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  1. Human African Trypanosomiasis Transmission, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabakana, Philemon Mansinsa; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Manzambi, Emile Zola; Ollivier, Gaelle; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Cuny, Gerard; Grébaut, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2 entomologic surveys were conducted in 2005. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and human-blood meals were found in tsetse fly midguts, which suggested active disease transmission. Vector control should be used to improve human African trypanosomiasis control efforts. PMID:17326955

  2. Spatial predictions of Rhodesian Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness prevalence in Kaberamaido and Dokolo, two newly affected districts of Uganda.

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    Nicola A Batchelor

    Full Text Available The continued northwards spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT within Uganda is raising concerns of overlap with the Gambian form of the disease. Disease convergence would result in compromised diagnosis and treatment for HAT. Spatial determinants for HAT are poorly understood across small areas. This study examines the relationships between Rhodesian HAT and several environmental, climatic and social factors in two newly affected districts, Kaberamaido and Dokolo. A one-step logistic regression analysis of HAT prevalence and a two-step logistic regression method permitted separate analysis of both HAT occurrence and HAT prevalence. Both the occurrence and prevalence of HAT were negatively correlated with distance to the closest livestock market in all models. The significance of distance to the closest livestock market strongly indicates that HAT may have been introduced to this previously unaffected area via the movement of infected, untreated livestock from endemic areas. This illustrates the importance of the animal reservoir in disease transmission, and highlights the need for trypanosomiasis control in livestock and the stringent implementation of regulations requiring the treatment of cattle prior to sale at livestock markets to prevent any further spread of Rhodesian HAT within Uganda.

  3. African Trypanosomiasis Detection using Dempster-Shafer Theory

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    Maseleno, Andino

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization reports that African Trypanosomiasis affects mostly poor populations living in remote rural areas of Africa that can be fatal if properly not treated. This paper presents Dempster-Shafer Theory for the detection of African trypanosomiasis. Sustainable elimination of African trypanosomiasis as a public-health problem is feasible and requires continuous efforts and innovative approaches. In this research, we implement Dempster-Shafer theory for detecting African trypanosomiasis and displaying the result of detection process. We describe eleven symptoms as major symptoms which include fever, red urine, skin rash, paralysis, headache, bleeding around the bite, joint the paint, swollen lymph nodes, sleep disturbances, meningitis and arthritis. Dempster-Shafer theory to quantify the degree of belief, our approach uses Dempster-Shafer theory to combine beliefs under conditions of uncertainty and ignorance, and allows quantitative measurement of the belief and plausibility in our identificat...

  4. Orchitis as an unusual manifestation of human African trypanosomiasis.

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    Ehrhardt, Stephan; Lippert, Ute; Burchard, Gerd D; Sudeck, Hinrich

    2006-01-01

    African trypanosomiasis is a re-emerging disease. We report the case of an African patient whose predominant symptom was infertility due to a granulomatous orchitis. The patient was afebrile and had not been in Africa for years. Lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly led us eventually to the diagnosis of sleeping sickness. After treatment with suramin his spermiogram returned to normal. Sleeping sickness evolves through clinically different stages and leads to death if left untreated. The disease may, however, present clinically extremely variable and may thus be difficult to diagnose. PMID:15936085

  5. African Trypanosomiasis Detection using Dempster-Shafer Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization reports that African Trypanosomiasis affects mostly poor populations living in remote rural areas of Africa that can be fatal if properly not treated. This paper presents Dempster-Shafer Theory for the detection of African trypanosomiasis. Sustainable elimination of African trypanosomiasis as a public-health problem is feasible and requires continuous efforts and innovative approaches. In this research, we implement Dempster-Shafer theory for detecting African trypan...

  6. Challenges towards the elimination of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo in southern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, Gustave; Mbida Mbida, Jean Arthur; Ebo'o Eyenga, Vincent; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Njiokou, Flobert; Grébaut, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The sleeping sickness focus of Campo lies along the Atlantic coast and extends along the Ntem River, which constitutes the Cameroonian and Equatorial Guinean border. It is a hypo-endemic focus with the disease prevalence varying from 0.3 to 0.86% during the last few decades. Investigations on animal reservoirs revealed a prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense of 0.6% in wild animals and 4.83% in domestic animals of this focus. From 2001 to 2012, about 19 931 tsetse were collected in this focus and five tsetse species including Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. tabaniformis and G. caliginea were identified. The analysis of blood meals of these flies showed that they feed on human, pig, goat, sheep, and wild animals such as antelope, duiker, wild pig, turtle and snake. The percentage of blood meals taken on these hosts varies according to sampling periods. For instance, 6.8% of blood meals from pig were reported in 2004 and 22% in 2008. This variation is subjected to considerable evolutions because the Campo HAT focus is submitted to socio-economic mutations including the reopening of a new wood company, the construction of autonomous port at "Kribi" as well as the dam at "Memve ele". These activities will bring more that 3000 inhabitants around Campo and induce the deforestation for the implementation of farmlands as well as breeding of domestic animals. Such mutations have impacts on the transmission and the epidemiology of sleeping sickness due to the modification of the fauna composition, the nutritional behavior of tsetse, the zoophilic/anthropophilic index. To achieve the elimination goal in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo, we report in this paper the current epidemiological situation of the disease, the research findings of the last decades notably on the population genetics of trypanosomes, the modifications of nutritional behavior of tsetse, the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in humans, domestic and wild animals. An overview

  7. Immunology and immunopathology of African trypanosomiasis

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    Philippe Vincendeau

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Major modifications of immune system have been observed in African trypanosomiasis. These immune reactions do not lead to protection and are also involved in immunopathology disorders. The major surface component (variable surface glycoprotein,VSG is associated with escape to immune reactions, cytokine network dysfunctions and autoantibody production. Most of our knowledge result from experimental trypanosomiasis. Innate resistance elements have been characterised. In infected mice, VSG preferentially stimulates a Th 1-cell subset. A response of gd and CD8 T cells to trypanosome antigens was observed in trypanotolerant cattle. An increase in CD5 B cells, responsible for most serum IgM and production of autoantibodies has been noted in infected cattle. Macrophages play important roles in trypanosomiasis, in synergy with antibodies (phagocytosis and by secreting various molecules (radicals, cytokines, prostaglandins,.... Trypanosomes are highly sensitive to TNF-alpha, reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. TNF-alpha is also involved in cachexia. IFN-gamma acts as a parasite growth factor. These various elements contribute to immunosuppression. Trypanosomes have learnt to use immune mechanisms to its own profit. Recent data show the importance of alternative macrophage activation, including arginase induction. L-ornithine produced by host arginase is essential to parasite growth. All these data reflect the deep insight into the immune system realised by trypanosomes and might suggest interference therapeutic approaches.Modificações importantes no sistema imune são observadas na tripanosomíase Africana. Essas reações imunológicas não protegem e estão envolvidas em distúrbios imunopatológicos. O principal componente de superfície (glicoproteína variante de superfície, VSG está associado à evasão das respostas imune, às disfunções da rede de citocinas e à produção de autoanticorpos. Muitos de nossos conhecimentos resultam

  8. Challenges in Diagnosing Human African Trypanosomiasis: Evaluation of the MSF OCG project in Dingila, DRC

    OpenAIRE

    Van Nieuwenhove, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Between late 2010 and the end of 2014 and under extremely difficult conditions, Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) carried out a project to combat Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, in the Dingila, Ango and Zobia regions of Orientale Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). HAT in DRC is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and is transmitted by the tsetse fly (Glossina genus) of the Palpalis group. Without effective treatment, virtually all f...

  9. Human African Trypanosomiasis in South Sudan: How Can We Prevent a New Epidemic?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Postigo, José A; José R Franco; Mounir Lado; Pere P Simarro

    2012-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has been a major public health problem in South Sudan for the last century. Recurrent outbreaks with a repetitive pattern of responding-scaling down activities have been observed. Control measures for outbreak response were reduced when the prevalence decreased and/or socio-political crisis erupted, leading to a new increase in the number of cases. This paper aims to raise international awareness of the threat of another outbreak of sleeping sickness in Sou...

  10. The detection and treatment of human African trypanosomiasis

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    Bouteille B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bernard Bouteille,1 Alain Buguet21Laboratory of Parasitology, Dupuytren University Hospital of Limoges, France; 2Polyclinic Marie-Louise Poto-Djembo, Pointe-Noire, CongoAbstract: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is caused by the injection of Trypanosoma brucei (T. b. gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense by Glossina, the tsetse fly. Three historical eras followed the exclusive clinical approach of the 19th century. At the turn of the century, the “initial research” era was initiated because of the dramatic spread of HAT throughout intertropical Africa, and scientists discovered the agent and its vector. Two entities, recurrent fever and sleeping sickness, were then considered a continuum between hemolymphatic stage 1 and meningoencephalitic stage 2. Treatments were developed. Soon after World War I, specific services and mobile teams were created, initiating the “epidemiological” era, during which populations were visited, screened, and treated. As a result, by 1960, annual new cases were rare. New mass screening and staging tools were then developed in a third, “modern” era, especially to counter a new epidemic wave. Currently, diagnosis still relies on microscopic detection of trypanosomes without (wet and thick blood films or with concentration techniques (capillary tube centrifugation, miniature anion-exchange centrifugation technique. Staging is a vital step.Stage 1 patients are treated on site with pentamidine or suramin. However, stage 2 patients are treated in specialized facilities, using drugs that are highly toxic and/or that require complex administration procedures (melarsoprol, eflornithine, or nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy. Suramin and melarsoprol are the only medications active against Rhodesian HAT. Staging still relies on cerebrospinal fluid examination for trypanosome detection and white blood cell counts: stage 1, absence of trypanosomes, white blood cell counts ≤ 5/µL; stage 2, presence of

  11. Therapeutic evaluation of Acacia nilotica (Linn stem bark extract in experimental African trypanosomiasis

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    E O Ogbadoyi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis still remains far from being satisfactory, being severely limited by a number of factors including unacceptable toxicity, increasing parasite resistance, high cost and unavailability. There is an urgent need for therapeutic agents that are effective, affordable and accessible to the rural poor in Africa who bear most of the disease burden. The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Acacia nilotica in experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in mice.  Methanol extract of stem bark of the plant was investigated for its therapeutic effects in experimental African trypanosomiasis. Acute toxicity studies were also conducted. Crude extract of 70% v/v (Methanol/Water at a dose of 400mg kg-1 body weight per day completely cured the experimental T.b. brucei infection in mice, while doses of 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400mgkg-1 body weight per day of the partially purified extract completely cured the experimental infection in mice within two days.  Sub inoculation of blood and cerebrospinal fluid drawn from the cured mice into healthy mice failed to produce any infection within 28 days of post inoculation. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrates, saponin, tannin and cardiac glycoside. LD50 of the partially purified extract was found to be 2000mg/kg body weight, the extract being acutely toxic at a dose of 1600mgkg-1 body weight. It is concluded that methanol extract of stem bark of A. nilotica cures experimental T. b. brucei infection in mice.   Industrial relevance: The findings in this study provide very useful clue for biopharmaceutical industries and drug manufacturers for the development of phytotherapeutic agents from this plant, not only for therapeutic intervention in the control of African trypanosomiasis but also for the treatment of cancer. This is because of the strong link between Chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping

  12. Identifying Transmission Cycles at the Human-Animal Interface: The Role of Animal Reservoirs in Maintaining Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Funk; Hiroshi Nishiura; Hans Heesterbeek; W. John Edmunds; Francesco Checchi

    2013-01-01

    Many infections can be transmitted between animals and humans. The epidemiological roles of different species can vary from important reservoirs to dead-end hosts. Here, we present a method to identify transmission cycles in different combinations of species from field data. We used this method to synthesise epidemiological and ecological data from Bipindi, Cameroon, a historical focus of gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness), a disease that has often been considere...

  13. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: www.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html. PMID:23484340

  14. Bioluminescence Imaging to Detect Late Stage Infection of African Trypanosomiasis.

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    Burrell-Saward, Hollie; Ward, Theresa H

    2016-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a multi-stage disease that manifests in two stages; an early blood stage and a late stage when the parasite invades the central nervous system (CNS). In vivo study of the late stage has been limited as traditional methodologies require the removal of the brain to determine the presence of the parasites. Bioluminescence imaging is a non-invasive, highly sensitive form of optical imaging that enables the visualization of a luciferase-transfected pathogen in real-time. By using a transfected trypanosome strain that has the ability to produce late stage disease in mice we are able to study the kinetics of a CNS infection in a single animal throughout the course of infection, as well as observe the movement and dissemination of a systemic infection. Here we describe a robust protocol to study CNS infections using a bioluminescence model of African trypanosomiasis, providing real time non-invasive observations which can be further analyzed with optional downstream approaches. PMID:27284970

  15. Human African trypanosomiasis in South Sudan: how can we prevent a new epidemic?

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    José A Ruiz-Postigo

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT has been a major public health problem in South Sudan for the last century. Recurrent outbreaks with a repetitive pattern of responding-scaling down activities have been observed. Control measures for outbreak response were reduced when the prevalence decreased and/or socio-political crisis erupted, leading to a new increase in the number of cases. This paper aims to raise international awareness of the threat of another outbreak of sleeping sickness in South Sudan. It is a review of the available data, interventions over time, and current reports on the status of HAT in South Sudan. Since 2006, control interventions and treatments providing services for sleeping sickness have been reduced. Access to HAT diagnosis and treatment has been considerably diminished. The current status of control activities for HAT in South Sudan could lead to a new outbreak of the disease unless 1 the remaining competent personnel are used to train younger staff to resume surveillance and treatment in the centers where HAT activities have stopped, and 2 control of HAT continues to be given priority even when the number of cases has been substantially reduced. Failure to implement an effective and sustainable system for HAT control and surveillance will increase the risk of a new epidemic. That would cause considerable suffering for the affected population and would be an impediment to the socioeconomic development of South Sudan.

  16. Determinants of Human African Trypanosomiasis Elimination via Paratransgenesis.

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    Jennifer A Gilbert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, transmitted by tsetse flies, has historically infected hundreds of thousands of individuals annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the last decade, concerted control efforts have reduced reported cases to below 10,000 annually, bringing complete elimination within reach. A potential technology to eliminate HAT involves rendering the flies resistant to trypanosome infection. This approach can be achieved through the introduction of transgenic Sodalis symbiotic bacteria that have been modified to produce a trypanocide, and propagated via Wolbachia symbionts, which confer a reproductive advantage to the paratransgenic tsetse. However, the population dynamics of these symbionts within tsetse flies have not yet been evaluated. Specifically, the key factors that determine the effectiveness of paratransgenesis have yet to be quantified. To identify the impact of these determinants on T.b. gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense transmission, we developed a mathematical model of trypanosome transmission that incorporates tsetse and symbiont population dynamics. We found that fecundity and mortality penalties associated with Wolbachia or recombinant Sodalis colonization, probabilities of vertical transmission, and tsetse migration rates are fundamental to the feasibility of HAT elimination. For example, we determined that HAT elimination could be sustained over 25 years when Wolbachia colonization minimally impacted fecundity or mortality, and when the probability of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission exceeded 99.9%. We also found that for a narrow range of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission probability (99.9-90.6% for T.b. gambiense and 99.9-85.8% for T.b. rhodesiense, cumulative HAT incidence was reduced between 30% and 1% for T.b. gambiense and between 21% and 3% for T.b. rhodesiense, although elimination was not predicted. Our findings indicate that fitness and mortality penalties associated with paratransgenic

  17. Expression and role of CXCL10 during the encephalitic stage of experimental and clinical African trypanosomiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Daniel N; Rottenberg, Martin E; Thomsen, Allan R; Mumba, Dieudonné; Fenger, Christina; Kristensson, Krister; Büscher, Philippe; Finsen, Bente; Masocha, Willias

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human African trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma brucei, involves an early hemolymphatic stage followed by a late encephalitic stage. METHODS: We studied the expression of chemokines with use of microarray and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in T. brucei brucei-infected mice and...... in patients with human African trypanosomiasis and examined their role in controlling brain accumulation of T cells and parasites. RESULTS: The messenger RNAs (mRNAs) encoding CXCR3 ligands CXCL9 and CXCL10 demonstrated the greatest increases among chemokines in brain specimens of infected mice, as...... reduced accumulation of trypanosomes and T cells in the brain parenchyma but similar parasitemia levels, compared with wild-type mice. CXCL10 and IFN-gamma levels were increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with late stage but not early stage human African trypanosomiasis. Levels of CXCL10 in...

  18. Spatial distribution of African Animal Trypanosomiasis in Suba and Teso districts in Western Kenya

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    Jung'a Joseph O

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the epidemiology of African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT rarely consider the spatial dimension of disease prevalence. This problem is confounded by use of parasitological diagnostic methods of low sensitivity in field surveys. Here we report a study combining highly sensitive and species specific molecular diagnostic methods, and Geographical information system (GIS for spatial analysis of trypanosome infection patterns, to better understand its epidemiology. Blood samples from 44 and 59 animals randomly selected from Teso and Suba districts respectively were screened for trypanosomes using PCR diagnostic assays. Spatial distribution of the positive cases was mapped and average nearest neighbour analysis used to determine the spatial pattern of trypanosome cases detected. Findings Trypanosome prevalence of 41% and 29% in Suba and Teso districts respectively was observed. T. vivax infections were most prevalent in both areas. Higher proportions of T. brucei infections (12% were observed in Suba, a known sleeping sickness foci compared with 2% in Teso. Average nearest neighbour analysis showed the pattern of trypanosome infections as random. An overlay with tsetse maps showed cases lying outside the tsetse infested areas, mostly being cases of T. vivax which is known to be transmitted both biologically by tsetse and mechanically by biting flies. Conclusion These findings suggest a need to design control strategies that target not just the biological vector tsetse, but also the parasite in cattle in order to clear the possibly mechanically transmitted T. vivax infections. There is need to also review the accuracy of available tsetse maps.

  19. The FAO programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FAO proposal for a long-term Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development was presented to the World Food Conference in November 1974. A recommendation was adopted that the programme should be implemented as a matter of urgency and should receive high priority in the FAO programme of work and budget. Following recommendations of support by FAO statutory bodies the preparatory phase, which led to implementation of a large-scale programme, was launched in 1980

  20. Syndromic algorithms for detection of gambiense human african trypanosomiasis in South Sudan.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, JJ; Surur, EI; Goch, GW; Mayen, MA; Lindner, AK; Pittet, A.; Kasparian, S; Checchi, F.; Whitty, CJ

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Active screening by mobile teams is considered the best method for detecting human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense but the current funding context in many post-conflict countries limits this approach. As an alternative, non-specialist health care workers (HCWs) in peripheral health facilities could be trained to identify potential cases who need testing based on their symptoms. We explored the predictive value of syndromic referral algorithms to...

  1. Human African Trypanosomiasis in a Traveler: Diagnostic Pitfalls

    OpenAIRE

    Meltzer, Eyal; Leshem, Eyal; Steinlauf, Shmuel; MICHAELI, SHULAMIT; Sidi, Yechezkel; Schwartz, Eli

    2012-01-01

    An Israeli traveler returning from Tanzania presented with a relapsing febrile illness. A diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection was established by blood smear after nearly a month. Blood polymerase chain reaction failed to provide an early diagnosis of human African trypanososmiasis. Recognition of suggestive signs should prompt physicians to perform repeated tests before ruling out human African trypanososmiasis.

  2. Genome sequence of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans ): Vector of African trypanosomiasis

    KAUST Repository

    Watanabe, Junichi

    2014-04-24

    Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human African trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Both sexes of adult tsetse feed exclusively on blood and contribute to disease transmission. Notable differences between tsetse and other disease vectors include obligate microbial symbioses, viviparous reproduction, and lactation. Here, we describe the sequence and annotation of the 366-megabase Glossina morsitans morsitans genome. Analysis of the genome and the 12,308 predicted protein-encoding genes led to multiple discoveries, including chromosomal integrations of bacterial (Wolbachia) genome sequences, a family of lactation-specific proteins, reduced complement of host pathogen recognition proteins, and reduced olfaction/chemosensory associated genes. These genome data provide a foundation for research into trypanosomiasis prevention and yield important insights with broad implications for multiple aspects of tsetse biology.

  3. The changing epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis among patients from nonendemic countries--1902-2012.

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    Ami Neuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is uncommon among patients from non-endemic countries (NEC, there has been an increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed. The number of incoming tourists to HAT endemic countries was obtained from the United Nations World Tourism Organization. All HAT cases diagnosed in patients from NEC were included. Immigrants and refugees were excluded. We compared patients during and after the colonial period, and analyzed the relationship between the number of incoming travellers and the number of HAT cases. RESULTS: Between 1902 and 2012, HAT was reported in 244 patients. Most HAT cases were reported before 1920, and after the year 2000. In the colonial era the average age of patients was lower (32.5±7.8 vs. 43.0±16.1 years, P<0.001, the proportion of females was lower (10.0% vs. 23.9%, P<0.01], most cases were diagnosed in expatriates, missionaries and soldiers (74.3%, and Gambian trypanosomiasis accounted for 86/110, (78% of cases. In the post-colonial era most patients 91/125 (72.8% were short-term tourists to game parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa (mainly in Tanzania; Rhodesian trypanosomiasis accounted for 94/123 (76.4% of cases. Between 1995 and 2010 there has been a constant linear increase in the number of incoming tourists to Tanzania, and HAT cases occurred in small outbreaks rather than following a similar linear pattern. CONCLUSIONS: In recent decades HAT patients from NEC are older, and more likely to be tourists who acquired the disease while visiting game-parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa. While Rhodesian trypanosomiasis is relatively uncommon among Africans, it now accounts for most cases reported among patients from NEC. Returning febrile travellers without an alternative diagnosis should be evaluated for HAT. Cases among travellers may serve as sentinels for Rhodesian trypanosomiasis "hot

  4. Syndromic algorithms for detection of gambiense human African trypanosomiasis in South Sudan.

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    Jennifer J Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active screening by mobile teams is considered the best method for detecting human African trypanosomiasis (HAT caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense but the current funding context in many post-conflict countries limits this approach. As an alternative, non-specialist health care workers (HCWs in peripheral health facilities could be trained to identify potential cases who need testing based on their symptoms. We explored the predictive value of syndromic referral algorithms to identify symptomatic cases of HAT among a treatment-seeking population in Nimule, South Sudan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Symptom data from 462 patients (27 cases presenting for a HAT test via passive screening over a 7 month period were collected to construct and evaluate over 14,000 four item syndromic algorithms considered simple enough to be used by peripheral HCWs. For comparison, algorithms developed in other settings were also tested on our data, and a panel of expert HAT clinicians were asked to make referral decisions based on the symptom dataset. The best performing algorithms consisted of three core symptoms (sleep problems, neurological problems and weight loss, with or without a history of oedema, cervical adenopathy or proximity to livestock. They had a sensitivity of 88.9-92.6%, a negative predictive value of up to 98.8% and a positive predictive value in this context of 8.4-8.7%. In terms of sensitivity, these out-performed more complex algorithms identified in other studies, as well as the expert panel. The best-performing algorithm is predicted to identify about 9/10 treatment-seeking HAT cases, though only 1/10 patients referred would test positive. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the absence of regular active screening, improving referrals of HAT patients through other means is essential. Systematic use of syndromic algorithms by peripheral HCWs has the potential to increase case detection and would increase their participation in HAT

  5. Monitoring the use of nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT in the treatment of second stage gambiense human African trypanosomiasis

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    Franco JR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Jose R Franco,1 Pere P Simarro,1 Abdoulaye Diarra,2 Jose A Ruiz-Postigo,3 Mireille Samo,1 Jean G Jannin11World Health Organization, Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, Innovative and Intensified Disease Management, Geneva, Switzerland; 2World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo; 3World Health Organization, Communicable Disease Control, Control of Tropical Diseases and Zoonoses Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: After inclusion of the nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT in the Model List of Essential Medicines for the treatment of second-stage gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, the World Health Organization, in collaboration with National Sleeping Sickness Control Programs and nongovernmental organizations set up a pharmacovigilance system to assess the safety and efficacy of NECT during its routine use. Data were collected for 1735 patients treated with NECT in nine disease endemic countries during 2010–2011. At least one adverse event (AE was described in 1043 patients (60.1% and a total of 3060 AE were reported. Serious adverse events (SAE were reported for 19 patients (1.1% of treated, leading to nine deaths (case fatality rate of 0.5%. The most frequent AE were gastrointestinal disorders (vomiting/nausea and abdominal pain, followed by headache, musculoskeletal pains, and vertigo. The most frequent SAE and cause of death were convulsions, fever, and coma that were considered as reactive encephalopathy. Two hundred and sixty-two children below 15 years old were treated. The characteristics of AE were similar to adults, but the major AE were less frequent in children with only one SAE and no deaths registered in this group. Gastrointestinal problems (vomiting and abdominal pain were more frequent than in adults, but musculoskeletal pains, vertigo, asthenia, neuropsychiatric troubles (headaches, seizures, tremors, hallucinations, insomnia were less

  6. LAMP for human African trypanosomiasis: a comparative study of detection formats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally L Wastling

    Full Text Available Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP is at the forefront of the search for innovative diagnostics for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT. Several simple endpoint detection methods have been developed for LAMP and here we compare four of these: (i visualization of turbidity; (ii addition of hydroxynaphthol blue before incubation; (iii addition of calcein with MnCl₂ before incubation and (iv addition of Quant-iT PicoGreen after incubation. These four methods were applied to four LAMP assays for the detection of human African trypanosomiasis, including two Trypanozoon specific and two Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense specific reactions using DNA extracted from cryo-preserved procyclic form T. b. rhodesiense. A multi-observer study was performed to assess inter-observer reliability of two of these methods: hydroxynapthol blue and calcein with MnCl₂, using DNA prepared from blood samples stored on Whatman FTA cards. Results showed that hydroxynaphthol blue was the best of the compared methods for easy, inexpensive, accurate and reliable interpretation of LAMP assays for HAT. Hydroxynapthol blue generates a violet to sky blue colour change that was easy to see and was consistently interpreted by independent observers. Visible turbidity detection is not possible for all currently available HAT LAMP reactions; Quant-iT PicoGreen is expensive and addition of calcein with MnCl₂ adversely affects reaction sensitivity and was unpopular with several observers.

  7. Improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains the results presented by the participants of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods. The CRP lasted from 1987 until 1992. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Sleeping Sickness and Nagana Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    The hemoflagellate Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness and nagana disease, respectively. The infec-tious disease is transmitted by the bite of infected tsetse flies and afflicts mainly rural popula-tions in sub-Saharan Africa. The subspecies T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense are responsi-ble for the two forms of human African trypanosomiasis, the West and East African sleeping sickness, respectively. A thir...

  9. Human African trypanosomiasis prevention, treatment and control costs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph; Yukich, Joshua O; Sutherland, C Simone; Woods, Geordie; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-10-01

    The control and eventual elimination of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) requires the expansion of current control and surveillance activities. A systematic review of the published literature on the costs of HAT prevention, treatment, and control, in addition to the economic burden, was conducted. All studies that contained primary or secondary data on costs of prevention, treatment and control were considered, resulting in the inclusion of 42 papers. The geographically focal nature of the disease and a lack of standardization in the cost data limit the usefulness of the available information for making generalizations across diverse settings. More recent information on the costs of treatment and control interventions for HAT is needed to provide accurate information for analyses and planning. The cost information contained herein can be used to inform rational decision making in control and elimination programs, and to assess potential synergies with existing vector-borne disease control programs, but programs would benefit significantly from new cost data collection. PMID:26056739

  10. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of prototype rapid tests for human African trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M Sternberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT remains a challenge both for active screening, which is critical in control of the disease, and in the point-of-care scenario where early and accurate diagnosis is essential. Recently, the first field deployment of a lateral flow rapid diagnostic test (RDT for HAT, "SD BIOLINE HAT" has taken place. In this study, we evaluated the performance of "SD BIOLINE HAT" and two new prototype RDTs.The performance of "SD BIOLINE HAT" and 2 prototype RDTs was tested using archived plasma from 250 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense patients, and 250 endemic controls. As well as comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of each device, the performance of individual antigens was assessed and the hypothetical performance of novel antigen combinations extrapolated. Neither of the prototype devices were inferior in sensitivity or specificity to "SD BIOLINE HAT" (sensitivity 0.82±0.01, specificity 0.97±0.01, 95% CI at the 5% margins, while one of the devices (BBI had significantly superior sensitivity (0.88±0.03. Analysis of the performance of individual antigens was used to model new antigen combinations to be explored in development of the next generation of HAT RDTs. The modelling showed that an RDT using two recombinant antigens (rLiTat1.5 and rISG65 would give a performance similar to the best devices in this study, and would also offer the most robust performance under deteriorating field conditions.Both "SD BIOLINE HAT" and the prototype devices performed comparably well to one another and also to the published performance range of the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis in sensitivity and specificity. The performance of individual antigens enabled us to predict that an all-recombinant antigen RDT can be developed with an accuracy equivalent to " SD BIOLINE HAT." Such an RDT would have advantages in simplified manufacture, lower unit cost and assured reproducibility.

  11. Trypanosomiasis in Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goats at Ikpa Abattoir, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Obioma Juliet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Goat serves as a major investment to most homes in Nigeria, mainly for provision of animal protein and income. The output of this animal is disturbed by Tsetse infestation which is the primary vector of Trypanosome. A survey of Trypanosomiasis of goat in Ikpa abattoir Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria was carried out between September and October 2010. This was aimed at determining the species of Trypanosome prevalent in the area and their infection rates among breeds of goat. 106 goats were sampled, among which 15(14.1% were positive for Trypanosome infection. The infection rates among the goat breeds were; Sokoto red (10.4% and West African Dwarf Goat (50.0%. The species of Trypanosome encountered were Trypanosoma vivax(66.7% and Trypanosoma brucei (33.3%. In the infection by sex, this was common among female goats in the various breeds examined and this stood as follows; 9.4% in Sokoto red and 4.7% in West African Dwarf goat. Considering the overall infection rate of Trypanosome in the breeds of goat in the study area, this was relatively high when compared with similar results in related areas; chemo prophylactic and insect control measures should be put in place to rescue the area.

  12. Diagnosis of human trypanosomiasis, due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in central Africa, by the polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Penchenier, Laurent; Simo, G.; Grébaut, Pascal; Nkinin, S.; Laveissière, Claude; Herder, Stéphane

    2000-01-01

    During a mass screening of sleeping sickness conducted in 1998 and 1999, and involving 27,932 persons in Cameroon and the Central African Republic, we tested the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on whole blood for the diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis due to #Trypanosoma brucei gambiense$. The 1858 samples obtained were from 4 groups : 155 infected patients, 1432 serological suspects detected by the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT), 222 negative controls living in th...

  13. Development of multiplex serological assay for the detection of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzou, Samson Muuo; Fujii, Yoshito; Miura, Masashi; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Itoh, Makoto; Salam, Md Abdus; Hamano, Shinjiro; Hirayama, Kenji; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a disease caused by Kinetoplastid infection. Serological tests are useful for epidemiological surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex serological assay for HAT to assess the diagnostic value of selected HAT antigens for sero-epidemiological surveillance. We cloned loci encoding eight antigens from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, expressed the genes in bacterial systems, and purified the resulting proteins. Antigens were subjected to Luminex multiplex assays using sera from HAT and VL patients to assess the antigens' immunodiagnostic potential. Among T. b. gambiense antigens, the 64-kDa and 65-kDa invariant surface glycoproteins (ISGs) and flagellar calcium binding protein (FCaBP) had high sensitivity for sera from T. b. gambiense patients, yielding AUC values of 0.871, 0.737 and 0.858 respectively in receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. The ISG64, ISG65, and FCaBP antigens were partially cross-reactive to sera from Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense patients. The GM6 antigen was cross-reactive to sera from T. b. rhodesiense patients as well as to sera from VL patients. Furthermore, heterogeneous antibody responses to each individual HAT antigen were observed. Testing for multiple HAT antigens in the same panel allowed specific and sensitive detection. Our results demonstrate the utility of applying multiplex assays for development and evaluation of HAT antigens for use in sero-epidemiological surveillance. PMID:26519611

  14. Development of a nanoparticulate formulation of diminazene to treat African trypanosomiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroubi, Maya; Betbeder, Didier [EA 4483, IFR 114 IMPRT, Faculte de Medecine, Pole recherche, Departement de Physiologie, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Daulouede, Sylvie; Mossalayi, Djavad; Vincendeau, Philippe [Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Karembe, Hamadi [CEVA Sante Animale, ZI la Ballastiere, BP 126, 33501 Libourne (France); Jallouli, Youssef [Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de Lille 2, 3 rue du Professeur Laguesse, 59006 Lille (France); Howsam, Mike, E-mail: dbetbeder@aol.com [Centre Universitaire de Mesure et d' Analyse, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de Lille 2, 3 rue du Professeur Laguesse, 59006 Lille (France)

    2010-12-17

    There is a real need to develop new therapeutic strategies for African trypanosomiasis infections. In our study, we developed a new drug delivery system of diminazene (DMZ), a trypanocidal drug registered for veterinary use. This drug candidate presents a limited efficacy, a poor affinity for brain tissue and instability. The development of colloidal formulations based on a porous cationic nanoparticle with an oily core ({sub 70}DGNP{sup +}), has potentially two advantages: stabilization of the drug and potential targeting of the parasite. We analyzed two processes of drug loading: in process (DMZ was added during the preparation of {sub 70}DGNP{sup +} at 80 deg. C) and post-loading (DMZ was mixed with a {sub 70}DGNP{sup +} solution at room temperature). Poor stability of the drug was observed using the in process technique. When using the post-loading technique over 80% drug entrapment efficiency was obtained at a ratio of DMZ:phospholipids (wt:wt) < 5%. Moreover, DMZ loaded into {sub 70}DGNP{sup +} was found to be protected against oxidation and was stable for at least six months at 4 deg. C. Finally, in vitro tests on T.b. brucei showed an increased efficacy of DMZ loaded in {sub 70}DGNP{sup +}.

  15. The molecular basis of livestock disease as illustrated by African trypanosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    African trypanosomes are protozoan parasites, most species of which are transmitted by tsetse flies. They reside in the mammalian bloodstream and evade the immune system by periodically switching the major protein on their surface - a phenomenon called antigenic variation, mediated by gene rearrangements in the trypanosome genome. The trypanosomes eventually enter the central nervous system and cause a fatal disease, commonly called ngana in domestic cattle and sleeping sickness in humans. Two sub-species of Trypanosoma brucei infect humans (T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense) and one sub-species does not survive in humans (T. b. brucei) because it is lysed by the human-specific serum protein, apolipoprotein L-I. Wild animals in Africa have other (less well understood) molecular mechanisms of suppressing the number of African trypanosomes in the blood, and some indigenous breeds of African cattle also display a partial 'trypanotolerance' whose genetic loci have recently been mapped. (author)

  16. Challenges facing the elimination of sleeping sickness in west and central Africa: sustainable control of animal trypanosomiasis as an indispensable approach to achieve the goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, Gustave; Rayaisse, Jean Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    African trypanosomiases are infectious diseases caused by trypanosomes. African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) remains an important threat for livestock production in some affected areas whereas human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is targeted for elimination in 2020. In West and Central Africa, it has been shown that the parasites causing these diseases can coexist in the same tsetse fly or the same animal. In such complex settings, the control of these diseases must be put in the general context of trypanosomiasis control or "one health" concept where the coordination of control operations will be beneficial for both diseases. In this context, implementing control activities on AAT will help to sustain HAT control. It will also have a positive impact on animal health and economic development of the regions. The training of inhabitants on how to implement and sustain vector control tools will enable a long-term sustainability of control operations that will lead to the elimination of HAT and AAT. PMID:26671582

  17. Cattle owners' perceptions of African bovine trypanosomiasis and its control in Busia and Kwale Districts of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machila, Noreen; Wanyangu, Samuel W; McDermott, John; Welburn, Susan C; Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark C

    2003-04-01

    A study using a structured questionnaire was conducted in Busia District, Western Kenya and Kwale District, Coastal Kenya to obtain qualitative and quantitative information from 256 cattle owners about their production systems, their perceptions of the diseases encountered in their cattle, the drugs used, and other measures adopted to control trypanosomiasis in cattle. The predominant production system was mixed crop-livestock with farmers owning 2-11 local cattle on holdings between 2 and 5 ha. Approximately 15% of disease episodes in cattle were perceived to be trypanosomiasis, although the farmers' ability to make diagnoses was limited in that over half of the diagnoses were inconsistent with the clinical signs described. Drugs were generally obtained from agro-veterinary shops, and the farmers themselves administered slightly more than half of these. One third of drug treatments given to sick cattle were trypanocides, but over half of these trypanocidal treatments were given to cattle believed to have diseases other than trypanosomiasis. PMID:12711100

  18. Molecular Evidence of a Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Sylvatic Cycle in the Human African Trypanosomiasis Foci of Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eCordon-Obras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gambiense trypanosomiasis is considered an anthroponotic disease. Consequently, control programs are generally aimed at stopping transmission of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T. b. gambiense by detecting and treating human cases. However, the persistence of numerous foci despite efforts to eliminate this disease questions this strategy as unique tool to pursue the eradication. The role of animals as a reservoir of T. b. gambiense is still controversial, but could partly explain maintenance of the infection at hypo-endemic levels. In the present study, we evaluated the presence of T. b. gambiense in wild animals in Equatorial Guinea. The infection rate ranged from 0.8% in the insular focus of Luba to more than 12% in Mbini, a focus with a constant trickle of human cases. The parasite was detected in a wide range of animal species including four species never described previously as putative reservoirs. Our study comes to reinforce the hypothesis that animals may play a role in the persistence of T. b. gambiense transmission, being particularly relevant in low transmission settings. Under these conditions the integration of sustained vector control and medical interventions should be considered to achieve the elimination of Gambiense trypanosomiasis.

  19. Gene fusion analysis in the battle against the African endemic sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Trimpalis

    Full Text Available The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes African Trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness in humans, which can be lethal if untreated. Most available pharmacological treatments for the disease have severe side-effects. The purpose of this analysis was to detect novel protein-protein interactions (PPIs, vital for the parasite, which could lead to the development of drugs against this disease to block the specific interactions. In this work, the Domain Fusion Analysis (Rosetta Stone method was used to identify novel PPIs, by comparing T. brucei to 19 organisms covering all major lineages of the tree of life. Overall, 49 possible protein-protein interactions were detected, and classified based on (a statistical significance (BLAST e-value, domain length etc., (b their involvement in crucial metabolic pathways, and (c their evolutionary history, particularly focusing on whether a protein pair is split in T. brucei and fused in the human host. We also evaluated fusion events including hypothetical proteins, and suggest a possible molecular function or involvement in a certain biological process. This work has produced valuable results which could be further studied through structural biology or other experimental approaches so as to validate the protein-protein interactions proposed here. The evolutionary analysis of the proteins involved showed that, gene fusion or gene fission events can happen in all organisms, while some protein domains are more prone to fusion and fission events and present complex evolutionary patterns.

  20. Genetically Distinct Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Populations in the Lake Kyoga Region of Uganda and Its Relevance for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Echodu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies (Glossina spp. are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei—the agent of human (HAT and animal (AAT trypanosomiasis. Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff is the main vector species in Uganda—the only country where the two forms of HAT disease (rhodesiense and gambiense occur, with gambiense limited to the northwest. Gff populations cluster in three genetically distinct groups in northern, southern, and western Uganda, respectively, with a contact zone present in central Uganda. Understanding the dynamics of this contact zone is epidemiologically important as the merger of the two diseases is a major health concern. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA data from Gff samples in the contact zone to understand its spatial extent and temporal stability. We show that this zone is relatively narrow, extending through central Uganda along major rivers with south to north introgression but displaying no sex-biased dispersal. Lack of obvious vicariant barriers suggests that either environmental conditions or reciprocal competitive exclusion could explain the patterns of genetic differentiation observed. Lack of admixture between northern and southern populations may prevent the sympatry of the two forms of HAT disease, although continued control efforts are needed to prevent the recolonization of tsetse-free regions by neighboring populations.

  1. Seasonal Changes in Sleep Duration in African American and African College Students Living In Washington, D.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Janna Volkov; Kelly J. Rohan; Yousufi, Samina M.; Minh-Chau Nguyen; Jackson, Michael A.; Thrower, Courtney M.; Stiller, John W.; Teodor T. Postolache

    2007-01-01

    Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD) would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans repor...

  2. Seasonal Changes in Sleep Duration in African American and African College Students Living In Washington, D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Volkov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD, but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more “problems” with change in seasons than African Americans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in African American students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ responses, African American and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575 were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season × 2 (sex × 2 (ethnicity × 2 (winter diagnosis group ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and African American students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and African American students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands.

