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Sample records for african youth ellisras

  1. Development and Tracking of Body Mass Index from Preschool Age into Adolescence in Rural South African Children: Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    K.D. Monyeki; Monyeki, Makama A.; Brits, S.J.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Makgae, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this observational prospective cohort study was to investigate the development and tracking of body mass index (BMI) of Ellisras rural children from preschool age into late adolescence from the Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. Heights and weights of children were measured according to the standard procedures recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry twice a year from 1996 to 2003. In total, 2,225 children—550 preschool and 1,...

  2. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  3. All-China Youth Federation(ACYF)Sino-African Youth Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Youth exchanges Contact between young people has become an important part of China-Africa friendship and exchanges. During his visit to Africa in early 2007, Chinese President Hu Jintao announced the plan to invite 500 African youths to visit China in the following three years. According to this plan,ACYF had invited 500 African young people to

  4. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  5. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. PMID:25287413

  6. Correlates of Polyvictimization Among African American Youth: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaesser, Caitlin M; Voisin, Dexter R

    2015-10-01

    African American adolescents are exposed to high rates of community violence, and recent evidence indicates that these youth may also be at high risk of polyvictimization. Guided by an ecological approach, this study explored individual, familial, and extra-familial correlates of single and multiple forms of violence exposures (i.e., witnessing verbal parental aggression, witnessing or being a victim of community violence exposures) among a sample of 563 urban African American adolescents. Findings indicated that boys reported higher levels of polyvictimization than girls. In addition, the correlates of violence exposures varied by typology and gender. These findings support the development and use of gender-oriented approaches for identifying youth at risk of various types of violence exposures. PMID:25392381

  7. African Muslim Youth and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Annette Haaber

    express as their expectations that they will through Islamic studies get an opportunity to move upwards socially and materially. Therefore, they dream of going abroad to study in the Middle East. For the time being, religious study grants to the Middle East seem to be one of the few ways for them to gain...... part in the adventures and experiences of globalization in a socially and religiously acceptable way. With its high reputation the al-Azhar in Cairo, Egypt, has played a central role for the establishment of this tradition of religious study trips in an African context. On the basis of 10 months of...

  8. Superstar or Scholar? African American Male Youths' Perceptions of Opportunity in a Time of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Lin, Alex R.; Oseguera, Leticia; Drake, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Through a Multiple Marginality Framework, this exploratory case study highlights how African American male youth in an urban high school setting perceive the opportunity structure during the historic election of the first African American President. Youth optimism generated by Obama's election gives students a sense of hope despite the persistent…

  9. African-American Youth Perceptions of Alcohol Advertisements: A Preliminary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Timothy; Taylor, David; Turner, Dion

    1998-01-01

    Examines motivational factors associated with malt liquor consumption in African American youth. (Malt liquor is directly marketed to African-American youth.) Over 90% of respondents consumed alcohol in the past. Students viewed malt liquor commercials as being more associated with sex and power than were beer commercials. (MMU)

  10. Long-Term Effects of the Strong African American Families Program on Youths' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective:This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and…

  11. Family protective factors among urban African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, K M; Clark, R; Barnett, D

    1999-06-01

    Examined the relations among family protective factors, stressful events, and behavioral adjustment of 64 African American 6th graders. The youths reported on family stressors, father-figure involvement, and kin support. Their primary caregivers reported on parenting, father-figure involvement, and family stressors. Teachers reported on child social skill deficits, acting out, and shy or anxious behavior. Based on regression analyses, stress exposure associated positively with child social skill deficits, acting out, and shy or anxious behavior. Parental warmth was associated negatively with shy or anxious behavior. Parental use of corporal punishment was associated positively with child acting out. For youth exposed to high numbers of family stressors, parental demandingness was associated negatively with child acting out and kin support was associated negatively with acting out and shy or anxious behavior, suggesting that these family factors partially shield children from the negative effects of stress. PMID:10353074

  12. The Great Recession and health risks in African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship). At age 19, measures of cellular epigenetic aging (derived from leukocyte DNA methylation profiles, reflecting the disparity between a person's biological and chronological age), allostatic load (composite of blood pressure, C reactive protein, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and body mass index), and adolescent self-report of health were obtained. Linear trend analyses documented significant differences across all outcomes. The more time adolescents spent under economic hardship, the higher their epigenetic aging [estimate=1.421, SE=0.466, p=.002] and allostatic load [estimate=1.151, SE=0.375, p=.002] scores, and the worse their self-report of health [estimate=4.957, SE=1.800, p=.006]. Specific group comparisons revealed that adolescents in the downward mobility group had higher levels of allostatic load than adolescents in the stable low hardship group [p<.05]. Overall, these findings suggest that the health profiles of African American youth may in part be shaped by environmental macro-economic societal conditions, and that effects on biological markers can be detected relatively early in life. PMID:26718449

  13. Perceived Discrimination and Peer Victimization among African American and Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Cole, Daphne J.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Perceptions of racial discrimination constitute significant risks to the psychological adjustment of minority youth. The present study examined the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and peer nominations of victimization among 173 (55% female) African American, European American and Latino youth. All respondents completed peer…

  14. Social Support and Neighborhood Stressors Among African American Youth: Networks and Relations to Self-Worth

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Susan D.; Felix, Erika D.; Nagarajan, Thara

    2010-01-01

    Although neighborhood stressors have a negative impact on youth, and social support can play a protective role, it is unclear what types and sources of social support may contribute to positive outcomes among at-risk youth. We examined the influences of neighborhood disadvantage and social support on global self-worth among low-income, urban African American youth, both concurrently and longitudinally. We examined social support from both a structural and functional perspective, and tested th...

  15. Exploring psychosocial well-being in a group of marginalised African youth / S.R. Melato

    OpenAIRE

    Melato, Seleme Revelation

    2014-01-01

    This research using quantitative and qualitative methods studied the psychosocial well-being of marginalised youth of African descent in South Africa. The study of well-being amongst the youth has been the focus of many research studies in the past two decades (Bach, 2011; Koen, 2010; Ungar, 2005); hence the continuing intellectual debate on the best possible ways to promote youth well-being (Koen, 2010; Shah, Graidage, & Valencia, 2005; Van Schalkwyk, 2010). The major shift within the psycho...

  16. Partnering with a Higher Power: Academic Engagement, Religiosity, and Spirituality of African American Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nicole E.

    2016-01-01

    Engagement in and transitions between academic institutions may be enhanced for African American urban youth if we consider the role of religiosity, spirituality, and places of worship. This article presents the manner by which African American university students, who attended public high schools, conveyed the influence of their religious and…

  17. A (South African voice on youth ministry research: Powerful or powerless?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantelle Weber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on youth ministry in Africa and specifically South Africa traces its origin to much research conducted in America and Europe. Many African scholars also draw on research and practices within these international spheres. Empirical research on youth ministry in Africa is however of great importance. For this purpose, comparative analysis research provides a research methodology in the social sciences that aims to make comparisons across different countries or cultures. A major problem in comparative research is that the data sets in different countries may not use the same categories, or define categories differently. This article makes use of a faith formation case study conducted in South Africa to highlight the value of this methodology when reflecting on international research from an African perspective. The main argument of this article is that international research on youth ministry is valuable in an African context but this research needs to be culturally contextualised through using comparative analysis as a research tool. This will reflect that there are many similarities between international youth ministry and the African context but there are also many cross-cultural disparities. After comparison, differences that are unique to the African context are noted. The article focuses on South Africa as a reflection of youth ministry within the broader African context.

  18. The impact of spinal cord injury on South African youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Njoki

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 500 South Africans, mainly young people,sustain a spinal cord injury every year leading to severe lifetime physical disabilities. With advances in medicine and assistive technology, these young people are able to reach adulthood. The physical, social and  emotional adjustments, which determine the eventual successful outcome following injury, vary considerably from person to person. Some make satisfactory adjustments whereas others remain chronically distressed.This study aimed to determine the impact of SCI on youth in community settings after discharge from rehabilitation.  A qualitative approach, that utilised face-to-face interviews and focus group methods of data collection, was used. Data were drawn from ten participants selected at Conradie Spinal Rehabilitation Unit, using purposive sampling. Audiotape recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. Strong themes that ran through the data were identified. The results of the study revealed that spinal cord injury impacts on more than just the physical capabilities of an individual. Participants identified issues such as social identity, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, social support and employment opportunities as having a major impact on their lives once back in the community.  It is  recommended that rehabilitation professionals include issues such as identity and psychosocial adjustment into their health promotion interventions.

  19. Researching South African Youth, Gender and Sexuality Within the Context of HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Deevia Bhana; Rob Pattman

    2009-01-01

    In the context of HIV/AIDS, youth have become central to contemporary South African social thought and educational policy concerns regarding changing behaviour, addressing gender inequalities, safe sex and preventing the spread of the disease. Yet we know very little about how youth in specific social contexts give meaning to gender and sexuality. Greater understanding of these processes would appear vital to successful educational strategies in the protection against HIV/AIDS in South Africa...

  20. Working Paper 201 - Does Intra-African Trade Reduce Youth Unemployment in Africa ?

    OpenAIRE

    John Anyanwu

    2014-01-01

    This study empirically estimates the effect of Africa’s intra-regional trade on the burgeoning youth unemployment in the Continent. We investigate both the aggregate and gender-specific impacts. Our empirical estimates, using available cross-sectional time series data over the period, 1980 and 2010, suggest that higher levels of intra-African trade reduce both the aggregate, female and male youth unemployment in Africa. In addition, our results show that domestic investment rate, institutiona...

  1. African American and Latino Youth and Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome: Effects on School Violence and Interventions for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyromski, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) is found more frequently in inner-city African American and Latino youth than in European American youth. Previous research on PTSD and its relationship with inner-city violence, minority youth, school violence and institutionalized oppression is examined. School counselor's roles and possible interventions…

  2. Cultural Meaning and Hip-Hop Fashion in the African-American Male Youth Subculture of New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Vern Kenneth; Marina, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results from an ethnographic study of African-American youth subculture in a New Orleans high school. The paper contends that youth subculture remains an important construct to situate stylistic resistance among subaltern groups like urban black youth that confront demands for conformity from representatives of institutional…

  3. (In)Secutiry Regime among African Youth: The Age and Law Curfew Aumenta dimensioni testoDiminuisci dimensioni testo

    OpenAIRE

    Chinedu Thomas Ekwealor

    2015-01-01

    this paper purports to present the account of twin phenomena of age and constitution that anointed the relegation of African youth to the wastebasket of oppression. African youth have been studied by various scholars; and social, economic, and political statistical analyses of the youth were habitually deduced from [un]employment quotient. According to National Treasury discussion paper[1] this instrument may not be a reliable tool in either understanding insecurity regimes threatening the yo...

  4. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  5. Engaging Youth through African-Derived Dance and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Kikora

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of African and African-derived dance and culture and highlights the physical health, dance education, historical, and cultural benefits of a school-based program that incorporates African dance as its core component. The article also includes the phases of the programming and brings attention to potential…

  6. Social Environment and Sexual Risk-Taking among Gay and Transgender African American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B.

    2013-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven f...

  7. An investigation into youth entrepreneurship in selected South African secondary schools: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Athayde, R.; Steenekamp, Andre Gerard; Van der Merwe, Stephanus Petrus

    2011-01-01

    This research paper examines the status of entrepreneurship education in selected South African secondary schools to determine the impact thereof on young learners’ attitude towards entrepreneurship and their future plans. It highlights some challenges facing youth entrepreneurship development in Sedibeng secondary schools. The study is based on the attitude approach to entrepreneurship research and discusses the results of an empirical study involving 1 748 grade 10 learners. South African y...

  8. Exposure to Verbal Parental Aggression and Sexual Activity among Low Income African American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Hotton, Anna; Schneider, John

    2013-01-01

    The study examined whether witnessing verbal parental aggression (VPA) was related to sexual activity among African American youth who were mostly low income, and whether psychological symptoms mediated this relationship. Five hundred and sixty-three African American high school adolescents (ages 13 to 19) completed self-administered questionnaires, which assessed demographics, psychological problems (e.g., depression, anxiety, aggression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms), witnessin...

  9. Gay and Lesbian Youth Experiences of Homophobia in South African Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. H.; Alpaslan, A. H.; Strumpher, J.; Astbury, G.

    2003-01-01

    In post-apartheid South Africa, the tenets of inclusivity, nondiscrimination, and tolerance are actively encouraged and legislated across all sectors of society, including education. However, in examining the coming out experiences of 18 South African gay and lesbian youth (1997-2000), it became apparent that they had all experienced…

  10. A Systematic Review of Literature on Culturally Adapted Obesity Prevention Interventions for African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…

  11. The Relationship between Stress, Academic Confidence, Parental Involvement, and Academic Achievement in African American Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Teresa Horne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stress, coping resources, and academic achievement in fourth-grade urban youth. The intent was to examine if students' perceptions of their stress and coping resources could predict reading and math achievement. The data were collected from 24 low-income African American students…

  12. Parental Attitudes about Teenage Pregnancy: Impact on Sexual Risk Behaviour of African-American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa

    2014-01-01

    African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of…

  13. The Relation among Parental Factors and Achievement of African American Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Clancie Mavello

    2009-01-01

    Research has suggested that low socioeconomic status is a major factor in diminishing academic achievement of African American urban youth; however, there are other factors influencing students' achievement. To examine the other factors that contribute to academic achievement, this study investigated a sample of 60 low-resource middle school…

  14. It Takes a Village: Protecting Rural African American Youth in the Context of Racism

    OpenAIRE

    Berkel, Cady; Murry, Velma McBride; Hurt, Tera R.; Chen, Yi-fu; Gene H. Brody; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates negative consequences of racism, however, little is known about community, parenting, and intrapersonal mechanisms that protect youth. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study illuminated linkages between positive and negative contextual influences on rural African American adolescent outcomes. Quantitative results provide support for Structural Ecosystems Theory, in that the influence of discrimination and collective socialization on adolescent outcomes was medi...

  15. The Time Is Now! Talking with African American Youth about College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephanie Power; Damico, James S.; Kumasi-Johnson, Kafi

    2008-01-01

    This article explores our work with African American youth in an after-school community literacy program. We examine how a group of these students used a set of Internet-based technology tools to evaluate whether or not a group of colleges would affirm their cultural identity and help them succeed. What we learned from the students has caused us…

  16. Exposure to Violence and Aggression: Protective Roles of Social Support among Urban African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhorin, Shira; McMahon, Susan D.

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the impact of social support on the relation between exposure to violence and aggressive behavior, as reported by self, peers, and teachers. The main-effects and stress-buffering models of social support were tested for parents, teachers, classmates, and close friends among 127 urban, African American youth. The…

  17. Investing in Africa's Youth (Based on the African Economic Outlook 2008). Policy Insights No. 62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Some 133 million young people (half of Africa's young) are illiterate; many have few or no skills. Such figures tell their own story: African youth need vocational training. This brief reports that technical and vocational systems in Africa are poorly funded and managed, and advocates for the integration of skill-development strategies into…

  18. Anxiety Symptoms in African American Youth: The Role of Puberty and Biological Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of pubertal status, pubertal timing (actual and perceived), and youth biological sex on symptom dimensions of anxiety (i.e., social, separation, harm avoidance, physical) in African Americans (n = 252; ages 8-12). For girls, results indicated that pubertal status and timing (actual) exerted similar effects for some…

  19. Psychosocial Adjustment of Low-Income African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: The Role of the Youth-Coparent Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Jones, Deborah J.; Kincaid, Carlye

    2009-01-01

    African American youth from single mother homes are at greater risk for internalizing and externalizing problems relative to their peers from two-parent homes. Although the predominance of psychosocial research on these youth has focused on maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality, far less attention has been devoted to the quality…

  20. Academic Growth Trajectories and Family Relationships among African American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored trajectories of African American youths’ academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths’ academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academi...

  1. Upstream Ecological Risks for Overweight and Obesity Among African American Youth in a Rural Town in the Deep South, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Alison J Scott; Wilson, Rebecca F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have focused on overweight and obesity among rural African American youth in the Deep South, despite disproportionately high rates in this group. In addition, few studies have been conducted to elucidate how these disparities are created and perpetuated within rural communities in this region. This descriptive study explores community-based risks for overweight and obesity among African American youth in a rural town in the Deep South. Methods We used ecological theor...

  2. “You Must Know Where You Come From”: South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change

    OpenAIRE

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural coding. Beliefs about the function of religion were captured by the following themes: provides support, connection to the past, moral compass, promotes healthy...

  3. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Male Violent Youth Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Mischelle; Godette, Dionne C.

    2010-01-01

    Bay City (pseudonym) is one of the nation's urban epicenters of the HIV epidemic. Although researchers have examined HIV risk behaviors among juvenile offenders detained in juvenile facilities, no study has examined these risk behaviors among youth offenders who have been waived to adult criminal court and detained in U.S. jails. In the present…

  4. DSM-defined anxiety disorders symptoms in South African youths: Their assessment and relationship with perceived parental rearing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Loxton, Helene; Neumann, Anna; du Plessis, Michelle; King, Neville; Ollendick, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated DSM-defined anxiety symptoms in South African youths. Children and adolescents (N = 701) from various cultural groups completed the SCARED and a questionnaire measuring perceived parental rearing behaviors. Results indicated that the psychometric properties of the SCARED were satisfactory in the total sample of South African youths, and acceptable in colored and black children and adolescents. Further, colored and black youths displayed higher SCARED scores than white youths, and there were also differences in the perceived parental rearing behaviors of the cultural groups. White youths generally rated their parents' rearing behaviors as less anxious, overprotective, and rejective, but more emotionally warm than colored and black youths. Finally, positive correlations were found between anxious rearing, overprotection, and rejection and anxiety symptoms. The clinical and research implications of these findings are briefly discussed. PMID:16137645

  5. The Psychosocial Adjustment of African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: The Relative Contribution of Parents and Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Charlene; Jones, Deborah J.; Zalot, Alecia; Sterrett, Emma

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relative roles of parents and peers in the psychosocial adjustment of African American youth (7-15 years old) from single mother homes (N = 242). Main effects of both positive parenting and peer relationship quality were found for youth depressive symptoms. In addition, a main effect of peer relationship quality and an…

  6. Linking Parental Socialization to Interpersonal Protective Processes, Academic Self-Presentation, and Expectations among Rural African American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Shannon J.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2009-01-01

    Data obtained from two waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families, with an 11-year-old preadolescent, were examined to test pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth's self-presentation and academic expectation and anticipation through the enhancement of youth self-pride. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization was linked with youth's expectation and anticipation for academic success, through y...

  7. Assessing Social Anxiety in African American Youth using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Armando A.; LITTLE, MICHELLE; Wynne, Henry; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2014-01-01

    Examined measurement invariance and cut-off scores of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) using data corresponding to a convenience sample of 501 African American and Caucasian youth (Mage = 11.62 years, 249 girls; 49% with social anxiety disorder) using exploratory structural equation modeling and a weighted least squares mean variance estimator. For the cut-off scores, Receiver Operator Characteristic analyses were used along with Youden’s index to evaluate the bal...

  8. Perceived Racial Discrimination and Self-Esteem in African American Youth: Racial Socialization as a Protective Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Britt, April; Valrie, Cecelia R.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Racial socialization was examined as a protective factor that might buffer African American youth from the negative effects of perceived racial discrimination. Two types of racial socialization were examined: messages about race pride and preparation for bias. One hundred twenty-eight eighth-grade African American students participated in the…

  9. (InSecutiry Regime among African Youth: The Age and Law Curfew Aumenta dimensioni testoDiminuisci dimensioni testo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinedu Thomas Ekwealor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available this paper purports to present the account of twin phenomena of age and constitution that anointed the relegation of African youth to the wastebasket of oppression. African youth have been studied by various scholars; and social, economic, and political statistical analyses of the youth were habitually deduced from [un]employment quotient. According to National Treasury discussion paper[1] this instrument may not be a reliable tool in either understanding insecurity regimes threatening the youth in Africa and may not suffice in championing policy course for a secured African youth. [Un]employment are only symptoms of asymmetrical laws governing many African states. The principal problems are the constitution, and age limitations respectively (Ombagi 2012. In this guide, the instrument valid for testing and indeed, observing the true condition of young Africans are: the roles of state’s constitution; and the Age Grade limitation factors. These, are critical in the development and security of the youth. George McGovern cited in Jeanette Rankin (2012 noted that he [was] fed up to the ears with old men dreaming up wars for young people to die. Two salient factors, rudimentary to youth insecurity in the region in McGovern’s assertions are the law which authorises war and the age grade legally targeted in the war. In assortment of ways, constitutions provide the basis for definition, qualification and categorisation of the youth, who in turn are the direct sufferers of numerous human and state insecurity conditions forced on them by law. Constitution, therefore, plays exclusivist roles and enables the central authority to enforce rules on, and dictate norms for the youth. Despite the need for the state to adjust its behavior to reflect the actual or anticipated preferences of all citizens through a process of policy coordination, laws deprive the youth.

  10. Academic Growth Trajectories and Family Relationships among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored trajectories of African American youths’ academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths’ academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academic achievement compared to girls, but also experienced steeper declines in school self-esteem during adolescence. Changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality were linked to changes in academic functioning: Increases in conflict were related to decreases in GPA, school bonding, and school self-esteem and increases in warmth were related to increases in school bonding and school self-esteem. PMID:27122959

  11. Developmental Origins of Perfectionism Among African American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Keith C.; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The present study used a person-centered latent variable approach to classify types of perfectionism among 6th-grade African American children living in an urban setting. In particular, the authors were interested in determining whether an adaptive subtype could be found and validated against external criteria. The authors also attempted to identify any developmental precursors that could reliably differentiate the perfectionist subtypes. A social learning and competence framework was used to...

  12. Racism, Racial Resilience, and African American Youth Development: Person-Centered Analysis as a Tool to Promote Equity and Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neblett, Enrique W; Sosoo, Effua E; Willis, Henry A; Bernard, Donte L; Bae, Jiwoon; Billingsley, Janelle T

    2016-01-01

    Racism constitutes a significant risk to the healthy development of African American youth. Fortunately, however, not all youth who experience racism evidence negative developmental outcomes. In this chapter, we examine person-centered analysis (PCA)-a quantitative technique that investigates how variables combine across individuals-as a useful tool for elucidating racial and ethnic protective processes that mitigate the negative impact of racism. We review recent studies employing PCA in examinations of racial identity, racial socialization, and other race-related experiences, as well as how these constructs correlate with and impact African American youth development. We also consider challenges and limitations of PCA and conclude with a discussion of future research and how PCA might be used to promote equity and justice for African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth who experience racism. PMID:27474422

  13. No Safe Havens: Protective Parenting Strategies for African American Youth Living in Violent Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter; Berringer, Kathryn; Takahashi, Lois; Burr, Sean; Kuhnen, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Africans American youth experience disproportionately high rates of exposure to community violence. Such exposures are associated with a myriad of physical and mental health challenges. However, few qualitative studies have examined the ways in which parental figures have attempted to manage youth exposure to violence. This study recruited 4 focus groups composed of the parents of African American youth (n = 54). Participants reported that (a) there were no safe places immune from community violence, (b) there were no populations or subgroups protected from community violence, and (c) strategies to manage exposure to violence were often defined by the gender of the child. Although common protective parental strategies included mixed benefits, they ranged from "sheltering" (keeping children off the streets), "chauffeuring" (transporting or accompanying children to and from places), "removal" (enrolling children in schools outside of the neighborhood), and attempting "to rebuild the village." However, several of these strategies had constraints including money, time, and child maturation. Based on these findings, we offer research, policy, and practice implications in response to community violence exposure among this population. PMID:27075420

  14. Decreasing Substance use Risk among African American Youth: Parent-based Mechanisms of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R H; Barton, Allen W; Lei, Man Kit; Mandara, Jelani; Wells, Ashley C; Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H

    2016-07-01

    African American couples (N = 139; 67.7 % married; with children between the ages of 9 and 14) were randomly assigned to (a) a culturally sensitive, couple- and parenting-focused program designed to prevent stress-spillover (n = 70) or (b) an information-only control condition in which couples received self-help materials (n = 69). Eight months after baseline, youth whose parents participated in the program, compared with control youth, reported increased parental monitoring, positive racial socialization, and positive self-concept, as well as decreased conduct problems and self-reported substance use. Changes in youth-reported parenting behavior partially mediated the effect of the intervention on conduct problems and fully mediated its impact on positive self-concept, but did not mediate effects on lifetime substance use initiation. Results suggest the potential for a culturally sensitive family-based intervention targeting adults' couple and parenting processes to enhance multiple parenting behaviors as well as decrease youths' substance use onset and vulnerability. PMID:27129477

  15. Correlates of Cumulative Sexual Risk Behaviors among African American Youth Living in Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von E; Voisin, Dexter

    2016-09-01

    African American youth and especially those who reside in public housing report high rates of sexually transmitted disease (STI) risk behaviors; however, too few studies have examined the correlates of cumulative sexual risk behaviors among this population. This study recruited 298 youth ages 11 to 21 and examined to what degree factors such as age, gender, self-efficacy, substance use, negative peer norms, and delinquency were correlated with cumulative sexual risk behaviors. Major findings indicated that gender, substance use, self-efficacy, and involvement with delinquent peer networks were independent correlates of cumulative sexual risk behaviors, with gender and self-efficacy being the strongest of these factors. Collectively, these findings suggest that gendered approaches to sexual risk reduction among this population are warranted with special content and attention focused on substance abuse risk reduction, improving self-efficacy and managing negative peer influences. PMID:27294733

  16. Youth citizenship, national unity and poverty alleviation: East and West African approaches to the education of a new generation

    OpenAIRE

    Arnot, Madeleine; Casely-Hayford, Leslie; Wainaina, Paul K.; Chege, Fatuma; Dovie, Delali A.

    2009-01-01

    Youth citizenship is now on the international agenda. This paper explores what that concept might mean in the context of two African nations: Kenya and Ghana. Post independence, both countries focused on rethinking the colonial concept of citizenship in line with their political-cultural traditions, providing education for all youth and to encouraging new notions of national citizenship. Programmes for civic education were established that have been reshaped over the last fifty years. These c...

