On the mechanism of hadron cumulative production on nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    A mechanism of cumulative production of hadrons on nucleus is proposed which is similar to that of high perpendicular hadron production. The cross section obtained describes the main qualitative features of such prosesses, e.g., initial energy dependence atomic number behaviour, dependence on the rest mass of the produced particle and its production angle

  2. Hyperscaling breakdown and Ising spin glasses: The Binder cumulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2018-02-01

    Among the Renormalization Group Theory scaling rules relating critical exponents, there are hyperscaling rules involving the dimension of the system. It is well known that in Ising models hyperscaling breaks down above the upper critical dimension. It was shown by Schwartz (1991) that the standard Josephson hyperscaling rule can also break down in Ising systems with quenched random interactions. A related Renormalization Group Theory hyperscaling rule links the critical exponents for the normalized Binder cumulant and the correlation length in the thermodynamic limit. An appropriate scaling approach for analyzing measurements from criticality to infinite temperature is first outlined. Numerical data on the scaling of the normalized correlation length and the normalized Binder cumulant are shown for the canonical Ising ferromagnet model in dimension three where hyperscaling holds, for the Ising ferromagnet in dimension five (so above the upper critical dimension) where hyperscaling breaks down, and then for Ising spin glass models in dimension three where the quenched interactions are random. For the Ising spin glasses there is a breakdown of the normalized Binder cumulant hyperscaling relation in the thermodynamic limit regime, with a return to size independent Binder cumulant values in the finite-size scaling regime around the critical region.

  3. How to manage the cumulative flood safety of catchment dams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dam safety is a significant issue being taken seriously worldwide. However, in Australia, although much attention is being devoted to the medium- to large-scale dams, minimal attention is being paid to the serious potential problems associated with smaller dams, particularly the potential cumulative safety threats they pose ...

  4. Cumulative Beam Breakup due to Resistive-Wall Wake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    The cumulative beam breakup problem excited by the resistive-wall wake is formulated. An approximate analytic method of finding the asymptotic behavior for the transverse bunch displacement is developed and solved. Comparison between the asymptotic analytical expression and the direct numerical solution is presented. Good agreement is found. The criterion of using the asymptotic analytical expression is discussed

  5. Analysis of sensory ratings data with cumulative link models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2013-01-01

    Examples of categorical rating scales include discrete preference, liking and hedonic rating scales. Data obtained on these scales are often analyzed with normal linear regression methods or with omnibus Pearson chi2 tests. In this paper we propose to use cumulative link models that allow for reg...

  6. Tests of Cumulative Prospect Theory with graphical displays of probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Birnbaum

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research reported evidence that contradicts cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic. The same body of research also violates two editing principles of original prospect theory: cancellation (the principle that people delete any attribute that is the same in both alternatives before deciding between them and combination (the principle that people combine branches leading to the same consequence by adding their probabilities. This study was designed to replicate previous results and to test whether the violations of cumulative prospect theory might be eliminated or reduced by using formats for presentation of risky gambles in which cancellation and combination could be facilitated visually. Contrary to the idea that decision behavior contradicting cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic would be altered by use of these formats, however, data with two new graphical formats as well as fresh replication data continued to show the patterns of evidence that violate cumulative prospect theory, the priority heuristic, and the editing principles of combination and cancellation. Systematic violations of restricted branch independence also contradicted predictions of ``stripped'' prospect theory (subjectively weighted additive utility without the editing rules.

  7. Implications of applying cumulative risk assessment to the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary A; Spicer, Kristen; Chosewood, L Casey; Susi, Pam; Johns, Douglas O; Dotson, G Scott

    2018-06-01

    Multiple changes are influencing work, workplaces and workers in the US including shifts in the main types of work and the rise of the 'gig' economy. Work and workplace changes have coincided with a decline in unions and associated advocacy for improved safety and health conditions. Risk assessment has been the primary method to inform occupational and environmental health policy and management for many types of hazards. Although often focused on one hazard at a time, risk assessment frameworks and methods have advanced toward cumulative risk assessment recognizing that exposure to a single chemical or non-chemical stressor rarely occurs in isolation. We explore how applying cumulative risk approaches may change the roles of workers and employers as they pursue improved health and safety and elucidate some of the challenges and opportunities that might arise. Application of cumulative risk assessment should result in better understanding of complex exposures and health risks with the potential to inform more effective controls and improved safety and health risk management overall. Roles and responsibilities of both employers and workers are anticipated to change with potential for a greater burden of responsibility on workers to address risk factors both inside and outside the workplace that affect health at work. A range of policies, guidance and training have helped develop cumulative risk assessment for the environmental health field and similar approaches are available to foster the practice in occupational safety and health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation for cumulative prospect theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, H.; Rieskamp, J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative prospect theory (CPT Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) has provided one of the most influential accounts of how people make decisions under risk. CPT is a formal model with parameters that quantify psychological processes such as loss aversion, subjective values of gains and losses, and

  9. An Axiomatization of Cumulative Prospect Theory for Decision under Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Chateauneuf, A.

    1999-01-01

    Cumulative prospect theory was introduced by Tversky and Kahneman so as to combine the empirical realism of their original prospect theory with the theoretical advantages of Quiggin's rank-dependent utility. Preference axiomatizations were provided in several papers. All those axiomatizations,

  10. Cumulative assessment: does it improve students’ knowledge acquisition and retention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio Fernandes, Dario; Nagtegaal, Manouk; Noordzij, Gera; Tio, Rene

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Assessment for learning means changing students’ behaviour regarding their learning. Cumulative assessment has been shown to increase students’ self-study time and spread their study time throughout a course. However, there was no difference regarding students’ knowledge at the end of

  11. Strengthening African Union for African Integration: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    to secure African continent, speed up development process, and strengthen our survival ... Regional integration generally involves a somewhat complex web of cooperation ... networking of various government institutions to provide and shape.

  12. Measurement of four-particle cumulants and symmetric cumulants with subevent methods in small collision systems with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Derendarz, Dominik; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of symmetric cumulants SC(n,m)=⟨v2nv2m⟩−⟨v2n⟩⟨v2m⟩ for (n,m)=(2,3) and (2,4) and asymmetric cumulant AC(n) are presented in pp, p+Pb and peripheral Pb+Pb collisions at various collision energies, aiming to probe the long-range collective nature of multi-particle production in small systems. Results are obtained using the standard cumulant method, as well as the two-subevent and three-subevent cumulant methods. Results from the standard method are found to be strongly biased by non-flow correlations as indicated by strong sensitivity to the chosen event class definition. A systematic reduction of non-flow effects is observed when using the two-subevent method and the results become independent of event class definition when the three-subevent method is used. The measured SC(n,m) shows an anti-correlation between v2 and v3, and a positive correlation between v2 and v4. The magnitude of SC(n,m) is constant with Nch in pp collisions, but increases with Nch in p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions. ...

  13. Cumulants of heat transfer across nonlinear quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We consider thermal conduction across a general nonlinear phononic junction. Based on two-time observation protocol and the nonequilibrium Green's function method, heat transfer in steady-state regimes is studied, and practical formulas for the calculation of the cumulant generating function are obtained. As an application, the general formalism is used to study anharmonic effects on fluctuation of steady-state heat transfer across a single-site junction with a quartic nonlinear on-site pinning potential. An explicit nonlinear modification to the cumulant generating function exact up to the first order is given, in which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is found still valid. Numerically a self-consistent procedure is introduced, which works well for strong nonlinearity.

  14. A cumulant functional for static and dynamic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollett, Joshua W.; Hosseini, Hessam; Menzies, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    A functional for the cumulant energy is introduced. The functional is composed of a pair-correction and static and dynamic correlation energy components. The pair-correction and static correlation energies are functionals of the natural orbitals and the occupancy transferred between near-degenerate orbital pairs, rather than the orbital occupancies themselves. The dynamic correlation energy is a functional of the statically correlated on-top two-electron density. The on-top density functional used in this study is the well-known Colle-Salvetti functional. Using the cc-pVTZ basis set, the functional effectively models the bond dissociation of H 2 , LiH, and N 2 with equilibrium bond lengths and dissociation energies comparable to those provided by multireference second-order perturbation theory. The performance of the cumulant functional is less impressive for HF and F 2 , mainly due to an underestimation of the dynamic correlation energy by the Colle-Salvetti functional.

  15. Fragmentation of tensor polarized deuterons into cumulative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, S.; Arkhipov, V.; Bondarev, V.

    1998-01-01

    The tensor analyzing power T 20 of the reaction d polarized + A → π - (0 0 ) + X has been measured in the fragmentation of 9 GeV tensor polarized deuterons into pions with momenta from 3.5 to 5.3 GeV/c on hydrogen, beryllium and carbon targets. This kinematic range corresponds to the region of cumulative hadron production with the cumulative variable x c from 1.08 to 1.76. The values of T 20 have been found to be small and consistent with positive values. This contradicts the predictions based on a direct mechanism assuming NN collision between a high momentum nucleon in the deuteron and a target nucleon (NN → NNπ)

  16. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  17. Ecosystem assessment methods for cumulative effects at the regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental issues such as nonpoint-source pollution, acid rain, reduced biodiversity, land use change, and climate change have widespread ecological impacts and require an integrated assessment approach. Since 1978, the implementing regulations for the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) have required assessment of potential cumulative environmental impacts. Current environmental issues have encouraged ecologists to improve their understanding of ecosystem process and function at several spatial scales. However, management activities usually occur at the local scale, and there is little consideration of the potential impacts to the environmental quality of a region. This paper proposes that regional ecological risk assessment provides a useful approach for assisting scientists in accomplishing the task of assessing cumulative impacts. Critical issues such as spatial heterogeneity, boundary definition, and data aggregation are discussed. Examples from an assessment of acidic deposition effects on fish in Adirondack lakes illustrate the importance of integrated data bases, associated modeling efforts, and boundary definition at the regional scale

  18. Polarization in high Psub(trans) and cumulative hadron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    The final hadron polarization in the high Psub(trans) processes is analyzed in the parton hard scattering picture. Scaling assumption allows a correct qualitative description to be given for the Psub(trans)-behaviour of polarization or escape angle behaviour in cumulative production. The energy scaling and weak dependence on the beam and target type is predicted. A method is proposed for measuring the polarization of hadron jets

  19. Seasonal climate change patterns due to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.

  20. Firm heterogeneity, Rules of Origin and Rules of Cumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bombarda , Pamela; Gamberoni , Elisa

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the impact of relaxing rules of origin (ROOs) in a simple setting with heterogeneous firms that buy intermediate inputs from domestic and foreign sources. In particular, we consider the impact of switching from bilateral to diagonal cumulation when using preferences (instead of paying the MFN tariff) involving the respect of rules of origin. We find that relaxing the restrictiveness of the ROOs leads the least productive exporters to stop exporting. The empirical part confirms thes...

  1. Cumulant approach to dynamical correlation functions at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Minhtien.

    1993-11-01

    A new theoretical approach, based on the introduction of cumulants, to calculate thermodynamic averages and dynamical correlation functions at finite temperatures is developed. The method is formulated in Liouville instead of Hilbert space and can be applied to operators which do not require to satisfy fermion or boson commutation relations. The application of the partitioning and projection methods for the dynamical correlation functions is discussed. The present method can be applied to weakly as well as to strongly correlated systems. (author). 9 refs

  2. Severe occupational hand eczema, job stress and cumulative sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, D; Stock Gissendanner, S; Finkeldey, F; John, S M; Werfel, T; Diepgen, T L; Breuer, K

    2014-10-01

    Stress is known to activate or exacerbate dermatoses, but the relationships between chronic stress, job-related stress and sickness absence among occupational hand eczema (OHE) patients are inadequately understood. To see whether chronic stress or burnout symptoms were associated with cumulative sickness absence in patients with OHE and to determine which factors predicted sickness absence in a model including measures of job-related and chronic stress. We investigated correlations of these factors in employed adult inpatients with a history of sickness absence due to OHE in a retrospective cross-sectional explorative study, which assessed chronic stress (Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress), burnout (Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure), clinical symptom severity (Osnabrück Hand Eczema Severity Index), perceived symptom severity, demographic characteristics and cumulative days of sickness absence. The study group consisted of 122 patients. OHE symptoms were not more severe among patients experiencing greater stress and burnout. Women reported higher levels of chronic stress on some measures. Cumulative days of sickness absence correlated with individual dimensions of job-related stress and, in multiple regression analysis, with an overall measure of chronic stress. Chronic stress is an additional factor predicting cumulative sickness absence among severely affected OHE patients. Other relevant factors for this study sample included the 'cognitive weariness' subscale of the Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure and the physical component summary score of the SF-36, a measure of health-related life quality. Prevention and rehabilitation should take job stress into consideration in multidisciplinary treatment strategies for severely affected OHE patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladrem, M. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Algiers (Algeria); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M.A.A. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Taiz University in Turba, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen); Alfull, Z.Z. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Cherif, S. [ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ghardaia University, Sciences and Technologies Department, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T{sub 0}(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L{sub mn}-method. The first six cumulants C{sub 1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ, kurtosis κ, pentosis Π{sub ±}, and hexosis H{sub 1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, (O = σ{sup 2}κΣ{sup -1},U = σ{sup -2}Σ{sup -1},N = σ{sup 2}κ) are calculated and studied as functions of (T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed.Anumerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T{sub 0}(V) agrees with that expected T{sub 0}{sup N}(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ{sub T} (T, V), according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2%. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable. (orig.)

  4. Science and Societal Partnerships to Address Cumulative Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Lundquist, Carolyn J.; Fisher, Karen T.; Le Heron, Richard; Lewis, Nick I.; Ellis, Joanne I.; Hewitt, Judi E.; Greenaway, Alison J.; Cartner, Katie J.; Burgess-Jones, Tracey C.; Schiel, David R.; Thrush, Simon F.

    2016-01-01

    Funding and priorities for ocean research are not separate from the underlying sociological, economic, and political landscapes that determine values attributed to ecological systems. Here we present a variation on science prioritization exercises, focussing on inter-disciplinary research questions with the objective of shifting broad scale management practices to better address cumulative impacts and multiple users. Marine scientists in New Zealand from a broad range of scientific and social...

  5. Cumulative prospect theory and mean variance analysis. A rigorous comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hens, Thorsten; Mayer, Janos

    2012-01-01

    We compare asset allocations derived for cumulative prospect theory(CPT) based on two different methods: Maximizing CPT along the mean–variance efficient frontier and maximizing it without that restriction. We find that with normally distributed returns the difference is negligible. However, using standard asset allocation data of pension funds the difference is considerable. Moreover, with derivatives like call options the restriction to the mean-variance efficient frontier results in a siza...

  6. Signal anomaly detection using modified CUSUM [cumulative sum] method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, V.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Benedetti, M.

    1988-01-01

    An important aspect of detection of anomalies in signals is the identification of changes in signal behavior caused by noise, jumps, changes in band-width, sudden pulses and signal bias. A methodology is developed to identify, isolate and characterize these anomalies using a modification of the cumulative sum (CUSUM) approach. The new algorithm performs anomaly detection at three levels and is implemented on a general purpose computer. 7 refs., 4 figs

  7. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  8. AFRICAN SOLUTIONS TO AFRICA'S PROBLEMS? AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilse van der Walt

    characterised by a volatile mix of conflict, instability and state weakness, and analysts ... to ensure peace, security and stability on the continent at national, ... half a dozen African economies have been growing at more than 6 per cent per year.