  3. Overview of the Diagnostic Methods Used in the Field for Human African Trypanosomiasis: What Could Change in the Next Years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bonnet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping sickness is a parasitic infection caused by two species of trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and rhodesiense, transmitted by the tsetse fly. The disease eventually affects the central nervous system, resulting in severe neurological symptoms. Without treatment, death is inevitable. During the first stage of the disease, infected patients are mildly symptomatic and early detection of infection allows safer treatment (administered on an outpatient basis which can avoid death; routine screening of the exposed population is necessary, especially in areas of high endemicity. The current therapeutic treatment of this disease, especially in stage 2, can cause complications and requires a clinical surveillance for several days. A good stage diagnosis of the disease is the cornerstone for delivering the adequate treatment. The task faced by the medical personnel is further complicated by the lack of support from local health infrastructure, which is at best weak, but often nonexistent. Therefore it is crucial to look for new more efficient technics for the diagnosis of stage which are also best suited to use in the field, in areas not possessing high-level health facilities. This review, after an overview of the disease, summarizes the current diagnosis procedures and presents the advances in the field.

  4. Constraints in the Control of African Trypanosomiasis the Prevailing Factors in Kurmin Kaduna, Northern, Nigeria (Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attahir Abubakar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to further highlight the prevailing factors in the control of African trypanosomosis in Nigeria. The effectiveness of trypanocides as a means of control is being curtailed by, wide spread drug resistance, lack of alternative drugs, multiple resistance, fake drugs,insufficient veterinary services, proliferation of quacks, high cost of trypanocides and the ability of the parasite to survive in cryptic foci poorly accessible to drugs. Trypanotolerance is a relative rather than absolute trait, severely affected by heavy challenge, malnutrition, stress, breed, age, season, and concurrent disease, Trypanotolerant breeds are poorly utilized and accepted because of their size, productivity and traction power compared with the large zebu breeds. Use of insecticide has been the most effective and reliable method of control but fear of emergence of resistance, cross resistance, environmental damage, accumulation in food chains with damaging effect on fertility etc constitute a major drawback on its use. Poor policies formulation and enforcement, human beliefs and behaviors, tsetse redistribution, mechanical transmitters and reservoire host has hindered effective control. The scanty inform ation on distribution, prevalence and economic impact of trypanosomosis in Nigeria, coupled with corruption, lack of community participation, inability to implement cost effective control strategies, these has resulted in the negative attitude of national governments and international funding organizations towards control of the disease, leading to collapse of many control projects. There is no control method that can be used alone; rather a combination of different control methods has proven effective due to the social, economical and cultural behaviors of Nigerians.

  5. A mixed methods study of a health worker training intervention to increase syndromic referral for gambiense human African trypanosomiasis in South Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J Palmer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active screening by mobile teams is considered the most effective method for detecting gambiense-type human African trypanosomiasis (HAT but constrained funding in many post-conflict countries limits this approach. Non-specialist health care workers (HCWs in peripheral health facilities could be trained to identify potential cases for testing based on symptoms. We tested a training intervention for HCWs in peripheral facilities in Nimule, South Sudan to increase knowledge of HAT symptomatology and the rate of syndromic referrals to a central screening and treatment centre. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We trained 108 HCWs from 61/74 of the public, private and military peripheral health facilities in the county during six one-day workshops and assessed behaviour change using quantitative and qualitative methods. In four months prior to training, only 2/562 people passively screened for HAT were referred from a peripheral HCW (0 cases detected compared to 13/352 (2 cases detected in the four months after, a 6.5-fold increase in the referral rate observed by the hospital. Modest increases in absolute referrals received, however, concealed higher levels of referral activity in the periphery. HCWs in 71.4% of facilities followed-up had made referrals, incorporating new and pre-existing ideas about HAT case detection into referral practice. HCW knowledge scores of HAT symptoms improved across all demographic sub-groups. Of 71 HAT referrals made, two-thirds were from new referrers. Only 11 patients completed the referral, largely because of difficulties patients in remote areas faced accessing transportation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The training increased knowledge and this led to more widespread appropriate HAT referrals from a low base. Many referrals were not completed, however. Increasing access to screening and/or diagnostic tests in the periphery will be needed for greater impact on case-detection in this context. These data

  6. Influence of Pastoralists' Sociocultural Activities on Tsetse-Trypanosome-Cattle Reservoir Interface: The Risk of Human African Trypanosomiasis in North-Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Kabir, J

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated socio-cultural characteristics of pastoralists that influenced on the tsetse-trypanosome-cattle reservoir interface thereby predisposing them to HAT in Niger State, North-central Nigeria. It was a cross-sectional survey of adult pastoral herders, aged 30 years and above, and conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. A face-to-face structured questionnaire was administered on the pastoralists nested in 96 cattle herds with questions focused on pastoralists' socio-cultural activities and behavioral practices related to HAT risk. Descriptive and analytic statistics were used to describe the obtained data. A total of 384 pastoralists participated, with mean age of 49.6  ± 10.76 SD years. Male respondents constituted 86.7% of gender, while pastoralists of age group 40-49 years constituted 35.4% of respondents. About 59.4% of the pastoralists had knowledge about HAT and its symptoms and only 33.9% of them believed that cattle served as reservoir of HAT trypanosome. Knowledge/belief levels of the pastoralists about African trypanosomiasis occurrence in humans and animals were statistically significant. Males were four times more likely to be exposed to HAT (OR = 3.67; 95% CI: 1.42, 9.52); age group 60-69 was also four times more likely to be exposed (OR = 3.59; 95% CI: 1.56, 8.28); and nomadic pastoralists were two times more likely to be exposed to HAT (OR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.37, 3.14). All cultural practices significantly influenced exposure to HAT with extensive husbandry system three times more likely to predisposed pastoralists to HAT (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.65, 6.24). Socio-cultural characteristics of pastoralists influenced exposure to HAT risk and, therefore, there is a need to sensitize them to bring changes to their socio-cultural practices and perceptions to achieve effective and long term sustainable HAT control. Elimination strategies of parasites in animals and vectors should be considered to avoid reintroduction

  7. N-myristoyltransferase inhibitors as new leads to treat sleeping sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frearson, Julie A.; Brand, Stephen; McElroy, Stuart P.; Cleghorn, Laura A.T.; Smid, Ondrej; Stojanovski, Laste; Price, Helen P.; Guther, M. Lucia S.; Torrie, Leah S.; Robinson, David A.; Hallyburton, Irene; Mpamhanga, Chidochangu P.; Brannigan, James A.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Hodgkinson, Michael; Hui, Raymond; Qiu, Wei; Raimi, Olawale G.; van Aalten, Daan M.F.; Brenk, Ruth; Gilbert, Ian H.; Read, Kevin D.; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Ferguson, Michael A.J.; Smith, Deborah F.; Wyatt, Paul G. (York); (Toronto); (Dundee)

    2010-11-05

    African sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma brucei spp., is responsible for {approx}30,000 deaths each year. Available treatments for this disease are poor, with unacceptable efficacy and safety profiles, particularly in the late stage of the disease when the parasite has infected the central nervous system. Here we report the validation of a molecular target and the discovery of associated lead compounds with the potential to address this lack of suitable treatments. Inhibition of this target - T. brucei N-myristoyltransferase - leads to rapid killing of trypanosomes both in vitro and in vivo and cures trypanosomiasis in mice. These high-affinity inhibitors bind into the peptide substrate pocket of the enzyme and inhibit protein N-myristoylation in trypanosomes. The compounds identified have promising pharmaceutical properties and represent an opportunity to develop oral drugs to treat this devastating disease. Our studies validate T. brucei N-myristoyltransferase as a promising therapeutic target for human African trypanosomiasis.

  8. The Molecular Dynamics of Trypanosoma brucei UDP-Galactose 4′-Epimerase: A Drug Target for African Sleeping Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Aaron J; Durrant, Jacob D.; Pierce, Levi C. T.; McCorvie, Thomas J; Timson, David J; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    During the past century, several epidemics of human African trypanosomiasis, a deadly disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma brucei, have afflicted sub-Saharan Africa. Over 10 000 new victims are reported each year, with hundreds of thousands more at risk. As current drug treatments are either highly toxic or ineffective, novel trypanocides are urgently needed. The T. brucei galactose synthesis pathway is one potential therapeutic target. Although galactose is essential for T. brucei survi...

  9. Interaction of sleep quality and psychosocial stress on obesity in African Americans: the Cardiovascular Health Epidemiology Study (CHES)

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Yuan-Xiang; Chen Zhimin; Coverson Dorothy L; Din-Dzietham Rebecca; Bidulescu Aurelian; Buxbaum Sarah G; Gibbons Gary H; Welch Verna L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Compared with whites, sleep disturbance and sleep deprivation appear more prevalent in African Americans (AA). Long-term sleep deprivation may increase the risk of obesity through multiple metabolic and endocrine alterations. Previous studies have reported contradictory results on the association between habitual sleep duration and obesity. Accordingly, we aimed to assess whether sleep quality and duration are inversely associated with body mass index (BMI) and obesity and...

  10. Improving the Quality of Host Country Ethical Oversight of International Research: The Use of a Collaborative 'Pre-Review' Mechanism for a Study of Fexinidazole for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Carl H; Ardiot, Chantal; Blesson, Séverine; Bonnin, Yves; Bompart, Francois; Colonna, Pierre; Dhai, Ames; Ecuru, Julius; Edielu, Andrew; Hervé, Christian; Hirsch, François; Kouyaté, Bocar; Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Maoundé, Dionko; Martinent, Eric; Ntsiba, Honoré; Pelé, Gérard; Quéva, Gilles; Reinmund, Marie-Christine; Sarr, Samba Cor; Sepou, Abdoulaye; Tarral, Antoine; Tetimian, Djetodjide; Valverde, Olaf; Van Nieuwenhove, Simon; Strub-Wourgaft, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Developing countries face numerous barriers to conducting effective and efficient ethics reviews of international collaborative research. In addition to potentially overlooking important scientific and ethical considerations, inadequate or insufficiently trained ethics committees may insist on unwarranted changes to protocols that can impair a study's scientific or ethical validity. Moreover, poorly functioning review systems can impose substantial delays on the commencement of research, which needlessly undermine the development of new interventions for urgent medical needs. In response to these concerns, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi), an independent nonprofit organization founded by a coalition of public sector and international organizations, developed a mechanism to facilitate more effective and efficient host country ethics review for a study of the use of fexinidazole for the treatment of late stage African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). The project involved the implementation of a novel 'pre-review' process of ethical oversight, conducted by an ad hoc committee of ethics committee representatives from African and European countries, in collaboration with internationally recognized scientific experts. This article examines the process and outcomes of this collaborative process. PMID:25039421

  11. "It's Not All About My Baby's Sleep": A Qualitative Study of Factors Influencing Low-Income African American Mothers' Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Danielle N; Mindell, Jodi A; Reyes, Naomi R; Hart, Chantelle N; Herring, Sharon J

    2016-01-01

    Low-income African American mothers are at particular risk for poor postpartum sleep. This study sought to understand facilitators and barriers that exist to getting a good night's sleep among these high-risk mothers. Semistructured interviews with 18 low-income African Americans (3-6 months postpartum) were conducted. Most mothers described their own sleep quality to be poor, despite the fact that their babies' sleep improved substantially from the newborn period. Mothers kept themselves awake due to their own internal worry and anxiety, along with external factors that were largely independent of babies' sleep, including work and school commitments and the home environment. For the few mothers with good sleep quality, time management and family support were strong facilitators. Findings lay the groundwork for sleep improvement interventions. PMID:26488388

  12. Sleep Disturbance and Risk Behaviors among Inner-City African-American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Umlauf, Mary Grace; Bolland, John M.; Lian, Brad E.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents tend to experience more problems with sleep loss as a natural consequence of puberty, whereas teens from impoverished urban areas are likely to witness neighborhood violence and/or engage in risk behaviors that may affect sleep. Data from the Mobile Youth Survey, a longitudinal study of impoverished inner-city African-American adolescents (1998–2005; N = 20,716; age range = 9.75–19.25 years), were used to compare paired years of annual surveys elicited by questions about how sleep...

  13. Estimates of the duration of the early and late stage of gambiense sleeping sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Chandramohan Daniel; Haydon Daniel T; Filipe João AN; Checchi Francesco; Chappuis François

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The durations of untreated stage 1 (early stage, haemo-lymphatic) and stage 2 (late stage, meningo-encephalitic) human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are poorly quantified, but key to predicting the impact of screening on transmission. Here, we outline a method to estimate these parameters. Methods We first model the duration of stage 1 through survival analysis of untreated serological suspects detected during Médecins Sans...

  14. Prevention and control of malaria and sleeping sickness in Africa : where are we and where are we going ?

    OpenAIRE

    Corbel Vincent; Henry Marie-Claire

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The International Symposium on Malaria and Human African Trypanosomiasis: New Strategies for their Prevention & Control was held 7-8 October, 2010 in Cotonou, Benin with about 250 participants from 20 countries. This scientific event aimed at identifying the gaps and research priorities in the prevention and control of malaria and sleeping sickness in Africa and to promote exchange between North and South in the fields of medical entomology, epidemiology, immunology and parasitology....

  15. Cerebral trypanosomiasis and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Apio Claudio Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old black female, complaining of headache of one month's duration presented with nausea, vomiting, somnolence, short memory problems, loss of weight, and no fever history. Smoker, intravenous drugs abuser, promiscuous lifestyle. Physical examination: left homonimous hemianopsia, left hemiparesis, no papilledema, diffuse hyperreflexia, slowness of movements. Brain CT scan: tumor-like lesion in the splenium of the corpus calosum, measuring 3.5 x 1.4 cm, with heterogeneous enhancing pattern, sugesting a primary CNS tumor. Due to the possibility of CNS infection, a lumbar puncture disclosed an opening pressure of 380 mmH(20; 11 white cells (lymphocytes; glucose 18 mg/dl (serum glucose 73 mg/dl; proteins 139 mg/dl; presence of Trypanosoma parasites. Serum Elisa-HIV tests turned out to be positive. Treatment with benznidazole dramatically improved clinical and radiographic picture, but the patient died 6 weeks later because of respiratory failure. T. cruzi infection of the CNS is a rare disease, but we have an increasing number of cases in HIV immunecompromised patients. Diagnosis by direct observation of CSF is uncommon, and most of the cases are diagnosed by pathological examination. It is a highly lethal disease, even when properly diagnosed and treated. This article intends to include cerebral trypanosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions, especially in immunecompromised patients from endemic regions.

  16. Population genetics of Trypanosoma brucei circulating in Glossina palpalis palpalis and domestic animals of the Fontem sleeping sickness focus of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Simo, Gustave; Njitchouang, Guy Roger; Melachio, Tresor Tito Tanekou; Njiokou, Flobert; Cuny, Gerard; Tazoacha, Asonganyi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human African Trypanosomiasis is still a public health threat in Cameroon. To assess Trypanosoma brucei strains circulating in the Fontem sleeping sickness focus, we conducted a genetic structure study using microsatellites to assess genotypes circulating in both tsetse flies and domestic animals. Method: For this study, pyramidal traps were set up and 2695 tsetse flies were collected and 1535 (57%) living flies were dissected and their mid- guts collected. Furthermore, blood samp...

  17. The Phosphoproteome of Bloodstream Form Trypanosoma brucei, Causative Agent of African Sleeping Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Isabelle R. E.; Martin, David M. A.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Lamont, Douglas; Barber, Jonathan D.; Mehlert, Angela; Ferguson, Michael A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness and related animal diseases, and it has over 170 predicted protein kinases. Protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism for cellular function that, thus far, has been studied in T.brucei principally through putative kinase mRNA knockdown and observation of the resulting phenotype. However, despite the relatively large kinome of this organism and the demonstrated essentiality of severa...

  18. The molecular dynamics of Trypanosoma brucei UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase:a drug target for African sleeping sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Aaron J; Durrant, Jacob D.; Pierce, Levi C. T.; McCorvie, Thomas J; Timson, David J; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    During the past century, several epidemics of human African trypanosomiasis, a deadly disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma brucei, have afflicted sub-Saharan Africa. Over 10 000 new victims are reported each year, with hundreds of thousands more at risk. As current drug treatments are either highly toxic or ineffective, novel trypanocides are urgently needed. The T. brucei galactose synthesis pathway is one potential therapeutic target. Although galactose is essential for T. brucei survi...

  19. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Sleep: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is sleep? Sleep is a period of unconsciousness during which ...

  20. Interaction of sleep quality and psychosocial stress on obesity in African Americans: the Cardiovascular Health Epidemiology Study (CHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yuan-Xiang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with whites, sleep disturbance and sleep deprivation appear more prevalent in African Americans (AA. Long-term sleep deprivation may increase the risk of obesity through multiple metabolic and endocrine alterations. Previous studies have reported contradictory results on the association between habitual sleep duration and obesity. Accordingly, we aimed to assess whether sleep quality and duration are inversely associated with body mass index (BMI and obesity and test whether these associations are modified by psychosocial stress, known to influence sleep quality. Methods A sample of 1,515 AA residents of metropolitan Atlanta, aged 30-65 years, was recruited by a random-digit-dialing method in 2007-08. The outcome obesity was defined by BMI (kg/m2 continuously and categorically (BMI ≥ 30 versus BMI Results The mean (standard deviation age was 47.5 (17.0 years, and 1,096 (72% were women. GSQ score categorized into tertiles was associated with BMI. Among women, after multivariable adjustment that included age, gender, physical activity, smoking status, education, total family income, financial stress and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and myocardial infarction, obesity was associated with sleep quality as assessed by GSQ continuous score, [odds ratio, OR (95% C.I.: 1.08 (1.03 - 1.12], and with a worse sleep disturbance subcomponent score [OR (95% C.I.: 1.48 (1.16 - 1.89]. Among all participants, stress modified the association between obesity and sleep quality; there was an increased likelihood of obesity in the medium stress category, OR (95% C.I.: 1.09 (1.02 - 1.17. Conclusion Sleep quality was associated with obesity in women. The association of sleep quality with obesity was modified by perceived stress. Our results indicate the need for simultaneous assessment of sleep and stress.

  1. Neglected diseases in the news: a content analysis of recent international media coverage focussing on leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangai Balasegaram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the pharmaceutical industry's "neglect" of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs has been investigated, no study evaluating media coverage of NTDs has been published. Poor media coverage exacerbates the neglect. This study aimed to investigate, describe, and analyse international media coverage of "neglected diseases" in general and three specific NTDs--African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease--from 1 January 2003 to 1 June 2007. METHODS: Archives of 11 leading international, English-language media were searched. A content analysis was done, coding for media organisation, date, author, type of report, slant, themes, and "frames". Semi-structured interviews with journalists and key informants were conducted for further insight. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Only 113 articles in a 53-month time period met the inclusion criteria, with no strong trends or increases in coverage. Overall, the BBC had the highest coverage with 20 results, followed by the Financial Times and Agence France Presse. CNN had the least coverage with one result. The term "neglected diseases" had good media currency and "sleeping sickness" was far more widely used than trypanosomiasis. The disease most covered was leishmaniasis and the least covered was Chagas. Academic researchers were most commonly quoted as a main source, while the World Health Organization (WHO and pharmaceutical industry were the least quoted. Journalists generally agreed NTDs had not been adequately covered, but said a lack of real news development and the need to cater to domestic audiences were major obstacles for NTD reporting. All journalists said health agencies, particularly WHO, were not communicating adequately about the burden of NTDs. CONCLUSIONS: Public health agencies need to raise priority for NTD advocacy. Innovative strategies, such as reporting grants or creating a network of voices, may be needed.

  2. Population genetics of Glossina palpalis palpalis from central African sleeping sickness foci

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    Solano Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae is widespread in west Africa, and is the main vector of sleeping sickness in Cameroon as well as in the Bas Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, little is known on the structure of its populations. We investigated G. p. palpalis population genetic structure in five sleeping sickness foci (four in Cameroon, one in Democratic Republic of Congo using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Results A strong isolation by distance explains most of the population structure observed in our sampling sites of Cameroon and DRC. The populations here are composed of panmictic subpopulations occupying fairly wide zones with a very strong isolation by distance. Effective population sizes are probably between 20 and 300 individuals and if we assume densities between 120 and 2000 individuals per km2, dispersal distance between reproducing adults and their parents extends between 60 and 300 meters. Conclusions This first investigation of population genetic structure of G. p. palpalis in Central Africa has evidenced random mating subpopulations over fairly large areas and is thus at variance with that found in West African populations of G. p. palpalis. This study brings new information on the isolation by distance at a macrogeographic scale which in turn brings useful information on how to organise regional tsetse control. Future investigations should be directed at temporal sampling to have more accurate measures of demographic parameters in order to help vector control decision.

  3. Animal trypanosomiasis control in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uganda, with a population of about 17 million people, depends largely on the Agricultural Sector both for subsistence and export. Uganda livestock stands at 4 million cattle, 2.5 million goats, 0.7 million sheep and 0.5 million pigs. The life of these animals is being threatened by various tropical diseases. Animal trypanosomiasis is endemic in all the 34 districts of Uganda except the highland areas of the country. These are correspondingly areas of high tsetse fly infestation. For effective control of this disease, therefore, an integrated approach is adopted. The country has been divided into three zones of disease incidence, namely the high, medium and low risk zones. Each zone has a slightly different treatment regime with curative and prophylactic trypanocidals as short term control measures. The long term aim is to eradicate the tsetse fly, and therefore, the disease

  4. Transverse myelitis due to trypanosomiasis in a middle aged Tanzanian man

    OpenAIRE

    Kibiki, G S; Murphy, D K

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a middle aged Tanzanian man who developed a spinal cord syndrome over 6 weeks, along with a mild encephalopathy. Investigations ruled out the usual major causes of such a syndrome in our setting in northern Tanzania. Examination of his cerebrospinal fluid revealed trypanosomes, and he made a slow but dramatic improvement after a full course of suramine and melarsoprol. We postulate that he had a transverse myelitis due to African trypanosomiasis, a rare and barely recogn...

  5. Cryptic Diversity within the Major Trypanosomiasis Vector Glossina fuscipes Revealed by Molecular Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Shik; Darby, Alistair C.; Causse, Sandrine; Kapitano, Berisha; Hall, Martin J. R.; Steen, Keith; Lutumba, Pascal; Madinga, Joules; Torr, Steve J.; Okedi, Loyce M.; Lehane, Michael J.; Donnelly, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes s.l. is responsible for the transmission of approximately 90% of cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness. Three G. fuscipes subspecies have been described, primarily based upon subtle differences in the morphology of their genitalia. Here we describe a study conducted across the range of this important vector to determine whether molecular evidence generated from nuclear DNA (microsatellites and gene sequence information), mitochondrial DNA and symbiont DNA support the existence of these taxa as discrete taxonomic units. Principal Findings The nuclear ribosomal Internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) provided support for the three subspecies. However nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data did not support the monophyly of the morphological subspecies G. f. fuscipes or G. f. quanzensis. Instead, the most strongly supported monophyletic group was comprised of flies sampled from Ethiopia. Maternally inherited loci (mtDNA and symbiont) also suggested monophyly of a group from Lake Victoria basin and Tanzania, but this group was not supported by nuclear loci, suggesting different histories of these markers. Microsatellite data confirmed strong structuring across the range of G. fuscipes s.l., and was useful for deriving the interrelationship of closely related populations. Conclusion/Significance We propose that the morphological classification alone is not used to classify populations of G. fuscipes for control purposes. The Ethiopian population, which is scheduled to be the target of a sterile insect release (SIT) programme, was notably discrete. From a programmatic perspective this may be both positive, given that it may reflect limited migration into the area or negative if the high levels of differentiation are also reflected in reproductive isolation between this population and the flies to be used in the release programme. PMID:21858237

  6. Sleeping sickness in travelers - do they really sleep?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Urech

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of imported Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT cases in non-endemic countries has increased over the last years. The objective of this analysis is to describe the clinical presentation of HAT in Caucasian travelers. Literature was screened (MEDLINE, Pubmed using the terms "Human African Trypanosomiasis", "travelers" and "expatriates"; all European languages except Slavic ones were included. Publications without clinical description of patients were only included in the epidemiological analysis. Forty-five reports on Caucasians with T.b. rhodesiense and 15 with T.b. gambiense infections were included in the analysis of the clinical parameters. Both species have presented with fever (T.b. rhodesiense 97.8% and T.b. gambiense 93.3%, headache (50% each and a trypanosomal chancre (T.b. rhodesiense 84.4%, T.b. gambiense 46.7%. While sleeping disorders dominate the clinical presentation of HAT in endemic regions, there have been only rare reports in travelers: insomnia (T.b. rhodesiense 7.1%, T.b. gambiense 21.4%, diurnal somnolence (T.b. rhodesiense 4.8%, T.b. gambiense none. Surprisingly, jaundice has been seen in 24.2% of the Caucasian T.b. rhodesiense patients, but has never been described in HAT patients in endemic regions. These results contrast to the clinical presentation of T.b. gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense HAT in Africans in endemic regions, where the presentation of chronic T.b. gambiense and acute T.b. rhodesiense HAT is different. The analysis of 14 reports on T.b. gambiense HAT in Africans living in a non-endemic country shows that neurological symptoms such as somnolence (46.2%, motor deficit (64.3% and reflex anomalies (14.3% as well as psychiatric symptoms such as hallucinations (21.4% or depression (21.4% may dominate the clinical picture. Often, the diagnosis has been missed initially: some patients have even been hospitalized in psychiatric clinics. In travelers T.b. rhodesiense and gambiense present as acute illnesses

  7. The phosphoproteome of bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei, causative agent of African sleeping sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Isabelle R E; Martin, David M A; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Lamont, Douglas; Barber, Jonathan D; Mehlert, Angela; Ferguson, Michael A J

    2009-07-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness and related animal diseases, and it has over 170 predicted protein kinases. Protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism for cellular function that, thus far, has been studied in T.brucei principally through putative kinase mRNA knockdown and observation of the resulting phenotype. However, despite the relatively large kinome of this organism and the demonstrated essentiality of several T. brucei kinases, very few specific phosphorylation sites have been determined in this organism. Using a gel-free, phosphopeptide enrichment-based proteomics approach we performed the first large scale phosphorylation site analyses for T.brucei. Serine, threonine, and tyrosine phosphorylation sites were determined for a cytosolic protein fraction of the bloodstream form of the parasite, resulting in the identification of 491 phosphoproteins based on the identification of 852 unique phosphopeptides and 1204 phosphorylation sites. The phosphoproteins detected in this study are predicted from their genome annotations to participate in a wide variety of biological processes, including signal transduction, processing of DNA and RNA, protein synthesis, and degradation and to a minor extent in metabolic pathways. The analysis of phosphopeptides and phosphorylation sites was facilitated by in-house developed software, and this automated approach was validated by manual annotation of spectra of the kinase subset of proteins. Analysis of the cytosolic bloodstream form T. brucei kinome revealed the presence of 44 phosphorylated protein kinases in our data set that could be classified into the major eukaryotic protein kinase groups by applying a multilevel hidden Markov model library of the kinase catalytic domain. Identification of the kinase phosphorylation sites showed conserved phosphorylation sequence motifs in several kinase activation segments, supporting the view that

  8. Social factors affecting seasonal variation in bovine trypanosomiasis on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is a widespread disease of livestock in Nigeria and presents a major constraint to rural economic development. The Jos Plateau was considered free from tsetse flies and the trypanosomes they transmit due to its high altitude and this trypanosomiasis free status attracted large numbers of cattle-keeping pastoralists to the area. The Jos Plateau now plays a major role in the national cattle industry in Nigeria, accommodating approximately 7% of the national herd, supporting 300,000 pastoralists and over one million cattle. During the past two decades tsetse flies have invaded the Jos Plateau and animal trypanosomiasis has become a significant problem for livestock keepers. Here we investigate the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis as a re-emerging disease on the Plateau, examining the social factors that influence prevalence and seasonal variation of bovine trypanosomiasis. Methods In 2008 a longitudinal two-stage cluster survey was undertaken on the Jos Plateau. Cattle were sampled in the dry, early wet and late wet seasons. Parasite identification was undertaken using species-specific polymerase chain reactions to determine the prevalence and distribution of bovine trypanosomiasis. Participatory rural appraisal was also conducted to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning animal husbandry and disease control. Results Significant seasonal variation between the dry season and late wet season was recorded across the Jos Plateau, consistent with expected variation in tsetse populations. However, marked seasonal variations were also observed at village level to create 3 distinct groups: Group 1 in which 50% of villages followed the general pattern of low prevalence in the dry season and high prevalence in the wet season; Group 2 in which 16.7% of villages showed no seasonal variation and Group 3 in which 33.3% of villages showed greater disease prevalence in the dry season than in the wet season. Conclusions

  9. Exploring the link between nocturnal heart rate, sleep apnea and cardiovascular function in African and Caucasian men : the SABPA study / Y. van Rooyen.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rooyen, Yolandi

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: There is a rapid escalation in urbanization amongst South Africans and it is known that urbanized South Africans are subjected to lifestyle factors conducive to an increase in the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been described as an independent risk factor for CVD, especially hypertension. OSA has also been associated with insomnia, and plays a contributory role in the co-morbidity of this disorder. The mechanisms employed by OSA, which pro...

  10. Mapping sleeping sickness in Western Africa in a context of demographic transition and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecchi G.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Human population growth, climate change and economic development are causing major environmental modifications in Western Africa, which will have important repercussions on the epidemiology of sleeping sickness. A new initiative, the Atlas of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, aims at assembling and geo-referencing all epidemiological data derived from both active screening activities and passive surveillance. A geographic database enables to generate up-to-date disease maps at a range of scales and of unprecedented spatial accuracy. We present preliminary results for seven West African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Mali and Togo and briefly discuss the relevance of the Atlas for future monitoring, control and research activities.

  11. The significance of migrant Fulani and human trypanosomiasis in Kainji Lake area of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekolu-John, E O

    1978-09-01

    The transhumance-route followed by the Fulani around Lake Kainji area of Nigeria is presented. Between January and February 1977 130 Fulanis were interviewed at different locations. Most respondents were between 20-60 years of age. In addition to cattle rearing, farming is practised among the Fulanis interviewed at Kaiama and Olli. Those interviewed at Faku practised pastoral transhumance. Less than 15% of the respondents had previous knowledge of human sleeping sickness. Although examination of blood films (thin and thick) did not reveal any blood trypanosome, the transhumance pastoral mobility will be an important factor in any outbreak of human trypanosomiasis around Kainji Lake area in future. PMID:734753

  12. Tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trypanosomiasis, a disease transmitted by tsetse flies, is a major constraint on Agricultural Production in Tropical Africa. In Zimbabwe where agriculture, and particularly stock raising, is of major economic and social significance, the control of the tsetse fly leading to its eradication is a task of national importance. Zimbabwe has achieved significant progress in tsetse and trypanosomiasis control with a total of 48,000 km2 being cleared of tsetse since 1980. The cleared areas have been consolidated by planned human settlement whose agricultural production has increased following introduction of cattle which provide much needed traction power. Tsetse flies are now confined to an area of 25,000 km2 along the Zambezi Valley. Several strategies are being used to control tsetse flies with the latest technique being the use of odour-baited insecticide-impregnated targets. When used at a density of 4/km2, targets have been found to be extremely effective against the species of tsetse flies found in Zimbabwe. The work undertaken in Zimbabwe as well as prospects for the future within the EEC-funded Regional Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Programme will be discussed. (author)

  13. Prevention and control of malaria and sleeping sickness in Africa: Where are we and where are we going?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbel Vincent

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The International Symposium on Malaria and Human African Trypanosomiasis: New Strategies for their Prevention & Control was held 7-8 October, 2010 in Cotonou, Benin with about 250 participants from 20 countries. This scientific event aimed at identifying the gaps and research priorities in the prevention and control of malaria and sleeping sickness in Africa and to promote exchange between North and South in the fields of medical entomology, epidemiology, immunology and parasitology. A broad range of influential partners from academia (scientists, stakeholders, public health workers and industry attempted the meeting and about 40 oral communications and 20 posters were presented by phD students and internationally-recognized scientists from the North and the South. Finally, a special award ceremony was held to recognize efforts in pioneer work conducted by staff involved in the diagnostic of the Sleeping illness in West Africa with partnership and assistance from WHO and Sanofi-Aventis group.

  14. International assistance to intervention policies and implementation of area-wide tsetse and animal trypanosomiasis programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis is a human and animal disease problem that directly and indirectly affects African livestock and agricultural output, rural socio-economic development, human health and welfare. The overall economic impact of African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) is estimated at USD 4.75 billion per annum in benefits than could otherwise have been obtained in the agriculture and livestock sector. With regards to human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), an effective active surveillance programme would need to cover 70 percent of the people at risk, for which some USD 35 million per year would be needed, not including the cost of drugs needed for treating all detected cases. Efforts against the AAT problem require a prioritised approach as part of sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD). As the spread of HAT over the past decades, was furthered by many socio-economic factors, such as political instability, wars and poverty, effective and sustainable intervention efforts against HAT require to be established as part of overall public health initiatives. A removal of the tsetse and trypanosomiasis (T and T) problem is expected to have a catalysing effect on rural development, on public health and on reducing poverty and food insecurity. A variety of agro-ecological settings (geo-climatic factors and trends, land-use patterns, livestock systems and crop agriculture practices) prevail in tsetse-infested sub-Saharan Africa and result in heterogeneous landscape scenarios in terms of HAT foci, AAT prevalence, farming, poverty and food security. Consequently, priority areas, where T and T intervention is most urgently needed and is expected to produce tangible and sustainable benefits, are to be selected not merely on the basis of the technical feasibility to alleviate or eliminate disease, but also and perhaps foremost on the need for emergency assistance - particularly regarding HAT - and the potential for sustainable public health and

  15. Sleeping sickness and its relationship with development and biodiversity conservation in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neil E; Mubanga, Joseph; Machila, Noreen; Atkinson, Peter M; Dzingirai, Vupenyu; Welburn, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    The Luangwa Valley has a long historical association with Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and is a recognised geographical focus of this disease. It is also internationally acclaimed for its high biodiversity and contains many valuable habitats. Local inhabitants of the valley have developed sustainable land use systems in co-existence with wildlife over centuries, based on non-livestock keeping practices largely due to the threat from African Animal Trypanosomiasis. Historical epidemics of human sleeping sickness have influenced how and where communities have settled and have had a profound impact on development in the Valley. Historical attempts to control trypanosomiasis have also had a negative impact on conservation of biodiversity.Centralised control over wildlife utilisation has marginalised local communities from managing the wildlife resource. To some extent this has been reversed by the implementation of community based natural resource management programmes in the latter half of the 20(th) century and the Luangwa Valley provides some of the earliest examples of such programmes. More recently, there has been significant uncontrolled migration of people into the mid-Luangwa Valley driven by pressure on resources in the eastern plateau region, encouragement from local chiefs and economic development in the tourist centre of Mfuwe. This has brought changing land-use patterns, most notably agricultural development through livestock keeping and cotton production. These changes threaten to alter the endemically stable patterns of HAT transmission and could have significant impacts on ecosystem health and ecosystem services.In this paper we review the history of HAT in the context of conservation and development and consider the impacts current changes may have on this complex social-ecological system. We conclude that improved understanding is required to identify specific circumstances where win-win trade-offs can be achieved between the conservation of

  16. Association of genetic loci with sleep apnea in European Americans and African-Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay R Patel

    Full Text Available Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is known to have a strong familial basis, no genetic polymorphisms influencing apnea risk have been identified in cross-cohort analyses. We utilized the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe to identify sleep apnea susceptibility loci. Using a panel of 46,449 polymorphisms from roughly 2,100 candidate genes on a customized Illumina iSelect chip, we tested for association with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI as well as moderate to severe OSA (AHI≥15 in 3,551 participants of the Cleveland Family Study and two cohorts participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study.Among 647 African-Americans, rs11126184 in the pleckstrin (PLEK gene was associated with OSA while rs7030789 in the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1 gene was associated with AHI using a chip-wide significance threshold of p-value<2×10(-6. Among 2,904 individuals of European ancestry, rs1409986 in the prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER3 gene was significantly associated with OSA. Consistency of effects between rs7030789 and rs1409986 in LPAR1 and PTGER3 and apnea phenotypes were observed in independent clinic-based cohorts.Novel genetic loci for apnea phenotypes were identified through the use of customized gene chips and meta-analyses of cohort data with replication in clinic-based samples. The identified SNPs all lie in genes associated with inflammation suggesting inflammation may play a role in OSA pathogenesis.

  17. Interim strategies to control animal trypanosomiasis in two selected villages along the white volta river in the onchocerciasis free zone of Northern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The onchocerciasis eradication campaign in the west African subregion was a remarkable success which made formally deserted lands now suitable for settlement. Recent tsetse and trypanosomiasis surveys along the White Volta river indicate that livestock development would virtually be impossible in these areas without some form of intervention to contain animal trypanosomiasis. Apparent fly densities are in the order of 5-10 flies/trap/day (biconica traps) with fly infection rate being in the order of 1-8.0%. Trypanosomiasis is particularly prevalent in small ruminants (12-30%) with several reported cases of abortion. In view of the sparse human population in some of these areas, large scale control programmes would not be advisable unless there is a clear land-use plan. In the interim, however, efforts could be made to control the disease at the village level. This paper outlines some village-based strategies that could be adopted by settlers in these areas. (author)

  18. Disease: H00357 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00357 African trypanosomiasis; Sleeping sickness African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic conditi ... rucei [GN:tbr] Vector: Glossina pallidipes (tsetse fly ) ICD-10: B56 MeSH: D014353 MedlinePlus: 001362 ...

  19. Report of the workshop on strategic planning of area-wide tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis is a disease unique to Africa affecting both humans and animals. This disease occurs in about 10 million km2 in 37 sub-Saharan countries corresponding approximately to one-third of Africa's total land area, and threatens an estimated 50 million people, 48 million cattle and a countless population of other domestic animal species. Trypanosomiasis has a severe impact on African agriculture; estimated annual losses in cattle production alone are in the range of 1.0-1.2 billion dollars. To this, we have to add the indirect negative effects engendered by trypanosomiasis on total crop production. The disease influences where people decide to live, how they manage their livestock and the intensity of crop agriculture. The combined effects result in changes in land use, environment and affect human welfare and increase the vulnerability of agricultural activity. FAO has identified the reinforcement of agriculture as a key element in the fight against poverty and the improvement of food security in developing countries. The need to reduce poverty is particularly felt in tsetse infested areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In this region half of the population suffers from food insecurity. Approximately 85% of the poor are located in rural areas and more than 80% of the population depends on agricultural production for their livelihood. In order to respond to the need in the fight against tsetse and trypanosomiasis (T and T) in people as well as livestock, the Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) was endorsed in November 1997 by the FAO Conference. The Programme seeks to combine the forces of FAO, IAEA, OAU/IBAR and WHO in order to: promote and co-ordinate international alliances and efforts assisting in harmonised interventions against T and T; effectively combat the disease in Africa; and delineate the polity framework, strategies and guiding pest management principles. This workshop was primarily concerned with the development of

  20. Sleep and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Debt Sleep Deprivation Sleep Disorders Sleep history Sleep hygiene sleep length Sleep Need Sleep talking Sleeping Pills ... culture Immune System military travel CDC Healthy Sleep Sleep hygiene sleep length Sleep Debt Sleep Deprivation Sleep Need ...