  17. Struggles of agency and structure as cultural worlds collide as urban African American youth learn physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmesky, Rowhea

    This critical ethnography focused on five urban African American students, coming from economically disadvantaged homes in Philadelphia, who were considered at risk with regard to their position within society as well as within the small learning community of their low-academically performing school. As participants in the study, they were employed from June 11, 2001 from 9:00 AM until 1:00 PM and continuing until September 7, 2001 at $7.50 per hour under research grants from the Spencer Foundation and the National Science Foundation. Through this study, these five youth were provided with traditional and nontraditional opportunities to build understandings of some of the most essential concepts of physics as learners. Moreover, they also had the chance to work as research assistants, teacher educators and curriculum developers. The findings of the research conclusively reveal that African American, urban youth from some of the most challenging situations are capable of learning physics concepts. Moreover, the most success resulted when students' strategies of action were directed towards the objective of learning although, in the process of meaning-making, their personal goals unrelated to science were also met. In addition, the research results show that urban African American students come to school with strategies of action replete with cultural practices, symbols and their underlying meanings from fields outside of school including both the home and the neighborhood. These cultural resources, when triggered, then become apparent within learning environments and can powerfully assist learning when the desired outcomes of the student(s) are in tune with the objective of learning physics. Through the physics teaching and learning that occurred within this study, as well as their work as researchers, teacher educators and curriculum developers, April, Ebony, Markist, Pierre and Ya-Meer had opportunities to utilize their cultural capital to build new knowledge

  18. Healthier home food preparation methods and youth and caregiver psychosocial factors are associated with lower BMI in African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca F; Coutinho, Anastasia J; Vaeth, Elisabeth; Christiansen, Karina; Suratkar, Sonali; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2012-05-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American (AA) children and adolescents and leads to an increased risk of adult chronic diseases. Eating few meals at home has been implicated as a cause of obesity among youth, but to our knowledge, previous studies have not specifically investigated this relationship in AA adolescents or looked at both the healthfulness and frequency of home meals in AA households. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between home food preparation and adolescent BMI in a sample of 240 AA adolescents aged 10-15 y and their caregivers. Multiple linear regressions were used to model psychosocial characteristics, household factors, and adolescent and caregiver food preparation behaviors as predictors of adolescent BMI, and psychosocial and household factors as predictors of food preparation behavior. Adolescents in the sample had a mean BMI-for-age percentile of 70.4, and >90% of the sample families received at least one form of food assistance. Adolescent children of caregivers who used healthier cooking methods were more likely to use healthy cooking methods themselves (P = 0.02). Having more meals prepared by a caregiver was predictive of higher BMI-for-age percentile in adolescents (P = 0.02), but healthier cooking methods used by the caregiver was associated with reduced risk of adolescent overweight or obesity (P home in AA households do not necessarily promote healthy BMI in youth. Family meals are a promising adolescent obesity prevention strategy, but it is important to target both frequency and healthfulness of meals prepared at home for effective health promotion in AA families. PMID:22457390

  19. The Importance of Home Environment and Parental Encouragement in the Academic Achievement of African-Canadian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codjoe, Henry M.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the educational experiences of African-Canadian youth. Traditionally, researchers have tended to emphasize the poor academic performance of Black students, or issues and problems related to their academic failure, or to stereotype them as loud, lazy, criminal, athletic, deprived, dangerous, and deviant. In contrast, this…

  20. The Impact of Ecological Risk and Perceived Discrimination on the Psychological Adjustment of African American and European American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Swenson, Rebecca R.; Pulgiano, Dana

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of cumulative ecological risk (i.e., neighborhood disadvantage and ecologically salient stressful events) and perceived discrimination on the psychological adjustment of urban African American and European American youth. Findings indicated that both cumulative ecological risk and perceived…

  1. Associations between Childhood Adversity and Depression, Substance Abuse and HIV and HSV2 Incident Infections in Rural South African Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel K.; Dunkle, Kristin; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, P. Nwabisa; Puren, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe prevalence of childhood experiences of adversity in rural South African youth and their associations with health outcomes. Methods: We analyzed questionnaires and blood specimens collected during a baseline survey for a cluster randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention, and also tested blood HIV and herpes…

  2. Multiple Risks, Emotion Regulation Skill, and Cortisol in Low-Income African American Youth: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Wendy; Reid-Quinones, Kathryn; Shields, Brian J.; Foutz, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Associations between multiple risks, emotion regulation skill, and basal cortisol levels were examined in a community sample of 69 African American youth (mean age = 11.30 years; 49% male) living in an urban setting. Multiple risks were assessed at Time 1 and consisted of 10 demographic and psychosocial risk factors including parent, child, and…

  3. Defensive Localism in White and Black: A Comparative History of European-American and African-American Youth Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Compares European American and African American youth gangs in four historical periods (seaboard, immigrant, racially changing, and hypersegregated cities), showing that differences can be traced to race-specific effects of labor, housing, and consumer markets, government policies, local politics, and organized crime on their communities.…

  4. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…

  5. The Effects of the Physical Features Associated with Albinism on the Self-Esteem of African American Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Moniqueka E.

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the effects of the physical features associated with albinism on three groups of African American youths (ages 14-19) with albinism: those with no disabilities, those with visual impairments, and those with oculocutaneous albinism. No significant differences in self-esteem were found among the three groups. (Contains…

  6. HIV-related stigma among African, Caribbean, and Black youth in Windsor, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihan, Robert; Kerr, Jelani; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to undermine prevention, care, treatment, and the well-being of people living with HIV. A disproportion burden of HIV infection, as well as elevated levels of HIV-related stigma, is evidenced in sub-Saharan African (SSA) and African-diasporic populations. This study explores factors that influence HIV-related stigma among 16- to 25-year-old youth residing in a Canadian city who identify as African, Caribbean, or Black. Stigma, as rooted in cultural norms and beliefs and related social institutions, combined with insights from research on stigma in SSA and African-diasporic populations, guided the development of a path analytic structural equation model predicting levels of HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes. The model was tested using survey responses of 510 youth to estimate the direct and indirect influences of ethno-religious identity, religious service attendance, time in Canada, HIV/AIDS knowledge, HIV-testing history, sexual health service contact, and gender on HIV-related stigma. Statistically significant negative associations were found between levels of stigma and knowledge and HIV-testing history. Ethno-religious identity and gender had both direct and indirect effects on stigma. African-Muslim participants had higher levels of stigma, lower knowledge, and were less likely to have been tested for HIV infection than other ethno-religious groups. Male participants had higher levels of stigma and lower knowledge than women. Time in Canada had only indirect effects on stigma, with participants in Canada for longer periods having higher knowledge and less likely to have been tested than more recent arrivals. While the strength of the effect of knowledge on stigmatizing attitudes in this research is consistent with other research on stigma and evaluations of stigma-reduction programs, the path analytic results provide additional information about how knowledge and HIV-testing function as mediators of non

  7. Beliefs About Sex and Parent-Child-Church Sex Communication Among Church-Based African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erin; Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bohn, Alexandria; Hawes, Starlyn; Bowe-Thompson, Carole

    2015-10-01

    Parent-child sex communication has been shown to be protective against sexual risk among African American youth. The current study sought to use the theory of planned behavior as a framework for focus group discussions (N = 54 youth participants aged 12-19 years) to explore church youths' (a) sex beliefs and values (attitudes), (b) sources and evaluation of sex communication and education (subjective norms), (c) facilitator/barriers to adolescent sexual risk reduction and communication behaviors (perceived behavioral control), and (d) intentions to engage in these behaviors. Additionally, participants identified strategies for consideration in developing tailored parent-child-church sex communication education programs for use in African American churches. Themes suggested both positive and negative attitudes toward premarital sex and parents and churches as key sources of sex education and communication. Strategies to enhance parent-child-church sex communication are discussed in the context of these findings. PMID:25260385

  8. What Predicts Sex Partners' Age Differences Among African American Youth? A Longitudinal Study from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    OpenAIRE

    Bauermeister, José A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Yange Xue; Gee, Gilbert C.

    2010-01-01

    Partner age is associated with youth’s sex risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections. At present, however, we do not know whether the co-occurrence of other risk behaviors is associated with having older sex partners during adolescence and young adulthood. Using growth curve modeling, we first described the shape of the age difference between participants and their sex partners across adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of African American youth. Second, we tested whether thi...

  9. What predicts sex partner age differences among African American youth? A longitudinal study from adolescence to young adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Bauermeister, José A.; Zimmerman, Marc A; Caldwell, Cleopatra; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C.

    2010-01-01

    Partner age is associated with youth’s sex risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections. At present, however, we do not know whether the co-occurrence of other risk behaviors is associated with having older sex partners during adolescence and young adulthood. Using growth curve modeling, we first described the shape of the age difference between participants and their sex partners across adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of African American youth. Second, we tested whether thi...

  10. Correlates of the sex trade among African-American youth living in urban public housing: assessing the role of parental incarceration and parental substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von; Tirmazi, Taqi M; Lombe, Margaret; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; French, Shelby

    2014-04-01

    African-American youth are disproportionately affected by parental incarceration and the consequences of parental substance use. Many adapt to the loss of their parents to prison or drug addiction by engaging in sex-risk behavior, particularly the sex trade. These youth may engage in this risky behavior for a number of reasons. Although previous research has examined this issue, most of these studies have focused on runaway or street youth or youth in international settings. Empirical evidence on correlates of trading sex for money among urban African-American youth is practically missing. Using a sample of 192 African-American youth living in urban public housing, this paper attempts to rectify this gap in knowledge by assessing how individual and parental factors are related to the likelihood of a youth trading sex for money. The sample for this study reported a mean age of 19; 28 % reported having traded sex for money; 30 % had a father currently in prison; and 7 % reported having a mother currently in prison. Maternal incarceration and paternal substance use were associated with a higher likelihood of trading sex for money. Given the potential health risks associated with trading sex for money, understanding correlates of this behavior has important implications for the health of this vulnerable population of youth and urban health in general. PMID:24248621

  11. A Farewell to Innocence? African Youth and Violence in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ugochukwu Ukeje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a broad examination of the issue of youth violence in twenty-first-century Africa, looking at the context within which a youth culture of violence has evolved and attempting to understand the underlining discourses of hegemony and power that drive it. The article focuses specifically on youth violence as apolitical response to the dynamics of (disempowerment, exclusion, and economic crisis and uses (postconflict states like Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeriato explain not just the overall challenge of youth violence but also the nature of responses that it has elicited from established structures of authority. Youth violence is in many ways an expression of youth agency in the context of a social and economic system that provides little opportunity.

  12. HIV prevention for South African youth: which interventions work? A systematic review of current evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Imrie John; Newell Marie-Louise; Harrison Abigail; Hoddinott Graeme

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In South Africa, HIV prevalence among youth aged 15-24 is among the world's highest. Given the urgent need to identify effective HIV prevention approaches, this review assesses the evidence base for youth HIV prevention in South Africa. Methods Systematic, analytical review of HIV prevention interventions targeting youth in South Africa since 2000. Critical assessment of interventions in 4 domains: 1) study design and outcomes, 2) intervention design (content, curriculum, ...

  13. Will it help? Identifying socialization discourses that promote sexual risk and sexual health among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kyla Day; Ward, L Monique; Thomas, Khia; Foust, Monica; Levin, Dana; Trinh, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Because much of the existing research examining sexual communication to African American youth focuses on demographic and parental factors predicting sexual risk behaviors, less is known about factors predicting sexual health, and little is understood about the contributions of peer communications. The current study aimed to expand existing approaches by assessing which socialization discourses communicated by parents and peers contribute to sexual risk and health outcomes (sexual assertiveness, positive sexual affect, and condom self-efficacy). Participants were 631 African American undergraduates (73% female) who indicated the extent to which they had received from their parents and peers each of 28 messages representing four cultural discourses: abstinence, relational sex, sex positive, and gendered sexual roles. As expected, parents were perceived to emphasize relational sex and abstinence messages more than peers, and peers were perceived to communicate sex-positive and gendered sex role messages more than parents. Greater exposure to abstinence messages predicted lower levels of sexual experimentation, whereas exposure to sex-positive messages predicted higher levels. In addition, exposure to relational sex and sex-positive messages predicted higher levels of sexual assertiveness and positive sexual affect. Implications are discussed concerning sexual communications that could help Black youth develop healthy sexual perspectives. PMID:24417331

  14. Social Support and Neighborhood Stressors among African American Youth: Networks and Relations to Self-Worth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Susan D.; Felix, Erika D.; Nagarajan, Thara

    2011-01-01

    Although neighborhood stressors have a negative impact on youth, and social support can play a protective role, it is unclear what types and sources of social support may contribute to positive outcomes among at-risk youth. We examined the influences of neighborhood disadvantage and social support on global self-worth among low-income, urban…

  15. Psychological Control Associated with Youth Adjustment and Risky Behavior in African American Single Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…

  16. School Characteristics and Experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American Youth in Rural Communities: Relation to Educational Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Reed, Karla S.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences in the school characteristics and experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American youth in rural high schools as well as their relation to educational aspirations. We also investigated the characteristics and experiences of students and their families given that…

  17. Cigarette Smoking among African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: Examining the Roles of Maternal Smoking and Positive Parenting within an Extended Family Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah E.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Jones, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the main and interactive effects of three family context variables, maternal smoking, positive parenting behavior, and the quality of the mother's relationship with another adult or family member who assists with parenting (i.e., coparent), and adolescent smoking among African American youth from single mother homes. The…

  18. Impulsivity and Reasons for Living Among African American Youth: A Risk-Protection Framework of Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temilola K. Salami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the impact of specific facets of impulsivity as measured by the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS, as well as reasons for living in predicting suicidal ideation among African American college-aged students. The incremental validity of each facet of the UPPS interacting with reasons for living, a construct meant to buffer against risk for suicide, was explored in a sample of African American students (N = 130; ages 18–24. Results revealed significant interactions between reasons for living and two factors of impulsivity, (lack of premeditation and sensation seeking. Higher levels of sensation seeking and lack of premeditation in conjunction with lower reasons for living was associated with increased suicidal ideation. Neither urgency nor (lack of perseverance significantly interacted with reasons for living in association with suicidal ideation. These results suggest including elements of impulsivity, specifically sensation seeking and (lack of premeditation, when screening for suicidal ideation among African American youth. Future investigations should continue to integrate factors of both risk and protection when determining risk for suicide.

  19. Racial Respect and Racial Socialization as Protective Factors for African American Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGruy, Joy; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Briggs, Harold E.; Brennan, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    African American adolescents must negotiate the transition to adulthood in a society that makes the achievement of positive cultural identity and self-respect difficult. Frequently, young men turn to violence in an attempt to achieve respect in their communities. This article explores factors that predict the use of violence among African American…

  20. Meeting the Learning Needs of African American Youth in the Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Janice; Pringle, Lajuan S.

    2013-01-01

    The African American male psyche is a complicated multi-layered mixture of outside media influences, stereotypes, peer pressure, how they see themselves, and how they think others see them. This article describes how school and public librarians can help raise the literacy efforts of young African American males. It cites the need for libraries to…

  1. Taking Boys out of the Hood: Exile as a Parenting Strategy for African American Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Van Brakle, Mischelle; St. Vil, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that inner-city neighborhood effects are correlated with school dropout, substance abuse, crime, violence, homicide, HIV risk related behaviors, and incarceration for adolescent African American males. Parents of adolescent African American males face many challenges as they try to keep their children safe in high-risk…

  2. Suicide Ideation and Psychosocial Distress in Sub-Saharan African Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if there is an association between psychosocial distress, health-risk behaviors and 12-month suicidal ideation among sub-Saharan African adolescents. Methods: Subjects included a cross-national sample of adolescents (N25,568) representing 7 African countries who completed the Global School-based Student Health Survey…

  3. From placement to prison revisited: Do mental health services disrupt the delinquency pipeline among Latino, African American and Caucasian youth in the child welfare system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Antonio R; Greeson, Johanna K P; Kim, Minseop; Thompson, Allison; DeNard, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in delinquency among child welfare-involved youth are well documented. However, less is known about the mechanisms through which these disparities occur. This study explores the extent to which sets of variables predict the occurrence of juvenile delinquency and whether race/ethnicity moderates the strength of the relationships between (1) social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) problems and delinquency and (2) mental health service use and delinquency. We used a nationally representative sample of 727 African American, Caucasian, and Latino youth between the ages of 12-17 who were referred to the child welfare system. Controlling for age, gender, placement instability, maltreatment history, poverty, and urbanicity, linear regression analyses revealed that African American and Latino youth engaged in more delinquent acts than Caucasian youth did. However, service use decreased the likelihood of engaging in more delinquent acts for African Americans. Additional efforts are needed to illuminate and address the contextual and organizational barriers to delivering effective mental health services as a strategy to reduce racial disparities in delinquent behavior. PMID:26536399

  4. AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour among South African street youth: reflections on power, sexuality and the autonomous self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart-Kruger, J; Richter, L M

    1997-09-01

    Street children in South Africa are, in the main, between the ages of 11 and 17 years. Rape, prostitution, sexual bartering and exchange, casual sex and romantic sexual relationships all occur in the experiences of young people who live and work on inner-city streets. In this study, the AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of 141 street youth, living in seven large cities in South Africa, were elicited in focus group discussions. At the time of the study, 79 boys (56%) were living in shelters run by nongovernmental and welfare organisations, while 62 boys (44%) were sleeping "rough". The results, both qualitative and quantitative, indicated that the AIDS knowledge of South African street children was comparable to levels reported for groups of "hard-to-reach" youth in other parts of the world. Fear of HIV infection did not appear in a list of day-to-day priorities constructed by the children, a list dominated by survival concerns with food, money and clothes. However, more than half of the boys conceded that they engaged in sex for money, goods or protection, several boys indicated that they had been raped, and most reported being sexually active with "girlfriends", who themselves frequently engaged in transactional sex. The findings are interpreted in terms of the relationships between power dynamics surrounding race and age, and how they affect self-initiated controls over sexuality and sexual protection. PMID:9255928

  5. Speaking Up and Talking Back? Media, Empowerment and Civic Engagement of African Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book questions whether and how young citizens in Africa engage with media and communications technologies and platforms in a desire to be included in the change processes of their societies. The theme echoes some of the claims made by disenchanted and frustrated youth and other citizens in the...... and huge challenges for the social and economic development of these countries. Youth in particular engaged massively, visibly, loudly and dramatically around demands to be involved and included in their countries’ development processes. This yearbook taps into the less visible and dramatic, but...... nevertheless highly dynamic and influential, process of media development and the enlargement of youth-driven, deliberative spaces which sub-Saharan Africa is currently experiencing....

  6. Neighborhood & Family Effects on Learning Motivation among Urban African American Middle School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Damiya; Graham, Camelia; Severtson, Stevan Geoffrey; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Latimer, William

    2012-01-01

    Motivational theorists in psychology have moved away from individual-based approaches to socio-cognitive and socio-ecological models to explain student engagement and motivation for learning. Such approaches consider, for example, the influence of family and neighborhood environments as important constructs in youth behavior. In this study, links…

  7. South African AIDS Orphans: Examining Assumptions around Vulnerability from the Perspective of Rural Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Patricia C.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines assumptions circulating in development or interventionist discourse concerning the vulnerabilities of AIDS orphans in South Africa. Ongoing ethnographic research, begun in March 2003, with 31 rural children and youth between the ages of 14 and 22, in Magangangozi, KwaZulu-Natal, points to the ways in which global terms may…

  8. Impact of Baltimore Healthy Eating Zones: An Environmental Intervention to Improve Diet among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ahyoung; Surkan, Pamela J.; Coutinho, Anastasia J.; Suratkar, Sonali R.; Campbell, Rebecca K.; Rowan, Megan; Sharma, Sangita; Dennisuk, Lauren A.; Karlsen, Micaela; Gass, Anthony; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a youth-targeted multilevel nutrition intervention in Baltimore City. The study used a clustered randomized design in which 7 recreation centers and 21 corner stores received interventions and 7 additional recreation centers served as comparison. The 8-month intervention aimed to increase availability and…

  9. HIV prevention for South African youth: which interventions work? A systematic review of current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imrie John

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa, HIV prevalence among youth aged 15-24 is among the world's highest. Given the urgent need to identify effective HIV prevention approaches, this review assesses the evidence base for youth HIV prevention in South Africa. Methods Systematic, analytical review of HIV prevention interventions targeting youth in South Africa since 2000. Critical assessment of interventions in 4 domains: 1 study design and outcomes, 2 intervention design (content, curriculum, theory, adaptation process, 3 thematic focus and HIV causal pathways, 4 intervention delivery (duration, intensity, who, how, where. Results Eight youth HIV prevention interventions were included; all were similar in HIV prevention content and objectives, but varied in thematic focus, hypothesised causal pathways, theoretical basis, delivery method, intensity and duration. Interventions were school- (5 or group-based (3, involving in- and out-of-school youth. Primary outcomes included HIV incidence (2, reported sexual risk behavior alone (4, or with alcohol use (2. Interventions led to reductions in STI incidence (1, and reported sexual or alcohol risk behaviours (5, although effect size varied. All but one targeted at least one structural factor associated with HIV infection: gender and sexual coercion (3, alcohol/substance use (2, or economic factors (2. Delivery methods and formats varied, and included teachers (5, peer educators (5, and older mentors (1. School-based interventions experienced frequent implementation challenges. Conclusions Key recommendations include: address HIV social risk factors, such as gender, poverty and alcohol; target the structural and institutional context; work to change social norms; and engage schools in new ways, including participatory learning.

  10. A Strategy of Responsible Militancy: A Template for Today's African-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Robert O.

    1989-01-01

    Proposes a strategy for African-Americans of responsible militancy comprised of an individual determination to excel, a high degree of positive self-determination, and political confrontation of harmful policies and practices. Emphasizes the restoration of pride in the family and community. (FMW)

  11. Relationships between Exposure to Rap Music Videos and Attitudes toward Relationships among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Yaphet

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to (a) predict adversarial attitudes toward male-female relationships and (b) explore the relationships between traditional agents of socialization and personal acceptance of negative images in rap videos by African American adolescents. Participants completed psychosocial measures, viewed videos, and completed surveys…

  12. Determinants of Physical Activity in Active and Low-Active, Sixth Grade African-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G.; Pate, Russell R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Saunders, Ruth; Riner, William

    1999-01-01

    Compared determinants of physical activity in active and low-active African-American sixth graders, surveying students and making objective assessments of physical activity over seven days. Results indicated that physical activity self-efficacy, beliefs about physical activity outcomes, involvement in community-based physical activity, perception…

  13. Risk and Protective Factors for Recent Alcohol Use among African-American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    A total of 7488 7th-12th grade African-American students completed a survey assessing factors associated with recent alcohol use. Results indicated that 13.6% used alcohol in the past month. A series of odds ratios revealed that making good grades, participating in school activities, attending church, and having parents/teachers talk about the…

  14. The Impact of Racial Discrimination and Coping Strategies on Internalizing Symptoms in African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of racial discrimination stress on internalizing symptoms and coping strategies in a sample of 268 African American early adolescents (mean age = 12.90; 56% female) from low-income communities. Information about discrimination stress, coping, and internalizing symptoms was obtained via adolescents'…

  15. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that…

  16. Barriers to Conducting a Community Mobilization Intervention among Youth in a Rural South African Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…

  17. Overcoming Adversity: High-Achieving African American Youth's Perspectives on Educational Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph M.; Bryan, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative multicase research study identified the home, school, and community factors and processes that contributed to the academic success of 8 urban, African American high school graduates from low-income, single-parent families. Ten main themes emerged: school-related parenting practices, personal stories of hardship, positive…

  18. College Dreams, Corporate Work Study, Brotherhood and Belonging: How urban Catholic high schools structure opportunity for low-income Latino and African American male youth

    OpenAIRE

    Aldana, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    The alarming rates of educational failure of minority youth, where middle class white and Asian students repeatedly outperform their low-income Latino and African American peers, require educational programs or policies that will improve the life outcomes of minority students (G�ndara & Contreras, 2009; J. Lee, 2006; Thernstrom & Therstrom, 2003). A college going culture and the development of social capital in school settings has been found to improve academic outcomes for underrepresente...

  19. The Role of Coparents in African American Single-Mother Families: The Indirect Effect of Coparent identity On Youth Psychosocial Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Justin; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Cuellar, Jessica; Shoulberg, Erin K.

    2013-01-01

    The majority (67%) of African American youth live in single-parent households, a shift in the family structure that has been linked to increased risk for both internalizing and externalizing problems behaviors. Although the majority of single mothers endorse the assistance of another adult or family member in childrearing, relatively little is known about who is engaged in this non-marital coparenting role (i.e., grandmother, father/social father, aunt, and female family friend) and how it re...

  20. Perceptions of gender-based violence among South African youth: implications for health promotion interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, M; Ahmed, R; Simon, C

    2012-09-01

    Gender-based violence is a widespread problem in South Africa. Past structural inequities have created a climate conducive to violence against women. As an initial step toward developing a health promotion program, we conducted exploratory formative research to examine the barriers that affect the health and well-being of youth. Fourteen focus groups (nine with girls and five with boys) were conducted with 112 adolescents in a racially mixed community on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. We utilized grounded theory and thematic analysis to examine the data. The impact of poverty, ubiquitous gendered violence, transactional sex and unsafe recreational spaces emerged as the major themes. The experiences of youth were consumed by issues of safety rather than the pursuit of other developmentally appropriate markers. Our findings suggest that health promotion programs should create safe spaces for youth and opportunities to critically question the assumptions and manifestations of a patriarchal society. Furthermore, the findings indicate that there is a strong need for multi-sectorial interventions directed at many levels to prevent gender-based violence. PMID:21733916

  1. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independ...

  2. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization and Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, 6th through 12th grade African American adolescents from working and middle class two-parent families. In home interviews youth described their ethnic identity, discrimination experiences at school, and school engagement (school bonding, school grades, school self-esteem), and parents rated their racial socialization practices. Analyses revealed that discrimination was negatively related to school self-esteem and school bonding. Racial socialization had additive effects on school self-esteem and school bonding, but did not moderate the discrimination -- school engagement association. For boys, ethnic identity had additive effects on school bonding, but for girls, ethnic identity moderated the relation between discrimination and school bonding: When girls experienced more discrimination and had lower ethnic identity, they reported lower school bonding. Discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic identity were not related to school grades.

  3. Profiles of Community Violence Exposure Among African American Youth: An Examination of Desensitization to Violence Using Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K; Dickson, Daniel; Pierre, Cynthia

    2016-07-01

    The current study employed latent class analysis (LCA) to identify distinct profiles of community violence exposure and their associations to desensitization outcomes in 241 African American early adolescents (M age = 12.86, SD = 1.28) in the sixth through eighth grade from under-resourced urban communities. Participants self-reported on their exposure to community violence, as well as on depressive and anxiety symptoms. The LCA revealed three distinct classes: a class exposed to low levels of violence (low exposure class), a class exposed to moderately high levels of victimization (victimization class), and a class exposed to high levels of all types of violence (high exposure class). Consistent with predictions, the high exposure class showed the lowest levels of depressive symptoms, suggesting a desensitization outcome. Gender and age were also examined in relation to the classes, and age was significantly associated with an increased risk of being a member of the high exposure class relative to the low exposure class. Using person-based analyses to examine desensitization outcomes provides useful information for prevention and intervention efforts, as it helps to identify a specific subgroup of youth that may be more likely to show desensitization outcomes in the context of community violence. PMID:25716195

  4. Vital Role of Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The SWAPO Party Youth League (SPYL) is the youth wing of the SWAPO Party of namibia, which will jointly hold the Africa-China Young Leaders forum. Dr. Elijah ngurare, Secretary of the SWAPO Party Youth League, shared his thoughts on the relationship between young people in China and African countries with ChinAfrica

  5. The theory of planned behaviour as a framework for predicting sexual risk behaviour in sub-Saharan African youth: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protogerou, Cleo; Flisher, Alan J; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Mathews, Catherine

    2012-07-01

    Amongst the psychological theories that have been used to help understand why people have unprotected sex, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB: Ajzen 1991) has earned a prominent position. This article is a critical review of 11 peer-reviewed studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa during 2001 to 2009, which used the TPB as a model of predicting sexual risk behaviour in young people. All the studies revealed the predictive ability of the TPB in urban, rural, and traditional African settings, with R (2) coefficients ranging between 0.14 and 0.67. With data comparing favourably to those obtained in the international literature, these studies indicate that the TPB can be used to study sexual risk intentions and behaviour in sub-Saharan African youth, and question arguments against the theory's use in non-Western settings. PMID:25865835

  6. Toward Participatory Communal Citizenship: Rendering Visible the Civic Teaching, Learning, and Actions of African Immigrant Youth and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Michelle G.; Watson, Vaughn W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rendering visible African immigrants' shared and differing experiences of civic learning and action, the authors present findings from in-depth semi-structured interviews with second- and 1.5-generation African immigrants in New York City. Drawing on an interdisciplinary framework of African immigrant identities constructions and civic…

  7. Men Do Matter: Ethnographic Insights on the Socially Supportive Role of the African American Uncle in the Lives of Inner-City African American Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…

  8. Gender Differences in Monitoring and Deviant Peers as Predictors of Delinquent Behavior among Low-Income Urban African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Philip; Richards, Maryse; Pearce, Steven; Romero, Edna

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is an ongoing social problem particularly among low-income urban youth who are regularly exposed to numerous risk factors. Although much research has been conducted in this area, the most at-risk youth have been largely neglected. This study examines the role of peer deviance in mediating the influence of adult monitoring on…

  9. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yanbin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical activity in European - (EA and African-American (AA youth. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry. Results FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI (P = 0.01, weight (P = 0.03 and waist circumference (P = 0.04, with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05, or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05. No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05. Conclusions The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity.