  9. Problems of describing the cumulative effect in relativistic nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of describing the cumulative effect i.e., the particle production on nuclei in the range kinematically forbidden for one-nucleon collisions, is studied. Discrimination of events containing cumulative particles fixes configurations in the wave function of a nucleus, when several nucleons are closely spaced and their quark-parton components are collectivized. For the cumulative processes under consideration large distances between quarks are very important. The fundamental facts and theoretical interpretation of the quantum field theory and of the condensed media theory in the relativistic nuclear physics are presented in brief. The collisions of the relativistic nuclei with low momentum transfers is considered in a fast moving coordinate system. The basic parameter determining this type of collisions is the energy of nucleon binding in nuclei. It has been shown that the short-range correlation model provides a good presentation of many characteristics of the multiple particle production and it may be regarded as an approximate universal property of hadron interactions

  10. Dynamic prediction of cumulative incidence functions by direct binomial regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Mia K; de Witte, Theo J M; Putter, Hein

    2018-03-25

    In recent years there have been a series of advances in the field of dynamic prediction. Among those is the development of methods for dynamic prediction of the cumulative incidence function in a competing risk setting. These models enable the predictions to be updated as time progresses and more information becomes available, for example when a patient comes back for a follow-up visit after completing a year of treatment, the risk of death, and adverse events may have changed since treatment initiation. One approach to model the cumulative incidence function in competing risks is by direct binomial regression, where right censoring of the event times is handled by inverse probability of censoring weights. We extend the approach by combining it with landmarking to enable dynamic prediction of the cumulative incidence function. The proposed models are very flexible, as they allow the covariates to have complex time-varying effects, and we illustrate how to investigate possible time-varying structures using Wald tests. The models are fitted using generalized estimating equations. The method is applied to bone marrow transplant data and the performance is investigated in a simulation study. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. MacDonell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 environmental fate and transport; (3 exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4 toxicity analysis; and (5 risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities.

  12. Energy Current Cumulants in One-Dimensional Systems in Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Abhishek; Saito, Keiji; Roy, Anjan

    2018-06-01

    A recent theory based on fluctuating hydrodynamics predicts that one-dimensional interacting systems with particle, momentum, and energy conservation exhibit anomalous transport that falls into two main universality classes. The classification is based on behavior of equilibrium dynamical correlations of the conserved quantities. One class is characterized by sound modes with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling, while the second class has diffusive sound modes. The heat mode follows Lévy statistics, with different exponents for the two classes. Here we consider heat current fluctuations in two specific systems, which are expected to be in the above two universality classes, namely, a hard particle gas with Hamiltonian dynamics and a harmonic chain with momentum conserving stochastic dynamics. Numerical simulations show completely different system-size dependence of current cumulants in these two systems. We explain this numerical observation using a phenomenological model of Lévy walkers with inputs from fluctuating hydrodynamics. This consistently explains the system-size dependence of heat current fluctuations. For the latter system, we derive the cumulant-generating function from a more microscopic theory, which also gives the same system-size dependence of cumulants.

  13. Preference, resistance to change, and the cumulative decision model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Randolph C

    2018-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory (Nevin & Grace, 2000a), preference in concurrent chains and resistance to change in multiple schedules are independent measures of a common construct representing reinforcement history. Here I review the original studies on preference and resistance to change in which reinforcement variables were manipulated parametrically, conducted by Nevin, Grace and colleagues between 1997 and 2002, as well as more recent research. The cumulative decision model proposed by Grace and colleagues for concurrent chains is shown to provide a good account of both preference and resistance to change, and is able to predict the increased sensitivity to reinforcer rate and magnitude observed with constant-duration components. Residuals from fits of the cumulative decision model to preference and resistance to change data were positively correlated, supporting the prediction of behavioral momentum theory. Although some questions remain, the learning process assumed by the cumulative decision model, in which outcomes are compared against a criterion that represents the average outcome value in the current context, may provide a plausible model for the acquisition of differential resistance to change. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Stakeholder attitudes towards cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Loo, Ellen J; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Delcour, Ilse; Spanoghe, Pieter; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the attitudes and perspectives of different stakeholder groups (agricultural producers, pesticide manufacturers, trading companies, retailers, regulators, food safety authorities, scientists and NGOs) towards the concepts of cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides by means of qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 15) and a quantitative stakeholder survey (n = 65). The stakeholders involved generally agreed that the use of chemical pesticides is needed, primarily for meeting the need of feeding the growing world population, while clearly acknowledging the problematic nature of human exposure to pesticide residues. Current monitoring was generally perceived to be adequate, but the timeliness and consistency of monitoring practices across countries were questioned. The concept of cumulative exposure assessment was better understood by stakeholders than the concept of aggregate exposure assessment. Identified pitfalls were data availability, data limitations, sources and ways of dealing with uncertainties, as well as information and training needs. Regulators and food safety authorities were perceived as the stakeholder groups for whom cumulative and aggregate pesticide exposure assessment methods and tools would be most useful and acceptable. Insights obtained from this exploratory study have been integrated in the development of targeted and stakeholder-tailored dissemination and training programmes that were implemented within the EU-FP7 project ACROPOLIS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Review: Maize research and production in Nigeria | Iken | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize (Zea mays) is a major important cereal being cultivated in the rainforest and the derived Savannah zones of Nigeria. Land races, improved high yielding and pest and diseases resistant varieties of maize have been developed. Key words: Maize, Zea mays, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(6) 2004: 302- ...

  16. Assessment of serum biochemistry in West African Dwarf (WAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... in our local breeds of goats such as West African Dwarf. (WAD) does. ... Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma in. Edo State ... degree North and latitude 6 degree North located in the rainforest zone of ...

  17. Projected inundations on the South African coast by tsunami waves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historical and recent evidence recorded along the South African coast suggests that five tsunami events have occurred since 1960. These were mostly associated with trigger mechanisms associated with sources of remote submarine seismicity along far-field subduction zones and local atmospheric disturbances ...

  18. Evolution of costly explicit memory and cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2016-06-21

    Humans can acquire new information and modify it (cumulative culture) based on their learning and memory abilities, especially explicit memory, through the processes of encoding, consolidation, storage, and retrieval. Explicit memory is categorized into semantic and episodic memories. Animals have semantic memory, while episodic memory is unique to humans and essential for innovation and the evolution of culture. As both episodic and semantic memory are needed for innovation, the evolution of explicit memory influences the evolution of culture. However, previous theoretical studies have shown that environmental fluctuations influence the evolution of imitation (social learning) and innovation (individual learning) and assume that memory is not an evolutionary trait. If individuals can store and retrieve acquired information properly, they can modify it and innovate new information. Therefore, being able to store and retrieve information is essential from the perspective of cultural evolution. However, if both storage and retrieval were too costly, forgetting and relearning would have an advantage over storing and retrieving acquired information. In this study, using mathematical analysis and individual-based simulations, we investigate whether cumulative culture can promote the coevolution of costly memory and social and individual learning, assuming that cumulative culture improves the fitness of each individual. The conclusions are: (1) without cumulative culture, a social learning cost is essential for the evolution of storage-retrieval. Costly storage-retrieval can evolve with individual learning but costly social learning does not evolve. When low-cost social learning evolves, the repetition of forgetting and learning is favored more than the evolution of costly storage-retrieval, even though a cultural trait improves the fitness. (2) When cumulative culture exists and improves fitness, storage-retrieval can evolve with social and/or individual learning, which

  19. El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin duda alguna al A. Dugandii StandI. Por otra parte, Santiago Cortés (FI. Colomb. 206. 1898; ed, 2: 239. 1912 cita el Cumulá "de Anapoima y otros lugares del (rio Magdalena" diciendo que pertenece a las Leguminosas, pero la brevísima descripción que este autor hace de la madera "naranjada y notable por densidad, dureza y resistencia a la humedad", me induce a creer que se trata del mismo Cumula coleccionado recientemente en Tocaima, ya que esta población esta situada a pocos kilómetros de Anapoima. Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin

  20. African Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... The African (formerly South African) Journal of Marine Science provides an international forum for the publication of original scientific contributions or critical reviews, ...

  1. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education; Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental foundation, challenges and opportunities ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Gender Relations in ... South African Actuarial Journal.

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Educational leadership and ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental foundation, challenges ... South African Actuarial Journal.

  3. Molluscan Population Of An African Arid Zone Lake | Idowu | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species composition, abundance and distribution of molluscs population together with some physico-chemical variables from five different stations in the littoral region of lake Alau, MaiduguriBorno state, were studied from October 2001 to September 2002. Three patterns of seasonal abundance were found, maximal ...

  4. Cumulative socioeconomic status risk, allostatic load, and adjustment: a prospective latent profile analysis with contextual and genetic protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M; Evans, Gary W; Beach, Steven R H; Windle, Michael; Simons, Ronald L; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Philibert, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    The health disparities literature has identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental precursors to this pattern. Hypotheses were tested with a representative sample of 443 African American youths living in the rural South. Cumulative SES risk and protective processes were assessed at ages 11-13 years; psychological adjustment was assessed at ages 14-18 years; genotyping at the 5-HTTLPR was conducted at age 16 years; and allostatic load (AL) was assessed at age 19 years. A latent profile analysis identified 5 profiles that evinced distinct patterns of SES risk, AL, and psychological adjustment, with 2 relatively large profiles designated as focal profiles: a physical health vulnerability profile characterized by high SES risk/high AL/low adjustment problems, and a resilient profile characterized by high SES risk/low AL/low adjustment problems. The physical health vulnerability profile mirrored the pattern found in the adult health disparities literature. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that carrying an s allele at the 5-HTTLPR and receiving less peer support distinguished the physical health vulnerability profile from the resilient profile. Protective parenting and planful self-regulation distinguished both focal profiles from the other 3 profiles. The results suggest the public health importance of preventive interventions that enhance coping and reduce the effects of stress across childhood and adolescence.

  5. Deducing Water Concentrations in the Parent Magma of Cumulate Clinopyroxene and Olivine: Implications for a Hydrous Parent Melt of a Primitive Deccan Lava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Water concentrations of clinopyroxene megacrysts in the Powai ankaramite flow, located near Mumbai, Deccan province, India, indicate that the parent magma of the flow hosted at least 4.3 wt.% water, an unusually high water concentration for a continental flood basalt magma. The Powai flow hosts clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts. Chatterjee and Sheth (2015) showed that phenocrysts in the flow were part of a cumulate layer intruded by basaltic melt at 6 kb and 1230oC, so the phenocrysts record characteristics of the cumulate parent melt. Clinopyroxene phenocrysts are oscillatorily zoned in water, Mg, Fe, and Ca concentrations, and have concentric bands 100-200 microns thick of 10-20 micron diameter melt inclusions. Olivine phenocrysts host only larger isolated melt inclusions. Zones in the cpx phenocrysts where melt inclusion-rich concentric bands occur have higher concentrations of water than inclusion-free zones. Water concentrations of cpx were used to calculate water concentrations in the melt from which the crystals formed using partition coefficients of Hauri et al. (2004). Water concentrations in the parent magma were between 4.3 and 8.2 wt. % based on water concentrations in cpx. Both Mg and Fe are relatively depleted in the water- and melt inclusion-rich zones in cpx, and Ca is enriched in these zones. Oscillatory zoning in cpx may be a result of repeated growth of cpx in water- richer and water-poorer boundary layers where water lowered melt viscosity and enhanced diffusion and crystal growth rates. Water-enhanced growth rates may have resulted in capture of melt inclusions preserved in water-rich cpx zones. Melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts preserve lower water concentrations ( 1.2 wt. %) than those indicated by water concentration in cpx phenocrysts. This disparity may be evidence of water loss from melt inclusions in olivine (Gaetani et al., 2009) or may indicate that cpx and ol crystals did not crystallize from the same parent at the same time.

  6. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  7. Mismatch or cumulative stress : Toward an integrated hypothesis of programming effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the cumulative stress hypothesis with the mismatch hypothesis, taking into account individual differences in sensitivity to programming. According to the cumulative stress hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease as adversity accumulates. According to the

  8. Science and societal partnerships to address cumulative impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn J Lundquist

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Funding and priorities for ocean research are not separate from the underlying sociological, economic, and political landscapes that determine values attributed to ecological systems. Here we present a variation on science prioritisation exercises, focussing on inter-disciplinary research questions with the objective of shifting broad scale management practices to better address cumulative impacts and multiple users. Marine scientists in New Zealand from a broad range of scientific and social-scientific backgrounds ranked 48 statements of research priorities. At a follow up workshop, participants discussed five over-arching themes based on survey results. These themes were used to develop mechanisms to increase the relevance and efficiency of scientific research while acknowledging socio-economic and political drivers of research agendas in New Zealand’s ocean ecosystems. Overarching messages included the need to: 1 determine the conditions under which ‘surprises’ (sudden and substantive undesirable changes are likely to occur and the socio-ecological implications of such changes; 2 develop methodologies to reveal the complex and cumulative effects of change in marine systems, and their implications for resource use, stewardship, and restoration; 3 assess potential solutions to management issues that balance long-term and short-term benefits and encompass societal engagement in decision-making; 4 establish effective and appropriately resourced institutional networks to foster collaborative, solution-focused marine science; and 5 establish cross-disciplinary dialogues to translate diverse scientific and social-scientific knowledge into innovative regulatory, social and economic practice. In the face of multiple uses and cumulative stressors, ocean management frameworks must be adapted to build a collaborative framework across science, governance and society that can help stakeholders navigate uncertainties and socio-ecological surprises.

  9. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cumulative or delayed nephrotoxicity after cisplatin (DDP) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnarò, P; Ruggeri, E M; Carlini, P; Giovannelli, M; Cognetti, F

    1986-04-30

    The present retrospective study reports data regarding renal toxicity in 115 patients (63 males, 52 females; median age, 56 years) who received cumulative doses of cisplatin (DDP) greater than or equal to 200 mg/m2. DDP was administered alone or in combination at a dose of 50-70 mg/m2 in 91 patients, and at a dose of 100 mg/m2 in 22 patients. Two patients after progression of ovarian carcinoma treated with conventional doses of DDP received 4 and 2 courses, respectively, of high-dose DDP (40 mg/m2 for 5 days) in hypertonic saline. The median number of DDP courses was 6 (range 2-14), and the median cumulative dose was 350 mg/m2 (range, 200-1200). Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were determined before initiating the treatment and again 13-16 days after each administration. The incidence of azotemia (creatinina levels that exceeded 1.5 mg/dl) was similar before (7.8%) and after (6.1%) DDP doses of 200 mg/m2. Azotemia appears to be related to the association of DDP with other potentially nephrotoxic antineoplastic drugs (methotrexate) more than to the dose per course of DDP. Of 59 patients followed for 2 months or more after discontinuing the DDP treatment, 3 (5.1%) presented creatinine values higher than 1.5 mg/dl. The data deny that the incidence of nephrotoxicity is higher in patients receiving higher cumulative doses of DDP and confirm that increases in serum creatinine levels may occur some time after discontinuation of the drug.

  11. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  12. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used...... in practice due to the lack of reliable estimation procedures. We suggest such procedures and show that their performance improve considerably on existing methods. We also suggest a goodness-of-fit test for the proportional odds assumption. We derive the large sample properties and provide estimators...

  13. Cumulative exposure to phthalates from phthalate-containing drug products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Broe, Anne; Pottegård, Anton

    2018-01-01

    European regulatory limit of exposure ranging between 380-1710 mg/year throughout the study period. Lithium-products constituted the majority of dibutyl phthalate exposure. Diethyl phthalate exposure, mainly caused by erythromycin, theophylline and diclofenac products, did not exceed the EMA regulatory...... to quantify annual cumulated phthalate exposure from drug products among users of phthalate-containing oral medications in Denmark throughout the period of 2004-2016. METHODS: We conducted a Danish nationwide cohort study using The Danish National Prescription Registry and an internal database held...

  14. Lyapunov exponent of the random frequency oscillator: cumulant expansion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anteneodo, C; Vallejos, R O

    2010-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator with a random frequency, focusing on both the standard and the generalized Lyapunov exponents, λ and λ* respectively. We discuss the numerical difficulties that arise in the numerical calculation of λ* in the case of strong intermittency. When the frequency corresponds to a Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, we compute analytically λ* by using a cumulant expansion including up to the fourth order. Connections with the problem of finding an analytical estimate for the largest Lyapunov exponent of a many-body system with smooth interactions are discussed.

  15. Exact probability distribution function for the volatility of cumulative production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadourian, Rubina; Klümper, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we study the volatility and its probability distribution function for the cumulative production based on the experience curve hypothesis. This work presents a generalization of the study of volatility in Lafond et al. (2017), which addressed the effects of normally distributed noise in the production process. Due to its wide applicability in industrial and technological activities we present here the mathematical foundation for an arbitrary distribution function of the process, which we expect will pave the future research on forecasting of the production process.