  1. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  2. Tsetse and trypanosomiasis at the Ngulia Rhino sanctuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conservation of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Kenya involves the translocation of rhinoceros to protected sanctuaries, e.g. the recently enlarged 69 km2 sanctuary at Ngulia in Tsavo West National Park. As the black rhinoceros is known to be particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma brucei, there is a strong possibility that the stress of translocation will induce health problems that would not normally occur in resident populations. Similarly, the movement of animals born in tsetse-free areas to tsetse-infested areas may result in trypanosomiasis problems because of loss of immune protection in the absence of challenge in early life. Finally, there is some concern over the possibility of facilitating genetic exchange in T. brucei through the artificial movement of animals over long distances into novel environments. To aid in the development of prudent management practices, we initiated baseline studies on tsetse distribution and trypanosomiasis at the Ngulia sanctuary. To date, we have completed a dry season survey of tsetse distribution over a 125 km2 area centred on the sanctuary and have characterized the nature of the trypanosomiasis challenge in different areas. Trypanosomiasis challenge at Ngulia involves a variety of Trypanosoma spp. Nevertheless, an unusual finding is the lack of diversity in Nannomonas parasites, with most belonging to the savannah group of T. congolense

  3. Fate of trypanocidal drugs in cattle (chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis). Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the final report of a project to determine the fate of tryponocidal drugs in cattle. Drugs are still the primary agent in the struggle against trypanosomiasis although there is little data on their pharmacokinetics, residue levels, bioavailability rates, etc. This project aimed to provide such information for the three drugs Diminazene aceturate (Berenil), Isometamidium chloride (Samorin) and Homidium bromide (Ethidium). Figs and tabs

  4. Contribution to the Analysis Cost/Benefit of Scenarios to Control Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis in West Africa (Data Study Area in Benin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trypanosomiasis and animal sleeping sickness is a major constraint for Africa south of Sahara. Nearly a century of struggle was not enough to contain tsetse infestations or reduce the impact of Trypanosomiasis in Africa. So that the socioeconomic development of third of the continent is severely compromised by the consequences of this debilitating often fatal disease that affects humans and animals. It is painful to note that the country's poorest continent through a crisis period (armed conflict, population movements) are most severely affected by the sleeping sickness making interventions of medical teams difficult and dangerous. Sixty (60) million men, women and children in 22 of 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa live under the threat of sleeping sickness. About half a million men are affected by sleeping sickness. 45,000 new cases were recorded according to WHO in 1999. Forty four (44) million cattle besides other domestic animals are in infested areas of tsetse flies. The disease causes a loss of 3 million cattle a year, a loss of 26% milk yield, a 50% reduction in the number of herds in areas with high agricultural potential (PLTA, 1999). This report has been prepared to provide the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) data on the various study area in Benin for a cost / benefit analysis of any program against tsetse flies and trypanosomiasis in Sudanian and Sudanian Sahel of West Africa. The study area located in Benin covers the departments of Alibori and Borgou. After presenting general information on Benin, this report focuses on: - The evolution of the human population in the study area, - The health situation, - The size and productivity of livestock, - The development achievements of major crops - Natural resources and soil quality. In conclusion, it was noted the positive impact of a regional program to fight against Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis based on the integrated use of different control methods non pollutant to the environment (traps and

  5. Prevalence and Types of Coinfections in Sleeping Sickness Patients in Kenya (2000/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Kagira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of coinfections in human African trypanosomiasis (HAT patients was investigated using a retrospective data of hospital records at the National Sleeping Sickness Referral Hospital in Alupe, Kenya. A total of 31 patients, 19 males and 12 females, were diagnosed with HAT between the years 2000 and 2009. The observed co-infections included malaria (100%, helminthosis (64.5%, typhoid (22.5%, urinary tract infections (16.1%, HIV (12.9%, and tuberculosis (3.2%. The species of helminthes observed included Ancylostoma duodenale (38.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (45.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis (9.7%, and Taenia spp. (3.2%. The patients were also infected with Entamoeba spp. (32.3% and Trichomonas hominis (22.6% protozoan parasites. The main clinical signs observed at the point of admission included headache (74.2%, fever (48.4%, sleep disorders (45.2%, and general body pain (41.9%. The HAT patients were treated with suramin (early stage, 9/31 and melarsoprol (late stage, 22/31. In conclusion, the study has shown that HAT patients have multiple co-infections which may influence the disease pathogenesis and complicate management of HAT.

  6. Immunodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomiasis in Anambra and Imo states, Nigeria, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: zoonotic implications to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Ezeani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The prevalence of trypanosomiasis was studied in cattle, being a major source of animal protein in Nigeria, thus, a very likely means of spread of Human African Trypano-somosis (HAT. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to diagnose bovine trypanosomiasis in 264 samples collected from adult cattle of mixed breeds, age and sex, in Anambra and Imo states, Nigeria. Results: Out of 264 samples analysed, 21 (7.96% were seropositive for Trypanosoma congolense while 20 (7.58% were seropositive for T. vivax and 8 (3.03% were seropositive for T. brucei infections in both the states. Interpretation & conclusion: The predominant species was found to be T. congolense. Mixed infection of three species, T. vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei was found to dominate other mixed infections in both the states. ELISA detected the infection of the three species of trypanosomes in the same group of animals. The usefulness of antigen capture ELISA in the diagnosis of human or animal trypanosomiasis was established, and the possibility of the spread of HAT caused by T. brucei gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense through cattle was expressed.

  7. Familial aggregation of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis in a very high incidence community in Zaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonde, N; Pépin, J; Niyonsenga, T; De Wals, P

    1997-01-01

    Familial aggregation of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) was investigated in 3 adjacent villages of central Zaire where 318/1431 inhabitants had previously suffered from HAT. Neither spatial nor familial aggregation was detected when analysing the distribution of cases in the whole community using Poisson, negative binomial and pairwise odds ratio models. However, clustering of cases was observed when specific familial relationships were examined. The risk of HAT for a child was significantly increased if the mother had also had HAT, but it was not influenced by a past history of HAT in the father. Sisters and brothers of cases of HAT had a higher risk of HAT than siblings of individuals who had never had HAT, but no such association was documented for half-sisters and half-brothers. Among married couples, a past history of HAT in one spouse had no impact on the other spouse's risk of HAT. Indirect arguments suggested that familial clustering was a consequence of shared exposure, either sequential or simultaneous, rather than of genetic susceptibility. The existence of familial clustering should be kept in mind when implementing passive or active case-finding activities. PMID:9463655

  8. Seroprevalence of CANINE LEISHMANIASIS AND American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections with both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishman...

  9. Three-year changes of prothrombotic factors in a cohort of South Africans with a high clinical suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, Roland; Malan, Nico T; Hamer, Mark; Lambert, Gavin W; Schlaich, Markus; Reimann, Manja; Malan, Leoné

    2016-01-01

    A hypercoagulable state might be one important mechanism linking obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with incident myocardial infarction and stroke. However, previous studies on prothrombotic factors in OSA are not uniform and cross-sectional. We longitudinally studied prothrombotic factors in relation to OSA risk, adjusting for baseline levels of prothrombotic factors, demographics, metabolic parameters, aspirin use, and life style factors. The Berlin Questionnaire and/or neck circumference were used to define high OSA risk in 329 South African teachers (48.0% male, 44.6% black) at baseline and at three-year follow-up. Von Willebrand factor (VWF), fibrinogen, D-dimer, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, clot lysis time (CLT), and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) were measured in plasma. At baseline 35.7% of participants had a high risk of OSA. At follow-up, persistently high OSA risk, persistently low OSA risk, OSA risk remission, and new-onset OSA risk were present in 26.1%, 53.2%, 9.4%, and 11.3% of participants, respectively. New-onset OSA risk was associated with a significant and longitudinal increase in VWF, fibrinogen, CLT, and suPAR relative to persistently low OSA risk; in VWF, fibrinogen, and suPAR relative to remitted OSA risk; and in VWF relative to persistently high OSA risk. Persistently high OSA risk was associated with an increase in CLT and suPAR relative to persistently low OSA risk and in D-dimer relative to remitted OSA risk. Remitted OSA risk was associated with D-dimer decrease relative to persistently low OSA risk. In OSA, hypercoagulability is a dynamic process with a most prominent three-year increase in individuals with new-onset OSA risk. PMID:26335891

  10. Analysis of a model of gambiense sleeping sickness in humans and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndondo, A M; Munganga, J M W; Mwambakana, J N; Saad-Roy, C M; van den Driessche, P; Walo, R O

    2016-12-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Nagana in cattle, commonly called sleeping sickness, is caused by trypanosome protozoa transmitted by bites of infected tsetse flies. We present a deterministic model for the transmission of HAT caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense between human hosts, cattle hosts and tsetse flies. The model takes into account the growth of the tsetse fly, from its larval stage to the adult stage. Disease in the tsetse fly population is modeled by three compartments, and both the human and cattle populations are modeled by four compartments incorporating the two stages of HAT. We provide a rigorous derivation of the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text]. For [Formula: see text], the disease free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable, thus HAT dies out; whereas (assuming no return to susceptibility) for [Formula: see text], HAT persists. Elasticity indices for [Formula: see text] with respect to different parameters are calculated with baseline parameter values appropriate for HAT in West Africa; indicating parameters that are important for control strategies to bring [Formula: see text] below 1. Numerical simulations with [Formula: see text] show values for the infected populations at the endemic equilibrium, and indicate that with certain parameter values, HAT could not persist in the human population in the absence of cattle. PMID:27296784

  11. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  12. Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  13. Racial Differences in Sleep Architecture: The Role of Ethnic Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Tomfohr, Lianne; Pung, Meredith A.; Edwards, Kate M; Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2011-01-01

    African Americans have been consistently shown to have less deep (slow wave sleep; SWS) and more light (Stages 1 and 2) sleep than Caucasian Americans. This paper explored whether discrimination, a stressor that uniquely impacts certain ethnic groups, contributes to differences in sleep architecture. The sleep of 164 African and Caucasian Americans was examined with laboratory based polysomnography (PSG). Experiences of perceived discrimination (The Scale of Ethnic Experience) and sociodemogr...

  14. A neglected aspect of the epidemiology of sleeping sickness: the propensity of the tsetse fly vector to enter houses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn A Vale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When taking a bloodmeal from humans, tsetse flies can transmit the trypanosomes responsible for sleeping sickness, or human African trypanosomiasis. While it is commonly assumed that humans must enter the normal woodland habitat of the tsetse in order to have much chance of contacting the flies, recent studies suggested that important contact can occur due to tsetse entering buildings. Hence, we need to know more about tsetse in buildings, and to understand why, when and how they enter such places. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Buildings studied were single storied and comprised a large house with a thatched roof and smaller houses with roofs of metal or asbestos. Each building was unoccupied except for the few minutes of its inspection every two hours, so focusing on the responses of tsetse to the house itself, rather than to humans inside. The composition, and physiological condition of catches of tsetse flies, Glossina morsitans morsitans and G. pallidipes, in the houses and the diurnal and seasonal pattern of catches, were intermediate between these aspects of the catches from artificial refuges and a host-like trap. Several times more tsetse were caught in the large house, as against the smaller structures. Doors and windows seemed about equally effective as entry points. Many of the tsetse in houses were old enough to be potential vectors of sleeping sickness, and some of the flies alighted on the humans that inspected the houses. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Houses are attractive in themselves. Some of the tsetse attracted seem to be in a host-seeking phase of behavior and others appear to be looking for shelter from high temperatures outside. The risk of contracting sleeping sickness in houses varies according to house design.

  15. Tsetse Control and Gambian Sleeping Sickness; Implications for Control Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaki Tirados

    Full Text Available Gambian sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis, HAT outbreaks are brought under control by case detection and treatment although it is recognised that this typically only reaches about 75% of the population. Vector control is capable of completely interrupting HAT transmission but is not used because it is considered too expensive and difficult to organise in resource-poor settings. We conducted a full scale field trial of a refined vector control technology to determine its utility in control of Gambian HAT.The major vector of Gambian HAT is the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes which lives in the humid zone immediately adjacent to water bodies. From a series of preliminary trials we determined the number of tiny targets required to reduce G. fuscipes populations by more than 90%. Using these data for model calibration we predicted we needed a target density of 20 per linear km of river in riverine savannah to achieve >90% tsetse control. We then carried out a full scale, 500 km2 field trial covering two HAT foci in Northern Uganda to determine the efficacy of tiny targets (overall target density 5.7/km2. In 12 months, tsetse populations declined by more than 90%. As a guide we used a published HAT transmission model and calculated that a 72% reduction in tsetse population is required to stop transmission in those settings.The Ugandan census suggests population density in the HAT foci is approximately 500 per km2. The estimated cost for a single round of active case detection (excluding treatment, covering 80% of the population, is US$433,333 (WHO figures. One year of vector control organised within the country, which can completely stop HAT transmission, would cost US$42,700. The case for adding this method of vector control to case detection and treatment is strong. We outline how such a component could be organised.

  16. Practical applications of geographical information systems in tsetse and trypanosomiasis control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three aspects of geographical information systems (GISs) in tsetse and trypanosomiasis control are addressed. First is their use in planning and managing control operations, second is the use of appropriate data management systems to capture data from the field and process them in a format that facilitates their geographical analysis, and third is the use of GISs to predict some of the data layers required for planning tsetse and trypanosomiasis control activities. In planning and managing trypanosomiasis interventions, GISs are applied at a range of levels. At the policy level, it can be used to integrate data such as tsetse and trypanosomiasis distributions, livestock densities and percentage cultivation to assist in allocating resources to tsetse and trypanosomiasis control. At the management level, it can be used to combine the same sorts of data in decision support models to help prioritize areas for control. At the operational level, it can be used to help plan, manage and monitor field operations. Much of the data required for these applications come directly from the field, particularly the distributions of livestock, vector and disease. The use of bespoke software such as the disease and vector integrated database (DAVID) greatly facilitates entry, display and analysis of field data, and their integration with other data within GISs. Collecting field data relevant to planning and managing tsetse and trypanosomiasis control operations is often very expensive and time consuming, therefore preventing exhaustive ground coverage. The use of GISs to combine environmental predictor variables, using multivariate statistical models, and to predict the distribution and abundance of tsetse, trypanosomiasis, cultivation and livestock is reviewed. Finally, opportunities are discussed for developing these applications in the future. It is recommended that stronger links be forged between the research workers and those in operational programmes. (author)

  17. Race and Financial Strain are Independent Correlates of Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martica H.; Matthews, Karen A.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Gold, Ellen B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Owens, Jane F.; Sowers, MaryFran

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine racial differences in sleep in a large cohort of midlife women and to evaluate whether indices of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with racial differences in sleep. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Caucasian (n = 171), African American (n = 138) and Chinese women (n = 59). Interventions: None. Measurements: Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Polysomnographically assessed sleep duration, continuity, architecture, and NREM electroencephalograhic (EEG) power were calculated over multiple nights. Sleep disordered breathing and periodic leg movements were measured on a separate night. Linear regression analysis was used to model the independent and synergistic effects of race and SES on sleep after adjusting for other factors that impact sleep in midlife women. Indices of SES were self-reported educational attainment and financial strain. Results: Sleep was worse in African American women than Caucasian participants as measured by self-report, visual sleep stage scoring, and NREM EEG power. Slow wave sleep differences were also observed between Chinese and Caucasian participants. Racial differences persisted after adjustment for indices of SES. Although educational attainment was unrelated to sleep, financial strain was associated with decreased sleep quality and lower sleep efficiency. Financial strain-by-race interactions were not statistically significant, suggesting that financial strain has additive effects on sleep, independent of race. Conclusions: Independent relationships between race and financial strain with sleep were observed despite statistical adjustment for other factors that might account for these relationships. Results do not suggest that assessed indices of SES moderate the race-sleep relationship, perhaps due to too few women of low SES in the study. Citation: Hall MH; Matthews KA; Kravitz HM; Gold EB; Buysse DJ; Bromberger JT; Owens JF

  18. Environments and trypanosomiasis risks for early herders in the later Holocene of the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chritz, Kendra L; Marshall, Fiona B; Zagal, M Esperanza; Kirera, Francis; Cerling, Thure E

    2015-03-24

    Specialized pastoralism developed ∼3 kya among Pastoral Neolithic Elmenteitan herders in eastern Africa. During this time, a mosaic of hunters and herders using diverse economic strategies flourished in southern Kenya. It has been argued that the risk for trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), carried by tsetse flies in bushy environments, had a significant influence on pastoral diversification and migration out of eastern Africa toward southern Africa ∼2 kya. Elmenteitan levels at Gogo Falls (ca. 1.9-1.6 kya) preserve a unique faunal record, including wild mammalian herbivores, domestic cattle and caprines, fish, and birds. It has been suggested that a bushy/woodland habitat that harbored tsetse fly constrained production of domestic herds and resulted in subsistence diversification. Stable isotope analysis of herbivore tooth enamel (n = 86) from this site reveals, instead, extensive C4 grazing by both domesticates and the majority of wild herbivores. Integrated with other ecological proxies (pollen and leaf wax biomarkers), these data imply an abundance of C4 grasses in the Lake Victoria basin at this time, and thus little risk for tsetse-related barriers to specialized pastoralism. These data provide empirical evidence for the existence of a grassy corridor through which small groups of herders could have passed to reach southern Africa. PMID:25775535

  19. Sleep apnoea

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Jonathan C.; Swati Chopra; Schwartz, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep apnoea is a disorder characterised by repetitive pauses in breathing during sleep caused by airway occlusion (obstructive sleep apnoea) or altered control of breathing (central sleep apnoea). In this Clinical Year in Review, we summarise high-impact research from the past year pertaining to management, diagnosis and cardio-metabolic consequences of sleep apnoea.

  20. Glycolysis in the African Trypanosome: Targeting Enzymes and Their Subcellular Compartments for Therapeutic Development

    OpenAIRE

    James C. Morris; Morris, Meredith T.; Dodson, Heidi C.; Coley, April F.

    2011-01-01

    Subspecies of the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, which cause human African trypanosomiasis, are transmitted by the tsetse fly, with transmission-essential lifecycle stages occurring in both the insect vector and human host. During infection of the human host, the parasite is limited to using glycolysis of host sugar for ATP production. This dependence on glucose breakdown presents a series of targets for potential therapeutic development, many of which have been explored and validat...

  1. Sleep Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  2. [Sleep psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are serious issues in modern society. There has been marked scientific interest in sleep for a century, with the discoveries of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG), sleep-wake system, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and circadian rhythm system. Additionally, the advent of video-polysomnography in clinical research has revealed some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. Decades of clinical research have demonstrated that sleep disorders are intimately tied to not only physical disease (e. g., lifestyle-related disease) but psychiatric illness. According to The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2005), sleep disorders are classified into 8 major categories: 1) insomnia, 2) sleep-related breathing disorders, 3) hypersomnias of central origin, 4) circadian rhythm sleep disorders, 5) parasomnias, 6) sleep-related movement disorders, 7) isolated symptoms, and 8) other sleep disorders. Several sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and narcolepsy, may be comorbid or possibly mimic numerous psychiatric disorders, and can even occur due to psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Moreover, sleep disorders may exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders when left untreated. Therefore, psychiatrists should pay attention to the intimate relationship between sleep disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Sleep psychiatry is an academic field focusing on interrelations between sleep medicine and psychiatry. This mini-review summarizes recent findings in sleep psychiatry. Future research on the bidirectional relation between sleep disturbance and psychiatric symptoms will shed light on the pathophysiological view of psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. PMID:24050022

  3. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian sleep has evolved under the influence of the day-night cycle and in response to reproductive needs, food seeking, and predator avoidance, resulting in circadian (predictive) and homeostatic (reactive) regulation. A molecular clock characterized by transcription/translation feedback loops...... mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive...

  4. African trypanosomiasis in the rat alters melatonin secretion and melatonin receptor binding in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensson, Krister; Claustrat, Bruno; Mhlanga, Jama D.M.;

    1998-01-01

    Neurobiology, cytokines, circadian rhythm, infection, nervous system, pineal gland, trypanosoma brucei......Neurobiology, cytokines, circadian rhythm, infection, nervous system, pineal gland, trypanosoma brucei...

  5. Snoring and risk for obstructive sleep apnea among nigerians with heart failure: Prevalence and clinical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeseye A Akintunde

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Heart failure seems to be associated with snoring and a high risk for obstructive sleep apnea among Africans with heart failure. Assessment for sleep disordered breathing should be incorporated into their routine clinical workup.

  6. Variability of sleep duration is related to subjective sleep quality and subjective well-being: an actigraphy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari Lemola

    Full Text Available While there is a large body of evidence that poor subjective sleep quality is related to lower subjective well-being, studies on the relation of objective sleep measures and subjective well-being are fewer in number and less consistent in their findings. Using data of the Survey of Mid-Life in the United States (MIDUS, we investigated whether duration and quality of sleep, assessed by actigraphy, were related to subjective well-being and whether this relationship was mediated by subjective sleep quality. Three hundred and thirteen mainly white American individuals from the general population and 128 urban-dwelling African American individuals between 35 and 85 years of age were studied cross-sectionally. Sleep duration, variability of sleep duration, sleep onset latency, and time awake after sleep onset were assessed by actigraphy over a period of 7 days. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, positive psychological well-being and symptoms of psychological distress were assessed with the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire. In both white and African Americans high day-to-day variability in sleep duration was related to lower levels of subjective well-being controlling age, gender, educational and marital status, and BMI. By contrast, sleep duration, sleep onset latency, and time awake after sleep onset were not related to subjective well-being controlling covariates and other sleep variables. Moreover, the relationship between variability in sleep duration and well-being was partially mediated by subjective sleep quality. The findings show that great day-to-day variability in sleep duration--more than average sleep duration--is related to poor subjective sleep quality and poor subjective well-being.

  7. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors can have a major impact ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center. Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious ... to find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious ...

  9. Sleeping sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001362.htm Sleeping sickness To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleeping sickness is an infection caused by germs carried ...

  10. Exercise & Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents At ... healthy weight Build sturdy muscles, bones, and joints Sleep better at night More time in front of ...

  11. Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  12. Sleep apnoea

    OpenAIRE

    Hensley, Michael; Ray, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Sleep apnoea is the popular term for obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). OSAHS is abnormal breathing during sleep that causes recurrent arousals, sleep fragmentation, daytime sleepiness, and nocturnal hypoxaemia. Apnoea may be "central", in which there is cessation of inspiratory effort, or "obstructive", in which inspiratory efforts continue but are ineffective because of upper airway obstruction.OSAHS affects up to 4% of men and 2% of women in the USA, with obesity being...

  13. An Actigraphy Study of Sleep and Pain in Midlife Women – The SWAN Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Howard M.; Zheng, Huiyong; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Owens, Jane; Hall, Martica H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined whether women reporting nighttime pain would have more actigraphy-measured evidence for disturbed sleep and report feeling less rested compared to women without nighttime pain. Methods Up to 27 consecutive nights of actigraphy and sleep diary data were analyzed from each participant in this community-based study of 314 African-American (n=118), White (n=141), and Chinese (n=55) women, aged 48-58 years, who were pre-, peri- or post-menopausal and participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Dependent variables were actigraphy-measured movement and fragmentation index, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency, and diary self-report of feeling rested after waking up. All outcomes were fit using linear mixed effect models to examine covariate-adjusted associations between the independent variable, nighttime pain severity, and sleep outcomes. Results Higher pain severity scores were associated with longer sleep duration but reduced sleep efficiency and feeling less rested. Women reporting nocturnal vasomotor symptoms had more sleep-related movement and sleep fragmentation, reduced sleep efficiency, and were less likely to feel rested after wakening, regardless of whether they reported pain. Conclusions Midlife women who report higher nighttime pain levels have more objective evidence for less efficient sleep, consistent with self-reported less restful sleep. Nocturnal vasomotor symptoms also can contribute to restlessness and wakefulness in midlife women. PMID:25706182

  14. The sterile insect technique and its role in integrated Trypanosomiasis control programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper an attempt is made to define the rationale for using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for tsetse fly eradication within the global concept of trypanosomiasis control. Against the background of past and present research and development, and particularly the success of integrated tsetse fly control campaigns in Burkina Faso and Nigeria, the paper identifies problems to be overcome before further major action programmes with an SIT component are undertaken. (author). 33 refs

  15. Why Sleep?

    OpenAIRE

    Manoach, Dara S.; Stickgold, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We human beings spend about a third of our lives sleeping. That means that if you live to 90, you'll sleep for about 30 years – probably more time than you'll spend doing anything else. Sleep is really important since we cannot live without it and spend so much time doing it. Yet unlike the other basic biological drives such as eating and reproducing, we still don't understand exactly why we need to sleep. It used to be thought that sleep was mainly to rest and restore the body and the mind, ...

  16. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep ... Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  17. Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency? Sleep deprivation (DEP-rih-VA- ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: February 22, 2012 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  18. National Sleep Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Turkish Ukrainian Urdu Vietnamese Welsh Yiddish Choose a Sleep Topic sleep.org Sleep Disorders View More Items ... Recommendations. More Join Now Become a Professional Member Sleep.org Footer Redirect Learn about how sleep impacts ...

  19. Sleep disorders - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  20. Bromodomain Proteins Contribute to Maintenance of Bloodstream Form Stage Identity in the African Trypanosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Danae; Mugnier, Monica R; Paulsen, Eda-Margaret; Kim, Hee-Sook; Chung, Chun-wa W; Tough, David F; Rioja, Inmaculada; Prinjha, Rab K; Papavasiliou, F Nina; Debler, Erik W

    2015-12-01

    Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, is transmitted to its mammalian host by the tsetse. In the fly, the parasite's surface is covered with invariant procyclin, while in the mammal it resides extracellularly in its bloodstream form (BF) and is densely covered with highly immunogenic Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG). In the BF, the parasite varies this highly immunogenic surface VSG using a repertoire of ~2500 distinct VSG genes. Recent reports in mammalian systems point to a role for histone acetyl-lysine recognizing bromodomain proteins in the maintenance of stem cell fate, leading us to hypothesize that bromodomain proteins may maintain the BF cell fate in trypanosomes. Using small-molecule inhibitors and genetic mutants for individual bromodomain proteins, we performed RNA-seq experiments that revealed changes in the transcriptome similar to those seen in cells differentiating from the BF to the insect stage. This was recapitulated at the protein level by the appearance of insect-stage proteins on the cell surface. Furthermore, bromodomain inhibition disrupts two major BF-specific immune evasion mechanisms that trypanosomes harness to evade mammalian host antibody responses. First, monoallelic expression of the antigenically varied VSG is disrupted. Second, rapid internalization of antibodies bound to VSG on the surface of the trypanosome is blocked. Thus, our studies reveal a role for trypanosome bromodomain proteins in maintaining bloodstream stage identity and immune evasion. Importantly, bromodomain inhibition leads to a decrease in virulence in a mouse model of infection, establishing these proteins as potential therapeutic drug targets for trypanosomiasis. Our 1.25Å resolution crystal structure of a trypanosome bromodomain in complex with I-BET151 reveals a novel binding mode of the inhibitor, which serves as a promising starting point for rational drug design. PMID:26646171

  1. Ethnic differences in electroencephalographic sleep patterns in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Uma; Hammen, Constance L.; Poland, Russell E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ethnic differences in polysomnography measures in adolescents. Ninety-six volunteers from four ethnic groups (13 African-American, 18 Asian-American, 19 Mexican-American, and 46 Non-Hispanic White) were recruited. The subjects were in good physical and psychological health, and were asymptomatic with respect to sleep/wake complaints or sleep disorders. Polysomnography measures were collected on three consecutive nights. African-Americans manifested low...

  2. The validation of an Ag-ELISA for the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis in cattle in Uganda and its use in assessing the efficacy of a control programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An antigen detection ELISA (Ag-ELISA) for the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis was established in UTRO. The Ag-ELISA was used to assess the efficacy on an integrated tsetse and trypanosomiasis control programme which started in June 1991. Cattle were screened for trypanosomiasis using parasitologial tests and the Ag-ELISA. Cattle in Masafu where no control was implemented were screened for comparison with areas where control had been applied. Six months from the onset of control there was a reduction in the prevalence of trypanosomiasis throughout the control area. Six months from the onset of control there was a reduction in the prevalence of trypanosomiasis through the control area. Six months later, prevalence of trypanosomiasis had started rising throughout the control area with the exception of Buteba, where 1% Deltamethrin (Spot-on) had been applied to cattle. In Buteba the presence of trypanosomiasis was only detectable by Ag-ELISA. In Masafu where there was no control, prevalence of trypanosomiasis remained high. The Ag-ELISA consistently showed the presence of greater levels of infection than was revealed by microscopic methods and its usefulness was confirmed both as a means of monitoring the effectiveness of the control campaign and in identifying individual animals with non-patent active infections. 6 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  3. Towards an early warning system for Rhodesian sleeping sickness in savannah areas: man-like traps for tsetse flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn A Vale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the savannahs of East and Southern Africa, tsetse flies (Glossina spp. transmit Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense which causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness, the zoonotic form of human African trypanosomiasis. The flies feed mainly on wild and domestic animals and are usually repelled by humans. However, this innate aversion to humans can be undermined by environmental stresses on tsetse populations, so increasing disease risk. To monitor changes in risk, we need traps designed specifically to quantify the responsiveness of savannah tsetse to humans, but the traps currently available are designed to simulate other hosts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Zimbabwe, two approaches were made towards developing a man-like trap for savannah tsetse: either modifying an ox-like trap or creating new designs. Tsetse catches from a standard ox-like trap used with and without artificial ox odor were reduced by two men standing nearby, by an average of 34% for Glossina morsitans morsitans and 56% for G. pallidipes, thus giving catches more like those made by hand-nets from men. Sampling by electrocuting devices suggested that the men stopped flies arriving near the trap and discouraged trap-entering responses. Most of human repellence was olfactory, as evidenced by the reduction in catches when the trap was used with the odor of hidden men. Geranyl acetone, known to occur in human odor, and dispensed at 0.2 mg/h, was about as repellent as human odor but not as powerfully repellent as wood smoke. New traps looking and smelling like men gave catches like those from men. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Catches from the completely new man-like traps seem too small to give reliable indices of human repellence. Better indications would be provided by comparing the catches of an ox-like trap either with or without artificial human odor. The chemistry and practical applications of the repellence of human odor and smoke deserve further study.

  4. Ethnicity, sleep, mood, and illumination in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuunainen Arja

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined how ethnic differences in sleep and depression were related to environmental illumination and circadian rhythms. Methods In an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, 459 postmenopausal women were recorded for one week in their homes, using wrist monitors. Sleep and illumination experience were estimated. Depression was self-rated with a brief adjective check list. Affective diagnoses were made using the SCID interview. Sleep disordered breathing was monitored with home pulse oximetry. Results Hispanic and African-American women slept less than European-American women, according to both objective recordings and their own sleep logs. Non-European-American women had more blood oxygen desaturations during sleep, which accounted for 26% of sleep duration variance associated with ethnicity. Hispanic women were much more depressed. Hispanic, African-American and Native-American women experienced less daily illumination. Less daily illumination experience was associated with poorer global functioning, longer but more disturbed sleep, and more depression. Conclusions Curtailed sleep and poor mood were related to ethnicity. Sleep disordered breathing was a factor in the curtailed sleep of minority women. Less illumination was experienced by non-European-American women, but illumination accounted for little of the contrasts between ethnic groups in sleep and mood. Social factors may be involved.

  5. Ethnicity, sleep, mood, and illumination in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Daniel F; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Klauber, Melville R; Rex, Katharine M; Tuunainen, Arja; Langer, Robert D

    2004-01-01

    Background This study examined how ethnic differences in sleep and depression were related to environmental illumination and circadian rhythms. Methods In an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, 459 postmenopausal women were recorded for one week in their homes, using wrist monitors. Sleep and illumination experience were estimated. Depression was self-rated with a brief adjective check list. Affective diagnoses were made using the SCID interview. Sleep disordered breathing was monitored with home pulse oximetry. Results Hispanic and African-American women slept less than European-American women, according to both objective recordings and their own sleep logs. Non-European-American women had more blood oxygen desaturations during sleep, which accounted for 26% of sleep duration variance associated with ethnicity. Hispanic women were much more depressed. Hispanic, African-American and Native-American women experienced less daily illumination. Less daily illumination experience was associated with poorer global functioning, longer but more disturbed sleep, and more depression. Conclusions Curtailed sleep and poor mood were related to ethnicity. Sleep disordered breathing was a factor in the curtailed sleep of minority women. Less illumination was experienced by non-European-American women, but illumination accounted for little of the contrasts between ethnic groups in sleep and mood. Social factors may be involved. PMID:15070419

  6. Immunization against East Coast fever: Effect of chronic trypanosomiasis on the development of immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were carried out in which clean cattle, or cattle chronically infected with Trypanosoma congolense, were immunized by the infection and treatment method against East Coast fever (ECF, Theileria parva infection). Chronic trypanosomiasis did not prevent cattle from mounting and effective immunological response to ECF immunization and resisting subsequent lethal challenge. There appeared to be no difference in the level or quality of immunity between clean cattle and trypanosome infected cattle. Thus, T. congolense infection on its own does not appear to provide a constraint to ECF immunization in the field. (author). 17 refs, 2 tabs

  7. Stakeholder Narratives on Trypanosomiasis, Their Effect on Policy and the Scope for One Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Catherine; Anderson, Neil; Machila, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper explores the framings of trypanosomiasis, a widespread and potentially fatal zoonotic disease transmitted by tsetse flies (Glossina species) affecting both humans and livestock. This is a country case study focusing on the political economy of knowledge in Zambia. It is a pertinent time to examine this issue as human population growth and other factors have led to migration into tsetse-inhabited areas with little historical influence from livestock. Disease transmission in new human-wildlife interfaces such as these is a greater risk, and opinions on the best way to manage this are deeply divided. Methods A qualitative case study method was used to examine the narratives on trypanosomiasis in the Zambian policy context through a series of key informant interviews. Interviewees included key actors from international organisations, research organisations and local activists from a variety of perspectives acknowledging the need to explore the relationships between the human, animal and environmental sectors. Principal Findings Diverse framings are held by key actors looking from, variously, the perspectives of wildlife and environmental protection, agricultural development, poverty alleviation, and veterinary and public health. From these viewpoints, four narratives about trypanosomiasis policy were identified, focused around four different beliefs: that trypanosomiasis is protecting the environment, is causing poverty, is not a major problem, and finally, that it is a Zambian rather than international issue to contend with. Within these narratives there are also conflicting views on the best control methods to use and different reasoning behind the pathways of response. These are based on apparently incompatible priorities of people, land, animals, the economy and the environment. The extent to which a One Health approach has been embraced and the potential usefulness of this as a way of reconciling the aims of these framings and narratives is

  8. Ancestral sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Moreno, Claudia; Lowden, Arne; Louzada, Fernando; Marqueze, Elaine; Levandovski, Rosa; Pilz, Luisa K; Valeggia, Claudia; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Czeisler, Charles A; Skene, Debra J; Duffy, Jeanne F; Roenneberg, Till

    2016-04-01

    While we do not yet understand all the functions of sleep, its critical role for normal physiology and behaviour is evident. Its amount and temporal pattern depend on species and condition. Humans sleep about a third of the day with the longest, consolidated episode during the night. The change in lifestyle from hunter-gatherers via agricultural communities to densely populated industrialized centres has certainly affected sleep, and a major concern in the medical community is the impact of insufficient sleep on health [1,2]. One of the causal mechanisms leading to insufficient sleep is altered exposure to the natural light-dark cycle. This includes the wide availability of electric light, attenuated exposure to daylight within buildings, and evening use of light-emitting devices, all of which decrease the strength of natural light-dark signals that entrain circadian systems [3]. PMID:27046809

  9. Sex Steroid Hormone Profiles are Related to Sleep Measures from Polysomnography and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Mary Fran; Zheng, Huiyong; Kravitz, Howard M.; Matthews, Karen; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Gold, Ellen B.; Owens, Jane; Consens, Flavia; Hall, Martica

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To relate reproductive hormones (and the preceding 7-year rates of their change) to objectively and subjectively assessed sleep measures, independent of age, vasomotor symptom frequency, depressive symptoms, and body size. Design: A cross-sectional sleep substudy nested in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a longitudinal study of the menopausal transition. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 365 Caucasian, African American, and Chinese women. Measurements and Results: Sleep duration, continuity, and architecture were measured during two nights of in-home polysomnography (PSG) studies. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for sleep quality, sleep diaries for medication, vasomotor symptoms, lifestyle information and questionnaires for depressive symptoms. Blood collected annually in the years prior to sleep study was assayed for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), and total testosterone (T). More rapid rate of FSH change was significantly associated with higher delta sleep percent, longer total sleep time (TST), but less favorable self-reported sleep quality (PSQI). Baseline E2 was modestly and negatively associated with sleep quality. Women in the lowest total testosterone quartile at baseline had more wake time after sleep onset (WASO) than women in the highest quartile. Lower E2/T ratio, an index reflecting the increasing androgenic environment with the menopause transition, was associated with less WASO. Conclusions: More rapid rate of FSH change was associated with longer sleep duration but poor sleep quality. Women with higher T or who were closer to the completion of the transition process (as indexed by a lower E2/T) had less sleep discontinuity (less WASO). Citation: Sowers MF; Zheng H; Kravitz HM; Matthews K; Bromberger JT; Gold EB; Owens J; Consens F; Hall M. Sex steroid hormone profiles are related to sleep measures From polysomnography and the pittsburgh sleep quality

  10. Sleep Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and mental conditions and stress. Insomnia is the perception that you don't get enough sleep because ... RLS) is a medical condition distinguished by tingling sensations in the legs--and sometimes the arms--while ...

  11. Pediatric sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... Untreated pediatric sleep apnea may lead to: High blood pressure Heart or lung problems Slow growth and development

  12. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Sleeping During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleeping During Pregnancy ... have trouble getting enough deep, uninterrupted sleep. Why Sleeping Can Be Difficult The first and most pressing ...

  13. Sleep and Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sleep and Newborns KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Newborns ... night it is. How Long Will My Newborn Sleep? A newborn may sleep up to 18 hours ...

  14. American Sleep Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Professionals Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Share What is Sleep ? Insight into the ... Forums Contact Us Login Join ASA – for FREE Sleep Blog ASA Charitable Work – Sleeping Children Around the ...

  15. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Sleep Apnea Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Sleep Apnea? Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder ...

  16. Sleep and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging About Sleep We all look forward to a good night's ... health and quality of life. Two Types of Sleep There are two types of sleep: non-rapid ...

  17. Pediatric sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... During sleep, all of the muscles in the body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep ...

  18. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth > For Parents > Obstructive Sleep Apnea Print ... kids and teens can develop it, too. About Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea happens when a person stops ...

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  20. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... psychiatric and other sleep disorders such as sleep apnea and individuals with a strong need for stable ... and circadian rhythm sleep disorder, free-running type. Prevalence • The prevalence of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in ...

  1. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts Causes and Risk Factors Diagnosis and Treatment Sleepwalking Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment Sleep ... area. Search radius: Email Print Parasomnias Confusional Arousals Sleepwalking Sleep Terrors Sleep Eating Disorder REM Sleep Behavior ...

  2. Isolated sleep paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from sleep. It is not associated with another sleep disorder. ... Sleep paralysis can be a symptom of narcolepsy . But if you do not have other symptoms of narcolepsy, there is usually no need to have sleep studies done.

  3. "Sleep disparity" in the population: poor sleep quality is strongly associated with poverty and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Nirav P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the social determinants of sleep attainment. This study examines the relationship of race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES and other factors upon sleep quality. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 9,714 randomly selected subjects was used to explore sleep quality obtained by self-report, in relation to socioeconomic factors including poverty, employment status, and education level. The primary outcome was poor sleep quality. Data were collected by the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation. Results Significant differences were observed in the outcome for race/ethnicity (African-American and Latino versus White: unadjusted OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.24-2.05 and OR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.37-1.98, respectively and income (below poverty threshold, unadjusted OR = 2.84, 95%CI 2.41-3.35. In multivariable modeling, health indicators significantly influenced sleep quality most prominently in poor individuals. After adjusting for socioeconomic factors (education, employment and health indicators, the association of income and poor sleep quality diminished, but still persisted in poor Whites while it was no longer significant in poor African-Americans (adjusted OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.47-2.58 versus OR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.87-1.54, respectively. Post-college education (adjusted OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.31-0.71 protected against poor sleep. Conclusions A "sleep disparity" exists in the study population: poor sleep quality is strongly associated with poverty and race. Factors such as employment, education and health status, amongst others, significantly mediated this effect only in poor subjects, suggesting a differential vulnerability to these factors in poor relative to non-poor individuals in the context of sleep quality. Consideration of this could help optimize targeted interventions in certain groups and subsequently reduce the adverse societal effects of poor sleep.