  10. Reconsidering the Relationship between Race and Crime: Positive and Negative Predictors of Crime among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entner Wright, Bradley R.; Younts, C. Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Studies of race and crime have emphasized the effects of social disadvantage and discrimination on increasing crime among African Americans. The authors extend this literature by examining various beliefs and institutions that have developed within African American communities that, in contrast, decrease criminal behavior. A model of…

  11. Social Media in the Sexual Lives of African American and Latino Youth: Challenges and Opportunities in the Digital Neighborhood

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Stevens; Jamie Dunaev; Ellen Malven; Amy Bleakley; Shawnika Hull

    2016-01-01

    There has been significant interest in the role of social media in the lives of adolescents, particularly as it relates to sexual risk. Researchers have focused on understanding usage behaviors, quantifying effects of social media exposure and activity, and using social media to intervene. Much of this work has focused on college students and non-minority youth. In this paper, we examine the growing body of literature around social media use among US minority youth and its intersection with s...

  12. Promoting positive youth development by examining the career and educational aspirations of African American males: implications for designing educational programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Felecia A; Lewis, Rhonda K; Sly, Jamilia R; Carmack, Chakema; Roberts, Shani R; Basore, Polly

    2011-01-01

    African American males experience poor academic performance, high absenteeism at school, and are at increased risk of being involved in violence than other racial groups. Given that the educational outlook for African American males appears bleak, it is important to assess the aspirations of these adolescent males in order to find the gap between aspirations and educational attainment. In order to promote positive development within this population, it is essential that factors that affect African American males be identified. A survey was administered to male students attending elementary, middle, and high schools in a local school district. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the career and educational aspirations of African American males. A total of 473 males were surveyed: 45% African American, 22% Caucasian, 13% biracial, and 19% Other (including Asian American, Hispanic, Native American). The results revealed that African American males aspired to attend college at the same rate as other ethnic groups. Also, African American males were more likely to aspire to be professional athletes than males from other ethnic groups. Important factors to consider when designing a program are discussed as well as future research and limitations. PMID:21992020

  13. Social Media in the Sexual Lives of African American and Latino Youth: Challenges and Opportunities in the Digital Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Stevens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been significant interest in the role of social media in the lives of adolescents, particularly as it relates to sexual risk. Researchers have focused on understanding usage behaviors, quantifying effects of social media exposure and activity, and using social media to intervene. Much of this work has focused on college students and non-minority youth. In this paper, we examine the growing body of literature around social media use among US minority youth and its intersection with sexual risk behavior. We introduce the concept of the “digital neighborhood” and examine the intersection of social media and sexual health in two domains: 1 sexual content in social media and 2 evidence of social media effects on sexual behavior. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges for researchers and practitioners engaging youth of color.

  14. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...

  15. Gender Patterns in the Contribution of Different Types of Violence to Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among South African Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Debra; Hardy, Anneli; Heath, Katherine; Mosdell, Jill; Bawa, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identifying the comparative contributions of different forms of violence exposure to trauma sequelae can help to prioritize interventions for polyvictimized youth living in contexts of limited mental health resources. This study aimed to establish gender patterns in the independent and comparative contributions of five types of violence…

  16. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Aggression and Weapons Carrying in Urban African American Early Adolescent Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Cheng, Tina L.; Gielen, Andrea; Haynie, Denise L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive and weapons carrying behaviors are indicative of youth violence. The theory of planned behavior is used in the current analysis to improve our understanding of violence-related behaviors. We examine the influence of perceived behavioral control (self-control and decision making) as a part of the overall framework for understanding the…

  17. The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…

  18. Effects of Exposure to Community Violence on Internalizing Symptoms: Does Desensitization to Violence Occur in African American Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Zelencik, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the linear and curvilinear associations of exposure to community violence to internalizing symptoms in 251 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.86, SD = 1.28). Participants reported on exposure to community violence, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Regression analyses were used to…

  19. "Showing roughness in a beautiful way": talk about love, coercion, and rape in South African youth sexual culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kate; Lambert, Helen; Jewkes, Rachel

    2007-09-01

    Sexual violence within as well as outside sexual relationships has far-reaching public health and human rights implications and is a continuing focus of popular debate, media coverage, and research in postapartheid South Africa. Partly because it has been shown to affect individual vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, sexual violence has in recent years become framed as a global public health issue. International research efforts to document the scale of this personally and politically sensitive problem can encounter conceptual, definitional, and methodological difficulties that anthropology is well placed to assist in alleviating. This article offers an ethnographic exploration of the spectrum of practices relating to sexual coercion and rape among young people in a township in the former Transkei region of South Africa. Contextualizing meanings of sexual coercion within local youth sexual culture, the article considers two emic categories associated with sex that is "forced": ukulala ngekani: "to sleep with by force" or ukunyanzela: "to force," both usually used to describe episodes occurring within sexual partnerships; and ukudlwengula, used to describe rape by a nonpartner or stranger. The article discusses the semantic content of and differences between these two key categories, demonstrating that encounters described as "forced sex" encompass not only various forms of sexual coercion but also, particularly in the narratives of young men, instances of more consensual sex. Of importance, in turn, in defining an act as "rape" rather than as "forced sex" are the character of the relationship between the two parties and interlinked ideas relating to exchange and sexual entitlement, love, and the importance of "intention," violation, and "deserving" victimhood. PMID:17937250

  20. African Indigenous Proverbs and the Question of Youth Violence: Making the Case for the Use of the Teachings of Igbo of Nigeria and Kiembu of Kenya Proverbs for Youth Character and Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, George Sefa

    2013-01-01

    The historic and contemporary global concern over youth violence and indiscipline/subordination in schools has educators, school administrators and policy makers working hard to ensure that schools are welcoming and safe spaces for learners. Social harmony can only be achieved by understanding and addressing the causes of youth violence and…

  1. Analysing the construction of South African youth in historical-related images and texts around the time of 16 June 2011.

    OpenAIRE

    Glanvill, S

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate how young people in post-apartheid South Africa are being constructed in negative waysin the light of how we commemorate and teach the Anti-apartheidstruggle. Is it possible to teach the stories of the past without burdening this generation with guilt and paralysing the youth in terms of their own struggles? It specifically focus on how the media are currently reconstructing the struggle icons as superhuman, and in so doing, implying that the youth can never liv...

  2. The Impact of Timing of Exposure to Violence on Violent Behavior in a High Poverty Sample of Inner City African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of research has linked exposure to violence to violent behavior, but few studies have examined the impact of the timing of exposure to violence on violent behavior among inner city, minority youth. Theoretical insights derived from developmental psychology and psychopathology (DPP) and Agnew's general strain theory (GST) give…

  3. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Gaifen; Zhu, Haidong; Lagou, Vasiliki; Gutin, Bernard; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S.; Treiber, Frank A.; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Background: Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake s

  4. An Examination of the Tripartite Model of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in African American Youth: Stressors and Coping Strategies as Common and Specific Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Elmore, Corinn A.; Campbell, Cynthya L.; Wethington, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the tripartite model of depression and anxiety in a community-based sample of 278 African American adolescents (M age = 12.89) from low-income communities and to identify stressors and coping strategies that were associated with the specific features of each disorder. Participants reported on…

  5. Gender Differences in Rates of Depressive Symptoms among Low-Income, Urban, African American Youth: A Test of Two Mediational Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathryn E.; Lyons, Aoife L.; Finkelstein, Jo-Ann S.; Conway, Kathryn M.; Reynolds, Linda K.; O'Koon, Jeffrey H.; Waitkoff, Gregory R.; Hicks, Kira J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study tested for gender differences in depressive symptoms in a sample of 622 low-income, urban, African American adolescents. Results indicate that adolescent girls in this sample were significantly more likely to endorse depressive symptoms than were boys. To examine possible explanations for this gender difference, 2 variables were…

  6. Youth in Africa's Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Marito; Fares, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Youth and Africa have received increased attention in recent policy discussions and World Bank work, as articulated in the Africa action plan and the World Development Report 2007: development and the next generation. The Africa action plan offers a framework to support critical policy and public action led by African countries to achieve well-defined goals, such as the Millennium Developm...

  7. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  8. Maternal HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms among inner-city African American youth: the role of maternal depressive symptoms, mother-child relationship quality, and child coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Laura; Jones, Deborah J; Roland, Erin; Coffelt, Nicole; Rakow, Aaron; Forehand, Rex

    2007-04-01

    This study was designed to examine interactions between psychosocial risk (i.e., maternal depressive symptoms) and protective (i.e., child coping skills and mother-child relationship quality) correlates of depressive symptoms among inner-city African American children of mothers with and without HIV/AIDS. Two primary hypotheses were tested: (a) whether these correlates interact differently in HIV-infected and noninfected samples and (b) whether child coping skills and a positive mother-child relationship interact to protect children from developing depressive symptoms in the context of maternal HIV infection. Results indicated that (a) a positive mother-child relationship, but not child coping skills, was protective in the HIV-infected sample when maternal depressive symptoms were high and (b) the combination of a positive mother-child relationship and child coping skills was associated with the lowest level of child depressive symptoms in the HIV-infected sample. These findings highlight the differential importance of various risk and protective mechanisms for HIV-infected and noninfected African American samples and, as such, have preventative implications for children of HIV-infected women. PMID:17535124

  9. Girls want money, boys want virgins: the materiality of love amongst South African township youth in the context of HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia; Pattman, Rob

    2011-09-01

    How do young South Africans give meaning to love? In this paper we draw on findings from an interview study to examine the ways in which young Africans, aged 16 to 17 years in a poor township in KwaZulu-Natal province, express ideals of love and romance. Their claims to love we show are strategic advantages as they negotiate poverty and economic marginalisation. Girls' ideals of love are tied to their aspirations towards middle-class consumerism. Love becomes inseparable from the idealisation of men who provide. Upholding provider masculinity is a strategic means to claim money, fashionable clothes and prestige. Unlike girls, the boys' love investments were focused on farm girls from rural areas in South Africa. Farm girls were constructed as virgins with little investment in commodification. Farm girls are a strategic option through which boys' economic marginalisation experienced in the township girls is reconciled through an exalted masculinity. Love is produced by particular sets of economic and social circumstances through which gender inequalities are reproduced, and should be taken more seriously in working with young people to address gendered social environments and HIV risk. PMID:21656409

  10. From Headphones to Hijabs: Cultural and Religious Experiences of Somali Youth in U.S. Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basford, Letitia

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a two year qualitative study, this paper examines how East African Muslim immigrant youth experience and become shaped by the environments of U.S. mainstream schools as compared to a culturally specific charter high school. Results from this study reveal that East African Muslim immigrant youth are affected by religious and…

  11. Designing Games, Designing Roles: A Study of Youth Agency in an Urban Informal Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Kimberly M.; Clark, Kevin; Williams, Asia

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration (GDMC), an informal education program in 3D computer modeling and 2D interactive game design serving primarily African American youth aged 7 to 19 years in the Washington, D.C. metro area, transformed from a program designed and taught by adults to one designed and taught by youth. In Year 1, 8% of youth participants held a…

  12. Developing a center for Hispanic youth violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabal-Colón, Brenda

    2003-03-01

    Youth violence is a serious public health problem, described by the Surgeon General's Report on Youth Violence (2001). Homicide is the second cause of death for the 15-24 age population in the USA and Puerto Rico; intentional injuries also result in significant morbidity. Youth are at greater risk of being victims than perpetrators of violence. African American and Hispanic youth are at particular risk. Effective, community-based initiatives to prevent youth violence are necessary to interrupt the cycle of violence. In 2000, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the Department of Health and Human Services awarded grants to establish ten Academic Centers of Excellence for Youth Violence Prevention. This article describes the development of the Center for Hispanic Youth Violence Prevention, of the FILIUS Institute of the University of Puerto Rico. PMID:12733449

  13. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  14. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  15. Youth Homicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Young Americans are killed with guns at rates far higher than young people in other countries and than older Americans, with young, urban African-American males being most at risk. This fact sheet presents data on gun-related homicides among teenagers in the United States. The high rate of youth homicide in the United States is unique in the…

  16. LGBT Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Former Secretary Sebelius's message to LGBT youth experiencing bullying and intolerance . Effects on Education and Health Exposure to violence can ... LGB and questioning students in schools: The moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes. Journal of ...

  17. The Moderating Effects of Culture on Peer Deviance and Alcohol Use among High-Risk African-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Jagers, Robert J.; Wilson, Karen D.; Owens, Kristal

    2007-01-01

    African-American adolescents have lower rates of alcohol consumption than White youth. However, African-American youth suffer disproportionately more adverse social, mental, and physical health outcomes related to alcohol use. Affiliating with negative peers is a risk factor for alcohol initiation and consumption. Cultural variables have shown…

  18. A systematic review of active transportation research in Africa and the psychometric properties of measurement tools for children and youth

    OpenAIRE

    Larouche, Richard; Oyeyemi, Adewale L.; Prista, Antonio; Onywera, Vincent; Akinroye, Kingsley K; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous systematic reviews indicate that active transportation (AT; the use of non-motorized travel modes such as walking, running and cycling) is an important source of daily physical activity (PA). However, no previous systematic review has examined travel behaviours among African children and youth or the psychometric properties of measurement tools used among children and youth worldwide. Methods Studies on AT among African children and youth (aged 5–17 years) were identified ...

  19. Belief in God among South African youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes A. van der Ven

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates belief in God among 538 students from standard 9 who attend Anglican and Catholic schools in the Johannesburg/Pretoria region. Within their belief in God they make use of different interpretations, namely anthropomorph theism and panentheism, non-anthropomorph theism and panentheism, as well as what is called aniconic transcendent pantheism. These interpretations do not appear to exclude one another, but co-exist in the students' minds.

  20. Does Parenting Shield Youth from Exposure to Violence during Adolescence? A 5-Year Longitudinal Test in a High-Poverty Sample of Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to determine if parental monitoring shielded youth from exposure to violence during adolescence. Semiparametric group-based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results…

  1. South Africa: ANC Youth League President found guilty of hate speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Kelly

    2010-06-01

    On 15 March 2010, the Johannesburg Equality Court found African National Congress (ANC) Youth League President Julius Malema guilty of hate speech and harassment for his comments regarding rape survivors. PMID:21188953

  2. Regular physical activity has differential association with reduced obesity among diverse youth in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Fradkin, C; Wallander, JL; Elliott, MN; Cuccaro, P; Schuster, MA

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether daily or almost daily lower-intensity physical activity was associated with reduced obesity, among 4824 African American, Hispanic, and White youth assessed in fifth and seventh grades. Regular lower-intensity physical activity was associated with reduced obesity only among Hispanic and White males and only in seventh grade, and not among youth in fifth grade, females, or African American males or females. Findings from this study suggest that the reduced obesity r...

  3. Problems of youth in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriuki, P

    1981-12-01

    Young people constitute a large and rapidly growing proportion of the population in most countries of Africa and in many parts of the world as a whole. These young people live in a rapidly changing world, faced with many pressures. Young people on the whole experience discomforting confusion, disquieting irritations and perplexities, and adjustment problems as a result of rapid social change. There is an increase in drug and alcohol use among youth leading to vandalism and disrespect toward their elders and authority. There also are teenage pregnancies and school dropouts. Illegal abortion is being practiced by many girls which sometime lead to premature death. Urbanization also has accentuated various kinds of evils and crimes. Modernization and western influences have helped to erode traditional Africa values. The family system has lost ground rapidly, and the indigenous systems of education have largely disappeared. The passing away of old Africa has contributed to laxity in morals. The current socioeconomic conditions in Africa block the progress of the Africa youth. Early marriages complicate matters for youth and increase the burdens of youth. Ignorance, illiteracy, and insufficient knowledge about fertility regulation methods all have helped to increase early childbearing. These are reinforced by African traditional values attached to childbearing. Furthermore, in traditional African society, the young people depended for guidance in behavior and personal relationships on some member of the family. This teaching was gradual and continued until the child was an adult. Today, the family has had to relinquish much of the responsibility of guiding youth on these concerns. Much of the task has been left to formal education and to chance. Problems relating to young people should be attacked at their roots. Such an effort should aim to inform, teach, educate, and orient youth so that they can face the reality of their sexual life. Family Life and Sex Education

  4. Understanding Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or even death. Why is youth violence a public health problem? Youth violence is widespread in the United States ( ... CDC uses a four-step approach to address public health problems like youth violence. Step 1: Define the problem ...

  5. The Unintended Consequences of Intended Pregnancies: Youth, Condom Use, and HIV Transmission in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; White, Justin S.

    2008-01-01

    Although unwanted pregnancies can cause social and economic problems for Sub-Saharan African youth, the consequences of "intended" adolescent pregnancies have gone unnoticed. Rarely do studies recognize that youth who desire a pregnancy are less likely to practice safe sex and, therefore, are at greater risk of contracting sexually transmitted…

  6. Multisystemic Therapy Effects on Attempted Suicide by Youths Presenting Psychiatric Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Stanley J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Pickrel, Susan G.; Edwards, James

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of multisystemic therapy (MST) in reducing attempted suicide among predominantly African American youths referred for emergency psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Youths presenting psychiatric emergencies were randomly assigned to MST or hospitalization. Indices of attempted suicide, suicidal ideation,…

  7. Predictors of Treatment Response for Suicidal Youth Referred for Emergency Psychiatric Hospitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Jr., Stanley J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Pickrel, Susan G.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated factors that predicted poor treatment response for 70 suicidal youth (ages 10 to 17 years; 67% African American) who received either multisystemic therapy (MST) or inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. Following treatment, suicidal youth were classified as either treatment responders or nonresponders based on caregiver or…

  8. Factors Associated with Substance Use among Orphaned and Non-Orphaned Youth in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghdadpour, Susanne; Curtis, Sian; Pettifor, Audrey; MacPhail, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Substance use is increasing among youth in South Africa, and may be contributing to transmission of HIV. As parental death often leaves youth with altered emotional and physical resources, substance use may be greater among orphaned adolescents. Utilizing data from a household survey of 15-24 year old South Africans (n = 11,904), multivariable…

  9. Can Organized Youth Activities Protect against Internalizing Problems among Adolescents Living in Violent Homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and White youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during…

  10. Step-Up: Promoting Youth Mental Health and Development in Inner-City High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Alicea, Stacey; Pardo, Gisselle; Conover, Kelly; Gopalan, Geetha; McKay, Mary

    2011-01-01

    African American and Latino youth who reside in inner-city communities are at heightened risk for compromised mental health, as their neighborhoods are too often associated with serious stressors, including elevated rates of poverty, substance abuse, community violence, as well as scarce youth-supportive resources, and mental health care options. Many aspects of disadvantaged urban contexts have the potential to thwart successful youth development. Adolescents with elevated mental health need...

  11. Youth in Tanzania's urbanizing mining settlements: Prospecting a mineralized future

    OpenAIRE

    Bryceson, Deborah Fahy.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years many African countries have experienced a mining take-off. Mining activities have bifurcated into two sectors: large-scale, capital-intensive production generating the bulk of the exported minerals, and small-scale, labour-intensive artisanal mining, which, at present, is catalyzing far greater immediate primary, secondary and tertiary employment opportunities for unskilled African labourers. Youth residing in mining settlements, have a large vested interest in the...

  12. Stereotype or reality: another look at alcohol and drug use among African American children.

    OpenAIRE

    Bass, L E; Kane-Williams, E

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's Division of Communications Programs launched its Urban Youth Public Education Campaign in late 1990 to target African American youth in 14 cities with prevention messages about alcohol and other drugs. During the market research phase of the campaign, the Center sought to determine the extent inner city African American children are impacted by alcohol and other drugs and how widespread the use of these substances is among younger children. Is it ra...

  13. A qualitative exploration of the influence of heavy metal music on South African

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, Bianca Simone

    2015-01-01

    This mini-dissertation presents a discussion of the qualitative study exploring how South African youth, between the ages of 18 and 35, who are active listeners of Heavy Metal music experience this genre of music. The sample in the present study consists of 26 South African youths, living in various parts of the country, who listen to Heavy Metal music. Participants were recruited from attendees of the Heavy Metal music festival, Witchfest, which took place in Newtown, Johannesburg during 3-5...

  14. The scramble for Africans: demography, globalisation and Africa’s informal labour markets

    OpenAIRE

    Meagher, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Images of an 'African Boom' have presented us with labour markets full of dynamic potential: a declining dependency ratio, low levels of unemployment, and a vibrant middle class. This buoyant view of African labour markets conceals a less encouraging reality of catastrophic youth unemployment and expanding informality, creating a 'youth bulge' that is more of a threat than an opportunity. How does the continent with the largest share of informal labour in the world become a beacon of prosperi...

  15. The role of public schools in HIV prevention: perspectives from African Americans in the rural south

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha

    2012-01-01

    Though African American youth in the south are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates of HIV infection with marked racial disparities. Focus group discussions explored participant views on contributors to the elevated rates of HIV and ...

  16. Youth and the Cult of Youth?

    OpenAIRE

    Smolík, Josef

    2014-01-01

    This text deals with one of the neglected topics of contemporary social pedagogy which extends to developmental psychology and sociology. This topic is so-called cult of youth which is often mentioned in the academic literature, but has not been precisely conceptualized. This text was therefore focused on the definition of basic category, i.e. youth, and then discussed the relationship to the cult of youth and the individual elements that helps to form it. The cult of youth is associate...

  17. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  18. Exploring Peace Education in South African Settings. Peace Education Miniprints No. 68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Valerie

    This paper provides a synopsis of a research report done by the Youth Project of the Centre for Conflict Resolution (CCR), an autonomous institute with the University of Cape Town. In 1992 the Human Sciences Research Council initiated a cooperative research programme into South African youth and the problems and challenges they face. CCR was…

  19. Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents’ Attributions Regarding Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13 to 17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination attributions, depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Approximately half the youth attributed discrimination to race/ethni...

  20. Youth Media and Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…

  1. Unheard and Unseen: How Housing Insecure African American Adolescents Experience the Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Addie Lucille; Geller, Kathy D.

    2016-01-01

    This narrative study is based on stories told by African American adolescents experiencing homelessness. It offers insights into their lived experiences and describes the challenges faced in negotiating the urban education system. African American youth are disproportionately represented in the adolescent homeless demographic. "Unheard and…

  2. The Role of Gender in the Racial and Ethnic Socialization of African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Scholars in the field of African American family studies recognize the influence of gender on socialization. However, few studies investigate how gender influences the racial and ethnic socialization of African American youth. To examine the role of gender (both caregiver and adolescent) in socialization practices, data were obtained from 218…

  3. School Adjustment and the Academic Success of Rural African American Early Adolescents in the Deep South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Thompson, Jana H.; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Leung, Man-Chi

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between end-of-year grades and the academic, behavioral, and social characteristics of rural African American youth. Participants included 392 7th and 8th grade students from 2 rural middle schools in the south. Participants were African American and were from 2 communities that have child poverty rates…

  4. Stress and Tobacco Use among African-American Adolescents: The Buffering Effect of Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Johnson, Jessica; Nguyen, Anh; Hood, Kristina; Tademy, Raymond; Clark, Trenette; Nasim, Aashir

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality and a primary reason for health disparities among African Americans. In this study we explore the role of stress in smoking and cultural factors that protect against stress among African-American adolescents. Our sample consisted of 239 youth who were recruited into the study while…

  5. A Stress Management Curriculum for At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, S. A.; Arnold, A. R.; Solomon, S.; Rubin, R. I.; Holland, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Project KICK (Kids in Cooperation with Kids) is a delinquency prevention program for at-risk youth that uses nontraditional approaches to stress management. Twelve African American children who were taught physical, cognitive, and experiential models of stress reduction and management reported that they enjoyed the program, and they demonstrated…

  6. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  7. Association of Intrauterine Exposure to Maternal Diabetes and Obesity With Type 2 Diabetes in Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Dabelea, Dana; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Liese, Angela D.; Vehik, Kendra S.; Narayan, K.M. Venkat; Zeitler, Phillip; Hamman, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Limited data exist on the association between in utero exposure to maternal diabetes and obesity and type 2 diabetes in diverse youth. These associations were explored in African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white youth participating in the SEARCH Case-Control Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A total of 79 youth with type 2 diabetes and 190 nondiabetic control youth aged 10–22 years attended a research visit. In utero exposures to maternal diabetes and obesity were recalle...

  8. Physical Activity Interventions for Neurocognitive and Academic Performance in Overweight and Obese Youth: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Eduardo E; Williams, Celestine F; Davis, Catherine L

    2016-06-01

    This article examines cognitive, academic, and brain outcomes of physical activity in overweight or obese youth, with attention to minority youth who experience health disparities. Physically active academic lessons may have greater immediate cognitive and academic benefits among overweight and obese children than normal-weight children. Quasi-experimental studies testing physical activity programs in overweight and obese youth show promise; a few randomized controlled trials including African Americans show efficacy. Thus, making academic lessons physically active may improve inhibition and attentiveness, particularly in overweight youngsters. Regular physical activity may be efficacious for improving neurologic, cognitive, and achievement outcomes in overweight or obese youth. PMID:27261545

  9. Type 2 diabetes in youth: Are there racial differences in beta-cell responsiveness relative to insulin sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-diabetic African American (AA) youth have an upregulated insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity (IS) compared with their American White (AW) peers. We investigated if similar racial differences exist in youth with T2DM. Fourteen AAs and 14 AWs T2DM adolescents underwent evaluation of ...

  10. Social cognitions, distress, and leadership self-efficacy: associations with aggression for high-risk minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S; Baker, Courtney N; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Bevans, Katherine B; Thomas, Nicole A; Guerra, Terry; Hausman, Alice J; Monopoli, W John

    2014-08-01

    Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social-cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social-cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth. PMID:25047297

  11. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  12. Bullying and LGBT Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Groups PREVENT BULLYING How to Talk About Bullying Prevention at School Working in the Community Training Center ... Bookmark Bullying and LGBT Youth on Stumbleupon Rank Prevention Bullying and LGBT Youth on Digg Rank Prevention Bullying ...

  13. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  14. Culturally competent practice with African American juvenile sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Victoria M; Guada, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    African American juveniles adjudicated for sexual offenses may struggle with the mistrust of both the judicial and treatment systems. Unlike general mental health services, juvenile sex offender treatment is often mandated by the court or child welfare services, thus these youths and their families must engage in the treatment process. Without clinicians and services that can acknowledge and respond to a minority youth's experience in a sensitive, culturally competent manner, there could be significant resistance to treatment. Traditional treatment approaches fail to prioritize issues involving cultural competence. This article addresses the unique challenges of African American juvenile sex offenders and makes recommendations for creating culturally competent practice for these youth and their families. PMID:24641684

  15. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  16. Diabetes in Navajo Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Dabelea, Dana; DeGroat, Joquetta; Sorrelman, Carmelita; Glass, Martia; Percy, Christopher A.; Avery, Charlene; Hu, Diana; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Beyer, Jennifer; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Testaverde, Lisa; Klingensmith, Georgeanna; Hamman, Richard F.; ,

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To estimate the prevalence and incidence of diabetes, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for chronic complications among Navajo youth, using data collected by the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study (SEARCH study). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The SEARCH study identified all prevalent cases of diabetes in 2001 and all incident cases in 2002–2005 among Navajo youth. We estimated denominators with the user population for eligible health care facilities. Youth with diabetes also ...

  17. Youth Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    AAS 2011 Youth Suicidal Behavior Fact Sheet 4,822 youth age 15-24 died by suicide. i We want to change that. Su icid eRat ... death in 2011. The 2011 Youth Risk and Behavior Survey found that in the previous 12 months ...

  18. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families. PMID:24901449

  19. Youth Activists, Youth Councils, and Constrained Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Jessica K.; Gordon, Hava R.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a critical examination of a common form of adult attempts to promote civic engagement among young people, namely, youth advisory councils. While youth councils have been widely celebrated as an effective way to integrate young people into political processes, little research has explored why some politically active youth…

  20. Broadening the Bounds of Youth Development: Youth as Engaged Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Inca A.; Wheeler, Wendy

    This report focuses on leadership development, especially on efforts that promote youth engagement as a youth development strategy. Part 1 is an edited version of the publication, "Youth Leadership for Development: Civic Activism as a Component of Youth Development Programming." It provides an overview of youth development theory, including an…

  1. The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Parent and Peer Influences upon Drug Use among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Abell, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study recruited 567 African American youth (mean age = 15.27 years; 65.1% girls) to examine the role of parent and peer contexts on drug use among African American adolescents. Data were collected on demographics, drug refusal efficacy, drug use, and various psychosocial factors including family and peer factors. When controlling for age and…

  2. Family MAASAI (Maintaining African-American Survival Achievement Integrity) Rites of Passage After-School Prevention Program. Operational Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jerome, Comp.; Jackson, Anthony, Comp.; James, D'Borah, Comp.; Smith, Bryce, Comp.; Robinson, Luke, Comp.; Cherry, Jennifer, Comp.; Trotter, Jennie, Comp.; Harris, Archie, Comp.; Lenior, Sheila, Comp.; Bellinger, Mary Anne, Comp.