  16. Numerical simulation of explosive magnetic cumulative generator EMG-720

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deryugin, Yu N; Zelenskij, D K; Kazakova, I F; Kargin, V I; Mironychev, P V; Pikar, A S; Popkov, N F; Ryaslov, E A; Ryzhatskova, E G [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the methods and results of numerical simulations used in the development of a helical-coaxial explosive magnetic cumulative generator (EMG) with the stator up to 720 mm in diameter. In the process of designing, separate units were numerically modeled, as was the generator operation with a constant inductive-ohmic load. The 2-D processes of the armature acceleration by the explosion products were modeled as well as those of the formation of the sliding high-current contact between the armature and stator`s insulated turns. The problem of the armature integrity in the region of the detonation waves collision was numerically analyzed. 8 figs., 2 refs.

  17. Cumulative exergy losses associated with the production of lead metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szargut, J [Technical Univ. of Silesia, Gliwice (PL). Inst. of Thermal-Engineering; Morris, D R [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1990-08-01

    Cumulative exergy losses result from the irreversibility of the links of a technological network leading from raw materials and fuels extracted from nature to the product under consideration. The sum of these losses can be apportioned into partial exergy losses (associated with particular links of the technological network) or into constituent exergy losses (associated with constituent subprocesses of the network). The methods of calculation of the partial and constituent exergy losses are presented, taking into account the useful byproducts substituting the major products of other processes. Analyses of partial and constituent exergy losses are made for the technological network of lead metal production. (author).

  18. South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Family Practice(SAFP) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, which strives to ... The content of SAFP is designed to reflect and support further development of the broad ... Vol 60, No 2 (2018) ... of doctors and physiotherapists in the rehabilitation of people living with HIV · EMAIL ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Medical Journal is intended for publication of papers on ... research on problems relevant to East Africa and other African countries will receive special ... Analysis of survival patterns of TB‐HIV co‐infected patients in relation to ...

  20. Annals of African Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of the Annals of African Surgery is to provide a medium for the exchange of current information between surgeons in the African region. The journal embraces surgery in all its aspects; basic science, clinical research, experimental research, surgical education. It will assist surgeons in the region to keep abreast of ...

  1. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Nigeria Journal of Business Administration ...

  3. African Journals Online: Guernsey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Guernsey. Home > African Journals Online: Guernsey. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  4. African Journals Online: Grenada

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Grenada. Home > African Journals Online: Grenada. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  5. African Journals Online: India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: India. Home > African Journals Online: India. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  6. African Journals Online: Barbados

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Barbados. Home > African Journals Online: Barbados. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  7. African Journals Online: Malta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Malta. Home > African Journals Online: Malta. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  8. African Journals Online: Bahamas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Bahamas. Home > African Journals Online: Bahamas. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  9. African Journals Online: Liechtenstein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Liechtenstein. Home > African Journals Online: Liechtenstein. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  10. African Journals Online: Vanuatu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Vanuatu. Home > African Journals Online: Vanuatu. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  11. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities; Human Rights under the Ethiopian Constitution: A Descriptive Overview

  12. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Conflicts in Africa: Meaning, Causes, Impact and Solution African Research Review; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; The Rise of ...

  13. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Advertising practice in Nigeria: Development, new trends, challenges and prospects. EJOTMAS: Ekpoma ...

  14. African Journals Online: Aruba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Aruba. Home > African Journals Online: Aruba. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  15. African Journals Online: Kazakhstan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Home > African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  16. African Journals Online: Switzerland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  17. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is a Non-Profit Organisation based ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol 4, No 1 (2012). International ...

  18. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is a Non-Profit Organisation ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology ...

  19. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; Income Tax Assignment under the ... Mizan Law Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  20. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and ...

  1. Archives: African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 67 ... Archives: African Health Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: African Health Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 67 Items, 1 2 > >> ...

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? ... African Journal of Biotechnology; The application of just administrative action in the South African environmental governance sphere: An analysis of some ...

  3. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of ... African Journal of Biotechnology; The application of just administrative action in the South African environmental governance sphere: An analysis of some ...

  4. Annals of African Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of African Medicine is published by the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and the Annals of African Medicine Society. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the broad field of Medicine in Africa and other developing countries, and ...

  5. African Journals Online: Andorra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Andorra. Home > African Journals Online: Andorra. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  6. African Journals Online: Ireland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Ireland. Home > African Journals Online: Ireland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  7. African Journals Online: Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 221 ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... The African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies is an international scientific journal ... d) Critical or analytical reviews in the area of theory, policy, or research in Dentistry. e) Reviews of recently published books or group of books which would be of ...

  8. African Journals Online: Belgium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Belgium. Home > African Journals Online: Belgium. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  9. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to ... Ergonomics SA. Vol 9, No 1 (2017). Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol 14, No 5 (2017). Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences.

  10. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. ... Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries?

  11. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  12. African Art Teaching Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Jacqueline

    Three different models for the teaching of African art are presented in this paper. A comparison of the differences between the approaches of Western art historians and African art historians informs the articulation of the three models--an approach for determining style, another for dealing with analysis, and a third for synthetic interpretation.…

  13. Inspired by African Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, June Rutledge

    1991-01-01

    Argues that African art helps children to learn vital art concepts and enlarges their understanding of the role of art in human culture. Outlines a unit on African art based on animals. Students created fabric designs and illustrated folktales and fables. Provides a list of free resources. (KM)

  14. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed ... Thought and Practice; Advertising practice in Nigeria: Development, new trends, challenges and prospects. EJOTMAS: Ekpoma Journal of ...

  15. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  16. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans ... Global Journal of Geological Sciences. Vol 16, No 1 (2018). Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. Vol 7, No 1 (2017). Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics.

  17. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Oral Health. Vol 35, No 1-2 (2017). Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Vol 7, No 3 (2017). African Journal of Chemical Education. Vol 8, No 2 (2017): Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa.

  18. Archives: African Studies Monographs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: African Studies Monographs. Journal Home > Archives: African Studies Monographs. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 5 of 5 Items. 2007. Vol 8 (2007) ...

  19. African Journals Online: Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... The African Crop Science Journal, a quarterly publication, publishes original ... by the African Health Journals Partnership Project that is funded by the US .... the role, development, management and improvement of higher education from an ... France, France, MEtropolitan, French Guiana, French Polynesia ...

  20. African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences is an open access, free online, internationally ... by the African Health Journals Partnership Project that is funded by the US National .... Homa Ahmadzia, Sarah Cigna, Imelda Namagembe, Charles Macri, France ... Workers (HEWs) delivering integrated community case management (iCCM) of ...

  1. Expansion formulae for characteristics of cumulative cost in finite horizon production models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayhan, H.; Schlegel, S.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the expected value and the tail probability of cumulative shortage and holding cost (i.e. the probability that cumulative cost is more than a certain value) in finite horizon production models. An exact expression is provided for the expected value of the cumulative cost for general

  2. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sra, Kanwartej S; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, Jim F

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O8(2-), SO4(2-), Na(+), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for >10months post-injection. Mass loading (M˙) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in [Formula: see text] indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M˙DIC increased by >100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sra, Kanwartej S.; Thomson, Neil R.; Barker, Jim F.

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O82 -, SO42 -, Na+, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for > 10 months post-injection. Mass loading (M˙) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in M indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M increased by > 100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone.

  4. Human Rights and the African Renaissance | Acheampong | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the idea of African renaissance in relation to the teaching of human rights in African schools. It explores the connection between the African Renaissance and human rights, and whether there is a specific African concept of human rights. In the light of these discussions, the article sketches a perspective ...

  5. The African Diaspora in continental African struggles for freedom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In light of this realization, this article discusses the contributions of the African Diaspora towards continental African liberation from European colonial domination, with a view to theorizing the implications of this history on the criticism of African Renaissance literature. Focusing on Diasporan African agency in organizing ...

  6. Cumulative hierarchies and computability over universes of sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Cantone

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Various metamathematical investigations, beginning with Fraenkel’s historical proof of the independence of the axiom of choice, called for suitable definitions of hierarchical universes of sets. This led to the discovery of such important cumulative structures as the one singled out by von Neumann (generally taken as the universe of all sets and Godel’s universe of the so-called constructibles. Variants of those are exploited occasionally in studies concerning the foundations of analysis (according to Abraham Robinson’s approach, or concerning non-well-founded sets. We hence offer a systematic presentation of these many structures, partly motivated by their relevance and pervasiveness in mathematics. As we report, numerous properties of hierarchy-related notions such as rank, have been verified with the assistance of the ÆtnaNova proof-checker.Through SETL and Maple implementations of procedures which effectively handle the Ackermann’s hereditarily finite sets, we illustrate a particularly significant case among those in which the entities which form a universe of sets can be algorithmically constructed and manipulated; hereby, the fruitful bearing on pure mathematics of cumulative set hierarchies ramifies into the realms of theoretical computer science and algorithmics.

  7. Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Weber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting social, economic, and ecological objectives is ultimately a process of social choice informed by science. In this special feature we provide a multidisciplinary framework for the use of cumulative effects assessment in land use planning. Forest ecosystems are facing considerable challenges driven by population growth and increasing demands for resources. In a suite of case studies that span the boreal forest of Western Canada to the interior Atlantic forest of Paraguay we show how transparent and defensible methods for scenario analysis can be applied in data-limited regions and how social dimensions of land use change can be incorporated in these methods, particularly in aboriginal communities that have lived in these ecosystems for generations. The case studies explore how scenario analysis can be used to evaluate various land use options and highlight specific challenges with identifying social and ecological responses, determining thresholds and targets for land use, and integrating local and traditional knowledge in land use planning. Given that land use planning is ultimately a value-laden and often politically charged process we also provide some perspective on various collective and expert-based processes for identifying cumulative impacts and thresholds. The need for good science to inform and be informed by culturally appropriate democratic processes calls for well-planned and multifaceted approaches both to achieve an informed understanding of both residents and governments of the interactive and additive changes caused by development, and to design action agendas to influence such change at the ecological and social level.

  8. Maternal distress and parenting in the context of cumulative disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditti, Joyce; Burton, Linda; Neeves-Botelho, Sara

    2010-06-01

    This article presents an emergent conceptual model of the features and links between cumulative disadvantage, maternal distress, and parenting practices in low-income families in which parental incarceration has occurred. The model emerged from the integration of extant conceptual and empirical research with grounded theory analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study. Fourteen exemplar family cases were used in the analysis. Results indicated that mothers in these families experienced life in the context of cumulative disadvantage, reporting a cascade of difficulties characterized by neighborhood worries, provider concerns, bureaucratic difficulties, violent intimate relationships, and the inability to meet children's needs. Mothers, however, also had an intense desire to protect their children, and to make up for past mistakes. Although, in response to high levels of maternal distress and disadvantage, most mothers exhibited harsh discipline of their children, some mothers transformed their distress by advocating for their children under difficult circumstances. Women's use of harsh discipline and advocacy was not necessarily an "either/or" phenomenon as half of the mothers included in our analysis exhibited both harsh discipline and care/advocacy behaviors. Maternal distress characterized by substance use, while connected to harsh disciplinary behavior, did not preclude mothers engaging in positive parenting behaviors.

  9. Cumulative phase delay imaging for contrast-enhanced ultrasound tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demi, Libertario; Van Sloun, Ruud J G; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Standard dynamic-contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) imaging detects and estimates ultrasound-contrast-agent (UCA) concentration based on the amplitude of the nonlinear (harmonic) components generated during ultrasound (US) propagation through UCAs. However, harmonic components generation is not specific to UCAs, as it also occurs for US propagating through tissue. Moreover, nonlinear artifacts affect standard DCE-US imaging, causing contrast to tissue ratio reduction, and resulting in possible misclassification of tissue and misinterpretation of UCA concentration. Furthermore, no contrast-specific modality exists for DCE-US tomography; in particular speed-of-sound changes due to UCAs are well within those caused by different tissue types. Recently, a new marker for UCAs has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental component is in fact observable for US propagating through UCAs, and is absent in tissue. In this paper, tomographic US images based on CPD are for the first time presented and compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Results show the applicability of this marker for contrast specific US imaging, with cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI) showing superior capabilities in detecting and localizing UCA, as compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Cavities (filled with UCA) which were down to 1 mm in diameter were clearly detectable. Moreover, CPDI is free of the above mentioned nonlinear artifacts. These results open important possibilities to DCE-US tomography, with potential applications to breast imaging for cancer localization. (fast track communication)

  10. Cumulant expansions for measuring water exchange using diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Lipeng; Nilsson, Markus; Lasič, Samo; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Rathi, Yogesh

    2018-02-01

    The rate of water exchange across cell membranes is a parameter of biological interest and can be measured by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). In this work, we investigate a stochastic model for the diffusion-and-exchange of water molecules. This model provides a general solution for the temporal evolution of dMRI signal using any type of gradient waveform, thereby generalizing the signal expressions for the Kärger model. Moreover, we also derive a general nth order cumulant expansion of the dMRI signal accounting for water exchange, which has not been explored in earlier studies. Based on this analytical expression, we compute the cumulant expansion for dMRI signals for the special case of single diffusion encoding (SDE) and double diffusion encoding (DDE) sequences. Our results provide a theoretical guideline on optimizing experimental parameters for SDE and DDE sequences, respectively. Moreover, we show that DDE signals are more sensitive to water exchange at short-time scale but provide less attenuation at long-time scale than SDE signals. Our theoretical analysis is also validated using Monte Carlo simulations on synthetic structures.

  11. A Cumulant-based Analysis of Nonlinear Magnetospheric Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jay R.; Wing, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Understanding magnetospheric dynamics and predicting future behavior of the magnetosphere is of great practical interest because it could potentially help to avert catastrophic loss of power and communications. In order to build good predictive models it is necessary to understand the most critical nonlinear dependencies among observed plasma and electromagnetic field variables in the coupled solar wind/magnetosphere system. In this work, we apply a cumulant-based information dynamical measure to characterize the nonlinear dynamics underlying the time evolution of the Dst and Kp geomagnetic indices, given solar wind magnetic field and plasma input. We examine the underlying dynamics of the system, the temporal statistical dependencies, the degree of nonlinearity, and the rate of information loss. We find a significant solar cycle dependence in the underlying dynamics of the system with greater nonlinearity for solar minimum. The cumulant-based approach also has the advantage that it is reliable even in the case of small data sets and therefore it is possible to avoid the assumption of stationarity, which allows for a measure of predictability even when the underlying system dynamics may change character. Evaluations of several leading Kp prediction models indicate that their performances are sub-optimal during active times. We discuss possible improvements of these models based on this nonparametric approach

  12. Strategy for an assessment of cumulative ecological impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, P.; Collins, J.; Nelsen, J.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a strategy to conduct an assessment of the cumulative ecological impact of operations at the 300-square-mile Savannah River Site. This facility has over 400 identified waste units and contains several large watersheds. In addition to individual waste units, residual contamination must be evaluated in terms of its contribution to ecological risks at zonal and site-wide levels. DOE must be able to generate sufficient information to facilitate cleanup in the immediate future within the context of a site-wide ecological risk assessment that may not be completed for many years. The strategy superimposes a more global perspective on ecological assessments of individual waste units and provides strategic underpinnings for conducting individual screening-level and baseline risk assessments at the operable unit and zonal or watershed levels. It identifies ecological endpoints and risk assessment tools appropriate for each level of the risk assessment. In addition, it provides a clear mechanism for identifying clean sites through screening-level risk assessments and for elevating sites with residual contamination to the next level of assessment. Whereas screening-level and operable unit-level risk assessments relate directly to cleanup, zonal and site-wide assessments verity or confirm the overall effectiveness of remediation. The latter assessments must show, for example, whether multiple small areas with residual pesticide contamination that have minimal individual impact would pose a cumulative risk from bioaccumulation because they are within the habitat range of an ecological receptor

  13. African bees to control African elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  14. Work zone safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  15. Fault zone hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

  16. Multi-Risk Infants: Predicting Attachment Security from Sociodemographic, Psychosocial, and Health Risk among African-American Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. Methods: One hundred and twelve high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads…

  17. Calling Out the Elephant: An Examination of African American Male Achievement in Community Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Bush

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This mixed method study examines the effects of community college institutional factors on the academic achievement of African American males and their perceptions of their college experience. We found that African American men in comparison to other ethnic and gender sub-groups (for both the California community college system and at Inland Community College are disproportionately underachieving in all segments of the academic outcomes measured. African American men throughout California’s community college system (including Inland Community College are the lowest performing subgroup when one considers: percentage of degrees earned, persistence rates, and average cumulative grade point average. The analysis of African American men’s perceptions of their college experience suggest that African American men have greater amounts of dissatisfaction and do not engage with the various segments of the college when compared to the other subgroups in the study. African American males were more likely not to meet with faculty members or have contact with them outside of the classroom. More importantly, faculty interaction predicted if African American male students persisted, transferred, and maintained a higher grade point average at the case study institution. The variables associated with campus climate predicted if African American male students transferred, had higher grade point averages, and graduated at higher rates from the case institution.