  4. Sleep aspnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008057 A multi-center study on the association between sleep apnea and prevalence of hypertension. CHEN Baoyuan(陈宝元), et al. Dept Respir Med, Tianjin Med Univ General Hosp, Tianjin 300052. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis, 2007;30(12):894-897. Objective To investigate the prevalence of hypertension among sleep apnea patients and the associated factors. Methods A total of 2297 patients (male 1310, female 211) from 20 teaching hospita

  5. Refreshing Sleep and Sleep Continuity Determine Perceived Sleep Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichten, Catherine; Creti, Laura; Conrod, Kerry; Tran, Dieu-Ly; Grad, Roland; Jorgensen, Mary; Amsel, Rhonda; Rizzo, Dorrie; Baltzan, Marc; Pavilanis, Alan; Bailes, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is a construct often measured, employed as an outcome criterion for therapeutic success, but never defined. In two studies we examined appraised good and poor sleep quality in three groups: a control group, individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, and those with insomnia disorder. In Study 1 we used qualitative methodology to examine good and poor sleep quality in 121 individuals. In Study 2 we examined sleep quality in 171 individuals who had not participated in Study 1 and evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality. Across all six samples and both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the daytime experience of feeling refreshed (nonrefreshed) in the morning and the nighttime experience of good (impaired) sleep continuity characterized perceived good and poor sleep. Our results clarify sleep quality as a construct and identify refreshing sleep and sleep continuity as potential clinical and research outcome measures. PMID:27413553

  6. The dispersal ecology of Rhodesian sleeping sickness following its introduction to a new area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A Wardrop

    Full Text Available Tsetse-transmitted human and animal trypanosomiasis are constraints to both human and animal health in sub-Saharan Africa, and although these diseases have been known for over a century, there is little recent evidence demonstrating how the parasites circulate in natural hosts and ecosystems. The spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense within Uganda over the past 15 years has been linked to the movement of infected, untreated livestock (the predominant reservoir from endemic areas. However, despite an understanding of the environmental dependencies of sleeping sickness, little research has focused on the environmental factors controlling transmission establishment or the spatially heterogeneous dispersal of disease following a new introduction. In the current study, an annually stratified case-control study of Rhodesian sleeping sickness cases from Serere District, Uganda was used to allow the temporal assessment of correlations between the spatial distribution of sleeping sickness and landscape factors. Significant relationships were detected between Rhodesian sleeping sickness and selected factors, including elevation and the proportion of land which was "seasonally flooding grassland" or "woodlands and dense savannah." Temporal trends in these relationships were detected, illustrating the dispersal of Rhodesian sleeping sickness into more 'suitable' areas over time, with diminishing dependence on the point of introduction in concurrence with an increasing dependence on environmental and landscape factors. These results provide a novel insight into the ecology of Rhodesian sleeping sickness dispersal and may contribute towards the implementation of evidence-based control measures to prevent its further spread.

  7. Sleep in Othello

    OpenAIRE

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep.

  8. Racial Differences in Sleep Architecture: The Role of Ethnic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomfohr, Lianne; Pung, Meredith A.; Edwards, Kate M.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2011-01-01

    African Americans have been consistently shown to have less deep (slow wave sleep; SWS) and more light (Stages 1 and 2) sleep than Caucasian Americans. This paper explored whether discrimination, a stressor that uniquely impacts certain ethnic groups, contributes to differences in sleep architecture. The sleep of 164 African and Caucasian Americans was examined with laboratory based polysomnography (PSG). Experiences of perceived discrimination (The Scale of Ethnic Experience) and sociodemographic factors were also assessed. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking status, African Americans slept approximately 4.5% more total sleep time (TST) in Stage 2 sleep and 4.7% less TST in SWS than Caucasian Americans (ps< .05). Perceived discrimination was a partial mediator of ethnic differences in sleep architecture. Individuals who reported experiencing more discrimination slept more time in Stage 2 and less time in SWS (ps< .05). Results suggest that the impact of stress related to ethnic group membership plays a part in explaining differences in sleep architecture. PMID:21925567

  9. Costs Of Using “Tiny Targets” to Control Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, a Vector of Gambiense Sleeping Sickness in Arua District of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Alexandra P. M.; Tirados, Inaki; Mangwiro, Clement T. N.; Esterhuizen, Johan; Lehane, Michael J.; Torr, Stephen J.; Kovacic, Vanja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the relative effectiveness of tsetse control methods, their costs need to be analysed alongside their impact on tsetse populations. Very little has been published on the costs of methods specifically targeting human African trypanosomiasis Methodology/Principal Findings In northern Uganda, a 250 km2 field trial was undertaken using small (0.5 X 0.25 m) insecticide-treated targets (“tiny targets”). Detailed cost recording accompanied every phase of the work. Costs were...

  10. Refreshing Sleep and Sleep Continuity Determine Perceived Sleep Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Libman, Eva; Fichten, Catherine; Creti, Laura; Conrod, Kerry; Tran, Dieu-Ly; Grad, Roland; Jorgensen, Mary; Amsel, Rhonda; Rizzo, Dorrie; Baltzan, Marc; Pavilanis, Alan; Bailes, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is a construct often measured, employed as an outcome criterion for therapeutic success, but never defined. In two studies we examined appraised good and poor sleep quality in three groups: a control group, individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, and those with insomnia disorder. In Study 1 we used qualitative methodology to examine good and poor sleep quality in 121 individuals. In Study 2 we examined sleep quality in 171 individuals who had not participated in Study 1 and ev...

  11. Computer-Aided Drug Discovery Approaches against the Tropical Infectious Diseases Malaria, Tuberculosis, Trypanosomiasis, and Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njogu, Peter M; Guantai, Eric M; Pavadai, Elumalai; Chibale, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous improvement in overall global health heralded by the adoption of the Millennium Declaration in the year 2000, tropical infections remain a major health problem in the developing world. Recent estimates indicate that the major tropical infectious diseases, namely, malaria, tuberculosis, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis, account for more than 2.2 million deaths and a loss of approximately 85 million disability-adjusted life years annually. The crucial role of chemotherapy in curtailing the deleterious health and economic impacts of these infections has invigorated the search for new drugs against tropical infectious diseases. The research efforts have involved increased application of computational technologies in mainstream drug discovery programs at the hit identification, hit-to-lead, and lead optimization stages. This review highlights various computer-aided drug discovery approaches that have been utilized in efforts to identify novel antimalarial, antitubercular, antitrypanosomal, and antileishmanial agents. The focus is largely on developments over the past 5 years (2010-2014). PMID:27622945

  12. Actigraphy-defined Measures of Sleep and Movement Across the Menstrual Cycle In Midlife Menstruating Women: SWAN Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiyong; Harlow, Siobán D; Kravitz, Howard M; Bromberger, Joyce; Buysse, Daniel J; Matthews, Karen A; Gold, Ellen B; Owens, Jane F; Hall, Martica

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate patterns in actigraphy-defined sleep measures across the menstrual cycle, testing the hypothesis that sleep would be more disrupted in the premenstrual period, i.e. in the 14 days prior to menses. Methods A community-based, longitudinal study of wrist actigraphy-derived sleep measures was conducted with 163 women (58 African-American, 78 White, and 27 Chinese) of late reproductive age (mean=51.5, SD=2.0 years) from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Daily measures of sleep [sleep efficiency (%) and total sleep time (minutes)] and movement during sleep [mean activity score (counts)] were characterized using wrist actigraphy across a menstrual cycle or 35 days, whichever was shorter. Data were standardized to 28 days to account for the variation of unequal cycle lengths and divided into four weekly segments for analyses. Results Sleep efficiency percentage declined gradually across the menstrual cycle, but the decline became pronounced in fourth week, the premenstrual period. Compared with third week, sleep efficiency declined by 5% (p<0.0001) and mean total sleep time was 25 minutes less (p=0.0002) in fourth week. No significant mean differences were found when comparing the means of second week versus third week. The association of weekly segments with sleep efficiency or minutes of total sleep time was modified by sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, including body mass index (BMI), race, study site, financial strain, marital status, and smoking. Conclusions Sleep varied systematically across the menstrual cycle in women of late reproductive age, including a gradual decline in sleep efficiency across all weeks, with a more marked change premenstrually during the last week of the menstrual cycle. These sleep changes may be modifiable by altering lifestyle factors. PMID:24845393

  13. Neuroimmunologic aspects of sleep and sleep loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, N. L.; Szuba, M. P.; Staab, J. P.; Evans, D. L.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    The complex and intimate interactions between the sleep and immune systems have been the focus of study for several years. Immune factors, particularly the interleukins, regulate sleep and in turn are altered by sleep and sleep deprivation. The sleep-wake cycle likewise regulates normal functioning of the immune system. Although a large number of studies have focused on the relationship between the immune system and sleep, relatively few studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on immune parameters. Studies of sleep deprivation's effects are important for several reasons. First, in the 21st century, various societal pressures require humans to work longer and sleep less. Sleep deprivation is becoming an occupational hazard in many industries. Second, to garner a greater understanding of the regulatory effects of sleep on the immune system, one must understand the consequences of sleep deprivation on the immune system. Significant detrimental effects on immune functioning can be seen after a few days of total sleep deprivation or even several days of partial sleep deprivation. Interestingly, not all of the changes in immune physiology that occur as a result of sleep deprivation appear to be negative. Numerous medical disorders involving the immune system are associated with changes in the sleep-wake physiology--either being caused by sleep dysfunction or being exacerbated by sleep disruption. These disorders include infectious diseases, fibromyalgia, cancers, and major depressive disorder. In this article, we will describe the relationships between sleep physiology and the immune system, in states of health and disease. Interspersed will be proposals for future research that may illuminate the clinical relevance of the relationships between sleeping, sleep loss and immune function in humans. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  14. Genetics of Sleep and Sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sehgal, Amita; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Sleep remains one of the least understood phenomena in biology – even its role in synaptic plasticity remains debatable. Since sleep was recognized to be regulated genetically, intense research has launched on two fronts: the development of model organisms for deciphering the molecular mechanisms of sleep and attempts to identify genetic underpinnings of human sleep disorders. In this Review, we describe how unbiased, high-throughput screens in model organisms are uncovering sleep regulatory ...

  15. Sleep in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Disorders of sleep are an integral part of neurodegenerative diseases and include insomnia, sleep-wake cycle disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness that may be manifested as persistent somnolence or sudden onset of sleep episodes, obstructive and central sleep apnea, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome. The origin of these sleep disorders is multifactorial including degeneration of the brain areas that modulate sleep, the symptoms of the disease, and the effect of medications. Treatment of sleep disorders in patients with neurodegenerative diseases should be individualized and includes behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene, bright light therapy, melatonin, hypnotics, waking-promoting agents, and continuous positive airway pressure. PMID:26972029

  16. Diagnosing Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Diagnosing Sleep Disorders Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents Depending ... several possible tests when trying to diagnose a sleep disorder: Sleep history and sleep log If you believe ...

  17. What Is Sleep Apnea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... move out of deep sleep and into light sleep. As a result, the quality of your sleep is poor, which makes you tired during the ... of silence followed by gasps. Wanting a better quality of life, Jim sought the advice of his doctor, who recommended a sleep study. As a result of the sleep study, ...

  18. Estimating the burden of rhodesiense sleeping sickness during an outbreak in Serere, eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Paul G

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zoonotic sleeping sickness, or HAT (Human African Trypanosomiasis, caused by infection with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, is an under-reported and neglected tropical disease. Previous assessments of the disease burden expressed as Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs for this infection have not distinguished T.b. rhodesiense from infection with the related, but clinically distinct Trypanosoma brucei gambiense form. T.b. rhodesiense occurs focally, and it is important to assess the burden at the scale at which resource-allocation decisions are made. Methods The burden of T.b. rhodesiense was estimated during an outbreak of HAT in Serere, Uganda. We identified the unique characteristics affecting the burden of rhodesiense HAT such as age, severity, level of under-reporting and duration of hospitalisation, and use field data and empirical estimates of these to model the burden imposed by this and other important diseases in this study population. While we modelled DALYs using standard methods, we also modelled uncertainty of our parameter estimates through a simulation approach. We distinguish between early and late stage HAT morbidity, and used disability weightings appropriate for the T.b. rhodesiense form of HAT. We also use a model of under-reporting of HAT to estimate the contribution of un-reported mortality to the overall disease burden in this community, and estimate the cost-effectiveness of hospital-based HAT control. Results Under-reporting accounts for 93% of the DALY estimate of rhodesiense HAT. The ratio of reported malaria cases to reported HAT cases in the same health unit was 133:1, however, the ratio of DALYs was 3:1. The age productive function curve had a close correspondence with the HAT case distribution, and HAT cases occupied more patient admission time in Serere during 1999 than all other infectious diseases other than malaria. The DALY estimate for HAT in Serere shows that the burden is much greater

  19. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  20. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  1. Pharmacokinetic studies on 14C-labelled phenanthridine and aromatic diamidine drugs used to control African trypanosomiasis in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years ethidium (homidium) bromide (3, 8-diamino-6-phenyl-5-ethyl phenanthridinium bromide) has been used curatively and for limited prophylaxis against Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax infections in ruminants in Africa and aromatic diamidine berenil (diminazeneaceturate, 4, 4'-(diazoamino) benzamidine) has been used as a curative drug against these parasites, but there is little published information about the pharmacokinetics of either drug. Reviewed here is the present knowledge and report results of recent experiments using 14C-labelled drugs to measure blood and tissue fluid levels and tissue residues of ethidium in uninfected and T. congolense-infected laboratory animals and bovines and berenil in laboratory animals. In the case of 14C-ethidium levels of radioactivity in blood and tissue fluids reached a maximum within 1 h of intramuscular injection (1 mg/kg) and then fell rapidly; after 96 h 80-90% of the radioactivity injected had been excreted, approximately one-third in urine and two-thirds in faeces. It is estimated that ca 3-4% of the radioactivity injected is present in tissues of animals sacrificed 9-10 d after administration of drug, the highest residues/unit wet weight of tissue being present in liver and kidney. In similar experiments with 14C-berenil (3.5 mg/kg) radioactivity in blood reached a peak within 30 min, fell rapidly over the next 5 h, but remained at a significant level for 4-6 d. Radioactivity in tissue fluids did not rise as rapidly or to such a high peak level as in blood, but after 2 h remained at approximately twice the level detected in blood for up to 7 d. At 7 d, in marked contrast to ethidium, only 65% of the administered radioactivity had been excreted (44% in urine and 21% in faeces), and in animals sacrificed at that time it was found that the majority (95%) of the residual drug was present in the liver. (author)

  2. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience sleepless nights and fatigue. Medically – It disturbs sleeping patterns and deprives the snorer of adequate rest. It ... snacks for three hours before retiring. • Establish regular sleeping patterns. • Sleep on your side rather than your back. • ...

  3. Problems sleeping during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000559.htm Problems sleeping during pregnancy To use the sharing features on ... time sleeping well. Why is it hard to sleep during pregnancy? Your baby is growing bigger, which ...

  4. Sleep and your health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000871.htm Sleep and your health To use the sharing features ... in a number of ways. Why You Need Sleep Sleep gives your body and brain time to ...

  5. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000758.htm Medicines for sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alcohol or illegal drug use Over-the-counter sleep medicines Most over-the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills ...

  6. Sleep Issues and Sundowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We will not sell or share your name. Sleep Issues and Sundowning Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | ... Sleep Changes Back to top Coping strategies for sleep issues and sundowning If the person is awake ...

  7. Sleep Apnea Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Sleep > Sleep Apnea ...

  8. Sleep Medicine Textbook

    OpenAIRE

    Bassetti, Claudio; Dogas, Zoran; Peigneux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The Sleep Medicine Textbook provides comprehensive, all-in-one educational material (550 pages) structured around the Catalogue of knowledge and skills for sleep medicine (Penzel et al. 2014, Journal of Sleep Research). Written by experts in the field and published by the ESRS, it provides an European approach to sleep medicine education, and represents the knowledge-base for the ESRS-endorsed sleep medicine examinations.The book is available at http://www.esrs.eu/esrs/sleep-medicine-textbook...

  9. Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Christopher M.; Melanson, Edward L.; Frydendall, Emily J; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2010-01-01

    Sleep has been proposed to be a physiological adaptation to conserve energy, but little research has examined this proposed function of sleep in humans. We quantified effects of sleep, sleep deprivation and recovery sleep on whole-body total daily energy expenditure (EE) and on EE during the habitual day and nighttime. We also determined effects of sleep stage during baseline and recovery sleep on EE. Seven healthy participants aged 22 ± 5 years (mean ± s.d.) maintained ∼8 h per night sleep s...

  10. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Sleep Disorders (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Sleep Disorders Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Getting ...

  11. Sleep and sleep disorders in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Kate

    2011-03-01

    A common but significant change associated with aging is a profound disruption to the daily sleep-wake cycle. It has been estimated that as many as 50% of older adults complain about difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, in younger adults, compromised sleep has been shown to have a consistent effect on cognitive function, which may suggest that sleep problems contribute to the cognitive changes that accompany older age. The multifactorial nature of variables affecting sleep in old age cannot be overstated. Changes in sleep have been thought to reflect normal developmental processes, which can be further compromised by sleep disturbances secondary to medical or psychiatric diseases (e.g., chronic pain, dementia, depression), a primary sleep disorder that can itself be age-related (e.g., Sleep Disordered Breathing and Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep), or some combination of any of these factors. Given that changes in sleep quality and quantity in later life have implications for quality of life and level of functioning, it is imperative to distinguish the normal age-related sleep changes from those originating from pathological processes. PMID:21225347

  12. Income, Ethnicity and Sleep: Coping as a Moderator

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kelly, Ryan J.; Sadeh, Avi; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Toward identifying variables that may protect children against sleep problems otherwise associated with ethnic minority status and economic adversity, support coping was examined as a moderator. Participants were 235 children (113 boys, 122 girls; M age = 11.33 years, SD =8.03 months); 64% European American and 36% African American. Children’s sleep duration (minutes) and continuity (efficiency) were assessed through actigraphs worn for one week. Mothers reported on the family’s monetary reso...

  13. Estudios sobre Trypanosomiasis americana en el Perú. Observaciones en el departamento de Ica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M Ayulo Robles

    1946-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemos comprobado la presencia de Triatomas en las ciudades de Ica y Nazca. Los Triatomas encontrados en esas localidades son de la especie del Triatoma Infestans. Las observaciones del contenido intestinal de los Triatomas capturados en ambas ciudades reveló que ellos no se encuentran infestados; lo que hace sospechar que estos insectos procedan de la Ciudad de Arequipa. Los exámenes de sangre en fresco, gota gruesa y frotis coloreados por el método de Giemsa en 174 personas y 32 animales, así como las pruebas de Desviación del Complemento (Reacción de GUERREIRO Y MACHADO e intradermo-reacción en las 174 personas, fueron negativas; lo que demuestra que actualmente no existe la Enfermedad de Chagas en el Departamento de Ica. Dada la presencia de Triatomas en Ica y Nazca y la existencia de la Enfermedad de Chagas en Vitor, Sihuas y Quishuarani del Departamento de Arequipa no se excluye la posibilidad de que posteriormente se haga presente la Trypanosomiasis americana, también, en esas zonas.

  14. Animal trypanosomiasis in South America. Current status, partnership, and information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, A M; Silva, R A

    2000-01-01

    Animal trypanosome species of economical importance in South America include T. vivax and T. evansi. Both species are described in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. In Argentina and Guyana, only T. evansi and T. vivax are found, respectively. Our studies on T. vivax indicated that the parasite was spreading around 1.3 km per day in Bolivia. We found severe leukopenia in bovines from Pantanal (Brazil) and the Department of Santa Cruz (Bolivia). Because it can cause immunosuppression, the importance of trypanosomiasis control in ensuring success of vaccination campaigns against foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the Pantanal and Bolivia should be considered. The use of one needle for several animals during FMD campaigns in Brazil and Bolivia could also contribute to the spread of T. vivax. The anticipated losses due to T. vivax could exceed $160 million, assuming there are 11 million head of cattle in the Brazilian Pantanal and Bolivian lowlands. International collaboration among research institutes is needed to deal with these diseases and parasites. Previous efforts using information technologies resulted in the creation of two discussion lists (Tryplink and Trypan), the edition of the on-line version of Trypnews and Internet conferences. PMID:11193622

  15. Tsetse and trypanosomiasis control for the rural development of Buvuma island, Lake Victoria, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, the potentially highly agricultural productive areas of Uganda, bordering the shores of Lake Victoria, have been plagued by the presence of tsetse flies. While Glossina pallidipes was reported to be main vector in the area, evidence has accrued indicating that G. fuscipes fuscipes is in fact the main vector on the island. There is also evidence that the species has adopted a peridomestic behaviour in this, predominantly, farming and fishing community. Since 1987/88, intensive surveys were conducted and current monitoring work concentrates on strategic sites such as water collection points, fishing camps, ports of call and selected villages on the island (Bulopa-Walwanda, Lwenyanga, Kyanamu, Tome, Isiriba and Kachanga). Making use of 20-25 pyramidal traps impregnated with deltamethrin (400 mg/trap) for 20-22 days/month, the G. f. fuscipes population around reference villages was considerably reduced (90-95% after 7-9 months). Arrangements are underway to evaluate insecticides treatments of domestic livestock host animals and monitor trends in the transmission of trypanosomiasis. In collaboration with UTRO, Tororo, experimental rearing of G. F. fuscipes will be undertaken aiming at producing flies for mark-release-recapture studies and trials with sterile flies

  16. SLEEP DISORDERS, SLEEP APNEA. AND STROKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANTONIO CULEBRAS, M.D

    2000-01-01

    @@Sleep is the natural suspension of consciousness during which the powers of the body are restored Sleep recurs with remarkable periodicity in alliance with the geocosmic cycle and in compliance with the circadian rhythms of the body.

  17. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shakankiry HM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M El ShakankiryKing Fahd University Hospital, Al Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child's development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group.Keywords: sleep physiology, sleep disorders, childhood, epilepsy

  18. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Diekelmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i cueing memory reactivation during sleep, (ii stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations, and (iii targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications.

  19. Metabolic consequences of sleep and sleep loss

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cauter, Eve; Spiegel, Karine; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Reduced sleep duration and quality appear to be endemic in modern society. Curtailment of the bedtime period to minimum tolerability is thought to be efficient and harmless by many. It has been known for several decades that sleep is a major modulator of hormonal release, glucose regulation and cardiovascular function. In particular, slow wave sleep (SWS), thought to be the most restorative sleep stage, is associated with decreased heart rate, blood pressure, sympathetic nervous activity and ...

  20. Sleep apnea and sleep : diagnostic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlin, Carin

    2009-01-01

    Background: Patients with sleep apnea have frequent apneas and hypopneas during sleep. Apneas can be either central or obstructive. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is the mean number of apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep. Aims: 1) To evaluate the effect of a mandibular advancement device on obstructive apneas and sleep; 2) to evaluate the influence of body position on central apnea frequency; 3) to investigate whether obstructive or central apnea is related to mortality in patients with st...

  1. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  2. Growth in Body Mass Index from Childhood into Adolescence: The Role of Sleep Duration and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Bagley, Erika J.; Keiley, Margaret K.; Erath, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relations between sleep and body mass index (BMI) from late childhood ([X-bar] age = 9.44 at T1) to early adolescence ([X-bar] age = 11.36 at T3) with a relatively large (n = 273 at T1) and diverse (35% African Americans) sample. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy-based sleep minutes and self-reported sleep…

  3. Snoring and risk for obstructive sleep apnea among nigerians with heart failure: Prevalence and clinical correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Akintunde, Adeseye A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Heart failure is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing nations like Nigeria. Sleep apnea and snoring has recently been recognized to be a cardiovascular risk factor. Sleep apnea is yet to be well studied among Africans with heart failure. We aimed to determine the prevalence of snoring and high risk for obstructive sleep apnea among Nigerians with stable heart failure. Materials and Methods: We studied 103 subjects that included 62 patients with heart fail...

  4. Common variants in DRD2 are associated with sleep duration: the CARe consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Brian E; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Lauderdale, Diane S; Bennett, David A; Buchman, Aron S; Buxbaum, Sarah G; De Jager, Philip L; Evans, Daniel S; Fülöp, Tibor; Gharib, Sina A; Johnson, W Craig; Kim, Hyun; Larkin, Emma K; Lee, Seung Ku; Lim, Andrew S; Punjabi, Naresh M; Shin, Chol; Stone, Katie L; Tranah, Gregory J; Weng, Jia; Yaffe, Kristine; Zee, Phyllis C; Patel, Sanjay R; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Saxena, Richa

    2016-01-01

    Sleep duration is implicated in the etiologies of chronic diseases and premature mortality. However, the genetic basis for sleep duration is poorly defined. We sought to identify novel genetic components influencing sleep duration in a multi-ethnic sample. Meta-analyses were conducted of genetic associations with self-reported, habitual sleep duration from seven Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) cohorts of over 25 000 individuals of African, Asian, European and Hispanic American ancestry. All individuals were genotyped for ∼50 000 SNPs from 2000 candidate heart, lung, blood and sleep genes. African-Americans had additional genome-wide genotypes. Four cohorts provided replication. A SNP (rs17601612) in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) was significantly associated with sleep duration (P = 9.8 × 10(-7)). Conditional analysis identified a second DRD2 signal with opposite effects on sleep duration. In exploratory analysis, suggestive association was observed for rs17601612 with polysomnographically determined sleep latency (P = 0.002). The lead DRD2 signal was recently identified in a schizophrenia GWAS, and a genetic risk score of 11 additional schizophrenia GWAS loci genotyped on the IBC array was also associated with longer sleep duration (P = 0.03). These findings support a role for DRD2 in influencing sleep duration. Our work motivates future pharmocogenetics research on alerting agents such as caffeine and modafinil that interact with the dopaminergic pathway and further investigation of genetic overlap between sleep and neuro-psychiatric traits. PMID:26464489

  5. Sleep and Infant Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Balsam, Peter D.; Fifer, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Human neonates spend the majority of their time sleeping. Despite the limited waking hours available for environmental exploration, the first few months of life are a time of rapid learning about the environment. The organization of neonate sleep differs qualitatively from adult sleep, and the unique characteristics of neonatal sleep may promote…

  6. Sleep medicine in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ning-Hung; Hang, Liang-Wen; Lin, Chia-Mo

    2015-01-01

    The sleep medicine is a young medical science in Taiwan. It began from less than 10 sleep beds 20 years ago in four hospitals all over Taiwan. By the organization of sleep team in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and the initiation of Taiwan Society of Sleep Medicine, sleep medicine becomes a popular medicine in the past decades. The setting of Sleep Society in 2002 is the milestone to promote the sleep medicine, educate the public and professionals, and control of the quality of clinical practic...

  7. Occupational Sleep Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Philip; Drake, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms significantly impact almost all aspects of human behavior and are therefore relevant to occupational sleep medicine, which is focused predominantly around workplace productivity, safety, and health. In this article, 5 main factors that influence occupational functioning are reviewed: (1) sleep deprivation, (2) disordered sleep, (3) circadian rhythms, (4) common medical illnesses that affect sleep and sleepiness, and (5) medications that affect sleep and sleepiness. Consequences of disturbed sleep and sleepiness are also reviewed, including cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor functioning and drowsy driving. PMID:26972034

  8. Sleep problems predict cortisol reactivity to stress in urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Tyson, Anna; Turan, Bulent; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the role of sleep problems and sleep duration on stress-related HPA axis reactivity among urban, low income adolescents. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36 years; 50% male; 95% African American) and their parents provided information on adolescents' sleep problems and sleep quantity. Adolescents completed a standardized social stress test in the laboratory (the Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Saliva samples collected before and after the TSST yielded measures of cortisol pre-test, 15 min post-test, and 55 min post-test, as well as overall cortisol secretion and its increase (AUCG and AUCI). More sleep problems and longer sleep duration predicted higher cortisol reactivity to the TSST, particularly among females. Self-reports of sleep were more consistently related to stress-related cortisol reactivity than parent reports. Sleep problems and longer sleep duration may place adolescents at risk for HPA axis hyper-reactivity to stress, contributing to academic, behavioral and health problems. PMID:26679739

  9. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

  10. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  11. Ostriches sleep like platypuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Lesku

    Full Text Available Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement (REM sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas, the most basal (or 'ancient' group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus, a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals.

  12. Sleep and Student Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Eric R Eide; Mark H. Showalter

    2012-01-01

    We explore the relationship between sleep and student performance on standardized tests. We model test scores as a nonlinear function of sleep, which allows us to compute the hours of sleep associated with maximum test scores. We refer to this as “optimal” hours of sleep. We also evaluate how the sleep and student performance relationship changes with age. We use the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement, which includes excellent control variables that are not usually av...

  13. Childhood epilepsy and sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and epilepsy are two well recognized conditions that interact with each other in a complex bi-directional way. Some types of epilepsies have increased activity during sleep disturbing it; while sleep deprivation aggravates epilepsy due to decreased seizure threshold. Epilepsy can deteriorate the sleep-related disorders and at the same time; the parasomnias can worsen the epilepsy. The secretion of sleep-related hormones can also be affected by the occurrence of seizures and supplementat...

  14. Application of ELISA for diagnosing and investigating the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis in buffaloes in north Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An antigen-detection enzyme immunoassay (Ag-ELISA) based on a Trypanosoma evansi specific monoclonal antibody was used for the detection of circulating antigens in experimentally infected buffaloes and in buffaloes kept in different geographical regions of Vietnam. In experimental infections, circulating antigens were detected around 7 to 14 days after infection but the levels detected were considerably lower than those in sera collected from the field, suggesting that the parasite isolate used became highly adapted to mice thorough passage. In a study of field sera the agreement between the Ag-ELISA and parasitological methods for detecting infected cases was 80% and the apparent specificity of the test was 90%. In these and other studies the Ag-ELISA consistently detected many more infected cases than did the conventional parasitological methods. In most cases animals whose sera reacted in the Ag-ELISA also had trypanosome specific antibodies in their circulation. Treatment of infected animals with a trypanocidal drug in most cases resulted in a significant drop in trypanosome antigen levels but their status with respect to trypanosomal antibodies remained unchanged. Seroepidemiological surveys using Ag-ELISA and Ab-ELISA and base on an analysis of around 1000 sera collected from different regions of Vietnam demonstrated prevalence ranging between 17% and 50% with no apparent relationship to geographical region. However, prevalence of infection was generally higher in summer (rainy season), when fly activity is highest. It is concluded that serological methods based on Ag-ELISA and Ab-ELISA are valuable adjuncts to clinical and parasitological methods for diagnosing trypanosomiasis, studying the epidemiology of the disease and monitoring the effectiveness of control programmes. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Consultants' Group Meeting on Tsetse Genetics in Relation to Tsetse/Trypanosomiasis Control/Eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FAO and IAEA have long recognized the need for methods for insect and pest control based upon approaches other than simply the widespread use of insecticides. Through the past several years the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has expended a considerable amount of effort in the development of a SIT programme applicable to tsetse. Such programmes have proved to be a highly successful component of the integrated control of tsetse flies. However, the pilot programmes undertaken to date have been applied to areas of limited size and future integrated control programmes for tsetse must cover much larger regions. The Consultants' Group was cognisant of the continued need for improvements in the cost effectiveness in the mass production of tsetse, particularly for SIT programmes. The Consultants' Goup recognized also that FAO/IAEA plays an important leadership role in the development of new technologies for the control of insect pest populations, and in the transfer of such technologies to assist in the improvement of agricultural production, particularly in developing countries. In addition to research on the development of methods for insect control (emphasizing application of the Sterile Insect Technique), the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has established and implemented five 'Co-ordinated Research Programmes' on tsetse and has, from time to time, convened groups of consultants to discuss and make recommendations on specific subjects. At least two such meetings (in July 1975 and November 1987) focused on genetic methods of insect control. The recent, rapid developments in molecular biology have stimulated interest in the application of genetic techniques to the problem of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in Africa.

  16. Relationships between Menopausal and Mood Symptoms and EEG Sleep Measures in a Multi-ethnic Sample of Middle-Aged Women: The SWAN Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Howard M.; Avery, Elizabeth; Sowers, MaryFran; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Owens, Jane F.; Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica; Zheng, Huiyong; Gold, Ellen B.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Examine associations of vasomotor and mood symptoms with visually scored and computer-generated measures of EEG sleep. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Community-based in-home polysomnography (PSG). Participants: 343 African American, Caucasian, and Chinese women; ages 48–58 years; pre-, peri- or post-menopausal; participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Sleep Study (SWAN Sleep Study). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Measures included PSG-assessed sleep duration, continuity, and architecture, delta sleep ratio (DSR) computed from automated counts of delta wave activity, daily diary-assessed vasomotor symptoms (VMS), questionnaires to collect mood (depression, anxiety) symptoms, medication, and lifestyle information, and menopausal status using bleeding criteria. Sleep outcomes were modeled using linear regression. Nocturnal VMS were associated with longer sleep time. Higher anxiety symptom scores were associated with longer sleep latency and lower sleep efficiency, but only in women reporting nocturnal VMS. Contrary to expectations, VMS and mood symptoms were unrelated to either DSR or REM latency. Conclusions: Vasomotor symptoms moderated associations of anxiety with EEG sleep measures of sleep latency and sleep efficiency and was associated with longer sleep duration in this multi-ethnic sample of midlife women. Citation: Kravitz HM; Avery E; Sowers MF; Bromberger JT; Owens JF; Matthews KA; Hall M; Zheng H; Gold EB; Buysse DJ. Relationships between menopausal and mood symptoms and Eeg sleep measures in a multi-ethnic sample of middle-aged women: the SWAN Sleep Study. SLEEP 2011;34(9):1221-1232. PMID:21886360

  17. Challenges of controlling sleeping sickness in areas of violent conflict: experience in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Oliver

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, or sleeping sickness, is a fatal neglected tropical disease if left untreated. HAT primarily affects people living in rural sub-Saharan Africa, often in regions afflicted by violent conflict. Screening and treatment of HAT is complex and resource-intensive, and especially difficult in insecure, resource-constrained settings. The country with the highest endemicity of HAT is the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, which has a number of foci of high disease prevalence. We present here the challenges of carrying out HAT control programmes in general and in a conflict-affected region of DRC. We discuss the difficulties of measuring disease burden, medical care complexities, waning international support, and research and development barriers for HAT. Discussion In 2007, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF began screening for HAT in the Haut-Uélé and Bas-Uélé districts of Orientale Province in northeastern DRC, an area of high prevalence affected by armed conflict. Through early 2009, HAT prevalence rate of 3.4% was found, reaching 10% in some villages. More than 46,000 patients were screened and 1,570 treated for HAT during this time. In March 2009, two treatment centres were forced to close due to insecurity, disrupting patient treatment, follow-up, and transmission-control efforts. One project was reopened in December 2009 when the security situation improved, and another in late 2010 based on concerns that population displacement might reactivate historic foci. In all of 2010, 770 patients were treated at these sites, despite a limited geographical range of action for the mobile teams. Summary In conflict settings where HAT is prevalent, targeted medical interventions are needed to provide care to the patients caught in these areas. Strategies of integrating care into existing health systems may be unfeasible since such infrastructure is often absent in resource-poor contexts. HAT care in

  18. Sleep locally, act globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattenborg, Niels C; Lima, Steven L; Lesku, John A

    2012-10-01

    In most animals, sleep is considered a global brain and behavioral state. However, recent intracortical recordings have shown that aspects of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and wakefulness can occur simultaneously in different parts of the cortex in mammals, including humans. Paradoxically, however, NREM sleep still manifests as a global behavioral shutdown. In this review, the authors examine this paradox from an evolutionary perspective. On the basis of strategic modeling, they suggest that in animals with brains composed of heavily interconnected and functionally interdependent units, a global regulator of sleep maintains the behavioral shutdown that defines sleep and thereby ensures that local use-dependent functions are performed in a safe and efficient manner. This novel perspective has implications for understanding deficits in human cognitive performance resulting from sleep deprivation, sleep disorders such as sleepwalking, changes in consciousness that occur during sleep, and the function of sleep itself. PMID:22572533

  19. Patterns of sleep behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the electroencephalogram as the critical measurement procedure for sleep research, and survey of major findings that have emerged in the last decade on the presence of sleep within the twenty-four-hour cycle. Specifically, intrasleep processes, frequency of stage changes, sequence of stage events, sleep stage amounts, temporal patterns of sleep, and stability of intrasleep pattern in both man and lower animals are reviewed, along with some circadian aspects of sleep, temporal factors, and number of sleep episodes. It is felt that it is particularly critical to take the presence of sleep into account whenever performance is considered. When it is recognized that responsive performance is extremely limited during sleep, it is easy to visualize the extent to which performance is controlled by sleep itself.

  20. Are You Getting Enough Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Emails CDC Features Are you getting enough sleep? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Sleep is ... sleep guidelines for different age groups. How much sleep do you need? Newborns 16-18 hours Preschool- ...

  1. All about Sleep (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Naps Sleepwalking Nightmares Night Terrors Sleep and Your 1- to ... Sleep Apnea Sleep Problems in Teens Separation Anxiety Sleepwalking Nightmares What Kids Say About: Sleep Time for ...

  2. [Sleep and dreams in pictures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, R T

    1995-04-11

    Human life is divided into two thirds wakefulness and one third sleep. A newborn child sleeps to strengthen, the adult for regeneration. At the end of life man sinks down into the sleep of death: Hypnos and Thanatos are twin sons of the Queen of Night. Myths from different cultures are influenced by the experience of sleep and its inner world of pictures, the dreams. Artists, painters and sculptors let their visions float steadily into new pictures, and creatures of sleep formed out of diverse materials. Devine sleep, sleep for new life, sleep of health, creative sleep, prophetic sleep, sleep for revelation and for decisions. PMID:7732243

  3. Are Inflammatory and Coagulation Biomarkers Related to Sleep Characteristics in Mid-Life Women?: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A.; Zheng, Huiyong; Kravitz, Howard M.; Sowers, MaryFran; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Owens, Jane F.; Sanders, Mark; Hall, Martica

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Inflammation and pro-coagulation biomarkers may be a link between sleep characteristics and risk for cardiometabolic disorders. We tested the hypothesis that worse sleep characteristics would be associated with C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, factor VIIc, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 in a multi-ethnic subsample of mid-life women enrolled in the Study of Women's Health across the Nation. Design: Cross-sectional. Measurements and Results: African American, Chinese, and Caucasian women (N = 340) participated in 3 days of in-home polysomnographic (PSG) monitoring and had measures of inflammation and coagulation. Regression analyses revealed that each of the biomarkers were associated with indicators of sleep disordered breathing after adjusting for age, duration between sleep study and blood draw, site, menopausal status, ethnicity, residualized body mass index, smoking status, and medications that affect sleep or biomarkers. Among African American women, those who had higher levels of CRP had shorter PSG-sleep duration and those who had higher levels of fibrinogen had less efficient sleep in multivariate models. Conclusions: These results suggest that inflammation and pro-coagulation processes may be an important pathway connecting sleep disordered breathing and cardiometabolic disorders in women of these ethnic groups and that inflammation may be a particularly important pathway in African Americans. Citation: Matthews KA; Zheng H; Kravitz HM; Sowers M; Bromberger JT; Buysse DJ; Owens JF; Sanders M; Hall M. Are inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers related to sleep characteristics in mid-life women?: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Sleep Study. SLEEP 2010;33(12):1649-1655. PMID:21120127

  4. Sleep as a Mediator in the Pathway Linking Environmental Factors to Hypertension: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun A. Akinseye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors, such as noise exposure and air pollution, are associated with hypertension. These environmental factors also affect sleep quality. Given the growing evidence linking sleep quality with hypertension, the purpose of this review is to investigate the role of sleep as a key mediator in the association between hypertension and environmental factors. Through this narrative review of the extant literature, we highlight that poor sleep quality mediates the relationship between environmental factors and hypertension. The conceptual model proposed in this review offers opportunities to address healthcare disparities in hypertension among African Americans by highlighting the disparate impact that the predictors (environmental factors and mediator (sleep have on the African-American community. Understanding the impact of these factors is crucial since the main outcome variable (hypertension severely burdens the African-American community.

  5. Biochemical Regulation of Sleep and Sleep Biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Clinton, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.; Zielinski, Mark R.; Jewett, Kathryn A.; Krueger, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms commonly associated with sleep loss and chronic inflammation include sleepiness, fatigue, poor cognition, enhanced sensitivity to pain and kindling stimuli, excess sleep and increases in circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) in humans and brain levels of interleukin-1 β (IL1) and TNF in animals. Cytokines including IL1 and TNF partake in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) regulation under physiological and inflammatory conditions. Administration of exogenous IL1 or TN...

  6. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    El Shakankiry HM

    2011-01-01

    Hanan M El ShakankiryKing Fahd University Hospital, Al Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child's development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer ...

  7. Sleep strategies of night shift nurses on days off: which ones are most adaptive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Petrov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the off-shift sleep strategies of bi-ethnic night shift nurses, the relationship between these sleep strategies and adaptation to shift work, and identify the participant-level characteristics associated with a given sleep strategy.Methods: African American and non-Hispanic White female, night shift nurses from an academic hospital were recruited to complete a survey on sleep-wake patterns (n = 213. Participants completed the Standard Shiftwork Index and the Biological Clocks Questionnaire to determine sleep strategies and adaptation to night shift work. In addition, chronotype was determined quantitatively with a modified version of the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire.Most participants worked approximately three consecutive 12-hour night shifts followed by several days off.Results: Five sleep strategies used on days off were identified: a Night Stay, b Nap Proxy, c Switch Sleeper, d No Sleep, and e Incomplete Switcher. Nap Proxy and No Sleep types were associated with poorer adaptation to night shift work. The Switch Sleeper and Incomplete Switcher types were identified as more adaptive strategies that were associated with less sleep disturbance, a later chronotype, and less cardiovascular problems.Conclusions: Behavioral sleep strategies are related to adaptation to a typical night-shift schedule among hospital nurses. Nurses are crucial to the safety and well-being of their patients. Therefore, adoption of more adaptive sleep strategies may reduce sleep/wake dysregulation in this population, and improve cardiovascular outcomes.