    Family MAASAI is a multiservice substance abuse prevention and intervention program for African American at-risk urban youth. The program commemorates the Maasai people of Africa and uses MAASAI as an acronym that stands for Maintaining African American Survival, Achievement, and Integrity. Cultural awareness, pride, and respect for self, elders,…

  3. Cultural Sustainability of African Canadian Heritage: Engaging Students in Learning, the Past, the Present and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this research is cultural sustainability of African Canadian heritage. Research literature informs us that engaging youth in educational programmes at the local level is fundamental to sustainability discussions. Furthermore, students must be actively engaged in their African Canadian past, present and future education. However, there…

  4. An assessment of Nigeria urban youth music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkechi M. Christopher

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Music embodies culture, expressing relevant features of a people’s life. Music is an integral aspect of African culture, occupying a special place in the celebration of birth and death and other events in-between. Indeed it is difficult to imagine life without music in traditional Nigerian society where all strata and age groups have their own music; a richness of life that urban communities failed to totally replicate, being that they are composites of ethno-linguistic fragments. Thus, the evolving youth popular music culture is significant in many respects, especially as it cuts across ethnic divides and provides entertainment for a group in heretofore largely ignored in Nigerian urban society. Its potentials, and its retrogressive potency, in national development require that popular culture be studied to ascertain the message and mindset of active and passive participants. This article summarises aspects of youth music in Nigeria as assessed by undergraduate students.

  5. Youth and Employment among the BRICS

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Guerreiro Osorio; Pedro Lara de Arruda

    2014-01-01

    ?Come and Hope with Me!? This was the rallying call by South African Mongane Serote to draw the world?s attention to the battle fought by his people against Apartheid. It is in this spirit that we invite readers to explore this special edition of Policy in Focus. This issue is dedicated to the analysis of the usage of social programmes to promote youth employment in the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries. In light of the 2014 BRICS Academic Forum, which will offic...

  6. The orphaning experience: descriptions from Ugandan youth who have lost parents to HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ssebunnya Joshua; Jack Susan; Harms Sheila; Kizza Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The HIV/AIDS epidemic has continued to pose significant challenges to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Millions of African children and youth have lost parents to HIV/AIDS leaving a generation of orphans to be cared for within extended family systems and communities. The experiences of youth who have lost parents to the HIV/AIDS epidemic provide an important ingress into this complex, evolving, multi-dimensional phenomenon. A fundamental qualitative descriptive study was conducted to...

  7. Children's perceptions of interactions with their caregivers in child and youth care centres / Claire Heathcote

    OpenAIRE

    Heathcote, Claire

    2015-01-01

    In South Africa, alternative care solutions such as foster homes, child-headed households, placements with relatives and Child and Youth Care Centres (CYCCs), are under pressure to provide for the large numbers of children who need care. Child and Youth Care Centres include facilities such as children’s homes, places of safety, secure care facilities and schools of industry or reform schools. South African legislation offers guidelines towards the fulfilment of children’s needs in CYCCs by pr...

  8. Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G

    1988-01-01

    The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands. PMID:12269067

  9. Financial Prudence among Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Rajasekharan; Carlo, Rozita; D’souza, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Frugal expenditure habit is no less important than the basic illiteracies such as reading, writing and arithmetic. Present day youth are seemed to show callous expenditure, being independent, competitive and free-of-behaviour, that eventually lead them perpetually in debt. The present study explores the magnitude of financial literacy among youth focusing on expenditure and saving trends. It is understood that the youth are unwilling to get out of their comfort zone and reckless expenditure b...

  10. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  11. Urban African American Pre-Adolescent Social Problem Solving Skills: Family Influences and Association with Exposure to Situations of Sexual Possibility

    OpenAIRE

    Traube, Dorian E.; Chasse, Kelly Taber; McKay, Mary M.; Bhorade, Anjali M.; PAIKOFF, ROBERTA; Young, Stacie D.

    2007-01-01

    The results of two studies focusing on the social problem solving skills of African American preadolescent youth are detailed. In the first study data from a sample of 150 African American children, ages 9 to 11 years, was used to examine the association between type of youth social problem solving approaches applied to hypothetical risk situations and time spent in unsupervised peer situations of sexual possibility. Findings revealed that children with more exposure to sexual possibility sit...

  12. Another Future in our Hands? The role of schools in responding to youth challenges in crime affected communities in post-apartheid South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    There is a concern that South African youth growing up in underprivileged communities will internalize and replicate violent lessons from the past. When exposure to criminal activities and violent conducts becomes an everyday occurrence both in the community and in schools, positive youth development becomes challenged. Education is regarded as a fundamental building block in the society and provides youth with opportunities for the future which their parents never had during the aparthei...

  13. Trajectories of Multiple Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors in a Low-Income African American Population

    OpenAIRE

    MUSTANSKI, BRIAN; Byck, Gayle R.; Dymnicki, Allison; Sterrett, Emma; Henry, David; Bolland, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined interdependent trajectories of sexual risk, substance use, and conduct problems among 12–18 year-old African American youth who were followed annually as part of the Mobile Youth Study (MYS). We used growth-mixture modeling (GMM) to model the development of these three outcomes in the 1406 participants who met the inclusion criteria. Results indicate that there were four distinct classes: normative low risk (74.3% of sample); increasing high risk takers (11.9%); adolescent...

  14. Education services and resilience processes: Resilient Black South African students' experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Linda C. Theron; Adam M.C. Theron

    2014-01-01

    The resilience literature is increasingly drawing attention to formal service provision as a means for social ecologies to support children's and youths' positive adjustment to challenging life circumstances. This article interrogates the universality and simplicity of this argument. Using a secondary data analysis of the life stories of 16 resilient, Black South African students from impoverished families, we show that education services predominated students' childhood and youth experie...

  15. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  16. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  17. Post-apartheid representations of youth in the Zulu novel Kungasa ngifile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Zulu

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article representation of black African youth in the Zulu novel “Kungasa ngifile” is examined. The view is presented that the novel, though seeming to be politically neutral, deals with images of the youth that have ideological concerns in terms of theme, plot action and character portrayal. Such ideological modes of representation seem to be in tune with the present call for moral rejuvenation and the empowerment of the youth who lost opportunities during the liberation struggle. In this respect, the novel backs positive post-apartheid cultural forms.

  18. Youth and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tobacco Use Division of Cancer Prevention and Control Lung Cancer National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Youth and Tobacco Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Background Estimates of Current Tobacco Use Among Youth ...

  19. Alliance in Youth Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothman, Linda; Rijsingen, Rinie van; Pijnenburg, Huub

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of alliance in youth care. The concept of (therapeutic) alliance originates in adult psychotherapy and related research. Alliance refers to the working relationship between youth care workers and their clients. Within this concept, personal (emotional) and task re

  20. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  1. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  2. RUBII: Caring for Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On March 24th,China Guanghua Foundation (under the leadership of The Communist Youth League of China) along with the Ordifen International Group,together with 40 domestic Chinese Universities and Colleges,started the "RUBII Youth Career Building Plan" in Central University for Nationalities in Beijing.

  3. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  4. Step-Up: Promoting Youth Mental Health and Development in Inner-City High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea, Stacey; Pardo, Gisselle; Conover, Kelly; Gopalan, Geetha; McKay, Mary

    2012-06-01

    African American and Latino youth who reside in inner-city communities are at heightened risk for compromised mental health, as their neighborhoods are too often associated with serious stressors, including elevated rates of poverty, substance abuse, community violence, as well as scarce youth-supportive resources, and mental health care options. Many aspects of disadvantaged urban contexts have the potential to thwart successful youth development. Adolescents with elevated mental health needs may experience impaired judgment, poor problem-solving skills, and conflictual interpersonal relationships, resulting in unsafe sexual behavior and drug use. However, mental health services are frequently avoided by urban adolescents who could gain substantial benefit from care. Thus, the development of culturally sensitive, contextually relevant and effective services for urban, low-income African American and Latino adolescents is critical. Given the complexity of the mental health and social needs of urban youth, novel approaches to service delivery may need to consider individual (i.e., motivation to succeed in the future), family (i.e., adult support within and outside of the family), and community-level (i.e., work and school opportunities) clinical components. Step-Up, a high school-based mental health service delivery model has been developed to bolster key family, youth and school processes related to youth mental health and positive youth development. Step-Up (1) intervenes with urban minority adolescents across inner-city ecological domains; (2) addresses multiple levels (school, family and community) in order to target youth mental health difficulties; and (3) provides opportunities for increasing youth social problem-solving and life skills. Further, Step-Up integrates existing theory-driven, evidence-based interventions. This article describes Step-Up clinical goals, theoretical influences, as well as components and key features, and presents preliminary data on

  5. Diabetes in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, M.

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...

  6. Digital expression among urban, low-income African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences. PMID:21910270

  7. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  8. Racial Barrier Socialization and the Well-Being of African American Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Shauna M.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2011-01-01

    Racial socialization has been suggested as an important factor in helping African American adolescents cope effectively with racism and discrimination. Although multiple studies have reported a positive link between racial pride socialization and psychological adjustment among African American youth, assessments of the association between…

  9. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  10. Established – outsider relations in youth football tournaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa; Agergaard, Sine; Maguire, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This article examines Scandinavian constructions and readings of potential football migrants from the African continent by providing an investigation of the dynamics and narratives surrounding African football teams’ participation in three youth football tournaments. Drawing on Elias and Scotson’...... of the tournament organizers, as being providers of ‘development’ and gender equity programmes to African teams, is fundamental in maintaining the established-outsider power relations between Scandinavian and African football teams.......’s (1965/1994) theory of established-outsider relations, we explore the transnational power relations and processes of inclusion and exclusion in group relationships. The data were collected between July and August 2012, as part of a wider study examining transnational migration and mobility in...... Scandinavian women’s football. Ethnographic observations were conducted at three Scandinavian youth football tournaments, and interviews were conducted with tournament organizers and representatives from participating women’s clubs/teams. The data suggest that a particular representation of self, on the part...

  11. Self-Esteem: Assessing Measurement Equivalence in a Multiethnic Sample of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Marcia L.; Barr, Alicia; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.

    2007-01-01

    Global self-worth and five domains of self-esteem (scholastic competence, athletic competence, physical appearance, behavioral conduct, social acceptance) were tested for measurement equivalence in a sample of Anglo American, Mexican American, African American, and Native American youth aged 9 through 14 years. The results revealed that global…

  12. South Africa: ANC Youth League President issues apology following conviction for hate speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shalini

    2011-10-01

    In June 2011, fifteen months after he had been found guilty of hate speech and discrimination, African National Congress (ANC)Youth President Julius issued a formal apology and agreed to pay a R50,000 (CAN$7,120) fine that was part of the conviction. PMID:22165280

  13. Parent Psychopathology and Youth Internalizing Symptoms in an Urban Community: A Latent Growth Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Marcy; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the developmental trajectories of youth depression and anxiety symptoms from 6th through 12th grade in a low-income, urban sample (N = 141; mean age = 11.75 years; 88.7% African American). The study also tested the independent contribution of parent mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders assessed…

  14. "Use Condoms for Safe Sex!" Youth-Led Video Making and Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyung-Hwa; MacEntee, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Situated at the intersection between child-led visual methods and sex education, this paper focuses on the potential of youth-led video making to enable young people to develop guiding principles to inform their own sexual behaviour. It draws on findings from a video-making project carried out with a group of South African young people, which…

  15. Positive Youth Development: An Integration of the Developmental Assets Theory and the Socio-Ecological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkiss, Katy; Moyer, Matthew; Desai, Mona; Roland, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Health problems such as sexually transmitted infections and diabetes continue to rise, especially among African American and Hispanic adolescents in low-income communities. Youth development programs are an effective public health response, benefiting participants, the programs that serve them, and their community. Purpose: To explore the efficacy…

  16. Being Turned Inside Out: Researching Youth, Morality and Restitution from the Global South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene

    2011-01-01

    This article maps my journey as a scholar engaged in the research of youth morality (located in the Global South); as a beneficiary of injustice having grown up as a white South African; as a navigator of complex personal histories (discovering my mixed race family origins); and arriving at restitution as a career research focus. It reflects on…

  17. Youth Idleness in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Elfindri Elfindri; Bemby Soebiakto; Harizal Harizal; Jahen F. Rezki

    2015-01-01

    This study is concerned with the issue of youth idleness in Indonesia. Soaring idleness at a younger age has a serious impact on economic and social aspects, which have been discussed in various literatures recently. A limited research available on it is in the context of Indonesia. In this paper, we assess models on the probability of youth as potential job seekers denoted as unemployment as well as passive job seekers, called as ‘idle’ youth, and try to understand contributing factors to ex...

  18. Cigarette Ads and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Julia

    1988-01-01

    Points out ways the tobacco industry markets products to youth, including paid advertisements, sponsorship of sporting events, music concerts, and magazines. Relates several focal points for smoking prevention, which include deglamorization of cigarette advertisements and making smoking socially undesirable. (LS)

  19. The Youth Unemployment Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, John

    1981-01-01

    Experts agree that the ability to attract and train young people is crucial in today's workplace. Cooperation between government, education, and the private sector is essential to eradicating the problem of youth unemployment. (JOW)

  20. Youth's Right to Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblum, William; Williams, Terry M.

    1981-01-01

    Presents observations and comments based on a large-scale field study of youth unemployment. Discusses the inappropriateness and futility of some government programs and the needs of young people that are frequently forgotten in view of institutional demands. (MK)

  1. Marketing Youth Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Marketing techniques in youth services are useful for designing programs, collections, and services and for determining customer needs. The marketing mix--product, place, price, and practice--provides a framework for service analysis. (AEF)

  2. Youth and Teens Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to NRS’ Home Free Program, in collaboration with Greyhound Lines, Inc., more than 15,000 youth have ... of action. As a final step, we contact Greyhound to make travel arrangements and share the travel ...

  3. School Adjustment and the Academic Success of Rural African American Early Adolescents in the Deep South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung, M.-C.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between end-of-year grades and the academic, behavioral, and social characteristics of rural African American youth. Participants included 392 7th and 8th grade students from 2 rural middle schools in the south. Participants were African American and were from 2 communities that have child poverty rates exceeding 50% for public school students. Girls were more likely to have positive characteristics than boys. Academic, behavioral, and social difficulties were linked to low end-of-year grades, and positive characteristics were linked to high grades. Implications for supporting low-achieving African American students from low-resource communities are discussed.

  4. Bariatric Surgery in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirensky, Tamar L

    2016-06-01

    Bariatric surgery provides a clinically effective and cost-effective means of achieving sustained weight reduction and management of associated comorbidities and has been met with increasing enthusiasm for application in obese youth. Following trends seen among obese adults, carefully selected obese youth are now undergoing bariatric surgical procedures with excellent short-term and intermediate-term outcomes. Although long-term data are not yet available, the results thus far hold great promise in the management of this population. PMID:27241972

  5. Defending Democratic Youth Work

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Tony

    2010-01-01

    The UK's liberal-cum-democratic welfare regime has led to a more developed state-sponsored youth work than in the majority of continental Europe, where a corporatist welfare regime has held sway (Esping Andersen 1990). To this extent British Youth Work has been more susceptible to governmental intervention. Nevertheless the ascendancy of neo-liberalism across the last three decades has disturbed significantly all models of the Welfare State, expressed in the impact of 'New Managerialism'. Thu...

  6. Youth Violence Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    María Loreto Biehl

    1999-01-01

    This document is one of a series of technical notes that describe the nature and magnitude of violence in the region, its causes and effects, and how it can be prevented and controlled. The notes provide useful information on designing programs and policies to prevent and deal with violence. This technical note discusses youth violence prevention issues. Increasing violence among young people is a particularly alarming problem in the region. Youth are at a higher risk of being victims and per...

  7. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted. PMID:24366965

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy versus Usual Clinical Care for Youth Depression: An Initial Test of Transportability to Community Clinics and Clinicians

    OpenAIRE

    Weisz, John R.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Gordis, Elana B.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer K.; Chu, Brian C.; Langer, David A.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Updegraff, Alanna; Weiss, Bahr

    2009-01-01

    Community clinic therapists were randomized to (a) brief training and supervision in CBT for youth depression or (b) usual care (UC). The therapists treated 57 youths (56% girls), aged 8–15, 33% Caucasian, 26% African-American, and 26% Latino; most youths were from low-income families; all had DSM-IV depressive disorders (plus multiple comorbiditities). All youths were randomized to CBT or UC and treated until normal termination. Session coding showed more use of CBT by CBT therapists, more p...

  9. Inner-City African American Parental Involvement in Elementary Schools: Getting beyond Urban Legends of Apathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Adil, Jaleel K.; Farmer, Alvin David, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Parental involvement in schools is a national priority for both educators and researchers to promote the successful schooling of contemporary youth. Contemporary parental involvement research has produced some promising findings, but parental involvement efforts with inner-city African Americans are currently limited by problems of research…

  10. Perceived Discrimination among African American Adolescents and Allostatic Load: A Longitudinal Analysis with Buffering Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Chae, David H.; Yu, Tianyi; Kogan, Steven M.; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the prospective relations of perceived racial discrimination with allostatic load (AL), along with a possible buffer of the association. A sample of 331 African Americans in the rural South provided assessments of perceived discrimination from ages 16 to 18 years. When youth were 18 years, caregivers reported…

  11. Implications of Out-of-School Activities for School Engagement in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2007-01-01

    The connection between out-of-school activities and school engagement was examined in 140, 6th through 9th grade African American adolescents. Youth's out-of-school activities were measured with a series of 7 nightly phone calls and focused on time in structured (homework, academically-oriented, extracurricular/sports) and unstructured (watching…

  12. Racial Pride and Religiosity among African American Boys: Implications for Academic Motivation and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T.; Williams, Terrinieka T.; Chavous, Tabbye M.

    2012-01-01

    The persistent underachievement among African American boys has led to increased empirical inquiry, yet little research considers within-group variation in achievement nor positive youth characteristics that help explain positive achievement outcomes. This study conceptualized culturally-based factors (racial pride and religiosity) as adolescent…

  13. African Otter Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Reed-Smith; Hughes Akpona; Grace Yoxon

    2016-01-01

    All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Ott...

  14. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  15. Parent – Adolescent Relationship Qualities and Adolescent Adjustment in Two-Parent African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanik, Christine E.; Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Using multi-informant data from 134 two-parent African American families, the goals of this study were to (a) describe parent – adolescent warmth and shared time as a function of parent and youth gender and (b) assess links between these indices of relationship quality and adolescent adjustment. Mixed-model ANCOVAs revealed that mothers reported warmer relationships with adolescents than fathers, and both parents reported warmer relationships with younger versus older offspring. Interparental differences in time spent with sons and daughters and older and younger siblings were also found. Tests of multilevel models indicated that greater maternal warmth was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and less risky behavior for sons, and more paternal warmth and shared time with fathers were associated with less risky behavior in youth. Discussion highlights the utility of cultural ecological and family systems perspectives for understanding parent-adolescent relationships and youth adjustment in African American families. PMID:24532863

  16. Chapter 10: The "Youth" in Youth Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Reading the formal descriptions of youth civic engagement projects shows that some emphasize citizenship almost to the exclusion of young person, while others emphasize young people to the exclusion of citizenship. Who and what are the youth, the young people and young persons in the three youth civic engagement initiatives? And how are these…

  17. Perceptions of employers and unemployed youth on the proposed youth employment wage subsidy incentive in South Africa: A KwaZulu-Natal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyokazi N. Mtembu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa has high levels of unemployment and severe problem of youth unemployment. This implies that the country requires a comprehensive strategy to create more jobs for the youth. Policymaking is one of the strategies that have been introduced to encourage job creation for the youth. The youth wage subsidy is just one of the strategies proposed and this article unpacks what employers and unemployed youth say and think about this policy directive.Research purpose: The main aim of the study was to determine the perceptions of unemployed South African youth and employers on the proposed youth wage subsidy incentive scheme.Motivation for the study: Youth unemployment is a very important issue and the reality is that it is a concern of every government globally. South Africa is therefore not an exception as it is a country that has been experiencing high levels of youth unemployment for the last few decades. In an attempt to curb this pressing challenge of youth unemployment, a proposal to introduce a youth wage subsidy policy was made by government; (since its mention, this idea has been met with a lot of opposing opinions from those against it and applause from those who support it. This has motivated this study to probe the perceptions of the subsidy by those who will be affected by its provisions.Method: A triangulated research approach was adopted through the administration of survey questionnaires amongst the unemployed youth and semi-structured interviews with human resource managers and specialists. A sample of unemployed youth was drawn from selected communities within KwaZulu-Natal. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with human resource managers and specialists at selected organisations to determine their perceptions of the proposed scheme and any benefits or limitations they believe it might have. Non-probability sampling was used to sample 100 respondents (N = 100, 90% of whom were unemployed youths

  18. Family and Youth Services Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... highlights from 2014 and 2015 What is the Family & Youth Services Bureau (FYSB)? The Family and Youth ... people were served by programs funded by the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA) in 2014. ...

  19. Street Children and Mobile Youth Work in Africa - the 8th ISMO Symposium October 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Society for Mobile Youth Work (ISMO and the National Council of Churches in Kenya (NCCK organised from the 27th to 30th October 2003 at the Jumuia Conference and Country Home in Limuru/Kenya with 198 participants from 35 countries around the world the 8th International Symposium on Mobile Youth Work with special focus on children at risk (street children and youth in Africa. For this purpose there were invited field workers, scientists and stakeholders engaged as advocates for the rights and well being of endangered children and youths. The participants came mainly from African countries and of course especially from Kenya, but also from Asia, Latin America and from Europe.

  20. Gender Differences in Longitudinal Links between Neighborhood Fear, Parental Support, and Depression among African American Emerging Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition to adulthood is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among African Americans. In addition to stress related to emerging adulthood, neighborhood fear may contribute to depressive symptoms for African Americans. We examined gender differences in longitudinal associations between changes in perceived neighborhood fear, parental support, and depressive symptoms among African American youth who were in transition to adulthood. Five hundred and thirteen African American youths (235 males and 278 females were included in the study. An increase in perceived neighborhood fear was associated with an increase in depressive symptoms, and change in perceived maternal support was predictive of depressive symptoms among males, but not females. The findings suggest that policies and programs should help parents provide support to young adult children who live in violent neighborhoods as a strategy to prevent depressive symptoms during emerging adulthood.

  1. Vulnerable, but invincible? ecosystemic pathways to South African youths' resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Linda C. Theron

    2013-01-01

    The earliest studies of resilience (Anthony & Cohler, 1987; Werner & Smith, 1982) posited that resilient young people were "vulnerable, but invincible" (Werner, 1996) or even "invulnerable" (Anthony & Cohler, 1987). At this initial stage in the study of resilience, this assertion that young people were indestructible, despite being placed at risk by adversities such as poverty, marginalisation, or pathologically ill parents, was not questioned. While the focus on young people's...

  2. Youth and Well-Being: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiwane, Monde; Kwizera, Stella

    2009-01-01

    This paper was a result of an analysis from various data sources with a purpose to develop a better understanding of the level of socio-economic well being of young people in South Africa. Such understanding is aimed at enabling government to plan and implement well-structured and integrated development programmes that are relevant to the…

  3. Suicidality among Urban African American & Latino Youth. Data Trends #104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" presents the results of a survey investigation of the prevalence and predictors of suicidality among 879 urban adolescents. In the U. S., suicide is the third leading cause of…

  4. Defending Democratic Youth Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor, Tony

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK's liberal-cum-democratic welfare regime has led to a more developed state-sponsored youth work than in the majority of continental Europe, where a corporatist welfare regime has held sway (Esping Andersen 1990. To this extent British Youth Work has been more susceptible to governmental intervention. Nevertheless the ascendancy of neo-liberalism across the last three decades has disturbed significantly all models of the Welfare State, expressed in the impact of 'New Managerialism'. Thus we are seeing a convergence towards an imposed, instrumental, output-driven approach to the delivery of both education and welfare. In both the UK and continental Europe youth workers and social workers are confronted with intrusive interventions and demands from governments, which are utterly at odds with their shared desire to start from 'where young people are at'. In this paper we sketch the emergence of a campaign within Youth Work, which seeks to oppose and resist its transformation into an agency of social engineering. In contrast we stand for an emancipatory Youth Work committed to social change. In telling our story thus far we hope to reach out to and make alliances with workers across Europe sympathetic to our cause.

  5. Toward a Youth Work Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in the professionalization of the youth work field in Australia and the United States. In this article I draw on relevant literature from the sociology of professions to explore the appeal of professionalization for youth work. The interest in professionalism is examined along with the strategies youth work practitioners…

  6. Coparenting Experiences in African American Families: An Examination of Single Mothers and their Non-Marital Coparents

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah J.; Parent, Justin

    2014-01-01

    African American youth from single mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describ...

  7. The Danish Youth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Riegels, Mette; Rod, Morten Hulvej;

    2010-01-01

    income. Loss to follow-up was only associated with adolescents' higher probability of drinking and use of tobacco, and none of the other factors were associated with attrition. CONCLUSIONS: The participants in the Danish Youth Cohort represent a great variety of different groups of socio......AIMS: The aim of this paper is to describe the design and methods used in the Danish Youth Cohort and to give a description of the study participants with special attention to a comparison between participants and non-participants regarding sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: A total of 1......,945 schools were invited, out of which 506 participated. The participating 7th grades comprised a total of 12,498 responding adolescents. The response rate for the Danish Youth Cohort established in 2005 was 63%. The sample of 12,498 adolescents represents 18.2% of all pupils (n = 68,764) in the 7th grade...

  8. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  9. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  10. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  11. Neighborhood effects on use of African-American Vernacular English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickford, John R; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Gou, Ray Yun; Greene, Rebecca; Katz, Lawrence F; Kessler, Ronald C; Kling, Jeffrey R; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Sanchez-Ordoñez, Andres E; Sciandra, Matthew; Thomas, Ewart; Ludwig, Jens

    2015-09-22

    African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is systematic, rooted in history, and important as an identity marker and expressive resource for its speakers. In these respects, it resembles other vernacular or nonstandard varieties, like Cockney or Appalachian English. But like them, AAVE can trigger discrimination in the workplace, housing market, and schools. Understanding what shapes the relative use of AAVE vs. Standard American English (SAE) is important for policy and scientific reasons. This work presents, to our knowledge, the first experimental estimates of the effects of moving into lower-poverty neighborhoods on AAVE use. We use data on non-Hispanic African-American youth (n = 629) from a large-scale, randomized residential mobility experiment called Moving to Opportunity (MTO), which enrolled a sample of mostly minority families originally living in distressed public housing. Audio recordings of the youth were transcribed and coded for the use of five grammatical and five phonological AAVE features to construct a measure of the proportion of possible instances, or tokens, in which speakers use AAVE rather than SAE speech features. Random assignment to receive a housing voucher to move into a lower-poverty area (the intention-to-treat effect) led youth to live in neighborhoods (census tracts) with an 11 percentage point lower poverty rate on average over the next 10-15 y and reduced the share of AAVE tokens by ∼3 percentage points compared with the MTO control group youth. The MTO effect on AAVE use equals approximately half of the difference in AAVE frequency observed between youth whose parents have a high school diploma and those whose parents do not. PMID:26351663

  12. Out-of-School Suspensions of Black Youths: Culture, Ability, Disability, Gender, and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Wendy; Kayama, Misa; Gibson, Priscilla Ann

    2016-07-01

    Racial disproportionality in out-of-school suspensions is a persistent social justice issue in public schools. This article examines out-of-school suspensions of four black youths from the perspectives of the youths, their caregivers, and educators. The case involving David, a 14-year-old African American with a learning disability, illustrates the challenges of students experiencing the intersection of disability and race. The case involving George, a 14-year-old Liberian immigrant, illustrates how parents and teachers may form alliances around shared goals and values despite profound cultural differences in understanding of youths' misbehavior. The case involving Nina, a 12-year-old African American, illustrates how educators' failure to consider the context of her misbehaviors as responses to sexual harassment, along with their subsequent harsh punishment and failure to protect her, led to her disengagement from school. The case involving Craig, a 16-year-old African American, provides a glimpse into how the use of criminal justice language to refer to youths' misbehaviors can support the development of a criminalized self- and social identity. These cases illustrate the diversity of black students--including ability, disability, culture, and gender--and how events surrounding suspensions are interpreted by students, caregivers, and educators. Understanding such diversity will undergird implementation of effective alternatives to suspensions. PMID:27501641

  13. Adolescent Hopefulness in Tanzania: Street Youth, Former Street Youth, and School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalkur, Priya G.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…

  14. Typologies of Youth Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeter, T.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth tourism differentiated itself from the concept of traditional tourism by the distinctive profile of its participants. In the last 10 years this branch had a very rapid growth, contributingsignificantly to any countries’ economy due to the amount of money that was spent by young people on different types of tourism. The aim of this paper is to present the most practiced forms of youth tourism, and their development worldwide and also in Romania. The conclusions show the most practiced types on a European and on Romanian level.