  18. Effects of the hydraulic conductivity of the matrix/macropore interface on cumulative infiltrations into dual-permeability media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassabatere, L.; Peyrard, X.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Simunek, J.

    2009-12-01

    Modeling of water infiltration into the vadose zone is important for better understanding of movement of water-transported contaminants. There is a great need to take into account the soil heterogeneity and, in particular, the presence of macropores or cracks that could generate preferential flow. Several mathematical models have been proposed to describe unsaturated flow through heterogeneous soils. The dual-permeability model (referred to as the 2K model) assumes that flow is governed by Richards equation in both porous regions (matrix and macropores). Water can be exchanged between the two regions following a first-order rate law. Although several studies have dealt with such modeling, no study has evaluated the influence of the hydraulic conductivity of the matrix/macropore interface on water cumulative infiltration. And this is the focus of this study. An analytical scaling method reveals the role of the following main parameters for given boundary and initial conditions: the saturated hydraulic conductivity ratio (R_Ks), the water pressure scale parameter ratio (R_hg), the saturated volumetric water content ratio (R_θs), and the shape parameters of the water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions. The last essential parameter is related to the interfacial hydraulic conductivity (Ka) between the macropore and matrix regions. The scaled 2K flow equations were solved using HYDRUS-1D 4.09 for the specific case of water infiltrating into an initially uniform soil profile and a zero pressure head at the soil surface. A sensitivity of water infiltration was studied for different sets of scale parameters (R_Ks, R_hg, R_θs, and shape parameters) and the scaled interfacial conductivity (Ka). Numerical results illustrate two extreme behaviors. When the interfacial conductivity is zero (i.e., no water exchange), water infiltrates separately into matrix and macropore regions, producing a much deeper moisture front in the macropore domain. In the opposite case

  19. African Journal on Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal on Conflict Resolution (AJCR) publishes the writings of a wide range of African and international authors in the field, but emphasis has deliberately been kept on African writers and the thinking emerging from African universities, colleges and organisations. Other websites assiciated with this Journal: ...

  20. African communalism and globalization | Etta | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 3 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  1. AFRICAN SOLUTIONS TO AFRICA'S PROBLEMS? AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilse van der Walt

    foreign policy challenge from which most others will ultimately emanate.46 .... African politics easily degenerates into a life-and-death struggle over private ... material interest and power balancing dominate as “predictability based on a set of ..... Due to its proximity to conflict areas, civil society has been able to work at.

  2. Africans Consuming Hair, Africans Consumed by Hair

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are anything to go by, Africans, it seems to us, are more amenable to flexible, ... to recognise and provide for the present absences and the absent presences of ... Beauty is as much a work of nature as it is the outcome of working on nature.

  3. Cumulative effects in Swedish EIA practice - difficulties and obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waernbaeck, Antoienette; Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija

    2009-01-01

    The importance of considering cumulative effects (CE) in the context of environmental assessment is manifested in the EU regulations. The demands on the contents of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) documents explicitly ask for CE to be described. In Swedish environmental assessment documents CE are rarely described or included. The aim of this paper is to look into the reasons behind this fact in the Swedish context. The paper describes and analyse how actors implementing the EIA and SEA legislation in Sweden perceive the current situation in relation to the legislative demands and the inclusion of cumulative effects. Through semi-structured interviews the following questions have been explored: Is the phenomenon of CE discussed and included in the EIA/SEA process? What do the actors include in and what is their knowledge of the term and concept of CE? Which difficulties and obstacles do these actors experience and what possibilities for inclusion of CE do they see in the EIA/SEA process? A large number of obstacles and hindrances emerged from the interviews conducted. It can be concluded from the analysis that the will to act does seem to exist. A lack of knowledge in respect of how to include cumulative effects and a lack of clear regulations concerning how this should be done seem to be perceived as the main obstacles. The knowledge of the term and the phenomenon is furthermore quite narrow and not all encompassing. They experience that there is a lack of procedures in place. They also seem to lack knowledge of methods in relation to how to actually work, in practice, with CE and how to include CE in the EIA/SEA process. It can be stated that the existence of this poor picture in relation to practice concerning CE in the context of impact assessment mirrors the existing and so far rather vague demands in respect of the inclusion and assessment of CE in Swedish EIA and SEA legislation, regulations, guidelines and

  4. Technical Note: SCUDA: A software platform for cumulative dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seyoun; McNutt, Todd; Quon, Harry; Wong, John; Lee, Junghoon, E-mail: rshekhar@childrensnational.org, E-mail: junghoon@jhu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Plishker, William [IGI Technologies, Inc., College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Shekhar, Raj, E-mail: rshekhar@childrensnational.org, E-mail: junghoon@jhu.edu [IGI Technologies, Inc., College Park, Maryland 20742 and Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children’s National Health System, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: Accurate tracking of anatomical changes and computation of actually delivered dose to the patient are critical for successful adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Additionally, efficient data management and fast processing are practically important for the adoption in clinic as ART involves a large amount of image and treatment data. The purpose of this study was to develop an accurate and efficient Software platform for CUmulative Dose Assessment (SCUDA) that can be seamlessly integrated into the clinical workflow. Methods: SCUDA consists of deformable image registration (DIR), segmentation, dose computation modules, and a graphical user interface. It is connected to our image PACS and radiotherapy informatics databases from which it automatically queries/retrieves patient images, radiotherapy plan, beam data, and daily treatment information, thus providing an efficient and unified workflow. For accurate registration of the planning CT and daily CBCTs, the authors iteratively correct CBCT intensities by matching local intensity histograms during the DIR process. Contours of the target tumor and critical structures are then propagated from the planning CT to daily CBCTs using the computed deformations. The actual delivered daily dose is computed using the registered CT and patient setup information by a superposition/convolution algorithm, and accumulated using the computed deformation fields. Both DIR and dose computation modules are accelerated by a graphics processing unit. Results: The cumulative dose computation process has been validated on 30 head and neck (HN) cancer cases, showing 3.5 ± 5.0 Gy (mean±STD) absolute mean dose differences between the planned and the actually delivered doses in the parotid glands. On average, DIR, dose computation, and segmentation take 20 s/fraction and 17 min for a 35-fraction treatment including additional computation for dose accumulation. Conclusions: The authors developed a unified software platform that provides

  5. Black versus Black: The Relationship among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…

  6. Cumulative trauma and symptom complexity in children: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Monica; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John; Lanktree, Cheryl; Gilbert, Alicia; Kletzka, Nicole Taylor

    2013-11-01

    Multiple trauma exposures during childhood are associated with a range of psychological symptoms later in life. In this study, we examined whether the total number of different types of trauma experienced by children (cumulative trauma) is associated with the complexity of their subsequent symptomatology, where complexity is defined as the number of different symptom clusters simultaneously elevated into the clinical range. Children's symptoms in six different trauma-related areas (e.g., depression, anger, posttraumatic stress) were reported both by child clients and their caretakers in a clinical sample of 318 children. Path analysis revealed that accumulated exposure to multiple different trauma types predicts symptom complexity as reported by both children and their caretakers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Near-Field Source Localization Using a Special Cumulant Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Han; Wei, Gang

    A new near-field source localization algorithm based on a uniform linear array was proposed. The proposed algorithm estimates each parameter separately but does not need pairing parameters. It can be divided into two important steps. The first step is bearing-related electric angle estimation based on the ESPRIT algorithm by constructing a special cumulant matrix. The second step is the other electric angle estimation based on the 1-D MUSIC spectrum. It offers much lower computational complexity than the traditional near-field 2-D MUSIC algorithm and has better performance than the high-order ESPRIT algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed algorithm is close to the Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB).

  8. Cumulative growth of minor hysteresis loops in the Kolmogorov model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meilikhov, E. Z.; Farzetdinova, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of nonrepeatability of successive remagnetization cycles in Co/M (M = Pt, Pd, Au) multilayer film structures is explained in the framework of the Kolmogorov crystallization model. It is shown that this model of phase transitions can be adapted so as to adequately describe the process of magnetic relaxation in the indicated systems with “memory.” For this purpose, it is necessary to introduce some additional elements into the model, in particular, (i) to take into account the fact that every cycle starts from a state “inherited” from the preceding cycle and (ii) to assume that the rate of growth of a new magnetic phase depends on the cycle number. This modified model provides a quite satisfactory qualitative and quantitative description of all features of successive magnetic relaxation cycles in the system under consideration, including the surprising phenomenon of cumulative growth of minor hysteresis loops.

  9. Cumulative protons in 12C fragmentation at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, B.M.; Alekseev, P.N.; Borodin, Y.A.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Dukhovskoi, I.A.; Khanov, A.I.; Krutenkova, A.P.; Kulikov, V.V.; Martemianov, M.A.; Matsuk, M.A.; Turdakina, E.N.

    2014-01-01

    In the FRAGM experiment at heavy ion accelerator complex TWAC-ITEP, the proton yields at an angle 3.5 degrees have been measured in fragmentation of carbon ions at T 0 equals 0.3, 0.6, 0.95 and 2.0 GeV/nucleon on beryllium target. The data are presented as invariant proton yields on cumulative variable x in the range 0.9 < x < 2.4. Proton spectra cover six orders of invariant cross section magnitude. They have been analyzed in the framework of quark cluster fragmentation model. Fragmentation functions of quark- gluon string model are used. The probabilities of the existence of multi-quark clusters in carbon nuclei are estimated to be 8 - 12% for six-quark clusters and 0.2 - 0.6% for nine- quark clusters. (authors)

  10. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF CUMULATIVE SURFACE LOCATION ERROR FOR TURNING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K. Kiss

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to create a mechanical model which is suitable to investigate the surface quality in turning processes, based on the Cumulative Surface Location Error (CSLE, which describes the series of the consecutive Surface Location Errors (SLE in roughing operations. In the established model, the investigated CSLE depends on the currently and the previously resulted SLE by means of the variation of the width of cut. The phenomenon of the system can be described as an implicit discrete map. The stationary Surface Location Error and its bifurcations were analysed and flip-type bifurcation was observed for CSLE. Experimental verification of the theoretical results was carried out.

  11. Cumulative neutrino background from quasar-driven outflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: xiawei.wang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Quasar-driven outflows naturally account for the missing component of the extragalactic γ-ray background through neutral pion production in interactions between protons accelerated by the forward outflow shock and interstellar protons. We study the simultaneous neutrino emission by the same protons. We adopt outflow parameters that best fit the extragalactic γ-ray background data and derive a cumulative neutrino background of ∼ 10{sup −7} GeV cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} sr{sup −1} at neutrino energies E {sub ν} ∼> 10 TeV, which naturally explains the most recent IceCube data without tuning any free parameters. The link between the γ-ray and neutrino emission from quasar outflows can be used to constrain the high-energy physics of strong shocks at cosmological distances.

  12. Using Fuzzy Probability Weights in Cumulative Prospect Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Užga-Rebrovs Oļegs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past years, a rapid growth has been seen in the descriptive approaches to decision choice. As opposed to normative expected utility theory, these approaches are based on the subjective perception of probabilities by the individuals, which takes place in real situations of risky choice. The modelling of this kind of perceptions is made on the basis of probability weighting functions. In cumulative prospect theory, which is the focus of this paper, decision prospect outcome weights are calculated using the obtained probability weights. If the value functions are constructed in the sets of positive and negative outcomes, then, based on the outcome value evaluations and outcome decision weights, generalised evaluations of prospect value are calculated, which are the basis for choosing an optimal prospect.

  13. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups). PMID:21199845

  14. Optimal execution with price impact under Cumulative Prospect Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingdong; Zhu, Hongliang; Li, Xindan

    2018-01-01

    Optimal execution of a stock (or portfolio) has been widely studied in academia and in practice over the past decade, and minimizing transaction costs is a critical point. However, few researchers consider the psychological factors for the traders. What are traders truly concerned with - buying low in the paper accounts or buying lower compared to others? We consider the optimal trading strategies in terms of the price impact and Cumulative Prospect Theory and identify some specific properties. Our analyses indicate that a large proportion of the execution volume is distributed at both ends of the transaction time. But the trader's optimal strategies may not be implemented at the same transaction size and speed in different market environments.

  15. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker; Wright, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences...... on impact can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated impact assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making...... could also help limit, if not reduce, cumulative impacts of multiple human activities. These simple management steps may also form the basis of a rudimentary form of marine spatial planning and could be used in support of future ecosystem-based management efforts....

  16. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew J; Kyhn, Line A

    2015-04-01

    Human pressure on the environment is expanding and intensifying, especially in coastal and offshore areas. Major contributors to this are the current push for offshore renewable energy sources, which are thought of as environmentally friendly sources of power, as well as the continued demand for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap on impact can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated impact assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making could also help limit, if not reduce, cumulative impacts of multiple human activities. These simple management steps may also form the basis of a rudimentary form of marine spatial planning and could be used in support of future ecosystem-based management efforts. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. County-level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; Messer, Lynne C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Grabich, Shannon C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2017-08-01

    Individual environmental exposures are associated with cancer development; however, environmental exposures occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) is a county-level measure of cumulative environmental exposures that occur in 5 domains. The EQI was linked to county-level annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program state cancer profiles. All-site cancer and the top 3 site-specific cancers for male and female subjects were considered. Incident rate differences (IRDs; annual rate difference per 100,000 persons) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed-slope, random intercept multilevel linear regression models. Associations were assessed with domain-specific indices and analyses were stratified by rural/urban status. Comparing the highest quintile/poorest environmental quality with the lowest quintile/best environmental quality for overall EQI, all-site county-level cancer incidence rate was positively associated with poor environmental quality overall (IRD, 38.55; 95% CI, 29.57-47.53) and for male (IRD, 32.60; 95% CI, 16.28-48.91) and female (IRD, 30.34; 95% CI, 20.47-40.21) subjects, indicating a potential increase in cancer incidence with decreasing environmental quality. Rural/urban stratified models demonstrated positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles for all strata, except the thinly populated/rural stratum and in the metropolitan/urbanized stratum. Prostate and breast cancer demonstrated the strongest positive associations with poor environmental quality. We observed strong positive associations between the EQI and all-site cancer incidence rates, and associations differed by rural/urban status and environmental domain. Research focusing on single environmental exposures in cancer development may not address the broader environmental context in which cancers develop, and future research should address cumulative environmental

  18. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  19. Basement control in the development of the early cretaceous West and Central African rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Jean-Christophe; Guiraud, René