  8. Validation of the antigen ELISA in comparison with parasitological techniques for the diagnosis of bovine trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA) for the detection of trypanosomal infections was used to test sera from naturally infected cattle and the results were correlated with those obtained by buffy coat technique (BCT). Sera were obtained from cattle kept in a tsetse free area to determine test sensitivity and from a second tsetse free area to obtain baseline values for a group of animals which were later to be moved to an area of high tsetse challenge. The Ag-ELISA was apparently 98.4% specific. In the area of high tsetse challenge the buffy coat technique detected 75 (26.6%) infections while the antigen ELISA detected 110 (39.0%) infections. The ELISA failed to detect antigens in some parasitologically positive animals, but the two were complementary for the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis in individual animals. An unexpectedly high proportion of antigen positive animals (25.0%) was found in the second tsetse free area but these infections could be due to non cyclical transmission indicating that although tsetse eradication may remove the vector, sub-clinical trypanosomiasis may persist in the cattle population unless measures are taken to provide adequate trypanocidal drug therapy. (author). 2 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  9. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts Causes and Risk Factors Diagnosis and Treatment Sleepwalking Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment Sleep Terrors Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment Sleep Eating Disorder Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment REM ...

  10. Teenagers and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000872.htm Teenagers and sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... need. What Makes it Hard for Teens to Sleep? Several factors make it hard for teens to ...

  11. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... sleep duration and single measures of salivary cortisol at awakening, which was observed in 3 studies. In these studies, sleep duration was also associated with low evening cortisol levels, steep diurnal deviation of cortisol and/or high area under the curve. Together these findings suggest that longer...

  12. Sleep and Aging: Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint at ... at greater risk for falling. Health Issues and Insomnia Disorders that cause pain or discomfort during the ...

  13. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia. PMID:27553980

  14. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. Some children experience bedwetting, night terrors, or sleepwalking during deep sleep. When we switch into REM ... stimulate some parts of the brain and can cause insomnia, or an inability to sleep. Many antidepressants ...

  15. Sleep and your health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Practice of Sleep Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 65. Carskadon MA, Dement WC. ... Practice of Sleep Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 2. Centers for Disease Control ...

  16. Aging changes in sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004018.htm Aging changes in sleep To use the sharing features ... cycle is repeated several times during the night. AGING CHANGES With aging, sleep patterns tend to change. ...

  17. Sleep Loss and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Mullington, Janet M.; Simpson, Norah S.; Meier-Ewert, Hans K.; Haack, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Controlled, experimental studies on the effects of acute sleep loss in humans have shown that mediators of inflammation are altered by sleep loss. Elevations in these mediators have been found to occur in healthy, rigorously screened individuals undergoing experimental vigils of more than 24 hours, and have also been seen in response to various durations of sleep restricted to between 25 and 50% of a normal 8 hour sleep amount. While these altered profiles represent small changes, such sub-cl...

  18. Pediatric Sleep Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecille Gail Sulman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adenotonsillectomy is the most common surgery performed for sleep disordered breathing with good outcomes. Children with obesity, craniofacial disorders, and neurologic impairment are at risk for persistent sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy. Techniques exist to address obstructive lesions of the palate, tongue base, or craniofacial skeleton in children with persistent sleep apnea. Children with obstructive sleep apnea have a higher rate of peri-operative complications.

  19. : REM sleep behavior disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Arnulf, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) enact violent dreams during REM sleep in the absence of normal muscle atonia. This disorder is highly frequent in patients with synucleinopathies (60%-100% of patients) and rare in patients with other neurodegenerative disorders. The disorder is detected by interview plus video and sleep monitoring. Abnormal movements expose the patients and bed partners to a high risk of injury and sleep disruption. The disorder is usually alleviated with melat...

  20. Sleep, vigilance, and thermosensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Romeijn, Nico; Raymann, Roy J E M; Møst, Els; Te Lindert, Bart; Van Der Meijden, Wisse P.; Fronczek, Rolf; Gomez-Herrero, German; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of sleep and wakefulness is well modeled with two underlying processes: a circadian and a homeostatic one. So far, the parameters and mechanisms of additional sleep-permissive and wake-promoting conditions have been largely overlooked. The present overview focuses on one of these conditions: the effect of skin temperature on the onset and maintenance of sleep, and alertness. Skin temperature is quite well suited to provide the brain with information on sleep-permissive and wake...

  1. Pediatric Sleep Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Cecille Gail Sulman

    2014-01-01

    Adenotonsillectomy is the most common surgery performed for sleep disordered breathing with good outcomes. Children with obesity, craniofacial disorders, and neurologic impairment are at risk for persistent sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy. Techniques exist to address obstructive lesions of the palate, tongue base, or craniofacial skeleton in children with persistent sleep apnea. Children with obstructive sleep apnea have a higher rate of peri-operative complications.

  2. Sleep disorders and stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Douglas M; Ramos, Alberto R.; Rundek, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight existing literature on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatments of stroke sleep disorders. Stroke sleep disorders are associated with many intermediary vascular risk factors leading to stroke, but they may also influence these risk factors through direct or indirect mechanisms. Sleep disturbances may be further exacerbated by stroke or caused by stroke. Unrecognized and untreated sleep disorders may influence rehabilitation efforts and poor ...

  3. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways involving sympathetic overstimulation, hormonal imbalance, and subclinical inflammation. This paper reviews sleep and metabolism, and how sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may be altering human metabolism.

  4. The Functions of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Z Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a ubiquitous component of animal life including birds and mammals. The exact function of sleep has been one of the mysteries of biology. A considerable number of theories have been put forward to explain the reason(s for the necessity of sleep. To date, while a great deal is known about what happens when animals sleep, there is no definitive comprehensive explanation as to the reason that sleep is an inevitable part of animal functioning. It is well known that sleep is a homeostatically regulated body process, and that prolonged sleep deprivation is fatal in animals. In this paper, we present some of the theories as to the functions of sleep and provide a review of some hypotheses as to the overall physiologic function of sleep. To better understand the purpose for sleeping, we review the effects of sleep deprivation on physical, neurocognitive and psychic function. A better understanding of the purpose for sleeping will be a great advance in our understanding of the nature of the animal kingdom, including our own.

  5. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sleep and Your Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Your Preschooler Print A A A Text ... Preschoolers need about 11 to 12 hours of sleep each day, which can include a nap. There's ...

  6. Is Sleep Essential?

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Cirelli; Giulio Tononi

    2008-01-01

    No current hypothesis can explain why animals need to sleep. Yet, sleep is universal, tightly regulated, and cannot be deprived without deleterious consequences. This suggests that searching for a core function of sleep, particularly at the cellular level, is still a worthwhile exercise.

  7. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  8. Sleep and primary headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguggia, Marco; Cavallini, M; Divito, N; Ferrero, M; Lentini, A; Montano, V; Tinebra, M C; Saracco, M G; Valfrè, W

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between sleep and primary headaches has been known for over a century, particularly for headaches occurring during the night or early morning. Migraine, tension-tyre headache, and cluster headache may cause sleep fragmentation, insomnia, and hypersomnia, causing considerable social and economical costs and several familial problems. By contrast, sleep disorders may themselves trigger headache attacks. Finally, headaches and sleep disorders can also be symptoms of other underlying pathologies. Despite this background, there is still no clarity about the mechanism that links these two entities and their interdependence remains to be defined. Patients with primary headache should undergo a careful assessment of sleep habits. PMID:21533713

  9. Sleep as a support for social competence, peer relations, and cognitive functioning in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Brian E; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Shin, Nana; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that sleep influences social and cognitive adaptation for school-age children and adolescents is accumulating rapidly, but less research focuses on the role of sleep for adaptive functioning during early childhood. We addressed these questions using actigraphy to assess sleep duration, sleep quality, and variability in sleep schedules in relation to a range of social/emotional and cognitive measures, including receptive vocabulary, emotion understanding, peer acceptance, social skills, social engagement, and temperament. Children in a convenience sample (N = 62, 40 boys, mean age = 4.15 yrs, 67% European American) wore actigraphs for 4-7 days, with sleep and wake states determined using Sadeh's scoring algorithm. Older children spent less time in bed at night and ethnic minority children (mostly African Americans) slept less at night and had lower sleep efficiency than did European American ethnic status children. Bivariate relations (controlling for sex, age, and ethnicity) between sleep variables and child adaptation scores showed that sleep duration was positively associated with peer acceptance, social skills, social engagement, receptive vocabulary, and understanding of the causes of emotions. Fewer variables were associated with nighttime sleep quality and variability and these tended to be related to outcome variables suggestive of behavioral and emotional regulation. Results suggest that sleep parameters are broadly implicated in the adjustment of preschool age children. PMID:24527839

  10. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgenthaler TI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bhanu P Kolla,1,2 R Robert Auger,1,2 Timothy I Morgenthaler11Mayo Center for Sleep Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Misalignment between endogenous circadian rhythms and the light/dark cycle can result in pathological disturbances in the form of erratic sleep timing (irregular sleep–wake rhythm, complete dissociation from the light/dark cycle (circadian rhythm sleep disorder, free-running type, delayed sleep timing (delayed sleep phase disorder, or advanced sleep timing (advanced sleep phase disorder. Whereas these four conditions are thought to involve predominantly intrinsic mechanisms, circadian dysrhythmias can also be induced by exogenous challenges, such as those imposed by extreme work schedules or rapid transmeridian travel, which overwhelm the ability of the master clock to entrain with commensurate rapidity, and in turn impair approximation to a desired sleep schedule, as evidenced by the shift work and jet lag sleep disorders. This review will focus on etiological underpinnings, clinical assessments, and evidence-based treatment options for circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Topics are subcategorized when applicable, and if sufficient data exist. The length of text associated with each disorder reflects the abundance of associated literature, complexity of management, overlap of methods for assessment and treatment, and the expected prevalence of each condition within general medical practice.Keywords: circadian rhythm sleep disorders, assessment, treatment

  11. Neuroimaging in sleep medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Petit, Dominique; Mazza, Stéphanie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Maquet, Pierre

    2007-06-01

    The development of neuroimaging techniques has made possible the characterization of cerebral function throughout the sleep-wake cycle in normal human subjects. Indeed, human brain activity during sleep is segregated within specific cortical and subcortical areas in relation to the sleep stage, sleep physiological events and previous waking activity. This approach has allowed sleep physiological theories developed from animal data to be confirmed, but has also introduced original concepts about the neurobiological mechanisms of sleep, dreams and memory in humans. In contrast, at present, few neuroimaging studies have been dedicated to human sleep disorders. The available work has brought interesting data that describe some aspects of the pathophysiology and neural consequences of disorders such as insomnia, sleep apnea and narcolepsy. However, the interpretation of many of these results is restricted by limited sample size and spatial/temporal resolution of the employed technique. The use of neuroimaging in sleep medicine is actually restrained by concerns resulting from the technical experimental settings and the characteristics of the diseases. Nevertheless, we predict that future studies, conducted with state of the art techniques on larger numbers of patients, will be able to address these issues and contribute significantly to the understanding of the neural basis of sleep pathologies. This may finally offer the opportunity to use neuroimaging, in addition to the clinical and electrophysiological assessments, as a helpful tool in the diagnosis, classification, treatment and monitoring of sleep disorders in humans. PMID:17470413

  12. Sleep and Sleep Problems: From Birth to 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mond, Courtney; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is an important aspect of a child's early development and is essential to family well-being. During their first 3 years, infants and toddlers spend more than 50% of their lives sleeping. However, concerns about sleep and sleep problems are among the most common issues brought to the attention of pediatricians. Although sleep is one of the…

  13. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

  14. Sleep apnea and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence has established that sleep apnea is a risk factor for stroke. Patients with stroke have a high prevalence of sleep apnea that may have preceded or developed as a result of the stroke. Well-established concurrent stroke risk factors for stroke like hypertension and atrial fibrillation respond favorably to the successful treatment of sleep apnea. The gold standard diagnosis of sleep apnea is obtained in the sleep laboratory, but unattended polysomnography is gaining acceptance. Positive airway pressure (PAP) (continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP] or bilevel positive airway pressure [BiPAP]) applications are the gold-standard treatment of sleep apnea. Suggestive evidence indicates that stroke occurrence or recurrence may be reduced with treatment of sleep apnea. PMID:25407131

  15. Dreaming without REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudiette, Delphine; Dealberto, Marie-José; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Merino-Andreu, Milagros; Tafti, Mehdi; Garma, Lucile; Schwartz, Sophie; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2012-09-01

    To test whether mental activities collected from non-REM sleep are influenced by REM sleep, we suppressed REM sleep using clomipramine 50mg (an antidepressant) or placebo in the evening, in a double blind cross-over design, in 11 healthy young men. Subjects were awakened every hour and asked about their mental activity. The marked (81%, range 39-98%) REM-sleep suppression induced by clomipramine did not substantially affect any aspects of dream recall (report length, complexity, bizarreness, pleasantness and self-perception of dream or thought-like mentation). Since long, complex and bizarre dreams persist even after suppressing REM sleep either partially or totally, it suggests that the generation of mental activity during sleep is independent of sleep stage. PMID:22647346

  16. Dietary Macronutrients and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindseth, Glenda; Murray, Ashley

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of macronutrient diets on sleep quantity and quality. Using a repeated-measures, randomized crossover study design, 36 young adults served as their own control, and consumed high protein, carbohydrate, fat, and control diets. Treatment orders were counterbalanced across the dietary groups. Following consumption of the study diets, sleep measures were examined for within-subject differences. Fatty acid intakes and serum lipids were further analyzed for differences. Sleep actigraphs indicated wake times and wake minutes (after sleep onset) were significantly different when comparing consumption of macronutrient diets and a control diet. Post hoc testing indicated high carbohydrate intakes were associated with significantly shorter (p Sleep Quality Index© post hoc results indicated high fat intake was associated with significantly better (p sleep in comparison with the other diets. These results highlight the effects that dietary manipulations may have on sleep. PMID:27170039

  17. Subjectively and Objectively Measured Sleep With and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Trauma Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Huntley, Edward; Lavela, Joseph; Mellman, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although reports of sleep disturbances are common among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), results of polysomnographic (PSG) studies have inconsistently documented abnormalities and have therefore suggested “sleep state misperception.” The authors' study objectives were to compare sleep parameters measured objectively and subjectively in the laboratory and at home in civilians with and without trauma exposure and PTSD. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: PSG recordings in a sleep laboratory and actigraphic recordings in participants' homes. Participants: One hundred three urban-residing African Americans with and without trauma exposure and PTSD who participated in a larger study. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: Sleep parameters (total sleep time [TST], sleep onset latency [SOL], and wake after sleep onset [WASO]) were assessed using laboratory PSG and home actigraphy. A sleep diary was completed in the morning after PSG and actigraphy recordings. Habitual TST, SOL, and WASO were assessed using a sleep questionnaire. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale was administered to assess participants' trauma exposure and PTSD diagnostic status. Results: Participants, regardless of their trauma exposure/PTSD status, underestimated WASO in the diary and questionnaire relative to actigraphy and overestimated SOL in the diary relative to PSG. Among participants with current PTSD, TST diary estimates did not differ from the actigraphy measure in contrast with those without current PTSD who overestimated TST. No other significant group differences in discrepancies between subjective and objective sleep measures were found. Conclusions: Discrepancies between subjectively and objectively measured sleep parameters were not associated with trauma exposure or PTSD. This challenges prior assertions that individuals with PTSD overreport their sleep disturbances. Citation: Kobayashi I; Huntley E; Lavela J; Mellman TA. Subjectively and

  18. Associations between children's intelligence and academic achievement: the role of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Stephen A; Tu, Kelly M; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-10-01

    Sleep problems (long wake episodes, low sleep efficiency) were examined as moderators of the relation between children's intelligence and academic achievement. The sample was comprised of 280 children (55% boys; 63% European Americans, 37% African Americans; mean age = 10.40 years, SD = 0.65). Sleep was assessed during seven consecutive nights of actigraphy. Children's performance on standardized tests of intelligence (Brief Intellectual Ability index of the Woodcock-Johnson III) and academic achievement (Alabama Reading and Math Test) were obtained. Age, sex, ethnicity, income-to-needs ratio, single parent status, standardized body mass index, chronic illness and pubertal development were controlled in analyses. Higher intelligence was strongly associated with higher academic achievement across a wide range of sleep quality. However, the association between intelligence and academic achievement was slightly attenuated among children with more long wake episodes or lower sleep efficiency compared with children with higher-quality sleep. PMID:25683475

  19. Sleep from an islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allβh (God and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh, Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  20. Sleep from an Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2011-10-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry. PMID:21977062

  1. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality in Italian and American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Giannotti, Flavia; CORTESI, FLAVIA; Wolfson, Amy; Harsh, John

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep quality. Participants were 1348 students (655 males; 693 females) aged 12–17 years from public school systems in Rome, Italy (n = 776) and Southern Mississippi (n = 572). Participants completed the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale and the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale. Reported sleep hygiene and sleep quality were significantly better for Italian than American adolescents. A moderate linear relationship was o...

  2. Association Between Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality in Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Brick, Cameron A.; Seely, Darbi L.; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether subjective sleep quality was reduced in medical students, and whether demographics and sleep hygiene behaviors were associated with sleep quality. A Web-based survey was completed by 314 medical students, containing questions about demographics, sleep habits, exercise habits, caffeine, tobacco and alcohol use, and subjective sleep quality (using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Correlation and regression analyses tested for associations among...

  3. African American College Students: Literacy of Depression and Help Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Kim L.; Wimsatt, Maureen; Simpson, Gaynell Marie; Martin, Fayetta; Nelson, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Depression is a serious public health concern in the United States affecting almost 18.8 million adults. It is a common mental disorder in college students, with estimates of 1 in 4 "experiencing an episode by age 24." African American college students are at an elevated risk for depression due to racism, stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of…

  4. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  5. Pathology of sleep, hormones and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.; Kluge, M.; Schussler, P.

    2013-01-01

    In patients with depression, characteristic changes of sleep electroencephalogram and nocturnal hormone secretion occur including rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disinhibition, reduced non-REM sleep and impaired sleep continuity. Neuropeptides are common regulators of the sleep electroencephalogram (

  6. Sleep-Route: Routing through Sleeping Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Chayan; Rao, Vijay S.; Prasad, R. Venkatesha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an energy-efficient data gathering scheme for wireless sensor network called Sleep-Route, which splits the sensor nodes into two sets - active and dormant (low-power sleep). Only the active set of sensor nodes participate in data collection. The sensing values of the dormant sensor nodes are predicted with the help of an active sensor node. Virtual Sensing Framework (VSF) provides the mechanism to predict the sensing values by exploiting the data correlation among ...

  7. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000064.htm Sleep disorders in the elderly To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep ...

  8. Irregular sleep-wake syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep-wake syndrome - irregular ... routine during the day. The amount of total sleep time is normal, but the body clock loses ... have a different condition, such as shift work sleep disorder or jet lag syndrome.

  9. American Academy of Sleep Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you share AASM sleep duration recommendations Senate Finance Committee considers revisions to Stark Law These papers ... announcement: After 38 years of jointly publishing the journal SLEEP with the Sleep Research Society, the AASM ...

  10. Sleep and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of IBS Who We Are Contact Us Donate Sleep and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Sleep difficulties are common ... More: Treating Pain in IBS How to improve sleep While there are a variety of medications that ...

  11. Sleep and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2012-01-01

    While there is ample agreement that the cognitive role of sleep is explained by sleep-dependent synaptic changes, consensus is yet to be established as to the nature of these changes. Some researchers believe that sleep promotes global synaptic downscaling, leading to a non-Hebbian reset of synaptic weights that is putatively necessary for the acquisition of new memories during ensuing waking. Other investigators propose that sleep also triggers experience-dependent, Hebbian synaptic upscaling able to consolidate recently acquired memories. Here, I review the molecular and physiological evidence supporting these views, with an emphasis on the calcium signaling pathway. I argue that the available data are consistent with sleep promoting experience-dependent synaptic embossing, understood as the simultaneous non-Hebbian downscaling and Hebbian upscaling of separate but complementary sets of synapses, heterogeneously activated at the time of memory encoding and therefore differentially affected by sleep. PMID:21947578

  12. Sleep in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, M C J; Jennum, P J; Lund, N T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cluster headache (CH) is a primary headache disorder characterized by severe attacks of unilateral pain following a chronobiological pattern. There is a close connection with sleep as most attacks occur during sleep. Hypothalamic involvement and a particular association with...... rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been suggested. Sleep in a large, well-characterized population of CH patients was investigated. METHODS: Polysomnography (PSG) was performed on two nights in 40 CH patients during active bout and one night in 25 age, sex and body mass index matched controls in...... hospital. Macrostructure and other features of sleep were analyzed and related to phenotype. Clinical headache characterization was obtained by semi-structured interview. RESULTS: Ninety-nine nights of PSG were analyzed. Findings included a reduced percentage of REM sleep (17.3% vs. 23.0%, P = 0...

  13. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    SunaoUchida; NorikoTakeda

    2012-01-01

    This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS) physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. The research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960s, with a focus primarily on sleep related EEG changes (CN...

  14. Sleep Deprivation and Neurobehavioral Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyles involving sleep deprivation are common, despite mounting evidence that both acute total sleep deprivation and chronically restricted sleep degrade neurobehavioral functions associated with arousal, attention, memory and state stability. Current research suggests dynamic differences in the way the central nervous system responds to acute versus chronic sleep restriction, which is reflected in new models of sleep-wake regulation. Chronic sleep restriction likely induces long-term neu...

  15. Risk factors for sleep disturbances in older adults: Evidence from prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagula, Stephen F; Stone, Katie L; Fabio, Anthony; Cauley, Jane A

    2016-02-01

    No systematic review of epidemiological evidence has examined risk factors for sleep disturbances among older adults. We searched the PubMed database combining search terms targeting the following domains 1) prospective, 2) sleep, and 3) aging, and identified 21 relevant population-based studies with prospective sleep outcome data. Only two studies utilized objective measures of sleep disturbance, while six used the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and thirteen used insomnia symptoms or other sleep complaints as the outcome measure. Female gender, depressed mood, and physical illness were most consistently identified as risks for future sleep disturbances. Less robust evidence implicated the following as potentially relevant predictors: lower physical activity levels, African-American race, lower economic status, previous manual occupation, widowhood, marital quality, loneliness and perceived stress, preclinical dementia, long-term benzodiazepine and sedative use, low testosterone levels, and inflammatory markers. Chronological age was not identified as a consistent, independent predictor of future sleep disturbances. In conclusion, prospective studies have identified female gender, depressed mood, and physical illness as general risk factors for future sleep disturbances in later life, although specific physiological pathways have not yet been established. Research is needed to determine the precise mechanisms through which these factors influence sleep over time. PMID:26140867

  16. Sleep and metabolic function

    OpenAIRE

    Morselli, Lisa L.; Guyon, Aurore; Spiegel, Karine

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for the role of sleep on metabolic and endocrine function has been reported more than four decades ago. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has greatly increased in industrialized countries, and self-imposed sleep curtailment, now very common, is starting to be recognized as a contributing factor, alongside with increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent upper ...

  17. Adult obstructive sleep apnoea

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Amy S.; McSharry, David G.; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is an increasingly common disorder of repeated upper airway collapse during sleep, which leads to oxygen desaturation and disrupted sleep. Symptoms include snoring, witnessed apnoeas, and sleepiness. Pathogenesis varies; predisposing factors include small upper airway lumen, unstable respiratory control, low arousal threshold, small lung volume, and dysfunctional upper airway dilator muscles. Risk factors include obesity, male sex, age, menopause, fluid retention, ade...

  18. DELIRIUM: IS SLEEP IMPORTANT?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Paula L.; Ceriana, Piero; Fanfulla, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Delirium and poor sleep quality are common and often co-exist in hospitalized patients. A link between these disorders has been hypothesized but whether this link is a cause and effect relationship or simply an association resulting from shared mechanisms is yet to be determined. Potential shared mechanisms include: abnormalities of neurotransmitters, tissue ischemia, inflammation, and sedative exposure. Sedatives, while decreasing sleep latency, often cause a decrease in slow wave sleep and ...

  19. The Function of Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel A. Barone; Krieger, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of sleep can be ascertained by noting the effects of its loss, which tends to be chronic and partial, on cognition, mood, alertness, and overall health. Many theories have been put forth to explain the function of sleep in humans, including proposals based on energy conservation, ecological adaptations, neurocognitive function, neural plasticity, nervous system and physical health, and performance. Most account for only a portion of sleep behavior and few are based on strong ex...

  20. Classification of Sleep Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Thorpy

    2012-01-01

    The classification of sleep disorders is necessary to discriminate between disorders and to facilitate an understanding of symptoms, etiology, and pathophysiology that allows for appropriate treatment. The earliest classification systems, largely organized according to major symptoms (insomnia, excessive sleepiness, and abnormal events that occur during sleep), were unable to be based on pathophysiology because the cause of most sleep disorders was unknown. These 3 symptom-based categories ar...

  1. Sleep enhances exposure therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kleim, Birgit; Wilhelm, F. H.; Temp, L; Margraf, J.; Wiederhold, B. K.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep benefits memory consolidation. Here, we tested the beneficial effect of sleep on memory consolidation following exposure psychotherapy of phobic anxiety. Method: A total of 40 individuals afflicted with spider phobia according to DSM-IV underwent a one-session virtual reality exposure treatment and either slept for 90 min or stayed awake afterwards. Results: Sleep following exposure therapy compared with wakefulness led to better reductions in self-reported fear (p = 0...

  2. Adenosine and Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Bjorness, Theresa E.; Greene, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several decades the idea that adenosine (Ado) plays a role in sleep control was postulated due in large part to pharmacological studies that showed the ability of Ado agonists to induce sleep and Ado antagonists to decrease sleep. A second wave of research involving in vitro cellular analytic approaches and subsequently, the use of neurochemical tools such as microdialysis, identified a population of cells within the brainstem and basal forebrain arousal centers, with activity t...

  3. Pathophysiology of Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Dempsey, Jerome A; Veasey, Sigrid C.; Morgan, Barbara J.; O'Donnell, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep-induced apnea and disordered breathing refers to intermittent, cyclical cessations or reductions of airflow, with or without obstructions of the upper airway (OSA). In the presence of an anatomically compromised, collapsible airway, the sleep-induced loss of compensatory tonic input to the upper airway dilator muscle motor neurons leads to collapse of the pharyngeal airway. In turn, the ability of the sleeping subject to compensate for this airway obstruction will determine the degree o...

  4. Sleep apnoea in acromegaly.

    OpenAIRE

    Perks, W H; Horrocks, P M; Cooper, R A; Bradbury, S; Allen, A; Baldock, N; Prowse, K.; Van't Hoff, W

    1980-01-01

    Day time somnolence or excessive snoring, or both, occurred in five out of 11 patients with acromegaly. All five had episodes of sleep apnoea, and three had the sleep apnoea syndrome. Growth hormone concentrations were higher (p less than 0.025) in these patients than in the six patients without these symptoms. One patient with daytime somnolence and one asymptomatic patient had flow loop evidence of upper airways obstruction. Two of the patients with the sleep apnoea syndrome had cardiomegal...

  5. Sleep and Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Calhoun, David A.; Harding, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Ambulatory BP studies indicate that even small increases in BP, particularly nighttime BP levels, are associated with significant increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, sleep-related diseases that induce increases in BP would be anticipated to substantially affect cardiovascular risk. Both sleep deprivation and insomnia have been linked to increases in incidence and prevalence of hypertension. Likewise, sleep disruption attributable to restless legs syndrome increas...

  6. Isolated sleep paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Neena S.; Shubhangi R Parkar; Tambe, Ravindra

    2005-01-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months.

  7. Stress, Sleep, and Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Jernelöv, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    Allergic diseases have recently increased dramatically in the western world, now affecting about 30% of the Swedish population. The reasons for this increase are unclear, but some of the suspects are behavioral factors, such as stress and sleep. Problems with stress are also common today, and stress may change the set-points for the functioning of the body, for instance in the immune system. Sleep, on the other hand, is important for recuperation, and disturbed sleep acts a ...

  8. Burnout and sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstedt, Mirjam

    2005-01-01

    Burnout and Sleep The overall aim of this thesis was to describe the physiological characteristics of sleep in persons with burnout and the relation between sleep and a number of physiological stress markers. The aim was also to evaluate the diurnal pattern of subjective sleepiness and fatigue across workday and weekend, and to describe the experiences of time preceding burnout from a life world perspective. This thesis focuses on burnout in white-collar workers; one gro...

  9. Cognitive Neuroscience of Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Poe, Gina R.; Walsh, Christine M.; Bjorness, Theresa E.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanism is at the heart of understanding, and this chapter addresses underlying brain mechanisms and pathways of cognition and the impact of sleep on these processes, especially those serving learning and memory. This chapter reviews the current understanding of the relationship between sleep/waking states and cognition from the perspective afforded by basic neurophysiological investigations. The extensive overlap between sleep mechanisms and the neurophysiology of learning and memory proce...

  10. Nonepileptic paroxysmal sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette, Eric; Guilleminault, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Events occurring during nighttime sleep in children can be easily mislabeled, as witnesses are usually not immediately available. Even when observers are present, description of the events can be sketchy, as these individuals are frequently aroused from their own sleep. Errors of perception are thus common and can lead to diagnosis of epilepsy where other sleep-related conditions are present, sometimes initiating unnecessary therapeutic interventions, especially with antiepileptic drugs. Often not acknowledged, paroxysmal nonepileptic behavioral and motor episodes in sleep are encountered much more frequently than their epileptic counterpart. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) 2nd edition displays an extensive list of such conditions that can be readily mistaken for epilepsy. The most prevalent ones are reviewed, such as nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias, comprised of sleepwalking, confusional arousals and sleep terrors, periodic leg movements of sleep, repetitive movement disorders, benign neonatal myoclonus, and sleep starts. Apnea of prematurity is also briefly reviewed. Specific issues regarding management of these selected disorders, both for diagnostic consideration and for therapeutic intervention, are addressed. PMID:23622294

  11. [Sleep in depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringuey, D; Darcourt, G

    1990-11-28

    Insomnia is a cardinal symptom of depression, side by side with alterations of mood and slowing down of psychomotor activities. It bears witness to a rupture in the built-in circadian rhythm: architectural changes in sleep betray a biological desynchronization. Insomnia is also a failed attempt at finding a solution to depression. Total deprivation of sleep for one night may damp down the depressive disorders, and so does partial sleep deprivation in the second part of the night during several days. This leads to the conclusion that the waking-sleep system participates in the expression of symptoms of depression or even contributes to the genesis of the disease. PMID:2148377

  12. The Association of Testosterone Levels with Overall Sleep Quality, Sleep Architecture, and Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Dam, Thuy-Tien; Stone, Katie; Harrison, Stephanie Litwack; Redline, Susan; Orwoll, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Context: Little is known about the association of low endogenous testosterone levels and abnormal sleep patterns in older men, although pharmacological doses of testosterone are associated with increased severity of sleep apnea and other sleep disturbances.

  13. Self-Reported Sleep Difficulties and Self-Care Strategies Among Rural Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Joanne C.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Quandt, Sara A.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Lang, Wei; Nguyen, Ha T.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of self-care strategies to address difficulty sleeping among community-dwelling older adults. Data were collected from a series of 18 questionnaires administered to 195 rural African American and white older adults in North Carolina. Participants reported whether they had experienced difficulty sleeping and strategies used to respond to the symptom. The most widely used strategies included ignoring the symptom, staying in bed or resting, and praying. Herb and suppl...

  14. Sleeping worries away or worrying away sleep? Physiological evidence on sleep-emotion interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Talamini, L. M.; Bringmann, L.F.; Boer; Hofman, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that sleep might serve a role in emotional coping. However, most findings are based on subjective reports of sleep quality, while the relation with underlying sleep physiology is still largely unknown. In this study, the impact of an emotionally distressing experience on the EEG correlates of sleep was assessed. In addition, the association between sleep physiological parameters and the extent of emotional attenuation over sleep was determined. The experimental set up ...

  15. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascetti GG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use

  16. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  17. A Review of Ecological Factors Associated with the Epidemiology of Wildlife Trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa and Zambezi Valley Ecosystems of Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    King Shimumbo Nalubamba; Musso Munyeme; Hetron Mweemba Munang’andu; Victor Siamudaala

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis has been endemic in wildlife in Zambia for more than a century. The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans. Current conservation strategies by the Zambian government of turning all game reserves into state-protected National Parks (NPs) and game management areas (GMAs) have led to the expansion of the wildlife and tsetse population in the Luangwa and Zambezi valley ecosystem. This ecological niche lies in the common tsetse fly belt that harbors the h...

  18. Sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpy, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    Depression, dementia, and physiologic changes contribute to the high prevalence of sleep disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Antiparkinsonian drugs also play a role in insomnia by increasing daytime sleepiness and affecting motor symptoms and depression. Common types of sleep disturbances in PD patients include nocturnal sleep disruption and excessive daytime sleepiness, restless legs syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep apnea, sleep walking and sleep talking, nightmares, sleep terrors, and panic attacks. A thorough assessment should include complete medical and psychiatric histories, sleep history, and a 1- to 2-week sleep diary or Epworth Sleepiness Scale evaluation. Polysomnography or actigraphy may also be indicated. Treatment should address underlying factors such as depression or anxiety. Hypnotic therapy for sleep disturbances in PD patients should be approached with care because of the risks of falling, agitation, drowsiness, and hypotension. Behavioral interventions may also be useful. PMID:15259535

  19. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep). PMID:27471418

  20. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes’ closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep). PMID:27471418

  1. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase. PMID:26758201

  2. Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Charles L; Samson, David R; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or 'nest'. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates. These changes likely reflect that our ancestors experienced fitness benefits from being active for a greater portion of the 24-h cycle than other primates, potentially related to advantages arising from learning, socializing and defending against predators and hostile conspecifics. Perspectives from evolutionary medicine have implications for understanding sleep disorders; we consider these perspectives in the context of insomnia, narcolepsy, seasonal affective disorder, circadian rhythm disorders and sleep apnea. We also identify how human sleep today differs from sleep through most of human evolution, and the implications of these changes for global health and health disparities. More generally, our review highlights the importance of phylogenetic comparisons in understanding human health, including well-known links between sleep, cognitive performance and health in humans. PMID:27470330

  3. [The NHG guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-van Beek, Z.; Lucassen, P.L.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Smelt, A.F.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Bouma, M.

    2015-01-01

    - The Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the most prevalent sleep problems and for the management of chronic users of sleeping pills.- The preferred approach for sleeplessness is not

  4. Sleeping Problems during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on most, if not all, days. Even moderate exercise, like walking, can help you get a better night's sleep. Always be sure to find out from ... on most, if not all, days. Even moderate exercise, like walking, can help you get a better night's sleep. Always be sure to find out from ...

  5. Stress, arousal, and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Suchecki, Deborah; Meerlo, Peter; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Stress is considered to be an important cause of disrupted sleep and insomnia. However, controlled and experimental studies in rodents indicate that effects of stress on sleep-wake regulation are complex and may strongly depend on the nature of the stressor. While most stressors are associated with

  6. Mental activity during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Igino

    2002-08-01

    Since remote antiquity humankind has believed in the supernatural origin of dreaming. The scientific approach to mental activity during sleep dates back to the eighteenth century. One hundred years ago, psychoanalysis introduced dream analysis for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Only 50 years ago psychophysiology made it possible to collect mental sleep activity by means of experimental awakenings while monitoring physiological variables; this approach encouraged investigation into the relationship between the features of sleep activity and sleep state (REM versus NREM). Advances in neurophysiology, in neurochemistry, and recently in brain imaging techniques, have shed light on the roles played by the different cerebral structures in determining specific characteristics of mental activity during sleep. The development of cognitive psychology has enabled investigation of dream generation in terms of output from a complex multilevel system of information processing. In addition to sleep state, other factors, such as the time of the night and the sequence of the NREM-REM cycles, have been shown to influence the characteristics of mental activity. The usefulness of investigation of mental sleep activity as a clinical tool is controversial. The psychophysiological approach to mental sleep activity in clinical contexts has enabled the exploration of adaptation processes and contributed to neuropsychological studies on focal and systemic brain pathology. PMID:12531134

  7. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  8. What Are Sleep Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » Sleep Studies Explore Sleep Studies What Are... Types Who Needs ...

  9. Sleep and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Sleep Tips for Children's Mental Health Page Content ​​​Sleep has become a casualty of ... MPH, FAAP Last Updated 5/23/2016 Source Mental Health, Naturally: The Family Guide to Holistic Care for ...

  10. Adenosine and sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A1 receptors, 3H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for 3H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in 3H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress

  11. Adenosine and sleep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A/sub 1/ receptors, /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress.

  12. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  13. Marital/Cohabitation Status and History in Relation to Sleep in Midlife Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Matthews, Karen A.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Sowers, MaryFran; Hall, Martica H.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether current and/or history of marital/cohabitation status are associated with sleep, independent of demographic and general health risk factors. Design: Longitudinal, observational study of women, with sleep measured via multi-night in-home polysomnography and up to 35 nights of actigraphy. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Caucasian (n = 170), African American (n = 138), and Chinese women (n = 59); mean age 51 years. Interventions: None. Measurements: Sleep quality was assessed via questionnaire. Sleep duration, continuity, and architecture were calculated using in-home polysomnography (PSG). Sleep continuity was also assessed by actigraphy. Categories of marital/cohabiting status or changes in status were inclusive of women who were legally married or living as married as well as transitions into or out of those partnership categories. Results: Partnered (married or cohabiting) women at the time of the sleep study had better sleep quality and PSG and actigraphy-assessed sleep continuity than unpartnered women; however, with covariate adjustment, most of these associations became non-significant. Analyses of women's relationship histories over the 6-8 years prior to the sleep study showed advantages in sleep for women who were consistently partnered versus women who were unpartnered throughout this interval, or those who had lost or gained a partner over that time course. These results persisted after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions: The stable presence of a partner is an independent correlate of better sleep quality and continuity in women. Citation: Troxel WM; Buysse DJ; Matthews KA; Kravitz HM; Bromberger JT; Sowers M; Hall MH. Marital/cohabitation status and history in relation to sleep in midlife women. SLEEP 2010;33(7):973-981. PMID:20614858

  14. The Function of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Barone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of sleep can be ascertained by noting the effects of its loss, which tends to be chronic and partial, on cognition, mood, alertness, and overall health. Many theories have been put forth to explain the function of sleep in humans, including proposals based on energy conservation, ecological adaptations, neurocognitive function, neural plasticity, nervous system and physical health, and performance. Most account for only a portion of sleep behavior and few are based on strong experimental support. In this review, we present theories proposing why sleep is necessary and supporting data demonstrating the effects of inadequate sleep, with the intention of gleaning further information as to its necessity, which remains one of the most perplexing mysteries in biology.

  15. Sleep effects on breathing and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhary Sumer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand normal sleep pattern and physiological changes during sleep, sleep and breathing interaction, nomenclature and scales used in sleep study, discuss the effect of rapid eye movements and non-rapid eye movements while sleep and to review the effects of obstructive and restrictive lung disease on gas exchange during sleep and sleep architecture.

  16. Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder. Prevalence, sleep, circadian rhythm and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Saxvig, Ingvild West

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is often characterized by delayed and irregular sleep patterns, with potential negative consequences in terms of school performance and daytime functioning. At the most extreme, a stably delayed sleep phase may reflect a circadian rhythm sleep disorder of the delayed sleep phase type (delayed sleep phase disorder, DSPD). DSPD is assumed to be common amongst adolescents and young adults, but little is known about its prevalence and aetiology, and no guidelines exist ...

  17. Clinical Psychology Training in Sleep and Sleep Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Phillips, Cindy; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that clinical psychologists would benefit from more training in sleep and sleep disorders. Sleep disturbances are commonly comorbid with mental health disorders and this relationship is often bidirectional. In addition, psychologists have become integral members of multidisciplinary sleep medicine teams and there are not enough qualified psychologists to meet the clinical demand. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current education on sleep and ...