  15. The orphaning experience: descriptions from Ugandan youth who have lost parents to HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Sheila; Jack, Susan; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Kizza, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has continued to pose significant challenges to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Millions of African children and youth have lost parents to HIV/AIDS leaving a generation of orphans to be cared for within extended family systems and communities. The experiences of youth who have lost parents to the HIV/AIDS epidemic provide an important ingress into this complex, evolving, multi-dimensional phenomenon. A fundamental qualitative descriptive study was conducted to develop a culturally relevant and comprehensive description of the experiences of orphanhood from the perspectives of Ugandan youth. A purposeful sample of 13 youth who had lost one or both parents to HIV/AIDS and who were affiliated with a non-governmental organization providing support to orphans were interviewed. Youth orphaned by HIV/AIDS described the experience of orphanhood beginning with parental illness, not death. Several losses were associated with the death of a parent including lost social capitol, educational opportunities and monetary assets. Unique findings revealed that youth experienced culturally specific stigma and conflict which was distinctly related to their HIV/AIDS orphan status. Exploitation within extended cultural family systems was also reported. Results from this study suggest that there is a pressing need to identify and provide culturally appropriate services for these Ugandan youth prior to and after the loss of a parent(s). PMID:20205893

  16. The orphaning experience: descriptions from Ugandan youth who have lost parents to HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssebunnya Joshua

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HIV/AIDS epidemic has continued to pose significant challenges to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Millions of African children and youth have lost parents to HIV/AIDS leaving a generation of orphans to be cared for within extended family systems and communities. The experiences of youth who have lost parents to the HIV/AIDS epidemic provide an important ingress into this complex, evolving, multi-dimensional phenomenon. A fundamental qualitative descriptive study was conducted to develop a culturally relevant and comprehensive description of the experiences of orphanhood from the perspectives of Ugandan youth. A purposeful sample of 13 youth who had lost one or both parents to HIV/AIDS and who were affiliated with a non-governmental organization providing support to orphans were interviewed. Youth orphaned by HIV/AIDS described the experience of orphanhood beginning with parental illness, not death. Several losses were associated with the death of a parent including lost social capitol, educational opportunities and monetary assets. Unique findings revealed that youth experienced culturally specific stigma and conflict which was distinctly related to their HIV/AIDS orphan status. Exploitation within extended cultural family systems was also reported. Results from this study suggest that there is a pressing need to identify and provide culturally appropriate services for these Ugandan youth prior to and after the loss of a parent(s.

  17. Youth Services Participation of YouthYouth Policy in Hungary (2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANCSÁK, Csaba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary’s youth context changed in 2006, before the world crisis, and recession has spread since then. Youth institutions have gone through constant changes which are difficult to follow, after six years almost none of them are left. Youth resources have decreased both on the local and on the national level, due to mutually reinforcing economic and political effects. During the examined period, the proportion of youth tolerating more violent behaviour has increased, as well as those longing for strong leaders and those disillusioned with capitalism. Nowadays, apart from lobbying, demonstrations, elaborating independent political alternatives, a new, rational behaviour appears among youth, the phenomenon of leaving the country.

  18. Youth and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian Education and Society, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Reports excerpts from a discussion meeting held by a scientific council on problems of youth policy in the USSR in 1990. Discusses the problems of restructuring the Soviet education system in keeping with the goals of Perestroika. Includes comments on socialism, curriculum, and the goals of the education system. (DK)

  19. Youth media lifestyles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kruistum, Claudia; Leseman, Paul Pm; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the concept of "media lifestyles" is adopted in order to develop a comprehensive approach toward youth engagement in communication media. We explore how 503 Dutch eighth grade students with full access to new technology combine a broad range of media by focusing on their engagement

  20. 'Youth' making us fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth; Krejsler, John B.

    2011-01-01

    This article problematizes the construction of youth as a ‘driving force’ in the contemporary configuration of the European Union (EU) as an educational and political space. The study draws empirical nourishment out of documents that are central to the ongoing formation of the Union, be it White ...

  1. Youth in Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  2. Youth Unemployment, 1978. Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    This study of measures taken to reduce youth unemployment in Denmark is based on reports from local authorities, county authorities, and labor market boards, and on surveys made by the central government. The first section describes the total efforts made during 1978. The second section describes programs undertaken by the Danish Ministry of Labor…

  3. Symbols of Success: Youth, Peer Pressure and the Role of Adulthood among Juvenile Male Return Migrants in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungruhe, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Independent youth migration is socially embedded in many African societies. While it is often exclusively perceived of as a process of intergenerational negotiation which leads to higher social positions after returning home, this article points out that peer influences play a major role in the process of decision-making of leaving and returning…

  4. National youth schemes in Malaysia: a survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Phan-Thuy, N

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on activities and training programmes of the national youth organization in Malaysia - discusses youth unemployment, youth scheme objectives (partic. Integration of rural youth in economic development and community development), institutional framework, activities (leadership development, vocational training, cooperatives, etc.), financing and training participation rate; includes a cost benefit analysis of four land settlement schemes and suggestions for youth ...

  5. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  6. Reading the African context

    OpenAIRE

    Musonda Bwalya

    2012-01-01

    There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engag...

  7. Capitalism and African business cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equippe...

  8. Youth-Family, Youth-School Relationship, and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to examine the association between adolescents’ relationship with family and school and depressive symptoms across ethnic/racial groups (White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian), and to test potentially unique explanatory power in youth-family relationship versus youth-school relationship, in a sample of 4,783 adolescents. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a 19-item, modified Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The results indicated that youth-family re...

  9. LGBTQ Youth Face Unique Barriers to Accessing Youth Mentoring Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad; Hasenbush, Amira; Susman, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Over three million LGBTQ youth in the United States could benefit from access to youth mentoring programs. Research shows that LGBTQ youth are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, which may be due, in part, to selective enforcement of criminal laws against them. They also experience higher rates of family rejection, school harassment and bullying, homelessness, and a host of other factors related to their identity that put them at increased risk of involvement with the sys...

  10. Methods to assess youth engagement in a text messaging supplement to an effective teen pregnancy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Sharon; Leeds, Caroline; Shlay, Judith C; Leytem, Amber; Beum, Robert; Bull, Sheana

    2015-08-01

    Youth are prolific users of cell phone minutes and text messaging. Numerous programs using short message service text messaging (SMS) have been employed to help improve health behaviors and health outcomes. However, we lack information on whether and what type of interaction or engagement with SMS program content is required to realize any benefit. We explored youth engagement with an automated SMS program designed to supplement a 25-session youth development program with demonstrated efficacy for reductions in teen pregnancy. Using two years of program data, we report on youth participation in design of message content and response frequency to messages among youth enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) as one indicator of engagement. There were 221 youth between the ages of 14-18 enrolled over two years in the intervention arm of the RCT. Just over half (51%) were female; 56% were Hispanic; and 27% African American. Youth were sent 40,006 messages of which 16,501 were considered bi-directional where youth were asked to text a response. Four-fifths (82%) responded at least once to a text. We found variations in response frequency by gender, age, and ethnicity. The most popular types of messages youth responded to include questions and quizzes. The first two months of the program in each year had the highest response frequency. An important next step is to assess whether higher response to SMS results in greater efficacy. This future work can facilitate greater attention to message design and content to ensure messages are engaging for the intended audience. PMID:26173038

  11. Perceptions of Racism and Depressive Symptoms in African American Adolescents: The Role of Perceived Academic and Social Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sharon F.; Herman, Keith C.; Bynum, Mia Smith; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2009-01-01

    Experiences with racism are a common occurrence for African American youth and may result in negative self perceptions relevant for the experience of depressive symptoms. This study examined the longitudinal association between perceptions of racism and depressive symptoms, and whether perceived academic or social control mediated this…

  12. Perceived Support and Internalizing Symptoms in African American Adolescents: Self-Esteem and Ethnic Identity as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Ragsdale, Brian L.; Mandara, Jelani; Richards, Maryse H.; Petersen, Anne C.

    2007-01-01

    Existing research leaves a gap in explaining why African American adolescents do not exhibit more anxiety and depression than other youth, at the same time that they experience more contextual risk factors. The current study examined the roles of social support as well as possible mediators self-esteem and ethnic identity (sense of belonging to…

  13. Stemming the Tide of Overrepresentation: Ensuring Accurate Certification of African American Students in Programs for the Mentally Retarded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Judy L.; Kapp, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    African American youths are often overrepresented in programs for the mentally retarded. Possible explanations for this phenomenon include stereotypes related to abilities, different social and educational environments, and problems of instrumentation used in identifying mental retardation. This study reviewed the files of all first- through…

  14. Supportive Parenting Moderates the Effect of Discrimination upon Anger, Hostile View of Relationships, and Violence among African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Burt, Callie Harbin; Drummund, Holli; Stewart, Eric; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that exposure to discrimination increases the probability that African American adolescents will engage in delinquent behavior, especially acts of violence. The present study extended this research by examining the extent to which supportive parenting buffers a youth from these deleterious consequences of discrimination.…

  15. Brief Report: The Number of Sexual Partners and Race-Related Stress in African American Adolescents--Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the association between the number of lifetime sexual partners and race-related stress among African American 201 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southeastern region of the country. Students completed the Index of Race-Related Stress-Brief (IRRS-B) and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey…

  16. Interracial and Intraracial Contact, School-Level Diversity, and Change in Racial Identity Status among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Among 224 African American adolescents (mean age = 14), the associations between interracial and intraracial contact and school-level diversity on changes in racial identity over a 3-year period were examined. Youths were determined to be diffused, foreclosed, moratorium, or achieved, and change or stability in identity status was examined.…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptoms and Marijuana Use in a Sample of Inner-City African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Paula B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2008-01-01

    The association between marijuana use and depressive symptoms was examined longitudinally in a sample of 622 African American youth, interviewed on six occasions, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). We considered whether depressive symptoms predicted changes in marijuana use and vice versa from high school through the transition into young…

  18. Risky Behavior Among Youths: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2000-01-01

    There are a host of potentially risky behaviors in which youth engage, which have important implications for both their well being as youth and their life prospects. The past decade has seen dramatic shifts in the intensity with which youths pursue these risky activities: for example, youth homicide fell by 40%; teen births decline by 20%; youth smoking rose by 33%; and marijuana use among youth virtually doubled. This paper, and the volume it introduces, explores the determinants and implica...

  19. Toward an African Definition of Resilience: A Rural South African Community's View of Resilient Basotho Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Linda C.; Theron, Adam M. C.; Malindi, Macalane J.

    2013-01-01

    Resilience, or adaptive behavior in the face of adversity, has recently come to be understood as a phenomenon that should not be uniformly conceptualized across contexts and cultures. This emerging understanding has urged exploration of what resilience might mean in specific cultural contexts. As in other majority nation contexts, there is scant…

  20. Youth Unemployment in Southern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    João Leão; Guida Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    The youth unemployment rate in Europe increased to very high levels after the great recession of 2008, reaching 23% in European Union and 45% in southern European countries. We examine the causes of the high youth unemployment rate which is consistently bigger than the overall unemployment rate. The empirical evidence shows that the youth unemployment rate depends crucially of the level of the overall unemployment rate and on the variation of the unemployment rate.

  1. Youth Identity, Lifestyle and Economic

    OpenAIRE

    Gatis Ozoli

    2015-01-01

    This report is based on sixty in-depth interviews that took place starting the end of 2012 till the beginning of 2013 in two major towns in Latvia – Riga and Daugavpils – within MYPLACE (Memory, Youth, Political Legacy And Civic Engagement) project with young people aged from 16 to 25. Three significant aspects of contemporary youth identity searching are studied in the project. Firstly, the understanding of contemporary Latvian youth about politics, political process and its impact on the so...

  2. Youth Leadership Development and Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Jodi C

    2010-01-01

    The youth of today need to develop leadership skills in order to enjoy greater success in their lives. Therefore, it is important there be programs that can help them cultivate their skills. By investigating successful programs and other relevant literature, I have conducted a feasibility study for a youth leadership development facility. The purpose of this facility is to help youth gain the important life and leadership skills that will enable them to be successful in the future.

  3. Are African flagship universities preparing students for citizenship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Kgosithebe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the contribution of higher education to democratisation in Africaby studying the political attitudes of undergraduate students at four African flagshipuniversities in Botswana, Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania. It analyses students’ attitudesagainst those of youths without higher education and mass publics in their respectivecountries. The study focuses on flagship universities because of their role as importantplayers in the development of the social, economic and political leadership of theirrespective countries. The surveys used stratified random samples of third-year studentsacross all faculties and years of enrolment, which resulted in a weighted sample of 400students from each of the participating institutions. Students’ attitudes are compared withthose of the same age percentiles of youths without higher education, and those of theentire population sample, from the nationwide public opinion surveys conducted byAfrobarometer. The analysis of the data uses the notions of commitment to democracy,critical citizenship and political engagement to show that students at the four flagshipinstitutions have significantly higher levels of political awareness and political participation,and higher levels of criticalness, than youths without higher education and the generalmass public. However, no consistently higher levels of commitment to democracy werefound among students. We therefore argue that the study provides evidence of the politicalhothouse conditions typical in many African universities. It also provides grounds for thecall that African higher education institutions should be more conscious of, and explicitin, the cultivation of the norms, values and practices conducive to democracy in orderfor higher education to contribute in enduring ways to citizenship development and thedeepening of democratisation in Africa.

  4. Diabetes in Hispanic American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Jean M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Reynolds, Kristi; Beyer, Jennifer; Pettitt, David J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Marcovina, Santica M.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Hamman, Richard F.; ,

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To report the 2001 prevalence and 2002–2005 incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Hispanic American youth and to describe the demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, a population-based multicenter observational study of youth aged 0–19 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Information obt...

  5. Idle Youth in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoyos, Rafael; Gutierrez Fierros, Carlos; Vargas M., J. Vicente

    2016-01-01

    The present study combines data from Mexico's employment surveys (Encuesta Nacional de Empleo and Encuesta Nacional de Ocupación y Empleo) with the country's official statistics on murder rates to create a state-level panel data set covering the period 1995 to 2013. Including most of the common controls identified by the literature, the results show that the rate of male youth ages 19 to 2...

  6. The soundscape of youth

    OpenAIRE

    O'Keeffe, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the voice of teenagers in the experience of sound within the urban landscape and is part of my PhD research exploring the youth experience of urban soundscapes. It focuses on the methodological approach adopted by the researcher in examining the phenomenological experience of sound. The methods used in this project were influenced by previous research within the arts, music and acoustic ecology, as well as traditional qualitative sociological methods. The area chosen for t...

  7. Youth Homelessness Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2001-01-01

    This Strategy aims to build on this work and to ensure a more co-ordinated and planned approach to tackling youth homelessness. Particular emphasis is placed on prevention and on the importance of supporting schools, communities, the young people themselves and their families in this context. Where a young person becomes homeless the Strategy stresses the need for a prompt child focused service which will address the individual needs of the young person. Download the Report here

  8. Risk and protective factors for substance use among African American high school dropouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M; Luo, Zupei; Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H

    2005-12-01

    Risk and protective factors that predict substance use were investigated with 318 African American high school dropout youths who completed the 1992 follow-up of the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988. A conceptual model linking positive family relationships and religious involvement to youths' substance use and conventional peer affiliations through a positive life orientation was examined with structural equation modeling. Positive life orientation, which included optimism and conventional goals for the future, fully mediated the influence of family relationships on conventional peer affiliations. Religious involvement directly predicted conventional peer affiliations and positive life orientation. Conventional peer affiliations mediated the other variables' influence on substance use. PMID:16366810

  9. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Study of Youth Sports National Academy of Neuropsychology National Alliance for Youth Sports National Association of School Nurses National Association of Secondary School Principals National ...

  10. Confronting youth gangs in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    Youth gang violence has continued its upward trend nationwide. It was once thought that gangs convened only in selected areas, which left churches, schools, and hospitals as "neutral" territory. Unfortunately, this is a fallacy. The results of gang violence pour into hospitals and into intensive care units regularly. The media portrays California as having a gang violence problem; however, throughout the United States, gang violence has risen more than 35% in the past year. Youth gang violence continues to rise dramatically with more and more of our youth deciding to join gangs each day. Sadly, every state has gangs, and the problem is getting much worse in areas that would never have thought about gangs a year ago. These "new generation" of gang members is younger, much more violent, and staying in the gang longer. Gangs are not just an urban problem. Gang activity is a suburban and rural problem too. There are more than 25 500 gangs in the United States, with a total gang membership of 850 000. Ninety-four percent of gang members are male and 6% are female. The ethnic composition nationwide includes 47% Latino, 31% African American, 13% White, 7% Asian, and 2% "mixed," according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result of the ongoing proliferation of youth street gangs in our communities, it is imperative that critical care nurses and others involved with the direct care become educated about how to identify gang members, their activities, and understand their motivations. Such education and knowledge will help provide solutions to families and the youth themselves, help eradicate the problem of gang violence, and keep health care professionals safe. PMID:25463004

  11. Street youth and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, L S; Mazin, R; Jiminez, M V

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize the population of homeless street youth who are living marginally and to describe aspects of this population's dynamics, motivations, values, and aspirations. Street youth, ranging in age from birth to 21, are on the street for one reason or another--dire poverty in the home, which necessitates their working on the street to supplement the family income, because they have been rejected by parents or guardians, because they have left home due to violence in the home, drug or alcohol use by family members, or because of lack of a place where they feel they can be "themselves." These conditions make street youths particularly vulnerable to HIV infection, not to mention malnutrition, stress, and drug use. Their violently accelerated emotional maturation, ignorance, alcohol- and drug-induced confusion, together with the exploitation and sexual abuse of which they are often victims, are additional factors that contribute to sexual practices that may lead to HIV infection. PMID:1389867

  12. RELATIONS OF SELF-APPRAISAL AND MOOD CHANGES WITH VOLUNTARY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CHANGES IN AFRICAN AMERICAN PREADOLESCENTS IN AN AFTER-SCHOOL CARE INTERVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    James J. Annesi; Avery D. Faigenbaum; Wayne L. Westcott; Smith, Alice E

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing prevalence of overweight in preadolescents that predicts physical problems over the lifespan. Physical inactivity has been implicated as an associated factor, with African American youth being at an increased risk. Based on social cognitive theory, and proposed correlates of physical activity in youth, changes over 12 weeks in measures of self-appraisal (general self, physical appearance, physical self-concept, exercise barriers self-efficacy) and mood (tension, vigor),...

  13. Youth Sport Programs: An Avenue to Foster Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Thomas, Jessica L.; Cote, Jean; Deakin, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Concern about the growth in adolescent problem behaviours (e.g. delinquency, drug use) has led to increased interest in positive youth development, and a surge in funding for "after school programs." We evaluate the potential of youth sport programs to foster positive development, while decreasing the risk of problem behaviours. Literature on the…

  14. Becoming a Gang Member: Youth Life and Gang Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morch, Sven; Andersen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding the growth in youth gangs and gang behaviour. The paper builds on a youth theory perspective and describes how the social conditions work with or are against the young individual in such a way that gangs seem to be an option or an answer for some young people when faced with…

  15. Summer Camp and Positive Youth Development: Program with Romanian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of activities are used in camps to help promote positive youth development, improving social skills and self-esteem in campers. I expanded on previous camp research in this study to address the influence camps have on trust, belief in the honesty of others, empowerment, and care for others in youth in Eastern Europe. Since 1999, New…

  16. The Voice of Youth: Atmosphere in Positive Youth Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Stefan; Parker, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Positive youth development (PYD) programs adhere to the notion that all children have strengths and assets to be promoted and nurtured rather than deficits that require "fixing." The study of PYD programs indicates three aspects which set them apart from other programs for youth: activities, goals, and atmosphere. Of these,…

  17. Parental Investment, Club Membership, and Youth Sexual Risk Behavior in Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Camlin, Carol S.; Snow, Rachel C

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether parental investment and membership in social clubs are associated with safer sexual behaviors among South African youth. Participants comprised 4,800 randomly selected adolescents age 14 to 22 living in the Cape Town area in 2002. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between measures of parental investment and associational membership with reported condom use at first and most recent sexual intercourse, net of effects of HIV knowledge, age, educatio...

  18. Fast Food Consumption Pattern among Youth in Ogbomoso Metropolis of Oyo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunniyi Laudia Titilola; Adepoju Adenike Adebusola; Olagunju Funke Iyabo; Akinola Oluseyi Yewande

    2013-01-01

    Fast food has become a prominent feature of diet and has grown into a dominant dietary pattern among youth worldwide. It is difficult to escape noticing the colourful edifice and bill boards of these food outlets, one is probably just around the corner of your street. Mr Biggs, Tastes Fried Chicken, Sweet Sensation, Big Treat, Favourite etc. Due to competitive nature of the market many of the food outlets market have started to blend their menus with African cuisines like Pounded Yam, Amala, ...

  19. Transactional Process of African American Adolescents' Family Conflict and Violent Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-12-01

    This is the first longitudinal study of urban African American adolescents that has examined bidirectional effects between their family conflict and violent behavior across all of high school. Structured interviews were administered to 681 students each year in high school at ages 15, 16 17, and 18 years. We used structural equation modeling to test a transactional model and found bidirectional effects between family conflict and violent behavior across the middle years of high school, while accounting for sex and socioeconomic status. Findings suggest a reciprocal process involving interpersonal conflict in African American families and adolescent engagement in youth violence. PMID:25400490

  20. Characterizing the admixed African ancestry of African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharia, Fouad; Basu, Analabha; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Go, Alan S.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua W.; Li, Jun; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Sidney, Steven; Southwick, Audrey; Myers, Richard M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Risch, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate, high-throughput genotyping allows the fine characterization of genetic ancestry. Here we applied recently developed statistical and computational techniques to the question of African ancestry in African Americans by using data on more than 450,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 94 Africans of diverse geographic origins included in the...

  1. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  2. Youth and Employment in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montlibert, Christian; And Others

    In this colloquy report, European youth unemployment is examined by (1) defining and analyzing the characteristics of youth unemployment and the young unemployed, (2) reviewing government measures and their effects, (3) studying the attitudes of young people in various socio-professional classes, and (4) surveying and analyzing the positions of…

  3. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  4. SOCIAL ACTIVITY OF STUDENT YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhela I. BALOG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to disclosure of features of social activity of modern student's youth. At the beginning of the article different classifications of social activity forms are described, that proves their great diversity. To identify specifics of social activity of modern student's youth we used the results of the survey conducted among university students in Kirov. We analyzed the readiness of students to participate in social activities; the popularity of various social organizations in the student environment; the expectations related to social activity and subjective self-determination of the level of social activity of student's youth. It should be noted that to date, indeed public youth organizations are well represented in our country. As for the student youth, then, of course, the most common of the non-governmental organizations in this environment are the bodies of the student government. They are represented by student councils, trade unions, student scientific society, student centers and personnel agencies, councils of dormitories and other organizations. The majority of respondents to impose requirements youth organizations develop their leadership and managerial qualities as well as promote selforganization of young people. This proves the need for the development of youth public organizations of competent state youth policy. 

  5. Racial Barrier Socialization and the Well-being of African American Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Shauna M.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2011-01-01

    Racial socialization has been suggested as an important factor in helping African American adolescents cope effectively with racism and discrimination. Although multiple studies have reported a positive link between racial pride socialization and psychological adjustment among African American youth, assessments of the association between adolescent adjustment and another dimension of racial socialization—racial barrier socialization—have yielded inconsistent findings. Using a sample of 190 A...

  6. Correlates of HIV Risk Reduction Self-Efficacy among Youth in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Louw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though a decline in HIV prevalence has been reported among South African youth 15–24 from 10.3% in 2005 to 8.6% in 2008, the prevalence remains disproportionately high for females overall in comparison to males. This study examines factors associated by HIV risk reduction self-efficacy of South African youth as part of an evaluation of the impact of loveLife, a youth focused HIV prevention programme. A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted with persons of ages 18 to 24 years in four selected provinces in South Africa. Among female respondents (, factors associated with high self-efficacy in the adjusted model were having a low HIV risk perception, HIV/AIDS stigma, ever using drugs, and having life goals. Male respondents ( with high self-efficacy were more likely to have been tested for HIV, have concurrent sexual partners, have had a transactional sex partner in lifetime, a low HIV risk perception, difficulty in having condoms, agreed with coercive sex, high relationship control, and had loveLife face-to-face programme participation. The factors identified with high self-efficacy and HIV-sexual risk behaviour may be considered to strengthen youth HIV prevention programmes in South Africa.

  7. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  8. Cross-ethnic measurement invariance of the SCARED and CES-D in a youth sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skriner, Laura C; Chu, Brian C

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the cross-ethnic measurement invariance of 2 common screening measures of anxiety and depressive symptoms in youth. The measurement invariance of the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was tested across 881 African American (Black; n = 396), Hispanic (n = 185), non-Hispanic White (White; n = 166), and Asian/Indian (n = 134) youth in the 7th grade. The measures were administered as part of a grade-wide screening to identify youth with elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms. The 5-factor model of the SCARED and the 4-factor model of the CES-D best represented the data for all ethnic groups. Results provided support for strong invariance of the SCARED across all 4 ethnic groups. Results provided support for strong invariance of the CES-D across Black, White, and Asian/Indian youth, and partial strong invariance for Hispanic youth. Overall, results suggest that factor means and total scores can be compared across groups. Factor mean differences across groups were identified for both measures. In particular, Hispanic youth reported greater levels of anxiety and depression in certain domains than White, Black, and Asian youth. Our findings support the use of the SCARED and CES-D as tools for measuring anxiety and depressive symptoms in ethnically diverse youth in the United States. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of establishing measurement invariance for screening measures of anxiety and depressive symptoms prior to comparing symptom levels across ethnic groups. PMID:24245992

  9. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  10. The Struggles over African Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  11. Youth, drugs, and biopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Jose Sanches Vergara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we tackle the issue of youth and drugs as something linked to biopower and biopolitics, both concepts developed by Michael Foucault. Youth and drugs are taken and analyzed in situations involving the management of crime linked to the risks and deviations from the law, abuse and dependence. The youth; irreverent, courageous, healthy, idealistic, and that wanted to change the world for the better as we have seen in the past, is now strongly related to violence, dangerous activities, moral and social risks, drug addiction, criminality, and others negative images. To deal with these young people, tolerance and small punishments of yore are not enough anymore. The young people emerge as a segment of the population subject to various actions and programs. The drugs now are seen as matters of security and public health. There is a shifting and repositioning in the discourse about the young - from minor, drugged, and criminal to lawbreaker, user and drug addict. The change is subtle, but represents a modulation in the devices of social control. Beyond the consent of the young to get rid of drugs, there is a search for the creation of a wide area of monitoring of their behavior through the activation of community protection networks. The belief that the young are more impressionable and vulnerable, and that action on the cause of the problem or risk reduction are the most efficient ways of management, taking responsibility away from personal and family sphere and transferring it to the State, contributes to the increasing control of young people nowadays.