    1993-12-01

    The structural framework of the Precambrian basement of the West and Central African Rift System (WCARS) is described in order to examine the role of ancient structures in the development of this Early Cretaceous rift system. Basement structures are represented in the region by large Pan-African mobile belts (built at ca. 600 Ma) surrounding the > 2 Ga West African, Congo and Sao Francisco cratons. Except for the small Gao trough (eastern Mali) located near the contact nappe of the Pan-African Iforas suture zone along the edge of the West African craton, the entire WCARS is located within the internal domains of the Pan-African mobile belts. Within these domains, two main structural features occur as the main basement control of the WCARS: (1) an extensive network of near vertical shear zones which trend north-south through the Congo, Brazil, Nigeria, Niger and Algeria, and roughly east-west through northeastern Brazil and Central Africa. The shear zones correspond to intra-continental strike-slip faults which accompanied the oblique collision between the West African, Congo, and Sao Francisco cratons during the Late Proterozoic; (2) a steep metamorphic NW-SE-trending belt which corresponds to a pre-Pan-African (ca. 730 Ma) ophiolitic suture zone along the eastern edge of the Trans-Saharian mobile belt. The post-Pan-African magmatic and tectonic evolution of the basement is also described in order to examine the state of the lithosphere prior to the break-up which occurred in the earliest Cretaceous. After the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event, the basement of the WCARS experienced a long period of intra-plate magmatic activity. This widespread magmatism in part relates to the activity of intra-plate hotspots which have controlled relative uplift, subsidence and occasionally block faulting. During the Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic, this tectonic activity was restricted to west of the Hoggar, west of Aïr and northern Cameroon. During the Late Jurassic

  20. East African Cenozoic vegetation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Hans Peter

    2017-11-01

    The modern vegetation of East Africa is a complex mosaic of rainforest patches; small islands of tropic-alpine vegetation; extensive savannas, ranging from almost pure grassland to wooded savannas; thickets; and montane grassland and forest. Here I trace the evolution of these vegetation types through the Cenozoic. Paleogene East Africa was most likely geomorphologically subdued and, as the few Eocene fossil sites suggest, a woodland in a seasonal climate. Woodland rather than rainforest may well have been the regional vegetation. Mountain building started with the Oligocene trap lava flows in Ethiopia, on which rainforest developed, with little evidence of grass and none of montane forests. The uplift of the East African Plateau took place during the middle Miocene. Fossil sites indicate the presence of rainforest, montane forest and thicket, and wooded grassland, often in close juxtaposition, from 17 to 10 Ma. By 10 Ma, marine deposits indicate extensive grassland in the region and isotope analysis indicates that this was a C 3 grassland. In the later Miocene rifting, first of the western Albertine Rift and then of the eastern Gregory Rift, added to the complexity of the environment. The building of the high strato-volcanos during the later Mio-Pliocene added environments suitable for tropic-alpine vegetation. During this time, the C 3 grassland was replaced by C 4 savannas, although overall the extent of grassland was reduced from the mid-Miocene high to the current low level. Lake-level fluctuations during the Quaternary indicate substantial variation in rainfall, presumably as a result of movements in the intertropical convergence zone and the Congo air boundary, but the impact of these fluctuations on the vegetation is still speculative. I argue that, overall, there was an increase in the complexity of East African vegetation complexity during the Neogene, largely as a result of orogeny. The impact of Quaternary climatic fluctuation is still poorly understood

  1. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest online library of ... and find other information sources and more resources for researchers and journals. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad.

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest online library of ... and find other information sources and more resources for researchers and journals. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence.

  3. Whither the African University

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sam

    reform. 1. Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Addis Ababa University ..... reduce African universities to virtually vocational schools. The World ..... theories, established institutions, and widely held beliefs according to the cannons ...

  4. African Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    imports over exports leading to unfavourable balance of payments, low domestic ... on the subject examine the effect of FDI on economic growth and a few ..... Given that the data sample in this thesis covers the selected African countries,.

  5. The African oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Mark; Griffiths, Thalia

    1999-10-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Adding value to African hydrocarbons in a global energy market; North Africa; East Africa; West Africa; Central Africa; Southern Africa; Strategies for Africa; Outlook. (Author)

  6. A South African Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    ... subject-oriented terminography, translation-oriented terminography and linguistic .... The South African language policy promotes the equitable use of the offi- ... management, trade negotiations, provision of services, job security and institu-.

  7. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries, African decision makers nonetheless began to reconsider the role and place of military ..... challenged the war—fighting paradigm for armed forces or the 2003 Gulf ..... Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. Evans ...

  8. African Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info .... that a person's behaviour is inspired by what he wants or needs at that ... (polytechnic lecturers) was based on the prediction of the coefficient of determination .... Purchasing & Supply. 57. 55.

  9. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  10. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-11-11

    Nov 11, 2003 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. ... Lecturer/Consultant Surgeon, Paediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, .... mind and the results obtained were however satisfying.

  11. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Social Science: Reflection on Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Perspectives Ethiopian Journal of ... South African Journal of Education; An approach to the neck mass ... Madagascar Conservation & Development.

  12. African Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info ... This study investigated the relationship between conflict management styles and teachers' productivity ... Key words: conflict, conflict management styles, teachers productivity, public secondary.

  13. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited scientific journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the .... The effects of extended water supply disruptions on the operations of SMEs · EMAIL FREE ...

  14. African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences is an open access, free online, internationally ... Ebola virus disease: assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing ... and immune system modulation by aerobic versus resisted exercise training for elderly ...

  15. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013). International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol 5, No 3 (2013). International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol 30, No 1 (2018). South African Journal of Sports Medicine. Vol 66 (2014). Vulture News.

  16. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Featured Country: Ghana, Featured Journal: Journal of Business Research. Most recent issues on AJOL: Vol 13 (2017). African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences. Vol 7 (2017) ... Vol 6, No 2 (2014). Journal of ...

  17. African Health Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences is an internationally refereed, free access, journal publishing original articles on research, clinical practice, public health, policy, planning, ... Makerere University School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences

  18. African Journals Online: Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 27 of 27 ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences .... The Ghana Medical Journal is a peer-reviewed, open access journal ... The Journal of Business Research (JBR) is an International journal published by ...

  19. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (1993) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Science: Reflection on Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Perspectives Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; The Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Some Ethical Reflections Thought and Practice; Educational leadership and management: theory, policy and practice. South African Journal of Education ...

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult ... Featured Country: Egypt, Arab Rep. Featured Journal: Alexandria Journal of Medicine ...

  3. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent ... The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new ... Advertising practice in Nigeria: Development, new trends, challenges and prospects

  4. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent ... Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Advertising practice in Nigeria: ...

  5. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection ... Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities; Advertising ...

  6. African Journals Online: Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review. SAFERE provides women with a writing platform which is feminist in content and ... The Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research comprised of four sections: Scholarly articles ...

  7. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. VT Data - Zoning 20120709, Huntington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning district data for the Town of Huntington, Vermont. For details regarding each zoning district refer to the current zoning regulations on town of Huntington's...

  9. The effects of cumulative risks and promotive factors on urban adolescent alcohol and other drug use: a longitudinal study of resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostaszewski, Krzysztof; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2006-12-01

    Resiliency theory provides a conceptual framework for studying why some youth exposed to risk factors do not develop the negative behaviors they predict. The purpose of this study was to test compensatory and protective models of resiliency in a longitudinal sample of urban adolescents (80% African American). The data were from Years 1 (9th grade) and 4 (12th grade). The study examined effects of cumulative risk and promotive factors on adolescent polydrug use including alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. Cumulative measures of risk/promotive factors represented individual characteristics, peer influence, and parental/familial influences. After controlling for demographics, results of multiple regression of polydrug use support the compensatory model of resiliency both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Promotive factors were also found to have compensatory effects on change in adolescent polydrug use. The protective model of resiliency evidenced cross-sectionally was not supported in longitudinal analysis. The findings support resiliency theory and the use of cumulative risk/promotive measures in resiliency research. Implications focused on utilizing multiple assets and resources in prevention programming are discussed.

  10. The African Credit Trap

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Andrianova; Badi H. Baltagi; Panicos O. Demetriades; David Fielding

    2010-01-01

    We put forward a plausible explanation of African financial underdevelopment in the form of a bad credit market equilibrium. Utilising an appropriately modified IO model of banking, we show that the root of the problem could be unchecked moral hazard (strategic loan defaults) or adverse selection (a lack of good projects). We provide empirical evidence from a large panel of African banks which suggests that loan defaults are a major factor inhibiting bank lending when the quality of regulatio...

  11. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  12. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  13. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  14. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union."

  15. Geoconservation - a southern African and African perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    1999-10-01

    In contrast to Europe, where geoconservation is actively pursued in most countries and where two international symposia on this subject have been staged in 1991 and 1996, geoconservation in Africa has indeed a very poor record. Considering the wealth of outstanding geological sites and the importance African stratigraphy has within the global geological record, pro-active geoconservation on this continent has not featured very prominently to date. In the interest of science, education and tourism, unique and typical geosites need to be identified, catalogued, and prioritised with the aim being their protection. Most African countries do not have vibrant non-governmental organisations such as a strong geological society, which could drive projects like geoconservation, or strong support from the private sector for environmental work. Here, a case is made for the role that established National Geological Surveys, some of which are already involved with retroactive environmental geological work, could play in the forefront of pro-active geoconservation and site protection.

  16. Analysis of LDPE-ZnO-clay nanocomposites using novel cumulative rheological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracalik, Milan

    2017-05-01

    Polymer nanocomposites exhibit complex rheological behaviour due to physical and also possibly chemical interactions between individual phases. Up to now, rheology of dispersive polymer systems has been usually described by evaluation of viscosity curve (shear thinning phenomenon), storage modulus curve (formation of secondary plateau) or plotting information about dumping behaviour (e.g. Van Gurp-Palmen-plot, comparison of loss factor tan δ). On the contrary to evaluation of damping behaviour, values of cot δ were calculated and called as "storage factor", analogically to loss factor. Then values of storage factor were integrated over specific frequency range and called as "cumulative storage factor". In this contribution, LDPE-ZnO-clay nanocomposites with different dispersion grades (physical networks) have been prepared and characterized by both conventional as well as novel analysis approach. Next to cumulative storage factor, further cumulative rheological parameters like cumulative complex viscosity, cumulative complex modulus or cumulative storage modulus have been introduced.

  17. Cumulative Author Index for Soviet Laser Bibliographies Nos. 67-93, September 1983-February 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    C) 0 00 I: Cumulative Author Index for Soviet Laser Bibliographies September 1983 - February 1989 A Defense S&T Intelligence Special Purpose Document...90 CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR SOVIET LASER BIBLIOGRAPHIES Nos. 67-93 SEPTEMBER 1983 - FEBRUARY 1989 Date of Report March 31, 19 Vice Director for...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER DST-2700Z-001-90 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX FOR SOVIET LASER

  18. African Environmental Change from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoag, Colin Brewster; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2018-01-01

    This review explores what past environmental change in Africa—and African people’s response to it—can teach us about how to cope with life in the Anthropocene. Organized around four drivers of change—climate; agriculture and pastoralism; megafauna; and imperialism, colonialism, and capitalism......—our review focuses on key regions and debates, including dynamics of the Sahara-Sahel zones; the structure and function of savannas and Central African rainforests; and efforts at nature conservation. Contingent environmental change is a recurring theme in the history of the continent, producing a mosaic...... floral and faunal biogeography. With high levels of poverty, fast population growth, and potentially dramatic impacts expected from future climate change, Africa is emblematic of the kinds of social and ecological precariousness many fear will characterize the future globally. African people’s innovation...

  19. High selection pressure promotes increase in cumulative adaptive culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available The evolution of cumulative adaptive culture has received widespread interest in recent years, especially the factors promoting its occurrence. Current evolutionary models suggest that an increase in population size may lead to an increase in cultural complexity via a higher rate of cultural transmission and innovation. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of natural selection in the evolution of cultural complexity. Here we use an agent-based simulation model to demonstrate that high selection pressure in the form of resource pressure promotes the accumulation of adaptive culture in spite of small population sizes and high innovation costs. We argue that the interaction of demography and selection is important, and that neither can be considered in isolation. We predict that an increase in cultural complexity is most likely to occur under conditions of population pressure relative to resource availability. Our model may help to explain why culture change can occur without major environmental change. We suggest that understanding the interaction between shifting selective pressures and demography is essential for explaining the evolution of cultural complexity.

  20. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  1. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  2. Nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism: Cumulative hypothyroidism incidence after radioiodine and surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinser, J.A.; Roesler, H.; Furrer, T.; Gruetter, D.Z.; Zimmermann, H.

    1989-01-01

    During 1977, 246 hyperthyroid patients were seen in our departments, 140 (57%) with nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism (NIH)--101 with a toxic adenoma (TA) and 39 with multifocal functional autonomy (MFA). All patients but one could be followed over 9 yr, 101 after 131I treatment (RIT), another 29 after surgery (S). Ten patients were left untreated. Thirty-four treated (24%) patients died, none as a result of thyroid or post-treatment complications. There was no hyperthyroidism later than 9 mo after therapy. Only 1% (RIT) and 24% (S) were hypothyroid 1 yr after treatment. But 19% of all treated NIH patients were hypothyroid after 9 yr or at the time of their death, 12% after RIT and 41% after S. The cumulative hypothyroidism incidences 1.4%/yr for RIT and 2.2%/yr for S, were not significantly different. Out of the five survivers without RIT or S, two TA patients were hypothyroid. The effect of RIT on goiter related loco-regional complications was not worse than after S. We conclude that RIT is the treatment for NIH, leaving surgery for exceptional cases

  3. Cumulative biological impacts of The Geysers geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    The cumulative nature of current and potential future biological impacts from full geothermal development in the steam-dominated portion of The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA are identified by the California Energy Commission staff. Vegetation, wildlife, and aquatic resources information have been reviewed and evaluated. Impacts and their significance are discussed and staff recommendations presented. Development of 3000 MW of electrical energy will result in direct vegetation losses of 2790 acres, based on an estimate of 11.5% loss per lease-hold of 0.93 acres/MW. If unmitigated, losses will be greater. Indirect vegetation losses and damage occur from steam emissions which contain elements (particularly boron) toxic to vegetation. Other potential impacts include chronic low-level boron exposure, acid rain, local climate modification, and mechanical damage. A potential exists for significant reduction and changes in wildlife from direct habitat loss and development influences. Highly erosive soils create the potential for significant reduction of aquatic resources, particularly game fish. Toxic spills have caused some temporary losses of aquatic species. Staff recommends monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures at all geothermal development stages.

  4. Estimation of Cumulative Absolute Velocity using Empirical Green's Function Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dong Hee; Yun, Kwan Hee; Chang, Chun Joong; Park, Se Moon

    2009-01-01

    In recognition of the needs to develop a new criterion for determining when the OBE (Operating Basis Earthquake) has been exceeded at nuclear power plants, Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV) was introduced by EPRI. The concept of CAV is the area accumulation with the values more than 0.025g occurred during every one second. The equation of the CAV is as follows. CAV = ∫ 0 max |a(t)|dt (1) t max = duration of record, a(t) = acceleration (>0.025g) Currently, the OBE exceedance criteria in Korea is Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA, PGA>0.1g). When Odesan earthquake (M L =4.8, January 20th, 2007) and Gyeongju earthquake (M L =3.4, June 2nd, 1999) were occurred, we have had already experiences of PGA greater than 0.1g that did not even cause any damage to the poorly-designed structures nearby. This moderate earthquake has motivated Korea to begin the use of the CAV for OBE exceedance criteria for NPPs. Because the present OBE level has proved itself to be a poor indicator for small-to-moderate earthquakes, for which the low OBE level can cause an inappropriate shut down the plant. A more serious possibility is that this scenario will become a reality at a very high level. Empirical Green's Function method was a simulation technique which can estimate the CAV value and it is hereby introduced

  5. Cumulative causation, market transition, and emigration from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David; Zhuang, Guotu; Ye, Wenzhen

    2008-11-01

    This article reports findings from a recent survey of international migration from China's Fujian Province to the United States. Using the ethnosurvey approach developed in the Mexican Migration Project, the authors conducted surveys in migrant-sending communities in China as well as in destination communities in New York City. Hypotheses are derived from the international migration literature and the market transition debate. The results are generally consistent with hypotheses derived from cumulative causation of migration; however, geographical location creates some differences in migration patterns to the United States. In China as in Mexico, the existence of migration networks increases the propensity of migration for others in the community. In contrast to the Mexican case, among Chinese immigrants, having a previously migrated household member increases the propensity of other household members to migrate only after the debt for previous migration is paid off. In step with market transition theory, the authors also find that political power influences the migration experience from the coastal Fujian Province.