  18. Chronic Exposure to Everyday Discrimination and Sleep in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tené T.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have suggested that poor sleep may play a role in the association between discrimination and health, but studies linking experiences of discrimination to sleep are limited. The authors examined associations between reports of everyday discrimination over four years (chronic everyday discrimination) and subjective and objective indicators of poor sleep. Methods Participants were 368 African-American, Caucasian, and Chinese women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Everyday discrimination was assessed each year from baseline through the third follow-up exam via questionnaire with the Everyday Discrimination Scale (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient over four years=.90). Subjective sleep complaints were measured beginning in year 5 with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Objective indices of sleep continuity, duration, and architecture were assessed via in-home polysomnography (PSG), beginning in year 5. Results In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, race/ethnicity and financial strain, chronic everyday discrimination was associated with more subjective sleep complaints (Estimate =1.52, p<.001) and PSG-assessed wakefulness after sleep onset (Estimate=.19, p<.02), a marker of sleep continuity. Findings did not differ by race/ethnicity and remained significant after adjusting for menopausal status, body mass index, medication use and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Experiences of chronic everyday discrimination are independently associated with both subjective and objective indices of poor sleep. Findings add to the growing literature linking discrimination to key markers of biobehavioral health. PMID:23088174

  19. Sleep in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaelen, James; Greiffenstein, Patrick; deBoisblanc, Bennett P

    2015-07-01

    More than one-half million patients are hospitalized annually for traumatic brain injury (TBI). One-quarter demonstrate sleep-disordered breathing, up to 50% experience insomnia, and half have hypersomnia. Sleep disturbances after TBI may result from injury to sleep-regulating brain tissue, nonspecific neurohormonal responses to systemic injury, ICU environmental interference, and medication side effects. A diagnosis of sleep disturbances requires a high index of suspicion and appropriate testing. Treatment starts with a focus on making the ICU environment conducive to normal sleep. Treating sleep-disordered breathing likely has outcome benefits in TBI. The use of sleep promoting sedative-hypnotics and anxiolytics should be judicious. PMID:26118920

  20. Neurobiological aspects of sleep physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moszczynski, Alex; Murray, Brian James

    2012-11-01

    Sleep is characterized by changes in neural firing and chemistry compared with wakefulness. Many neurologic diseases affect pathways that regulate control of sleep state and some primary sleep disorders have abnormalities of this circuitry. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep alternate in an approximately 90-minute cycle. Recent findings have expanded understanding of the control of sleep state, and will facilitate development of novel therapeutics to assist patients with a variety of disorders of sleep and wakefulness. Treatment of sleep and wake disorders can assist patients with a variety of neurologic problems. PMID:23099125

  1. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. PMID:26600106

  2. Daily mood and sleep: reciprocal relations and links with adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-02-01

    Children's sleep problems are common and associated with increased risk for adjustment problems. We examined daily links between children's sleep and mood, using a daily diary method and actigraphy. We also tested children's daily mood as a mediator of relations among sleep and children's broader internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A community sample of 142 children (mean age = 10.69 years; 57% girls; 69% European American, 31% African American) and their parents participated. For 1 week, children wore actigraphs and parents completed a daily telephone interview about their child's mood. Following the week of actigraphy, mothers and fathers reported on their child's adjustment. Multi-level models indicated within-person relations between children's mood and subsequent sleep fragmentation (indicated by increased activity) and sleep latency, and between-person relations between sleep latency and subsequent mood on the next day. Significant indirect effects were found such that a more negative daily mood (aggregated across diary days) mediated relations between poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep latency and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Findings extend previous research by highlighting disruptions to children's daily mood as a potential mechanism linking sleep problems to children's mental health. PMID:25212526

  3. Sleep disorders in hemodialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry Alaa; Abo-Zenah Hamdy; Wafa Ehab; Mahmoud Khaled; El-Dahshan Khaled; Hassan Ahmed; Abbas Tarek; Saleh Abd El-Baset; Okasha Kamal

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep disorders is higher in patients with kidney failure than the general population. We studied the prevalence of sleep disorders in 88 (mean age; 41.59 ± 16.3 years) chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients at the Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura Uni-versity, Egypt over 4-month period. The investigated sleep disorders included insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), narcolepsy and sleep walk...

  4. Genetic factors in sleep disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, J. D.; Lock, C B

    1989-01-01

    Several sleep disorders have a genetic basis. These conditions include the narcoleptic syndrome, sleep walking, periodic movements in sleep, circadian delay syndromes and familial insomnia. These disorders illustrate different control mechanisms involved in sleep and wakefulness, including those determining the prevalence and timing of NREM and REM activity, somatomotor inhibition and excitation, autonomic discharge, and the circadian framework of sleep. The genetic defect in narcolepsy has b...

  5. The Neuroprotective Aspects of Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of...

  6. Sleep in disorders of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Cologan, Victor; Schabus, Manvel; Ledoux, Didier; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre; Laureys, Steven

    2009-01-01

    From a behavioral as well as neurobiological point of view, sleep and consciousness are intimately connected. A better understanding of sleep cycles and sleep architecture of patients suffering from disorders of consciousness (DOC) might therefore improve the clinical care for these patients as well as our understanding of the neural correlations of consciousness. Defining sleep in severely brain-injured patients is however problematic as both their electrophysiological and sleep patterns dif...

  7. Sleep in disorders of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Cologan, Victor; Schabus, Manuel; Ledoux, Didier; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    From a behavioral as well as neurobiological point of view, sleep and consciousness are intimately connected. A better understanding of sleep cycles and sleep architecture of patients suffering from disorders of consciousness (DOC) might therefore improve the clinical care for these patients as well as our understanding of the neural correlations of consciousness. Defining sleep in severely brain-injured patients is however problematic as both their electrophysiological and sleep patterns dif...

  8. Sleep in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Jonathan P; Paruthi, Shalini

    2016-03-01

    This article provides an overview of common pediatric sleep disorders encountered in the neurology clinic, including restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy, parasomnias, sleep-related epilepsy, and sleep and headaches. An overview of each is provided, with an emphasis on accurate diagnosis and treatment. It is important in comprehensive neurologic care to also obtain a sleep history, because treating the underlying sleep condition may improve the neurologic disorder. PMID:26972036

  9. Animal Models of Sleep Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Linda A; Bhargava, Pavan

    2013-01-01

    Problems with sleep affect a large part of the general population, with more than half of all people in the United States reporting difficulties with sleep or insufficient sleep at various times and about 40 million affected chronically. Sleep is a complex physiologic process that is influenced by many internal and environmental factors, and problems with sleep are often related to specific personal circumstances or are based on subjective reports from the affected person. Although human subj...

  10. [Brain and sleep mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahama, Kunio

    2006-11-01

    It is now accepted that sleep is induced by biological clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and/or sleep promoting substances, which influence ventrolateral preoptic (VLPO) neurons. The VLPO neurons affects more caudally situated posterior hypothalamic ones containing orexine and/or histamine, reciprocally. When these neurons inhibit lower brainstem aminergic ones, sleep is induced. REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep can be induced mainly by brainstem cholinergic neurons, when aminergic ones are completely inhibited. During this stage, tonic activities and phasic Ponto-Geniculate-Occipital (PGO) ones originated within brainstem cholinergic neurons activate irregularly many parts of the brain such as the cerebral cortex and limbic system to produce dream-like activity. Muscle atonia is also observed during REM sleep. This atonia is caused by neurons in the pontine reticular inhibitory area (PIA), which is normally inhibited by aminergic inputs. The PIA affects medullary neurons of the paramedian and/or magnocelullar nuclei to regulate motoneurons in the ventral horn. Therefore. muscle atonia is produced when these PPT cells are active during REM sleep. In addition, based upon many recent data, sleep is not a passive state but rather an active state, during which recuperation of neuronal system is promoted and information processing is executed. PMID:17432188

  11. Insomnia and sleep misperception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, C H; Ceklic, T; St-Hilaire, P; Desmarais, F; Pérusse, A D; Lefrançois, J; Pedneault-Drolet, M

    2014-10-01

    Sleep misperception is often observed in insomnia individuals (INS). The extent of misperception varies between different types of INS. The following paper comprised sections which will be aimed at studying the sleep EEG and compares it to subjective reports of sleep in individuals suffering from either psychophysiological insomnia or paradoxical insomnia and good sleeper controls. The EEG can be studied without any intervention (thus using the raw data) via either PSG or fine quantitative EEG analyses (power spectral analysis [PSA]), identifying EEG patterns as in the case of cyclic alternating patterns (CAPs) or by decorticating the EEG while scoring the different transient or phasic events (K-Complexes or sleep spindles). One can also act on the on-going EEG by delivering stimuli so to study their impact on cortical measures as in the case of event-related potential studies (ERPs). From the paucity of studies available using these different techniques, a general conclusion can be reached: sleep misperception is not an easy phenomenon to quantify and its clinical value is not well recognized. Still, while none of the techniques or EEG measures defined in the paper is available and/or recommended to diagnose insomnia, ERPs might be the most indicated technique to study hyperarousal and sleep quality in different types of INS. More research shall also be dedicated to EEG patterns and transient phasic events as these EEG scoring techniques can offer a unique insight of sleep misperception. PMID:25179115

  12. Management of common sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J

    2013-08-15

    Sleep disorders are common and affect sleep quality and quantity, leading to increased morbidity. Patients with sleep disorders can be categorized as those who cannot sleep, those who will not sleep, those with excessive daytime sleepiness, and those with increased movements during sleep. Insomnia, defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep that results in daytime impairment, is diagnosed using history findings and treated with cognitive behavior therapy, with or without sleep hypnotics. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs that worsens with rest, is relieved by movement, and often occurs in the evening or at night. Restless legs syndrome is treated based on the frequency of symptoms. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. It is diagnosed using a sleep log or actigraphy, followed by overnight polysomnography and a multiple sleep latency test. Narcolepsy is treated with stimulants, such as modafinil; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; or gamma hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate). Patients with snoring and witnessed apneas may have obstructive sleep apnea, which is diagnosed using overnight polysomnography. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most common and effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, resulting in the patient acting out dreams with possible harmful consequences. It is diagnosed based on history and polysomnography findings, and treated with environmental safety measures and melatonin or clonazepam. PMID:23944726

  13. Sleep deprivation in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doongaji D

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten patients diagnosed as suffering from depressive illness were treated with 2 consecutive nights of sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was effective in both types of depression viz. endoge-nous and reactive. The improvement was greater and seemed to last longer in endogenous depression as compared to reactive depression at the time of evaluation, 7 days after completion of sleep deprivation. Depressed mood, suicidal tendencies and retard-ation seemed to show the greatest improvement while insight and gastro-intestinal and somatic symptoms, improved the least.

  14. Sleep and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Bopparaju

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep apnea is clinically recognized as a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by recurrent apnea and/or hypopnea. Its prevalence ranges from 4% to 24%. It has been implicated as an independent risk factor for several conditions such as hypertension, stroke, arrhythmia, and myocardial infarction. Recently data has been emerging which suggests an independent association of obstructive sleep apnea with several components of the metabolic syndrome, particularly insulin resistance and abnormalities in lipid metabolism. We hereby review the salient features of the association between sleep and diabetes.

  15. Sleep Perception in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Study Using Polysomnography and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Hyunwoo; Lim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Jun-Soon; Lee, Keon-Joo; Koo, Dae Lim; Lee, Chulhee

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Discrepancies between objectively measured sleep and subjective sleep perception in patients with insomnia have been reported. However, few studies have investigated sleep-state misperception in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We designed this study to 1) delineate the factors that could affect this discrepancy and 2) infer an underlying mechanism in patients with OSA. Methods We recruited patients who visited our sleep clinic for the evaluation of their sn...

  16. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caregivers. Daytime napping and other shifts in the sleep-wake cycle. Individuals may feel very drowsy during the ... problems worse include: Depression Restless legs syndrome, a disorder in which unpleasant “crawling” or “tingling” sensations in ...

  17. Getting Enough Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... have around. Sound good? Now consider some possible effects of not getting enough sleep: Feeling angry or ...

  18. Depression and poor sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Connie; Brennum, Lise T; Stórustovu, Signe í;

    2007-01-01

    The effects of five antidepressants (escitalopram, paroxetine, duloxetine, venlafaxine, and reboxetine) on the sleep architecture were investigated in freely moving rats in the light phase of a 12:12 h light:dark cycle following a single i.p. dose of antidepressant. Overall, paroxetine and...... escitalopram exhibited the least sleep disruptive profiles, whereas duloxetine, venlafaxine, and reboxetine increased the time spent awake and suppressed paradoxical sleep. Analysis of the EEG at 1 h intervals revealed only subtle differences from the overall picture. The effect of venlafaxine on disruption of...... sleep architecture could not be readily explained by its in vitro serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitory potencies. In vivo microdialysis experiments in the ventral hippocampus of freely moving rats revealed that venlafaxine affected the 5-HT and NA systems equally at the doses...

  19. Sleep after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Skarbye, M; Wildschiødtz, G;

    1996-01-01

    The sleep pattern and oxygenation of 10 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were studied on the night before operation and the first night after operation. Operations were performed during general anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia was achieved without the administration of...... opioids. There were no significant changes in the total time awake or the number of arousals on the postoperative night compared with the night before operation. During the postoperative night, we found a decrease (P = 0.02) in slow wave sleep (SWS) with a corresponding increase in stage 2 sleep (P = 0.......01). SWS was absent in four of the patients after operation, whereas in six patients it was within the normal range (5-20% of the night). The proportion of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was not significantly changed after operation. There were no changes in arterial oxygen saturation on the postoperative...

  20. Employees with Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the legs, described as pins and needles, crawling, and tingling, occur during sleep. As a result ... many more that are not available on the Web site. Contact JAN directly if you have specific ...

  1. Good Night's Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... place to sleep. Make sure you have smoke alarms on each floor of your home. Before going ... Page Last Updated: June 6, 2016 Related Publications Fatigue: More Than Being Tired Exercise and Physical Activity: ...

  2. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126

  3. Sleep Problems and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep problems and their associations with quality of life (QOL), school attendance, and family impacts in children with ADHD were determined in a study at Royal Children's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  4. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL, the...

  5. Functions and Mechanisms of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Zielinski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a complex physiological process that is regulated globally, regionally, and locally by both cellular and molecular mechanisms. It occurs to some extent in all animals, although sleep expression in lower animals may be co-extensive with rest. Sleep regulation plays an intrinsic part in many behavioral and physiological functions. Currently, all researchers agree there is no single physiological role sleep serves. Nevertheless, it is quite evident that sleep is essential for many vital functions including development, energy conservation, brain waste clearance, modulation of immune responses, cognition, performance, vigilance, disease, and psychological state. This review details the physiological processes involved in sleep regulation and the possible functions that sleep may serve. This description of the brain circuitry, cell types, and molecules involved in sleep regulation is intended to further the reader’s understanding of the functions of sleep.

  6. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  7. Artificial organisms that sleep.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Populations of artificial organisms live in an environment in which light is cyclically present (day) or absent (night). Since being active during night is non-adaptive (activity consumes energy which is not compensated by the food found at night) the organisms evolve a sleep/wake behavioral pattern of being active during daytime and sleeping during nighttime. When the population moves to a different environment that contains "caves", they have to get out of a cave although the dark ...

  8. Sleep EEG analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vávrová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the analysis of EEG during various sleep stages, which is done by calculating the selected parameters from the time and frequency domain. These parameters are calculated from individual segments of EEG signals that correspond with various sleep stages. Based on the analysis it decides which EEG parameters are appropriate for the automatic detection of the phases and which method is more suitable for evaluation of data in hypnogram. The programme MATLAB was used for the ...

  9. Reweighted Wake-Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Bornschein, Jörg; Bengio, Yoshua

    2014-01-01

    Training deep directed graphical models with many hidden variables and performing inference remains a major challenge. Helmholtz machines and deep belief networks are such models, and the wake-sleep algorithm has been proposed to train them. The wake-sleep algorithm relies on training not just the directed generative model but also a conditional generative model (the inference network) that runs backward from visible to latent, estimating the posterior distribution of latent given visible. We...

  10. Sleep deprivation and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Elsenga, Simon

    1992-01-01

    The association between depression and sleep disturbances is perhaps as old as makind. In view of the longstanding experience with this association it is amazing that only some 20 years ago, a few depressed patients attracted attention to the fact that Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) had antidepressant effects. A large number of studies have followed these observations. The purpose of the studies presented in this thesis was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of TSD and related procedures for ...

  11. Sleep in thyrotoxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    G R Sridhar; Venkata Putcha; Lakshmi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pattern of sleep in hyperthyroid state / thyrotoxicosis has not been systematically studied. It is being characterized as poor without further elaboration. We analyzed the pattern of sleep in a large sample of individuals with thyrotoxicosis who came to our endocrine center in southern India. Materials and Methods: We identified individuals with the diagnosis of ‘thyrotoxicosis’ from our electronic medical record database, and evaluated clinical parameters and pattern of their slee...

  12. Sleep enhances category learning

    OpenAIRE

    Djonlagic, Ina; Rosenfeld, Andrew; Shohamy, Daphna; Myers, Catherine; Gluck, Mark; Stickgold, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The ability to categorize objects and events in the world around us is a fundamental and critical aspect of human learning. We trained healthy adults on a probabilistic category-learning task in two different training modes. The aim of this study was to see whether either form of probabilistic category learning (feedback or observational) undergoes subsequent enhancement during sleep. Our results suggest that after training, a good night of sleep can lead to improved performance the following...

  13. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Talha Khan; Rose Amy Franco

    2014-01-01

    Complex sleep apnea is the term used to describe a form of sleep disordered breathing in which repeated central apneas (>5/hour) persist or emerge when obstructive events are extinguished with positive airway pressure (PAP) and for which there is not a clear cause for the central apneas such as narcotics or systolic heart failure. The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continu...

  14. Sleep and psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Abad, Vivien C.; Guilleminault, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders constitute 15.4% of the disease burden in established market economies. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with sleep disturbances, and the relationship is often bidirectional. This paper reviews the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders, their clinical presentation, and their association with sleep disorders. Among the psychiatric disorders reviewed are affective disorders, psychosis, anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress disorder), substance a...

  15. Sleep and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Staner, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-a...

  16. Fertility of the Small East African goat following pre-pubertal infection with Trypanosoma congolense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-pubertal male and female Small East African goats were infected with Trypanosoma congolense at 4-5 months of age. Changes in body weight and haemogram were monitored weekly. Progesterone and testosterone measurements were made three times weekly until the goats either reached puberty or 18 months of age. Onset of puberty was determined from observation of oestrus behaviour, mating or increase in libidio; this was confirmed by elevation in plasma progesterone or testosterone levels. Trypanosomiasis affected pre-pubertal goats by reducing body weight gain and delaying onset of puberty. Histological examination of the gonads showed pronounced pathological changes. These effects were reversed by treatment with isometamidium chloride (Samorin, May and Baker). It was concluded that early treatment of infected goats before serious gonadal damage could occur allowed full restoration of reproductive function. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  17. Sleep apnea headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Boostani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a common disorder characterized by recurrent apnea during sleep. Nocturnal laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG is the gold standard test for diagnosis of OSA. The sufferers may complain from daytime sleepiness, snoring or occasional headaches. Serious consequences such as cardiovascular complications, stroke or symptoms of depression may complicate the syndrome. Headache prevalence due to sleep apnea is estimated 1%-2% in general population and affects 2%-8% of middle age population. Morning headache is more common in the OSAS patients. OSAS patients present with various characteristics of morning headache. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure usually reduces headache. The pathophysiologic background for a relation between obstructive sleep apnea and morning headache is multifactorial. Some theories have been proposed for OSAS-related headaches such as changing oxygen saturation during sleep, cerebral vasodilation and increased intracranial pressure due to cerebral vasodilation, sleep disruption and depression but the definite cause of headaches in OSAS patients is not yet clear.

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Brass

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA will increase in the future. Individuals with sleep apnea are often unaware of their sleep disorder. It is usually first recognized as a problem by family members who witness the apneic episodes or is suspected by their primary care doctor because of the individual’s risk factors and symptoms. The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences. Individuals with untreated OSA can stop breathing hundreds of times a night during their sleep. These apneic events can lead to fragmented sleep that is of poor quality, as the brain arouses briefly in order for the body to resume breathing. Untreated, sleep apnea can have dire health consequences and can increase the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and heart failure. OSA management has also become important in a number of comorbid neurological conditions, including epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and headache. Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study. Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances.

  19. A sleep state during C. elegans development

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Matthew D.; Raizen, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is the simplest animal shown to sleep. It sleeps during lethargus, a larval transition stage. Behavior during lethargus has the sleep properties of a specific quiescent posture and elevated arousal threshold that are reversible to strong stimulation and of increased sleep drive following sleep deprivation. Genetic similarities between sleep regulation during C. elegans lethargus and sleep regulation in other animals point to a sleep state that was an evolutionarily ance...

  20. Can non-REM sleep be depressogenic?

    OpenAIRE

    Beersma, Domien G. M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1992-01-01

    Sleep and mood are clearly interrelated in major depression, as shown by the antidepressive effects of various experiments, such as total sleep deprivation, partial sleep deprivation, REM sleep deprivation, and temporal shifts of the sleep period. The prevailing hypotheses explaining these effects concern the antidepressant potency of the suppression of either REM sleep or non-REM sleep. This issue is discussed in the light of present knowledge of the kinetics of non-REM sleep intensity, REM ...

  1. Enhancements to the multiple sleep latency test

    OpenAIRE

    Meza-Vargas S; Giannouli E; Younes M

    2016-01-01

    Sonia Meza-Vargas, Eleni Giannouli, Magdy Younes Sleep Disorders Centre, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Introduction: The utility of multiple sleep latency tests (MSLTs) is limited to determining sleep onset latency (SOL) and rapid eye movement sleep latency. The odds ratio product (ORP) is a continuous index of sleep depth with values of 0, 1.0, and 2.5 reflecting very deep sleep, light sleep, and full wakefulness, respectively. We determined the time course of sleep depth dur...

  2. Sleep spindles and hippocampal functional connectivity in human NREM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Kátia C; Spoormaker, Victor I; Dresler, Martin; Wehrle, Renate; Holsboer, Florian; Sämann, Philipp G; Czisch, Michael

    2011-07-13

    We investigated human hippocampal functional connectivity in wakefulness and throughout non-rapid eye movement sleep. Young healthy subjects underwent simultaneous EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements at 1.5 T under resting conditions in the descent to deep sleep. Continuous 5 min epochs representing a unique sleep stage (i.e., wakefulness, sleep stages 1 and 2, or slow-wave sleep) were extracted. fMRI time series of subregions of the hippocampal formation (HF) (cornu ammonis, dentate gyrus, and subiculum) were extracted based on cytoarchitectonical probability maps. We observed sleep stage-dependent changes in HF functional coupling. The HF was integrated to variable strength in the default mode network (DMN) in wakefulness and light sleep stages but not in slow-wave sleep. The strongest functional connectivity between the HF and neocortex was observed in sleep stage 2 (compared with both slow-wave sleep and wakefulness). We observed a strong interaction of sleep spindle occurrence and HF functional connectivity in sleep stage 2, with increased HF/neocortical connectivity during spindles. Moreover, the cornu ammonis exhibited strongest functional connectivity with the DMN during wakefulness, while the subiculum dominated hippocampal functional connectivity to frontal brain regions during sleep stage 2. Increased connectivity between HF and neocortical regions in sleep stage 2 suggests an increased capacity for possible global information transfer, while connectivity in slow-wave sleep is reflecting a functional system optimal for segregated information reprocessing. Our data may be relevant to differentiating sleep stage-specific contributions to neural plasticity as proposed in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:21753010

  3. Sleeping worries away or worrying away sleep? Physiological evidence on sleep-emotion interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, Lucia M; Bringmann, Laura F; de Boer, Marieke; Hofman, Winni F

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that sleep might serve a role in emotional coping. However, most findings are based on subjective reports of sleep quality, while the relation with underlying sleep physiology is still largely unknown. In this study, the impact of an emotionally distressing experience on the EEG correlates of sleep was assessed. In addition, the association between sleep physiological parameters and the extent of emotional attenuation over sleep was determined. The experimental set up involved presentation of an emotionally neutral or distressing film fragment in the evening, followed by polysomnographic registration of undisturbed, whole-night sleep and assessment of emotional reactivity to film cues on the next evening. We found that emotional distress induced mild sleep deterioration, but also an increase in the proportion of slow wave sleep (SWS) and altered patterning of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Indeed, while REM sleep occurrence normally increases over the course of the night, emotional distress flattened this distribution and correlated with an increased number of REM periods. While sleep deterioration was negatively associated to emotional attenuation over sleep, the SWS response was positively related to such attenuation and may form part of a compensatory response to the stressor. Interestingly, trait-like SWS characteristics also correlated positively with the extent of emotion attenuation over sleep. The combined results provide strong evidence for an intimate reciprocal relation between sleep physiology and emotional processing. Moreover, individual differences in subjects' emotional and sleep responses suggest there may be a coupling of certain emotion and sleep traits into distinct emotional sleep types. PMID:23671601

  4. Decrease in monocular sleep after sleep deprivation in the domestic chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, AS; Riedstra, B; Strijkstra, AM

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the trade-off between sleep need and alertness, by challenging chickens to modify their monocular sleep. We sleep deprived domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus) to increase their sleep need. We found that in response to sleep deprivation the fraction of monocular sleep within sleep d

  5. Sleep · 8: Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, G; Brouillette, R

    2005-01-01

    In the past 25 years there has been increasing recognition of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) as a common condition of childhood. Morbidity includes impairment of growth, cardiovascular complications, learning impairment, and behavioural problems. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition in children differs in many respects from that in adults. We review here the key features of paediatric OSA, highlighting differences from adult OSA, and suggest future directions for research.

  6. Do birds sleep in flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2006-09-01

    The following review examines the evidence for sleep in flying birds. The daily need to sleep in most animals has led to the common belief that birds, such as the common swift ( Apus apus), which spend the night on the wing, sleep in flight. The electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings required to detect sleep in flight have not been performed, however, rendering the evidence for sleep in flight circumstantial. The neurophysiology of sleep and flight suggests that some types of sleep might be compatible with flight. As in mammals, birds exhibit two types of sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep. Whereas, SWS can occur in one or both brain hemispheres at a time, REM sleep only occurs bihemispherically. During unihemispheric SWS, the eye connected to the awake hemisphere remains open, a state that may allow birds to visually navigate during sleep in flight. Bihemispheric SWS may also be possible during flight when constant visual monitoring of the environment is unnecessary. Nevertheless, the reduction in muscle tone that usually accompanies REM sleep makes it unlikely that birds enter this state in flight. Upon landing, birds may need to recover the components of sleep that are incompatible with flight. Periods of undisturbed postflight recovery sleep may be essential for maintaining adaptive brain function during wakefulness. The recent miniaturization of EEG recording devices now makes it possible to measure brain activity in flight. Determining if and how birds sleep in flight will contribute to our understanding of a largely unexplored aspect of avian behavior and may also provide insight into the function of sleep.

  7. Sleep disorders in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Alaa A; Abo-Zenah, Hamdy; Wafa, Ehab; Mahmoud, Khaled; El-Dahshan, Khaled; Hassan, Ahmed; Abbas, Tarek Medhat; Saleh, Abd El-Baset M; Okasha, Kamal

    2010-03-01

    The prevalence of sleep disorders is higher in patients with kidney failure than the general population. We studied the prevalence of sleep disorders in 88 (mean age; 41.59 +/- 16.3 years) chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients at the Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Egypt over 4-month period. The investigated sleep disorders included insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), narcolepsy and sleep walking, and we used a questionnaire in accordance with those of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group, the Berlin questionnaire, Italian version of Epworth Sleepiness Scale, International Classification of Sleep Disorders, and the specific questions of Hatoum's sleep questionnaire. The prevalence of sleep disorders was 79.5% in our patients, and the most common sleep abnormality was insomnia (65.9%), followed by RLS (42%), OSAS (31.8%), snoring (27.3%), EDS (27.3%), narcolepsy (15.9%), and sleep walking (3.4%). Insomnia correlated with anemia (r=0.31, P= 0.003), anxiety (r=0.279, P= 0.042), depression (r=0.298, P= 0.24) and RLS (r=0.327, P= 0.002). Also, RLS correlated with hypoalbuminemia (r=0.41, P= Sleep disorders are quite common in the HD patients, especially those who are anemic and hypoalbuminemic. Assessment of sleep quality, preferably with polysomnography, is necessary to confirm our results. Interventional studies for management of sleep disorders in HD patients are warranted. PMID:20228517

  8. Exercise effects on sleep physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Sunao; Shioda, Kohei; Morita, Yuko; Kubota, Chie; Ganeko, Masashi; Takeda, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS) physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. The research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960s, with a focus primarily on sleep related EEG changes (CNS sleep). Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. However, more recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. Sleep should be affected by daytime exercise, as physical activity alters endocrine, autonomic nervous system (ANS), and somatic functions. Since endocrinological, metabolic, and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, evaluated by standard polysomnographic (PSG) techniques. Additional measures of somatic physiology have provided enough evidences to conclude that the auto-regulatory, global regulation of sleep is not the exclusive domain of the CNS, but it is heavily influenced by inputs from the rest of the body. PMID:22485106

  9. Optogenetically induced sleep spindle rhythms alter sleep architectures in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Angela; Latchoumane, Charles; Lee, Soojung; Kim, Guk Bae; Cheong, Eunji; Augustine, George J.; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Sleep spindles are rhythmic patterns of neuronal activity generated within the thalamocortical circuit. Although spindles have been hypothesized to protect sleep by reducing the influence of external stimuli, it remains to be confirmed experimentally whether there is a direct relationship between sleep spindles and the stability of sleep. We have addressed this issue by using in vivo photostimulation of the thalamic reticular nucleus of mice to generate spindle oscillations that are structura...

  10. Sleep in Elite Athletes and Nutritional Interventions to Enhance Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Halson, Shona L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, chang...

  11. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Janna Mantua; Keenan M Mahan

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of wor...

  12. Sleep and Delinquency: Does the Amount of Sleep Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.; Simi, Pete; Evans, Mary K.; Anderson, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep, a key indicator of health, has been linked to a variety of indicators of well-being such that people who get an adequate amount generally experience greater well-being. Further, a lack of sleep has been linked to a wide range of negative developmental outcomes, yet sleep has been largely overlooked among researchers interested in adolescent…

  13. Sleep, its regulation and possible mechanisms of sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkka-Heiskanen, T; Zitting, K-M; Wigren, H-K

    2013-08-01

    The state of sleep consists of different phases that proceed in successive, tightly regulated order through the night forming a physiological program, which for each individual is different but stabile from one night to another. Failure to accomplish this program results in feeling of unrefreshing sleep and tiredness in the morning. The program core is constructed by genetic factors but regulated by circadian rhythm and duration and intensity of day time brain activity. Many environmental factors modulate sleep, including stress, health status and ingestion of vigilance-affecting nutrients or medicines (e.g. caffeine). Acute sleep loss results in compromised cognitive performance, memory deficits, depressive mood and involuntary sleep episodes during the day. Moreover, prolonged sleep curtailment has many adverse health effects, as evidenced by both epidemiological and experimental studies. These effects include increased risk for depression, type II diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. In addition to voluntary restriction of sleep, shift work, irregular working hours, jet lag and stress are important factors that induce curtailed or bad quality sleep and/or insomnia. This review covers the current theories on the function of normal sleep and describes current knowledge on the physiologic effects of sleep loss. It provides insights into the basic mechanisms of the regulation of wakefulness and sleep creating a theoretical background for understanding different disturbances of sleep. PMID:23746394

  14. Psychosocial Characteristics and Gestational Weight Change among Overweight, African American Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, Kelly C.; Wrotniak, Brian H.; Emmanuelle Paré; Sarwer, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To describe psychosocial factors identified as contributors of weight gain in the general population and to examine the relationship between these factors and gestational weight gain among low socioeconomic status, African American, overweight pregnant women. Methods. African American women (n = 120) with a pregravid body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 completed measures of eating, sleep, and depressed mood between 14 and 24 weeks of gestation. Weight was tracked. Descriptive statistics, co...

  15. Options for Tsetse Eradication in the Moist Savannah Zone of West Africa: Technical and Economic Feasibility, Phase 1 - GIS-Based Study. Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This desk study was initiated with two objectives: - To examine the economic costs and benefits of a range of different sized tsetse eradication projects in the Moist Savannah Zone of West Africa (MSZ), and; - To test the hypothesis that larger tsetse control projects are more economically efficient than smaller projects in that region. The limited nature of the study precluded detailed examination of the socio-cultural and environmental issues relating to controlling trypanosomosis although these are briefly considered; nor did it aim to compare vector control with other methods of combating trypanosomosis such as the therapeutic or prophylactic use of drugs. However, by computing benefits over just 10 years an indirect comparison is made with the strategy that maintains that eradicating tsetse flies is not justified as, sooner or later, rapidly increasing population pressure will autonomously eradicate tsetse flies and hence trypanosomosis. This analysis suggests that such a strategy is not justified economically. As the basis of the economic evaluation was a study of projects in defined areas it was first necessary to iteratively examine the technical and economic issues relating to project selection and design. In this respect, the re-invasion issue was considered to be the major influence as it threatens both the sustainability and economic performance of tsetse eradication. Consequently, it was considered that the river basin was the smallest size of project that would optimise economic performance. This particular observation relates uniquely to the MSZ and may not apply to more southerly areas where fly distribution is more ubiquitous or to other parts of Africa. By basing the economic analysis on an evaluation of projects, albeit hypothetical, it was possible to use real data as the baseline database and the projects could be designed in response to actual tsetse and trypanosomosis scenarios. The group of study areas were chosen to be representative of the whole of the MSZ and not in response to any project that is being planned by any organisation or government. Consequently the studies must be regarded as hypothetical and are termed 'shadow' projects in the report. It was considered that the level 4 river basins were the most appropriate level in the MSZ and five study areas throughout the zone ranging from 13,000 sq km to 22,000 sq km were selected as the small shadow project areas. Adjacent pairs of small project areas formed the basis of two mediumsized project areas (170,000 and 187,000 sq km) and the whole zone (669,000 sq km) formed the large project. By examining these different project sizes it was hoped to test the hypothesis that larger projects are more economically efficient than smaller projects. (author)

  16. Introduction to modern sleep technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying

    2012-01-01

    This book offers a wide range of up-to-date insight on current research in sleep technology, covering advances in sleep medicine, clinical psychology, engineering, industrial design and technology management, all with the aim of improving people's daily lives.

  17. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Narcolepsy Sleepwalking What Should I Do? en español Problemas comunes del sueño Garrett had a hard time ... them include certain medicines, and consuming drugs or alcohol. Sleep deprivation (getting too little sleep) also can ...

  18. Sleep in High Stress Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2014-01-01

    High stress occupations are associated with sleep restriction, circadian misalignment and demanding workload. This presentation will provide an overview of sleep duration, circadian misalignment and fatigue countermeasures and performance outcomes during spaceflight and commercial aviation.

  19. Functional neuroimaging of sleep disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep disorders may affect the health and normal life of human badly. However, the pathophysiology underlying adult sleep disorders is still unclear. Functional neuroimaging can be used to investigate whether sleep disorders are associated with specific changes in brain structure or regional activity. This paper reviews functional brain imaging findings in major intrinsic sleep disorders (i.e., idiopathic insomnia, narcolepsy, and obstructive sleep apnea) and in abnormal motor behavior during sleep (i.e., periodic limb movement disorder and REM sleep behavior disorder). Metabolic/functional investigations (positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging) are mainly reviewed, as well as neuroanatomical assessments (voxel-based morphometry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Meanwhile, here are some brief introduction of different kinds of sleep disorders. (authors)

  20. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  1. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  2. Sleep and Early Cortical Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kurth, Salome; Olini, Nadja; Huber, Reto; LeBourgeois, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is increasingly recognized as a key process in neurodevelopment. Animal data show that sleep is essential for the maturation of fundamental brain functions, and growing epidemiological findings indicate that children with early sleep disturbance suffer from later cognitive, attentional, and psychosocial problems. Still, major gaps exist in understanding processes underlying links between sleep and neurodevelopment. One challenge is to translate findings from animal research to humans. I...

  3. Clinical services for sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Stores, G; Wiggs, L.

    1998-01-01

    Children's sleep disorders are common and often harmful to development and well being. The clinical services available to affected children and their families need to be improved. At present, professional interest and expertise in sleep disorders medicine is severely limited by the paucity of appropriate teaching and training. The work of a mainly tertiary sleep disorders clinic was reviewed, which showed that accurate diagnosis of a wide range of sleep disorders is possible...

  4. Sleep, noise and health: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mia Zaharna; Christian Guilleminault

    2010-01-01

    Sleep is a physiologic recuperative state that may be negatively affected by factors such as psychosocial and work stress as well as external stimuli like noise. Chronic sleep loss is a common problem in today′s society, and it may have significant health repercussions such as cognitive impairment, and depressed mood, and negative effects on cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune function. This article reviews the definition of disturbed sleep versus sleep deprivation as well as the effects of...

  5. Sleep Deprivation and False Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Frenda, SJ; Patihis, L; Loftus, EF; Lewis, HC; Fenn, KM

    2014-01-01

    © The Author(s) 2014. Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions,...

  6. Sleep stages, memory and learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Dotto, L

    1996-01-01

    Learning and memory can be impaired by sleep loss during specific vulnerable "windows" for several days after new tasks have been learned. Different types of tasks are differentially vulnerable to the loss of different stages of sleep. Memory required to perform cognitive procedural tasks is affected by the loss of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep on the first night after learning occurs and again on the third night after learning. REM-sleep deprivation on the second night after learning does n...

  7. Starting a sleep center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Lawrence J; Valentine, Paul S

    2010-05-01

    The demand for sleep medicine services has grown tremendously during the last decade and will likely continue. To date, growth in demand has been met by growth in the number of new sleep centers. The need for more new centers will be dependent on market drivers that include increasing regulatory requirements, personnel shortages, integration of home sleep testing, changes in reimbursement, a shift in emphasis from diagnostics to treatment, and an increased consumer focus on sleep. The decision to open a new center should be based on understanding the market dynamics, completing a market analysis, and developing a business plan. The business plan should include an overview of the facility, a personnel and organizational structure, an evaluation of the business environment, a financial plan, a description of services provided, and a strategy for obtaining, managing, and extending a referral base. Implementation of the business plan and successful operation require ongoing planning and monitoring of operational parameters. The need for new sleep centers will likely continue, but the shifting market dynamics indicate a greater need for understanding the marketplace and careful planning. PMID:20442123

  8. [Sleep related eating disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED. PMID:21077298

  9. Sleep in thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G R Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pattern of sleep in hyperthyroid state / thyrotoxicosis has not been systematically studied. It is being characterized as poor without further elaboration. We analyzed the pattern of sleep in a large sample of individuals with thyrotoxicosis who came to our endocrine center in southern India. Materials and Methods: We identified individuals with the diagnosis of ′thyrotoxicosis′ from our electronic medical record database, and evaluated clinical parameters and pattern of their sleep: difficulty in falling asleep (DFA, difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS, excess daytime sleepiness. In the first phase, univariate analysis with logistic regression was performed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed in the next phase on variables with a P-value < 0.1: these were considered as potential categories/ variables. Results: In model response variable with DFA, multivariate logistic regression predicted that subjects with abnormal appetite (more 1.7 or less 2.2, change in bowel motion (loose 1.5 or constipation 2.8, in mood (easy loss of temper 3.4, change of voice -- hoarse 7.4 or moderately hoarse 3.1, tended to have higher chances of difficulty in falling asleep (DFA. Patients with tremor (yes = 5.4 had greater likelihood of difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS. Conclusions: Individuals with hyperthyroidism/thyrotoxicosis principally had difficulty in falling asleep DFA, which was related to hyperkinetic features.

  10. REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, L; Zucconi, M

    2000-09-01

    REM sleep is the stage associated with vivid dream mentation, desynchronous cortical EEG, and atonia of antigravitary muscles. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by the intermittent loss of REM sleep atonia and by the appearance of elaborate motor activity associated with dream mentation. The animal model of REM sleep without atonia indicates that lesions to the perilocus coeruleus disrupt the excitatory connection to the nucleus reticularis magnocellularis in the descending medullary reticular formation and disable the hyperpolarization of the alpha spinal motoneurons. Extensive neurologic evaluations in humans suffering from both idiopathic and symptomatic forms have not identified specific lesions; however, findings in some patients suggest that diffuse lesions of the hemispheres, bilateral thalamic abnormalities, or primary brain-stem lesions may result in the RBD. Symptomatic RBD cases are associated with several neurologic disorders such as dementia, cerebrovascular diseases, multiple sclerosis, brain-stem neoplasm. RBD has been often documented to precede or to co-occur with neurodegenerative disorders, such as dementia, Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy. Most importantly, RBD is readily diagnosable and treatable. Patients and their bed partners usually report immediate improvement in sleep-related motor behavior with small doses of clonazepam. PMID:10996567

  11. Autoimmune sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    A number of autoantibodies, some paraneoplastic, are associated with sleep disorders. Morvan syndrome and limbic encephalitis, associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies, principally against CASPR2 and LGI1, can result in profound insomnia and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Patients with aquaporin-4 antibodies and neuromyelitis optica may develop narcolepsy in association with other evidence of hypothalamic dysfunction, sometimes as the initial presentation. Central sleep apnea and central neurogenic hypoventilation are found in patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis, and obstructive sleep apnea, stridor, and hypoventilation are prominent features of a novel tauopathy associated with IgLON5 antibodies. In addition, paraneoplastic diseases may involve the hypothalamus and cause sleep disorders, particularly narcolepsy and RBD in those with Ma1 and Ma2 antibodies. Patients with antineuronal nuclear autoantibodies type 2 may develop stridor. Several lines of evidence suggest that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder. There is a strong relationship with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1*06:02 haplotype and polymorphisms in the T-cell receptor alpha locus and purinergic receptor P2Y11 genes. Patients with recent-onset narcolepsy may have high titers of antistreptococcal or other antibodies, although none has yet been shown to be disease-specific but, supporting an immune basis, recent evidence indicates that narcolepsy in children can be precipitated by one type of vaccination against the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic. PMID:27112685

  12. Sustained sleep fragmentation induces sleep homeostasis in mice

    KAUST Repository

    Baud, Maxime O.