  12. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  13. Four Themes in Youth Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Mark

    2005-01-01

    With the purpose of contributing to the research and discussion about youth work as a contextual, interpersonal process of human interaction, it is suggested that youth work is like a modern dance that works best when youth workers are present, in sync with youth development rhythms for trusting and growing and making meaning in an atmosphere that…

  14. Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

  15. Exploring Stress and Coping Among Urban African American Adolescents: The Shifting the Lens Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Chandra, DrPH; Ameena Batada, DrPH

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Stress can have a significant effect on an adolescent's long-term physical and mental well-being. An understanding of the role of unmanaged stress during early adolescence is critical for the prevention of chronic diseases such as depression. The purpose of the Shifting the Lens study was to explore perceptions of stress, sources of social support, and use of coping strategies among urban African American ninth graders. Methods A youth-driven, mixed-method approach was used ...

  16. K-12 educational outcomes of immigrant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Turley, Ruth N López

    2011-01-01

    The children from immigrant families in the United States make up a historically diverse population, and they are demonstrating just as much diversity in their experiences in the K-12 educational system. Robert Crosnoe and Ruth López Turley summarize these K-12 patterns, paying special attention to differences in academic functioning across segments of the immigrant population defined by generational status, race and ethnicity, and national origin. A good deal of evidence points to an immigrant advantage in multiple indicators of academic progress, meaning that many youths from immigrant families outperform their peers in school. This apparent advantage is often referred to as the immigrant paradox, in that it occurs despite higher-than-average rates of social and economic disadvantages in this population as a whole. The immigrant paradox, however, is more pronounced among the children of Asian and African immigrants than other groups, and it is stronger for boys than for girls. Furthermore, evidence for the paradox is far more consistent in secondary school than in elementary school. Indeed, school readiness appears to be one area of potential risk for children from immigrant families, especially those of Mexican origin. For many groups, including those from Latin America, any evidence of the immigrant paradox usually emerges after researchers control for family socioeconomic circumstances and youths' English language skills. For others, including those from Asian countries, it is at least partially explained by the tendency for more socioeconomically advantaged residents of those regions to leave their home country for the United States. Bilingualism and strong family ties help to explain immigrant advantages in schooling; school, community, and other contextual disadvantages may suppress these advantages or lead to immigrant risks. Crosnoe and Turley also discuss several policy efforts targeting young people from immigrant families, especially those of Latin

  17. Youth and Transitional Justice in Kashmir

    OpenAIRE

    EFFAT YASMIN

    2013-01-01

    This is the age of youth. In India youth and their aspirations have engaged the attention of policy makers as their role is increasing in the overall nation- building process. In Jammu and Kashmir State, for known reasons, youth related matters have assumed central importance. It is an established fact that militancy in Kashmir was led and fed by youth. The role of youth in the socio-economic development and overall nation -building is well recognized. Violence has seriously dented the resili...

  18. Deepening African Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese President Hu Jintao has just embarked on his state visits to eight African countries that will take him to both the northern and southern tips of the continent. This is his first trip abroad this year, and also his third visit to Africa

  19. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  20. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  1. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer; Browdy; de; Hernandez; Pauline; Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne; Serafin

    2011-01-01

    An Anthology of Contemporary Voices AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women’s strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews, short stories,po-

  2. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise the...... cultures (or ‘mentalities’) go hand in hand....

  3. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males # doses ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  4. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    . Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing...

  5. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  6. A Youth Mentor-Led Nutritional Intervention in Urban Recreation Centers: A Promising Strategy for Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Priscila M.; Steeves, Elizabeth A.; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Trude, Angela C.; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M. J.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    B'More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers…

  7. Disentangling the Effects of Violent Victimization, Violent Behavior, and Gun Carrying for Minority Inner-City Youth Living in Extreme Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Richard; Bolland, John

    2013-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data were used to examine the sequencing between violent victimization, violent behavior, and gun carrying in a high-poverty sample of African American youth. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that violent victimization T1 and violent behavior T1 increased the likelihood of initiation of gun carrying T2…

  8. Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

    2012-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

  9. Food, fun, and fitness internet program for girls: Pilot evaluation of an e-Health youth obesity prevention program examining predictors of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This pilot study tested whether an Internet-based intervention could achieve change in fruit, juice, and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and self-efficacy in youth at-risk of obesity. Participants were 80 8- to 10-year-old African American girls at-risk of obesity, with a home computer, In...

  10. Prevention Effects Moderate the Association of 5-HTTLPR and Youth Risk Behavior Initiation: Gene x Environment Hypotheses Tested via a Randomized Prevention Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Murry, Velma McBride

    2009-01-01

    A randomized prevention design was used to investigate a moderation effect in the association between a polymorphism in the "SCL6A4"("5HTT") gene at 5-HTTLPR and increases in youths' risk behavior initiation. Participation in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program was hypothesized to attenuate the link between 5-HTTLPR status and risk…

  11. The Danish Youth Survey 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Sundaram, Vanita; Curtis, Tine;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore ethical, legal and practical issues related to conducting a youth survey in Denmark on sexual experiences before the age of 15 and thereby achieve reliable data on child sexual abuse. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The relevant authorities were consulted on possible legal...... of the accompanying offer of counselling. CONCLUSION: An anonymous youth survey based on computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) would increase the validity of youth surveys on child sexual abuse to which no ethical or legal objections were found....

  12. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  13. Substance use and Violence among Youth: A Daily Calendar Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen; Zimmerman, Marc; Chermack, Stephen; Blow, Frederic C; Booth, Brenda M; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background While researchers have identified factors that contribute to youth violence, less is known about the details of violent incidents. In addition, substance use has been linked to youth violence; however, little is known about actual substance use on days in which violence occurs. Objective This study examined reasons for peer violence and the association between substance use and violence using daily calendar-based analyses among at-risk urban youth. Methods Data were collected from Emergency Department (ED) patients (ages 14–24; n=599; 59% male, 65% African American) who screened positive for substance use in the past 6 months. Daily data regarding past 30-day substance use and violence and reasons for violent incidents were obtained via semi-structured interviews. Multi-level multinomial regression models were conducted to test the associations between substance use and peer violence incidents (i.e., none, moderate and severe). Results Conflict over ‘personal belongings’ was a common reason for violence among males; ‘jealousy’/’rumors’ were common reasons among females. Moderate victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and cocaine use. Severe victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol use. Moderate or severe aggression was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and non-medical sedative use. Conclusions Results suggest that youth violence prevention that addresses differential reasons for violence among males and females as well as substance use would be beneficial. PMID:25493643

  14. Youth subculture as interaction of youth and society

    OpenAIRE

    Likhachova, Sviatlana

    2014-01-01

    Based on the results of a sociological study in the Mogilev Region, the state and development of youth subculture as a social phenomenon are considered. The reasons for involvement in subcultural associations, sources of information about them, the positive and negative effects of participation in youth subcultures are analyzed. In modern society, we have a situation of subcultural pluralism when society is a set of co-existing ethnic, professional, religious, territorial and y...

  15. Racial microstressors, racial self-concept, and depressive symptoms among male African Americans during the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    Racial discrimination is a pervasive stressor that can undermine mental health among African American youth and young adults. Several studies identify links between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms; however, this research base does not focus on male African American youth who experience significant racism-related stress during the transition to young adulthood. Moreover, few prospective studies consider significant confounding variables that affect exposure to and perception of discriminatory treatment. In response to this need, we examined the effect of exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16 to 18 on depressive symptoms among male African Americans at age 20. Racial self-concept, one's sense of positivity about one's race, was examined as a mediator and self-control as a moderator. Hypotheses were tested with 222 participants, age 16 at baseline and age 20 at the endpoint. Participants provided self-report data at five time points. Exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16 to 18 predicted depressive symptoms at age 20, net of confounding influences. Racial self-concept mediated this effect. Self-control moderated the influence of discrimination on racial self-concept. This study underscores the salience of racial discrimination in the development of depressive symptoms among African American male youth and the clinical utility of interventions targeting racial pride and self-control. PMID:25344920

  16. Marginal youth transitions in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Katznelson, Noemi

    2011-01-01

    visions of the future (as grown ups). In the paper we will illustrate some of the dilemmas and challenges that especially ‘youth a rick’ face as part of their life-and educational pathways from primary school and onwards. A main focus will be on the dialectic relationship between subjective narratives on......Young people’s involvement in education is receiving enormous political attention in Denmark. The political aim is to ensure ‘education for all’. The background is the fact, that despite an ongoing political focus on the importance of ‘youth education’ over the past 30 years, a relatively stable...... figure of almost 20% of a youth-generation, still does not complete a youth education. Furthermore, research shows clear patterns in regards to, who is at risk in the educational system; Young people from a social background with little or no tradition for education are statistically less likely to...

  17. The Geopolitics of "Youth Power'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofer, Jerry P.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a method for estimating the possible dimensions of youth power in each community to assist in determining administrative responses to an enfranchised, and politically active, student body. (Author)

  18. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube. PMID:12068260

  19. Leadership in the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masango

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western world has always viewed the African continent as plagued by corruption; dictatorship; military coups; rebellious leaders; greediness; misuse of power; and incompetent, politically unstable leaders - in effect, suspicious leaders who undermine their own democracies. This paper analyzes African leadership and its impact by concentrating on three historical eras, namely; the African Religious era; the Christian era, and the era of Globalization. These affected African leadership. In addition, many brilliant minds left the continent in search of greener pastures. A review of these three eras will help us understand how leadership shifted from African values into Western concepts. The role of missionaries lead African people to live with both an African and a Western concept of life. In spite of the above problems, our past leaders did their best in addressing the difficulties they faced during the three eras. African concepts of leadership were often regarded as barbaric and uncultured. Structures were evaluated by Western standards. Due to globalisation, African leaders, through programmes like NEPAD, are going back to basics, drawing on African concepts of unity among its leadership. Effectiveness or life-giving leadership is emerging and empowering villagers/communities in the continent. This type of leadership is innovative and has brought new hope for the continent.

  20. Somatic Complaints in Anxious Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Crawley, Sarah A.; Caporino, Nicole E.; Birmaher, Boris; Ginsburg, Golda; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne Marie; Sherrill, Joel; Sakolsky, Dara; Compton, Scott N.; Rynn, Moira; McCracken, James; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; March, John; Walkup, John T

    2014-01-01

    This study examined (a) demographic and clinical characteristics associated with physical symptoms in anxiety-disordered youth and (b) the impact of cognitive-behavioral therapy (Coping Cat), medication (sertraline), their combination, and pill placebo on physical symptoms. Youth (N = 488, ages 7–17 years) with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, or social phobia participated as part of a multi-site, randomized controlled trial and received trea...

  1. Global Citizenship and Youth Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Bourn, D.

    2016-01-01

    The Global Citizenship and Youth Participation in Europe Report identifies the context within with the Schools for Future Youth Project takes place in terms of evidence on young people's engagement in society through Global Citizenship in formal education across Europe. The Report identifies the needs of young people and teachers to effectively engage in Global Citizenship Education through a participatory model and reviews current policies and practices that are relevant to securing more eff...

  2. Book Review: youth and media

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    When societies worry about media effects, why do they focus so much on young people? Is advertising to blame for binge drinking? Do films and video games inspire school shootings? Aiming to tackle these kinds of questions, Youth and Media considers why young people are often at the centre of how we understand the media. This is an important area of research and Youth and Media is a good introductory text on the subject, concludes Barbara J. Cooke.

  3. Violence exposure among Swedish youth

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Background Violence is a global public health problem and violence among youth is a matter of high priority. Adolescence and young adulthood are important periods for the foundation of future health. Youth victimization may have serious health consequences, making it important to address the occurrence and socio-medical context for possible interventions against violence. Aims To analyze prevalence, risk patterns and gender differences in emotional, physical, sexual, and multiple-violence vic...

  4. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic p...

  5. The Effects of Maternal Parenting Style and Religious Commitment on Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Risk Behavior among African-American Parochial College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L.; Winsler, Adam

    2009-01-01

    This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic…

  6. An Evaluation Study of the Young Empowered Sisters (YES!) Program: Promoting Cultural Assets among African American Adolescent Girls through a Culturally Relevant School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Oseela; Davidson, William; McAdoo, Harriette

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of a culturally relevant school-based intervention in promoting cultural assets (i.e., ethnic identity, collectivist orientation, racism awareness, and liberatory youth activism) among a group of African American adolescent girls. The overall goal of the intervention was to promote cultural factors that can…

  7. Financial Resources, Parent Psychological Functioning, Parent Co-Caregiving, and Early Adolescent Competence in Rural Two-Parent African-American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships between family financial resources, academic competence, and socioemotional adjustment during early adolescence. Subjects were 90 African American youths and their married parents in the rural South. Found that parents with greater financial resources were less depressed and more optimistic, and their children were better…

  8. Brief report: Explaining differences in depressive symptoms between African American and European American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms. PMID:26580552

  9. Christ alone ... Redeeming Youth Ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Strong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article a fresh approach is proposed pertaining the contents and focus of the biblical message being taught in Youth Ministry: a Christocentric message in effective Youth Ministry is proposed as foundation to build on considering the Sola Scriptura approach. This is done to address one of the contributing factors to the current crisis in Youth Ministry, namely the use of behavioural modification techniques to transform the youth instead of spiritual transformation. The crisis in Youth Ministry can be described as not being effective in leading young people into mature Christian adulthood. Only through believing the Christocentric message of grace and allowing the sanctification of Holy Spirit in one’s life genuine spiritual transformation will take place. This article took a stance against behavioural modification techniques or preaching the Law, which may produce outward moralisation without the inward genuine transformation by Holy Spirit. Instead, it proposed four facets of a Christocentric message to be focused on in effective Youth Ministry: firstly, the grace of God as gift, secondly, the Christian’s status in Christ, thirdly, the message of the Kingdom of God, and lastly, the importance of cultivating a personal relationship with God.

  10. Youth Employment in a Globalising World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Owusu, George

    2013-01-01

    nature of policies introduced to tackle youth (un)employment. It provides an overview of the six papers that make up this special issue and shows how highlighting the complexities and diversities of youth employment strategies in sub-Saharan Africa provides valuable lessons, both for enhancing current......Young people in the global South are seeking employment opportunities in challenging economic and social environments. This paper provides an overview of current debates regarding youth employment, highlighting conceptualisations of youth and (un)employment, emerging youth employment trends and the...... conceptualisations and theorisation of youth employment and in terms of related policy instruments....

  11. Explaining the Rise in Youth Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, David M.; Edward Glaeser; Karen Norberg

    2000-01-01

    Suicide rates among youths aged 15-24 have tripled in the past half-century, even as rates for adults and the elderly have declined. And for every youth suicide completion, there are nearly 400 suicide attempts. This paper examines the dynamics of youth suicide attempts and completions, and reaches three conclusions. First, we suggest that many suicide attempts by youths can be viewed as a strategic action on the part of the youth to resolve conflicts within oneself or with others. Youths hav...

  12. Steps to African Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The development of Africa is vital to the world’s sustainable development.However,African countries still face key challenges in achieving the meaningful expansion of their economies.At the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation in Xiamen,southeast China’s Fujian Province,held from September 8 to 10,Chen Deming,Minister of Commerce of China,elaborates on these challenges and sees

  13. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  14. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  15. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  16. Ecological context, concentrated disadvantage, and youth reoffending: identifying the social mechanisms in a sample of serious adolescent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin A; Kim, Byungbae; Chassin, Laurie; Losoya, Sandra H; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-10-01

    Serious youthful offenders are presented with a number of significant challenges when trying to make a successful transition from adolescence to adulthood. One of the biggest obstacles for these youth to overcome concerns their ability to desist from further antisocial behavior, and although an emerging body of research has documented important risk and protective factors associated with desistance, the importance of the neighborhoods within which these youth reside has been understudied. Guided by the larger neighborhood effects on crime literature, the current study examines the direct and indirect effects of concentrated disadvantage on youth reoffending among a sample of highly mobile, serious youthful offenders. We use data from Pathways to Desistance, a longitudinal study of serious youthful offenders (N = 1,354; 13.6% female; 41.4% African American, 33.5% Hispanic, 20.2% White), matched up with 2000 Census data on neighborhood conditions for youth's main residence location during waves 7 and 8 of the study. These waves represent the time period in which youth are navigating the transition to adulthood (aged 18-22; average age = 20). We estimate structural equation models to determine direct effects of concentrated disadvantage on youth reoffending and also to examine the possible indirect effects working through individual-level mechanisms as specified by theoretical perspectives including social control (e.g., unsupervised peer activities), strain (e.g., exposure to violence), and learning (e.g., exposure to antisocial peers). Additionally, we estimate models that take into account the impact that a change in neighborhood conditions may have on the behavior of youth who move to new residences during the study period. Our results show that concentrated disadvantage is indirectly associated with youth reoffending primarily through its association with exposure to deviant peers. Taking into account youth mobility during the study period produced an additional

  17. Institution Building for African Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  18. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Apr 18, ... of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans. The good news is, African-Americans can ...

  19. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a ... white women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – ...

  20. Transactional Sex Involvement: Exploring Risk and Promotive Factors Among Substance-Using Youth in an Urban Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Rikki A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Blow, Frederic C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Booth, Brenda M; Walton, Maureen A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study aims to evaluate individual, relational, and community-level risk and promotive factors for transactional sex involvement among substance-using youth. Method: Youth (ages 14–24 years) presenting for care in an urban emergency department, who reported drug use within the past 6 months, were surveyed as part of a larger study assessing violence. Of the 600 youth enrolled in this study, 350 presented to the emergency department with violent injury. Based on youth presenting with violent injury, a proportionally selected (age and gender) comparison group of youth (n = 250) presenting without violent injury were enrolled. Participants were queried about both risk and promotive factors at the individual, relational, and community levels. Results: Of the sample, 7.3% reported involvement in transactional sex within the past month. Regression analyses indicated that being African American or other race (as compared with White), having more than one sexual partner, depressive symptoms, negative peer influence, and substance use treatment utilization were positively associated with transactional sex involvement. Increased school involvement was negatively related to involvement in transactional sex. Conclusions: Drug-using youth who reported recent transactional sex involvement are more likely to experience increased HIV risk, depressive symptoms, and negative peer influence and are less likely to experience the promotive factors of school involvement. Future research is needed to better understand the bidirectional relationship between transactional sex involvement and both risk and promotive factors at multiple ecological levels. PMID:24988256

  1. The Youth Self Report: Applicability and Validity across Younger and Older Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Bernstein, Adam; Martinez, Jonathan I.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Weisz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The Youth Self Report (YSR) is a widely used measure of youth emotional and behavioral problems. Although the YSR was designed for youths ages 11 to 18, no studies have systematically evaluated whether youths younger than age 11 can make valid reports on this measure. This study thus examined the reliability and validity of the YSR scales scores…

  2. The Multiple Roles that Youth Development Program Leaders Adopt with Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kathrin C.

    2011-01-01

    The roles that program leaders establish in their relationships with youth structure how leaders are able to foster youth development. This article examines the complex roles program leaders create in youth programs and investigates how they balanced multiple roles to most effectively respond to the youth they serve. Analyses of qualitative data…

  3. Early initiation of sex, drug-related risk behaviors, and sensation-seeking among urban, low-income African-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, B.; Li, X.; Cottrell, L.; Kaljee, L.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of early initiation of sex, drug-use, drug-trafficking, and sensation-seeking among urban, African-American adolescents. A longitudinal follow-up of 383 youth ages 9 to 15 years at baseline over four years with serial risk-assessments was used. Sexual experience and several drug-related risk behaviors increased significantly during the four-year study interval. Sensation-seeking scores were higher after the baseline assessment among youth reporting tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and were higher, both at baseline and through several follow-up assessments, among youth reporting drug-selling and sexual activity. At baseline, the correlations among drug-related risk behaviors were all strong, except those between initiation of sex and drug-related risk behaviors. However, over time, early initiators of sex were significantly more likely to report involvement in substance use and drug-delivery/sales than were late initiators. Youth reporting repeated involvement in drug-related activities were more likely to report intensive sexual involvement than they were to report experimental sex or no sex. Sensation-seeking scores were lower among youth reporting no involvement in risk behaviors. However, scores did not differ between youth exhibiting experimental behavior compared to youth demonstrating repeated risk involvement. These results support the need for alternative experiences for youth exhibiting high levels of sensation-seeking and the need for early drug/sexual risk prevention programs. PMID:12653400

  4. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Study of Youth Sports National Academy of Neuropsychology National Alliance for Youth Sports National Association of School Nurses National Association of Secondary School Principals National ...

  5. Youth Prostitution: A Balance of Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Richie J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the issues of child and adolescent prostitution, focusing on the youth prostitution situation in London, England. Briefly describes "Streetwise," a support and counseling program developed to aid London youth who have been involved in any form of prostitution. (NB)

  6. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries Sports Safety Students Play Safe Youth Sports Safety PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS "Heads ... Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries Sports Safety Students Play Safe Youth Sports Safety ORDER FREE PRINT ...

  7. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2013. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  8. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2013. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  9. An assessment of the impact of entrepreneurship training on the youth in South Africa / A.G. Steenekamp.

    OpenAIRE

    Steenekamp, André Gerard

    2013-01-01

    At the bottom tip of the African continent lies South Africa – the economic powerhouse of the continent complimented by its rainbow nation with a myriad of cultures and even more opportunities, but an equal number of pressing challenges: Poverty, inequality, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, a shortage of skilled people (or rather a surplus of unskilled people), poor quality of basic education, unemployment, and of particular importance for this study, youth unemployment. In September 2011 more ...

  10. Racial/Ethnic Socialization and Identity Development in Black Families: The Role of Parent and Youth Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, Stephen C.; Brodish, Amanda B.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Banerjee, Meeta; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic (R/E) socialization is widely practiced in R/E minority families. However, only recently have models been developed to understand how parents’ R/E socialization messages influence adolescent development. The primary goal of the present study was to clarify and extend existing work on R/E socialization in African American (Black) families by distinguishing between parent and youth reports of parents’ R/E socialization messages and examining the extent to which adolescents and the...

  11. A Comparison of African American and Cuban American Adolescent Juvenile Offenders: Risky Sexual and Drug Use Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Dévieux, Jessy G.; Malow, Robert M.; Ergon-Pérez, Emma; Samuels, Deanne; Rojas, Patria; Khushal, Sarah R.; Jean-Gilles, Michèle

    2005-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in HIV seroconversion rates, with African American and Hispanic youth in the 13–19-year-old age group representing 61% and 21% of new AIDS cases, respectively. The aim of this study was to examine sexual and drug use behaviors among a sample of 138 African American and Cuban American juvenile offenders. Cuban American adolescents showed higher levels of unprotected sex, higher levels of sex while using drugs, and higher levels of drug/alcohol use in the thr...

  12. Techno Generation: Social Networking amongst Youth in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Antoinette; Makhasi, Yoliswa; van Vuuren, Daan

    Internet and cell phones can be considered as new media compared to traditional media types and have become a fundamental part of the lives of many young people across the globe. The exploratory research study investigated the diffusion and adoption of new media innovations among adolescents. It was found that new media have diffused at a high rate among South African adolescents who are not only the innovators in this area, but also changing their life styles to adapt to the new media. Social networking grew to prominence in South Africa especially among the youth. The protection of children from potential harmful exposure and other risks remain a concern and adequate measures need to be initiated and implemented for children to enjoy social networks and other forms of new media. The exploratory research study provided worthwhile and interesting insights into the role of the new media, in the lives of adolescents in South Africa.

  13. WPC 1. Youth forum; WPC 1. Youth forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-12-01

    The WPC 1. Youth Congress has held on October 2004, 17-20 in Pekin. The main topic was: 'Youth and Innovation. The future of Petroleum Industry'. This forum has gathered 800 participants coming from 57 countries mainly Asiatic countries. During these three days, sessions have held on the following subjects: 1)present status and perspective of petroleum exploration and development 2)petroleum refining and petrochemicals 3) Internet technology and other new technology applications in petroleum industry 4)management, human resources and the contribution of youth 5)the development of the alternatives for petroleum energy 6)petroleum industry and environmental (social responsibility). About 180 posters have been presented; among them, cite those presented by Ms Isabelle Zabalza-Mezghani on the following subject: 'quantification of uncertainty for improved recovery production'. The complete text of this communication is given here. (O.M.)

  14. The African Diaspora, Civil Society and African Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku-Mensah, Paul Yaw

    This paper, a work-in-progress, makes a contribution to the discussions on the appropriate modalities for incorporating the African diaspora in the African integration project.  It argues that the most appropriate entry points for incorporating the African diaspora into the integration project...... might not, necessarily, be in the formal political structures, although this is important. To the contrary, the most effective and sustainable might be within civil society---that is the links between the peoples and organizations of Africa and the diaspora. Using the case of the African academy-- as an...... institution of civil society--- the paper outlines a conceptual framework for incorporating the diaspora into the African integration project....

  15. Youth employment and unemployment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Dev, S.; M. Venkatanarayana

    2011-01-01

    Increase in the share of youth population due to demographic `dividend' or the `youth bulge' seems to be one of the sources of future economic growth in India. Although with increase in school and college enrolment rates, the proportion of youth in the labour force has been declining, their high proportions in the labour force indicate that the problem of youth unemployment and underemployment would remain a serious policy issue for many more years to come in India. In this context, this pape...

  16. Youth justice: Past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, J.; Creaney, S.; Case, S.; K. Haines

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary youth justice in England and Wales, there is too much emphasis on offence- and offender- focused approaches and an insufficient focus on promoting positive outcomes for children in conflict with the law. What is more, since the Crime and Disorder Act 1998, the voices of children embroiled in the Youth Justice System have been marginalised and their participatory rights rendered invalid. Both children and Youth Offending Team workers are finding involvement in the Youth Justice...

  17. Youth Violence in Scotland:Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    McVie, Susan; Fraser, Alistair; Burman, Michele; Batchelor, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Youth violence is a contentious public and political issue. A great deal of media attention and public debate is devoted to the phenomenon of youth violence. Yet very little is known about the scale or nature of violence committed by youth, trends in violent youth offending, or the role played by violence in the everyday lives of children and young people in Scotland. The aim of this review, which was commissioned by the Scottish government, was to identify and collate available qualitative a...

  18. The Youth as the Innovative Social Community

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Zhuravleva; N. V. Zavyalova

    2015-01-01

    The paper looks at the contemporary youth environment from the standpoint of juvenology. The youth is regarded as a distinct social community prone to violating the norms and rules due to the specific mentality and functional characteristics. The authors denote the youth age range, social status and roles, behavior patterns, life style and subculture preferences. The youth community is most open to innovation, being its generator and consumer, conductor of information flows, initiator of new ...

  19. Action programme for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, A B

    1993-01-01

    In Nigeria, where abortion is illegal, unmarried women under 20 years of age comprises the majority of abortion patients and complications from unsafe abortion represent a major health problem among this sector. The high incidence of abortion in Nigeria reflects increased premarital sex activity in urban areas; opposition to family planning, and cultural sanctions against single parenting or forced marriage. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN) is working, cautiously, toward liberalization of the grounds for legal abortion; however, its major strategy is to avert the need for abortion through overcoming opposition to family planning services for young people and family life education in the schools. To reach young people, PPFN has begun providing services in medical clinics attached to vocational schools and institutes of higher education. The concept of using peers to distribute non-prescription contraceptives is being considered, and special youth clinics are planned for urban areas. About 5% of new acceptors at PPFN clinics are under 20 years of age, and attempts are being made to tailor services to the unique needs of this population. PMID:12345327

  20. Predictors of Homelessness among Street Living Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were…

  1. Mentoring Transition-Age Youth with Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a mentoring project designed for transition-age youth (ages 16-26) who are persons with legal blindness. Youth were matched with adult mentors who were also persons with blindness but who have achieved academic and career success. Results demonstrate that youth who participated in the project for 2 years had significant…

  2. Suicidal Ideation in Anxiety-Disordered Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…

  3. Youth Violence: Lessons from the Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, P. Mann; Borowsky, I.; Stolz, A.; Latts, E.; Cart, C. U.; Brindis, C. D.