  6. Correlated stopping, proton clusters and higher order proton cumulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bzdak, Adam [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Skokov, Vladimir [RIKEN/BNL, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-05-15

    We investigate possible effects of correlations between stopped nucleons on higher order proton cumulants at low energy heavy-ion collisions. We find that fluctuations of the number of wounded nucleons N{sub part} lead to rather nontrivial dependence of the correlations on the centrality; however, this effect is too small to explain the large and positive four-proton correlations found in the preliminary data collected by the STAR collaboration at √(s) = 7.7 GeV. We further demonstrate that, by taking into account additional proton clustering, we are able to qualitatively reproduce the preliminary experimental data. We speculate that this clustering may originate either from collective/multi-collision stopping which is expected to be effective at lower energies or from a possible first-order phase transition, or from (attractive) final state interactions. To test these ideas we propose to measure a mixed multi-particle correlation between stopped protons and a produced particle (e.g. pion, antiproton). (orig.)

  7. Decision making generalized by a cumulative probability weighting function

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Lindomar Soares; Destefano, Natália; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2018-01-01

    Typical examples of intertemporal decision making involve situations in which individuals must choose between a smaller reward, but more immediate, and a larger one, delivered later. Analogously, probabilistic decision making involves choices between options whose consequences differ in relation to their probability of receiving. In Economics, the expected utility theory (EUT) and the discounted utility theory (DUT) are traditionally accepted normative models for describing, respectively, probabilistic and intertemporal decision making. A large number of experiments confirmed that the linearity assumed by the EUT does not explain some observed behaviors, as nonlinear preference, risk-seeking and loss aversion. That observation led to the development of new theoretical models, called non-expected utility theories (NEUT), which include a nonlinear transformation of the probability scale. An essential feature of the so-called preference function of these theories is that the probabilities are transformed by decision weights by means of a (cumulative) probability weighting function, w(p) . We obtain in this article a generalized function for the probabilistic discount process. This function has as particular cases mathematical forms already consecrated in the literature, including discount models that consider effects of psychophysical perception. We also propose a new generalized function for the functional form of w. The limiting cases of this function encompass some parametric forms already proposed in the literature. Far beyond a mere generalization, our function allows the interpretation of probabilistic decision making theories based on the assumption that individuals behave similarly in the face of probabilities and delays and is supported by phenomenological models.

  8. New tests of cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Birnbaum

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous tests of cumulative prospect theory (CPT and of the priority heuristic (PH found evidence contradicting these two models of risky decision making. However, those tests were criticized because they had characteristics that might ``trigger'' use of other heuristics. This paper presents new tests that avoid those characteristics. Expected values of the gambles are nearly equal in each choice. In addition, if a person followed expected value (EV, expected utility (EU, CPT, or PH in these tests, she would shift her preferences in the same direction as shifts in EV or EU. In contrast, the transfer of attention exchange model (TAX and a similarity model predict that people will reverse preferences in the opposite direction. Results contradict the PH, even when PH is modified to include a preliminary similarity evaluation using the PH parameters. New tests of probability-consequence interaction were also conducted. Strong interactions were observed, contrary to PH. These results add to the growing bodies of evidence showing that neither CPT nor PH is an accurate description of risky decision making.

  9. INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION OF PROBABILITY AND CUMULATIVE DENSITY FUNCTIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Potter, Kristin; Kirby, Robert Michael; Xiu, Dongbin; Johnson, Chris R.

    2012-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF), and its corresponding cumulative density function (CDF), provide direct statistical insight into the characterization of a random process or field. Typically displayed as a histogram, one can infer probabilities of the occurrence of particular events. When examining a field over some two-dimensional domain in which at each point a PDF of the function values is available, it is challenging to assess the global (stochastic) features present within the field. In this paper, we present a visualization system that allows the user to examine two-dimensional data sets in which PDF (or CDF) information is available at any position within the domain. The tool provides a contour display showing the normed difference between the PDFs and an ansatz PDF selected by the user and, furthermore, allows the user to interactively examine the PDF at any particular position. Canonical examples of the tool are provided to help guide the reader into the mapping of stochastic information to visual cues along with a description of the use of the tool for examining data generated from an uncertainty quantification exercise accomplished within the field of electrophysiology.

  10. Model-checking techniques based on cumulative residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D Y; Wei, L J; Ying, Z

    2002-03-01

    Residuals have long been used for graphical and numerical examinations of the adequacy of regression models. Conventional residual analysis based on the plots of raw residuals or their smoothed curves is highly subjective, whereas most numerical goodness-of-fit tests provide little information about the nature of model misspecification. In this paper, we develop objective and informative model-checking techniques by taking the cumulative sums of residuals over certain coordinates (e.g., covariates or fitted values) or by considering some related aggregates of residuals, such as moving sums and moving averages. For a variety of statistical models and data structures, including generalized linear models with independent or dependent observations, the distributions of these stochastic processes tinder the assumed model can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes whose realizations can be easily generated by computer simulation. Each observed process can then be compared, both graphically and numerically, with a number of realizations from the Gaussian process. Such comparisons enable one to assess objectively whether a trend seen in a residual plot reflects model misspecification or natural variation. The proposed techniques are particularly useful in checking the functional form of a covariate and the link function. Illustrations with several medical studies are provided.

  11. Cumulative damage fraction design approach for LMFBR metallic fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.; Einziger, R.E.; Huchman, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    The cumulative damage fraction (CDF) analytical technique is currently being used to analyze the performance of metallic fuel elements for proliferation-resistant LMFBRs. In this technique, the fraction of the total time to rupture of the cladding is calculated as a function of the thermal, stress, and neutronic history. Cladding breach or rupture is implied by CDF = 1. Cladding wastage, caused by interactions with both the fuel and sodium coolant, is assumed to uniformly thin the cladding wall. The irradiation experience of the EBR-II Mark-II driver fuel with solution-annealed Type 316 stainless steel cladding provides an excellent data base for testing the applicability of the CDF technique to metallic fuel. The advanced metal fuels being considered for use in LMFBRs are U-15-Pu-10Zr, Th-20Pu and Th-2OU (compositions are given in weight percent). The two cladding alloys being considered are Type 316 stainless steel and a titanium-stabilized Type 316 stainless steel. Both are in the cold-worked condition. The CDF technique was applied to these fuels and claddings under the assumed steady-state operating conditions

  12. Cumulative exposure to carbon monoxide during the day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joumard, R. (INRETS, 69 - Bron (FR))

    The carbon monoxide, CO, has the advantage of being very easily and accurately measured under various conditions. In addition, it allows the translation of CO concentrations into their biological effects. The cumulative CO exposure should be considered according to current environment conditions during a given period of life, e.g. the day. In addition, the translation of concentrations and exposure times of CO fixed on blood haemoglobine (carboxyhaemoglobine) depends on physiological factors such as age, size, sex, or physical activity. This paper gives some examples of CO exposure translated into curves of carboxyhaemoglobine: case of 92 persons whose schedule was studied in details, of customs officers whose exposure was measured during one week, or other theoretical cases. In all the cases studied, smoking is by far the first factor of pollution by carbon monoxide. If not considering this case, the CO contents observed are preoccupying for sensitive subjects (in particular children) only in very rare cases. Furthermore, this approach allows the assessment of maximal allowable concentrations during specific exposures (work, e.g. in a tunnel) by integrating them into normal life conditions and population current exposure.

  13. Towards an indigenous African bioethics | Behrens | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One way is for African bioethicists to begin to apply indigenous African philosophy, thought and values to ethical issues. This project is important (i) to restore dignity; (ii) because a bioethics grounded in indigenous ideas is more likely to be accepted by Africans; and (iii) because such ideas can enrich bioethical discourse.

  14. African Journals: An Evaluation of their Use in African Universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of African published journals in two African universities was surveyed through the use of questionnaire, interviews, journal usage count and citation analysis. The survey reveals that African published journals are not popular with academics because of lack of bibliographic and physical access. For conclusion to be ...

  15. African Journal of Aquatic Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The African Journal of Aquatic Science is an international journal devoted to the ... papers and short articles in all the aquatic science fields including limnology, ...

  16. South African Journal of Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of Education (SAJE) publishes original research articles reporting on research ... professional scientist and which critically evaluate the research done in a specific field in education; ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  18. African Journal of Biotechnology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The African Journal of Biotechnology (AJB) (ISSN 1684-5315) provides rapid publication of .... Authors may still request (in advance) that the editorial board waive some of the handling fee ...

  19. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  20. African Studies Monographs: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Studies Monographs is a serial that promotes research and scholarship on the African perspective worldwide. This includes matters of philosophy, history, literature, arts and culture, environment, gender, politics, administration crisis management, etc.

  1. Crustal and mantle structure and anisotropy beneath the incipient segments of the East African Rift System: Preliminary results from the ongoing SAFARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Massinque, B.; Mdala, H. S.; moidaki, M.; Mutamina, D. M.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ingate, S. F.; Reusch, A.; Barstow, N.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the vast wealth of research conducted toward understanding processes associated with continental rifting, the extent of our knowledge is derived primarily from studies focused on mature rift systems, such as the well-developed portions of the East African Rift System (EARS) north of Lake Malawi. To explore the dynamics of early rift evolution, the SAFARI (Seismic Arrays for African Rift Initiation) team deployed 50 PASSCAL broadband seismic stations across the Malawi, Luangwa, and Okavango rifts of the EARS during the summer of 2012. The cumulative length of the profiles is about 2500 km and the planned recording duration is 2 years. Here we present the preliminary results of systematic analyses of data obtained from the first year of acquisition for all 50 stations. A total of 446 high-quality shear-wave splitting measurements using PKS, SKKS, and SKS phases from 84 teleseismic events were used to constrain fast polarization directions and splitting times throughout the region. The Malawi and Okavango rifts are characterized by mostly NE trending fast directions with a mean splitting time of about 1 s. The fast directions on the west side of the Luangwa Rift Zone are parallel to the rift valley, and those on the east side are more N-S oriented. Stacking of approximately 1900 radial receiver functions reveals significant spatial variations of both crustal thickness and the ratio of crustal P and S wave velocities, as well as the thickness of the mantle transition zone. Stations situated within the Malawi rift demonstrate a southward increase in observed crustal thickness, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the Malawi rift originated at the northern end of the rift system and propagated southward. Both the Okavango and Luangwa rifts are associated with thinned crust and increased Vp/Vs, although additional data is required at some stations to enhance the reliability of the observations. Teleseismic P-wave travel-time residuals show a delay of about

  2. Malignant lymphoma in african lions (panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, T M; McKnight, C A; Sikarskie, J G; Kitchell, B E; Garner, M M; Raymond, J T; Fitzgerald, S D; Valli, V E; Agnew, D; Kiupel, M

    2010-09-01

    Malignant lymphoma has become an increasingly recognized problem in African lions (Panthera leo). Eleven African lions (9 male and 2 female) with clinical signs and gross and microscopic lesions of malignant lymphoma were evaluated in this study. All animals were older adults, ranging in age from 14 to 19 years. Immunohistochemically, 10 of the 11 lions had T-cell lymphomas (CD3(+), CD79a(-)), and 1 lion was diagnosed with a B-cell lymphoma (CD3(-), CD79a(+)). The spleen appeared to be the primary site of neoplastic growth in all T-cell lymphomas, with involvement of the liver (6/11) and regional lymph nodes (5/11) also commonly observed. The B-cell lymphoma affected the peripheral lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. According to the current veterinary and human World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic neoplasms, T-cell lymphoma subtypes included peripheral T-cell lymphoma (4/11), precursor (acute) T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (2/11), chronic T-cell lymphocytic lymphoma/leukemia (3/11), and T-zone lymphoma (1/11). The single B-cell lymphoma subtype was consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) testing by immunohistochemistry on sections of malignant lymphoma was negative for all 11 lions. One lion was seropositive for FeLV. In contrast to domestic and exotic cats, in which B-cell lymphomas are more common than T-cell lymphomas, African lions in this study had malignant lymphomas that were primarily of T-cell origin. Neither FeLV nor FIV, important causes of malignant lymphoma in domestic cats, seems to be significant in the pathogenesis of malignant lymphoma in African lions.

  3. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-07-01

    Jul 1, 2002 ... PREVALENCE OF VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY AMONG PRE-SCHOOL AND SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN ARSSI ZONE. ETHIOPIA. YT Asrat, BSc. MSc ... in the “low” range (<20ttl/dl) in 51% of the children. Conclusion: The results ... of Arssi zone Dodotana Sire district was selected at random for this study.

  4. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...... is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections...

  5. Nuclear free zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffel, T.

    1987-01-01

    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used? The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system

  6. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available -of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study... for the following equation: n∑ i=r ( n i ) pi(1− p)n−i = 0.95 . (1) Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results METHODS (cont. . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION...

  7. Dike zones on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    Venusian dike zone structures were identified from Venera 15 and 16 radar images. These include: a zone of subparallel rows centered at 30 deg N, 7 deg E; a system of intersecting bands centered at 67 deg N, 284 deg E; polygonal systems in lavas covering the structural base uplift centered at 47 deg N, 200 deg E; a system of light bands in the region of the ring structure centered at 43 deg N, 13 deg E; and a dike band centered at 27 deg N, 36 deg E.

  8. Leadership in the African context

    OpenAIRE

    M. Masango

    2002-01-01

    The Western world has always viewed the African continent as plagued by corruption; dictatorship; military coups; rebellious leaders; greediness; misuse of power; and incompetent, politically unstable leaders - in effect, suspicious leaders who undermine their own democracies. This paper analyzes African leadership and its impact by concentrating on three historical eras, namely; the African Religious era; the Christian era, and the era of Globalization. These affected African leadership. In ...

  9. Indirect Effects and Potential Cumulative Impacts of Dredging in an Urbanized Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfield, C. K.; Chen, J.; Ralston, D. K.; Geyer, W. R.

    2016-02-01

    For over two centuries, the Delaware River and Bay estuary has supported one of the most economically important ports in the United States. To accommodate ships of ever-increasing size, the 165-km axial shipping channel has been deepened to over twice the natural depth of the estuary. While it is known that the channel has modified tides and sedimentation patterns in the estuary, unknown are the impacts on the ecosystem as a whole. A concern is the influence of channelization on sediment movement to the tidal wetland coast, which is eroding at rates on the order of meters per year. Tidal wetlands frame the entire estuary and provide vital ecosystem services ranging from recreation to carbon sequestration. To identify shifts in baseline conditions, we are performing a retrospective analysis of estuarine dynamics using historical bathymetry, numerical modeling, and observational studies. The period of interest extends from 1848 (50 years prior to channel construction) to present. During this period the channel was progressively deepened from its natural depth of 5.5 m to the current depth of 14 m. Preliminary modeling results support independent evidence that the salt intrusion and zone of rapid sediment deposition migrated several 10s of kilometers up-estuary as an indirect effect of deepening. Ironically, the locus of intense deposition now falls squarely within the Wilmington-Philadelphia port complex; river sediment that initially settles in this area is removed by maintenance dredging before it can disperse seaward. Sediment budgetary analysis indicates that the mass of sediment dredged from the upper estuary on average exceeds the mass of the new sediment supplied from the drainage basin. Hence, a probable cumulative impact of dredging is a reduction in sediment delivery to the lower estuary and fringing wetlands. Connections among the shipping channel, wave-tide interactions, and marsh edge erosion are a topic of ongoing modeling and observational research.