    2015-04-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is an integral feature of sleep apnea and other prevalent sleep disorders. Although the effect of repetitive arousals on cognitive performance is well documented, the effects of long-term SF on electroencephalography (EEG) and molecular markers of sleep homeostasis remain poorly investigated. To address this question, we developed a mouse model of chronic SF and characterized its effect on EEG spectral frequencies and the expression of genes previously linked to sleep homeostasis including clock genes, heat shock proteins, and plasticity-related genes. Design: N/A. Setting: Animal sleep research laboratory. Participants : Sixty-six C57BL6/J adult mice. Interventions: Instrumental sleep disruption at a rate of 60/h during 14 days Measurements and Results: Locomotor activity and EEG were recorded during 14 days of SF followed by recovery for 2 days. Despite a dramatic number of arousals and decreased sleep bout duration, SF minimally reduced total quantity of sleep and did not significantly alter its circadian distribution. Spectral analysis during SF revealed a homeostatic drive for slow wave activity (SWA; 1-4 Hz) and other frequencies as well (4-40 Hz). Recordings during recovery revealed slow wave sleep consolidation and a transient rebound in SWA, and paradoxical sleep duration. The expression of selected genes was not induced following chronic SF. Conclusions: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) increased sleep pressure confirming that altered quality with preserved quantity triggers core sleep homeostasis mechanisms. However, it did not induce the expression of genes induced by sleep loss, suggesting that these molecular pathways are not sustainably activated in chronic diseases involving SF.

  13. Aspects of sleep in centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadafora, F L; Curti, A; Teti, R; Belmonte, M; Castagna, A; Mercurio, M; Infusino, P; Tavernese, G; Iannazzo, P S; Iorio, C; Mattace, R

    1996-01-01

    Sleeping habits of 48 Calabrian centenarians (12 males, 36 females) were evaluated. Their average age was 102 +/- 1.87 years (range 100-107 years). Quantitative and qualitative aspects of sleep were recorded, such as the length of sleeping (hrs), the time of falling asleep (regular or variable) and the time of awakening (regular or variable). Moreover, we recorded and included in the global hours an eventual afternoon sleeping, during a 24-hour-period. The quality of sleeping was classified as: night sleeping, and morning sleeping; and for the subjects were grouped as short sleepers (subjects that fall asleep easily), and long sleepers (subjects with problems to fall asleep). We also considered if sleeping was uninterrupted or interrupted during the night and if the subjects followed particular habits to facilitate the sleeping (sleeping pills, alcohol, etc.). This study demonstrated that all the examined centenarians go to sleep early in the evening, have no problems in falling asleep, wake up early in the morning, take a nap in the afternoon and do not take pills before going to bed. Among the environmental factors, the quality, the quantity and the habits of sleeping might have great influence for longevity. PMID:18653070

  14. Sleep: Keeping One Eye Open.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoach, Dara S; Stickgold, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Unihemispheric sleep, during which one half of the brain sleeps while the other half remains awake, is seen in some aquatic mammals and birds, particularly in risky situations. It now appears that humans sleeping in unfamiliar environments do something quite similar. PMID:27166693

  15. Sleep Management, Breastfeeding & Postpartum Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Stone

    2013-01-01

    There are research that indicates that mothers with PPD who do not get enough sleep are at greater risk for more severe depression. The authors conclude that clinicians must address measures to improve sleep quality in depressed mothers in order to decrease the severity of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, researchers must develop interventions which facilitate better sleep quality in women with postpartum depression.

  16. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  17. Psoriasis and Sleep Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Khalid, Usman; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar;

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Psoriasis and sleep apnea are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although both diseases have been linked with systemic inflammation, studies on their potential bidirectional association are lacking. We investigate the potential association between psoriasis and...... sleep apnea. METHODS: All Danish citizens age 18 y or older between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011 (n = 5,522,190) were linked at individual level in nationwide registries. Incidence rates (IRs) per 10,000 person-years were calculated and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex......, socioeconomic status, smoking history, alcohol abuse, medication, and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: There were 53,290, 6,885, 6,348, and 39,908 incident cases of mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and sleep apnea, respectively. IRRs (95% confidence interval) for...

  18. Sleep-related laryngospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio S. Aloe

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven patients (mean age 46.6; range 33-58; 6M.1F presented with sleep-related choking episodes and were found to have features in common that distinguished them from other known causes of choking episodes during sleep. The characteristic features include: an awakening from sleep with an acute choking sensation, stridor, panic, tachycardia, short duration of episode Gess than 60 seconds, infrequent episodes (typically less than 1 per month, and absence of any known etiology. The disorder most commonly occurs in middle-aged males who are otherwise healthy. In one patient an episode of laryngospasm was polysomnographically documented to occur during stage 3. The clinical features and the polysomnographic findings suggest spasm of the vocal cords of unknown etiology.

  19. Psoriasis and Sleep Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Khalid, Usman; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Psoriasis and sleep apnea are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although both diseases have been linked with systemic inflammation, studies on their potential bidirectional association are lacking. We investigate the potential association between psoriasis and...... sleep apnea. METHODS: All Danish citizens age 18 y or older between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011 (n = 5,522,190) were linked at individual level in nationwide registries. Incidence rates (IRs) per 10,000 person-years were calculated and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex......, socioeconomic status, smoking history, alcohol abuse, medication, and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: There were 53,290, 6,885, 6,348, and 39,908 incident cases of mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and sleep apnea, respectively. IRRs (95% confidence interval) for...

  20. Neurology of sleep and sleep-related breathing disorders and their relationships to sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jerald H

    2012-02-01

    Conditions that affect sleep can impact overall health. More than 70 million Americans suffer from problems with sleep. The purpose of this article is to provide the basic science of sleep physiology and how it relates to disorders that are pertinent to dentistry. Concepts are presented that explain airway dynamics and how the jaw and tongue influence airway obstruction. Additionally, explanation is given on an association between temporomandibularj aw dysfunction and bruxism during sleep. PMID:22416635

  1. Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halson, Shona L

    2014-05-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, changes in glucose metabolism and neuroendocrine function as a result of chronic, partial sleep deprivation may result in alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, appetite, food intake and protein synthesis. These factors can ultimately have a negative influence on an athlete's nutritional, metabolic and endocrine status and hence potentially reduce athletic performance. Research has identified a number of neurotransmitters associated with the sleep-wake cycle. These include serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, cholinergic, galanin, noradrenaline, and histamine. Therefore, nutritional interventions that may act on these neurotransmitters in the brain may also influence sleep. Carbohydrate, tryptophan, valerian, melatonin and other nutritional interventions have been investigated as possible sleep inducers and represent promising potential interventions. In this review, the factors influencing sleep quality and quantity in athletic populations are examined and the potential impact of nutritional interventions is considered. While there is some research investigating the effects of nutritional interventions on sleep, future research may highlight the importance of nutritional and dietary interventions to enhance sleep. PMID:24791913

  2. Respiratory rate variability in sleeping adults without obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns. PMID:27597768

  3. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  4. Nap sleep spindle correlates of intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Ujma, Péter P.; Róbert Bódizs; Ferenc Gombos; Johannes Stintzing; Konrad, Boris N.; Lisa Genzel; Axel Steiger; Martin Dresler

    2015-01-01

    Sleep spindles are thalamocortical oscillations in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, that play an important role in sleep-related neuroplasticity and offline information processing. Several studies with full-night sleep recordings have reported a positive association between sleep spindles and fluid intelligence scores, however more recently it has been shown that only few sleep spindle measures correlate with intelligence in females, and none in males. Sleep spindle regulation underlies a...

  5. Metabolic consequences of sleep and circadian disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Depner, Christopher M.; Stothard, Ellen R.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms modulate or control daily physiological patterns with importance for normal metabolic health. Sleep deficiencies associated with insufficient sleep schedules, insomnia with short-sleep duration, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, circadian misalignment, shift work, night eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder may all contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Sleep deficiencies and circadian disruption associated with metabolic dysregulation may contribute to weight g...

  6. Sleep Monitoring System Using Kinect Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Jaehoon Lee; Min Hong; Sungyong Ryu

    2015-01-01

    Sleep activity is one of crucial factors for determining the quality of human life. However, a traditional sleep monitoring system onerously requires many devices to be attached to human body for achieving sleep related information. In this paper, we proposed and implemented the sleep monitoring system which can detect the sleep movement and posture during sleep using a Microsoft Kinect v2 sensor without any body attached devices. The proposed sleep monitoring system can readily gather the sl...

  7. Sleeping with the baby.

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Who sleeps with their baby, and why? More babies bed-share in the first few weeks of life than at any other age. On any given night between 20 and 25% of babies under 3 months of age spend some time sharing a bed with a parent and during their first 3 months up to 70% of babies in Euro-American households will have bed-shared once or more.2,3,4 When parents are interviewed about sleeping with their baby they give various reasons for doing so.5,6,7 Their answers express deeply r...

  8. Diabetes in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, M.

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...

  9. Sleep disorders in cerebellar ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Pedroso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias comprise a wide range of etiologies leading to central nervous system-related motor and non-motor symptoms. Recently, a large body of evidence has demonstrated a high frequency of non-motor manifestations in cerebellar ataxias, specially in autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA. Among these non-motor dysfunctions, sleep disorders have been recognized, although still under or even misdiagnosed. In this review, we highlight the main sleep disorders related to cerebellar ataxias focusing on REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD, restless legs syndrome (RLS, periodic limb movement in sleep (PLMS, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, insomnia and sleep apnea.

  10. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  11. A Pre-clinical Animal Model of Trypanosoma brucei Infection Demonstrating Cardiac Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    McCarroll, Charlotte S; Rossor, Charlotte L.; Linda R Morrison; Morrison, Liam J.; Loughrey, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary African trypanosomiasis (AT) is a disease caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. In humans, AT causes neurological problems including sleep disturbances, which give the disease its colloquial name of “sleeping sickness”. Much of the focus of AT research has been on the neurological deficits, but other major organs are also affected, including the heart. Previous studies in humans and animals with AT have identified heart abnormalities such as contrac...

  12. A Sleep Monitoring System with Sleep-Promoting Functions in Noise Detection and Sound Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Lyn Chao-ling Chen; Kuan-Wen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing demand and interest in developing sleep-promoting systems for improving sleep condition. Because sleep environments are various, and sensitivity to noise differs individually, it is difficult for current sleep-promoting systems to provide an adoptable solution. This paper develops a non-invasive sleep monitoring system with adaptive sleep-promoting sound according to sleep environments and sleep habits. For people who fall asleep in a quiet environment, a co...

  13. Gifted Students and Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsh, John; Karnes, Frances; Eiers, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors emphasize that good sleep health is essential if gifted children are to gain the greatest benefit from opportunities to grow intellectually, socially, and spiritually while maintaining good psychological and physical health. The outstanding abilities that characterize these children and enable high levels of…

  14. Sleep in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Victorova Strueva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of duration and individual characteristics of sleep and chronotype on body weight, eating behavior, anxiety, depression, life quality, metabolic and hormonal parameters of obese patients. Materials and methods: 200 patients with primary obesity were studied: 83 men and 117 women at age from 18 to 61 years old, median age 41,5 years [31,0; 50,0]; body weight 107 kg [94; 128,5], waist circumference 112 cm [102; 124]; neck circumference 41 cm [38; 46], body mass index (BMI 36,9 [32,8; 42,3]. Results: We found an association between sleep duration, chronotype and the emotional eating. Significant sleep reduction (to less than 6 hours was associated with high level of anxiety, depression, emotional eating and insomnia. Younger age, early onset and shorter duration of obesity and brisk weight gain during last is connected to the evening chronotype. The emotional eating associated with hypersomnolence in the absence of statistically significant increase of anxiety and depression in individuals with evening chronotype. Sleep duration and chronotype have no significant effect on the body weight, metabolic, hormonal parameters and the dynamics of body. weight after 7±1 months of treatment of obesity.

  15. Changing your sleep habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Insomnia Sleep Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare ... for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D. ...

  16. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used to them quickly. Therefore, they are less likely to help you fall asleep ... the next day and can cause memory problems in the elderly.

  17. Sleep Disorders in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迪秋

    2002-01-01

    All the parents want their children to go to bed by themselves and sleep through the night. Unluckily, over 30% of today--s parents do not have such children. Instead, their kids are awake at night crying or resist going to bed in the evening.

  18. ISRUC-Sleep: A comprehensive public dataset for sleep researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalighi, Sirvan; Sousa, Teresa; Santos, José Moutinho; Nunes, Urbano

    2016-02-01

    To facilitate the performance comparison of new methods for sleep patterns analysis, datasets with quality content, publicly-available, are very important and useful. We introduce an open-access comprehensive sleep dataset, called ISRUC-Sleep. The data were obtained from human adults, including healthy subjects, subjects with sleep disorders, and subjects under the effect of sleep medication. Each recording was randomly selected between PSG recordings that were acquired by the Sleep Medicine Centre of the Hospital of Coimbra University (CHUC). The dataset comprises three groups of data: (1) data concerning 100 subjects, with one recording session per subject; (2) data gathered from 8 subjects; two recording sessions were performed per subject, and (3) data collected from one recording session related to 10 healthy subjects. The polysomnography (PSG) recordings, associated with each subject, were visually scored by two human experts. Comparing the existing sleep-related public datasets, ISRUC-Sleep provides data of a reasonable number of subjects with different characteristics such as: data useful for studies involving changes in the PSG signals over time; and data of healthy subjects useful for studies involving comparison of healthy subjects with the patients, suffering from sleep disorders. This dataset was created aiming to complement existing datasets by providing easy-to-apply data collection with some characteristics not covered yet. ISRUC-Sleep can be useful for analysis of new contributions: (i) in biomedical signal processing; (ii) in development of ASSC methods; and (iii) on sleep physiology studies. To evaluate and compare new contributions, which use this dataset as a benchmark, results of applying a subject-independent automatic sleep stage classification (ASSC) method on ISRUC-Sleep dataset are presented. PMID:26589468

  19. Nap sleep spindle correlates of intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujma, P.P.; Bodizs, R.; Gombos, F.; Stintzing, J.; Konrad, B.N.; Genzel, L.; Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep spindles are thalamocortical oscillations in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, that play an important role in sleep-related neuroplasticity and offline information processing. Several studies with full-night sleep recordings have reported a positive association between sleep spindles and fl

  20. Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More

    OpenAIRE

    St. Louis, Erik K

    2011-01-01

    Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while i...

  1. CAN NON-REM SLEEP BE DEPRESSOGENIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEERSMA, DGM; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1992-01-01

    Sleep and mood are clearly interrelated in major depression, as shown by the antidepressive effects of various experiments, such as total sleep deprivation, partial sleep deprivation, REM sleep deprivation, and temporal shifts of the sleep period. The prevailing hypotheses explaining these effects c

  2. Can non-REM sleep be depressogenic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1992-01-01

    Sleep and mood are clearly interrelated in major depression, as shown by the antidepressive effects of various experiments, such as total sleep deprivation, partial sleep deprivation, REM sleep deprivation, and temporal shifts of the sleep period. The prevailing hypotheses explaining these effects c

  3. Sleep disorders in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santo, R M; Perna, A; Di Iorio, B R; Cirillo, M

    2010-03-01

    Sleep disorders are common in patients with end stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. However also a well functioning renal graft does not cure the poor sleep pattern which now emerges as a problem even in early chronic kidney disease (CKD). When patients are made aware for the first time of a disease such as CKD, which may brink to dialysis or at the best to a renal transplant patients begin to experience a disordered sleep. Sleeping disorders include insomnia (I), sleep apnoea (SAS), restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), excessive daily sleeping (EDS), sleepwalking, nightmares, and narcolepsy. Disordered sleep did not meet the clinical and scientific interest it deserves, in addition and we do not have a well defined solution for sleeping complaints. However, awareness that a poor sleep is associated with poor quality of life and carries an increase in mortality risk has recently stimulated interest in the field. There are many putative causes for a disordered sleep in chronic kidney disease and in end-stage renal disease. For a unifying hypothesis demographic factors, lifestyles, disease related factors, psychological factors, treatment related factors, and social factor must be taken into consideration. PMID:20424573

  4. Common sleep disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kevin A; Hathaway, Nathanael E; Lettieri, Christine F

    2014-03-01

    Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1% to 5% of children. Polysomnography is needed to diagnose the condition because it may not be detected through history and physical examination alone. Adenotonsillectomy is the primary treatment for most children with obstructive sleep apnea. Parasomnias are common in childhood; sleepwalking, sleep talking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors tend to occur in the first half of the night, whereas nightmares are more common in the second half of the night. Only 4% of parasomnias will persist past adolescence; thus, the best management is parental reassurance and proper safety measures. Behavioral insomnia of childhood is common and is characterized by a learned inability to fall and/or stay asleep. Management begins with consistent implementation of good sleep hygiene practices, and, in some cases, use of extinction techniques may be appropriate. Delayed sleep phase disorder is most common in adolescence, presenting as difficulty falling asleep and awakening at socially acceptable times. Treatment involves good sleep hygiene and a consistent sleep-wake schedule, with nighttime melatonin and/or morning bright light therapy as needed. Diagnosing restless legs syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on trigger avoidance and treatment of iron deficiency, if present. PMID:24695508

  5. Sleep disorders in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Alaa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of sleep disorders is higher in patients with kidney failure than the general population. We studied the prevalence of sleep disorders in 88 (mean age; 41.59 ± 16.3 years chronic hemodialysis (HD patients at the Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura Uni-versity, Egypt over 4-month period. The investigated sleep disorders included insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, narcolepsy and sleep walking, and we used a questionnaire in accordance with those of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group, the Berlin questionnaire, Italian version of Epworth Sleepiness Scale, International Classification of Sleep Disorders, and the specific ques-tions of Hatoum′s sleep questionnaire. The prevalence of sleep disorders was 79.5% in our pa-tients, and the most common sleep abnormality was insomnia (65.9%, followed by RLS (42%, OSAS (31.8%, snoring (27.3%, EDS (27.3%, narcolepsy (15.9%, and sleep walking (3.4%. Insomnia correlated with anemia (r=0.31, P= 0.003, anxiety (r=0.279, P= 0.042, depression (r=0.298, P= 0.24 and RLS (r=0.327, P= 0.002. Also, RLS correlated with hypoalbuminemia (r=0.41, P= < 0.0001, anemia (r=0.301 and P= 0.046, hyperphosphatemia (r=0.343 and P= 0.001. EDS correlated with OSAS (r=0.5, P= < 0.0001, snoring (r=0.341, P= 0.001, and social worry (r=0.27, P= 0.011. Sleep disorders are quite common in the HD patients, especially those who are anemic and hypoalbuminemic. Assessment of sleep quality, preferably with polysomno-graphy, is necessary to confirm our results. Interventional studies for management of sleep disor-ders in HD patients are warranted.

  6. Sleep timing and quantity in ecological and family context: a nationally representative time-diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Emma K; Snell, Emily K; Pendry, Patricia

    2007-03-01

    Associations between demographic characteristics, school schedules, activity choices, family functioning, and sleep behaviors were estimated using nationally representative time-diary data from 2,454 children (ages 5.5 to 11.9 years) and adolescents (ages 12.0 to 19.1 years). For weekdays, African American adolescents, Asian children, and those with earlier school start times and longer travel times to school reported fewer sleep hours. More time spent watching television (for children), doing homework (for adolescents), and engaging in religious activities predicted fewer hours, whereas a longer time spent on meals predicted greater hours of weekday sleep. For younger children, greater parental warmth predicted more hours of weekday sleep, whereas for adolescents, stricter household rules were protective. On weekends, African American adolescents and Hispanic children slept less, and there were strong effects of activity choices including time spent on television, computer and videogames, sports, religious activities, socializing, and employment. In accounting for age-related decreases in sleep hours from childhood to adolescence, earlier school start times, greater hours of homework, greater paid employment, less time spent on meals, and fewer household rules were all significant mediators. PMID:17371105

  7. Tsetse elimination: its interest and feasibility in the historical sleeping sickness focus of Loos islands, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagbadouno M.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Guinea is the West African country which is currently the most prevalent for sleeping sickness. The littoral area is the region where most of the recent sleeping sickness cases have been described, especially the mangrove sleeping sickness foci of Dubreka and Boffa where Glossina palpalis gambiensis is the vector. Loos islands constitute a small archipelago 5 km apart from the capital, Conakry. Medical, animal, and entomological surveys were implemented in these islands in Oct-Nov 2006. No pathogenic trypanosomes were found in these surveys. The locally very high tsetse densities (up to more than 100 tsetse/trap/day linked to pig rearing, constitute a high potential risk for humans (taking into account populations movements with neighboring active sleeping sickness foci of the Guinea littoral, and the history of sleeping sickness on these islands, and for the economically important pig rearing, as well as a danger for tourism. This situation, associated to the possibility of elimination of these tsetse populations due to low possibility of reinvasion, led the National Control Program to launch a tsetse elimination project following an “area wide” strategy for the first time in West Africa, which participates in the global objective of the PATTEC (Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  8. Sleep habits and sleep problems among Palestinian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyoud Sa'ed H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates in Palestine. Association between self-reported sleep quality and self-reported academic achievement was also investigated. Methods Sleep habits and problems were investigated using a convenience sample of students from An-Najah National University, Palestine. The study was carried out during spring semester, 2009. A self-administered questionnaire developed based on The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used. Results 400 students with a mean age of 20.2 ± 1.3 were studied. Reported mean duration of night sleep in the study sample was 6.4 ± 1.1 hours. The majority (58.3% of students went to bed before midnight and 18% of the total sample woke up before 6 am. Sleep latency of more than one hour was present in 19.3% of the students. Two thirds (64.8% of the students reported having at least one nocturnal awakening per night. Nightmares were the most common parasomnia reported by students. Daytime naps were common and reported in 74.5% of the study sample. Sleep quality was reported as "poor" in only 9.8% and was significantly associated with sleep latency, frequency of nocturnal awakenings, time of going to bed, nightmares but not with academic achievement. Conclusion Sleep habits among Palestinian undergraduates were comparable to those reported in European studies. Sleep problems were common and there was no significant association between sleep quality and academic achievement.

  9. Dynamics of Sleep-Wake Transitions During Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Chung-Chuan; Amaral, Luis A. Nunes; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Penzel, Thomas; Peter, Joerg-Hermann; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2001-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the awakening during the night for healthy subjects and find that the wake and the sleep periods exhibit completely different behavior: the durations of wake periods are characterized by a scale-free power-law distribution, while the durations of sleep periods have an exponential distribution with a characteristic time scale. We find that the characteristic time scale of sleep periods changes throughout the night. In contrast, there is no measurable variation in the p...

  10. Assessing the trypanocidal potential of natural and semi-synthetic diketopiperazines from two deep water marine-derived fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Katharine R.; Ratnam, Joseline; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Tenney, Karen; Compton, Jennifer E.; McKerrow, James; Crews, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, commonly known as African sleeping sickness) is categorized as a neglected disease, as it afflicts > 50,000 people annually in sub-saharan Africa, and there are few formal programs in the world focused on drug discovery approaches for this disease. In this study, we examined the crude extracts of two fungal strains (Aspergillus fumigatus and Nectria inventa) isolated from deep water sediment which provided >99% growth inhibition at 1 μg/mL of Trypanosoma br...

  11. Where, When and Why Do Tsetse Contact Humans? Answers from Studies in a National Park of Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Torr, Stephen J; Andrew Chamisa; T N Clement Mangwiro; Vale, Glyn A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleeping sickness, also called human African trypanosomiasis, is transmitted by the tsetse, a blood-sucking fly confined to sub-Saharan Africa. The form of the disease in West and Central Africa is carried mainly by species of tsetse that inhabit riverine woodland and feed avidly on humans. In contrast, the vectors for the East and Southern African form of the disease are usually savannah species that feed mostly on wild and domestic animals and bite humans infrequently, mainly be...

  12. Sleep Disturbance, Sleep Duration, and Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies and Experimental Sleep Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, DE; Olmstead, R; Carroll, JE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Background: Sleep disturbance is associated with inflammatory disease risk and all-cause mortality. Here, we assess global evidence linking sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and inflammation in adult humans. Methods: A systematic search of English language publications was performed, with inclusion of primary research articles that characterized sleep disturbance and/or sleep duration or performed experimental sleep deprivation and assessed inflammati...

  13. Overview on Sleep Bruxism for Sleep Medicine Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Maria Clotilde; Huynh, Nelly; Fleury, Bernard; Lavigne, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is a common sleep-related jaw motor disorder observed in 8% of the adult population. SB diagnosis is based on history of tooth grinding and clenching and is confirmed by the polysomnographic recording of the electromyographic activity of jaw muscles during sleep. SB may be associated with orofacial pain, headaches, and sleep-disordered breathing. Managing SB cannot be done without a comprehensive clinical and, when indicated, polysomnographic differential diagnosis of other comorbidities, which need to be taken into account to select the best treatment approach. PMID:26329448

  14. Sleep On It: How Snoozing Strengthens Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Sleep On It How Snoozing Strengthens Memories When you ... the best way to remember it is to sleep on it. That’s because sleeping helps strengthen memories ...

  15. National Center on Sleep Disorders Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Register for Updates The National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) Located within the National Heart, Lung, ... 60 percent have a chronic disorder. Each year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add an estimated $15. ...

  16. Sleep in trigeminal autonomic cephalagias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barløse, Mads; Lund, Nunu; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep and cluster headache (CH) are believed to be interconnected but the precise relation to the other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) is uncertain and complex. A better understanding of these relations may eventually lead to a clarification of the underlying mechanisms...... and eventually to more effective therapeutic regimens. This review aims to evaluate the existing literature on the subject of TACs and sleep. An association between episodic CH and distinct macrostructural sleep phases, especially the relation to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, has been described in...... some older studies but could not be confirmed in other, more recent studies. Investigations into the microstructure of sleep in these patients are lacking. Only a few case reports exist on the relation between sleep and other TACs. SUMMARY: Recent studies do not find an association between CH and REM...

  17. Workplace bullying and sleep difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied/witnesses, and...... whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. METHODS: A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health. The...... overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. RESULTS: Bullied persons and witnesses...

  18. Managing Sleep Disturbances in Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances, particularly daytime sleepiness and insomnia, are common problems reported by patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. Poor sleep negatively impacts patients’ quality of life and cognitive functions and increases mortality. Although sleep disturbances can be an early sign of hepatic encephalopathy (HE, many patients without HE still complain of poor quality sleep. The pathophysiology of these disturbances is not fully understood but is believed to be linked to impaired hepatic melatonin metabolism. This paper provides an overview for the clinician of common comorbidities contributing to poor sleep in patients with liver disease, mainly restless leg syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. It discusses nondrug and pharmacologic treatment options in these patients, such as the use of light therapy and histamine (H1 blockers.

  19. Sleep deprivation: consequences for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhefka, Julie King

    2011-09-01

    During the adolescent years, a delayed pattern of the sleep-wake cycle occurs. Many parents and health care providers are not aware that once established, these poor sleep habits can continue into adulthood. Early school hours start a pattern of sleep loss that begins a cycle of daytime sleepiness, which may affect mood, behavior, and increase risk for accidents or injury. These sleep-deprived habits established in adolescence can often lead to problems during college years. Sleep hygiene can be initiated to help break the cycle, along with education and implementation of a strict regimen. Monitoring all adolescents and college-aged students for sleep insufficiency is imperative to improve both academic and emotional well-being. PMID:21846079

  20. Sleep and Women’s Health

    OpenAIRE

    Nowakowski, Sara; Meers, Jessica; Heimbach, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in sleep begin at a very early age and women report poorer sleep quality and have higher risk for insomnia than do men. Sleep may be affected by variation in reproductive hormones, stress, depression, aging, life/role transitions, and other factors. The menstrual cycle is associated with changes in circadian rhythms and sleep architecture. Menstruating women (even without significant menstrual-related complaints) often report poorer sleep quality and greater sleep disturbance ...

  1. Sleep quality determinants among nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Madalena; Chaves, Claudia; Duarte, João; Amaral, Odete; Ferreira, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Higher education has influenced students’ concepts of sleeping time leading to a deficit of sleep quality. Sleep disorders constitute one of the most pertinent health problems in western society. Identify the factors that influence the sleep quality in nursing students; Identify which social demographic and academic variants interfere with sleep quality; Analyze the influence of variables of psychological context and investigate the relationship between the daytime somnolence with the sleep q...

  2. [Updated relationship between sleep and erectile function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan-bo; Jiang, Rui

    2016-03-01

    Penile erection (PE) is a physiological phenomenon involving complex mechanisms. PE may occur as reactive erections, psychogenic erections in the conscious state and spontaneous erections during the sleep. Sleep-related PE refers to the erections occurring spontaneously during the sleep with rapid eye movement. Studies have shown a correlation between sleep and PE as well as between sleep disorders and erectile dysfunction but not yet revealed the exact mechanisms. This paper updates the relationship between sleep and erectile function. PMID:27172667

  3. New frontiers in obstructive sleep apnoea

    OpenAIRE

    Ayas, NT; Hirsch, AAJ; Laher, I; Douglas Bradley, T; Malhotra, A; Polotsky, VY; Tasali, E

    2014-01-01

    OSA (obstructive sleep apnoea), the most common respiratory disorder of sleep, is caused by the loss of upper airway dilating muscle activity during sleep superimposed on a narrow upper airway. This results in recurrent nocturnal asphyxia. Termination of these events usually requires arousal from sleep and results in sleep fragmentation and hypoxaemia, which leads to poor quality sleep, excessive daytime sleepiness, reduced quality of life and numerous other serious health consequences. Furth...

  4. Inter-hemispheric oscillations in human sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Imbach, L L; Werth, E; Kallweit, U; Sarnthein, J.; SCAMMELL, T. E.; Baumann, C R

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is generally categorized into discrete stages based on characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns. This traditional approach represents sleep architecture in a static way, but it cannot reflect variations in sleep across time and across the cortex. To investigate these dynamic aspects of sleep, we analyzed sleep recordings in 14 healthy volunteers with a novel, frequency-based EEG analysis. This approach enabled comparison of sleep patterns with low inter-individual variability....

  5. Inter-Hemispheric Oscillations in Human Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Imbach, Lukas L.; Werth, Esther; Kallweit, Ulf; Sarnthein, Johannes; Scammell, Thomas E.; Baumann, Christian R.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is generally categorized into discrete stages based on characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns. This traditional approach represents sleep architecture in a static way, but it cannot reflect variations in sleep across time and across the cortex. To investigate these dynamic aspects of sleep, we analyzed sleep recordings in 14 healthy volunteers with a novel, frequency-based EEG analysis. This approach enabled comparison of sleep patterns with low inter-individual variability....

  6. Does Sleep Improve Memory Organization?

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Masashi; Furuta, Hisakazu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Suzuki, Michio; Ochiai, Yoko; Hosokawa, Munehito; Matsui, Mie; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distil overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory orga...

  7. Does sleep improve memory organization?

    OpenAIRE

    Masashi Takeuchi; Hisakazu Furuta; Tomiki Sumiyoshi; Mie Matsui

    2014-01-01

    Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distill overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory org...

  8. Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jehan, Shazia; Masters-Isarilov, Alina; Salifu, Idoko; Zizi, Ferdinand; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Gupta, Ravi; Brzezinski, Amnon; McFarlane, Samy I

    2015-01-01

    One of the core symptoms of the menopausal transition is sleep disturbance. Peri-menopausal women often complain of difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep with frequent nocturnal and early morning awakenings. Factors that may play a role in this type of insomnia include vasomotor symptoms, changing reproductive hormone levels, circadian rhythm abnormalities, mood disorders, coexistent medical conditions, and lifestyle. Other common sleep problems in this age group, such as obstructi...

  9. Sleep and olfactory cortical plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Dylan C.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    In many systems, sleep plays a vital role in memory consolidation and synaptic homeostasis. These processes together help store information of biological significance and reset synaptic circuits to facilitate acquisition of information in the future. In this review, we describe recent evidence of sleep-dependent changes in olfactory system structure and function which contribute to odor memory and perception. During slow-wave sleep, the piriform cortex becomes hypo-responsive to odor stimulat...

  10. SLEEP AND OLFACTORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dylan Barnes; Wilson, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    In many systems, sleep plays a vital role in memory consolidation and synaptic homeostasis. These processes together help store information of biological significance and reset synaptic circuits to facilitate acquisition of information in the future. In this review, we describe recent evidence of sleep-dependent changes in olfactory system structure and function which contribute to odor memory and perception. During slow-wave sleep, the piriform cortex becomes hypo-responsive to odor stimul...

  11. Does sleep improve memory organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Takeuchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distill overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory organization, thirty-five normal volunteers were randomly assigned either to the sleep (n=17 or wake group (n=18. The sleep subjects performed the Japanese Verbal Learning Test (JVLT, a measure of learning and memory, three times in the evening, and slept. On the following morning (9 hours later, they were asked to recall the words on the list. The wake subjects took the same test in the morning, and were asked to recall the words in the same time interval as in the sleep group. The Semantic Clustering Ratio (SCR, divided by the total number of words recalled, was used as an index of memory organization. Our main interest was whether the sleep subjects elicit a greater increase in this measure from the third to the fourth assessments. Time-by-group interaction effect on SCR was not significant between the sleep group and wake group as a whole. Meanwhile, the change in the SCR between the third and fourth trials was negatively correlated with duration of nocturnal waking in the sleep group, but not other sleep indices. Based on this observation, further analysis was conducted for subjects in the sleep group who awoke nocturnally for less than 60 minutes for comparison with the wake group. A significant time-by-group interaction was noted; these “good-sleepers” showed a significantly greater improvement in the memory index compared with the wake subjects. These results provide the first suggestion that sleep may enhance memory organization, which requires

  12. Does sleep improve memory organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masashi; Furuta, Hisakazu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Suzuki, Michio; Ochiai, Yoko; Hosokawa, Munehito; Matsui, Mie; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distil overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory organization, 35 normal volunteers were randomly assigned either to the sleep (n = 17) or wake group (n = 18). The sleep subjects performed the Japanese Verbal Learning Test (JVLT), a measure of learning and memory, three times in the evening, and slept. On the following morning (9 h later), they were asked to recall the words on the list. The wake subjects took the same test in the morning, and were asked to recall the words in the same time interval as in the sleep group. The semantic clustering ratio (SCR), divided by the total number of words recalled, was used as an index of memory organization. Our main interest was whether the sleep subjects elicit a greater increase in this measure from the third to the fourth assessments. Time × Group interaction effect on SCR was not significant between the sleep group and wake group as a whole. Meanwhile, the change in the SCR between the third and fourth trials was negatively correlated with duration of nocturnal waking in the sleep group, but not other sleep indices. Based on this observation, further analysis was conducted for subjects in the sleep group who awoke nocturnally for <60 min for comparison with the wake group. A significant Time × Group interaction was noted; these "good-sleepers" showed a significantly greater improvement in the memory index compared with the wake subjects. These results provide the first suggestion that sleep may enhance memory organization, which requires further study. PMID

  13. Sleep and Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Padma Srivastav

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian variations in conjunction with sleep-related heart rhythm changes and sleepdisordered breathing (SDB are contributing risk factors for stroke. Strong scientificevidence now exists indicating that SDB contributes to systemic hypertension, aprominent risk factor for stroke, and compelling circumstantial evidence is presentsuggesting that SDB raises the risk for development of stroke through other circulatorymechanisms as well. Preliminary evidence indicates that post-stroke patients have ahigher prevalence of SDB, which is likely to compromise their rehabilitation outcomes.Since SDB is modifiable with the application of CPAP and other treatment modalities,there is practical value in investigating patients at risk of stroke or post stroke forpresence of SDB. Successful application of CPAP or BiPAP therapy may improve theoutcome in both instances.Key words : Sleep, Stroke, SDB, CPAP

  14. Sleep and circadian rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Timothy H.

    1991-01-01

    Three interacting processes are involved in the preservation of circadian rhythms: (1) endogenous rhythm generation mechanisms, (2) entrainment mechanisms to keep these rhythms 'on track', and (3) exogenous masking processes stemming from changes in environment and bahavior. These processes, particularly the latter two, can be dramatically affected in individuals of advanced age and in space travelers, with a consequent disruption in sleep and daytime functioning. This paper presents results of a phase-shift experiment investigating the age-related effects of the exogeneous component of circadian rhythms in various physiological and psychological functions by comparing these functions in middle aged and old subjects. Dramatic differences were found between the two age groups in measures of sleep, mood, activation, and performance efficiency.

  15. Sleep and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margoliash, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    The neural basis of cognition represents a grand challenge problem involving multiple disciplines and approaches to the analysis of behavior. Song learning by juvenile songbirds such as zebra finches has proven to have considerable utility for exploring how behavior is represented at multiple levels of brain function. As classically described, young birds are exposed to a ``tutor'' (adult) song and commit that song to memory early in life, then engage in an extended period (weeks) of plastic singing as they slowly learn to match vocal output to the tutor song memory via auditory feedback. In recent years, the role of sleep in learning processes has been actively explored. Young birds isolated from adult songs, then suddenly given access to such songs at circa 40 days of age, show a sudden change in their singing behavior starting on the day following first exposure. Such birds sing songs that have less structure in the mornings than do the songs sung in the afternoons before or after that morning. This fluctuation is directly the result of sleep (not circadian rhythm), and the magnitude of fluctuation is positively correlated with the ultimate similarity to the tutor song. Examining spontaneous neuronal activity in certain brain structures during the night in sleeping adults shows ``replay'' of the patterns of activity the same neurons exhibit during daytime singing, and ``preplay'' of new patterns that will first be incorporated into daytime singing the following day. In experiments on juveniles, nighttime neuronal activity shows dramatic changes associated with song learning, even on the night after the first day of tutor song exposure (preceding changes in singing behavior). Offline processing, especially sleep, has been well documented to participate in memory consolidation in a very broad range of behaviors including in humans. Placing the bird song results in a theoretical framework thereby helps to inform a very broad range of phenomena.

  16. Primary sleep apnoea syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Chokroverty, S.; Sharp, J T

    1981-01-01

    Polygraphic study in 18 men with the sleep apnoea syndrome showed central, upper airway obstructive, and mixed apnoeas. Fifty per cent of the total apnoea time was central, 33% was obstructive, and 17% was mixed. Apnoeic episodes were accompanied by oxygen desaturation, relative bradycardia and hypotonia of orofacial muscles innervated by ponto-medullary neurons. During regular breathing these muscles revealed tonic and phasic inspiratory EMG activities. The data suggest that the primary slee...

  17. No ordinary sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Mockrin, Jessica F.

    2011-01-01

    No ordinary sleep includes nine works that combine oil painting with photographs printed on canvas. The painting and the photograph are not resolved into a continuous image but rather left with the seams exposed: painted figures floating in an uninhabitable, photographic space. The nine images depict the same two young men, nude and in close proximity to each other but rarely touching. These paintings raise questions about modes of reproduction, the use of the composite, fantasy, kitsch, desi...

  18. Sleep-related psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Frase, Lukas; Sixt, Barbara; Nissen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old male student with a Kleine-Levin syndrome who was referred to our sleep laboratory during an episode of hypersomnia, hypersexuality, cognitive impairment and bizarre behaviour. Owing to similar clinical symptoms, he had been misdiagnosed with schizophrenia. This had led to a placement in a facility for persons with chronic schizophrenia, antipsychotic pharmacotherapy for 4 years and side effects, including substantial weight gain and hypertension. After ces...