    This monograph summarizes what is known about youth and violence, identifying 10 myths that confound people's understanding of the real causes of youth violence. It focuses on: what contributes to youth violence (e.g., children exposed to domestic violence are at risk of using violence, children and adolescents use guns when they are easily…

  4. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the…

  5. Youth Unemployment. The Causes and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report examines the causes and consequences of youth unemployment in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries. Summarized first is the youth unemployment situation since the 1974/1975 recession. In a section on recent developments in youth labor markets a series of tables and graphs provide data on youth…

  6. Transgender Youth and Life-Threatening Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

    2007-01-01

    Sexual minority status is a key risk factor for suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth; however, it has not been studied among transgender youth. Fifty-five transgender youth reported on their life-threatening behaviors. Nearly half of the sample reported having seriously thought about taking their lives and one quarter reported suicide…

  7. Organizations Advocating for Youth: The Local Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Sarah; McLaughlin, Milbrey; Newman, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Youth occupy a unique place in democratic society. They must primarily rely on others to speak on their behalf as decisions are made about the allocation of resources within and across various youth-serving institutions. Advocacy organizations comprise crucial representational assets for all youth, but America's poorest children and youth…

  8. At-Risk Youth: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn, Leslie

    This select bibliography lists books, articles, and reports, almost all of which were published since 1980, on at-risk youth. The following areas are included: (1) general; (2) dropouts; (3) drug and alcohol abusers; (4) youth offenders; (5) teen parents; (6) young children at risk; and (7) unemployed youth. For each item the following information…

  9. Exploring Commitment to Youth Sports Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickabaugh, Tim

    2009-01-01

    With over 38 million U.S. youth (54% of children between ages 6 to 17) participating in organized sports each year, there is an ever increasing demand for entry-level youth sport leaders. To meet this leadership demand in organized youth sports, over 2.5 million adults volunteer to coach, yet less than 10% of these individuals have any formal…

  10. Phytogeography of African Commelinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Faden

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Africa (including Madagascar has nearly twice as many species of Commelinaceae as any other continent (approximately 270 species, or about 40% of the total in the family. Of the 17 genera which are native, seven (Anthericopsis, Coleotrype, Palisota, Polyspatha, Pseudoparis, Stanfieldiella and  Triceratella are endemic, the highest percentage generic endemism of any continent. Within Africa gcneric diversity is slightly higher in western than in eastern tropical floras. Species richness, however, is greatest in eastern Africa, mainly due to a high diversity of species of Commelina and Aneilema. Africa shares more genera with Asia (nine than with any other continent. Only one African genus, Buforrestia, is neither endemic nor shared with Asia. Its western African/northeastern South American distribution is unique in the family. Besides Buforrestia, only five other genera of Commelinaceae (out of a total of 50 in the family, occur in both the Old and New Worlds. These genera.  Aneilema, Commelina, Floscopa, Murdannia and  Pollia are all very widespread in the Old World, occurring in Australia and Asia in addition to Africa (both continental and Madagascar. Madagascar is relatively poor in species (31. but these include the endemic Madagascan genus Pseudoparis, the sole African species of Rhopalephora, and the largest number of species of the Afro-Malagasy endemic genus Coleotrype. The high rate of generic endemism of Commelinaceae in Africa probably indicates that Africa was one of the ancient centres of diversity for the family. The high species diversity is more likely due to relatively recent radiations by genera pre-adapted to survival in non-forest habitats. The occurrence of only a small number of genera on both sides of the Atlantic suggests that the Commelinaceae have been evolving independently in the eastern and western hemispheres for a long period.

  11. Booster for African Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s investment is fueling African growth SINCE 2000,driven by the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation,China’s foreign direct investment(FDI) in Africa has been growing rapidly.In the face of the global financial crisis,which led to global FDI flows falling,China’s investment in Africa has been on a steady, upbeat rise without any interruption.In 2009,China’s direct investment in Africa reached $1.44 billion,of which nonfinancial direct investment soared by 55.4 percent from the previous year.Africa

  12. African Conservation Tillage Network Website

    OpenAIRE

    African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Maintained by the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), this website provides information on Conservation Agriculture in an African context and gathered by stakeholders (NGOs) native to the continent. Resources on projects, practices, reports, and training courses are provided.

  13. A Call to African Unity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    This month's paper, written by Professor Mammo Muchie, examines the necessity for a pan-African monetary union.  Professor Muchie argues for the "the creation of a unified African strategy and unified approach to dealing with the outside donor world by neutralising the poison of money as honey th...

  14. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their...

  15. Brief report: Contextual predictors of African American adolescents' ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and resistance to peer pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined whether contextual factors (i.e., familial cultural socialization, percentage of same-ethnicity friends in high school, and neighborhood ethnic-racial composition) predicted ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and, in turn, resistance to peer pressure to engage in problem behavior. Participants were 250 African American adolescents (M age = 15.57 years; SD = 1.22). Consistent with ecological theory, findings indicated that familial cultural socialization and percentage of same-ethnicity friends predicted greater ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging. Furthermore, consistent with notions from social identity theory, youth who reported higher ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging also reported greater resistance to peer pressure. Findings highlight the significance of the family and school context, as well as the importance of ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging, for African American youths' positive development. PMID:25748108

  16. Sexting: serious problems for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Nancy R; Mechling, Brandy

    2013-07-01

    Youth engaging in sexting (texting plus sex) includes behaviors such as sending, receiving, or forwarding of nude or partially nude images via cell phones. The true prevalence of tweens and teens engaging in sexting is unclear. This might be because of the general secrecy of the behavior, the rapid advances in technology, and the lack of a clear definition that accounts for the added developmental factors (e.g., peak sexual development, impulsivity). Additionally, there is a lack of recognition of the consequences and increased risks of sexting (e.g., shame and guilt, earlier sexual behavior, bullying, incarceration, substance abuse, depression, suicide) for youth as a vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to examine sexting behaviors among youth by exploring factors specific to today's adolescent population that may influence the prevalence and outcomes of sexting behavior. Implications for nursing practice, including the assessment, intervention, and evaluation that is needed to treat adolescents affected by sexting, are discussed. PMID:23668382

  17. Russian youth for nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear industry has a half-century of history, but its development today depends on the young scientists and specialists, who have decided to devote themselves to work in this area. Unfavorable public opinion and insufficient support from state authorities in the last years have led to the fact that the professions of nuclear specialty have become less popular. Nuclear professionals leave their field in search of more lucrative jobs. Therefore, the real problem today is how to attract the youth to the industry and transfer the industry's years of accrued experience to the youth. (orig.)

  18. Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eivind Grip, Fjær,; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Every year, millions of young people travel away from home to party for days or weeks on end in permissive environments, such as music festivals, dance parties, and nightlife resorts. The studies that have been conducted on these extended youth parties have focused primarily on specific risk......-taking behaviors, such as drug use and violence. Here, we scrutinize the research on extended youth parties to identify general changes that young people undergo at these events. We call these celebrations departies, because they center on the organization and facilitation of momentary departures from the...

  19. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  20. Psychometric properties of the child PTSD checklist in a community sample of South African children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Boyes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The current study assessed the basic psychometric properties of the Child PTSD Checklist and examined the structure of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in a large sample of South African youth. METHODOLOGY: The checklist was completed by 1025 (540 male; 485 female South African youth (aged between 10 and 19 years. The factor structure of the scale was assessed with a combination of confirmatory and exploratory techniques. Internal consistencies for the full scale and all subscales were evaluated with Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. Validity was assessed by comparing PTSD scores obtained by children who had and had not experienced a traumatic event, and by examining associations between total PTSD scores and known correlates of PTSD. RESULTS: Scores on the Child PTSD Checklist clearly discriminated between youth who had experienced a traumatic event and those who had not. Internal consistencies for the full scale (and all subscales were acceptable to good and hypothesized correlations between PTSD, depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and age were observed. Two of the reported fit statistics for the tripartite DSM-IV-TR model of PTSD did not meet traditional criteria and further exploratory analyses revealed a four-factor structure (broadly consistent with Simms and colleagues' Dysphoria Model of PTSD symptoms which provided a better fit to the observed data. CONCLUSION: Given the continued use of the Child PTSD Checklist in South Africa, findings offer an important first step in establishing the reliability and validity of the checklist for use with South African youth. However, further evaluation of the checklist in South African samples is clearly required before conclusions regarding its use as diagnostic tool in this context can be made.

  1. Risk and Protective Factors for Sexual and Dating Violence Victimization: A Longitudinal, Prospective Study of Latino and African American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    East, Patricia L.; Hokoda, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Teen dating violence and sexual victimization are serious public health concerns. Although research has highlighted the correlates and consequences of such abuse, little is known about early antecedents. The current study sought to identify the risk and protective factors evident in early adolescence that are associated with sexual and dating violence victimization in late adolescence. The sample involved 236 (52% female) low-income Latino (69%) and African American (31%) youth, their older s...

  2. Racial Discrimination and Racial Socialization as Predictors of African American Adolescents’ Racial Identity Development using Latent Transition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sellers, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined perceptions of racial discrimination and racial socialization on racial identity development among 566 African American adolescents over three years. Latent class analyses were used to estimate identity statuses (Diffuse, Foreclosed, Moratorium and Achieved). The probabilities of transitioning from one stage to another were examined with latent transition analyses to determine the likelihood of youth progressing, regressing or remaining constant. Racial socializatio...

  3. Interracial and Intraracial Contact, School-level Diversity, and Change in Racial Identity Status Among African American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Among 224 African American adolescents (mean age 14), the associations between interracial, intraracial contact and school-level diversity on changes in racial identity over a 3-year period were examined. Youths were determined to be diffused, foreclosed, moratorium or achieved; and change or stability in identity status was examined. Contact with Black students, Black friends, and White friends predicted change in identity status. Further, in racially diverse schools, more Black friends were...

  4. Education and Youth Unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    David Lam; Murray Leibbrandt; Cecil Mlatsheni

    2008-01-01

    The problem of high youth unemployment is a global phenomenon. According to an International Labour Office study in 2004, youth (15-24) make up nearly half (47%) of the world's unemployed, 88 million out of 186 million, even though youth are only 25% of the world's working age population. Of the world's 550 million working poor who cannot lift themselves above US $1 per day poverty measure, 150 million are youth. The ILO estimated in 2004 that halving global youth unemployment would increase ...

  5. Culturally Grounded Prevention for Minority Youth Populations: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauricella, Michela; Valdez, Jessica K; Okamoto, Scott K; Helm, Susana; Zaremba, Colleen

    2016-02-01

    Contemporary prevention science has focused on the application of cultural adaptations of evidence-based prevention programs for minority youth populations. Far less is known about culturally grounded methods that are intended to organically develop prevention programs within specific populations and communities. This article systematically reviews recent literature on culturally grounded interventions used to prevent health disparities in ethnic minority youth populations. In this review, we assessed 31 peer-reviewed articles published in 2003 or later that fit inclusionary criteria pertaining to the development and evaluation of culturally grounded prevention programs. The evaluated studies indicated different approaches toward cultural grounding, as well as specific populations, geographic regions, and health issues that have been targeted. Specifically, the findings indicated that most of the studies focused on the development and evaluation of culturally grounded HIV/STI and substance abuse prevention programs for Mexican-American, African American, and American Indian/Alaska Native youth residing in the South or Southwestern US. These studies largely relied on community-based participatory or qualitative research methods to develop programs from the "ground up." This review has implications for the development of future culturally grounded and culturally adapted prevention programs targeting underserved minority youth populations and geographic regions. Specifically, it identifies populations and regions where culturally grounded prevention efforts are underdeveloped or non-existent, providing some scientific direction for the future development of these types of programs. PMID:26733384

  6. Court stories in selected African short narratives

    OpenAIRE

    E. Yewah

    1994-01-01

    This article attempts to cross-examine African Literature and African costumary, Islamic and inherited colonial laws. It opens a new topic in the study of African literature by showing how legal discourses are inscribed in certain African narratives and how these discourses link the narratives to the overall context of their production.

  7. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  8. Assimilation Differences among Africans in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

    1997-01-01

    Census data (1990) indicate that male African immigrants earn more than their Caribbean-born counterparts or native-born African Americans, but controlling for relevant earnings-related endowments erases the African advantage and elevates Caribbean earnings above those of the other groups. Also, African (but not Caribbean) university degree…

  9. A profile of the belief in Jesus and salvation among the Afrikaans speaking Christian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik J.C. Pieterse

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the results of a large-scale empirical-theolo-gical research project on “Religion and Human Rights among South African Youth.” Using the extensive database of this project, the article focuses on the results on the images of Jesus and the belief in salvation of Grade 11 learners. The results present a profile of the pluralistic and diverse scale of nuances in the belief structures of Christian teenagers. The results of the English-speaking private school learners are placed alongside the results of the Afrikaans speaking public school learners in order to obtain a more prolific picture of the belief of the Afrikaans speaking youth. The effect their belief in salvation has on their views regarding human rights is also examined. The results challenge the preacher to think dialectically and hermeneutically in a new age and context.

  10. Socioeconomic status, parenting, and externalizing problems in African American single-mother homes: A person-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Margaret T; Jones, Deborah J; Youngstrom, Eric A

    2015-06-01

    African American youth, particularly those from single-mother homes, are overrepresented in statistics on externalizing problems. The family is a central context in which to understand externalizing problems; however, reliance on variable-oriented approaches to the study of parenting, which originate from work with intact, middle-income, European American families, may obscure important information regarding variability in parenting styles among African American single mothers, and in turn, variability in youth outcomes as well. The current study demonstrated that within African American single-mother families: (a) a person-, rather than variable-, oriented approach to measuring parenting style may further elucidate variability; (b) socioeconomic status may provide 1 context within which to understanding variability in parenting style; and (c) 1 marker of socioeconomic status, income, and parenting style may each explain variability in youth externalizing problems; however, the interaction between income and parenting style was not significant. Findings have potential implications for better understanding the specific contexts in which externalizing problems may be most likely to occur within this at-risk and underserved group. PMID:26053349

  11. Father Knows Best: Paternal Presence and Sexual Debut in African-American Adolescents Living in Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Cheri

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents found within single-parent families without a residential father have reported higher levels of sexual debut and higher levels of reported pregnancy. Using data from the Mobile Youth Survey, the purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the presence of a father figure on the sexual debut of African-American adolescents living in poverty and to determine if gender moderates the relationship between the presence of a father figure and sexual debut. Additionally, this study will examine the family processes in which the presence of a father figure can affect the sexual debut of African-American adolescents who live within economically and socially disadvantaged communities. The results revealed that African-American adolescents reporting a father figure had lower rates of sexual debut than those youth reporting no father figure. Gender was not found to be a significant moderator in the relationship between father figure presence and sexual debut. However, existing curfews and family rules did account for some of the effects of presence of a father figure and sexual debut. The results suggest that when adolescents have a father figure in their lives, it may reduce the possibility of early sexual debut. PMID:25582779

  12. Nihilism: Belief Crisis of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John J.

    1979-01-01

    The author identifies three distinct variations of youthful nihilism. Transitory nihilism refers to a temporary adolescent condition brought about by intellectual and moral growth. Reflective nihilism refers to the attempt to make nihilism a legitimate philosophy. Psychogenic nihilism refers to a condition of psychic instability brought about by…

  13. Youths' understandings of cigarette advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Dan; Brucks, Merrie; Wallendorf, Melanie; Boland, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses two questions: (1) when youths are exposed to advertisements for cigarettes, do they primarily see advertisements for brands or products, and (2) is there a relationship between youths' understandings of cigarette advertisements and their susceptibility to smoking? A sample of 271 participants ranging in age from 7 to 12 viewed a series of print advertisements that included cigarette and non-tobacco-related ads. While viewing each ad, participants were asked to indicate what they thought the advertisement was trying to sell. Responses were coded into one of three categories reflecting important differences in participants' comprehension of each advertisement - no understanding, product category understanding, or brand understanding. Results show that youths typically understand the type of product an advertisement is promoting; however, the levels of brand understanding observed for cigarette advertisements were low in an absolute sense, and significantly lower than brand understanding of non-tobacco-related advertisements. Results also show that understanding cigarette ads as promoting specific brands of cigarettes is positively related to susceptibility to smoking. Taken together, these findings provide a glimpse of the psychological mechanisms that may underlie the well established link between exposure to cigarette advertising and youth smoking. PMID:18812253

  14. Ethnic Identity among Guatemalan Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baessa, Yetilu; Falbo, Toni; Fernandez, Francisco Javier

    Ethnic identity was studied among Guatemalan youth to determine whether the intensity of ethnic identity is associated with psychological adjustment, as measured by self-esteem and attitudes towards people outside their ethnic group. One hundred and thirty-seven students (65 males, 72 females) in grades 7 through 12 and ranged in age from 12 to 17…

  15. Youth Suicide: An Intervention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests school and university intervention strategies for preventing suicides among youths, proposed following a series of teenage suicides in Minnesota: closer liaison and backup for the school counselor, peer counseling services, in-school support groups, faculty in-service on suicide, curricular introduction to coping skills and identification…

  16. Bisexuality and the Youth Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gene F.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses bisexual modes of behavior in light of current attitudes within the youth culture and with the realization that on the basis of abailable research, generalization is difficult. Changing sex role values are discussed and some causative factors are placed in the context of current social trends. (Author/BW)

  17. Youth Unemployment and National Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Franklin A.

    This 1983 speech by the president of the Ford Foundation addresses the problem of youth unemployment and examines the case for adoption of a system of "National Service." The widening effects of structural unemployment are cited; and economic, demographic, and technological reasons for this phenomenon are outlined. National Service is described as…

  18. Youth Suicide: A Psychosocial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendin, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    Draws on studies in different cultures and subcultures and in different age groups to develop a psychosocial perspective for viewing youthful suicide. Uses disciplines ranging from demography to psychodynamics to discuss relationship of violence to suicide; role of families in producing youngsters who become preoccupied with death and suicide; and…

  19. Suicidal Behavior among Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino, Glorisa; Roberts, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the scientific literature related to suicidal behavior among Latino youth. Discusses the conceptualizations of culture, and how culture may influence behavior and psychopathology, in particular, suicidal behavior. Reviews the literature that discusses rates of suicidal behavior, risk, and protective factors associated with this behavior…

  20. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  1. Youth Socialization Via National Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberly, Donald J.

    Both economic and sociological analyses of the "youth problem" tend to segregate young people into two classes: those who will make it through the system as it exists, and those who will need help to make it. The resulting programs for those who need help often have the effect of further stigmatizing the participants. By contrast, a program which…

  2. HIV Testing among Detained Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Yarber, William L.; Staples-Horne, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Published reports have not investigated the issue of voluntary HIV testing among detained youth, a population disproportionately infected with HIV compared to other adolescent groups. Data were collected from 467 sexually active detained adolescents in Georgia on demographic, environmental, and drug and sexual history variables, to explore…

  3. Equating accelerometer estimates among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazendale, Keith; Beets, Michael W; Bornstein, Daniel B;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Different accelerometer cutpoints used by different researchers often yields vastly different estimates of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). This is recognized as cutpoint non-equivalence (CNE), which reduces the ability to accurately compare youth MVPA across...

  4. Youth Unemployment in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Parra-Torrado, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Global economic shocks coupled with natural disasters left most Caribbean countries with zero to negative growth and high unemployment rates. The Caribbean region was strongly affected by the last great financial crisis, which resulted in a regional average of zero economic growth in 2010. The purpose of this note is to evaluate the nature of youth unemployment in order to propose policy o...

  5. Concussions in Collision Youth Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Linzmeier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from the University of Pittsburg, University of Arkansas, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, and Boston Children’s Hospital/Harvard Medical College researched the incidence of concussions in youth hockey in relation to age and activity setting.

  6. Puerto Rican Return Migrant Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, Angela; Carrasquillo, Ceferino

    Among Puerto Ricans who have migrated to the United States, a significant number have returned to Puerto Rico, while others shuttle between Puerto Rico and the United States. These groups of people are identified as return migrants. Studies suggest that return migrant youth in Puerto Rico have had to make environmental and cultural adjustments…

  7. Decoding Hip-Hop's Cultural Impact: Scholars Are Poised to Take a Close Look at the Influence of Hip-Hop on the Social Identity, Values of Today's Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    As a cultural movement, hip-hop manages to get billed as both a positive and negative influence on young people, especially on Black and Latino youth. On one hand, there are African American activists, artists and entrepreneurs, such as Russell Simmons, who seek to build a progressive political movement among young hip-hop fans and who have had…

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Youth Version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) in the Assessment of Risk-Taking Behavior among Inner-City Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejuez, C. W.; Aklin, Will; Daughters, Stacey; Zvolensky, Michael; Kahler, Christopher; Gwadz, Marya

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y) for assessing adolescent risk behaviors among a sample of 98 inner-city African American adolescents (M age = 14.8, SD = 1.5). In addition to a relation with sensation seeking, BART-Y responding evidenced a significant relation with a…

  9. How student teachers understand African philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Matsephe M. Letseka; Elza Venter

    2012-01-01

    The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980) Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983) African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990) Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philoso...

  10. A brief introduction on enterprise youth culture construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the development tendency of modern enterprise in combination with practical experience, the paper discusses the importance of youth culture construction in modern enterprise and how to bring the Communist Youth League into full play i the enterprise youth culture construction and presents the initial in the enterprise youth culture construction by the Communist Youth League of Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation. (author)

  11. Dyadic Taxonomy of Delinquent Youth: Exploring Risks and Outcomes Associated With Maternal-Youth Reporting Discrepancies of Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joan A.; Sullivan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Using latent class analysis (LCA), this study identified a dyadic taxonomy of delinquent youth categorized by varying types of maternal-youth reporting discrepancies (i.e., youth maternal) within a sample of 764 14-year-old high-risk youth. Four distinctive subgroups of youth were identified, two of which reported more…

  12. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Zent, Egleé L

    2013-01-01

    Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback). ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  13. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes Heart Disease Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected ...

  14. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  15. Twin Sessions Through African Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Yanshuo

    2012-01-01

    Every year journalists from around China and the world flock to Beijing in March to cover the sessions of the National People's Congress (NPC) and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), known as the lianghui, or twin sessions. With the deepening of Sino-African relations in the past decades, an increasing number of African journalists are involved in reporting China's lianghui to their audiences in Africa.

  16. The Good African Society Index

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdi Botha

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a Good Society Index for 45 African countries, termed the Good African Society Index (GASI). The GASI consists of nine main indexes: (i) economic sustainability, (ii) democracy and freedom, (iii) child well-being, (iv) environment and infrastructure, (v) safety and security, (vi) health and health systems, (vii) integrity and justice, (viii) education, and (xi) social sustainability and social cohesion. Each component is split into four sub-components for a total of 36 i...

  17. Training in African aquaculture development

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    The article focuses on the types of training needed in African aquaculture development. The author suggested that rather than needing less training, extension agents and others who operate in the idiosyncratic world of the poor African farmer, need a far deeper understanding of fish culture (particularly the basics of pond dynamics and ecology) than do those who can take advantage of industrialized-country infrastructure.

  18. Individual and Ecological Assets and Thriving among African American Adolescent Male Gang and Community-Based Organization Members: A Report From Wave 3 of the "Overcoming the Odds" Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Carl S.; Smith, Pamela R.; Taylor, Virgil A.; von Eye, Alexander; Lerner, Richard M.; Balsano, Aida Bilalbegovic; Anderson, Pamela M.; Banik, Rumeli; Almerigi, Jason B.

    2005-01-01

    The third wave of the Overcoming the Odds longitudinal study involves data about individual and ecological developmental assets and thriving among African American male adolescents in inner-city Detroit gangs (N = 43) or in youth development, community-based organizations (CBO; N = 50). Both groups had comparable levels of either low or high…

  19. An Online Evaluation of a Website Featuring a Brief Electronic Media E-Health Educational Intervention to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Physical Activity among African American Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    African-American youth experience disproportionate rates of childhood obesity compared to their White counterparts. Culturally tailored electronic media solutions hold the potential to overcome health literacy and health communication barriers. This study aimed to identify the impact of exposure to a new website portal…

  20. Disarming Youth Combatants: Mitigating Youth Radicalization and Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Özerdem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the complex of motivating variables that define the push and pull factors behind recruitment and participation in civil conflict, "radicalization"—or "violent extremism"—is not conceived as a very strong motive, as is the case with studies on terrorism. As part of disarming youth combatants,the linkages between reintegration outcomes and possible rerecruitment into radical and extremist violence must be better understood to mitigate such risks. In our analysis, the policies guiding reintegration of child soldiers and youth should be better attuned to the relationship between recruitment motivations and reintegration outcomes, and must be approached from a political lens rather than a purely technical one. The risk of radicalization and involvement in violent extremism is ultimately a structural challenge, which needs to address root causes of recruitment rather than trying to find a solution through a band-aid approach of stopgap reintegration assistance.

  1. Longitudinal stability and predictability of sexual perceptions, intentions, and behaviors among early adolescent African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, B F; Li, X; Black, M M; Ricardo, I; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S; Kaljee, L

    1996-01-01

    A longitudinal study conducted among low-income African-American early adolescents identified the salience of intentions and perceptions regarding sexual intercourse to subsequent behavior. The 119 boys and girls 9-15 years of age were recruited from public housing project recreation centers in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1993. Each youth completed the Youth Health Risk Behavioral Inventory; the instrument was re-administered 6 months later. At baseline, 71 respondents (60%) were virgins; 6 (9%) became sexually active during the 6-month study period. 27 (56%) of the 48 subjects who were sexually experienced at baseline engaged in intercourse during the ensuing 6 months. Overall, the predictiveness of intention to have sex in the next 6 months and actual behavior was very strong, especially among younger youth; nearly half of young people who thought it likely they would have sex did so, while only one-fifth of those who were uncertain and one-seventh of those who considered it unlikely had sex. Condom intention, on the other hand, was not predictive of subsequent use. Youth who engaged in sexual intercourse during the study period had more perceived peer support and internal rewards for sexual activity and perceived the sequelae of intercourse as less severe than their abstinent counterparts. Overall, these findings suggest that social cognitive behavioral models that incorporate intentions and perceptions should form the theoretical basis for interventions aimed at young adolescents. PMID:8750423

  2. International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000: Youth, Future, Nuclear. Transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication has been set up as abstracts of the meeting dealing with different nuclear problems. In the work of the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000 participated more than 200 young scientific works from 28 countries. The address discusses the following issues: Nuclear education and transfer of know-how; Nuclear technology; Political aspects; Environment and safety; Communication and public perception; Economics; Nuclear programs and technical cooperation; Fuel Cycle Challenges

  3. Healthy youth development: the role of youth assets

    OpenAIRE

    MacKay, Laura Jean

    2007-01-01

    Much of the literature investigating adolescent health focuses on risk and problem behaviours and factors related to risk reduction. Recently, however, there has been increasing interest in identifying factors related to the positive aspects of adolescent health and development as opposed to the absence of risk. The current research extends this recent work by examining the relationship between youth assets and positive indicators of health and well-being among 30,588 adolescents in British C...