  10. Developing a cumulative anatomic scoring system for military perineal and pelvic blast injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossadegh, Somayyeh; Midwinter, M; Parker, P

    2013-03-01

    Improvised explosive device (IED) yields in Afghanistan have increased resulting in more proximal injuries. The injury severity score (ISS) is an anatomic aggregate score of the three most severely injured anatomical areas but does not accurately predict severity in IED related pelvi-perineal trauma patients. A scoring system based on abbreviated injury score (AIS) was developed to reflect the severity of these injuries in order to better understand risk factors, develop a tool for future audit and improve performance. Using standard AIS descriptors, injury scales were constructed for the pelvis (1, minor to 6, maximal). The perineum was divided into anterior and posterior zones as relevant to injury patterns and blast direction with each soft tissue structure being allocated a score from its own severity scale. A cumulative score, from 1 to 36 for soft tissue, or a maximum of 42 if a pelvic fracture was involved, was created for all structures injured in the anterior and posterior zones. Using this new scoring system, 77% of patients survived with a pelvi-perineal trauma score (PPTS) below 5. There was a significant increase in mortality, number of pelvic fractures and amputations with increase in score when comparing the first group (score 1-5) to the second group (score 6-10). For scores between 6 and 16 survival was 42% and 22% for scores between 17 and 21. In our cohort of 62 survivors, 1 patient with an IED related pelvi-perineal injury had a 'theoretically un-survivable' maximal ISS of 75 and survived, whereas there were no survivors with a PPTS greater than 22 but this group had no-one with an ISS of 75 suggesting ISS is not an accurate reflection of the true severity of pelvi-perineal blast injury. This scoring system is the initial part of a more complex logistic regression model that will contribute towards a unique trauma scoring system to aid surgical teams in predicting fluid requirements and operative timelines. In austere environments, it may also

  11. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  12. Parsing the Gulf between Africans and African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashly Nsangou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rise in African immigrants to the US provides an opportunity to assess relations between Africans and African Americans in college. An online survey of 322 current and recently-graduated college students (including 45 Africans, 160 African Americans, and 117 whites assessed respondents’ experiences of racism in US high schools and colleges. Semi-structured interviews of 30 students (10 African, 10 African American and 10 white students supplemented these data. Even within a sociopolitical context of more visible racial intolerance, Black intra-racial cohesion was absent. Although more first- and second-generation Africans (73% felt that they had been judged while living in the US compared to African Americans (34% or whites (20%, for 70–80% of respondents, this had occurred only in high school. Despite experiencing these judgments, Africans’ identity related more to their focus on education than their race, reflected in a higher proportion who felt intense family pressure to attend college (65% compared to African Americans (37% and whites (39%. Interview data confirmed previous reports in the literature that African Americans lack a sense of connection to Africans, attributed to Africans’ purported sense of superiority and disregard for African Americans’ ongoing struggle to end oppression. These mixed-methods data suggest that intermingling in the college environment has not resulted in first- and second-generation Africans and African Americans sharing a common in-group, race-based identity. We discuss the implications of overlooking ethnic distinctions due to presumptions of racial homogeneity that deprive Black individuals of their uniqueness.

  13. CONTEMPORARY AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY: EMERGENT ISSUES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    another on meta-philosophical issues about African philosophy, their successors, in ... Key Words: African identity, hermeneutics and culture, ... Even the quest to overcome the hegemony of Western ..... African philosophers to rethink the principles, concepts, attitudes ... there is a certain openness to new possibilities at the.

  14. African Journal of International Affairs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of International Affairs (AJIA) is a bi-annual publication of CODESRIA, Dakar, Senegal. It offers a platform for analyses on contemporary issues in African International Affairs in relation to global developments as they affect Africa. AJIA welcomes contributions in English and in French from both African ...

  15. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves,

  16. African Journals Online: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 96 ... African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ... continent of Africa, to contribute to developing home-grown (African) methods ... Envisaged readers are academic researchers, teachers and students and practitioners in the ... that have relevance to the South African educational context.

  17. The Struggles over African Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  18. Toward computational cumulative biology by combining models of biological datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Ali; Peltonen, Jaakko; Georgii, Elisabeth; Rung, Johan; Kaski, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    A main challenge of data-driven sciences is how to make maximal use of the progressively expanding databases of experimental datasets in order to keep research cumulative. We introduce the idea of a modeling-based dataset retrieval engine designed for relating a researcher's experimental dataset to earlier work in the field. The search is (i) data-driven to enable new findings, going beyond the state of the art of keyword searches in annotations, (ii) modeling-driven, to include both biological knowledge and insights learned from data, and (iii) scalable, as it is accomplished without building one unified grand model of all data. Assuming each dataset has been modeled beforehand, by the researchers or automatically by database managers, we apply a rapidly computable and optimizable combination model to decompose a new dataset into contributions from earlier relevant models. By using the data-driven decomposition, we identify a network of interrelated datasets from a large annotated human gene expression atlas. While tissue type and disease were major driving forces for determining relevant datasets, the found relationships were richer, and the model-based search was more accurate than the keyword search; moreover, it recovered biologically meaningful relationships that are not straightforwardly visible from annotations-for instance, between cells in different developmental stages such as thymocytes and T-cells. Data-driven links and citations matched to a large extent; the data-driven links even uncovered corrections to the publication data, as two of the most linked datasets were not highly cited and turned out to have wrong publication entries in the database.

  19. Cumulative childhood stress and autoimmune diseases in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R; Fairweather, DeLisa; Pearson, William S; Felitti, Vincent J; Anda, Robert F; Croft, Janet B

    2009-02-01

    To examine whether childhood traumatic stress increased the risk of developing autoimmune diseases as an adult. Retrospective cohort study of 15,357 adult health maintenance organization members enrolled in the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Study from 1995 to 1997 in San Diego, California, and eligible for follow-up through 2005. ACEs included childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; witnessing domestic violence; growing up with household substance abuse, mental illness, parental divorce, and/or an incarcerated household member. The total number of ACEs (ACE Score range = 0-8) was used as a measure of cumulative childhood stress. The outcome was hospitalizations for any of 21 selected autoimmune diseases and 4 immunopathology groupings: T- helper 1 (Th1) (e.g., idiopathic myocarditis); T-helper 2 (Th2) (e.g., myasthenia gravis); Th2 rheumatic (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis); and mixed Th1/Th2 (e.g., autoimmune hemolytic anemia). Sixty-four percent reported at least one ACE. The event rate (per 10,000 person-years) for a first hospitalization with any autoimmune disease was 31.4 in women and 34.4 in men. First hospitalizations for any autoimmune disease increased with increasing number of ACEs (p or=2 ACEs were at a 70% increased risk for hospitalizations with Th1, 80% increased risk for Th2, and 100% increased risk for rheumatic diseases (p Childhood traumatic stress increased the likelihood of hospitalization with a diagnosed autoimmune disease decades into adulthood. These findings are consistent with recent biological studies on the impact of early life stress on subsequent inflammatory responses.

  20. Integrating environmental monitoring with cumulative effects management and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronmiller, Joshua G; Noble, Bram F

    2018-05-01

    Cumulative effects (CE) monitoring is foundational to emerging regional and watershed CE management frameworks, yet monitoring is often poorly integrated with CE management and decision-making processes. The challenges are largely institutional and organizational, more so than scientific or technical. Calls for improved integration of monitoring with CE management and decision making are not new, but there has been limited research on how best to integrate environmental monitoring programs to ensure credible CE science and to deliver results that respond to the more immediate questions and needs of regulatory decision makers. This paper examines options for the integration of environmental monitoring with CE frameworks. Based on semistructured interviews with practitioners, regulators, and other experts in the Lower Athabasca, Alberta, Canada, 3 approaches to monitoring system design are presented. First, a distributed monitoring system, reflecting the current approach in the Lower Athabasca, where monitoring is delegated to different external programs and organizations; second, a 1-window system in which monitoring is undertaken by a single, in-house agency for the purpose of informing management and regulatory decision making; third, an independent system driven primarily by CE science and understanding causal relationships, with knowledge adopted for decision support where relevant to specific management questions. The strengths and limitations of each approach are presented. A hybrid approach may be optimal-an independent, nongovernment, 1-window model for CE science, monitoring, and information delivery-capitalizing on the strengths of distributed, 1-window, and independent monitoring systems while mitigating their weaknesses. If governments are committed to solving CE problems, they must invest in the long-term science needed to do so; at the same time, if science-based monitoring programs are to be sustainable over the long term, they must be responsive to

  1. Cumulative Effects of Barriers on the Movements of Forest Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bélisle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a consensus of opinion that habitat fragmentation has deleterious effects on animal populations, primarily by inhibiting dispersal among remaining patches, there have been few explicit demonstrations of the ways by which degraded habitats actually constrain individual movement. Two impediments are primarily responsible for this paucity: it is difficult to separate the effects of habitat fragmentation (configuration from habitat loss (composition, and conventional measures of fragmented habitats are assumed to be, but probably are not, isotropic. We addressed these limitations by standardizing differences in forest cover in a clearly anisotropic configuration of habitat fragmentation by conducting a homing experiment with three species of forest birds in the Bow Valley of Banff National Park, Canada. Birds were translocated (1.2-3.5  km either parallel or perpendicular to four/five parallel barriers that are assumed to impede the cross-valley travel of forest-dependent animals. Taken together, individuals exhibited longer return times when they were translocated across these barriers, but differences among species suggest a more complex interpretation. A long-distance migrant (Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dendroica coronata behaved as predicted, but a short-distance migrant (Golden-crowned Kinglet, Regulus satrapa was indifferent to barrier configuration. A resident (Red-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis exhibited longer return times when it was translocated parallel to the barriers. Our results suggest that an anisotropic arrangement of small, open areas in fragmented landscapes can have a cumulative barrier effect on the movement of forest animals, but that both modelers and managers will have to acknowledge potentially counterintuitive differences among species to predict the effect that these may have on individual movement and, ultimately, dispersal.

  2. On the duration and intensity of cumulative advantage competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Sun, Liyuan; Figueiredo, Daniel R.; Ribeiro, Bruno; Towsley, Don

    2015-11-01

    Network growth can be framed as a competition for edges among nodes in the network. As with various other social and physical systems, skill (fitness) and luck (random chance) act as fundamental forces driving competition dynamics. In the context of networks, cumulative advantage (CA)—the rich-get-richer effect—is seen as a driving principle governing the edge accumulation process. However, competitions coupled with CA exhibit non-trivial behavior and little is formally known about duration and intensity of CA competitions. By isolating two nodes in an ideal CA competition, we provide a mathematical understanding of how CA exacerbates the role of luck in detriment of skill. We show, for instance, that when nodes start with few edges, an early stroke of luck can place the less skilled in the lead for an extremely long period of time, a phenomenon we call ‘struggle of the fittest’. We prove that duration of a simple skill and luck competition model exhibit power-law tails when CA is present, regardless of skill difference, which is in sharp contrast to the exponential tails when fitness is distinct but CA is absent. We also prove that competition intensity is always upper bounded by an exponential tail, irrespective of CA and skills. Thus, CA competitions can be extremely long (infinite mean, depending on fitness ratio) but almost never very intense. The theoretical results are corroborated by extensive numerical simulations. Our findings have important implications to competitions not only among nodes in networks but also in contexts that leverage socio-physical models embodying CA competitions.

  3. On the duration and intensity of cumulative advantage competitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Bo; Towsley, Don; Sun, Liyuan; Figueiredo, Daniel R; Ribeiro, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Network growth can be framed as a competition for edges among nodes in the network. As with various other social and physical systems, skill (fitness) and luck (random chance) act as fundamental forces driving competition dynamics. In the context of networks, cumulative advantage (CA)—the rich-get-richer effect—is seen as a driving principle governing the edge accumulation process. However, competitions coupled with CA exhibit non-trivial behavior and little is formally known about duration and intensity of CA competitions. By isolating two nodes in an ideal CA competition, we provide a mathematical understanding of how CA exacerbates the role of luck in detriment of skill. We show, for instance, that when nodes start with few edges, an early stroke of luck can place the less skilled in the lead for an extremely long period of time, a phenomenon we call ‘struggle of the fittest’. We prove that duration of a simple skill and luck competition model exhibit power-law tails when CA is present, regardless of skill difference, which is in sharp contrast to the exponential tails when fitness is distinct but CA is absent. We also prove that competition intensity is always upper bounded by an exponential tail, irrespective of CA and skills. Thus, CA competitions can be extremely long (infinite mean, depending on fitness ratio) but almost never very intense. The theoretical results are corroborated by extensive numerical simulations. Our findings have important implications to competitions not only among nodes in networks but also in contexts that leverage socio-physical models embodying CA competitions. (paper)

  4. Measuring a fair and ambitious climate agreement using cumulative emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Glen P; Andrew, Robbie M; Solomon, Susan; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Policy makers have called for a ‘fair and ambitious’ global climate agreement. Scientific constraints, such as the allowable carbon emissions to avoid exceeding a 2 °C global warming limit with 66% probability, can help define ambitious approaches to climate targets. However, fairly sharing the mitigation challenge to meet a global target involves human values rather than just scientific facts. We develop a framework based on cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide to compare the consistency of countries’ current emission pledges to the ambition of keeping global temperatures below 2 °C, and, further, compare two alternative methods of sharing the remaining emission allowance. We focus on the recent pledges and other official statements of the EU, USA, and China. The EU and US pledges are close to a 2 °C level of ambition only if the remaining emission allowance is distributed based on current emission shares, which is unlikely to be viewed as ‘fair and ambitious’ by others who presently emit less. China’s stated emissions target also differs from measures of global fairness, owing to emissions that continue to grow into the 2020s. We find that, combined, the EU, US, and Chinese pledges leave little room for other countries to emit CO 2 if a 2 °C limit is the objective, essentially requiring all other countries to move towards per capita emissions 7 to 14 times lower than the EU, USA, or China by 2030. We argue that a fair and ambitious agreement for a 2 °C limit that would be globally inclusive and effective in the long term will require stronger mitigation than the goals currently proposed. Given such necessary and unprecedented mitigation and the current lack of availability of some key technologies, we suggest a new diplomatic effort directed at ensuring that the necessary technologies become available in the near future. (letter)

  5. Downstream cumulative effects of land use on freshwater communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglerová, L.; Kielstra, B. W.; Moore, D.; Richardson, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Many streams and rivers are subject to disturbance from intense land use such as urbanization and agriculture, and this is especially obvious for small headwaters. Streams are spatially organized into networks where headwaters represent the tributaries and provide water, nutrients, and organic material to the main stems. Therefore perturbations within the headwaters might be cumulatively carried on downstream. Although we know that the disturbance of headwaters in urban and agricultural landscapes poses threats to downstream river reaches, the magnitude and severity of these changes for ecological communities is less known. We studied stream networks along a gradient of disturbance connected to land use intensity, from urbanized watersheds to watersheds placed in agricultural settings in the Greater Toronto Area. Further, we compared the patterns and processes found in the modified watershed to a control watershed, situated in a forested, less impacted landscape. Preliminary results suggest that hydrological modifications (flash floods), habitat loss (drainage and sewer systems), and water quality issues of small streams in urbanized and agricultural watersheds represent major disturbances and threats for aquatic and riparian biota on local as well as larger spatial scales. For example, communities of riparian plants are dominated by species typical of the land use on adjacent uplands as well as the dominant land use on the upstream contributing area, instead of riparian obligates commonly found in forested watersheds. Further, riparian communities in disturbed environments are dominated by invasive species. The changes in riparian communities are vital for various functions of riparian vegetation. Bank erosion control is suppressed, leading to severe channel transformations and sediment loadings in urbanized watersheds. Food sources for instream biota and thermal regimes are also changed, which further triggers alterations of in-stream biological communities

  6. Viewing Race in the Comfort Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Hughes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carter suggests the concept of a “comfort zone” to explain the inability of dramatic African American programs to be successful on television. He argues that a workable formula has been developed for successful African American series, “portray black people in a way that would be acceptable to the millions of potential purchasers (whites of advertised products. That is, non-threatening and willing to ‘stay in their place.’”. Using a data set constructed from television ratings and shares, this study examines “black-centeredness” within the context of program success and failure. The comfort zone concept argues Black-centered television series are only successful in a comedic genre because White audiences, who have the majority of the ratings power, will only watch Black-centered series with which they are comfortable. The findings suggest that, in general, race, that is Black-centeredness, did not negatively influence program ratings or shares.