  19. Sleep and Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    M V Padma Srivastav

    2014-01-01

    Circadian variations in conjunction with sleep-related heart rhythm changes and sleepdisordered breathing (SDB) are contributing risk factors for stroke. Strong scientificevidence now exists indicating that SDB contributes to systemic hypertension, aprominent risk factor for stroke, and compelling circumstantial evidence is presentsuggesting that SDB raises the risk for development of stroke through other circulatorymechanisms as well. Preliminary evidence indicates that post-stroke patients ...

  20. Sleep without drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Giblin, M J; Clift, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disturbed sleep is a common problem, particularly among elderly people, and is usually treated with hypnotics. The side effects of longterm administration of hypnotic drugs are well known, but despite this there remains a substantial population of chronic users. These people can be helped to reduce their dependence on hypnotics through psychological techniques. A group of longterm users treated in this manner were shown to reduce their intake of hypnotics significantly more than a group of us...

  1. Sleep and stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Dib, Salim; Ramos, Alberto R.; Wallace, Douglas M; Rundek, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep-Disordered Breathing (OSDB) is an under-recognized risk factor for stroke. OSDB is associatedwith traditional vascular risk factors such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, and can influence the risk for stroke through direct and indirect mechanisms. Untreated OSDB may also influence rehabilitation efforts and functional outcome following a stroke, as well as the risk for stroke recurrence. Stroke risk is greatly reduced if the OSDB is adequately treated. Conversely, ...

  2. Sleep, Torpor and Memory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchykova, S.; Tobler, I.

    It is now well known that daily torpor induces a sleep deficit. Djungarian hamsters emerging from this hypometabolic state spend most of the time in sleep. This sleep is characterized by high initial values of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) that monotonically decline during recovery sleep. These features resemble the changes seen in numerous species during recovery after prolonged wakefulness or sleep deprivation (SD). When hamsters are totally or partially sleep deprived immediately after emerging from torpor, an additional increase in SWA can be induced. It has been therefore postulated, that these slow- waves are homeostatically regulated, as predicted by the two-process model of sleep regulation, and that during daily torpor a sleep deficit is accumulated as it is during prolonged waking. The predominance of SWA in the frontal EEG observed both after SD and daily torpor provides further evidence for the similarity of these conditions. It has been shown in several animal and human studies that sleep can enhance memory consolidation, and that SD leads to memory impairment. Preliminary data obtained in the Djungarian hamster showed that both SD and daily torpor result in object recognition deficits. Thus, animals subjected to SD immediately after learning, or if they underwent an episode of daily torpor between learning and retention, displayed impaired recognition memory for complex object scenes. The investigation of daily torpor can reveal mechanisms that could have important implications for hypometabolic state induction in other mammalian species, including humans.

  3. Sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Romanovna Nodel'

    2011-01-01

    PD-cognition (SCOPA-Cog, and the PD quality of life scale (PDQ-39 were used. Results. Sleep fragmentation and early morning awakenings are the most common sleep disorders in PD. Pramipexole therapy resulted in a significant improvement in sleep quality, a reduction in the frequency of falling asleep and nocturnal awakenings. The improved characteristics of sleep were favored by a therapy-induced decrease in the severity of motor (hypokinesis, rigidity, tremor, nocturnal and morning dystonia and nonmotor (restless legs syndrome/acathisia, sensory disorders, nocturia PD manifestations.

  4. Sleeping through class to success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese believe in a healthy eight hours of nocturnal sleep, but they believe even more strongly that the more hours ambitious high-school students spend studying the better. This works only because they sleep less at night and a napping culture is tolerated in schools.......The Japanese believe in a healthy eight hours of nocturnal sleep, but they believe even more strongly that the more hours ambitious high-school students spend studying the better. This works only because they sleep less at night and a napping culture is tolerated in schools....

  5. Sleep quality of professional firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Firefighting is a unique job with contradictious demands that expose firefighters to many well documented causal factors of sleep debt, but no studies in Iran and only a few worldwide studies have investigated their sleep quality while sleep problems may lead to catastrophes especially in critical service workers. The aim of this study is to evaluate sleep quality and its related factors among a sample of professional Iranian firefighters. Methods: Using simple random sampling method in a cross-sectional study, 427 personnel of fire and rescue service were invited. They completed the Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and a data collection sheet about their demographic and occupational features during an individual face to face interview in central office and firehouses throughout Tehran. Response rate was 88.7%. Results: The mean ± SD global PSQI score was 7.97 ± 3.77. Sleep latency was the component of PSQI with the greatest degree of abnormality. 69.9% of participants were poor sleepers. Interestingly, we found no significant differences between sleep quality of shift workers and non shift workers. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, only having another job, smoking and years of job experience were predictors of poor sleep. Conclusions: In comparison with adult population of Tehran, sleep quality deterioration is notably more common in Tehran firefighters which require health promotion interventions to prevent its serious adverse outcomes.

  6. Sleep in disorders of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cologan, Victor; Schabus, Manvel; Ledoux, Didier; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY From a behavioral as well as neurobiological point of view, sleep and consciousness are intimately connected. A better understanding of sleep cycles and sleep architecture of patients suffering from disorders of consciousness (DOC) might therefore improve the clinical care for these patients as well as our understanding of the neural correlations of consciousness. Defining sleep in severely brain-injured patients is however problematic as both their electrophysiological and sleep patterns differ in many ways from healthy individuals. This paper discusses the concepts involved in the study of sleep of patients suffering from DOC and critically assesses the applicability of standard sleep criteria in these patients. The available literature on comatose and vegetative states as well as that on locked-in and related states following traumatic or non-traumatic severe brain injury will be reviewed. A wide spectrum of sleep disturbances ranging from almost normal patterns to severe loss and architecture disorganization are reported in cases of DOC and some patterns correlate with diagnosis and prognosis. At the present time the interactions of sleep and consciousness in brain-injured patients are a little studied subject but, the authors suggest, a potentially very interesting field of research. PMID:19524464

  7. Sleep in disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cologan, Victor; Schabus, Manvel; Ledoux, Didier; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre; Laureys, Steven

    2010-04-01

    From a behavioral as well as neurobiological point of view, sleep and consciousness are intimately connected. A better understanding of sleep cycles and sleep architecture of patients suffering from disorders of consciousness (DOC) might therefore improve the clinical care for these patients as well as our understanding of the neural correlations of consciousness. Defining sleep in severely brain-injured patients is however problematic as both their electrophysiological and sleep patterns differ in many ways from healthy individuals. This paper discusses the concepts involved in the study of sleep of patients suffering from DOC and critically assesses the applicability of standard sleep criteria in these patients. The available literature on comatose and vegetative states as well as that on locked-in and related states following traumatic or non-traumatic severe brain injury will be reviewed. A wide spectrum of sleep disturbances ranging from almost normal patterns to severe loss and architecture disorganization are reported in cases of DOC and some patterns correlate with diagnosis and prognosis. At the present time the interactions of sleep and consciousness in brain-injured patients are a little studied subject but, the authors suggest, a potentially very interesting field of research. PMID:19524464

  8. [Sleep disorders in dementia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaskan, E

    2015-06-01

    Dementia is characterized by cognitive and also behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). The most prominent BPSD are depression and apathy but sleep disorders also complicate the clinical course of dementia. These symptoms are a severe burden for patients and caregivers and are difficult to treat partly due to comorbidities. Common sleep disorders in dementia are insomnia, hypersomnia, circadian rhythm alterations and aberrant nocturnal motor behavior. Sleep duration and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are reduced. The diagnostic assessment of sleep disorders should include an evaluation of the underlying risk factors and a detailed sleep history for which several assessment instruments are available. The therapy of sleep disorders of dementia is primarily nonpharmacological: sleep counseling, sleep hygiene regulation, relaxation and psychotherapy techniques are given priority. Pharmacological treatment often has severe side effects in this elderly, vulnerable population and can only be considered if other nonpharmacological options have been unsuccessful. The application of medication should be limited in time and dosage. The pharmacological therapeutic options are critically discussed in detail. PMID:25957245

  9. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Diekelmann

    Full Text Available People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",..., lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black". Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  10. Sleep physiology, abnormal States, and therapeutic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickboldt, Alvah T; Bowen, Alex F; Kaye, Aaron J; Kaye, Adam M; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  11. Sleep quality and sleep associated problems in female pharmacy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep is an essential element for adolescent mental and physical growth and development, but today′s young adolescents are deprived of this. Earlier studies in Europe and America showed pitiable sleep quality of young college students, which affect their academic growth. However, as per our literature search there is a lack of such studies in Indian context especially, within pharmacy education. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the interrelation between the demographic characteristics, life-style, and academic progress with sleep quality and sleep problems along with daytime and nighttime habits in young female pharmacy students of India. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire on sleep and daytime habits (QS and DH was prepared. Our sample survey consists of 226 female pharmacy students of Banasthali University. QS and DH of multiple choice type, covered demographic characteristic (3 questions sleep and daytime habits (25 questions, life-style and academic progress (3 questions, and one question of course curriculum. Parameters were co-related by point scale method using the SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Data derived and analyze from survey illustrated that quality of sleep was as: Excellent - 20.4%, good - 38.5%, satisfactory - 35.8%, poor - 4%, and very poor - 1.3% of participants. Living condition (ρ=0.168, P =0.011, academic progress (ρ=0.151, P=0.023, leisure activity (ρ=0.133, P<0.05, and daytime naps (ρ=0.160, P=0.016 were significantly correlated with sleep quality. In addition, daytime sleepiness caused a significant problem for students and created a number of sleep disorders. Nevertheless, Sleep quality was not associated with age, body mass index, and coffee in the late evening. Conclusion: Study reported that sleep associated problems were common complaints in female pharmacy students.

  12. Sleep disorders in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Eliane Aversa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The precise function of sleep in animals and human beings is still unknown, and any sort of physical, social or psychological variation may change the normal sleep-wake cycle. PURPOSE: This research aims is to determine the sleep disorders (SD for each of the three trimesters of the pregnancy comparing them to the pre-pregnancy state (PG. METHOD: SD were investigated in three hundred pregnant women 11- to 40-years-old through with a brief clinical interview based on directed questions. One hundred pregnant women were considered for each trimester. RESULTS: The rate of pregnant women with insomnia increased by 23% in the 2nd trimester (p< 0.005; the rate for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS by 15% in the 1st trimester (p<0.003, 55% in the 2nd trimester (p<0.001 and by 14% in the 3rd trimester (p<0.002; the rate for mild sleepiness increased by 33% in the 2nd trimester (p<0.002 and by 48% in the 3rd trimester (p<0.001; the rate for specific awakenings increased by 63% in the 1st trimester, by 80% in the 2nd trimester and by 84% in the 3rd trimester (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: SD were more frequent during pregnancy comparatively to PG state, mostly at the expenses of EDS and specific awakenings.

  13. REM sleep Behaviour Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Marelli, Sara; Galbiati, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep parasomnia characterized by loss of the muscle atonia that typically occurs during REM sleep, therefore allowing patients to act out their dreams. RBD manifests itself clinically as a violent behaviour occurring during the night, and is detected at the polysomnography by phasic and/or tonic muscle activity on the electromyography channel. In absence of neurological signs or central nervous system lesions, RBD is defined as idiopathic. Nevertheless, in a large number of cases the development of neurodegenerative diseases in RBD patients has been described, with the duration of the follow-up representing a fundamental aspect. A growing number of clinical, neurophysiologic and neuropsychological studies aimed to detect early markers of neurodegenerative dysfunction in RBD patients. Anyway, the evidence of impaired cortical activity, subtle neurocognitive dysfunction, olfactory and autonomic impairment and neuroimaging brain changes in RBD patients is challenging the concept of an idiopathic form of RBD, supporting the idea of RBD as an early manifestation of a more complex neurodegenerative process. PMID:26427638

  14. African Otter Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Reed-Smith; Hughes Akpona; Grace Yoxon

    2016-01-01

    All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Ott...

  15. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  16. The effects of sleep deprivation and quality of sleep on cognitive performance and mental wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    María Ósk Stefánsdóttir 1991

    2015-01-01

    Studies in the field of sleep have shown that sleep deprivation can affect mental wellbeing and furthermore that sleep is necessary for cognitive abilities. Few studies have examined the effect from both sleep duration and quality of sleep so the purpose of this study was to analyze the impact from both sleep duration and quality of sleep on mental health and cognitive performance. The present study used data from an ongoing research, monitoring cognitive workload using speech analysis. A tot...

  17. Sleep allostasis in chronic sleep restriction: the role of the norepinephrine system

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngsoo; Chen, Lichao; McCarley, Robert W.; Strecker, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep responses to chronic sleep restriction may be very different from those observed after acute total sleep deprivation. Specifically, when sleep restriction is repeated for several consecutive days, animals express attenuated compensatory increases in sleep time and intensity during daily sleep opportunities. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these adaptive, or more specifically, allostatic, changes in sleep homeostasis are unknown. Several lines of evidence indicate that norepine...

  18. The relationship between parent and child dysfunctional beliefs about sleep and child sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, A S; Helen F Dodd; Gamble, A. L.; Hudson, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive theories emphasise the role of dysfunctional beliefs about sleep in the development and maintenance of sleep-related problems (SRPs). The present research examines how parents' dysfunctional beliefs about children's sleep and child dysfunctional beliefs about sleep are related to each other and to children's subjective and objective sleep. Participants were 45 children aged 11 -12 years and their parents. Self-report measures of dysfunctional beliefs about sleep and child sleep were...

  19. Sleep in childhood and adolescence: age-specific sleep characteristics, common sleep disturbances and associated difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Nicola L; Gregory, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Sleep changes throughout the lifespan, with particularly salient alterations occurring during the first few years of life, as well as during the transition from childhood to adolescence. Such changes are partly the result of brain maturation; complex changes in the organisation of the circadian system; as well as changes in daily routine, environmental demands and responsibilities. Despite the automaticity of sleep, given that it is governed by a host of complex mechanisms, there are times when sleep becomes disturbed. Sleep disturbances in childhood are common and may stem from behavioural difficulties or abnormalities in physiological processes-and, in some cases manifest into diagnosable sleep disorders. As well as occurring exclusively, childhood sleep disturbances often co-occur with other difficulties. The purpose of this chapter is to outline the neurobiology of typical sleep/wake processes, and describe changes in sleep physiology and architecture from birth to adulthood. Furthermore, common childhood sleep disorders are described as are their associations with other traits, including all of the syndromes presented in this handbook: ASDs, ADHD, schizophrenia and emotional/behavioural difficulties. Throughout, we attempt to explain possible mechanisms underlying these disorders and their associations. PMID:24170426

  20. Sleep and Breathing at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Himanshu; Anholm, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep at high altitude is characterized by poor subjective quality, increased awakenings, frequent brief arousals, marked nocturnal hypoxemia, and periodic breathing. A change in sleep architecture with an increase in light sleep and decreasing slow-wave and REM sleep have been demonstrated. Periodic breathing with central apnea is almost universally seen amongst sojourners to high altitude, although it is far less common in long-standing high altitude dwellers. Hypobaric hypoxia in concert with periodic breathing appears to be the principal cause of sleep disruption at altitude. Increased sleep fragmentation accounts for the poor sleep quality and may account for some of the worsened daytime performance at high altitude. Hypoxic sleep disruption contributes to the symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Hypoxemia at high altitude is most severe during sleep. Acetazolamide improves sleep, AMS symptoms, and hypoxemia at high altitude. Low doses of a short acting benzodiazepine (temazepam) may also be useful in improving sleep in high altitude. PMID:11898114

  1. Identification of trans-sialidases as a common mediator of endothelial cell activation by African trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Ammar

    Full Text Available Understanding African Trypanosomiasis (AT host-pathogen interaction is the key to an "anti-disease vaccine", a novel strategy to control AT. Here we provide a better insight into this poorly described interaction by characterizing the activation of a panel of endothelial cells by bloodstream forms of four African trypanosome species, known to interact with host endothelium. T. congolense, T. vivax, and T. b. gambiense activated the endothelial NF-κB pathway, but interestingly, not T. b. brucei. The parasitic TS (trans-sialidases mediated this NF-κB activation, remarkably via their lectin-like domain and induced production of pro-inflammatory molecules not only in vitro but also in vivo, suggesting a considerable impact on pathogenesis. For the first time, TS activity was identified in T. b. gambiense BSF which distinguishes it from the subspecies T. b. brucei. The corresponding TS were characterized and shown to activate endothelial cells, suggesting that TS represent a common mediator of endothelium activation among trypanosome species with divergent physiopathologies.

  2. Sleep Disturbances in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Alves Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bipolar disorder, characterized by episodes of mania, hypomania and depression is associated with sleep disturbances and circadian rhythm disruption. These changes have significant impact on quality of life and in the disease prognosis. Aims: Review of the main sleep disturbances observed in the bipolar disorder, their clinical impact and the hypothetical pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Methods: We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature in English through research in PubMed with the keywords “sleep disturbance”, “bipolar disorder”, “polysomnography”. Results and Conclusions: Complaints about sleep pattern changes may occur during any phase of the disease. These in clude frequent night-time awakenings, poor sleep quality, reduction of the total sleeping time and decreased latency and increased density of REM sleep. The treatment of the sleep disturbances observed in bipolar disorder should be considered a priority, since it prevents symptoms recurrence and facilitate the socio-professional integration, thus providing greater success in patient’s rehabilitation and quality of life.

  3. Sleep Tips for Sjogren's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... secure, dark, and quiet. Try to maintain good “sleep hygiene:” Get out of bed at the same time nearly every morning (including weekends) and into bed with lights out at roughly the same time at night. Use the bedroom for sleep and sex: no TV, no “homework,” no arguments, ...

  4. Melatonin use in sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, KF

    1997-01-01

    Melatonin is a widely publicized 'magical drug'. Claims of its use include regulation of sleep, circadian rhythm, mood, immune system and reproduction, anti-aging, protection against cancer, and treatment of AIDS. This article reviews the evidence of its use in sleep disorders. Its possible indications and adverse effects are discussed.

  5. How Sleep Activates Epileptic Networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Halász

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The relationship between sleep and epilepsy has been long ago studied, and several excellent reviews are available. However, recent development in sleep research, the network concept in epilepsy, and the recognition of high frequency oscillations in epilepsy and more new results may put this matter in a new light. Aim. The review address the multifold interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy networks and with networks of cognitive functions. Material and Methods. The work is a conceptual update of the available clinical data and relevant studies. Results and Conclusions. Studies exploring dynamic microstructure of sleep have found important gating mechanisms for epileptic activation. As a general rule interictal epileptic manifestations seem to be linked to the slow oscillations of sleep and especially to the reactive delta bouts characterized by A1 subtype in the CAP system. Important link between epilepsy and sleep is the interference of epileptiform discharges with the plastic functions in NREM sleep. This is the main reason of cognitive impairment in different forms of early epileptic encephalopathies affecting the brain in a special developmental window. The impairment of cognitive functions via sleep is present especially in epileptic networks involving the thalamocortical system and the hippocampocortical memory encoding system.

  6. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  7. Physician Education in Sleep Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, William C.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The lack of physician knowledge in the diagnosis and management of sleep disorders is discussed. An examination of physicians demonstrated knowledge deficiencies and a survey of medical schools showed that 46 percent offered no training in the area of sleep physiology or disorders. Recommendations for addressing the situation are offered. (JMD)

  8. Pathophysiology of central sleep apneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Adam B; Patil, Susheel P

    2016-05-01

    The transition from wake to sleep is accompanied by a host of physiologic changes, which result in major alterations in respiratory control and may result in sleep-related breathing disorders. The central sleep apneas are a group of sleep-related breathing disorders that are characterized by recurrent episodes of airflow reduction or cessation due to a temporary reduction or absence of central respiratory drive. The fundamental hallmark of central sleep apnea (CSA) disorders is the presence of ventilatory control instability; however, additional mechanisms play a role in one or more specific manifestations of CSA. CSA may manifest during conditions of eucapnia/hypocapnia or chronic hypercapnia, which is a useful clinical classification that lends understanding to the underlying pathophysiology and potential therapies. In this review, an overview of normal breathing physiology is provided, followed by a discussion of pathophysiologic mechanisms that promote CSA and the mechanisms that are specific to different manifestations of CSA. PMID:26782104

  9. Sleep in Children and Adolescents with Angelman Syndrome: Association with Parent Sleep and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, S. E.; Bichell, T. J.; Surdyka, K.; Malow, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sleep concerns are common in children with Angelman syndrome, with 20-80% of individuals having a decreased sleep need and/or abnormal sleep-wake cycles. The impact of these sleep behaviours on parental sleep and stress is not known. Method: Through the use of standardised questionnaires, wrist actigraphy and polysomnography, we…

  10. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  11. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  12. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  13. Sleep in Korea: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, D U

    1995-05-01

    Sleep is an ubiquitous phenomenon. It is a developmental product, being subjected to the vicissitudes of human behavior and culture. The author will attempt to elaborate on sleep, sleep disorders, and sleep medicine in Korea from various developmental perspectives (i.e. personal, national and scientific). Korea is a rapidly developing industrialized nation and is now experiencing immense cultural changes which force individuals to change their behavior and value systems. For example, shift working is becoming increasingly popular and early working hours are being adopted by more companies as a measure to win competitions in the international market. In the clinical setting it is observed very easily that patients develop and maintain disturbed sleep-wake rhythm and its consequences. More obstructive sleep apnea, presumably due to obesity, are observed and studied in sleep clinics. The nuclear family system, an inevitable outcome of industrialization, produces some profound difference in sleeping arrangement such as children's earlier separation from parental or grandparental sleeping environment. The question is how these and other industrialization-related changes may affect the incidence and the manifestation of sleep and sleep disorders. In the background there is emerging interest in healthy sleep and sleep disorders, exemplified by increasing coverage of the topics in the mass media and the publication business. Development of sleep medicine/research per se also involves a developmental perspective. Interests in sleep and sleep disorders began sporadically decades ago in Korea and are now actively being organized mainly by the Korean Association of Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology as a unified developing force. Understanding of sleep and of sleep disorders is not complete without in-depth understanding of culture, philosophy, and tradition from developmental perspectives. Traditional ideas and wisdom from the past are the unavoidable resources for further

  14. Are diabetic patients being screened for sleep related breathing disorder?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salim; Surani

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of both diabetes mellitus and obstructive sleep apnea(OSA)is high among general population.Both of these conditions are associated with significant morbidity.OSA affects approximately 25%of men and 9%of women,and its prevalence is even higher among obese,Hispanics,African American and diabetic patients.Diabetes on the other hand besides having high prevalence in general population has even higher prevalence among ethnic populations as Hispanics and African American.Despite the availability of several simple screening tools for OSA,as Berlin questionnaire,STOP-BANG questionnaire,NAMES Criteria,the utility for screening of OSA among the diabetic population remains marginal.This in turn can lead to significant morbidity and complications related to OSA as well as worsening of diabetes mellitus and increase in diabetic complications due to untreated sleep related breathing disorder.It is therefore imperative for the primary care giver to screen for OSA among the diabetic population as a part of their routine evaluation to prevent worsening of diabetes,and its cardiovascular,renal,ophthalmologic and neurological complications.

  15. Sleep in obese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Victorova Strueva; Galina Afanas'evna Melnichenko; Mikhail Gur'evich Poluektov; Larisa Victorovna Savel'eva; Gul'nara Victorovna Katsiya; Nikolay Petrovich Goncharov

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of duration and individual characteristics of sleep and chronotype on body weight, eating behavior, anxiety, depression, life quality, metabolic and hormonal parameters of obese patients. Materials and methods: 200 patients with primary obesity were studied: 83 men and 117 women at age from 18 to 61 years old, median age 41,5 years [31,0; 50,0]; body weight 107 kg [94; 128,5], waist circumference 112 cm [102; 124]; neck circumf...

  16. Sleeps in Oysters: Lo!

    OpenAIRE

    Busby, Lisa; Harries, John

    2011-01-01

    A 12 track, 45 minute album of original recorded works released under the project name 'Sleeps in Oysters'. Lo! was released in a glossy card gatefold sleeve with each standard edition accompanied by a hand-illustrated insert depicting each of the 12 animal masks featured in the album photography as a cross stitch chart. 50 hand numbered special edition packs were available each with one of the 12 animal masks featured on the sleeve, and a kit consisting of threads, fabric and thimble to enab...

  17. Normal sleep and its neurophysiological regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F. Hofman; L.M. Talamini

    2015-01-01

    Normal sleep consists of two states: NREM (light and deep sleep) and REM, alternating in a cyclical pattern. The sleep/wake rhythm is regulated by two processes: the sleep propensity, building up during wake, and the circadian rhythm, imposed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The arousal pathways in t

  18. Sleep in Children with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, E. Juulia; Vehkalahti; Kimmo; Vanhala, Raija; von Wendt, Lennart; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Aronen, Eeva T.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep disturbances in 52 children with Asperger syndrome (AS) as compared with 61 healthy controls (all subjects aged 5-17 years) was investigated. Problems with sleep onset and maintenance, sleep-related fears, negative attitudes toward sleeping, and daytime somnolence were more frequent among children with AS than among…

  19. Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep Mini Series #5 Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD NORMAL AIRWAY Good quality sleep is important for everyone. People with asthma and/or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) may have sleep issues that can lead to nighttime awakenings and ...

  20. Sleep: The E-ZZZ Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Christi A.; Bergin, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that students who do not get enough sleep are more likely to misbehave in school and have lower academic achievement than their peers with healthy sleeping habits. In this article, Christi A. Bergin and David A. Bergin share research into students' sleep habits and conclude that helping students get adequate sleep has potential…

  1. Sleep and Rest Requirements: Physiological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, David F.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Sleep is a vital physiological need which must be met to insure optimal functioning. A single night of significantly shortened sleep negatively impacts performance, alertness, and mood. Restricted sleep studies have shown that even a relatively small amount of sleep loss over several consecutive days can be additive and result in a cumulative sleep debt with similar detrimental effects. Compounding the problem of sleep loss in the operational environment is the poor correlation between subjective reports of sleepiness and objective measures of physiological sleep need. Some of the factors determining how sleepy an individual is at a given point in time are: (1) individual characteristics (e.g., amount of prior sleep and wakefulness, circadian phase, age), (2) environmental conditions (e.g., noise, temperature, amount of social interaction), and (3) task variables (e.g., signal rate, workload). Although sleep need can be masked with medications, the only way to reduce it is with sleep itself. The timing of the sleep period can affect sleep duration and quality and thus its restorative strength. The data are clear that increasing sleep time results in improved alertness. This paper will briefly review the scientific findings on sleep need, the effects of sleep loss, napping strategies, and the implications of incorporating physiologically sound sleep and rest strategies into the operational aviation environment.

  2. Sleep education in college: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Li, Sheng-Ping

    2004-12-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a two-credit (100 min./week) "Sleep Management" course on the sleep patterns of college students as the course progressed over an 18-wk. semester. Curricular activity included lectures, group discussions, and practice of self-evaluation of sleep. Instead of giving the students the whole list of sleep hygiene at the outset of the course, each concept of sleep hygiene was introduced and discussed under related lecture topics. A total of 241 students (131 men and 110 women) took the course and kept 7-day sleep logs three times. Concurrently, sleep-log data were collected from 65 students (32 men and 33 women) who were not taking the course. Both groups showed similar varieties of academic backgrounds and characteristics of sleep patterns at the beginning. Similarly, their sleep patterns, namely, rise time, nighttime awakenings, time asleep, time in bed, sleep efficiency, and rise time regularity, changed over the semester. Women in both groups had more nighttime awakenings. In contrast, sleep quality was progressively better for the group in the course but not for the control group. Only women in the course decreased their nap time in the second and third months. Thus, the course of "Sleep Management" only had a mild and limited effect on sleep patterns. The course content needs refinement to maximize influence on students' sleep patterns and habits, particularly, on reduction of insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness which are the highest ranking sleep problems among college students. PMID:15648478

  3. Unique Aspects of Sleep in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Navina; Shafi, Fariha; Bhat, Abid

    2015-01-01

    Sleep in women differs in many respects from that of men. In general, women appear to report a greater need for sleep and more subjective complaints of non-refreshing sleep than men. Sleep in women is affected at least partially by hormonal factors, with women typically suffering from sleep disturbance in connection with the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause Menstrual cycles are associated with prominent changes in reproductive hormones that may influence sleep. Sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome may be aggravated by pregnancy. Women may also develop insomnia during pregnancy, childbirth and menopause. PMID:26821442

  4. Sleep spindles predict stress-related increases in sleep disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Thanh eDang-Vu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Predisposing factors place certain individuals at higher risk for insomnia, especially in the presence of precipitating conditions such as stressful life events. Sleep spindles have been shown to play an important role in the preservation of sleep continuity. Lower spindle density might thus constitute an objective predisposing factor for sleep reactivity to stress. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the relationship between baseline sleep spindle density and the prospective change in insomnia symptoms in response to a standardized academic stressor. Methods: 12 healthy students had a polysomnography (PSG recording during a period of lower stress at the beginning of the academic semester, along with an assessment of insomnia complaints using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. They completed a second ISI assessment at the end of the semester, a period coinciding with the week prior to final examinations and thus higher stress. Spindle density, amplitude, duration and frequency, as well as sigma power were computed from C4-O2 electroencephalography (EEG derivation during stages N2-N3 of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM sleep, across the whole night and for each NREM sleep period. To test for the relationship between spindle density and changes in insomnia symptoms in response to academic stress, spindle measurements at baseline were correlated with changes in ISI across the academic semester.Results: Spindle density (as well as spindle amplitude and sigma power, particularly during the first NREM sleep period, negatively correlated with changes in ISI (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Lower spindle activity, especially at the beginning of the night, prospectively predicted larger increases in insomnia symptoms in response to stress. This result indicates that individual differences in sleep spindle activity contribute to the differential vulnerability to sleep disturbances in the face of precipitating factors.

  5. The nature of sleep examined via the science of sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain MV

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Viqar Hussain, Steven Andrew SheaDivision of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USAThe phenomenon of sleep is so curious from almost every vantage point: historical, cultural, scientific, and medical. The Nature and Science of Sleep is a new journal that aims to publish original research and reviews that will help unravel the mysteries of sleep, and improve our understanding of sleep disorders in humans. The success of a new journal can be unpredictable. Ideally there would be a high threshold for publication of only important and robust findings or very well considered reviews, yet the best scientists and authors may be reluctant to put their best work in a new journal because there is a perceived risk that the new journal will not become popular. However, publishing in the Nature and Science of Sleep provides authors with numerous advantages. First, we are committed to making this journal a success. As an example of this, the Nature and Science of Sleep has one of the fastest turnaround times for peer review and editor's approval among medical journals, with an average review plus editorial decision in less than 2 weeks and online publication soon after. Second, we provide open access publishing so that all papers are freely available to anyone in the world directly from the website. Third, our editorial board comprises many of the world's distinguished scientists within the field of sleep research and sleep medicine, which provides a great foundation for this journal. Fourth, we anticipate that in the near future all publications within this journal will be available through PubMed and other searchable databases.

  6. The role of sleep in migraine attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Inamorato

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Migraine attacks may be precipitated by sleep deprivation or excessive sleep and sleep is also associated with relief of migraine attacks. In view of this variable relationship we studied the records of 159 consecutive outpatients of our Headache Unit. In 121 records there was reference to sleep involvement, in 55% by a single form and in 45% by more than one form. When only one form was related, relief was most common (70%. 30% of that group of patients had the migraine attack precipitated by sleep, 24% by deprivation and 6% by sleep excess. When the effects of sleep were multiple, these effects were as expected logically in 65%: «in accordance» group (e.g attack precipitated by sleep deprivation and relieved by sleep onset. In a second group, («conflicting» where the involvement was not logical, there were three different combinations of sleep involvement, possibly due to more than one pathophysiological mechanism.

  7. Associations of sleep disturbance with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, A.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals with...... ADHD with typically developing controls is most concordant for associations of ADHD with: hypopnea/apnea and peripheral limb movements in sleep or nocturnal motricity in polysomnographic studies; increased sleep onset latency and shorter sleep time in actigraphic studies; and bedtime resistance......, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian...

  8. Sleep disorders in Pregnancy: Glycaemic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K V S Hari

    2016-09-01

    Sleep is one of the essential biorhythms of the body that helps in optimum restoration of many body functions. The sleep-wake cycle is determined by the circadian centre and is responsible for the anabolic functions in the body. Infants require about 14 to 18 hours of sleep per day, which reduces gradually to about 8 hours in adults. Urbanization and evolutionary changes have altered the sleep hygiene and shortened the sleep duration. This lead to various sleep disorders like sleep disordered breathing, insomnia and narcolepsy. Sleep disorders lead to adverse cardio-metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia. Pregnancy poses an enormous burden on the homeostasis of the women with alteration in many physiological functions. The sleep disorders during pregnancy lead to adverse foeto-maternal outcomes with long term cardiovascular implications. In this article, I review the pathophysiology of sleep disorders during pregnancy and their glycaemic implications. PMID:27582156

  9. Stress and sleep patterns of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlander, L A; Benedict, J O; Hanson, D P

    1999-06-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between stress and sleep. A self-report measure was used to assess three domains: environmental events, personality mediators, and emotional responses. It was hypothesized that one or more of the domains would predict seven different aspects of sleep. 227 college students completed the Derogatis Stress Profile and the Sleep Questionnaire. Analysis indicated that scores on emotional response were the best predictor of five different sleep aspects: depth of sleep, difficulties in waking up, quality and latency of sleep, negative affect in dreams, and sleep irregularity. Presence of environmental events was the best predictor for the length of sleep only. It was concluded that research looking at the effects of stress on sleep must consider all three components of stress and that perhaps the emotional response to stress is the best predictor of sleep complaints. PMID:10407896

  10. Sleep and substance use disorders: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Deirdre A; Arnedt, J Todd

    2014-10-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) are common and individuals who suffer from them are prone to relapse. One of the most common consequences of the use of and withdrawal from substances of abuse is sleep disturbance. Substances of abuse affect sleep physiology, including the neurotransmitter systems that regulate the sleep-wake system. Emerging research now highlights an interactive effect between sleep disorders and substance use. New findings in alcohol and sleep research have utilized sophisticated research designs and expanded the scope of EEG and circadian rhythm analyses. Research on marijuana and sleep has progressed with findings on the effects of marijuana withdrawal on objective and subjective measures of sleep. Treatment studies have focused primarily on sleep in alcohol use disorders. Therapies for insomnia in cannabis disorders are needed. Future research is poised to further address mechanisms of sleep disturbance in alcoholics and the effect of medical marijuana on sleep and daytime functioning. PMID:25135784

  11. Characteristics of prescription and nonprescription sleep medication users in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Varun; Gabriel, Meghan Hufstader; Gangan, Nilesh; Borse, Mrudula

    2014-12-01

    Sleep deprivation and disturbances can result in lowered productivity and increased errors/accidents. Little is known about population characteristics associated with the use of sleep medications. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of sociodemographic factors with the use of sleep medications in the US population. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, which contains nationally representative data from the US population. The study population included all respondents older than 18 years of age. A multiple logistic regression model was built to analyze the odds of reporting use of prescription or nonprescription sleep medication. In 2010, an estimated 19 million survey respondents (10%) used some type of medication to fall asleep. The odds of reporting use of sleep medication were significantly lower among males (odds ratio [OR]=0.695, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.599-0.808), and the uninsured (OR=0.613, 95% CI=0.439-0.855). The odds of sleep medication use were significantly higher among age groups 24-44 years and 44-64 years as compared with 18-24 years (OR=1.868, 95% CI=1.254-2.781 and OR=1.936, 95% CI=1.309-2.865, respectively), whites (OR=2.003, 95% CI=1.597-2.512) compared with African Americans, or non-Hispanics (OR=1.609, 95% CI=1.316-1.967), the unemployed (OR=1.773, 95% CI=1.496-2.101), and respondents with depression (OR=2.077, 95% CI=1.463-2.951) or anxiety (OR=6.855, 95% CI=4.998-9.403). Differences in sleep medication use were seen among specific subpopulations. Further research into why such differences exist is necessary. The factors identified in this study should be investigated further to identify vulnerable populations to determine the underlying causes of sleep disorders. PMID:25075610

  12. Are You Sleep Deprived? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome (also called Willis-Ekbom disease) narcolepsy (vivid dreams, daytime sleepiness, brief periods of deep sleep, sleep paralysis, muscle weakness) parasomnias (abnormal sleep behaviors). Add to ...

  13. Sleep Endoscopy in the Evaluation of Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is not always resolved or improved with adenotonsillectomy. Persistent or complex cases of pediatric OSA may be due to sites of obstruction in the airway other than the tonsils and adenoids. Identifying these areas in the past has been problematic, and therefore, therapy for OSA in children who have failed adenotonsillectomy has often been unsatisfactory. Sleep endoscopy is a technique that can enable the surgeon to determine the level of obstruction in a sleeping child with OSA. With this knowledge, site-specific surgical therapy for persistent and complex pediatric OSA may be possible.

  14. Daily Sleep Changes in a Noisy Environment Assessed by Subjective and Polygraphic Sleep Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, T.; Sasazawa, Y.; Kiryu, Y.; Suzuki, S.

    1997-08-01

    Habituation of sleep to a noisy environment was investigated by self-rated sleep scores, polygraphic sleep parameters, and a performance test on the following morning. The self-rated sleep questionaire, OSA, includes five factors of subjective sleep quality: sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling and sleep initiation. The polygraphic sleep parameters were six sleep stages in minutes, sleep latency, REM latency, REM cycle, REM duration, frequency and duration in minutes of awakening during sleep, total sleep time, number of sleep stage shifts, sleep efficiency, number of sleep spindles and density. The differences between reaction times before sleep that night and the following morning were also examined. The subjects were twelve students aged 19 to 21 who were tested a total of 96 nights. Each subject slept in an experimental room and was exposed to recorded passing truck noise with peak levels of 45, 50, 55 and 60 dB(A) at intervals of 15 min. Significant changes were recognized in Stage 1, MT, frequency of awakening and number of sleep stage shifts. The authors speculate that the decrease in the shallow stage as noisy nights were repeated reflects habituation of night sleep to repeated passing truck noise, whose interval, duration and nature was constant.

  15. Guns and sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Gun deaths are a problem in America. Irrespective of one’s position on gun control, the statistics do not lie. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, there were 11,208 deaths caused by firearms in 2013 (1. The recent high profile cases in Cincinnati, OH, Lafayette, LA and Memphis, TN further highlight the issue. Obviously, each case of death by a firearm had its own set of underlying factors that contributed to the final fatal outcome, but one wonders whether sleep deprivation can be implicated in some of them. Sleep duration in adults over the past approximately 30 years has been declining in the United States (2. A variety of reasons can be cited as underlying causes such as greater use of artificial lighting, an expanding 24 hour non-stop society, promotion of a work ethic that values “burning the midnight oil”, and use of electronic devices before bedtime ...

  16. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  17. Lower body temperature in sleeping supine infants.

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. North; Petersen, S A; Wailoo, M P

    1995-01-01

    Night time rectal temperature recordings were made from 103 infants sleeping in their own home in different sleeping positions. In most cases sleeping position was verified by video monitoring throughout the night. In the period before an adult-like night time body temperature pattern appeared there was no significant effect of sleeping position upon night time body temperature, in line with previous reports. Once an adult-like night time temperature pattern appeared, infants sleeping supine ...

  18. TRANSLATION OF BRAIN ACTIVITY INTO SLEEP

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) play a role in sleep regulation in health and disease. Hypothalamic and cerebral cortical levels of TNF mRNA or TNF protein have diurnal variations with higher levels associated with greater sleep propensity. Sleep loss is associated with enhanced brain TNF. Central or systemic TNF injections enhance sleep. Inhibition of TNF using the soluble TNF receptor, or anti-TNF antibodies, or a TNF siRNA reduces spontaneous sleep. Mice lacking the T...

  19. Unearthing the Phylogenetic Roots of Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Allada, Ravi; Siegel, Jerome M.

    2008-01-01

    Why we sleep remains one of the enduring unanswered questions in biology. At its core, sleep can be defined behaviorally as a homeostatically regulated state of reduced movement and sensory responsiveness. The cornerstone of sleep studies in terrestrial mammals, including humans, has been the measurement of coordinated changes in brain activity during sleep measured using the electroencephalogram (EEG). Yet among a diverse set of animals, these EEG sleep traits can vary widely and, in some ca...

  20. Quantitative genetics of sleep in inbred mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tafti, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    The timing and the organization of sleep architecture are mainly controlled by the circadian system, while sleep need and intensity are regulated by a homeostatic process. How independent these two systems are in regulating sleep is not well understood. In contrast to the impressive progress in the molecular genetics of circadian rhythms, little is known about the molecular basis of sleep. Nevertheless, as summarized here, phenotypic dissection of sleep into its most basic aspects can be used...