  4. Christ alone ... Redeeming Youth Ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Strong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article a fresh approach is proposed pertaining the contents and focus of the biblical message being taught in Youth Ministry: a Christocentric message in effective Youth Ministry is proposed as foundation to build on considering the Sola Scriptura approach. This is done to address one of the contributing factors to the current crisis in Youth Ministry, namely the use of behavioural modification techniques to transform the youth instead of spiritual transformation. The crisis in Youth Ministry can be described as not being effective in leading young people into mature Christian adulthood. Only through believing the Christocentric message of grace and allowing the sanctification of Holy Spirit in one’s life genuine spiritual transformation will take place. This article took a stance against behavioural modification techniques or preaching the Law, which may produce outward moralisation without the inward genuine transformation by Holy Spirit. Instead, it proposed four facets of a Christocentric message to be focused on in effective Youth Ministry: firstly, the grace of God as gift, secondly, the Christian’s status in Christ, thirdly, the message of the Kingdom of God, and lastly, the importance of cultivating a personal relationship with God.Alleenlik Christus ... Die herstel van Jeugbediening. In hierdie artikel word ’n vars benadering aangaande die inhoud en fokus van die Bybelse boodskap wat in Jeugbediening oorgedra word, voorgestel. ’n Christosentriese boodskap, gebou op ’n Sola Scriptura-benadering, moet as fondament in effektiewe Jeugbediening dien. Dit word gedoen om die aandag op een van die bydraende faktore tot die huidige krisis in Jeugbediening te vestig, naamlik dat gedragsveranderingstegnieke gebruik word om te poog om geestelike groei by die jeug te bevorder. Só word jongmense egter nie tot geestelike volwassenheid gelei nie. Geestelike transformasie kan slegs plaasvind deur geloof in die Christosentriese

  5. Bidi and Hookah Use Among Canadian Youth: Findings From the 2010 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Czoli, Christine D; Leatherdale, Scott T; Rynard, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although cigarette use among Canadian youth has decreased significantly in recent years, alternative forms of tobacco use are becoming increasingly popular. Surveillance of youth tobacco use can help inform prevention programs by monitoring trends in risk behaviors. We examined the prevalence of bidi and hookah use and factors associated with their use among Canadian youth by using data from the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Methods We analyzed YSS data from 28,416 studen...

  6. Prize Linked Accounts for Youth (PLAY): a new approach to youth financial education and saving

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Choi

    2011-01-01

    Mission SF Community Financial Center, a nonprofit affiliate of the Mission SF Federal Credit Union in San Francisco, CA, has developed an innovative approach to teaching youth financial education and encouraging youth to save by awarding a prize linked to their savings behavior. This article looks at the experiences of youth in the first year of the pilot program, and summarizes the pilot’s successes and challenges in providing financial education to youth and encouraging them to reach their...

  7. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization. PMID:25300508

  8. Youth and Transitional Justice in Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFFAT YASMIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the age of youth. In India youth and their aspirations have engaged the attention of policy makers as their role is increasing in the overall nation- building process. In Jammu and Kashmir State, for known reasons, youth related matters have assumed central importance. It is an established fact that militancy in Kashmir was led and fed by youth. The role of youth in the socio-economic development and overall nation -building is well recognized. Violence has seriously dented the resilient Kashmir identity. The social institutions have collapsed and society has become harsh, punitive, withdrawn, fearful and distrustful as well. There is need for a new social contract to reintegrate youth in the mainstream of social, economic and political life. The political parties and civil society institutions have a crucial role to play in the integration process.

  9. Youth Conformity Regarding Institutions and Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Ivantchev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on conformity was carried out. The participants were 95 youths. The scale “Conformity – Autonomy” from I. Karagiozov’s questionnaire for locus of control (1998 was also used. The results indicated the prevalence of youth conformity regarding institutions and media. The different types of conformity were related to each other. The subjects’ gender and the experimentators’ gender mediated the connections between the both types of conformity. The female youths conformed more with institutions than the male youths, but there were not any significant gender differences in their conform behavior regarding media (magazines. More male youths conformed for the magazines when the experimentator was a woman. More female youths conformed for the magazines when the experimentator was a man.

  10. Investing in Our Nation's Youth. National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign: Phase II (Final Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This publication presents the findings from an evaluation of Phase II of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. The number one goal of the campaign was to educate youth to reject illegal drugs. This report evaluates Phase II and focuses on the effect of paid television advertising on awareness of anti-drug messages among youth, teens, and…

  11. Youth Suicide: A School Approach for the Prevention of Youth Suicide in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Josephine N.

    This manual was written to help schools address the problem of youth suicide. The introduction presents a teenager's and a parent's perspective of youth suicide, discusses the problem of youth suicide, and develops a hypothesis of why the problem exists. Section 1 describes the contributing factors involved with adolescent suicide and provides…

  12. Program Evaluations: CETA Youth Programs in Small Cities. Youth Knowledge Development Report 3.18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National League of Cities, Washington, DC.

    This report makes recommendations to enhance the delivery of Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) services to small-city youth. It draws on the data base created by National League of Cities Youth Employment activities which provided a profile of the small city in CETA youth program operations, identified kinds of problems that affect…

  13. Anthropometric Characteristics of Columbia, South Carolina, Youth Baseball Players and Dixie Youth World Series Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Karen E.; Spurgeon, John H.; Nevett, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare measures of body size in two samples of youth baseball players with normative data from the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts. One sample of youth baseball players participated in a local little league. The second sample of youth baseball players were members of eight…

  14. Youth Court: A Community Solution for Embracing At-Risk Youth. A National Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Sarah S.; Jurich, Sonia

    2005-01-01

    Youth court, also called teen court, peer jury, or student court, is an alternative to the traditional juvenile justice system and school disciplinary proceedings that empower youth and communities to take an active role in addressing the early stages of youth delinquency. The program provides communities with an opportunity to ensure immediate…

  15. Negotiating Ethical Challenges in Youth Research

    OpenAIRE

    Riele, KT; Brooks, R.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiating Ethical Challenges in Youth Research brings together contributors from across the world to explore real-life ethical dilemmas faced by researchers working with young people in a range of social science disciplines. Unlike literature that tends to discuss youth research at an abstracted and exalted level, this volume aims to make the basic principles and guidelines of youth research more ‘real.’ By openly discussing actual challenges that researchers have experienced in the course ...

  16. Literacy Profile of Ontario’s Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Kapsalis, Constantine

    2000-01-01

    This study develops a literacy profile of Ontario's youth (ages 17 to 25) using data from the International Adult Literacy Survey. The analysis concentrates on Canadian-born youth only. Because of sample limitations, it was not possible to explore the literacy skills of foreign-born youth. IALS classifies respondents into 5 levels of literacy, across 3 literacy domains: document, prose, and quantitative literacy. Most researchers consider level 3 as the minimum necessary literacy level. Indiv...

  17. Family Financial Investment in Organized Youth Sport

    OpenAIRE

    King, Michael; Rothlisberger, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 90% of American youth participate in organized youth sport during childhood and/or adolescence. Parents are important contributors, as they typically encourage/ initiate children’s sport involvement and provide instrumental and emotional support for children over their careers. Although parent involvement is instrumental in youth sport, media and anecdotal reports often characterize sport parents as a necessary evil. This has led to a cultural debate on the appropriateness of parent in...

  18. Just deserts? Developing practice in youth justice

    OpenAIRE

    Kubiak, Chris; Hester, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the issues involved in developing a programme for youth justice practitioners. Contemporary youth justice practice occurs in an increasingly managerialist and punitive context raising questions about how best to develop effective practitioners. It is argued that youth justice practice involves a recurring challenge of meeting situations of high complexity that must be dealt with on a case-by-case basis, guided by a clear understanding of how offending behaviour is consti...

  19. Arab satellite broadcasting, identity and arab youth

    OpenAIRE

    Karam, I.N.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis challenges a major theme found in Arab public discourse on youth, that the latter's consumption of television is passive in nature. Much discussion on Arab youth presupposes that the consequences of television for culture and identity are straight forward; that young people are merely passively absorbing materials that are offered. Contesting comments in Arab discourse on youth that to date have relied on unsystematic observation, this study adopts qualitative and quantitative res...

  20. Anthropometric type of students of youth age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanishevskaya T.I.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic anatomic morphological features of structure of body of healthy youths-students are considered. The inspected contingent was made by 90 youths-volunteers. Age of students - from 17 to 21 years old. In an ethnic aspect most inspected Ukrainians which constantly live in the south-east regions of Ukraine. Among students it was selected three basic somatotype: asthenic, normosthenic, hypersthenic. Morphofunctional the signs of organism of youths were characterized continuous individual changeability and discreteness.

  1. YouthCaN 2001 / Sirje Janikson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Janikson, Sirje

    2001-01-01

    Aprillis 2001 toimus keskkonnateemaline õpilaskonverents YouthCaN 2001 Ameerika Loodusajaloo Muuseumis New Yorkìs. 35 seminarist ühe viis läbi Tartu Noorte Loodusmaja geoloogia ja keskkonnaringi esindus, tutvustati loodusmaja keskkonnaprojekte ja räägiti keskkonnaalaste veebilehtede koostamise kogemustest. YouthCaN (Youth Communicating and Networking) on rahvusvaheline noorte organisatsioon, mis vahendab kogemusi ja uusi ideid elukeskkonnast huvitatud noorte hulgas

  2. Youth consultation and health centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, a youth consultation and health center has been established by cooperation of Turkish Ministry of Health, UNFPA and UNİCEF. Two doctors, 2 psychologists and 1 dietician is serving in our center. In this center, we serve for diagnosis and treatment of adolescents and when needed reference to other institutions. Consultation on physical-sexual development, psycho-social development, personal hygiene, nutrition, physical exercise, smoking and alcohol use, secure behaviors, secure sexual life and psychological problems is also given. Adolescents generally apply to the center for reasons like conflict with parents, low academic performance, aggression, being overweight, computer addiction, conflict with siblings and being short. As a result of our experience, we think that in order to develop adolescent health services, all health centers should be organized as “youth friendly”. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 135-7

  3. The New African Civil-Military Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the lead author accorded the responsibility of organizing a Session on ACMR. From amongst some of the exciting Abstracts presented, authors submitted these as full chapters for this book which captures International African Studies Perspectives, managed by the African Public Policy & Research...... on the African continent to embark upon the New African Civil Military Relations (ACMR). In the last decade and half, the implosion of African states exposed to forces of democratization has escalated, manifest in Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Madagascar, Somalia, South Sudan, Central African Republic and...

  4. Sleep Disturbance and Risk Behaviors among Inner-City African-American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Umlauf, Mary Grace; Bolland, John M.; Lian, Brad E.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents tend to experience more problems with sleep loss as a natural consequence of puberty, whereas teens from impoverished urban areas are likely to witness neighborhood violence and/or engage in risk behaviors that may affect sleep. Data from the Mobile Youth Survey, a longitudinal study of impoverished inner-city African-American adolescents (1998–2005; N = 20,716; age range = 9.75–19.25 years), were used to compare paired years of annual surveys elicited by questions about how sleep...

  5. Youth Policy:Future prospects?

    OpenAIRE

    Wenham, Aniela Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Editorial to Special edition: The Next Five Years: Prospects for Young People. OVER THE LAST thirty years scholars have drawn attention to how young people’s lives have become more complicated, fragmented and difficult to navigate (Furlong and Cartmel, 1997). While youth transitions are now recognised as non-linear and more complex, policy has predominantly focused upon transitions that are deemed problematic as a result of their association with ‘poor’ welfare outcomes (teenage pregnancy, NE...

  6. INDONESIAN YOUTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of children and young adults exposed to tobacco usage in the world is alarming. Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, it reduce quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking causes illnesses, big economic lost and premature death. Tobacco use was the leading cause of preventable death. Smokers began at early age; they became the target of massive tobacco campaigns. Youth were vulnerable to tobacco advertising, once they began to smoke, it was difficult to quit. The Objectives of this paper is to identify tobacco usage among the Indonesian youth, to explore health problems, regulations related to tobacco consumption and efforts to implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: Method used is by reviewing studies and campaign information provided by researchers and practitioners in tobacco control programs. Result: Data shows that among people aged 10 to 24 years in Indonesia the current smokers were 23.7% daily smokers, 5.5% occasional smokers while the average cigarettes consumed daily were 12.2. Among lndonesian aged 13-15 years, there were 41% boys and 3.5% girls that were current cigarette smoking and 10.3% boys and 3,1% girls that had current tobacco other than cigarette. It is important that this preventable epidemic becomes a top public health issue in all countries. A complete ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship is a powerful tool to protect the world's youth and Indonesia should ratify tobacco ban. Key words: Indonesia, tobacco, youth, advertisement

  7. Disarmament: the African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disarmament is now generally accepted as the process of reduction in the size of, and expenditures on, armed forces, the destruction or dismantling of weapons, whether deployed or stockpiled, the progressive elimination of the capacity to produce new weapons and the release and integration into civilian life of military personnel. To realize this objective, the nations of the world have been advocating such measures as the establishment of nuclear weapon-free zones, non-proliferation, limitation of the arms trade, reduction of military budgets, and confidence-building measures. To ensure general and complete elimination of arms, there has been widespread recognition of the need to link the disarmament process with other political as well as socio-economic problems of the world such as the need for security, good relations between states and development of a system of peaceful settlement of disputes. Other measures that have been considered to be relevant in boosting the disarmament process include the role of the general public in putting pressure on their respective governments with a view to accelerating and realizing disarmament objectives. Africans have presented to the world a strong case for global disarmament

  8. East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria. The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Promotive and Corrosive Factors in African American Students' Math Beliefs and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A; Marchand, Aixa D; McKellar, Sarah E; Malanchuk, Oksana

    2016-06-01

    Framed by expectancy-value theory (which posits that beliefs about and the subjective valuation of a domain predict achievement and decision-making in that domain), this study examined the relationships among teacher differential treatment and relevant math instruction on African American students' self-concept of math ability, math task value, and math achievement. These questions were examined by applying structural equation modeling to 618 African American youth (45.6 % female) followed from 7th to 11th grade in the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. While controlling for gender and prior math achievement, relevant math instruction promoted and teacher differential treatment corroded students' math beliefs and achievement over time. Further, teacher discrimination undermined students' perceptions of their teachers, a mediating process under-examined in previous inquiry. These findings suggest policy and practice levers to narrow opportunity gaps, as well as foster math achievement and science, technology, engineering and math success. PMID:26885828

  10. Two-Year Trajectory of Stimulant Use in 18–21 Year Old Rural African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Booth, Brenda M.; Han, Xiaotong

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about stimulant use trajectories of rural African American youth. The purpose of the present study is to explore substance use over 24 months in 98 African Americans, ages 18–21, who used cocaine or methamphetamine 30 days prior to baseline. The majority was male, unemployed, and had not graduated from high school. At baseline, almost half of the participants met criteria for abuse/dependence of cocaine – the primary stimulant used – which decreased to 25% by the final follow-up. Similar decreases were noted in rates of alcohol and marijuana abuse/dependence, although monthly use remained high. Participants reported minimal utilization of mental health or substance abuse services, but demonstrated significant improvements on physical and mental health measures. In summary, cocaine use declined, but other substances were used at high rates, suggesting a significant need for intervention services that address multi-substance use in rural areas. PMID:20391266

  11. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-10-01

    Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States. PMID:25133408

  12. Networks advocate for youth services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the role of networks in promoting reproductive health for youth in Ghana. The Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar Network and the New Juaben Network are situated in the eastern region of Ghana. These two programs advocate for client-centered programs and for policy change at every level. Since the 1994 ICPD Plan of Action, these networks have worked to increase and improve health services for youth and to improve cooperation between government and nongovernmental groups. These networks provide family planning, reproductive health (RH), and, most importantly, promotion of adolescent health. CEDPA realized that many organizations had the capacity to extend services to youth and to fulfill other mandates of the 1994 ICPD Program of Action. But, these organizations lacked advocacy and networking skills for effectively challenging community policies and programs. CEDPA, in collaboration with others, initiated the POLICY project in 1996 in Ghana. The aim was to create a supportive policy context for family planning and RH programs by formation of a participatory policy process. The POLICY project in Ghana helped networks develop advocacy plans targeted to local decision-makers. The aim was to increase funding for adolescent RH in district plans and budgets. The first action taken by the POLICY project was to conduct a survey, which found that 67% of adolescent females and 53% of adolescent males were sexually active. Only 10% used contraceptives. Advocacy did not increase funding but did result in a supportive network of policy-makers. There are POLICY projects in over 12 countries. PMID:12294636

  13. Association Among Subtypes of Bullying Status and Sexually-Risky Behaviors of Urban African American Adolescents in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Voisin, Dexter R; Cho, Sujung; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-10-01

    Bullying is found to be associated with various negative psychosocial outcomes. However, few studies have explored the association between bullying involvement and sexually-risky behaviors. Youth were recruited from three high schools, one youth church group, two community youth programs, and four public venues. Six hundred-and-thirty-eight urban African American adolescents (aged 12-22) in Chicago completed a self-report questionnaire. Major findings indicated that males were more likely than females to have sex with someone in exchange for drugs. Bullying perpetration, victimization, and perpetration-victimization were negatively associated with having sex with a condom. Older youth, and those identified as perpetrators and perpetrator-victims were more likely to have impregnated someone or been pregnant. Stress and coping framework should be considered. Bullying prevention should provide youth with several healthy coping strategies for reducing sexually-risky behaviors. Community-based and school-based violence prevention programs need to consider sexual risk outcomes associated with involvement in bullying. PMID:26914838

  14. Scaling Up Youth-Focused Interventions in the Multi-Country HIV/AIDS Programs and Building Capacity of Civil Society Organizations, Case from Zambia : An Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Zambia is among countries with high HIV/AIDS prevalence, 16 percent among adult population aged 15 to 49 years. Prevalence among urban population is twice that of rural dwellers, 23 percent for urban and 11 percent for rural residents. Like other African countries, youth and women are the groups highly infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. As part of the scaling up effort, the World Bank (WB...

  15. Suicide and related health risk behaviours among school learners in South Africa: results from the 2002 and 2008 national youth risk behaviour surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Shilubane, Hilda N; Ruiter, Robert AC; Van Den Borne, Bart; Sewpaul, Ronel; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S

    2013-01-01

    Background Attempted and completed suicide constitute a major public health problem among young people world-wide, including South Africa (SA). Suicide attempt and completed suicide increase during the adolescent period. One in 5 adolescents considers attempting suicide, but statistics are frequently unreliable. Methods Data for this study were derived from the 2002 and 2008 South African Youth Risk Behaviour Surveys (YRBS). The study population comprised grades 8, 9, 10 and 11 students in go...

  16. CDC grand rounds: preventing youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R; Spivak, Howard; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Savannah, Sheila B; Listenbee, Robert L; Iskander, John

    2015-02-27

    Youth violence occurs when persons aged 10-24 years, as victims, offenders, or witnesses, are involved in the intentional use of physical force or power to threaten or harm others. Youth violence typically involves young persons hurting other young persons and can take different forms. Examples include fights, bullying, threats with weapons, and gang-related violence. Different forms of youth violence can also vary in the harm that results and can include physical harm, such as injuries or death, as well as psychological harm. Youth violence is a significant public health problem with serious and lasting effects on the physical, mental, and social health of youth. In 2013, 4,481 youths aged 10-24 years (6.9 per 100,000) were homicide victims. Homicide is the third leading cause of death among persons aged 10-24 years (after unintentional injuries and suicide) and is responsible for more deaths in this age group than the next seven leading causes of death combined. Males and racial/ethnic minorities experience the greatest burden of youth violence. Rates of homicide deaths are approximately six times higher among males aged 10-24 years (11.7 per 100,000) than among females (2.0). Rates among non-Hispanic black youths (27.6 per 100,000) and Hispanic youths (6.3) are 13 and three times higher, respectively, than among non-Hispanic white youths (2.1). The number of young persons who are physically harmed by violence is more than 100 times higher than the number killed. In 2013, an estimated 547,260 youths aged 10-24 years (847 per 100,000) were treated in U.S. emergency departments for nonfatal physical assault-related injuries. PMID:25719677

  17. Developing programs for african families, by african families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halliday, Jennifer A; Green, Julie; Mellor, David;

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...... effects of physical activity and nutrition to improve health within communities while reducing intergenerational and gender role family conflicts.......Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...

  18. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Jeppesen, Søren; Hansen, Michael W.

    latter suggests that profound improvements in African business performance are indeed under way: with the private sector playing a more important role as an engine of growth, with the rise of a capable African entrepreneurial class, and with the emergence of dynamic and competitive African enterprises......In light of recent enthusiasm over the African private sector, this paper reviews the existing empirical literature on successful African enterprises and proposes an analytical framework for understanding African firm success. Overall, it is argued that we need to develop an understanding of....... The paper proceeds to review the limited research on factors shaping the performance of African enterprises. It is observed that particularly the strategic component is often overlooked as is the role of internal capabilities and resources of African enterprises. Based on this identification of voids...

  19. A Qualitative Analysis of Substance Use among Liberian Youth: Understanding Behaviors, Consequences, and Protective Factors Involving School Youth and the School Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Samuel J; Petruzzi, Liana; Lange, Brittany CL; Parnarouskis, Lindsey; Dominguez, Silvia; Harris, Benjamin; Quiterio, Nicole; Durham, Michelle P; Lekpeh, Gondah; Manobah, Burgess; Slopadoe, Siede P; Diandy, Veronique C; Payne, Arthur J; Henderson, David C; Borba, Christina PC

    2016-01-01

    Objective Substance use is a significant and common problem among school-aged youths throughout Africa. Like other countries on this continent, the West-African nation of Liberia is recovering from civil war. A well-educated population of young people is critical to the recovery efforts and long-term success of Liberia. Substance use by school-aged youths has important public health consequences that could undermine Liberia’s post-conflict recovery efforts. We wanted to better understand the culturally significant themes and subthemes related to substance use among youths attending public schools in Monrovia, Liberia. Methods A qualitative research design was used to collect data from 72 students attending public school in Monrovia, Liberia. Nine focus groups of 6–8 students from three public schools were facilitated using a semi-structured format to guide discussions on substance use. Student narratives were translated and re-occurring themes and subthemes were coded and analyzed. Results Four emergent themes described in this study were: Behaviors associated with substance use Consequences associated with individual use Consequences of substance use that affected the school milieu School-related factors that were protective from substance use. Subthemes associated with substance use included concealment of substances, intoxication and disruption of the classroom environment, expulsion from school, school drop-out, and school as protective against substance use. Conclusion Liberian school-aged youths described important themes and subthemes associated with substance use occurring within the school milieu. These data have germane public health ramifications, and could help inform larger epidemiologic study methods and public health interventions for Liberia and countries with similar profiles.

  20. African N Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  1. The transmission of African culture to children

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Tanon Lora

    2014-01-01

    African ancient traditions suffered a major historical change as a result of colonization. Several decades after decolonization and access to independence, what is the situation and place of the African culture in Africa and outside Africa? Does African culture perpetuate effectively today? What are the obstacles to the transmission of African culture to our children? What are the beliefs or elements that have influenced the transmission of our culture after the period of independence? Roughl...

  2. Translating Culture: Contemporary African American Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Kočan Šalamon

    2015-01-01

    The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are procl...

  3. Urbanism beyond Architecture : African cities as Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Vyjayanthi; De Boeck, Filip; Simone, Abdou Maliq

    2009-01-01

    About African Cities Reader(A creation of the African Centre for Cities & Chimurenga Magazine ) In many senses African cities are amongst the most generative and vibrant places on the planet. Yet, we know next to nothing about what goes on in the places. Not that there is any shortage of caricature, hyperbole or opinion about what makes African cities such quintessential spaces of dystopia and atrophy. We believe that a range of interventions that seek to engage the shape-shifting essenc...

  4. DATA ON YOUTH, 1967, A STATISTICAL DOCUMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHEIDER, GEORGE

    THE DATA IN THIS REPORT ARE STATISTICS ON YOUTH THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES AND IN NEW YORK STATE. INCLUDED ARE DATA ON POPULATION, SCHOOL STATISTICS, EMPLOYMENT, FAMILY INCOME, JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND YOUTH CRIME (INCLUDING NEW YORK CITY FIGURES), AND TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS. THE STATISTICS ARE PRESENTED IN THE TEXT AND IN TABLES AND CHARTS. (NH)

  5. Polish Youth: A Dychotomic World of Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Artur; Zelichowski, Ryszard

    Research results show a skepticism among Polish youth concerning the possibility of implementing the accepted socialist values in political practice and denote a steady erosion of socialism's image. Youth organizations are many and varied, but it appears that most join because of the opportunity to meet friends, not because of political…

  6. Our Foundation: Understanding and Promoting Youth Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Carrie

    2001-01-01

    Examines how libraries can encourage and increase youth access to information. Discusses the role of the school library media center; law, illegal information, and censorship; parental rights; information policy; and promoting youth access before a challenge occurs in the library. (AEF)

  7. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health eCard Heads Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries Sports Safety Students Play Safe Youth Sports Safety PROMOTIONAL ... Health eCard Heads Up! Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries Sports Safety Students Play Safe Youth Sports Safety ORDER ...

  8. Measuring Success of Youth Livelihood Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Hempel, Kevin; Fiala, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Programs to actively support young people's employment prospects have existed for decades in industrialized countries; however, they are relatively new in developing nations. In a broad sense, youth livelihood interventions support young people's means to earn a living, and include training, public service, youth entrepreneurship, and financial services. More narrowly, many practitioners d...

  9. What Guarantees Should Society Offer Its Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Criticising the concept of a "youth guarantee" as it was understood by the OECD in the 1990s and recently again by the European Community, the author argues that just more schooling and training will not help, let alone guarantee a future for disadvantaged, unemployed young people. Rather any policy that wants to help youth to become…

  10. Life Events, Sibling Warmth, and Youths' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Evelyn B.; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Sibling warmth has been identified as a protective factor from life events, but stressor-support match-mismatch and social domains perspectives suggest that sibling warmth may not efficiently protect youths from all types of life events. We tested whether sibling warmth moderated the association between each of family-wide, youths' personal, and…

  11. Black Youth Unemployment and the Black Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Linus A.

    This paper analyzes the results of a survey conducted to ascertain the attitudes of 400 employers, youth, and academic/community professionals in Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D.C., toward an approach to Black youth unemployment centered on the creation of jobs and training among minority businesses in selected metropolitan areas. Minority…

  12. American Youth in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1986-01-01

    Youth today remains marginal to the primary institutions of American life. They no longer have opportunities within the family to develop skills, exercise responsibilities, or learn adult roles. Youths spend long periods of the day segregated in schools; longer periods in passive entertainment. Alienation results in political apathy, mental…

  13. Civic Youth Work Primer. Peter Lang Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    VeLure Roholt, Ross; Baizerman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Apparent political apathy among youth in the United States has led to a moral panic about the future of democracy. Many researchers question the facts, while others seek to engage and mobilize young people around public issues they care about in order to master the citizen role and to bring social change. Civic youth work has its modern roots in…

  14. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  15. Evaluation of Swedish Youth Labor Market Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Nonparametric matching was used to estimate the effects of two Swedish youth employment programs: youth practice (subsidized work experience, n=1,657) and labor market training (n=606). Results indicate either zero or negative effects on earnings, employment probability, or probability of entering an education program in the short term. Youth…

  16. Aspects of Psychological Resilience among Transgender Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.; Frank, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-five transgender youth described their gender development and some of the stressful life experiences related to their gender identity and gender expression. More than two-thirds of youth reported past verbal abuse by their parents or peers related to their gender identity and nonconformity, and approximately one-fifth to one-third reported…

  17. Youth in Transition: Are They Adult Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Lester H.; Conti, Gary J.; Shaw, Brenda S.

    2013-01-01

    Since at-risk youth are in transition to adulthood, major adult learning concepts can be applied to them. The purpose of this study was to describe the learning strategies of youth in transition to adulthood in the urban life skills program of A Pocket Full of Hope®. Both qualitative and quantitative data collecting methods were used. Assessing…

  18. Strengthening Indian Country through Tribal Youth Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Sarah S.

    2009-01-01

    Grants awarded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Tribal Youth Program (TYP) support and enhance tribal efforts to prevent and control delinquency and improve the juvenile justice system for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth ages 17 and under. TYPs operate in tribal communities, supporting tribal efforts…

  19. Teaching Responsibility to Gang-Affiliated Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…

  20. A Feminist Research Agenda in Youth Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergrift, Kay

    1993-01-01

    Considers a feminist research agenda in literature for youth. Highlights include the sexist nature of literary theory; traditional studies of youth literature; feminist criticism and archetypal approaches, genre criticism, and reader response criticism; and a selected list of feminist scholarship and literary criticism applicable to youth…