  7. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear weapons free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The article analyses the concept and problems of the two nuclear weapons free zones in Latin America and in the South Pacific established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty of Rarotonga. So far the nuclear weapons states except China have refused to sign the additional protocols of the Treaties or have signed them only with considerable provisos. Therefore they don't fully recognize the nuclear weapons free status of those zones, or they don't recognize it at all. Both Treaties contain no provisions to regulate the transit of nuclear weapons through the zones. This allows de facto the stationing of nuclear weapons in the military bases of the US which are located within the nuclear weapons free zone of Latin America. The Treaty of Tlatelolco contains also the right of the states, party to the Treaty, to explode nuclear devices for peaceful purposes. Since peaceful and military nuclear explosions cannot be distinguished technically, this right could also undermine the nuclear weapons free status of the region. Important nuclear threshold countries like Argentina and Brazil have furthermore refrained from putting the Treaty into force. (orig.) [de

  9. Navigating ECA-Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Hendriksen, Christian

    This report examines the effect that ECA-zone regulation has on the optimal vessel fuel strategies for compliance. The findings of this report are trifold, and this report is coupled with a calculation tool which is released to assist ship-owners in the ECA decision making. The first key insight...... much time their operated vessels navigate the ECA in the future....

  10. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  11. Buffer Zone, Nicosia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Marie Louise

    2010-01-01

    Images of the United Nations Buffer Zone or Green Line which has partitioned Cyprus since 1974 The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n° 217411.

  12. Arid Zone Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  13. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  14. Origin of path independence between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Ashwin K.

    2017-11-01

    Observations and GCMs exhibit approximate proportionality between cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and global warming. Here we identify sufficient conditions for the relationship between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming to be independent of the path of CO2 emissions; referred to as "path independence". Our starting point is a closed form expression for global warming in a two-box energy balance model (EBM), which depends explicitly on cumulative emissions, airborne fraction and time. Path independence requires that this function can be approximated as depending on cumulative emissions alone. We show that path independence arises from weak constraints, occurring if the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions (equal to ratio between cumulative emissions and emissions rate) is small compared to the timescale for changes in airborne fraction (which depends on CO2 uptake), and also small relative to a derived climate model parameter called the damping-timescale, which is related to the rate at which deep-ocean warming affects global warming. Effects of uncertainties in the climate model and carbon cycle are examined. Large deep-ocean heat capacity in the Earth system is not necessary for path independence, which appears resilient to climate modeling uncertainties. However long time-constants in the Earth system carbon cycle are essential, ensuring that airborne fraction changes slowly with timescale much longer than the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions. Therefore path independence between cumulative emissions and warming cannot arise for short-lived greenhouse gases.

  15. Cumulative effects of planned industrial development and climate change on marine ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing human population, large scale climate changes, and the interaction of multiple stressors, understanding cumulative effects on marine ecosystems is increasingly important. Two major drivers of change in coastal and marine ecosystems are industrial developments with acute impacts on local ecosystems, and global climate change stressors with widespread impacts. We conducted a cumulative effects mapping analysis of the marine waters of British Columbia, Canada, under different scenarios: climate change and planned developments. At the coast-wide scale, climate change drove the largest change in cumulative effects with both widespread impacts and high vulnerability scores. Where the impacts of planned developments occur, planned industrial and pipeline activities had high cumulative effects, but the footprint of these effects was comparatively localized. Nearshore habitats were at greatest risk from planned industrial and pipeline activities; in particular, the impacts of planned pipelines on rocky intertidal habitats were predicted to cause the highest change in cumulative effects. This method of incorporating planned industrial development in cumulative effects mapping allows explicit comparison of different scenarios with the potential to be used in environmental impact assessments at various scales. Its use allows resource managers to consider cumulative effect hotspots when making decisions regarding industrial developments and avoid unacceptable cumulative effects. Management needs to consider both global and local stressors in managing marine ecosystems for the protection of biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  16. Cumulative effective dose associated with radiography and CT of adolescents with spinal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemburg, Stefan P; Peters, Soeren A; Roggenland, Daniela; Nicolas, Volkmar; Heyer, Christoph M

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the quantity and distribution of cumulative effective doses in diagnostic imaging of adolescents with spinal injuries. At a level 1 trauma center from July 2003 through June 2009, imaging procedures during initial evaluation and hospitalization and after discharge of all patients 10-20 years old with spinal fractures were retrospectively analyzed. The cumulative effective doses for all imaging studies were calculated, and the doses to patients with spinal injuries who had multiple traumatic injuries were compared with the doses to patients with spinal injuries but without multiple injuries. The significance level was set at 5%. Imaging studies of 72 patients (32 with multiple injuries; average age, 17.5 years) entailed a median cumulative effective dose of 18.89 mSv. Patients with multiple injuries had a significantly higher total cumulative effective dose (29.70 versus 10.86 mSv, p cumulative effective dose to multiple injury patients during the initial evaluation (18.39 versus 2.83 mSv, p cumulative effective dose. Adolescents with spinal injuries receive a cumulative effective dose equal to that of adult trauma patients and nearly three times that of pediatric trauma patients. Areas of focus in lowering cumulative effective dose should be appropriate initial estimation of trauma severity and careful selection of CT scan parameters.

  17. Turning stumbling blocks into stepping stones in the analysis of cumulative impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid

    2004-01-01

    Federal and state legislation, such as the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act, require that responsible agency staff consider the cumulative impacts of proposed activities before permits are issued for certain kinds of public or private projects. The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ 1997) defined a cumulative impact as...

  18. 14 CFR Section 18 - Objective Classification-Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Changes in Accounting Principles Section 18 Section 18 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... Objective Classification—Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles 98Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles. Record here the difference between the amount of retained earnings at...

  19. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  20. Mapping cumulative environmental risks: examples from the EU NoMiracle project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistocchi, A.; Groenwold, J.; Lahr, J.; Loos, M.; Mujica, M.; Ragas, A.M.J.; Rallo, R.; Sala, S.; Schlink, U.; Strebel, K.; Vighi, M.; Vizcaino, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present examples of cumulative chemical risk mapping methods developed within the NoMiracle project. The different examples illustrate the application of the concentration addition (CA) approach to pesticides at different scale, the integration in space of cumulative risks to individual organisms

  1. 78 FR 25440 - Request for Information and Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment AGENCY: Office of the Science Advisor, Environmental... influence exposures, dose-response or risk/hazard posed by environmental contaminant exposures, and methods... who wish to receive further information about submitting information on methods for cumulative risk...

  2. Radiologic imaging in cystic fibrosis: cumulative effective dose and changing trends over 2 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing life expectancy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and a known predisposition to certain cancers, cumulative radiation exposure from radiologic imaging is of increasing significance. This study explores the estimated cumulative effective radiation dose over a 17-year period from radiologic procedures and changing trends of imaging modalities over this period.

  3. 30 CFR 250.921 - How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I analyze my platform for cumulative fatigue? 250.921 Section 250.921 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... fatigue? (a) If you are required to analyze cumulative fatigue on your platform because of the results of...

  4. A Review of Non-Chemical Stressors and Their Importance in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative exposure/risk assessments need to include non-chemical stressors as well as human activities and chemical data. Multiple stressor research can offer information on the interactions between chemical and non-chemical stressors needed for cumulative risk assessment resea...

  5. Ten-Year Cumulative Author Index Volume 2001, 36(1) through 2010, 45(4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Stanley H.; Hassert, Silva

    2011-01-01

    This cumulative author index was developed as a service for the readership of Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities. It was prepared as a resource for scholars wishing to access the 391 articles published in volumes 36-45 of this journal. It also serves as a timely supplement to the 25-year (1966-1990) cumulative author…

  6. TREND: a program using cumulative sum methods to detect long-term trends in data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranston, R.J.; Dunbar, R.M.; Jarvis, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    TREND is a computer program, in FORTRAN, to investigate data for long-term trends that are masked by short-term statistical fluctuations. To do this, it calculates and plots the cumulative sum of deviations from a chosen mean. As a further aid to diagnosis, the procedure can be repeated with a summation of the cumulative sum itself. (author)

  7. The Intertropical Convergence Zone over the Middle East and North Africa: Detection and Trends

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Anna A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides an overview of identifying the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The ITCZ is a zone of wind convergence around the equator that coincides with an area of intense precipitation that is commonly termed a tropical rainbelt. In Africa, these two concepts are frequently confounded. This work studies the correlation between precipitation and commonly used ITCZ indicators. A further attempt is made to detect movement in the African ITCZ, based on earlier paleontological studies showing historical changes in precipitation. Zonally averaged wind convergence is found to be the most reliable indicator of the African ITCZ, one having a low correlation with zonally averaged precipitation. Precipitation is found only to be a reliable indicator for the African ITCZ in zones near the wind convergence, which reaches as far north as 20_N in the summer. No secular change in location of the African ITCZ is found for the time of available data. Finally, historical data shows that any increase in precipitation in the Sahel, a region where precipitation is driven by the ITCZ, is mildly negatively correlated with precipitation in the rainbelt area, suggesting that shifts in the ITCZ result in a widening of the precipitation profile as well as a shift of the entire zone.

  8. The Intertropical Convergence Zone over the Middle East and North Africa: Detection and Trends

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Anna A.

    2013-05-01

    This thesis provides an overview of identifying the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The ITCZ is a zone of wind convergence around the equator that coincides with an area of intense precipitation that is commonly termed a tropical rainbelt. In Africa, these two concepts are frequently confounded. This work studies the correlation between precipitation and commonly used ITCZ indicators. A further attempt is made to detect movement in the African ITCZ, based on earlier paleontological studies showing historical changes in precipitation. Zonally averaged wind convergence is found to be the most reliable indicator of the African ITCZ, one having a low correlation with zonally averaged precipitation. Precipitation is found only to be a reliable indicator for the African ITCZ in zones near the wind convergence, which reaches as far north as 20_N in the summer. No secular change in location of the African ITCZ is found for the time of available data. Finally, historical data shows that any increase in precipitation in the Sahel, a region where precipitation is driven by the ITCZ, is mildly negatively correlated with precipitation in the rainbelt area, suggesting that shifts in the ITCZ result in a widening of the precipitation profile as well as a shift of the entire zone.

  9. Error Analysis on the Estimation of Cumulative Infiltration in Soil Using Green and AMPT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Askari

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Green and Ampt infiltration model is still useful for the infiltration process because of a clear physical basis of the model and of the existence of the model parameter values for a wide range of soil. The objective of thise study was to analyze error on the esimation of cumulative infiltration in sooil using Green and Ampt model and to design laboratory experiment in measuring cumulative infiltration. Parameter of the model was determined based on soil physical properties from laboratory experiment. Newton –Raphson method was esed to estimate wetting front during calculation using visual Basic for Application (VBA in MS Word. The result showed that  contributed the highest error in estimation of cumulative infiltration and was followed by K, H0, H1, and t respectively. It also showed that the calculated cumulative infiltration is always lower than both measured cumulative infiltration and volumetric soil water content.

  10. Managing regional cumulative effects of oil sands development in Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaling, H.; Zwier, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an approach to regional cumulative effects management using the case of oil sands development in Alberta, Canada. The 17 existing, approved, or planned projects, all concentrated in a relatively small region, pose significant challenges for conducting and reviewing cumulative effects assessment (CEA) on a project-by-project basis. In response, stakeholders have initiated a regional cumulative effects management system that is among the first such initiatives anywhere. Advantages of this system include (1) more efficient gathering and sharing of information, including a common regional database, (2) setting acceptable regional environmental thresholds for all projects, (3) collaborative assessment of similar cumulative effects from related projects, (4) co-ordinated regulatory review and approval process for overlapping CEAs, and (5) institutional empowerment from a Regional Sustainable Development Strategy administered by a public authority. This case provides a model for integrating project-based CEA with regional management of cumulative effects. (author)

  11. Cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Yanxun; Deng Mingxi

    2008-01-01

    The physical process of cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate is presented by using the second-order perturbation and the technique of nonlinear reflection of acoustic waves at an interface. In general, the cumulative second-harmonic generation of a dispersive guided wave propagation does not occur. However, the present paper shows that the second-harmonic of Lamb wave propagation arising from the nonlinear interaction of the partial bulk acoustic waves and the restriction of the three boundaries of the solid plates does have a cumulative growth effect if some conditions are satisfied. Through boundary condition and initial condition of excitation, the analytical expression of cumulative second-harmonic of Lamb waves propagation is determined. Numerical results show the cumulative effect of Lamb waves on second-harmonic field patterns. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  12. African Journals Online: Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 30 of 30 ... African Research Review (AFRREV) is a Peer Reviewed ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... in the world; the Journal also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research ... This journal content is now open access and licensed under Creative Commons ...

  13. South African Gastroenterology Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fees for medical services: money and medicine. Carl Schulenburg. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  14. South African Gastroenterology Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBS - the beginning and the end: clinical review. Keith Pettengell. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sagr.v1i1.30693 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  15. South African Gastroenterology Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The South African Gastroenterology Reviewis written by specialists in the field. Its aim is to publish articles pertinent to the practising Gastroenterologist in South Africa. It is distributed to a broad spectrum of clinicians who have an interest in clinical gastroenterology and hepatology. Other websites ...

  16. African Journals Online: Swaziland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes research papers, case studies, essays and review articles as well as first hand experiences in soil, plant, water and animal sciences, natural resources management, home economics and nutrition, and other related areas of relevance to the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region in ...

  17. South African Actuarial Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Actuarial Journalis published by the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA). It is issued free to members of ASSA and will also be made available to them on the Society's website for access via the Internet. The focus of SAAJ is on actuarial research–particularly, but not exclusively, on research of relevance to ...

  18. The African Family Physician

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    North America and Europe, and these serve us well up to a point. When a colleague ... Maybe we need a different set of principles to work by in the Afri- ... base the balance. ... The African Family Physician is dedicated to life-long learning and.

  19. African Journals Online: Portugal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  20. African Journals Online: Mozambique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This biannual, peer reviewed journal aims at providing space for sharing and debating issues of social, political and economic development not only for academic consumption, but also for policy considerations. Launched in 2011, the African Journal of Governance and Development has grown from strength to strength.

  1. South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...

  2. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have insurance or can’t afford treatment, your community may have publicly-funded mental health centers or programs that charge you according to ... how he found healing in an African American community. Other Resources ... Institute of Mental Health Phone Number: 301-443-4513 Toll Free Number: ...

  3. African Journals Online: Tuvalu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  4. African Journals Online: Romania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  5. African Journals Online: Austria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  6. African Journals Online: Palau

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  7. African Journals Online: Comoros

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  8. African Journals Online: Myanmar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  9. African Journals Online: Lesotho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  10. African Journals Online: Latvia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  11. African Journals Online: Bhutan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  12. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Social Science: Reflection on ...

  13. South African Airborne Operations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    makes them suitable for a number of different and demanding roles. ... financial constraints make it generally impossible for rebel groupings and even national ... followed their chief by successfully parachuting as well.2. During the ... More than 60 South African officers and a handful of other ranks did serve on secondment.

  14. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review; Effect of Globalization on Sovereignty of States Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence; The Influence of Motivation on Employees' Performance: A Study of Some Selected Firms in Anambra State AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and ...

  15. African Communalism and Globalization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    to man if we take the Bible account of creation into consideration. .... in his discussion on the role of traditional education as further quoted by Kigongo, ... the system of the community's teaching and learning, the child must learn to know ... high estimation of the community in African thought and practice, higher than that of.

  16. African Oral Tradition Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Doris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  17. Conversations in African Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  18. African Journals Online: Senegal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Development. Africa Development is the quarterly bilingual journal of CODESRIA. It is a social science journal whose major focus is on issues which are central to the development of society. Its principal objective is to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas among African scholars from a variety of intellectual ...

  19. South African Airborne Operations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa carried out numerous airborne operations during the latter part .... It was a lesson the French had learned and were learning in Indo-China and ..... South African government, concerned that the conflict would spill across their northern border, ...... the Super Frelon and it was an outstanding helicopter at sea level.

  20. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, ... Featured Country: Ethiopia, Featured Journal: AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences. Vol 38, No 2 ... Journal of Applied Biosciences.